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Sample records for international fusion materials

  1. The international fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, T.E.; Cozzani, F.; Crandall, D.H.; Wiffen, F.W.; Katsuta, H.; Kondo, T.; Teplyakov, V.; Zavialsky, L.

    1994-01-01

    It is widely agreed that the development of materials for fusion systems requires a high flux, 14 MeV neutron source. The European Union, Japan, Russia and the US have initiated the conceptual design of such a facility. This activity, under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Fusion Materials Agreement, will develop the design for an accelerator-based D-Li system. The first organizational meeting was held in June 1994. This paper describes the system to be studied and the approach to be followed to complete the conceptual design by early 1997

  2. ITER at the international conference on fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, G.; Barabash, V.; Matera, R.

    1998-01-01

    The reports summarizes the topics of the eighth International Conference on Fusion Reactor Materials (ICFRM-8) which was held in Sendai, Japan, on 26-31 October 1997. The ICFRM is focused on the whole spectrum of materials and technologies to be applied in fusion reactors and related facilities. The total number of conference participants was over 500, representing 24 countries and about 600 oral and poster papers were presented at the conference. Three sessions were devoted to ITER materials: (i) Design-Materials Interface and ITER (oral session); (ii) ITER, Irradiation Facility and Technology, (poster session); (iii) ITER and Beyond (discussion session)

  3. International collaboration in the development of materials for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelinckx, S.

    1988-01-01

    International collaboration in the field of fusion physics research has become a tradition since many years. There are good reasons for this. Fusion physics experiments require progressively larger and more expensive machines. The construction of a major fusion device is beyond the possibility of single nations, except for the largest ones. Moreover it is desirable to test several fundamentally different design options. It would therefore be unreasonable to duplicate major fusion physics experiments. The necessity to pool and coordinate efforts in this area has therefore been recognized since many years and not only within the European community, but even on a global scale. The situation is somewhat different in the area of fusion materials research. In a number of areas of materials research 'big machines' are not required and meaningful research is within the reach of even small countries, moreover it can be done in decentralized fashion. It should nevertheless be noted that the number of properties to be studied and the number of materials options to be evaluated is so extensive that even here excessive duplication would be harmful. (orig.)

  4. Suitability and feasibility of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeslang, A.; Ehrlich, K.; Shannon, T.E.; Rennich, M.J.; Jameson, R.A.; Kondo, T.; Katsuta, H.; Maekawa, H.; Martone, M.; Teplyakov, V.

    1999-01-01

    There is a global consensus among materials scientists and engineers that the qualification of materials in an appropriate test environment is inevitable for design, construction and safe operation of DEMOnstration fusion reactors as well as for calibration of data generated from fission reactor and accelerators irradiations. In an evaluation process based on a series of technical workshops it was concluded that an accelerator driven D-Li stripping source would be the best choice to fulfill the requirements within a realistic time frame. In response to this need, an international design team with members from Europe, Japan, USA and Russia has developed under the auspices of the IEA during a Conceptual Design Activity Phase (1994-96) a suitable and feasible concept for an accelerator driven D-Li stripping source. This IFMIF reference design is based on conservative linac technology and two parallel operating 125-mA, 40-MeV deuteron beams that are focused onto a common liquid lithium target with a beam footprint of 50 mm by 200 mm. The materials testing volume downstream the Li-target is subdivided into different flux regions: The high flux test region (0.5 liter, 20-55 dpa/full power year), the medium flux test region (6 liter, 1-20 dpa/fpy), and low flux test regions (>100 liter, < 1 dpa/fpy). The developed design was the basis fore the present Conceptual Design Evaluation Phase (1997-98) and for subsequent engineering oriented activities. Based on comprehensive neutron transport calculations, an evaluation of the irradiation parameters and the available test volumes has shown that the users requirements can be fulfilled. Major engineering efforts have been undertaken to establish an IFMIF design that is based on available and already proven technologies. The developed design includes extensive reliability, availability, maintainability as well as safety studies and is conceived for long-term operation with a total annual facility availability of at least 70

  5. Suitability and feasibility of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeslang, A.; Ehrlich, K.; Shannon, T.E.; Rennich, M.T.; Jameson, R.A.; Kondo, T.; Katsuta, H.; Maekawa, H.; Martone, M.; Teplyakov, V.

    2001-01-01

    There is a global consensus among materials scientists and engineers that the qualification of materials in an appropriate test environment is inevitable for design, construction and safe operation of DEMOnstration fusion reactors as well as for calibration of data generated from fission reactor and accelerators irradiations. In an evaluation process based on a series of technical workshops it was concluded that an accelerator driven D-Li stripping source would be the best choice to fulfill the requirements within a realistic time frame. In response to this need, an international design team with members from Europe, Japan, USA and Russia has developed under the auspices of the IEA during a Conceptual Design Activity Phase (1994-96) a suitable and feasible concept for an accelerator driven D-Li stripping source. This IFMIF reference design is based on conservative linac technology and two parallel operating 125-mA, 40-MeV deuteron beams that are focused onto a common liquid lithium target with a beam footprint of 50 mm by 200 mm. The materials testing volume downstream the Li-target is subdivided into different flux regions: The high flux test region (0.5 liter, 20-55 dpa/full power year), the medium flux test region (6 liter, 1-20 dpa/fpy), and low flux test regions (> 100 liter, < 1 dpa/fpy). The developed design was the basis fore the present Conceptual Design Evaluation Phase (1997-98) and for subsequent engineering oriented activities. Based on comprehensive neutron transport calculations, an evaluation of the irradiation parameters and the available test volumes has shown that the users requirements can be fulfilled. Major engineering efforts have been undertaken to establish an IFMIF design that is based on available and already proven technologies. The developed design includes extensive reliability, availability, maintainability as well as safety studies and is conceived for long-term operation with a total annual facility availability of at least 70

  6. Hazard evaluation of The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is aimed to provide an intense neutron source by a high current deuteron linear accelerator and a high-speed lithium flow target, for testing candidate materials for fusion. Liquid lithium is being circulated through a loop and is kept at a temperature above its freezing point. In the frame of the design phase called Key Element technology Phase (KEP), jointly performed by an international team to verify the most important risk factors, safety assessment of the whole plant has been required in order to identify the hazards associated with the plant operation. This paper discusses the safety assessments that were performed and their outcome: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) approach has been adopted in order to accomplish the task. Main conclusions of the study is that, on account of the safety and preventive measures adopted, potential plant related hazards are confined within the IFMIF security boundaries and great care must be exercised to protect workers and site personnel from operating the plant. The analysis has provided as a result a set of Postulated Initiating Events (PIEs), that is off-normal events, that could result in hazardous consequences for the plant, together with the total frequency and the list of component failures which could induce the PIE: this assures the exhaustive list of major initiating events of accident sequences, helpful to the further accident sequence analysis phase. Finally, for each one of the individuated PIEs, the evaluation of the accident evolution, in terms of effects on the plant and relative countermeasures, has allowed to verify that adequate measures are being taken both to prevent the accident occurrence and to cope with the accident consequences, thus assuring the fulfilment of the safety requirements

  7. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  8. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martone, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  9. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member

  10. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  11. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity. Present status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tatsuo; Noda, Kenji; Oyama, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    For developing the materials for nuclear fusion reactors, it is indispensable to study on the neutron irradiation behavior under fusion reactor conditions, but there is not any high energy neutron irradiation facility that can simulate fusion reactor conditions at present. Therefore, the investigation of the IFMIF was begun jointly by Japan, USA, Europe and Russia following the initiative of IEA. The conceptual design activities were completed in 1997. As to the background and the course, the present status of the research on heavy irradiation and the testing means for fusion materials, the requirement and the technical basis of high energy neutron irradiation, and the international joint design activities are reported. The materials for fusion reactors are exposed to the neutron irradiation with the energy spectra up to 14 MeV. The requirements from the users that the IFMIF should satisfy, the demand of the tests for the materials of prototype and demonstration fusion reactors and the evaluation of the neutron field characteristics of the IFMIF are discussed. As to the conceptual design of the IFMIF, the whole constitution, the operational mode, accelerator system and target system are described. (K.I.)

  12. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Activities of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been performed under an IEA collaboration since 1995. IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron (D{sup +})-lithium (Li) neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field (2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/year for Fe) in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} for testing candidate fusion materials. In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was started to reduce the key technology risk factors. This interim report summarizes the KEP activities until mid 2001 in the major project work-breakdown areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  13. Status and possible prospects of an international fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzani, F.

    1999-01-01

    Structural materials for future DT fusion power reactors will have to operate under intense neutron fields with energies up to 14 MeV and fluences in the order of 2 MW/m 2 per year. As environmental acceptability, safety considerations and economic viability will be ultimately the keys to the widespread introduction of fusion power, the development of radiation-resistant and low activation materials would contribute significantly to fusion development. For this purpose, testing of materials under irradiation conditions close to those expected in a fusion power station would require the availability, in an appropriate time framework, of an intense, high-energy neutron source. Recent advances in linear accelerator technology, in small specimens testing technology, and in the comprehension of damage phenomena, lead to the conclusion that an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source, with beam energy variability, would provide the most realistic option for a fusion materials testing facility. Under the auspices of the IEA, an international effort (EU, Japan, US, RF) to carry out the conceptual design activities (CDA) of an international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF), based on the D-Li concept, have been carried out successfully. A final conceptual design report was produced at the end of 1996. A phase of conceptual design evaluation (CDE), presently underway, is extending and further refining some of the conceptual design details of IFMIF. The results indicate that an IFMIF-class installation would be technically feasible and could meet its mission objectives. However, a suitable phase of Engineering Validation, to carry out some complementary R and D and prototyping, would still be needed to resolve a few key technical uncertainties before the possibility to proceed toward detailed design and construction could be explored. (orig.)

  14. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m 2 , 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm 3 and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  15. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  16. Neutronics analysis of International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). Japanese contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio; Noda, Kenji; Kosako, Kazuaki.

    1997-10-01

    In fusion reactor development for demonstration reactor, i.e., DEMO, materials tolerable for D-T neutron irradiation are absolutely required for both mechanical and safety point of views. For this requirement, several kinds of low activation materials were proposed. However, experimental data by actual D-T fusion neutron irradiation have not existed so far because of lack of fusion neutron irradiation facility, except fundamental radiation damage studies at very low neutron fluence. Therefore such a facility has been strongly requested. According to agreement of need for such a facility among the international parties, a conceptual design activity (CDA) of International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has been carried out under the frame work of the IEA-Implementing Agreement. In the activity, a neutronics analysis on irradiation field optimization in the IFMIF test cell was performed in three parties, Japan, US and EU. As the Japanese contribution, the present paper describes a neutron source term as well as incident deuteron beam angle optimization of two beam geometry, beam shape (foot print) optimization, and dpa, gas production and heating estimation inside various material loading Module, including a sensitivity analysis of source term uncertainty to the estimated irradiation parameters. (author)

  17. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  18. How to improve the irradiation conditions for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Daum, E

    2000-01-01

    The accelerator-based intense D-Li neutron source International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) provides very suitable irradiation conditions for fusion materials development with the attractive option of accelerated irradiations. Investigations show that a neutron moderator made of tungsten and placed in the IFMIF test cell can further improve the irradiation conditions. The moderator softens the IFMIF neutron spectrum by enhancing the fraction of low energy neutrons. For displacement damage, the ratio of point defects to cascades is more DEMO relevant and for tritium production in Li-based breeding ceramic materials it leads to a preferred production via the sup 6 Li(n,t) sup 4 He channel as it occurs in a DEMO breeding blanket.

  19. International aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    International collaborative efforts in magnetic confinement fusion in which the USA is involved are reviewed. These efforts are carried under the auspices of international agencies and through bilateral agreements

  20. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.K.; Scholz, R.; Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given for each of the following areas: (1) effects of irradiation on fusion reactor materials, (2) hydrogen permeation and materials behavior in alloys, (3) carbon coatings for fusion applications, (4) surface damage of TiB 2 coatings under energetic D + and 4 He + irradiations, and (5) neutron dosimetry

  1. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  2. Reduced cost design of liquid lithium target for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki

    2001-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is being jointly planned to provide an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source to produce intense high energy neutrons (2 MW/m 2 ) up to 200 dpa and a sufficient irradiation volume (500 cm 3 ) for testing the candidate materials and components up to about a full lifetime of their anticipated use in ITER and DEMO. To realize such a condition, 40 MeV deuteron beam with a current of 250 mA is injected into high speed liquid lithium flow with a speed of 20 m/s. Following Conceptual Design Activity (1995-1998), a design study with focus on cost reduction without changing its original mission has been done in 1999. The following major changes to the CAD target design have been considered in the study and included in the new design: i) number of the Li target has been changed from 2 to 1, ii) spare of impurity traps of the Li loop was removed although the spare will be stored in a laboratory for quick exchange, iii) building volume was reduced via design changes in lithium loop length. This paper describes the reduced cost design of the lithium target system and recent status of Key Element Technology activities. (author)

  3. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components during and after irradiation. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; and the study of dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are discussed

  4. [International Panel on 14 MeV Intense Neutron Source Based on Accelerators for Fusion Materials Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, K.R.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1991-01-01

    Both travelers were members of a nine-person US delegation that participated in an international workshop on accelerator-based 14 MeV neutron sources for fusion materials research hosted by the University of Tokyo. Presentations made at the workshop reviewed the technology developed by the FMIT Project, advances in accelerator technology, and proposed concepts for neutron sources. One traveler then participated in the initial meeting of the IEA Working Group on High Energy, High Flux Neutron Sources in which efforts were begun to evaluate and compare proposed neutron sources; the Fourth FFTF/MOTA Experimenters' Workshop which covered planning and coordination of the US-Japan collaboration using the FFTF reactor to irradiate fusion reactor materials; and held discussions with several JAERI personnel on the US-Japan collaboration on fusion reactor materials

  5. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee', S.S.; Dowker, C.L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  6. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, M.; Nakamura, H.; Sugimoto, M.; Yutani, T.; Takeuchi, H.

    2000-08-01

    In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has been initiated to reduce the key technology risk factors needed to achieve continuous wave (CW) beam with the desired current and energy and to reach the corresponding power handling capabilities in the liquid lithium target system. In the KEP, the IFMIF team (EU, Japan, Russian Federation, US) will perform required tasks. The contents of the tasks are described in the task description sheet. As the KEP tasks, the IFMIF team have proposed 27 tasks for Test Facilities, 12 tasks for Target, 26 tasks for Accelerator and 18 tasks for Design Integration. The task description by RF is not yet available. The task items and task descriptions may be added or revised with the progress of KEP activities. These task description sheets have been compiled in this report. After 3 years KEP, the results of the KEP tasks will be reviewed. Following the KEP, 3 years Engineering Validation Phase (EVP) will continue for IFMIF construction. (author)

  7. IFMIF, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity cost report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennich, M.J. [comp.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the cost estimate for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) at the completion of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The estimate corresponds to the design documented in the Final IFMIF CDA Report. In order to effectively involve all the collaborating parties in the development of the estimate, a preparatory meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1996 to jointly establish guidelines to insure that the estimate was uniformly prepared while still permitting each country to use customary costing techniques. These guidelines are described in Section 4. A preliminary cost estimate was issued in July 1996 based on the results of the Second Design Integration Meeting, May 20--27, 1996 at JAERI, Tokai, Japan. This document served as the basis for the final costing and review efforts culminating in a final review during the Third IFMIF Design Integration Meeting, October 14--25, 1996, ENEA, Frascati, Italy. The present estimate is a baseline cost estimate which does not apply to a specific site. A revised cost estimate will be prepared following the assignment of both the site and all the facility responsibilities.

  8. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) conceptual design activity reduced cost report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report describes the results of a preliminary reevaluation of the design and cost of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) Project in response to the request from the 28th FPCC meeting in January 1999. Two major ideas have been considered: 1) reduction of the total construction cost through elimination of the previously planned facility upgrade and 2) a facility deployment in 3 stages with capabilities for limited experiments in the first stage. As a result, the size and complexity of the facility could be significantly reduced, leading to substantial cost savings. In addition to these two ideas, this study also included a critical review of the original CDA specification with the objective of elimination of nonessential items. For example, the number of lithium targets was reduced from two to one. As a result of these changes in addition to the elimination of the upgrade, the total cost estimate was very substantially reduced from 797.2 MICF to 487.8 MICF, where 1 MICF = 1 Million of the IFMIF Conversion Units (approximately $1M US January, 1996). (author)

  9. IFMIF, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity cost report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the cost estimate for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) at the completion of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The estimate corresponds to the design documented in the Final IFMIF CDA Report. In order to effectively involve all the collaborating parties in the development of the estimate, a preparatory meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1996 to jointly establish guidelines to insure that the estimate was uniformly prepared while still permitting each country to use customary costing techniques. These guidelines are described in Section 4. A preliminary cost estimate was issued in July 1996 based on the results of the Second Design Integration Meeting, May 20--27, 1996 at JAERI, Tokai, Japan. This document served as the basis for the final costing and review efforts culminating in a final review during the Third IFMIF Design Integration Meeting, October 14--25, 1996, ENEA, Frascati, Italy. The present estimate is a baseline cost estimate which does not apply to a specific site. A revised cost estimate will be prepared following the assignment of both the site and all the facility responsibilities

  10. PFMC14. 14th international conference on plasma-facing materials and components for fusion applications. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The performance of fusion devices and of a future fusion power plant critically depends on the plasma facing materials and components. Resistance to local heat and particle loads, thermo-mechanical properties, as well as the response to neutron damage of the selected materials are critical parameters which need to be understood and tailored from atomistic to component levels. The 14th International Conference on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications addresses these issues. Among the topics of the joint conference recent developments and research results in the following fields are addressed: - Tungsten and tungsten alloys - Low-Z materials - Mixed materials - Erosion, redeposition and fuel retention - Materials under extreme thermal loads - Technology and testing of plasma-facing components - Neutron effects in plasma-facing materials - Advanced characterization of materials and components. Selected international speakers present overview lectures and treat detailed aspects of the given topics. Contributed papers to the subjects of the meeting are solicited for oral and poster presentations.

  11. Materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, K.; Kaletta, D.

    1978-03-01

    The following report describes five papers which were given during the IMF seminar series summer 1977. The purpose of this series was to discuss especially the irradiation behaviour of materials intended for the first wall of future fusion reactors. The first paper deals with the basic understanding of plasma physics relating to the fusion reactor and presents the current state of art of fusion technology. The next two talks discuss the metals intended for the first wall and structural components of a fusion reactor. Since 14 MeV neutrons play an important part in the process of irradiation damage their role is discussed in detail. The question which machines are presently available to simulate irradiation damage under conditions similar to the ones found in a fusion reactor are investigated in the fourth talk which also presents the limitations of the different methods of simulation. In this context also discussed is the importance future intensive neutron sources and materials test reactors will have for this problem area. The closing paper has as a theme the review of the present status of research of metallic and non-metallic materials in view of the quite different requirements for different fusion systems; a closing topic is the world supply on rare materials required for fusion reactors. (orig) [de

  12. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  13. International fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy of the light elements deuterium and lithium can be released if the 100 MK degree temperature required for deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fusion reactions can be achieved together with sufficient thermal insulation for a net energy yield. Progress of world-wide research shows good prospect for these physical conditions being achieved by the use of magnetic field confinement and of rapidly developing heating methods. Tokamak systems, alternative magnetic systems and inertial confinement progress are described. International co-operation features a number of bilateral agreements between countries: the Euratom collaboration which includes the Joint European Torus, a joint undertaking of eleven Western European nations of Euratom, established to build and operate a major confinement experiment; the development of co-operative projects within the OECD/IEA framework; the INTOR workshop, a world-wide study under IAEA auspices of the next major step in fusion research which might be built co-operatively; and assessments of the potential of nuclear fusion by the IAEA and the International Fusion Research Council. The INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) studies have outlined a major plant of the tokamak type to study the engineering and technology of fusion reactor systems, which might be constructed on a world-wide basis to tackle and share the investment risks of the developments which lie ahead. This paper summarizes the recent progress of research on controlled nuclear fusion, featuring those areas where international co-operation has played an important part, and describes the various arrangements by which this international co-operation is facilitated. (author)

  14. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised

  15. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  16. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  17. Material for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhishek, Anuj; Ranjan, Prem

    2011-01-01

    To make nuclear fusion power a reality, the scientists are working restlessly to find the materials which can confine the power generated by the fusion of two atomic nuclei. A little success in this field has been achieved, though there are still miles to go. Fusion reaction is a special kind of reaction which must occur at very high density and temperature to develop extremely large amount of energy, which is very hard to control and confine within using the present techniques. As a whole it requires the physical condition that rarely exists on the earth to carry out in an efficient manner. As per the growing demand and present scenario of the world energy, scientists are working round the clock to make effective fusion reactions to real. In this paper the work presently going on is considered in this regard. The progress of the Joint European Torus 2010, ITER 2005, HiPER and minor works have been studied to make the paper more object oriented. A detailed study of the technological and material requirement has been discussed in the paper and a possible suggestion is provided to make a contribution in the field of building first ever nuclear fusion reactor

  18. Materials for Fusion Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2013), s. 197-212 ISSN 1210-2709. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/25./. Praha, 18.06.2012-21.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872; GA MŠk 7G10072 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : nuclear fusion * materials * plasma facing components * plasma-material interaction * functionally graded materials Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://ctn.cvut.cz/ap/download.php?id=797

  19. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials includes studies (1) to investigate fracture mechanics of neutron-irradiated beryllium; (2) to describe the helium behaviour in irradiated beryllium at atomic scale; (3) to define the kinetics of beryllium reacting with air or steam; (3) to perform a feasibility study for the testing of integrated blanket modules under neutron irradiation. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported

  20. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  1. International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) neutron source term simulation and neutronics analyses of the high flux test module

    CERN Document Server

    Simakov, S P; Heinzel, V; Moellendorff, U V

    2002-01-01

    The report describes the new results of the development work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe on the neutronics of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). An important step forward has been done in the simulation of neutron production of the deuteron-lithium source using the Li(d,xn) reaction cross sections from evaluated data files. The developed Monte Carlo routine and d-Li reaction data newly evaluated at INPE Obninsk have been verified against available experimental data on the differential neutron yield from deuteron-bombarded thick lithium targets. With the modified neutron source three-dimensional distributions of neutron and photon fluxes, displacement and gas production rates and nuclear heating inside the high flux test module (HFTM) were calculated. In order to estimate the uncertainty resulting from the evaluated data, two independent libraries, recently released by INPE and LANL, have been used in the transport calculations. The proposal to use a reflector around ...

  2. Nuclear data for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). Summary report of technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.; Mengoni, A.

    2005-10-01

    Experts on reaction cross-section databases participated in a Technical Meeting organized at the Forschungszentrum Zentrum (FZK), Karlsruhe, Germany on 4-6 October 2005. The overall objective of the meeting was to explore the possibilities for improving the status of the nuclear database for the assessment of radiation damage to structural components of large fusion devices. The discussions and recommendations of the meeting are briefly described in this report. (author)

  3. Fusion program research materials inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, T.K.; Wiffen, F.W.; Davis, J.W.; Lechtenberg, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory maintains a central inventory of research materials to provide a common supply of materials for the Fusion Reactor Materials Program. This will minimize unintended material variations and provide for economy in procurement and for centralized record keeping. Initially this inventory is to focus on materials related to first-wall and structural applications and related research, but various special purpose materials may be added in the future. The use of materials from this inventory for research that is coordinated with or otherwise related technically to the Fusion Reactor Materials Program of DOE is encouraged

  4. Joint ICFRM-14 (14. international conference on fusion reactor materials) and IAEA satellite meeting on cross-cutting issues of structural materials for fusion and fission applications. PowerPoint presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference was devoted to the challenges in the development of new materials for advanced fission, fusion and hybrid reactors. The topics discussed include fuels and materials research under the high neutron fluence; post-irradiation examination; development of radiation resistant structural materials utilizing fission research reactors; core materials development for the advanced fuel cycle initiative; qualification of structural materials for fission and fusion reactor systems; application of charged particle accelerators for radiation resistance investigations of fission and fusion structural materials; microstructure evolution in structural materials under irradiation; ion beams and ion accelerators

  5. ITER JCT presentation at the International Conference on Fusion Reactor Materials (ICFRM-9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, G.; Barabash, V.; Ioki, K.

    1999-01-01

    During this conference four invited papers and one poster paper were presented on behalf of the ITER Joint Central Team with the review of latest achievements. The results of the comprehensive materials R and D program in support of the ITER design were extensively reported the ITER Home Teams

  6. International fusion og spaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    Bogen analyserer de nye muligheder fra 2007 i europæisk ret med hensyn til fusion eller spaltning mellem aktieselskaber og anpartsselskaber med hjemsted i forskellige europæiske lande. Bogen gennemgår de nye muligheder for strukturændringer, der herved er opstået mulighed for, og den sætter fokus...

  7. Proceedings of the IEA-technical workshop on the test cell system for an international fusion materials irradiation facility, Karlsruhe, Germany, July 3-6, 1995. IEA-implementing agreement for a programme of research and development on fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeslang, A.; Lindau, R.

    1995-09-01

    After a Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) study on an International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has been launched under the auspices of the IEA, working groups and relevant tasks have been defined and agreed in an IEA-workshop that was held September 26-29 1994 at Karlsruhe. For the Test Cell System 11 tasks were identified which can be grouped into the three major fields neutronics, test matrix/users and test cell engineering. In order to discuss recently achieved results and to coordinate necessary activities for an effective design integration, a technical workshop on the Test Cell System was initiated. This workshop was organized on July 3-6 1995 by the Institute for Materials Research I at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and attended by 20 specialists working in the fields neutronics, fusion materials R and D and test cell engineering in the European Union, Japan, and the United States of America. The presentations and discussions during this workshop have shown together with the elaborated lists of action items, that has been achieved in all three fields, and that from the future IFMIF experimental program for a number of materials a database covering widerspread loading conditions up to DEMO-reactor relevant end-of-life damage levels can be expected. (orig.)

  8. Structural materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, M.; Baluc, N.; Spaetig, P.

    2001-01-01

    In order to preserve the condition of an environmentally safe machine, present selection of materials for structural components of a fusion reactor is made not only on the basis of adequate mechanical properties, behavior under irradiation and compatibility with other materials and cooling media, but also on their radiological properties, i.e. activity, decay heat, radiotoxicity. These conditions strongly limit the number of materials available to a few families of alloys, generically known as low activation materials. We discuss the criteria for deciding on such materials, the alloys resulting from the application of the concept and the main issues and problems of their use in a fusion environment. (author)

  9. Material synergism fusion-fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankara Rao, K.B.; Raj, B.; Cook, I.; Kohyama, A.; Dudarev, S.

    2007-01-01

    In fission and fusion reactors the common features such as operating temperatures and neutron exposures will have the greatest impact on materials performance and component lifetimes. Developing fast neutron irradiation resisting materials is a common issue for both fission and fusion reactors. The high neutron flux levels in both these systems lead to unique materials problems like void swelling, irradiation creep and helium embitterment. Both fission and fusion rely on ferritic-martensitic steels based on 9%Cr compositions for achieving the highest swelling resistance but their creep strength sharply decreases above ∝ 823K. The use of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys is envisaged to increase the operating temperature of blanket systems in the fusion reactors and fuel clad tubes in fast breeder reactors. In view of high operating temperatures, cyclic and steady load conditions and the long service life, properties like creep, low cycle fatigue,fracture toughness and creepfatigue interaction are major considerations in the selection of structural materials and design of components for fission and fusion reactors. Currently, materials selection for fusion systems has to be based upon incomplete experimental database on mechanical properties. The usage of fairly well developed databases, in fission programmes on similar materials, is of great help in the initial design of fusion reactor components. Significant opportunities exist for sharing information on technology of irradiation testing, specimen miniaturization, advanced methods of property measurement, safe windows for metal forming, and development of common materials property data base system. Both fusion and fission programs are being directed to development of clean steels with very low trace and tramp elements, characterization of microstructure and phase stability under irradiation, assessment of irradiation creep and swelling behaviour, studies on compatibility with helium and developing

  10. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Data are given for each of the following areas: (1) depth distribution of bubbles in 20-keV 4 He + irradiated nickel, (2) surface damage of Al irradiated with 4 He + to high doses, (3) secondary photon emission from ion bombarded surfaces, (4) dosimetry and damage analysis work in support of the MFE materials program, (5) hydrogen permeation and materials behavior in alloys, (6) radiation damage of diagnostic windows in TFTR, and (7) fast neutron irradiations of superconducting Nb 3 Sn

  11. Nuclear fusion and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Taijiro

    1987-01-01

    Work for design, research and development is expected to start in 1988 for a new nuclear fusion reactor called ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor), which is to be constructed and operated through cooperation among Japan, U.S., Soviet Union and EC. Many talks and discussions concerning the work have been made on various occasions, including the Reagan-Gorbachev talks at Geneva in November 1985, 5th Fusion Working Group meeting in Germany in January 1986, extraordinary FWG meeting at Tokyo in February-March 1986, 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Control held under IAEA at Kyoto in November 1986, and first formal four-party (Japan, U.S., Soviet Union, EC) meeting at the IAEA headquarters in March this year. The ITER Technical Working Group was established and its first meeting was held on May 21 - 23, 1987. It was concluded in the meeting that the operation of ITER will be performed in two phases intended for nuclear combustion plasma physics studies and stationary operation, respectively. Major research and development activities carried out in the U.S., Europe, the Soviet Union, Japan and IAEA in connection with the development of ITER are outlined. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Use of SiCf/SiC ceramic composites as structure material of a fusion reactor toroid internal components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, G.

    2001-01-01

    The use of low neutron-induced activation structural materials seems necessary in order to improve safety in future fusion power reactors. Among them, SiC f /SiC composites appear as a very promising solution because of their low activation characteristics coupled with excellent mechanical properties at high temperatures. With the main objective of evaluating the limit of present-day composites, a tritium breeding blanket using SiC f /SiC as structural material (the TAURO blanket) has been developed in the last years by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). The purpose of this thesis was to modify the available design tools (computer codes, design criteria), normally used for the analyses of metallic structures, in order to better take into account the mechanical behaviour of SiC f /SiC. Alter a preliminary improvement of the calculation methods, two main topics of study could be identified: the modelling of the mechanical behaviour of the composite and the assessment of appropriate design criteria. The different behavioural models available in literature were analysed in order to find the one that was the best suited to the specific problems met in the field of fusion power. The selected model was then implemented in the finite elements code CASTEM 2000 used within the CEA for the thermo-mechanical analyses of the TAURO blanket. For the design of the blanket, we proposed a new resistance criterion whose main advantage, with respect to the other examined, lies in the easiness of identification. The suggested solutions were then applied in the design studies of the TAURO blanket. We then could show that the use of appropriate calculation methodologies is necessary in order to achieve a correct design of the blanket and a more realistic estimate of the limits of present day composites. The obtained results can also be extended to all nuclear components making use of SiC f /SiC structures. (author) [fr

  13. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, E.L.; Trego, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    A Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility is being designed to be constructed at Hanford, Washington, The system is designed to produce about 10 15 n/cm-s in a volume of approx. 10 cc and 10 14 n/cm-s in a volume of 500 cc. The lithium and target systems are being developed and designed by HEDL while the 35-MeV, 100-mA cw accelerator is being designed by LASL. The accelerator components will be fabricated by US industry. The total estimated cost of the FMIT is $105 million. The facility is scheduled to begin operation in September 1984

  14. Low activation materials for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Bloom, E.E.; Doran, D.G.; Smith, D.L.; Reuther, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    The viability of fusion as a future energy source may eventually be determined by safety and environmental factors. Control of the induced radioactivity characteristics of the materials used in the first wall and blanket could have a major favorable impact on these issues. In the United States, materials program efforts are focused on developing new structural alloys with radioactive decay characteristics which would greatly simplify long-term waste disposal of reactor components. A range of alloy systems is being explored in order to maintain the maximum number of design options. Significant progress has been made, and it now appears probable that reduced-activation engineering alloys with properties at least equivalent to conventional alloys can be successfully developed and commercialized. 10 refs., 1 fig

  15. Plasma facing materials for fusion reactor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Gordillo Garcia, Nuria; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Garoz, D.; Perlado Martín, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The lack of plasma facing materials (PFM) able to withstand the severe magnetiicffusiion radiation conditions expected in fusion reactors is the actual bottle In both fusions approaches energy is released in the form of kinetic energy of neck for fusion to becomes a reality.

  16. Composites as structural materials in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megusar, J.

    1989-01-01

    In fusion reactors, materials are used under extreme conditions of temperature, stress, irradiation, and chemical environment. The absence of adequate materials will seriously impede the development of fusion reactors and might ultimately be one of the major difficulties. Some of the current materials problems can be solved by proper design features. For others, the solution will have to rely on materials development. A parallel and balanced effort between the research in plasma physics and fusion-related technology and in materials research is, therefore, the best strategy to ultimately achieve economic, safe, and environmentally acceptable fusion. The essential steps in developing composites for structural components of fusion reactors include optimization of mechanical properties followed by testing under fusion-reactor-relevant conditions. In optimizing the mechanical behavior of composite materials, a wealth of experience can be drawn from the research on ceramic matrix and metal matrix composite materials sponsored by the Department of Defense. The particular aspects of this research relevant to fusion materials development are methodology of the composite materials design and studies of new processing routes to develop composite materials with specific properties. Most notable examples are the synthesis of fibers, coatings, and ceramic materials in their final shapes form polymeric precursors and the infiltration of fibrous preforms by molten metals

  17. IFMIF suitability for evaluation of fusion functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, N.; Sordo, F.; Mota, F.; Jordanova, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Vila, R.; Rapisarda, D.; Queral, V.; Perlado, M.

    2011-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a future neutron source based on the D-Li stripping reaction, planned to test candidate fusion materials at relevant fusion irradiation conditions. During the design of IFMIF special attention was paid to the structural materials for the blanket and first wall, because they will be exposed to the most severe irradiation conditions in a fusion reactor. Also the irradiation of candidate materials for solid breeder blankets is planned in the IFMIF reference design. This paper focuses on the assessment of the suitability of IFMIF irradiation conditions for testing functional materials to be used in liquid blankets and diagnostics systems, since they are been also considered within IFMIF objectives. The study has been based on the analysis and comparison of the main expected irradiation parameters in IFMIF and DEMO reactor.

  18. Materials handbook for fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Materials Handbook for Fusion Energy Systems (MHFES) is to provide a readily available source of data to those involved in the design and analysis of fusion reactors or their components. Initially the focus of this Handbook will be on materials properties necessary for the design and analysis of the first wall and blanket structure of both near and long term fusion reactor concepts. However, as more data become available, this effort will be expanded to other aspects of fusion energy systems such as magnets and plasma heaters

  19. HFR irradiation testing of fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; von der Hardt, P.; Loelgen, R.; Scheurer, H.; Zeisser, P.

    1984-01-01

    The present and future role of the High Flux Reactor Petten for fusion materials testing has been assessed. For practical purposes the Tokamak-based fusion reactor is chosen as a point of departure to identify material problems and materials data needs. The identification is largely based on the INTOR and NET design studies, the reported programme strategies of Japan, the U.S.A. and the European Communities for technical development of thermonuclear fusion reactors and on interviews with several experts. Existing and planned irradiation facilities, their capabilities and limitations concerning materials testing have been surveyed and discussed. It is concluded that fission reactors can supply important contributions for fusion materials testing. From the point of view of future availability of fission testing reactors and their performance it appears that the HFR is a useful tool for materials testing for a large variety of materials. Prospects and recommendations for future developments are given

  20. 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This book is a guide to the 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference. It consists largely of abstracts of the oral and poster presentations that were to be made, and gives some general information about the conference and its schedule.

  1. 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This book is a guide to the 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference. It consists largely of abstracts of the oral and poster presentations that were to be made, and gives some general information about the conference and its schedule

  2. Materials availability for fusion power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Erickson, L.E.; Engel, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1976-09-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the estimated total U.S. material usage with and without fusion power plants as well as the U.S. and foreign reserves and resources, and U.S. production capacity. The potential environmental impacts of fusion power plant material procurement were also reviewed including land alteration and resultant chemical releases. To provide a general measure for the impact of material procurement for fusion reactors, land requirements were estimated for mining and disposing of waste from mining

  3. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, Frederick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Noe, Susan P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the ORNL fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing DOE Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger U.S. and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.

  4. Goals, challenges, and successes of managing fusion activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Massaut, V.; Tobita, K.; Cadwallader, L.

    2008-01-01

    After decades of designing magnetic and inertial fusion power plants, it is timely to develop a new framework for managing the activated (and contaminated) materials that will be generated during plant operation and after decommissioning-a framework that takes into account the lessons learned from numerous international fusion and fission studies and the environmental, political, and present reality in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. This will clearly demonstrate that designers developing fusion facilities will be dealing with the back end of this type of energy production from the beginning of the conceptual design of power plants. It is becoming evident that future regulations for geological burial will be upgraded to assure tighter environmental controls. Along with the political difficulty of constructing new repositories worldwide, the current reality suggests reshaping all aspects of handling the continual stream of fusion active materials. Beginning in the mid 1980s and continuing to the present, numerous fusion designs examined replacing the disposal option with more environmentally attractive approaches, redirecting their attention to recycling and clearance while continuing the development of materials with low activation potential. There is a growing international effort in support of this new trend. In this paper, recent history is analyzed, a new fusion waste management scheme is covered, and possibilities for how its prospects can be improved are examined

  5. Present status of fusion reactor materials, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, Ryukichi; Shiraishi, Kensuke; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Murakami, Yoshio; Takamura, Saburo

    1982-01-01

    Recently, the design of fusion reactors such as Intor has been carried out, and various properties that fusion reactor materials should have been clarified. In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the research and development of materials aiming at a tokamak type experimental fusion reactor are in progress. In this paper, the problems, the present status of research and development and the future plan about the surface materials and structural materials for the first wall, blanket materials and magnet materials are explained. The construction of the critical plasma testing facility JT-60 developed by JAERI has progressed smoothly, and the operation is expected in 1985. The research changes from that of plasma physics to that of reactor technology. In tokamak type fusion reactors, high temperature D-T plasma is contained with strong magnetic field in vacuum vessels, and the neutrons produced by nuclear reaction, charged particles diffusing from plasma and neutral particles by charge exchange strike the first wall. The PCA by improving 316 stainless steel is used as the structural material, and TiC coating techniques are developed. As the blanket material, Li 2 O is studied, and superconducting magnets are developed. (Koko, I.)

  6. International program activities in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The following areas of our international activities in magnetic fusion are briefly described: (1) policy; (2) background; (3) strategy; (4) strategic considerations and concerns; (5) domestic program inplications, and (6) implementation. The current US activities are reviewed. Some of our present program needs are outlined

  7. Assessment of materials needs for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.S.

    1976-07-01

    This report has the goal of presenting for the CTR designer and material supplier potentially significant problem areas in materials manufacturing and in structural material resources projected for potential application in fusion power reactor construction. The projected material requirements are based on presently available bills-of-materials for conceptual CTR designs used for constructing a hypothetical fusion power generating capacity of 10 6 MW(e) maturing exponentially over a 20-year period. The projected elemental requirements, the ratio of these requirements to the projected total U.S. demand, and the salient problems currently identified with the CTR use of these elements are summarized. The projected requirements are based upon a ''model'' industry, which is described, and the estimated potential use of molybdenum, niobium, vanadium, and tantalum as blanket structural materials

  8. Assessment of materials needs for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, G.S. (comp.)

    1976-07-01

    This report has the goal of presenting for the CTR designer and material supplier potentially significant problem areas in materials manufacturing and in structural material resources projected for potential application in fusion power reactor construction. The projected material requirements are based on presently available bills-of-materials for conceptual CTR designs used for constructing a hypothetical fusion power generating capacity of 10/sup 6/ MW(e) maturing exponentially over a 20-year period. The projected elemental requirements, the ratio of these requirements to the projected total U.S. demand, and the salient problems currently identified with the CTR use of these elements are summarized. The projected requirements are based upon a ''model'' industry, which is described, and the estimated potential use of molybdenum, niobium, vanadium, and tantalum as blanket structural materials.

  9. Materials program for magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwilsky, K.M.; Cohen, M.M.; Finfgeld, C.R.; Reuther, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Reactor Materials Program is currently operating at a level of $7.8M. The program is divided into four technical areas which cover both short and long term problems. These are: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance, Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies, Plasma-Materials Interaction, and Special Purpose Materials. A description of the program planning process, the continuing management structure, and the resulting documents is presented

  10. Materials problems associated with fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.

    This paper outlines the principles of design and operation of conceptual fusion reactors, indicates the level of research funding and activity being proposed at major centres and reviews the major materials problems which have been identified, together with an outline of the experimental techniques which have been suggested for investigating these problems. (author)

  11. Synchronized fusion development considering physics, materials and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. P. C.; Liu, Y.; Duan, X. R.; Xu, M.; Li, Q.; Feng, K. M.; Zheng, G. Y.; Li, Z. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Li, B.; Zhang, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Significant achievements have been made in the last 60 years in the development of fusion energy with the tokamak configuration. Based on the accumulated knowledge, the world is embarking on the construction and operation of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) with a production of 500 MWf fusion power and the demonstration of physics Q  =  10. ITER will demonstrate D-T burn physics for a duration of a few hundred seconds to prepare for the next long-burn or steady state nuclear testing tokamak operating at much higher neutron fluence. With the evolution into a steady state nuclear device, such as the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), it is necessary to examine the boundary conditions imposed by the combined development of tokamak physics, fusion materials and fusion technology for a reactor. The development of ferritic steel alloys as the structural material suitable for use at high neutron fluence leads to the use of helium as the most likely reactor coolant. This points to the fundamental technology limitation on the removal of chamber wall maximum heat flux at around 1 MW m-2 and an average heat flux of 0.1 MW m-2 for the next test reactor. Future reactor performance will then depend on the control of spatial and temporal edge heat flux peaking in order to increase the average heat flux to the chamber wall. With these severe material and technological limitations, system studies were used to scope out a few robust steady state synchronized fusion reactor (SFR) designs. As an example, a low fusion power design at 131.6 MWf, which can satisfy steady state design requirements, would have a major radius of 5.5 m and minor radius of 1.6 m. Such a design with even more advanced structural materials like W f/W composite could allow higher performance and provide a net electrical production of 62 MWe. These can be incorporated into the CFETR program.

  12. Goals, challenges, and successes of managing fusion activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Massaut, V.; Zucchetti, M.; Tobita, K.; Cadwallader, L.

    2007-01-01

    After decades of designing magnetic and inertial fusion power plants, it is timely to develop a new framework for managing the activated materials generated during plant operation and after decommissioning - a framework that takes into account the lessons learned from numerous international fusion and fission studies and the environmental, political, and present reality in the U.S., EU, and Japan. Since the inception of the fusion projects in the early 1970s, the majority of power plant designs have focused on the disposal of active materials in geological repositories as the main option for handling the replaceable and life-of-plant components, adopting the preferred fission waste management approach. It is becoming evident that future regulations for geological burial will be upgraded to assure tighter environmental controls. Along with the political difficulty of constructing new repositories worldwide, the current reality suggests reshaping all aspects of handling the continual stream of fusion active materials. There is a growing international effort in support of this new trend. Beginning in the mid 1990s and continuing to the present, fusion designs developed in Europe, U.S., and Japan have examined replacing the disposal option with more environmentally attractive approaches, redirecting their attention to recycling and clearance while continuing the development of materials with low activation potential. These options became more technically feasible in recent years with the development of radiation-hardened remote handling (RH) tools and the introduction of the clearance category for slightly radioactive materials by national and international nuclear agencies. We applied all scenarios to selected fusion studies. While recycling and clearance appeared technically attractive and judged, in some cases, a must requirement to control the radwaste stream, the disposal scheme emerged as the preferred option for specific components for several reasons, including

  13. Fusion reactor materials research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiapu

    1994-10-01

    The fusion materials research in China is introduced. Many kinds of structural materials (such as Ti-modified stainless steel, ferritic steel, HT-9, HT-7, oxide dispersion strengthening ferritic steel), tritium breeders (lithium, Li 2 O, γ-LiAlO 2 ) and plasma facing materials (PFMs) (graphite with TiC and SiC coatings) have been developed or being developed. A systematic research activities on irradiation effects, compatibility, plasma materials interaction, thermal shock during disruption, tritium production, release and permeation, neutron multiplication in Be and Pb, etc. have been performed. The research activities are summarized and some experimental results are also given

  14. Materials handbook for fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a consistent and authoritative source of material property data for use by the fusion community in concept evaluation, design, and performance/verification studies of the various fusion energy systems. A second objective is the early identification of areas in the materials data base where insufficient information or voids exist. The effort during this reporting period has focused on two areas: (1) publication of data pages, and (2) automation of the data pages. The data pages contained new engineering information on lithium and stainless steel along with additional Supporting Documentation pages on annealed and cold worked stainless steel. These pages were distributed in May. In the area of automation, work is proceeding on schedule toward the formation of an electronic materials data base for the MFE computer network

  15. The materials production and processing facility at the Spanish National Centre for fusion technologies (TechnoFusion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A., E-mail: rpp@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, UC3M, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, UC3M, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, M.T. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez-Rey, D. [CMAM, UAM, C/Faraday 3, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Roman, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Garcia-Cortes, I. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, M. [IFN, ETSII, UPM, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, A. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In response to the urgent request from the EU Fusion Program, a new facility (TechnoFusion) for research and development of fusion materials has been planned with support from the Regional Government of Madrid and the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain. TechnoFusion, the National Centre for Fusion Technologies, aims screening different technologies relevant for ITER and DEMO environments while promoting the contribution of international companies and research groups into the Fusion Programme. For this purpose, the centre will be provided with a large number of unique facilities for the manufacture, testing (a triple-beam multi-ion irradiation, a plasma-wall interaction device, a remote handling for under ionizing radiation testing) and analysis of critical fusion materials. Particularly, the objectives, semi-industrial scale capabilities and present status of the TechnoFusion Materials Production and Processing (MPP) facility are presented. Previous studies revealed that the MPP facility will be a very promising infrastructure for the development of new materials and prototypes demanded by the fusion technology and therefore some of them will be here briefly summarized.

  16. The materials production and processing facility at the Spanish National Centre for fusion technologies (TechnoFusion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.; Hernandez, M.T.; Jimenez-Rey, D.; Roman, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Perlado, M.; Ibarra, A.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the urgent request from the EU Fusion Program, a new facility (TechnoFusion) for research and development of fusion materials has been planned with support from the Regional Government of Madrid and the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain. TechnoFusion, the National Centre for Fusion Technologies, aims screening different technologies relevant for ITER and DEMO environments while promoting the contribution of international companies and research groups into the Fusion Programme. For this purpose, the centre will be provided with a large number of unique facilities for the manufacture, testing (a triple-beam multi-ion irradiation, a plasma-wall interaction device, a remote handling for under ionizing radiation testing) and analysis of critical fusion materials. Particularly, the objectives, semi-industrial scale capabilities and present status of the TechnoFusion Materials Production and Processing (MPP) facility are presented. Previous studies revealed that the MPP facility will be a very promising infrastructure for the development of new materials and prototypes demanded by the fusion technology and therefore some of them will be here briefly summarized.

  17. Materials needs for compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The economic prospects for magnetic fusion energy can be dramatically improved if for the same total power output the fusion neutron first-wall (FW) loading and the system power density can be increased by factors of 3 to 5 and 10 to 30, respectively. A number of compact fusion reactor embodiments have been proposed, all of which would operate with increased FW loadings, would use thin (0.5 to 0.6 m) blankets, and would confine quasi-steady-state plasma with resistive, water-cooled copper or aluminum coils. Increased system power density (5 to 15 MWt/m 3 versus 0.3 to 0.5 MW/m 3 ), considerably reduced physical size of the fusion power core (FPC), and appreciably reduced economic leverage exerted by the FPC and associated physics result. The unique materials requirements anticipated for these compact reactors are outlined against the well documented backdrop provided by similar needs for the mainline approaches. Surprisingly, no single materials need that is unique to the compact systems is identified; crucial uncertainties for the compact approaches must also be addressed by the mainline approaches, particularly for in-vacuum components (FWs, limiters, divertors, etc.)

  18. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, F. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Melton, Stephanie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger United States (US) and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.This document provides a summary of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for Magnetic Fusion Energy (AT-60-20-10-0) carried out by ORNL. The organization of this report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities. Four projects selected in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicitation of late 2011 and funded in FY2012-FY2014 are identified by “FOA” in the titles. This report includes the final funded work of these projects, although ORNL plans to continue some of this work within the base program.

  19. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiffen, F. W.; Katoh, Yutai; Melton, Stephanie G.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger United States (US) and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.This document provides a summary of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for Magnetic Fusion Energy (AT-60-20-10-0) carried out by ORNL. The organization of this report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities. Four projects selected in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicitation of late 2011 and funded in FY2012-FY2014 are identified by ''FOA'' in the titles. This report includes the final funded work of these projects, although ORNL plans to continue some of this work within the base program.

  20. Fusion Technologies: 2nd Karlsruhe International Summer School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear fusion promises to deliver a future non-polluting energy supply with nearly unlimited fuel reserves. To win young scientists and engineers for nuclear fusion, the Karlsruhe Research Center, together with other partners in the European Fusion Education Network being established by the European Commission, organizes the 2nd Karlsruhe International Summer School on Fusion Technologies on September 1-12, 2008. The program covers all key technologies necessary for construction and operation of a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  1. Modelling irradiation effects in fusion materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victoria, M.; Dudarev, S.; Boutard, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    We review the current status of the European fusion materials modelling programme. We describe recent findings and outline potential areas for future development. Large-scale density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the structure of the point defects in α-Fe, and highlight the crucial ....... Experiments aimed at validating the models will be carried out in the future using a multi-beam ion irradiation facility chosen for its versatility and rapid feedback....

  2. FMIT - the fusion materials irradiation test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    A joint effort by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has produced a preliminary design for a Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) that uses a high-power linear accelerator to fire a deuteron beam into a high-speed jet of molten lithium. The result is a continuous energy spectrum of neutrons with a 14-MeV average energy which can irradiate material samples to projected end-of-life levels in about 3 years, with a total accumulated fluence of 10 21 to 10 22 n/cm 2

  3. Blankets for fusion reactors : materials and neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, S.H. de.

    1980-03-01

    The studies about Fusion Reactors have lead to several problems for which there is no general agreement about the best solution. Nevertheless, several points seem to be well defined, at least for the first generation of reactors. The fuel, for example, should be a mixture of deuterium and tritium. Therefore, the reactor should be able to generate the tritium to be burned and also to transform kinetic energy of the fusion neutrons into heat in a process similar to the fission reactors. The best materials for the composition of the blanket were first selected and then the neutronics for the proposed system was developed. The neutron flux in the blanket was calculated using the discrete ordinates transport code, ANISN. All the nuclides cross sections came from the DLC-28/CTR library, that processed the ENDF/B data, using the SUPERTOG Program. (Author) [pt

  4. Blanket materials for DT fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the critical materials issues that must be considered in the development of a tritium breeding blanket for a tokamak fusion reactor that operates on the D-T-Li fuel cycle. The primary requirements of the blanket system are identified and the important criteria that must be considered in the development of blanket technology are summarized. The candidate materials are listed for the different blanket components, e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and neutron multiplier. Three blanket concepts that appear to offer the most potential are: (1) liquid-metal breeder/coolant, (2) liquid-metal breeder/separate coolant, and (3) solid breeder/separate coolant. The major uncertainties associated with each of the design concepts are discussed and the key materials R and D requirements for each concept are identified

  5. An overview of safety and environmental considerations in the selection of materials for fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, D.A.; Piet, S.J.; Seki, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Safety and environmental considerations can play a large role in the selection of fusion materials. In this paper, we review the attributes of different structural, plasma facing, and breeding materials from a safety perspective and discuss some generic waste management issues as they relate to fusion materials in general. Specific safety concerns exist for each material that must be dealt with in fusion facility design. Low activation materials offer inherent safety benefits compared with conventional materials, but more work is needed before these materials have the requisite certified databases. In the interim, the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) has selected more conventional materials and is showing that the safety concerns with these materials can be addressed by proper attention to design. In the area of waste management disposal criteria differ by country. However, the criteria are all very strict making disposal of fusion components difficult. As a result, recycling has gained increasing attention. (orig.)

  6. Materials to deliver the promise of fusion power - progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Zinkle, S.J.; Wiffen, F.W.

    2004-01-01

    High-performance reduced-activation materials are crucial for fulfillment of the promise of fusion to provide safe, economical, and environmentally acceptable energy. Three reduced activation structural materials have emerged as promising candidates, based on 8-9Cr ferritic/martensitic steels, V-Cr-Ti alloys, and SiC/SiC composites. Due to advances in understanding how to control and engineer the nanoscale phase stability required for harsh neutron irradiation environments, these reduced activation materials have unirradiated properties that are superior to commercially available analogs. Perhaps the most important accomplishment to date from fusion materials research is the radiation effects knowledge base. Models of radiation effects and supporting experiments highlight the critical role of helium production on the microstructural stability and lifetime of irradiated materials. The proposed International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) would fill a critical need for fusion materials development

  7. Multimodal options for materials research to advance the basis for fusion energy in the ITER era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Möslang, A.; Muroga, T.; Tanigawa, H.

    2013-10-01

    Well-coordinated international fusion materials research on multiple fundamental feasibility issues can serve an important role during the next ten years. Due to differences in national timelines and fusion device concepts, a parallel-track (multimodal) approach is currently being used for developing fusion energy. An overview is given of the current state-of-the-art of major candidate materials systems for next-step fusion reactors, including a summary of existing knowledge regarding operating temperature and neutron irradiation fluence limits due to high-temperature strength and radiation damage considerations, coolant compatibility information, and current industrial manufacturing capabilities. There are two inter-related overarching objectives of fusion materials research to be performed in the next decade: (1) understanding materials science phenomena in the demanding DT fusion energy environment, and (2) application of this knowledge to develop and qualify materials to provide the basis for next-step facility construction authorization by funding agencies and public safety licensing authorities. The critical issues and prospects for development of high-performance fusion materials are discussed along with recent research results and planned activities of the international materials research community.

  8. The US fusion materials program: Status and directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1987-05-01

    The general long term objective of the Fusion Materials Program of the Office of Fusion Energy is the development of new or improved materials that will enhance the economic and environmental attractiveness of fusion as an energy source. The US Magnetic Fusion Program Plan, as augmented by the Technical Planning Activity (TPA), calls for information to be developed on critical issues such that a decision can be made by about 2005 on whether to pursue fusion as a viable energy source. Viability will be evaluated in at least four areas: technical, economic, environmental, and safety. The Fusion Materials Program addresses directly only the magnetic confinement option, although some of the information gained is applicable to the alternative approach of inertial confinement. The scope of this paper is limited to programs in which a primary concern is bulk neutron radiation effects, as opposed to those in which the primary concern is interaction of the materials with the plasma. 14 refs

  9. Advanced materials: The key to attractive magnetic fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Fusion is one of the most attractive central station power sources from the viewpoint of potential safety and environmental impact characteristics. Studies also indicate that fusion can be economically competitive with other options such as fission reactors and fossil-fired power stations. However, to achieve this triad of characteristics we must develop advanced materials with properties tailored for performance in the various fusion reactor systems. This paper discusses the desired characteristics of materials and the status of materials technology in four critical areas: (1) structural material for the first wail and blanket (FWB), (2) plasma-facing materials, (3) materials for superconducting magnets, and (4) ceramics for electrical and structural applications

  10. Advanced materials - the key to attractive magnetic fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Fusion is one of the most attractive central station power sources from the viewpoint of potential safety and environmental impact characteristics. Studies also indicate that fusion can be economically competitive with other options such as fission reactors and fossil-fired power stations. However, to achieve this triad of characteristics we must develop advanced materials with properties tailored for performance in the various fusion reactor systems. This paper discusses the desired characteristics of materials and the status of materials technology in four critical areas: (1) structural materials for the first wall and blanket (FWB), (2) plasmafacing materials, (3) materials for superconducting magnets, and (4) ceramics for electrical and structural applications. (author)

  11. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility: a facility for fusion-materials qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, A.L.; Hagan, J.W.; Opperman, E.K.; Burke, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility will provide a unique testing environment for irradiation of structural and special purpose materials in support of fusion power systems. The neutron source will be produced by a deuteron-lithium stripping reaction to generate high energy neutrons to ensure damage similar to that of a deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum. The facility design is now ready for the start of construction and much of the supporting lithium system research has been completed. Major testing of key low energy end components of the accelerator is about to commence. The facility, its testing role, and the status and major aspects of its design and supporting system development are described

  12. International nuclear material safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Azmi Syed Ali

    1985-01-01

    History can be a very dull subject if it relates to events which have long since lost their relevance. The factors which led to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), however, are as important and relevant today as they were when the Agency was first created. Without understanding these factors it is impossible to realise how important the Agency is in the present world or to understand some of the controversies surrounding its future. Central to these controversies is the question of how best to promote the international transfer of nuclear technology without contributing further to the problem of proliferating nuclear explosives or explosive capabilities. One effective means is to subject nuclear materials (see accompanying article in box), which forms the basic link between the manufacture of nuclear explosives and nuclear power generation, to international safeguards. This was realized very early in the development of nuclear power and was given greater emphasis following the deployment of the first two atomic bombs towards the end of World War II. (author)

  13. IAEA and IEA roles in international fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.; Nakamura, K.

    2000-01-01

    The article describes the IAEA's and the IEA's complementary roles in facilitating international fusion research cooperation. These roles represent highly desirable contributions to fusion research through pooling of limited human and financial resources. The two Agencies both coordinate research and organize technical meeting, but in different ways. They each have unique strengths and different modes of operation. In order to deal with potential overlaps and serve the fusion research community optimally, they are coordinating their activities

  14. Overview of international fusion technology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.; Baublitz, J.E.; Beard, D.S.; Cohen, M.M.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Finfgeld, C.R.; Haas, G.M.; Head, C.R.; Murphy, M.R.; Nardella, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    World fusion technology programs, as well as current progress and future plans for the U.S., are discussed. Regarding conceptual design, the international INTOR tokamak study, the Garching Ignition Test Reactor Study, the U.S. Engineering Test Facility conceptual design, the Argonne National Laboratory Commercial Tokamak Study, mirror conceptual designs, and alternate concepts and applications studies are summarized. With regard to magnetics, progress to date in the large coil program and pulsed coil program is summarized. In the area of plasma heating and fueling and exhaust, work on a new positive ion source research and development program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described, as is negative ion work. Tradeoff considerations for radio-frequency heating alternatives are made, and a new 60-100 GHz electron cyclotron heating research and development program is discussed. Progress and plans for solid hydrogen pellet injector development are analyzed, as are plans for a divertor technology initiative. A brief review of the U.S. alternate applications and environment and safety program is included

  15. Material Development for Nuclear Fusion and Energy Development Using Actinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Kayano, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    In our Facilities. fundamental researches on nuclear fuels and reactor materials have been performed by making use of JMTR and JOYO. Authors outline original studies among them currently performed by having myself as the core. Research fields in progress are material developments for the nuclear fusion such as ferritic steel and V alloy and energy development using Actinoids. As the material development for practical nuclear fusion, we do those of low activation V alloys, ferritic steels and ...

  16. Argonne National Laboratory contributions to the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    A total of sixteen papers with authors from Argonne National Laboratory were presented at the First International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT), held in Tokyo, Japan, in April 1988. The papers cover the results of recent investigations in blanket design and analysis, fusion neutronics, materials experiments in liquid metal corrosion and solid breeders, tritium recovery analysis, experiments and analysis for liquid metal MHD, reactor safety and economic analysis, and transient electromagnetic analysis.

  17. Argonne National Laboratory contributions to the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    A total of sixteen papers with authors from Argonne National Laboratory were presented at the First International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT), held in Tokyo, Japan, in April 1988. The papers cover the results of recent investigations in blanket design and analysis, fusion neutronics, materials experiments in liquid metal corrosion and solid breeders, tritium recovery analysis, experiments and analysis for liquid metal MHD, reactor safety and economic analysis, and transient electromagnetic analysis

  18. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume III. Strategy for international collaborations in the areas of plasma materials interactions and high heat flux materials and components development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauster, W.B.; Bauer, W.; Roberto, J.B.; Post, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to assess opportunities for such collaborations in the specific areas of Plasma Materials Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Development, and to aid in developing a strategy to take advantage of them. After some general discussion of international collaborations, we summarize key technical issues and the US programs to address them. Then follows a summary of present collaborations and potential opportunities in foreign laboratories

  19. Design of intense neutron source for fusion material study and the role of universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Shiori

    1993-01-01

    Need and requirement for the intense neutron source for fusion materials study have been discussed for many years. Recently, international climate has been becoming gradually maturing to consider this problem more seriously because of the recognition of crucial importance of solving materials problems for fusion energy development. The present symposium was designed to discuss the problems associated with the intense neutron source for material irradiation studies which will have a potential for the National Institute for Fusion Science to become one of the important future research areas. The symposium comprises five sessions; first, the role of materials research in fusion development strategies was discussed followed by a brief summary of current IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) activity. Despite the pressing need for intense fusion neutron source, currently available neutron sources are reactor or accelerator based sources of which FFTF and LASREF were discussed. Then, various concepts of intense neutron source candidates were presented including ESNIT, which are currently under design by JAERI. In the fourth session, discussions were made on the study of materials with the intense neutron source from the viewpoint of materials scientists and engineers as the user of the facility. This is followed by discussions on the role of universities from the two stand points, namely, fusion irradiation studies and fusion materials development. Finally summary discussions were made by the participants, indicating important role fundamental studies in universities for the full utilization of irradiation data and the need of pure 14 MeV neutron source for fundamental studies together with the intense surrogate neutron sources. (author)

  20. An integrated approach to the back-end of the fusion materials cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Di Pace, L.; El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Kolbasov, B.; Massaut, V.; Pampin, R.

    2007-01-01

    Within the frame of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Co-operative Program on the Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power, an international collaborative study on fusion radioactive waste has been initiated to examine the back-end of the fusion materials cycle as an important stage in maximising the environmental benefits of fusion. The study addresses the management procedures for active materials following the change out of replaceable components and decommissioning of fusion facilities. Numerous differences exist between fission and fusion in terms of activated material type, quantity, activity levels, half-life, radiotoxicity, etc. For fusion, it is important to clearly define the parameters that govern the back-end of the materials cycle. A fusion-specific, unique approach is necessary and needs to be developed. Recycling of materials and clearance (i.e. declassification to non-radioactive material) are the two recommended options for reducing the amount of fusion waste, while disposal as low-level waste (LLW) could be an alternative route for specific materials and components. Both recycling and clearance criteria have been recently revised by national and international institutions. These revisions and their consequences are examined here with applications to selected studies: - Recycling: the important radioactive quantities to be limited are contact dose rate, decay heat, and radioactivity concentration. Handling (hands-on, simple shielded, and remote handling approaches), routing related questions (recycling outside the nuclear industry, recycling in nuclear-specific foundries, other possible recycling scenarios without melting), and other issues (C-14, material impurities) are examined. - Clearance: a definition of a list of nuclides relevant to fusion is made with a proposal of a scenario and a simplified procedure for calculation of a set of fusion-specific clearance limits. - Disposal: a proposal of a generalized definition of

  1. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described

  2. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  3. Neutron irradiation experiments for fusion reactor materials through JUPITER program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Namba, C.; Wiffen, F.W.; Jones, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    A Japan-USA program of irradiation experiments for fusion research, ''JUPITER'', has been established as a 6 year program from 1995 to 2000. The goal is to study ''the dynamic behavior of fusion reactor materials and their response to variable and complex irradiation environment''. This is phase-three of the collaborative program, which follows RTNS-II program (phase-1: 1982-1986) and FFTF/MOTA program (phase-2: 1987-1994). This program is to provide a scientific basis for application of materials performance data, generated by fission reactor experiments, to anticipated fusion environments. Following the systematic study on cumulative irradiation effects, done through FFTF/MOTA program. JUPITER is emphasizing the importance of dynamic irradiation effects on materials performance in fusion systems. The irradiation experiments in this program include low activation structural materials, functional ceramics and other innovative materials. The experimental data are analyzed by theoretical modeling and computer simulation to integrate the above effects. (orig.)

  4. International handling of fissionable material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The opinion of the ministry for foreign affairs on international handling of fissionable materials is given. As an introduction a survey is given of the possibilities to produce nuclear weapons from materials used in or produced by power reactors. Principles for international control of fissionable materials are given. International agreements against proliferation of nuclear weapons are surveyed and methods to improve them are proposed. (K.K.)

  5. 8th International School of Fusion Reactor Technology "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Leotta, G G; Muon-catalyzed fusion and fusion with polarized nuclei

    1988-01-01

    The International School of Fusion Reactor Technology started its courses 15 years ago and since then has mantained a biennial pace. Generally, each course has developed the subject which was announced in advance at the closing of the previous course. The subject to which the present proceedings refer was chosen in violation of that rule so as to satisfy the recent and diffuse interest in cold fusion among the main European laboratories involved in controlled thermonuclear research (CTR). In the second half of 1986 we started to prepare a workshop aimed at assessing the state of the art and possibly of the perspectives of muon- catalyzed fusion. Research in this field has recently produced exciting experimental results open to important practical applications. We thought it worthwhile to consider also the beneficial effects and problems of the polarization ofthe nuclei in both cold and thermonuclear fusion. In preparing the 8th Course on Fusion Reactor Technology, it was necessary to abandon the tradi...

  6. Atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion. Vol.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, through its Atomic and Molecular Data Unit, coordinates a wide spectrum of programmes for the compilation, evaluation, and generation of atomic, molecular, and plasma-wall interaction data for fusion research. The present, first, volume of Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion, contains extended versions of the reviews presented at the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Particle-Surface Interaction Data for Fusion, held 19-21 April 1989 at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, The plasma-wall interaction processes covered here are those considered most important for the operational performance of magnetic confinement fusion reactors. In addition to processes due to particle impact under normal operation, plasma-wall interaction effects due to off-normal plasma events (disruptions, electron runaway bombardment) are covered, and a summary of the status of data information on these processes is given from the point of view of magnetic fusion reactor design. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Role of industry in international fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    ITER combines a wide variety of technologies on an unprecedented scale of application. The experience of industry in design and integration of complex and advanced systems is helping to ensure that the engineering design of ITER is practicable and best meets the technical and cost objectives. The final development of fusion must take full benefit of the vast experience of industry in the management and coordination of major construction projects coupled with the fusion know-how being developed through participation in the ITER design activities. To achieve this, industry must be given an increasingly prominent role in the realization of the next-step device. The AE model provides an excellent means of achieving this aim. (author) 2 figs

  8. Advanced applications of diagnostics techniques to fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, G.; Rustichelli, F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of the future fusion reactors requires structural materials capable to withstand extreme operation conditions, including the exposure to 14 MeV neutrons and intense thermomechanical stresses. Furthermore, material technologies such as welding and joining, tiling, production of components having unusual size and shape must also be developed. Therefore the microstructural effects produced in such materials by irradiation or thermomechanical tests must also be studied by suitable 'diagnostic' techniques. In this work, after an introduction recalling the most critical material problems in fusion technology, several results are reviewed concerning the characterization of fusion-relevant materials by using radiation-based techniques such as neutron and X-ray scattering, positron annihilation and some other more common ones. (orig.)

  9. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.A.; Bannister, M.E.; Fuhr, J.

    1999-12-01

    The International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion is prepared by the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is distributed free of charge by the IAEA to assist in the development of fusion research and technology. In part 1, the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) is presented. In Part 2, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions and surface interactions. Part 3 contains all the bibliographic data for both the indexed and non-indexed references. Finally, the Author Index (part 4) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part 3

  10. 2nd Karlsruhe International Summer School on Fusion Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.; Stycz, K.

    2008-01-01

    For the second time, the Karlsruhe Research enter together with European research institutions and industries invited young scientists and engineers to its ''International Summer School on Fusion Technologies.'' Fifty participants from all over Europe attended the lectures by 35 experts preesenting contributions from their areas of competence. Ten young scientists from India and another 10 from China were connected to the events by video link. Physics student Kornelia Stycz describes her impressions as a participant in the ''2 nd International Summer School on Fusion Technologies.'' (orig.)

  11. 1st International School of Fusion Reactor Technology "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Knoepfel, Heinz; Safety, Environmental Impact and Economic Prospects of Nuclear Fusion

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the lectures and the concluding discussion of the "Seminar on Safety, Environmental Impact, and Economic Prospects of Nuclear Fusion", which was held at Erice, August 6-12, 1989. In selecting the contributions to this 9th meeting held by the International School of Fusion Reactor Technology at the E. Majorana Center for Scientific Cul­ ture in Erice, we tried to provide a comprehensive coverage of the many interre­ lated and interdisciplinary aspects of what ultimately turns out to be the global acceptance criteria of our society with respect to controlled nuclear fusion. Consequently, this edited collection of the papers presented should provide an overview of these issues. We thus hope that this book, with its extensive subject index, will also be of interest and help to nonfusion specialists and, in general, to those who from curiosity or by assignment are required to be informed on these as­ pects of fusion energy.

  12. Energy, material and land requirement of a fusion plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, Liselotte; Hamacher, T.; Cabal, H.

    2001-01-01

    requirement of a fission plant by a factor of two. The material requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 2000 t/MW and little less than 1000 t/MW for a fission plant. The land requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 300 m2/MW and the land requirement for a fission plant is a little less than 200 m2/MW......The energy and material necessary to construct a power plant and the land covered by the plant are indicators for the ‘consumption’ of environment by a certain technology. Based on current knowledge, estimations show that the material necessary to construct a fusion plant will exceed the material...

  13. Radiation damage of organic composite material for fusion magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion superconducting magnets are 'series machines' in the sense that the complete magnet may decrease in overall performance when even one component does not deliver the expected performance. Such magnets are often operated under severe conditions, such as radiation environments and those materials which are most prone to damage under such radiation environments demand particular attention. The component most sensitive to radiation damage in the fusion magnet is the organic composite material used for insulation, usually glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP). Radiation resistant GFRPs have been developed and these will be discussed in this work, together with other aspects of radiation damage of organic composite materials. (author)

  14. RTNS-II fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Tuckerman, D.B.; Davis, J.C.; Massoletti, D.J.; Short, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) facility provides an intense source of 14-MeV neutrons for the fusion energy programs of Japan and the United States. Each of the two identical accelerator-based neutron sources is capable of providing source strengths in excess of 3 x 10 13 n/s using deuteron beam currents up to 150 mA. The present status of the facility, as well as the various upgrade options, will be described in detail

  15. Materials issues in the fusion engineering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The design configuration and parameters of FED are described and several key design issues involving materials-related problems for components including armor, the pumped limiter, TF coils and various electrical systems, are briefly reviewed. The selected materials applications discussed illustrate design constraints arising from concerns about plasma-materials interactions, cyclic operation and neutron radiation damage. Materials testing in FED is also discussed with emphasis on a broad view of the role of FED in materials development. (orig.)

  16. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-04

    The Committee`s evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is United and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical worlding experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, h is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium allay option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan.

  17. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Committee's evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is United and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical worlding experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, h is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium allay option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan

  18. FENDL: International reference nuclear data library for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear data section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an internationally available fusion evaluated nuclear data library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the engineering design activity (EDA) of the ITER project and other fusion-related development projects. The present version of FENDL consists of the following sublibraries covering the necessary nuclear input for all physics and engineering aspects of the material development, design, operation and safety of the ITER project in its current EDA phase: FENDL/A-1.1: neutron activation cross-sections, selected from different available sources, for 636 nuclides, FENDL/D-1.0: nuclear decay data for 2900 nuclides in ENDF-6 format, FENDL/DS-1.0: neutron activation data for dosimetry by foil activation, FENDL/C-1.0: data for the fusion reactions D(d,n), D(d,p), T(d,n), T(t,2n), He-3(d,p) extracted from ENDF/B-6 and processed, FENDL/E-1.0:data for coupled neutron-photon transport calculations, including a data library for neutron interaction and photon production for 63 elements or isotopes, selected from ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3, or BROND-2, and a photon-atom interaction data library for 34 elements. The benchmark validation of FENDL-1 as required by the customer, i.e. the ITER team, is considered to be a task of high priority in the coming months. The well tested and validated nuclear data libraries in processed form of the FENDL-2 are expected to be ready by mid 1996 for use by the ITER team in the final phase of ITER EDA after extensive benchmarking and integral validation studies in the 1995-1996 period. The FENDL data files can be electronically transferred to users from the IAEA nuclear data section online system through INTERNET. A grand total of 54 (sub)directories with 845 files with total size of about 2 million

  19. Examination of material damage on components of future fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, V.; Hoven, H.; Linke, J.; Roedig, M.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays materials based on beryllium, carbon or tungsten are those most favored for use as wall components which will be heat loaded by the plasma in future fusion reactors. These materials are subjected to extreme heat loads (up to 20 MWm -2 ) during normal operation. In order to carry the heat away safely, the above materials are joined to metallic heat sinks (molybdenum or copper alloys) by an appropriate joining technique. As the components and the joints are thermally cycled by the heat load, thermal fatigue will cause material damage. Additionally, in the case of an unsteady plasma the materials will be extremely thermoshocked by energy densities up to 140 MJm -2 . Under these conditions the materials facing the plasma (Be, C, W) will be strongly eroded. At the same time local melting, recrystallisation and cracking will cause extensive material damage. The thermal load on materials normally observed in fusion reactors will be simulated by means of appropriate testing equipment (electron-beam for instance). The material damage thus caused will be examined by metallography, scanning electron microscopy using energy dispersive analysis, quantitative microstructure analysis and non-contact profilometry. Based on these results appropriate materials as well as joining techniques will be designed for use in future fusion facilities such as ITER. (orig.) [de

  20. Role of plasma material interaction in the Magnetic Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, B.R.; Davis, M.J.; Vook, F.L.

    1978-01-01

    The goals of the MFE Plasma-Material Interaction Program are to provide a quantitative data base for the plasma impurity problem and fuel recycling, to minimize detrimental near-surface alteration of first-wall materials, and to provide designers of confinement experiments and fusion reactors innovative concepts for walls and other components involving plasma interactions. This paper presents a comprehensive and long-range plan for solving not only the long term problems affecting economic production of fusion power but also the present and near-future critical plasma surface problems which seriously threaten progress in near term confinement devices

  1. Surface materials considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Kazuho; Maeno, Masaki; Yamamoto, Shin; Ohtsuka, Hidewo; Abe, Tetsuya

    1982-11-01

    Surface materials considerations have been made to support the Impurity Control and First Wall Engineering task in the INTOR. They focussed on low-Z material candidates including C(graphite), SiC and TiC. Properties considered are listed in the following: 1) Physical Sputtering. 2) Chemical Sputtering. 3) Arcing. 4) H/He Retention/Release. 5) Redeposited Materials Characteristics. (author)

  2. Hydrogen isotopes transport parameters in fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, E. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipartimento di Energetica; Benamati, G. [ENEA Fusion Division, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camungnano, Bologna (Italy); Ogorodnikova, O.V. [Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    1998-06-01

    This work presents a review of hydrogen isotopes-materials interactions in various materials of interest for fusion reactors. The relevant parameters cover mainly diffusivity, solubility, trap concentration and energy difference between trap and solution sites. The list of materials includes the martensitic steels (MANET, Batman and F82H-mod.), beryllium, aluminium, beryllium oxide, aluminium oxide, copper, tungsten and molybdenum. Some experimental work on the parameters that describe the surface effects is also mentioned. (orig.) 62 refs.

  3. Materials data base for fusion reactors-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, S.; Nogami, A.; Ishino, S.; Mishima, Y.; Takao, Y.; Aruga, T.; Shiraishi, K.

    1982-01-01

    The materials data base is a set of experimental and/or calculated data being compiled to meet the broad needs for materials data by taking advantage of the data base management systems. In this paper the objective of such computerized data base is described and the characteristics of fusion reactor materials are discussed from the viewpoint of the data base development. The near-term emphasis of the development has been put on the irradiation data for 316 type stainless steels. Through the test of this small data base, it can be concluded that this approach is promising for materials data base management and for the establishment of the interface between fusion reactor designer and materials investigator. (orig.)

  4. Fusion materials research at McMaster University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    McMaster University is actively participating in fusion research, supported by CFFTP. Research activities are focused in three main areas at present: hydrogen isotope permeation and permeation barrier studies; hydrogen isotope diffusion studies; and, the high temperature fatigue behaviour due to the bubble formation in first wall and blanket structural materials

  5. Fusion materials irradiation test facility: description and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, A.L.; Parker, E.F.; Hagan, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility will generate a high-flux, high-energy neutron source that will provide a fusion-like radiation environment for fusion reactor materials development. The neutrons will be produced in a nuclear stripping reaction by impinging a 35 MeV beam of deuterons from an Alvarez-type linear accelerator on a flowing lithium target. The target will be located in a test cell which will provide an irradiation volume of over 750l within which 10 cm 3 will have an average neutron flux of greater than 1.4 x 10 15 n/cm 2 -s and 500 cm 3 an average flux of greater than 2.2 by 10 14 n/cm 2- s with an expected availability factor greater than 65%. The projected fluence within the 10 cm 3 high flux region of FMIT will effect damage upon the materials test specimens to 30 dpa (displacements per atom) for each 90 day irradiation period. This irradiation flux volume will be at least 500 times larger than that of any other facility with comparable neutron energy and will fully meet the fusion materials damage research objective of 100 dpa within three years for the first round of tests

  6. International ITER fusion energy organization. Paving the way to power generation from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuschen-Liebenstein, R. von

    2006-01-01

    ITER (Latin: the way) is the acronym of a new international large research facility gradually taking shape after the meeting of Gorbachev and Reagan in Reykjavik in 1985. Under the auspices of the IAEA, worldwide scientific and industrial cooperation with 'home teams' of each of the ITER partners began at that time which were commissioned to accumulate the knowledge and the technology of nuclear fusion in the participating countries. At the end of the preparation and decisionmaking process, the design draft of the ITER reactor was elaborated in international cooperation as the basis of the ITER Convention. After lengthy negotiations among the international ITER partners, a European site for the ITER organization and its reactor was found at Cadarache, France. As the first ITER member, Europe now initiated worldwide cooperation in research and development, seeking to demonstrate the technical and scientific feasibility of tapping fusion power for peaceful purposes. The Council of the European Union (competitiveness), at its meeting on September 25, 2006, decided to sign the ITER Convention about the establishment of the International ITER Fusion Energy Organization ('ITER Organization') and about the mutual obligation to make the necessary contributions towards the construction of ITER. (orig.)

  7. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  8. Stored energy in fusion magnet materials irradiated at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, R.L.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.; Coltman, R.R.

    1989-08-01

    During the power cycle of a fusion reactor, the radiation reaching the superconducting magnet system will produce an accumulation of immobile defects in the magnet materials. During a subsequent warm-up cycle of the magnet system, the defects will become mobile and interact to produce new defect configurations as well as some mutual defect annihilations which generate heat-the release of stored energy. This report presents a brief qualitative discussion of the mechanisms for the production and release of stored energy in irradiated materials, a theoretical analysis of the thermal response of irradiated materials, theoretical analysis of the thermal response of irradiated materials during warm-up, and a discussion of the possible impact of stored energy release on fusion magnet operation 20 refs

  9. A fusion power plant without plasma-material interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    A steady-state fusion power plant is described which avoids the deleterious plasma-material interactions found in D-T fueled tokamaks. It is based on driven p-{sup 11}B fusion in a high-beta closed-field device, the field-reversed configuration (FRC), anchored in a gas-dynamic trap (GDT). The plasma outflow on the open magnetic-field lines is cooled by radiation in the GDT, then channeled through a magnetic nozzle, promoting 3-body recombination in the expansion region. The resulting supersonic neutral exhaust stream flows through a turbine, generating electricity.

  10. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility: experimental capabilities and test matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the experimental capabilities of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) and reference material specimen test matrices. The description of the experimental capabilities and the test matrices has been updated to match the current single test cell facility ad assessed experimenter needs. Sufficient detail has been provided so that the user can plan irradiation experiments and conceptual hardware. The types of experiments, irradiation environment and support services that will be available in FMIT are discussed

  11. Fundamental radiation effects studies in the fusion materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fundamental radiation effects studies in the US Fusion Materials Program generally fall under the aegis of the Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Program. In a narrow sense, the problem addressed by the DAFS program is the prediction of radiation effects in fusion devices using data obtained in non-representative environments. From the onset, the program has had near-term and long-term components. The premise for the latter is that there will be large economic penalties for uncertainties in predictive capability. Fusion devices are expected to be large and complex and unanticipated maintenance will be costly. It is important that predictions are based on a maximum of understanding and a minimum of empiricism. Gaining this understanding is the thrust of the long-term component. (orig.)

  12. Optimization of the testing volumes with respect to neutron flux levels in the two-target high flux D-Li neutron source for the international fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, W.P.; Varsamis, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    An economic and fusion-relevant source of high-energy neutrons is an essential element in the fusion nuclear technology and development program. This source can be generated by directing a high energy deuteron beam onto a flowing liquid lithium target, producing neutrons via the D-Lithium stripping reaction. Previous work on this type of source concentrated on a design employing one deuteron beam of modest amperage. This design was shown to have a relatively small testing volume with high flux gradients and was therefor considered somewhat unattractive from a materials testing standpoint. A design using two lithium targets and two high-amperage beams has recently been proposed. This two beam design has been examined in an effort to maximize the test volume while minimizing the flux gradients and minimizing the effect of radiation damage on one target due to the other. A spatial, energy and angle dependent neutron source modeling the D-Lithium source was developed. Using this source, a 3-dimensional map of uncollided flux within the test volume was calculated. The results showed that the target separation has little effect on the available experimental volume and that a testing volume of ∼35 liters is available with a volume averaged flux above 10 14 n/cm 2 /s. The collided flux within the test volume was then determined by coupling the source model with a Monte Carlo code. The spectral effects of the high-energy tail in the flux were examined and evaluated as to possible effects on materials response. Calculations comparing the radiation damage to materials from the D-Lithium source to that cause by a standard DT fusion first-wall neutron flux spectrum showed that the number of appm and dpa, as well as the ratio appm/dpa and dpa/MW/m 2 are within 30% for the two sources. 8 refs., 8 figs

  13. Coating materials for fusion application in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, G.-N.; Li, Q.; Liu, M.; Zheng, X. B.; Chen, J. L.; Guo, Q. G.; Liu, X.

    2011-10-01

    Thick SiC coatings of ˜100 μm on graphite tiles, prepared by chemical vapor infiltration of Si into the tiles and the following reactions between Si and C, are used as plasma facing material (PFM) on HT-7 superconducting tokamak and Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). With increase in the heating and driving power in EAST, the present plasma facing component (PFC) of the SiC/C tiles bolted to heat sink will be replaced by W coatings on actively cooled Cu heat sink, prepared by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) adopting different interlayer. The VPS-W/Cu PFC with built-in cooling channels were prepared and mounted into the HT-7 acting as a movable limiter. Behavior of heat load onto the limiter and the material was studied. The Cu coatings on the Inconel 625 tubes were successfully prepared by high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) thermal spraying, being used as the liquid nitrogen (LN2) shields of the in-vessel cryopump for divertor pumping in EAST.

  14. Study on structural materials used in thermonuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billa, R.; Amaral, D.

    1995-01-01

    The main problem related to the construction of a thermonuclear fusion reactor is the absence of suitable materials for the process, concerning to temperature limits, heat flux and life time. The first wall is the most critical part of the structure, being submitted to radiation effects, ionic corrosion and coolant, besides thermal fatigue and tension produced by cyclical burning. The AISI 316(17-12SPH) stainless steel is used as structural material, which has a wide known database. This work proposes an alternative material study to be used in the future thermonuclear fusion reactors. As a option a study on the utilization of Cr-Mn(Fe-17 Mn-10 Cr-0,1 C) steels and their alloy variations is presented

  15. Neutron irradiation facilities for fission and fusion reactor materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The successful development of energy-conversion machines based upon nuclear fission or fusion reactors is critically dependent upon the behavior of the engineering materials used to construct the full containment and primary heat extraction systems. The development of radiation damage-resistant materials requires irradiation testing facilities which reproduce, as closely as possible, the thermal and neutronic environment expected in a power-producing reactor. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reference core design for the Center for Neutron Research (CNR) reactor provides for instrumented facilities in regions of both hard and mixed neutron spectra, with substantially higher fluxes than are currently available. The benefits of these new facilities to the development of radiation damage resistant materials are discussed in terms of the major US fission and fusion reactor programs

  16. The value of materials R&D in the fast track development of fusion power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. J.; Taylor, N. P.; Cook, I.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the international fusion program is the creation of power plants with attractive safety and environmental features and viable economics. There is a range of possible plants that can meet these objectives, as studied for instance in the recent EU studies of power plant concepts. All of the concepts satisfy safety and environmental objectives but the economic performance is interpreted differently in different world regions according to the perception of future energy markets. This leads to different materials performance targets and the direction and timescales of the materials development programme needed to meet those targets. In this paper, the implications for materials requirements of a fast track approach to fusion development are investigated. This includes a quantification of the overall benefits of more advanced materials: including the effect of trading off an extended development time against a reduced cost of electricity for resulting power plants.

  17. Materials program plan for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, A.; Hall, B.O.; Harkness, S.D.; Maiya, P.S.; Rechtin, M.D.; Li, C.Y.

    1979-08-01

    The effect of the irradiation environment on the microstructure of materials is studied. A major part of the initial activity in this area will be aimed toward evaluating the importance of pulse effects on microstructural development. The development effort that is necessary to cope with the high cycle loading of the first wall structure is studied. The loading pulses are expected to range from 1 to 20 per second (3 x 10/sup 7/ to 6 x 10/sup 8//year), thus creating a high cycle fatigue problem for any long-lived first wall structure. The interrelationship between specimen and component testing is a major issue in this section. Static mechanical property requirements are also considered here. Lithium compatibility is treated. The final section integrates the conclusions reached in the body of the report into a unified strategy that suggests a particular effort level to support major program milestones.

  18. Materials program plan for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, A.; Hall, B.O.; Harkness, S.D.; Maiya, P.S.; Rechtin, M.D.; Li, C.Y.

    1979-08-01

    The effect of the irradiation environment on the microstructure of materials is studied. A major part of the initial activity in this area will be aimed toward evaluating the importance of pulse effects on microstructural development. The development effort that is necessary to cope with the high cycle loading of the first wall structure is studied. The loading pulses are expected to range from 1 to 20 per second (3 x 10 7 to 6 x 10 8 /year), thus creating a high cycle fatigue problem for any long-lived first wall structure. The interrelationship between specimen and component testing is a major issue in this section. Static mechanical property requirements are also considered here. Lithium compatibility is treated. The final section integrates the conclusions reached in the body of the report into a unified strategy that suggests a particular effort level to support major program milestones

  19. SM-2 reactor potentialities for investigation of fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsykanov, V.A.; Samsonov, B.V.; Markina, N.V.; Polyakov, Yu.N.; Sluzhaev, V.I.; Losev, N.P.; Lobanov, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of utilization of the SM-2 type reactors for fusion reactor (FR) materials testing is discussed. The measuring and calculational results, while estimating irradiation conditions in the SM-2 reactor channels, are given. The basic characteristics, necessary for correct simulation of FR parameters in fission reactors such as neutron flux density, radiation damage in the shift per atom values, gas accumulation, are considered. The characteristics of existing and tested in the SM-2 reactor investigational methods for studying structural and isolation materials are given. The conclusion about the possibility of SM-2 reactor utilization for the FR materials testing is made [ru

  20. Clearance, recycling and disposal of fusion activated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Forrest, R.; Forty, C.; Gulden, W.; Rocco, P.; Rosanvallon, S.

    2001-01-01

    The SEAFP-99 waste management studies include further explorations in the direction of activated materials management, adopting a more realistic approach in order to consolidate and refine the previous encouraging findings of SEAFP waste management studies performed till 1998. The main results were obtained in the following topics, impact of materials/components optimisation on waste management issues; integrated approach to recycling and clearance; analysis of the potential for fusion specific repositories and hazard-relevant nuclides/processes; materials detritiation. The overall conclusion is that the adoption of a more realistic approach for the analysis has been beneficial. The results further confirmed the potential for waste minimisation and hazard reduction

  1. Comparison of Fusion Rates Based on Graft Material Following Occipitocervical and Atlantoaxial Arthrodesis in Adults and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leslie C; Anderson, Richard C E; Brockmeyer, Douglas L; Torok, Michelle R; Hankinson, Todd C

    2018-03-15

    Fusion rates following rigid internal instrumentation for occipitocervical and atlantoaxial instability approach 100% in many reports. Based on this success and the morbidity that can be associated with obtaining autograft for fusion, surgeons increasingly select alternative graft materials. To examine fusion failure using various graft materials in a retrospective observational study. Insurance claims databases (Truven Health MarketScan® [Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arbor, Michigan] and IMS Health Lifelink/PHARMetrics [IMS Health, Danbury, Connecticut]) were used to identify patients with CPT codes 22590 and 22595. Patients were divided by age (≥18 yr = adult) and arthrodesis code, establishing 4 populations. Each population was further separated by graft code: group 1 = 20938 (structural autograft); group 2 = 20931 (structural allograft); group 3 = other graft code (nonstructural); group 4 = no graft code. Fusion failure was assigned when ≥1 predetermined codes presented in the record ≥90 d following the last surgical procedure. Of 522 patients identified, 419 were adult and 103 were pediatric. Fusion failure occurred in 10.9% (57/522) of the population. There was no statistically significant difference in fusion failure based on graft material. Fusion failure occurred in 18.9% of pediatric occipitocervical fusions, but in 9.2% to 11.1% in the other groups. Administrative data regarding patients who underwent instrumented occipitocervical or atlantoaxial arthrodesis do not demonstrate differences in fusion rates based on the graft material selected. When compared to many contemporary primary datasets, fusion failure was more frequent; however, several recent studies have shown higher failure rates than previously reported. This may be influenced by broad patient selection and fusion failure criteria that were selected in order to maximize the generalizability of the findings.

  2. Applications of Research Reactors Towards Research on Materials for Nuclear Fusion Technology. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Controlled nuclear fusion is widely considered to represent a nearly unlimited source of energy. Recent progress in the quest for fusion energy includes the design and current construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), for which a licence has recently been obtained as a first of its kind fusion nuclear installation. ITER is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy production in excess of 500 MW for several consecutive minutes. ITER, however, will not be able to address all the nuclear fusion technology issues associated with the design, construction and operation of a commercial fusion power plant. The demonstration of an adequate tritium or fuel breeding ratio, as well as the development, characterization and testing of structural and functional materials in an integrated nuclear fusion environment, are examples of issues for which ITER is unable to deliver complete answers. To fill this knowledge gap, several facilities are being discussed, such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility and, eventually, a fusion demonstration power plant (DEMO). However, for these facilities, a vast body of preliminary research remains to be performed, for instance, concerning the preselection and testing of suitable materials able to withstand the high temperature and pressure, and intense radiation environment of a fusion reactor. Given their capacity for material testing in terms of available intense neutron fluxes, dedicated irradiation facilities and post-irradiation examination laboratories, high flux research reactors or material test reactors (MTRs) will play an indispensable role in the development of fusion technology. Moreover, research reactors have already achieved an esteemed legacy in the understanding of material properties and behaviour, and the knowledge gained from experiments in fission materials in certain cases can be applied to fusion systems, particularly those

  3. Review of R and D status on beryllium technology for fusion in Japan reported at the fifth IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, the R and D status on beryllium technology for fusion reactor in Japan were reviewed with the reports at the Fifth IEA International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. This international workshop was held on October 10-12, 2001, at the Congress Center of the Financial Academy with about 60 participants who attended from ten countries (Germany, the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, the United States, Japan, etc.). There were 39 presentations in this workshop including 13 presentations from Japan. From the review of the latest results of R and D status on beryllium technology for fusion reactor in Japan, the recent trend in beryllium technology was made clear. As neutron multiplier technology development, the studies are being concentrated into the beryllide (Be 12 Ti, etc.) by most Japanese researchers. As ITER first wall material technology, the Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) bonding technology with copper alloys attracts attentions. (author)

  4. Transmutation and activation of fusion reactor wall and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.

    1979-01-01

    This report details the extent of the nuclear data needed for inclusion in a data library to be used for general assessments of fusion reactor structure activation and transmutation, describes the sources of data available, reviews the literature and explores the reliability of current calculations by providing an independent assessment of the activity inventory to be expected from five structural materials in a simple blanket design for comparison with the results of other workers. An indication of the nuclear reactions which make important contributions to the activity, transmutation and gas production rates for these structural materials is also presented. (author)

  5. FUSION ENERGY SCIENCES WORKSHOP ON PLASMA MATERIALS INTERACTIONS: Report on Science Challenges and Research Opportunities in Plasma Materials Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, Rajesh [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Zinkle, Steven J. [University of Tennessee – Knoxville; Foster, Mark S. [U.S. Department of Energy

    2015-05-01

    The realization of controlled thermonuclear fusion as an energy source would transform society, providing a nearly limitless energy source with renewable fuel. Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program management recently launched a series of technical workshops to “seek community engagement and input for future program planning activities” in the targeted areas of (1) Integrated Simulation for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences, (2) Control of Transients, (3) Plasma Science Frontiers, and (4) Plasma-Materials Interactions aka Plasma-Materials Interface (PMI). Over the past decade, a number of strategic planning activities1-6 have highlighted PMI and plasma facing components as a major knowledge gap, which should be a priority for fusion research towards ITER and future demonstration fusion energy systems. There is a strong international consensus that new PMI solutions are required in order for fusion to advance beyond ITER. The goal of the 2015 PMI community workshop was to review recent innovations and improvements in understanding the challenging PMI issues, identify high-priority scientific challenges in PMI, and to discuss potential options to address those challenges. The community response to the PMI research assessment was enthusiastic, with over 80 participants involved in the open workshop held at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory on May 4-7, 2015. The workshop provided a useful forum for the scientific community to review progress in scientific understanding achieved during the past decade, and to openly discuss high-priority unresolved research questions. One of the key outcomes of the workshop was a focused set of community-initiated Priority Research Directions (PRDs) for PMI. Five PRDs were identified, labeled A-E, which represent community consensus on the most urgent near-term PMI scientific issues. For each PRD, an assessment was made of the scientific challenges, as well as a set of actions

  6. Void migration, coalescence and swelling in fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    A recent analysis of the migration of voids and bubbles, produced in neutron irradiated fusion materials, is outlined. The migration, brought about by thermal hopping of atoms on the surface of a void, is normally a random Brownian motion but, in a temperature gradient, can be slightly biassed up the gradient. Two effects of such migrations are the transport of voids and trapped transmutation helium atoms to grain boundaries, where embrittlement may result; and the coalescence of migrating voids, which reduces the number of non-dislocation sites available for the capture of knock-on point defects and thereby enables the dislocation bias process to maintain void swelling. A selection of candidate fusion power plant armour and structural metals have been analysed. The metals most resistant to void migration and its effects are tungsten and molybdenum. Steel and beryllium are least so and vanadium is intermediate

  7. Fatigue effects in insulation materials for fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkranz, P.

    2000-12-01

    The mechanical properties of insulation materials for the superconducting magnets of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and future fusion plants, i.e. woven fiber reinforced composites, have been identified as an area of concern for the long-term operation of such magnets. The magnets will be subjected to fast neutron and γ-radiation over their lifetime, which influence the mechanical properties of the insulation materials. The ultimate tensile strength and, above all, the interlaminar shear strength and their performance under dynamic load, corresponding to the pulsed operation of a TOKAMAK-confinement system, are sensitive indicators of material failure in fiber-reinforced laminates especially at cryogenic temperatures. To simulate these conditions, low frequency fatigue measurements at 10 Hz were made at 77 K up to one million cycles. Tension-tension fatigue tests were performed according to ASTM D3479. However, due to the space limitations in all irradiation facilities, the tests have to be done on samples, which are considerably smaller than those required for standard test conditions. The influence of the specimen geometry on the ultimate tensile strength under static and dynamic load conditions was, therefore, investigated on fiber-reinforced plastics. They did not show any systematic trends as long as the sample thickness does not exceed the thickness recommended in ASTM D3479. The double lap shear test method was chosen for the shear experiments because of the symmetry of the specimen geometry under tensile load and the suitability for fatigue tests. Like almost every existing test procedure for the interlaminar shear strength, this test method does not provide for a completely uniform interlaminar shear stress distribution over a sizable region in the test section of the specimen. A scaling program combined with FE-simulations was, therefore, initiated to assess the influence of the length of the test section and of the sample

  8. Reduced activation structural materials for fusion power plants - The European Union program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der; Le Marois, G.; Moeslang, A.; Victoria, M.

    2003-01-01

    The competition of fusion power plants with the renewable energy sources in the second half of the 21st century requires structural materials operating at high temperatures, and sufficient radiation resistance to ensure high plant efficiency and availability. The reduced activation materials development in the EU counts several steps regarding the radiation damage resistance: 75 dpa for DEMO and 150 dpa and beyond for power plants. The maximum operating temperature development line ranges from the present day from the present day feasible 600 K up to 1300- K in advanced power plants. The reduced activation steel, RAS, forms the reference for the development efforts. EUROFER has been manufactured in the EU on industrial scale with specified purity and mechanical properties up to 825 K. The oxide dispersion strengthened , ODS, variety of RAS should reach the 925 K operation limit. The EU has selected silicon carbide ceramic composite as the primary high temperature, 1300 K, goal. On a small scale the potential of tungsten alloys for higher temperatures is investigated. The present test environments for radiation resistance are insufficient to provide data for DEMO. Hence the support of the EU for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation facility. The computational modelling is expected to guide the materials development and the design of near plasma components. The EU co-operates closely with Japan, the RF and US in IEA and IAEA co-ordinated agreements, which are highly beneficial for the fusion structural materials development. (author)

  9. Application of simulation experiments to fusion materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Li, C.Y.

    1978-01-01

    One of the major problems in the development of structural alloys for use in magnetic fusion reactors (MFRs) is the lack of suitable materials testing facilities. This is because operating fusion reactors, even of the experimental size, do not exist. A primary task in the early stages of MFR alloy development will be to adapt currently available irradiation facilities for use in materials development. Thus, it is generally recognized that, at least for the next ten years, studies of irradiation effects in an MFR environment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of structural materials must utilize ion and fission neutron simulations. Special problems will arise because, in addition to displacement damage, an MFR radiation environment will produce, in candidate structural materials, higher and more significant concentrations of gaseous nuclear transmutation products, e.g., helium and hydrogen, than found in a fast breeder reactor. These effects must be taken into account when simulation techniques are employed, since they impact heavily on irradiation microstructure development and, hence, mechanical properties

  10. Investigation of advanced materials for fusion alpha particle diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonheure, G., E-mail: g.bonheure@fz-juelich.de [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association “Euratom-Belgian State”, Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Van Wassenhove, G. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association “Euratom-Belgian State”, Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Strivay, D. [Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Université de Liège (Belgium); Vermaercke, P. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Delvigne, T. [DSI SPRL, 3 rue Mont d’Orcq, Froyennes B-7503 (Belgium); Chene, G.; Delhalle, R. [Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Université de Liège (Belgium); Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W.; Neubauer, O. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We examine the feasibility of alpha particle measurements in ITER. ► We test advanced material detectors borrowed from the GERDA neutrino experiment. ► We compare experimental results on TEXTOR tokamak with our detector response model. ► We investigate the detector response in ITER full power D–T plasmas. ► Advanced materials show good signal to noise ratio and alpha particle selectivity. -- Abstract: Fusion alpha particle diagnostics for ITER remain a challenging task. Standard escaping alpha particle detectors in present tokamaks are not applicable to ITER and techniques suitable for fusion reactor conditions need further research and development [1,2]. The activation technique is widely used for the characterization of high fluence rates inside neutron reactors. Tokamak applications of the neutron activation technique are already well developed [3] whereas measuring escaping ions using this technique is a novel fusion plasma diagnostic development. Despite low alpha particle fluence levels in present tokamaks, promising results using activation technique combined with ultra-low level gamma-ray spectrometry [4] were achieved before in JET [5,6]. In this research work, we use new advanced detector materials. The material properties beneficial for alpha induced activation are (i) moderate neutron cross-sections (ii) ultra-high purity which reduces neutron-induced background activation and (iii) isotopic tailoring which increases the activation yield of the measured activation product. Two samples were obtained from GERDA[7], an experiment aimed at measuring the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. These samples, made of highly pure (9 N) germanium highly enriched to 87% in isotope Ge-76, were irradiated in real D–D fusion plasma conditions inside the TEXTOR tokamak. Comparison of the calculated and the experimentally measured activity shows good agreement. Compared to previously investigated high temperature ceramic material [8

  11. Strong neutron sources - How to cope with weapon material production capabilities of fusion and spallation neutron sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, M.; Franceschini, G.; Liebert, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we investigate the potential and relevance for weapon material production in future fusion power plants and spallation neutron sources (SNS) and sketch what should be done to strengthen these technologies against a non-peaceful use. It is shown that future commercial fusion reactors may have military implications: first, they provide an easy source of tritium for weapons, an element that does not fall under safeguards and for which diversion from a plant could probably not be detected even if some tritium accountancy is implemented. Secondly, large fusion reactors - even if not designed for fissile material breeding - could easily produce several hundred kg Pu per year with high weapon quality and very low source material requirements. If fusion-only reactors will prevail over fission-fusion hybrids in the commercialization phase of fusion technology, the safeguard challenge will be more of a legal than of a technical nature. In pure fusion reactors (and in most SNS) there should be no nuclear material present at any time by design. The presence of undeclared nuclear material would indicate a military use of the plant. This fact offers a clear-cut detection criterion for a covert use of a declared facility. Another important point is that tritium does not fall under the definition of 'nuclear material', so a pure fusion reactor or a SNS that do not use nuclear materials are not directly falling under any international non-proliferation treaty requirements. Non-proliferation treaties have to be amended to take into account that fact. (A.C.)

  12. Nuclear microbeam study of advanced materials for fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, L.C.; Alves, E.; Grime, G.W.; Silva, M.F. da; Soares, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Oxford scanning proton microprobe was used to study SiC fibres, SiC/SiC ceramic composites and Be pebbles, which are some of the most important materials for fusion technology. For the SiC materials, although the results reveal a high degree of homogeneity and purity in the composition of the fibres, some grains containing heavy metals were detected in the composites. Rutherford backscattering analysis further allowed establishing that at least some of these grains are not on the surface of the material but rather distributed throughout the bulk of the SiC composites. The two different types of Be pebbles analysed also showed very different levels of contaminants. The information obtained with the microbeam analysis is confronted with the one resulting from the broad beam PIXE and RBS analysis

  13. Shield design for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.L.; Mann, F.M.; Morford, R.J.; Wilcox, A.D.; Johnson, D.L.; Huang, S.T.

    1983-03-01

    The shield design for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility is based upon one-, two- and three-dimensional transport calculations with experimental measurements utilized to refine the nuclear data including the neutron cross sections from 20 to 50 MeV and the gamma ray and neutron source terms. The high energy neutrons and deuterons produce activation products from the numerous reactions that are kinematically allowed. The analyses for both beam-on and beam-off (from the activation products) conditions have required extensive nuclear data libraries and the utilization of Monte Carlo, discrete ordinates, point kernel and auxiliary computer codes

  14. Towards a reduced activation structural materials database for fusion DEMO reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeslang, A.; Diegele, E.; Laesser, R.; Klimiankou, M.; Lindau, R.; Materna-Morris, E.; Rieth, M.; Lucon, E.; Petersen, C.; Schneider, H.-C.; Pippan, R.; Rensman, J.W.; Schaaf, B. van der; Tavassoli, F.

    2005-01-01

    The development of First Wall, Blanket and Divertor materials which are capable of withstanding many years the high neutron and heat fluxes, is a critical path to fusion power. Therefore, the timely availability of a sound materials database has become an indispensable element in international fusion road maps. In order to provide materials design data for short term needs of ITER Test Blanket Modules and for a DEMOnstration fusion reactor, a wealth of R and D results on the European reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER, and on oxide dispersion strengthened variants are being characterized, mainly in the temperature window 250-650 deg. C. The characterisation includes irradiations up to 15 dpa in the mixed spectrum reactor HFR and up to 75 dpa in the fast breeder reactor BOR60. Industrial EUROFER-batches of 3.5 and 7.5 tons have been produced with a variety of semi-finished, quality-assured product forms. To increase thermal efficiency of blankets, high temperature resistant SiC f /SiC channel inserts for liquid metal coolant tubes are also developed. Regarding radiation damage resistance, a broad based reactor irradiation programs counts several steps from ≤5dpa (ITER TBMs) up to 75 dpa (DEMO). For the European divertor designers, a materials data base is presently being set up for pure W and W alloys, and related reactor irradiations are foreseen with temperatures from 650-1000 deg. C. (author)

  15. Plasma-material interactions in current tokamaks and their implications for next step fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next step DT fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically in influence its operation, safety and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimetres from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma facing components. Controlling plasma-wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present day tokamaks, and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena stimulated an internationally co-ordinated effort in the part of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project (ITER), and significant progress has been made in better understanding these issues. The paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material inter actions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interaction are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation and (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modelling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D avenues for their resolution are presented. (author)

  16. Plasma-material interactions in current tokamaks and their implications for next-step fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several cm from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally co-ordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the engineering design activities of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor project (ITER) and significant progress has been made in better understanding these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/re-deposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modelling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D avenues for their resolution are presented. (orig.)

  17. Multiscale study on hydrogen mobility in metallic fusion divertor material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinola, K.

    2010-01-01

    For achieving efficient fusion energy production, the plasma-facing wall materials of the fusion reactor should ensure long time operation. In the next step fusion device, ITER, the first wall region facing the highest heat and particle load, i.e. the divertor area, will mainly consist of tiles based on tungsten. During the reactor operation, the tungsten material is slowly but inevitably saturated with tritium. Tritium is the relatively short-lived hydrogen isotope used in the fusion reaction. The amount of tritium retained in the wall materials should be minimized and its recycling back to the plasma must be unrestrained, otherwise it cannot be used for fueling the plasma. A very expensive and thus economically not viable solution is to replace the first walls quite often. A better solution is to heat the walls to temperatures where tritium is released. Unfortunately, the exact mechanisms of hydrogen release in tungsten are not known. In this thesis both experimental and computational methods have been used for studying the release and retention of hydrogen in tungsten. The experimental work consists of hydrogen implantations into pure polycrystalline tungsten, the determination of the hydrogen concentrations using ion beam analyses (IBA) and monitoring the out-diffused hydrogen gas with thermodesorption spectrometry (TDS) as the tungsten samples are heated at elevated temperatures. Combining IBA methods with TDS, the retained amount of hydrogen is obtained as well as the temperatures needed for the hydrogen release. With computational methods the hydrogen-defect interactions and implantation-induced irradiation damage can be examined at the atomic level. The method of multiscale modelling combines the results obtained from computational methodologies applicable at different length and time scales. Electron density functional theory calculations were used for determining the energetics of the elementary processes of hydrogen in tungsten, such as diffusivity and

  18. Potential mirror concepts for radiation testing of fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Studies under the University of Illinois PROMETHEUS (Plasma Reactor Optimized for Materials Experimentation for Thermonuclear Energy Usage) project are described that started in 1971 with the realization that a practical fusion-plasma neutron source was feasible with a net-power input (rather than production). The basic objectives were similar to those in later FERF (Fusion Engineering Research Facility) studies: namely, to maximize the neutron flux and usable experimental volume; to include the flexibility to handle a variety of both materials and engineering experiments; to minimize capital and operating costs; and to utilize near- term technology. The PROMETHEUS design provides a neutron flux of approximately 5x10 14 n/cm 2 s by injection of approximately 30 MW of neutral-beams into a 20 cm radius mirror-confined plasma. Charge-exchange bombardment of the first wall is viewed as a key problem in the design and is discussed in some detail. To gain yet higher neutron fluxes for accelerated testing, two alternate designs have been studied: a 'Twin-beam' injection device and a field reversed mirror concept. The latter potentially offers fluxes approaching 10 16 n/cm 2 s but involves more speculative technology. (Auth.)

  19. Low activation structural material candidates for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty, C.B.A.; Cook, I.

    1997-06-01

    Under the SEAL Programme of the European Long-Term Fusion Safety Programme, an assessment was performed of a number of possible blanket structural materials. These included the steels then under consideration in the European Blanket Programme, as well as materials being considered for investigation in the Advanced Materials Programme. Calculations were performed, using SEAFP methods, of the activation properties of the materials, and these were related, based on the SEAFP experience, to assessments of S and E performance. The materials investigated were the SEAFP low-activation martensitic steel (LA12TaLC); a Japanese low-activation martensitic steel (F-82H), a range of compositional variants about this steel; the vanadium-titanium-chromium alloy which was the original proposal of the ITER JCT for the ITER in-vessel components; a titanium-aluminium intermetallic (Ti-Al) which is under investigation in Japan; and silicon carbide composite (SiC). Assessed impurities were included in the compositions of these materials, and they have very important impacts on the activation properties. Lack of sufficiently detailed data on the composition of chromium alloys precluded their inclusion in the study. (UK)

  20. Material Challenges For Plasma Facing Components in Future Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J; Pintsuk, G.; Rödig, M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO2-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible materials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PFMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm-2; the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm-2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat sink materials as well as reliable fabrication processes for actively cooled plasma facing components. The technical solutions which are considered today are mainly based on the PFMs beryllium, carbon or tungsten joined to copper alloys or stainless steel heat sinks. In addition to the above mentioned quasi-stationary heat loads, short transient thermal pulses with deposited energy densities up to several tens of MJm-2 are a serious concern for next step tokamak devices. The most frequent events are so-called Edge Localized Modes (type I ELMs) and plasma disruptions

  1. Remote-handling demonstration tests for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, E.J.; Hussey, M.W.; Kelly, V.P.; Yount, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The mission of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is to create a fusion-like environment for fusion materials development. Crucial to the success of FMIT is the development and testing of remote handling systems required to handle materials specimens and maintenance of the facility. The use of full scale mock-ups for demonstration tests provides the means for proving these systems

  2. Intense neutron source requirements for fusion reactor materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Shiori

    1989-01-01

    Materials research should precede machine construction by at least ten years because considerable time is required for the materials development. When the next generation machine is under discussion, materials scientists and engineers should consider next-next generation device as DEMO for establishing the materials database in time. In this sense, development of an intense high energy neutron source is an urgent problem. Characteristic features of radiation effects with 14 MeV neutrons will be briefly reviewed. Then, the reasons why we need intense source will be discussed. These discussions will lead to identify requirements for the intense neutron sources. There are both near term and long term materials issues which can be studied with such intense neutron sources depending on their capacity. One should also recognize that development of such an intense source will require considerable time and maximum use of existing intense fission reactor neutrons will be one of the practical options for the moment. In other words, the intense neutron sources under discussion should be superior for the study of fusion radiation effects than the existing fission reactors. Items are listed for the evaluation of the sources and some critical comments will be made on several kinds of sources currently being proposed. (author)

  3. A review of the prospects for fusion breeding of fissile material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, J.S.; Bartholomew, G.A.

    1981-10-01

    This report is the result of an eight month study by the AECL Fusion Status Study Group. The objectives of this study were to review the current status of fusion research, to evaluate the neutronic performance of various fusion-breeder systems, and to assess the economic and technological outlook for the fusion breeder as a source of fissile material to support CANDU reactors operating on the thorium fuel cycle

  4. Astrocytes Resist HIV-1 Fusion but Engulf Infected Macrophage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 disseminates to diverse tissues and establishes long-lived viral reservoirs. These reservoirs include the CNS, in which macrophage-lineage cells, and as suggested by many studies, astrocytes, may be infected. Here, we have investigated astrocyte infection by HIV-1. We confirm that astrocytes trap and internalize HIV-1 particles for subsequent release but find no evidence that these particles infect the cell. Astrocyte infection was not observed by cell-free or cell-to-cell routes using diverse approaches, including luciferase and GFP reporter viruses, fixed and live-cell fusion assays, multispectral flow cytometry, and super-resolution imaging. By contrast, we observed intimate interactions between HIV-1-infected macrophages and astrocytes leading to signals that might be mistaken for astrocyte infection using less stringent approaches. These results have implications for HIV-1 infection of the CNS, viral reservoir formation, and antiretroviral therapy.

  5. Material Science Activities for Fusion Reactors in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, I.; Kenzhin, E.; Kulsartov, T.; Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Azizov, E.; Filatov, O.; Chernov, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Paper contains results of fusion material testing national program and results of activities on creation of material testing spherical tokamak. Hydrogen isotope behavior (diffusion, permeation, and accumulation) in the components of the first wall and divertor was studied taking into account temperature, pressure, and reactor irradiation. There were carried out out-of-pile and in-pile (reactors IVG-IM, WWRK, RA) studies of beryllium of various grades (TV-56, TShG-56, DV-56, TGP-56, TIP-56), graphites (RG-T, MPG-8, FP 479, R 4340), molybdenum, tungsten, steels (Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, F82H), alloys V-(4-6)Cr-( 4-5)Ti, Cu+1%Cr+0.1%Zr, and double Be/Cu and triple Be/Cu/steel structures. Tritium permeability from eutectic Pb+17%Li through steels Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, and F82H were studied taking into account protective coating effects. The tritium production rate was experimentally assessed during in-pile and post-reactor experiments. There were carried out radiation tests of ceramic Li 2 TiO 3 (96% enrichment by Li-6) with in-situ registration of released tritium and following post-irradiation material tests of irradiated samples. Verification of computer codes for simulation of accidents related to LOCA in ITER reactor was carried out. Codes' verification was carried out for a mockup of first wall in a form of three-layer cylinder of beryllium, bronze (Cu-Cr-Zr) and stainless steel. At present Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material testing (tokamak KTM) is created in National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan in cooperation with Russian Federation organizations (start-up is scheduled on 2008). Tokamak KTM allows for expansion and specification of the studies and tests of materials, protection options of first wall, receiving divertor tiles and divertor components, methods for load reduction at divertor, and various options of heat/power removal, fast evacuation of divertor volume and development of the techniques for

  6. Blanket materials for fusion reactors: comparisons of thermochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; Fischer, A.K.; Tetenbaum, M.

    1984-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations have been made to predict the thermochemical performance of the fusion reactor breeder materials, Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 , and Li 4 SiO 4 in the temperature range 900 to 1300 0 K and in the oxygen activity range 10 -25 to 10 -5 . Except for a portion of these ranges, the performance of LiAlO 2 is predicted to be better than that of Li 2 O and Li 4 SiO 4 . The protium purge technique for enhancing tritium release is explored for the Li 2 O system; it appears advantageous at higher temperatures but should be used cautiously at lower temperatures. Oxygen activity is an important variable in these systems and must be considered in executing and interpreting measurements on rates of tritium release, the form of released tritium, diffusion of tritiated species and their identities, retention of tritium in the condensed phase, and solubility of hydrogen isotope gases

  7. Proposed rf system for the fusion materials irradiation test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Johnson, H.P.; Hoffert, W.J.; Boyd, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary rf system design for the accelerator portion of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is in progress. The 35-MeV, 100-mA, cw deuteron beam will require 6.3 MW rf power at 80 MHz. Initial testing indicates the EIMAC 8973 tetrode is the most suitable final amplifier tube for each of a series of 15 amplifier chains operating at 0.5-MW output. To satisfy the beam dynamics requirements for particle acceleration and to minimize beam spill, each amplifier output must be controlled to +-1 0 in phase and the field amplitude in the tanks must be held within a 1% tolerance. These tolerances put stringent demands on the rf phase and amplitude control system

  8. Fusion materials high energy-neutron studies. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Guinan, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to provide background information on the US Magnetic Fusion Reactor Materials Program, (2) to provide a framework for evaluating nuclear data needs associated with high energy neutron irradiations, and (3) to show the current status of relevant high energy neutron studies. Since the last symposium, the greatest strides in cross section development have been taken in those areas providing FMIT design data, e.g., source description, shielding, and activation. In addition, many dosimetry cross sections have been tentatively extrapolated to 40 MeV and integral testing begun. Extensive total helium measurements have been made in a variety of neutron spectra. Additional calculations are needed to assist in determining energy dependent cross sections

  9. Analysis of carbon based materials under fusion relevant thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compan, Jeremie Saint-Helene

    2008-01-01

    Carbon based materials (CBMs) are used in fusion devices as plasma facing materials for decades. They have been selected due to the inherent advantages of carbon for fusion applications. The main ones are its low atomic number and the fact that it does not melt but sublimate (above 3000 C) under the planned working conditions. In addition, graphitic materials retain their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and their thermal shock resistance is one of the highest, making them suitable for thermal management purpose during long or extremely short heat pulses. Nuclear grade fine grain graphite was the prime form of CBM which was set as a standard but when it comes to large fusion devices created nowadays, thermo-mechanical constraints created during transient heat loads (few GW.m-2 can be deposited in few ms) are so high that carbon/carbon composites (so-called Carbon Fiber Composites (CFCs)) have to be utilized. CFCs can achieve superior thermal conductivity as well as mechanical properties than fine grain graphite. However, all the thermo-mechanical properties of CFCs are highly dependent on the loading direction as a consequence of the graphite structure. In this work, the background on the anisotropy of the graphitic structures but also on the production of fine grain graphite and CFCs is highlighted, showing the major principles which are relevant for the further understanding of the study. Nine advanced CBMs were then compared in terms of microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. Among them, two fine grain graphites were considered as useful reference materials to allow comparing advantages reached by the developed CFCs. The presented microstructural investigation methods permitted to make statements which can be applied for CFCs presenting similarities in terms of fiber architecture. Determination of the volumetric percentage of the major sub-units of CFCs, i.e. laminates, felt layers or needled fiber groups, lead to a better understanding on

  10. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, L. M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov; Egle, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zenobia, S. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10{sup 14} ions/(cm{sup 2} s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  11. Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is proposed that Iran as a world's potential supplier of fossile fuel should participate in fusion research and gain experience in this new field. Fusion, as an ultimate source of energy in future, and the problems concerned with the fusion reactors are reviewed. Furthermore; plasma heating, magnetic and inertial confinement in a fusion reactor are discussed. A brief description of tokamak, theta pinch and magnetic mirror reactors is also included

  12. Tungsten as First Wall Material in Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the PLT tokamak with a tungsten limiter strong cooling of the central plasma was observed. Since then mostly graphite has been used as limiter or target plate material. Only a few tokamaks (limiter: FTU, TEXTOR; divertor: Alcator C-Mod, ASDEX Upgrade) gained experience with high-Z-materials. With the observed strong co- deposition of tritium together with carbon in JET and as a result of design studies of fusion reactors, it became clear that in the long run tungsten is the favourite for the first-wall material. Tungsten as a plasma facing material requires intensive research in all areas, i.e. in plasma physics, plasma wall-interaction and material development. Tungsten as an impurity in the confined plasma reveals considerable differences to carbon. Strong radiation at high temperatures, in connection with mostly a pronounced inward drift forms a particular challenge. Turbulent transport plays a beneficial role in this regard. The inward drift is an additional problem in the pedestal region of H-mode plasmas in ITER-like configurations. The erosion by low energy hydrogen atoms is in contrast to carbon small. However, erosion by fast particles from heating measures and impurity ions, accelerated in the sheath potential, play an important role in the case of tungsten. Radiation by carbon in the plasma boundary reduces the load to the target plates. Neon or Argon as substitutes will increase the erosion of tungsten. So far experiments have demonstrated that in most scenarios the tungsten content in the central plasma can be kept sufficiently small. The material development is directed to the specific needs of existing or future devices. In ASDEX Upgrade, which will soon be a divertor experiment with a complete tungsten first-wall, graphite tiles are coated with tungsten layers. In ITER, the solid tungsten armour of the target plates has to be castellated because of its difference in thermal expansion compared to the cooling structure. In a reactor the technical

  13. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  14. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  15. 16. International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF'06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adonin, A.; Ausset, P.; Babadunni, O.; Barnard, J.; Barriga-Carrasco, M.; Bawa, O.; Benedetti, C.; Bieniosek, F.; Bouchigny, S.; Bret, A.; Celata, Ch.; Chieze, J.P.; Coelho, L.F.; Cohen, R.; Coleman, J.; Cremer, S.; Crouseilles, N.; Davidson, R.; Debonnel, Ch.; Deutsch, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Efremov, V.; Fedosejevs, R.; Fertman, A.; Friedman, A.; Gardes, D.; Gericke, D.; Gilson, E.; Golubev, A.; Gombert, M.M.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.; Gutnic, M.; Haber, I.; Hammel, B.; Hasegawa, J.; Hegelich, B.M.; Henestroza, E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Horioka, K.; Jacoby, J.; Kaganovich, I.; Katagiri, K.; Kawata, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Kurilenkov, Y.; Latu, G.; Lenglet, A.; Logan, G.; Lund, St.; Maynard, G.; Molvik, A.; Nishinomiya, S.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Piriz, A.R.; Popoff, R.; Pusterla, M.; Qin, H.; Roth, M.; Roy, P.; Sant'Anna, M.; Sasaki, T.; Sefkow, A.; Seidl, P.; Sharkov, B.; Sharp, W.; Sonnendrucker, E.; Spiller, P.; Startsev, E.; Stoltz, P.; Synakowski, E.; Tahir, N.; Takayama, K.; Tashev, B.; Turchetti, G.; Turtikov, V.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Vay, J.L.; Velarde, P.; Welch, D.R.; Westenskow, G.; Weyrich, K.; Yaramyshev, St.; Zenkevich, P.

    2006-01-01

    The contributions to this symposium have been divided into 8 issues: 1) overviews of national fusion programs, 2) other fusion programs, 3) accelerators, 4) warm dense matter, 5) ion beam neutralization, 6) atomic physics, 7) beam dynamics, and 8) stopping power. This document gathers only the resumes of the articles

  16. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, Frederick W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Melton, Stephanie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This document summarizes FY2016 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for MFE carried out by ORNL. The organization of the report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities.

  17. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  18. Review of the Strategic Plan for International Collaboration on Fusion Science and Technology Research. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The United States Government has employed international collaborations in magnetic fusion energy research since the program was declassified in 1958. These collaborations have been successful not only in producing high quality scientific results that have contributed to the advancement of fusion science and technology, they have also allowed us to highly leverage our funding. Thus, in the 1980s, when the funding situation made it necessary to reduce the technical breadth of the U.S. domestic program, these highly leveraged collaborations became key strategic elements of the U.S. program, allowing us to maintain some degree of technical breadth. With the recent, nearly complete declassification of inertial confinement fusion, the use of some international collaboration is expected to be introduced in the related inertial fusion energy research activities as well. The United States has been a leader in establishing and fostering collaborations that have involved scientific and technological exchanges, joint planning, and joint work at fusion facilities in the U.S. and worldwide. These collaborative efforts have proven mutually beneficial to the United States and our partners. International collaborations are a tool that allows us to meet fusion program goals in the most effective way possible. Working with highly qualified people from other countries and other cultures provides the collaborators with an opportunity to see problems from new and different perspectives, allows solutions to arise from the diversity of the participants, and promotes both collaboration and friendly competition. In short, it provides an exciting and stimulating environment resulting in a synergistic effect that is good for science and good for the people of the world.

  19. Plasma-material Interactions in Current Tokamaks and their Implications for Next-step Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.; Coad, J.P.; Grisolia, C. [and others

    2001-01-10

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT [deuterium-tritium] fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety, and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimeters from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally coordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and significant progress has been made in better under standing these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modeling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D [Research and Development] avenues for their resolution are presented.

  20. Plasma-material Interactions in Current Tokamaks and their Implications for Next-step Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.; Coad, J.P.; Grisolia, C.

    2001-01-01

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT (deuterium-tritium) fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety, and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimeters from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally coordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and significant progress has been made in better under standing these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modeling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D (Research and Development) avenues for their resolution are presented

  1. Report of the second joint Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Materials. July 12, 2002, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Joint research committees in purpose of the discussion on DEMO blanket in view point of the both of reactor technology and materials were held by the Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Fusion Materials. The joint research committee was held in Tokyo on July 12, 2002. In the committee, the present status of development of solid and liquid breeding blanket, the present status of development of reduced activation structure materials, and IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) program were discussed based on the discussions of the development programs of the blanket and materials at the first joint research committee. As a result, it was confirmed that high electric efficiency with 41% would be obtained in the solid breeding blanket system, that neutron radiation data of reduced activation ferritic steel was obtained by HFIR collaboration, and that KEP (key element technology phase) of IFMIF would be finished at the end of 2002 and the data base for the next step, i.e. EVEDA (engineering validation/engineering design activity) was obtained. In addition, the present status of ITER CTA, which was a transient phase for the construction, and the outline of ITER Fast Track, which was an accelerated plan for the performance of the power plants, were reported. This report consists of the summary of the discussion and the viewgraphs which were used at the second joint research committee, and these are very useful for the researchers of the fusion area in Japan. (author)

  2. Spectrographic determination of impurities in ceramic materials for nuclear fusion reactors. 1. Analysis of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucandio, M.I.; Roca, M.; Melon, A.

    1990-01-01

    The determination of minor and trace elements in the aluminium oxide considered as possible ceramic material in thermonuclear fusion reactors has been studied. The concentration ranges are 0.1-0.3 % for Ca, Si and Y, and at the ppm level for Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Ta, Ti, V and Zr. Atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current arc excitation and photographic detection has been employed. For Hf, Mg, Ta, Ti, V and Zr the use of 40% of copper fluoride as a carrier and of Nb as internal standard provide suitable sensitivities and precissions, while for the rest of elements the best results are obtained with graphite powder in different proportions and Rb or Sn as internal standard. (Author). 7 refs

  3. Spectrographic Determination of Impurities in Ceramic Materials for Nuclear fusion Reactors. II. Analysis of Magnesium Aluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucandio, M. I.; Roca, M.; Melon, A.

    1990-01-01

    The determination of minor and trace elements in the magnesium aluminate, considered as possible material in thermonuclear fusion reactors, has been studied. The concentration ranges are 0.1 - 0.3 % for Ca, SI and Y, and at the ppm level for Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Se, Ta, Ti, V and Zr. Atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current are excitation and photographic detection has been employed. For Hf, Ta and Zr the use of 40% of copper fluoride as a carrier and of Nb as internal standard provide suitable sensitivities and precessions, while for the rest of elements the best results are obtained with graphite powder in different proportions and Rb or Sn as internal standard. (Author)4 refs

  4. FMIT: an accelerator-based neutron factory for fusion materials qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, R.J.; Hagan, J.W.; Trego, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility will provide a unique testing environment for irradiation of structural and special-purpose materials in support of fusion-power systems. The neutron source will be produced by a deuteron-lithium stripping reaction to generate high-energy neutrons to ensure materials damage characteristic of the deuterium-tritium power system. The facility, its testing role, the status, and major aspects of its design and supporting system development are described. Emphasis is given to programmatic elements and features incorporated in the accelerator and other systems to assure that the FMIT runs as a highly reliable fusion materials testing installation

  5. A carbon-carbon composite materials development program for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.; Eatherly, W.P.; Engle, G.B.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1992-10-01

    Carbon-carbon composites increasingly are being used for plasma-facing component (PFC) applications in magnetic-confinement plasma-fusion devices. They offer substantial advantages such as enhanced physical and mechanical properties and superior thermal shock resistance compared to the previously favored bulk graphite. Next-generation plasma-fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), will require advanced carbon-carbon composites possessing extremely high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated extreme thermal heat loads. This report outlines a program that will facilitate the development of advanced carbon-carbon composites specifically tailored to meet the requirements of ITER and BPX. A strategy for developing the necessary associated design data base is described. Materials property needs, i.e., high thermal conductivity, radiation stability, tritium retention, etc., are assessed and prioritized through a systems analysis of the functional, operational, and component requirements for plasma-facing applications. The current Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Program on carbon-carbon composites is summarized. Realistic property goals are set based upon our current understanding. The architectures of candidate PFC carbon-carbon composite materials are outlined, and architectural features considered desirable for maximum irradiation stability are described. The European and Japanese carbon-carbon composite development and irradiation programs are described. The Working Group conclusions and recommendations are listed. It is recommended that developmental carbon-carbon composite materials from the commercial sector be procured via request for proposal/request for quotation (RFP/RFQ) as soon as possible

  6. Thermodynamics of ceramic breeder materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzmann, O.

    1989-05-01

    Based on known or deduced phase relationships in ternary lithium oxygen systems such as Li-Al-O, Li-Si-O and Li-Zr-O, the unknown free enthalpy of formation values of ternary compounds are calculated starting from the known data of the compounds of the binary border systems. Criterion for the data assessment is interconsistency of the data of all the compounds within a given multi-component system. With the help of these data the development of partial pressures during the breeding process can be calculated for all the compounds of interest. In order to facilitate a compatibility assessment the quaternary systems Cr-Li-Si-O, Fe-Li-Si-O and Be-Li-Si-O were also investigated and thermodynamic data of pertinent ternary and quaternary compounds determined. Both the partial pressure development and the compatibility behaviour of a lithium containing compound are criteria for its qualification as a breeder material for a fusion reactor. (orig.) [de

  7. Proceedings of 1995 the first Taedok international fusion symposium on advanced tokamak researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, C. K.; Hong, B. G.; Hong, G. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-01

    This proceeding is from the First Taeduk International Fusion Symposium on advanced tokamak research, which was held at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taeduk Science Town, Korea on March 28-29, 1995. (Author) .new.

  8. Fusion energy 1996. V. 2. Proceedings of the 16. international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The 16th International Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Energy Conference was held in Montreal, Canada, from 7 to 11 October 1996. This conference, which was attended by some 500 participants from over thirty countries and two international organizations, was organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique and the Canadian National Fusion Program. Some 270 papers were presented in 19 oral and 8 poster sessions on magnetic and inertial confinement systems, plasma theory, computer modelling, alternative confinement approaches, fusion technology and future experiments. This volume 2 of the Fusion Energy conference contains publications on Helical Systems, Alternative Systems Experiments, Transport Theory, MHD and Energetic Particle Theory, Divertor Edge Physics and ITER. Refs, figs, tabs

  9. International research co-operation in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conscience, J.-F.

    2003-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Education and Science presents a review of activities carried out in 2002 within the framework of the International Experimental Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) project that involves contributions from Canada, Japan, the Russian Federation and the European Union. Further agreements on the development of a fusion reactor with other countries, including Switzerland, the USA and China, are mentioned. The first chapter describes the current state of research on electricity production using nuclear fusion and discusses feasibility, safety, environmental, fuel supply and economic aspects. A second chapter reviews global efforts in the fusion area, including ITER and EURATOM projects and the activities running under the European Fusion Development Agreement EFDA and the JET Implementing Agreement. Finally, a third chapter deals with fusion research activities in Switzerland and the contributions made to international research by Swiss universities and institutes

  10. Atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion. V. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Volume 5 of the supplements on ''atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion'' to the journal ''Nuclear Fusion'' is devoted to a critical assessment of the physical and thermo-mechanical properties of presently considered candidate plasma-facing and structural materials for next-generation thermonuclear fusion devices. It contains 9 papers. The subjects are: (i) requirements and selection criteria for plasma-facing materials and components in the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) design; (ii) thermomechanical properties of Beryllium; (iii) material properties data for fusion reactor plasma-facing carbon-carbon composites; (iv) high-Z candidate plasma facing materials; (v) recommended property data for Molybdenum, Niobium and Vanadium alloys; (vi) copper alloys for high heat flux structure applications; (vii) erosion of plasma-facing materials during a tokamak disruption; (viii) runaway electron effects; and (ix) data bases for thermo-hydrodynamic coupling with coolants. Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Fusion reactor materials. Semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee`, S.S.; Dowker, C.L. [comps.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  12. Workshop on beryllium for fusion applications. Proceedings. IEA Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1993-12-01

    As shown by recent developments beryllium has become one of the most important materials in the development of fusion reactors. It is practically the only neutron multiplier available for blankets with ceramic breeder materials and can be used with liquid metal breeders as well. It is one of the most likely materials to be used on the surface of the first walls and of the divertor. The neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium in a fusion reactor is not well know. Beryllium was extensively irradiated about 25-40 years ago and has been used since then in material testing reactors as reflector. In the meantime, however, beryllium has been improved quite considerably. Today it is possible to obtain commercially beryllium which is much more isotropic and contains smaller ammounts of oxide. There are already indications that these new kinds of beryllium behave better under irradiation. (orig.)

  13. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices—development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, J.

    2006-04-01

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive R&D. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation.

  14. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices - development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.

    2006-01-01

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive RandD. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation

  15. Decay heat measurement on fusion reactor materials and validation of calculation code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro; Wada, Masayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Decay heat rates for 32 fusion reactor relevant materials irradiated with 14-MeV neutrons were measured for the cooling time period between 1 minute and 400 days. With using the experimental data base, validity of decay heat calculation systems for fusion reactors were investigated. (author)

  16. Size limitations for microwave cavity to simulate heating of blanket material in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.

    1987-01-01

    The power profile in the blanket material of a nuclear fusion reactor can be simulated by using microwaves at 200 MHz. Using these microwaves, ceramic breeder materials can be thermally tested to determine their acceptability as blanket materials without entering a nuclear fusion environment. A resonating cavity design is employed which can achieve uniform cross sectional heating in the plane transverse to the neutron flux. As the sample size increases in height and width, higher order modes, above the dominant mode, are propagated and destroy the approximation to the heating produced in a fusion reactor. The limits at which these modes develop are determined in the paper

  17. Atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion. V. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Volume 6 of the supplement ''atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion'' to the journal ''Nuclear Fusion'' includes critical assessments and results of original experimental and theoretical studies on inelastic collision processes among the basic and dominant impurity constituents of fusion plasmas. Processes considered in the 15 papers constituting this volume are: electron impact excitation of excited Helium atoms, electron impact excitation and ionization of plasma impurity ions and atoms, electron-impurity-ion recombination and excitation, ionization and electron capture in collisions of plasma protons and impurity ions with the main fusion plasma neutral components helium and atomic and molecular hydrogen. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council. The primary aim of this Council, which had its first meeting in conjunction with the Madison Conference, is to promote international co-operation in controlled nuclear fusion

  19. Bulk-shield design for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.L.; Mann, F.M.; Morford, R.J.; Johnson, D.L.; Huang, S.T.

    1982-07-01

    The accelerator-based Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility will provide a high-fluence, fusion-like radiation environment for the testing of materials. While the neutron spectrum produced in the forward direction by the 35 MeV deuterons incident upon a flowing lithium target is characterized by a broad peak around 14 MeV, a high energy tail extends up to about 50 MeV. Some shield design considerations are reviewed

  20. Spectrographic Determination of Impurities in Ceramic Materials for Nuclear Fusion Reactors. I. Analysis of Alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucandio, M. I.; Roca, M.; Melon, A.

    1990-01-01

    The determination of minor and trace elements in the aluminium oxide considered as possible ceramic material in thermonuclear fusion reactors has been studied. The concentration ranges are 0.1 - 0.3 * for Ca, Si and Y, and at the ppm level for Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Se, Ta, Ti, V and Zr. Atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current ore excitation and photographic detection has been employed. For Hf, Mg, Ta, Ti, V and Zr the use of 40% of copper fluoride as a carrier and of Nb as lnternal standard provide suitable sensitivities and precessions, while for the rest of elements the bent results are obtained with graphite powder in different proportions and Rb or Sn as internal standard. (Author) 7 refs

  1. Plasma Wall Interaction Phenomena on Tungsten Armour Materials for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uytdenhouwen, I. [SCK.CEN - The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Massaut, V. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Van Oost, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    One of the most attractive future complements to present energy sources is nuclear fusion. A large progress was made throughout the last decade from both the physical as the technological area leading to the construction of the ITER machine. One of the key issues that recently received a large interest at international level is focused on the Plasma Wall Interaction (PWI). One of the promising Plasma Facing Materials (PFM) are Tungsten (W) and Tungsten alloys. However, despite the worldwide use and industrial availability of W, the database of physical and mechanical properties is very limited. Especially after fusion relevant neutron irradiation and PWI phenomena, most of the properties are still unknown. The plasma fuel consists out of deuterium (D) and tritium (T). Tritium is radio-active and therefore an issue from the safety point of view. During steady-state plasma operation of future fusion power plants, the PFM need to extract a power density of {approx}10-20 MW/m{sup 2}. On top of this heat, transient events will deposit an additional non-negligible amount of energy (Disruptions, Vertical Displacement Events, Edge Localized Modes) during short durations. These severe heat loads cause cracking and even melting of the surface resulting in a reduced lifetime and the creation of dust. A contribution to the understanding of cracking phenomena under the severe thermal loads is described as well as the properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Several W grades were irradiated in the BR2 reactor (SCK.CEN) and the thermal loads were simulated with the electron-beam facility JUDITH (FZJ). Since knowledge should be gained about the Tritium retention in the PFM for safety and licensing reasons, a unique test facility at SCK.CEN is being set-up. The plasmatron VISION-I will simulate steady state plasmas for Tritium retention studies. The formation of surface cracks and dust, the initial porosity, neutron induced traps, re-deposited material - change the Tritium

  2. Plasma Wall Interaction Phenomena on Tungsten Armour Materials for Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uytdenhouwen, I.; Massaut, V.; Linke, J.; Van Oost, G.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most attractive future complements to present energy sources is nuclear fusion. A large progress was made throughout the last decade from both the physical as the technological area leading to the construction of the ITER machine. One of the key issues that recently received a large interest at international level is focused on the Plasma Wall Interaction (PWI). One of the promising Plasma Facing Materials (PFM) are Tungsten (W) and Tungsten alloys. However, despite the worldwide use and industrial availability of W, the database of physical and mechanical properties is very limited. Especially after fusion relevant neutron irradiation and PWI phenomena, most of the properties are still unknown. The plasma fuel consists out of deuterium (D) and tritium (T). Tritium is radio-active and therefore an issue from the safety point of view. During steady-state plasma operation of future fusion power plants, the PFM need to extract a power density of ∼10-20 MW/m 2 . On top of this heat, transient events will deposit an additional non-negligible amount of energy (Disruptions, Vertical Displacement Events, Edge Localized Modes) during short durations. These severe heat loads cause cracking and even melting of the surface resulting in a reduced lifetime and the creation of dust. A contribution to the understanding of cracking phenomena under the severe thermal loads is described as well as the properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Several W grades were irradiated in the BR2 reactor (SCK.CEN) and the thermal loads were simulated with the electron-beam facility JUDITH (FZJ). Since knowledge should be gained about the Tritium retention in the PFM for safety and licensing reasons, a unique test facility at SCK.CEN is being set-up. The plasmatron VISION-I will simulate steady state plasmas for Tritium retention studies. The formation of surface cracks and dust, the initial porosity, neutron induced traps, re-deposited material - change the Tritium

  3. Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending December 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliff, A.F.; Burn, G.

    1999-04-01

    This is the twenty-fifth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately.

  4. Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for the Period Ending June 30, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1999-09-01

    This is the twenty-sixth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and its reported separately.

  5. Materials for heat flux components of the first wall in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1985-08-01

    Materials of the First Wall in near-fusion plasma machines are subjected to a complex load system resulting from the plasma-wall interaction. The materials for their part also influence the plasma. Suitable materials must be available in order to ensure that the wall components achieve a sufficiently long dwell time and that their effects on the plasma remain small and controllable. The present report discusses relations between the plasma-wall interaction, the reactions of the materials and testing and examination methods for specific problems in developing and selecting suitable materials for highly stressed components on the First Wall of fusion reactors. (orig.)

  6. Fourth annual progress report on special-purpose materials for magnetically confined fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The scope of Special Purpose Materials covers fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials, which are under the purview of the ADIP, DAFS, and PMI task groups. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, graphite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (>10-T) superconducting magnets. The Task Group on Special Purpose Materials has limited its concern to crucial and generic materials problems that must be resolved if magnetic-fusion devices are to succeed. Important areas specifically excluded include low-field (8-T) superconductors, fuels for hybrids, and materials for inertial-confinement devices. These areas may be added in the future when funding permits

  7. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.; Rumble, J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This bulletin deals with atomic and molecular data for fusion. A bibliography for the most recent data presented in the document is provided. Work in progress is briefly reported. The bulletin contains a list of references the publications on controlled fusion and plasma physics for 1979. It contains an index to the contributed papers presented at the 11th International Conference on the Physics of Electronics and Atomic Collision (ICPEAC) held in Kyoto (Japan) in summer 1979

  8. 10th International Conference and School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    About 240 abstracts by Ukrainian and foreign authors submitted to 10-th International Conference and School on Plasma Physics and Controlled fusion have been considered by Conference Program Committee members. All the abstracts have been divided into 8 groups: magnetic confinement systems: stellarators, tokamaks, alternative conceptions; ITER and Fusion reactor aspects; basic plasma physics; space plasma; plasma dynamics and plasma-wall interaction; plasma electronics; low temperature plasma and plasma technologies; plasma diagnostics

  9. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for period ending December 31, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, G.

    2000-01-01

    This is the twenty-seventh in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components

  10. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for period ending December 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, G.

    2000-03-01

    This is the twenty-seventh in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components.

  11. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  12. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Makoto [eds.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This issues of the Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion contains 9 papers on atomic and molecular processes in the edge region of magnetically confined fusion plasmas, including spectroscopic data for fusion edge plasmas; electron collision processes with plasma edge neutrals; electron-ion collisions in the plasma edge; cross-section data for collisions of electrons with hydrocarbon molecules; dissociative and energy transfer reactions involving vibrationally excited hydrogen or deuterium molecules; an assessment of ion-atom collision data for magnetic fusion plasma edge modeling; an extended scaling of cross sections for the ionization of atomic and molecular hydrogen as well as helium by multiply-charged ions; ion-molecule collision processes relevant to fusion edge plasmas; and radiative losses and electron cooling rates for carbon and oxygen plasma impurities. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending June 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the twenty-fourth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  15. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Depart of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. Separate abstracts were prepared for each individual section.

  16. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Depart of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. Separate abstracts were prepared for each individual section

  17. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaty, E.C.; Katsonis, K.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin deals with atomic and molecular data for fusion (spectroscopic data, atomic and molecular collisions, surface effects, ...). Particular emphasis is given to data applicable to Tokamak devices. A bibliography for the most recent data presented in the document is provided. A description of work in progress and ''Data Requests'' in the fusion field are also mentioned. Numerical data on light-ion sputtering yields of first-wall materials are given

  18. Assessing material properties for fusion applications by ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarino, N.; Dias, M.; Jepu, I.; Alves, E.

    2017-10-01

    The plasma-facing materials in the ITER divertor area must withstand unusual events, such as the edge-localized modes (ELMS). At the point when an ELM occurs, up to 30% of the energy can be deposited on the plasma-facing boundary in the form of the heat and particle load causing material loss due to sublimation. Tungsten is a promising candidate as a plasma-facing material in the ITER divertor area since it has a high melting point, good thermal conductivity and low sputtering yield, which minimizes the plasma contamination. However their brittleness at low temperatures which is worsened by irradiation is an issue. One strategy to modulate the properties of tungsten is alloying this element with other refractory metals, such as tantalum that shows higher toughness, lower activation and higher radiation resistance. In the present study tungsten-tantalum alloys (W-Ta) were produced by Ta implantation. The fundamental mechanisms which govern the behaviour of defect dynamics in W-Ta materials under reactor conditions, were simulated by the implantation of He and D. The microstructure observations of the W plates that after single Ta implantation revealed crater-like cavities and a more severe effect after D implantation. The effect increase with the increasing of D fluence. However at fluences higher than 1021D/m the effect is reduced. In addition, blistering was observed in W-Ta plates implanted with He. The D retention in the W-Ta alloys increases with the implanted fluence with tendency for saturation for high fluences. Moreover the results show that D retention is higher after sequential He and D implantation than for single D implantation. The diffractogram of W-Ta alloys implanted with He evidenced the presence of broadened W peaks associated with stress induced by irradiation, which may cause internal stress field resulting in a distortion of the crystal lattice. These irradiation defects can be observed in the D release spectra where three peaks are associated

  19. Magnetic fusion energy materials technology program annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.L.

    1977-09-01

    The objectives of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Materials Technology Program, which is described in this report, are to continue to solve the materials problems of the Fusion Energy Division of ORNL and to meet needs of the national MFE program, directed by the ERDA Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy (DMFE). This work is a continuation of the program described in previous annual progress reports. The principal areas of work include radiation effects, compatibility studies, materials studies related to the plasma-materials interaction, materials engineering, radiation behavior of superconducting magnet insulation, and mechanical properties of superconducting composites. The level of effort and schedules are consistent with Logic II of the DMFE Program Plan

  20. State of the art of fusion material recycling and remaining issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.; Broden, K.; Pace, L. Di; Ooms, L.; Pampin, R.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion as a power production system presents several advantages in terms of safety and environmental impact, one of these being the limited amount of radioactive waste production which is burden for future generations. Nevertheless, even if fusion does not produce long term radioactive waste, e.g. by adequate material selection for plasma facing components, there are two important aspects deserving consideration: the presence of tritium in relatively large quantity, and the very hard neutron spectrum leading to large amounts of active materials. In order to keep radioactive waste levels to a minimum it has been proposed to recycle the materials removed from the reactor, after adequate decay period and proper handling and treatment. Treatment may include detritiation, separation of different material types and sorting of the non reusable materials, among others. Moreover if recycle or reuse (within the nuclear industry in general or, for some particular materials, within the fusion industry) are foreseen, the material has to be melted or reduced to reusable raw material, machined or the pieces fabricated again, assembled and checked (for geometrical correctness, or leak tightness for instance). And all this has to be made on industrial scale, as fusion will produce large amounts of material presenting various degrees of radioactivity and tritium content. Even if some experience of recycling exists in the nuclear fission industry, which can be used for fusion materials, the different steps mentioned above are challenging operations when dealing with tritiated materials or highly radioactive components. The paper presents a review of the current situation and state-of-the-art recycling methods for typical fusion materials (e.g. Beryllium, Tungsten, Copper and Copper alloys, steel, Carbon) and components of future fusion plants based on current conceptual design studies. It also focuses attention on R-and-D issues to be addressed in order to be able to recycle as much

  1. Radiation damage formation in fusion structural materials due to elastic and inelastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazanov, A. I.; Semenov, E. V.

    2011-10-01

    A new theoretical model based on Boltzmann transport equation for moving displaced atoms is developed for the investigations of main important characteristics of radiation damage production in fusion structural materials. The main characteristics sub-cascades are determined here including the distribution of sub-cascades per PKA, average number of point defects per sub-cascade combining suggested model and NRT approach, sub-cascade's cross-sections and generation rates for both elastic and inelastic processes. On the basis of this developed model the numerical calculations for the main important characteristics of radiation damage production, cascade and sub-cascade formations in different fusion structural materials such as Fe, V, C, Al, Be and W are performed using the neutron energy spectra for fusion reactors: ITER and DEMO. For the comparison of difference in radiation damage production in fusion and fission reactors the additional numerical calculations have been made for neutron energy spectrum in fast atomic reactor HFIR.

  2. Experimental studies of materials migration in magnetic confinement fusion devices : Novel methods for measurement of macro particle migration, transport of atomic impurities and characterization of exposed surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bykov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    During several decades of research and development in the field of Magnetically Confined Fusion (MCF) the preferred selection of materials for Plasma Facing Components (PFC) has changed repeatedly. Without doubt, endurance of the first wall will decide research availability and lifespan of the first International Thermonuclear Research Reactor (ITER). Materials erosion, redeposition and mixing in the reactor are the critical processes responsible for modification of materials properties under...

  3. Atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion. V. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume of Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion is devoted to atomic collision processes of helium atoms and of beryllium and boron atoms and ions in fusion plasmas. Most of the articles included in this volume are extended versions of the contributions presented at the IAEA experts' meetings on Atomic Data for Helium Beam Fusion Alpha Particle Diagnostics and on the Atomic Database for Beryllium and Boron, held in June 1991 at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, or have resulted from the cross-section data analyses and evaluations performed by the working groups of these meetings. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.; Bannister, M.E.; Fuhr, J.; Gilbody, H.B.

    2000-06-01

    The International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion is prepared by the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is distributed free of charge by the IAEA to assist in the development of fusion research and technology. In part 1, the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) is presented. In Part 2, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions and surface interactions. Part 3 contains all the bibliographic data for both the indexed and non-indexed references. Finally, the Author Index (part 4) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part 3

  5. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.A.; Bannister, M.E.; Fuhr, J.; Gilbody, H.B.

    2001-03-01

    The International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion is prepared by the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is distributed free of charge by the IAEA to assist in the development of fusion research and technology. In part 1, the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) is presented. In Part 2, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions and surface interactions. Part 3 contains all the bibliographic data for both the indexed and non-indexed references. Finally, the Author Index (part 4) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part 3

  6. UK's Brexit battle casts shadow over funding for international fusion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    The ramifications of Brexit - the UK's decision to leave the European Union - have continued to send shockwaves through the nuclear energy community, since I explained in this column recently that the move also means withdrawing from the Euratom Treaty. Now the UK's divorce from the EU is posing a threat that could deal a major blow to international efforts in fusion research. In fact, confusing signals from the UK have cast doubt on future funding and support for two key areas of world fusion cooperation: the Oxfordshire-based Joint European Torus (Jet) programme and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (Iter) project at Cadarache in France.

  7. UK's Brexit battle casts shadow over funding for international fusion projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2017-01-01

    The ramifications of Brexit - the UK's decision to leave the European Union - have continued to send shockwaves through the nuclear energy community, since I explained in this column recently that the move also means withdrawing from the Euratom Treaty. Now the UK's divorce from the EU is posing a threat that could deal a major blow to international efforts in fusion research. In fact, confusing signals from the UK have cast doubt on future funding and support for two key areas of world fusion cooperation: the Oxfordshire-based Joint European Torus (Jet) programme and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (Iter) project at Cadarache in France.

  8. A Fusion Neutron Source for Materials and Subcomponent Development and Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    The magnetic-mirror based Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device in Novosibirsk Russia is developing the physics basis for a compact DT Neutron Source (DTNS) for fusion materials and subcomponent development as well as a driver for a fusion-fission driver for nuclear waste burn-up. The efficiency of this concept depends on electron temperature. This paper describes past experimental results as well as methods and prospects to further increase the electron temperature.

  9. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for period ending June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This is the twenty-second in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. Topics covered here are: vanadium alloys; silicon carbide composites; ferritic/martensitic steels; austenitic stainless steels; insulating ceramics and optical materials; solid breeding materials; radiation effects mechanistic studies and experimental methods; dosimetry damage parameters; activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; irradiation facilities; test matrices; and experimental methods.

  10. Preparation and irradiation of the fusion MOTA (Materials Open Test Assembly) 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, M.L.; Ermi, R.M.

    1990-06-01

    MOTA 2A was developed on the basis of prior breeder program MOTAs to support the research and development efforts of three fusion materials programs: the USDOE Neutron Interactive Materials (NIMs) program, the Japanese university fusion materials program, and the IEA-sponsored BEATRIX-II experiment. The MOTA was designed and fabricated to support the specimen loading desired by each of the three partners and was inserted into the FFTF for irradiation beginning in Cycle 11. Cycle 11B.1 has been completed successfully. Both the specimen loading and the history of cycle 11B.1 are documented here.

  11. Preparation and irradiation of the fusion MOTA [Materials Open Test Assembly] 2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.L.; Ermi, R.M.

    1990-06-01

    MOTA 2A was developed on the basis of prior breeder program MOTAs to support the research and development efforts of three fusion materials programs: the USDOE Neutron Interactive Materials (NIMs) program, the Japanese university fusion materials program, and the IEA-sponsored BEATRIX-II experiment. The MOTA was designed and fabricated to support the specimen loading desired by each of the three partners and was inserted into the FFTF for irradiation beginning in Cycle 11. Cycle 11B.1 has been completed successfully. Both the specimen loading and the history of cycle 11B.1 are documented here

  12. Special-purpose materials for magnetically confined fusion reactors. Third annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    The scope of Special Purpose Materials covers fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials, which are under the purview of the ADIP, DAFS, and PMI task groups. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, graphite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (>10-T) superconducting magnets. It is recognized that there will be numerous materials problems that will arise during the design and construction of large magnetic-fusion energy devices such as the Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and Demonstration Reactor (DEMO). Most of these problems will be specific to a particular design or project and are the responsibility of the project, not the Materials and Radiation Effects Branch. Consequently, the Task Group on Special Purpose Materials has limited its concern to crucial and generic materials problems that must be resolved if magnetic-fusion devices are to succeed. Important areas specifically excluded include low-field (8-T) superconductors, fuels for hybrids, and materials for inertial-confinement devices. These areas may be added in the future when funding permits

  13. National and international nuclear material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The status of nuclear materials in both the U.S. and Former Soviet Union is changing based upon the execution of agreements relative to weapons materials production and weapon dismantlement. The result of these activities is that a considerably different emphasis is being placed on how nuclear materials are viewed and utilized. Even though much effort is being expended on the final disposition of these materials, the interim need for storage and security of the material is increasing. Both safety and security requirements exist to govern activities when these materials are placed in storage. These requirements are intended to provide confidence that the material is not being misused and that the storage operations are conducted safely. Both of these goals can be significantly enhanced if technological monitoring of the material is performed. This paper will briefly discuss the traditional manual methods of U.S. and international material monitoring and then present approaches and technology that are available to achieve the same goals under the evolving environment

  14. Qualification of SiC materials for fusion and fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic materials such as silicon carbide (SiC) and SiC/SiC composites are both considered, due to their high-temperature strength, pseudo-ductile fracture behavior and low-induced radioactivity, as candidate materials for fusion reactor (test blanket module for ITER) and high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). The radiation swelling and creep of SiC are very important physical phenomena that determine the radiation resistance of them in these reactors. Other important problem which exists especially in fusion reactor is an effect of accumulation of high concentrations of helium atoms in SiC (up to 15000-20000 at.ppm) due to (n,α) nuclear reaction on physical mechanical properties. An understanding of the physical mechanism of this phenomenon is very important for the investigations of helium atom effect on radiation swelling in SiC. In this report a compilation of non-irradiated and irradiated properties of SiC are provided and analyzed in terms of their application to fusion and high temperature gas cooled reactors. Special topic of this report is oriented on the micro structural changes in chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) high-purity beta-SiC during neutron and ion irradiations at elevated temperatures. The evolutions of various radiation induced defects including dislocation loops, network dislocations and cavities are presented here as a function of irradiation temperature and fluencies. These observations are discussed in relation with such irradiation phenomena in SiC as low temperature swelling and cavity swelling. One of the main difficulties in the radiation damage studies of SiC materials lies in the absence of theoretical models and interpretation of many physical mechanisms of radiation phenomena including the radiation swelling and creep. The point defects in ceramic materials are characterized by the charge states and they can have an effective charge. The internal effective electrical field is formed due to the accumulation of charged point

  15. Fiber reinforced materials in the first wall of thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory tests on fiber reinforced materials (carbon-carbon- and SiC-SiC-composites, resp.) are described. The erosion and the thermomechanical behaviour during the exposure to high heat fluxes and the thermal stability of these materials are investigated. Neutron irradiation tests are performed in materials test reactors to evaluate the applicability of fiber reinforced material candidates in a fusion reactor environment. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S.L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D.E.J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W.W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C.S.; Blagoeva, N.; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Brinkmann, J.; Celino, M.; Ciupinski, L.; Correia, J.B.; De Backer, A.; Domain, C.; Gaganidze, E.; García-Rosales, C.; Gibson, J.; Gilbert, M.R.; Giusepponi, S.; Gludovatz, B.; Greuner, H.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Hoffmann, A.; Holstein, A.; Koch, F.; Krauss, W.; Li, H.; Lindig, S.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch.; López-Ruiz, P.; Maier, H.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mishra, T.P.; Muhammed, M.; Muñoz, A.; Muzyk, M.; Nordlund, K.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Opschoor, J.; Ordás, N.; Palacios, Y.; Pintsuk, G.; Pippan, R.; Reiser, J.; Riesch, J.; Roberts, S. G.; Romaner, L.; Rosiński, M.; Sanchez, M.; Schulmeyer, W.; Traxler, H.; Ureña, G.; van der Laan, J.G.; Veleva, L.; Wahlberg, S.; Walter, M.; Weber, T.; Weitkamp, T.; Wurster, S.; Yar, M.A.; You, J.H.; Zivelonghi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 432, 1-3 (2013), s. 482-500 ISSN 0022-3115 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tungsten * joining * composites * graded materials * fusion materials Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics Impact factor: 2.016, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311512004278

  17. Inclusion and difusion studies of D in fusion breeding blanket candidate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.

    2015-07-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) reaction is the most practical fusion reaction on the way to harness fusion energy. As tritium presents trace quantities on Earth [1], tritium fuel is essential to be generated simultaneously with the D-T reaction in a commerical fusion power plant. Tritium can be obtained in the lithium contained breeding blanket as a transmutation product of nuclear reaction 6Li (n, a)T. Li2T iO3 is considered to be one promising candidate solid tritium breeder material, due to its high lithium density, low activation, compatiblity with structure materials and high chemical stability. The tritium generated in Li2T iO3 breeding blanket needs to be collected and recycled back to the fusion reaction. Therefore, the study of the diffusion characteristic of breeder material Li2T iO3 is necessary to determine tritium mobility and tritium extraction efficiency. In order to study tritium release mechanism of Li2T iO3 breeding material in a fusion power plant environment, a fusion like neutron spectrum is essential while it is now not availble in any laboratory. One alternative is using ion accelerator or implantor to get energetic hydrogenic (H,D,T) ions impacting on breeding material, to simulate the tritium distribution situation. Because of the radioactive property of tritium which will complicate processing procedure, another isotope of hydrogen Deuterium is actually used to be studied. The defect structure in Li2T iO3, due to reactor exposure to fusion generated particles and ? ray irradiation, is achieved by energetic Ti ions. SRIM program is implemented to simulate the D ion or Ti ion distributions after bombarding, as well as the defects. X-ray diffraction technique helps to identify phase compositions. Transmission electron microscopy technique is used to observe the microstructures (Author)

  18. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S. L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S. M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W. W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Blagoeva, D.; Boldyryeva, H.; Brinkmann, J.; Celino, M.; Ciupinski, L.; Correia, J. B.; De Backer, A.; Domain, C.; Gaganidze, E.; García-Rosales, C.; Gibson, J.; Gilbert, M. R.; Giusepponi, S.; Gludovatz, B.; Greuner, H.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Hoffmann, A.; Holstein, N.; Koch, F.; Krauss, W.; Li, H.; Lindig, S.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch.; López-Ruiz, P.; Maier, H.; Matejicek, J.; Mishra, T. P.; Muhammed, M.; Muñoz, A.; Muzyk, M.; Nordlund, K.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Opschoor, J.; Ordás, N.; Palacios, T.; Pintsuk, G.; Pippan, R.; Reiser, J.; Riesch, J.; Roberts, S. G.; Romaner, L.; Rosiński, M.; Sanchez, M.; Schulmeyer, W.; Traxler, H.; Ureña, A.; van der Laan, J. G.; Veleva, L.; Wahlberg, S.; Walter, M.; Weber, T.; Weitkamp, T.; Wurster, S.; Yar, M. A.; You, J. H.; Zivelonghi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  19. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S.L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D.E.J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W.W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C.S.; Blagoeva, D.; Boldyryeva, H.

    2013-01-01

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme’s main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  20. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M., E-mail: Michael.rieth@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dudarev, S.L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M. [EFDA-Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Aktaa, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ahlgren, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Antusch, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Armstrong, D.E.J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Baluc, N. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP EPFL - Materials, 5232 Villigen/PSI (Switzerland); Barthe, M.-F. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue, de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Orleans, Polytech ou Faculte des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Basuki, W.W. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Battabyal, M. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP EPFL - Materials, 5232 Villigen/PSI (Switzerland); Becquart, C.S. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations, UMR 8207, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Blagoeva, D. [NRG, Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Boldyryeva, H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Praha (Czech Republic); and others

    2013-01-15

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  1. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This is the ninth in series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following technical progress reports: Alloy Development of Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  2. Fusion Reactor Materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This is the twelfth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  3. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This is the tenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: alloy development for irradiation performance; damage analysis and fundamental studies; special purpose materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the test of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  4. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending December 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, G.

    1998-03-01

    This is the twenty-third in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. A large fraction of this work, particularly in relation to fission reactor experiments, is carried out collaboratively with their partners in Japan, Russia, and the European Union. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  5. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This is the sixteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following Progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide. The individual papers in this paper have been cataloged separately elsewhere.

  6. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This is the ninth in series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following technical progress reports: Alloy Development of Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  7. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This is the eighteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: {sm_bullet} Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance. {sm_bullet} Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies. {sm_bullet} Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide. This report has been compiled and edited under the guidance of A.F. Rowcliffe by Gabrielle Burn, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Their efforts, and the efforts of the many persons who made technical contributions, are gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1991-07-01

    This is the tenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: alloy development for irradiation performance; damage analysis and fundamental studies; special purpose materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the test of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  9. Effects of non-steady irradiation conditions on fusion materials performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, H.; Fukumoto, K.; Nagumo, T.; Nita, N.

    2001-01-01

    During startup of fusion reactors, materials are exposed to neutron irradiation under non-steady temperature condition. Since the temperature of irradiation has decisive effects on the microstructural evolution, the non-steady temperature will have important consequences in the performance of fusion reactor materials. In the present study, a series of vanadium based alloys have been irradiated with neutrons in a temperature cycling condition. It has been found from this study that cavity number density is much greater in temperature cycled specimens than in steady temperature irradiation. Keeping the upper temperature constant, cavity number density is greater for smaller difference between the upper and the lower temperature. It follows that relatively small temperature excursions may have rather significant effects on the fusion material performance in service. (author)

  10. Higgs self-coupling in the fusion channel at the international linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian Academy of ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 69; Issue 5 ... We investigate the Higgs pair production process at the international linear collider (ILC), focusing on the measurement of the trilinear self-coupling of the Higgs boson in the fusion channel.

  11. Higgs self-coupling in the fusion channel at the international linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the Higgs pair production process at the international linear collider (ILC), focusing on the measurement of the trilinear self-coupling of the Higgs boson in the fusion channel. The sensitivity of this measurement is discussed in the Higgs mass range 140-200 GeV at a center-of-mass energy between 1 TeV ...

  12. Higgs self-coupling in the fusion channel at the international linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the Higgs pair production process at the international linear collider (ILC), focusing on the measurement of the trilinear self-coupling of the Higgs boson in the fusion channel. The sensitivity of this measurement is discussed in the Higgs mass range 140–200 GeV at a center-of-mass energy between ...

  13. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1994. V. 3. Proceedings of the fifteenth international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the third volume of the proceedings of the 15th International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research held in Seville, Spain, from 26 September - 1 October 1994. Contained in it are 29 papers on inertial confinement and 46 papers on magnetic confinement. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Stability of concentration-related self-interstitial atoms in fusion material tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhang; Shu-Long, Wen; Min, Pan; Zheng, Huang; Yong, Zhao; Xiang, Liu; Ji-Ming, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory, we calculated the structures of the two main possible self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as well as the migration energy of tungsten (W) atoms. It was found that the difference of the and formation energies is 0.05-0.3 eV. Further analysis indicated that the stability of SIAs is closely related to the concentration of the defect. When the concentration of the point defect is high, SIAs are more likely to exist, SIAs are the opposite. In addition, the vacancy migration probability and self-recovery zones for these SIAs were researched by making a detailed comparison. The calculation provided a new viewpoint about the stability of point defects for self-interstitial configurations and would benefit the understanding of the control mechanism of defect behavior for this novel fusion material. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. A0920502051411-5 and 2682014ZT30), the Program of International Science and Technology Cooperation, China (Grant No. 2013DFA51050), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant Nos. 2011GB112001 and 2013GB110001), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032701), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11405138), the Southwestern Institute of Physics Funds, China, the Western Superconducting Technologies Company Limited, China, the Qingmiao Plan of Southwest Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. A0920502051517-6), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560813).

  15. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The Fusion Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. A large fraction of this work, particularly in relation to fission reactor experiments, is carried out collaboratively with partners in Japan, Russian, and the European Union. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide. The following subjects are covered: vanadium alloys; silicon carbide composite materials; ferritic/martensitic steels; copper alloys and high heat flux materials; austenitic stainless steels; insulating ceramics and optical materials; solid breeding materials; radiation effects; mechanistic studies and experimental methods dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; and irradiation facilities, test matrices and experimental methods. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Double differential light charged particle emission cross sections for some structural fusion materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarpün Ismail Hakki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In fusion reactors, neutron induced radioactivity strongly depends on the irradiated material. So, a proper selection of structural materials will have been limited the radioactive inventory in a fusion reactor. First-wall and blanket components have high radioactivity concentration due to being the most flux-exposed structures. The main objective of fusion structural material research is the development and selection of materials for reactor components with good thermo-mechanical and physical properties, coupled with low-activation characteristics. Double differential light charged particle emission cross section, which is a fundamental data to determine nuclear heating and material damages in structural fusion material research, for some elements target nuclei have been calculated by the TALYS 1.8 nuclear reaction code at 14–15 MeV neutron incident energy and compared with available experimental data in EXFOR library. Direct, compound and pre-equilibrium reaction contribution have been theoretically calculated and dominant contribution have been determined for each emission of proton, deuteron and alpha particle.

  17. Fusion reactor materials program plan. Section 2. Damage analysis and fundamental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The scope of this program includes: (1) Development of procedures for characterizing neutron environments of test facilities and fusion reactors, (2) Theoretical and experimental investigations of the influence of irradiation environment on damage production, damage microstructure evolution, and mechanical and physical property changes, (3) Identification and, where appropriate, development of essential nuclear and materials data, and (4) Development of a methodology, based on damage mechanisms, for correlating the mechanical behavior of materials exposed to diverse test environments and projecting this behavior to magnetic fusion reactor (MFR) environments. Some major problem areas are addressed

  18. Critical plasma-wall interaction issues for plasma-facing materials and components in near-term fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Coad, J.P.; Haasz, A.A.; Janeschitz, G.; Noda, N.; Philipps, V.; Roth, J.; Skinner, C.H.; Tivey, R.; Wu, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The increase in pulse duration and cumulative run-time, together with the increase of the plasma energy content, will represent the largest changes in operation conditions in future fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) compared to today's experimental facilities. These will give rise to important plasma-physics effects and plasma-material interactions (PMIs) which are only partially observed and accessible in present-day experiments and will open new design, operation and safety issues. For the first time in fusion research, erosion and its consequences over many pulses (e.g., co-deposition and dust) may determine the operational schedule of a fusion device. This paper identifies the most critical issues arising from PMIs which represent key elements in the selection of materials, the design, and the optimisation of plasma-facing components (PFCs) for the first-wall and divertor. Significant advances in the knowledge base have been made recently, as part of the R and D supporting the engineering design activities (EDA) of ITER, and some of the most relevant data are reviewed here together with areas where further R and D work is urgently needed

  19. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. III. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The enthusiastic co-operation of the University of Wisconsin and of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in the organization of the Conference is gratefully acknowledged. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council

  20. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor and the future of nuclear fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Chuanhong

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental problems are now the two largest challenges for human beings. Magnetic confinement nuclear fusion, which has achieved great progress since the 1990's, is anticipated to be a way to realize an ideal source of energy in the future because of its abundance, environmental compatibility, and zero carbon release. Exemplified by the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the development of nuclear fusion energy is now in its engineering phase, and should be realized by the middle of this century if all objectives of the ITER project are met. (author)

  1. Viability of the ESS-Bilbao neutron source for irradiation of nuclear fusion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Páramo, A.R., E-mail: angel.rodriguez.paramo@upm.es [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Sordo, F. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Consorcio ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Paseo Landabarri, 2 1a planta, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Perlado, J.M.; Rivera, A. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    The ESS-Bilbao neutron source, currently under construction, is conceived as a multipurpose facility. It will offer a fast neutron beam line for materials irradiation. In this paper we discuss the viability of ESS-Bilbao for experimental studies of fusion materials. Making use of the already designed target station we have calculated the neutron spectrum expected in the fast neutron line. Then, we have studied the neutron irradiation effects in two model materials: iron and silica. We have calculated the expected PKA (primary knock-on atom) spectra and light species production as well as the damage production in these materials. Regarding structural materials, we conclude that the ESS-Bilbao neutron irradiation facility will play a minor role due to the resulting low neutron fluxes (about two orders of magnitude lower than in fusion reactors). On the other hand, ESS-Bilbao turns out to be relevant for studies of final lenses in laser fusion power plants. A comparison with the conditions expected for HiPER final lenses shows that the fluxes will be only a factor 5 smaller in ESS-Bilbao and the PKA spectra will be very similar. Taking into account, in addition, that relevant effects on lenses occur from the onset of irradiation, we conclude that an appropriate irradiation cell with in situ characterisation techniques will make ESS-Bilbao very attractive for applied neutron damage studies of laser fusion final lenses. Finally, we compare ESS-Bilbao with other facilities.

  2. Viability of the ESS-Bilbao neutron source for irradiation of nuclear fusion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páramo, A. R.; Sordo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Rivera, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESS-Bilbao neutron source, currently under construction, is conceived as a multipurpose facility. It will offer a fast neutron beam line for materials irradiation. In this paper we discuss the viability of ESS-Bilbao for experimental studies of fusion materials. Making use of the already designed target station we have calculated the neutron spectrum expected in the fast neutron line. Then, we have studied the neutron irradiation effects in two model materials: iron and silica. We have calculated the expected PKA (primary knock-on atom) spectra and light species production as well as the damage production in these materials. Regarding structural materials, we conclude that the ESS-Bilbao neutron irradiation facility will play a minor role due to the resulting low neutron fluxes (about two orders of magnitude lower than in fusion reactors). On the other hand, ESS-Bilbao turns out to be relevant for studies of final lenses in laser fusion power plants. A comparison with the conditions expected for HiPER final lenses shows that the fluxes will be only a factor 5 smaller in ESS-Bilbao and the PKA spectra will be very similar. Taking into account, in addition, that relevant effects on lenses occur from the onset of irradiation, we conclude that an appropriate irradiation cell with in situ characterisation techniques will make ESS-Bilbao very attractive for applied neutron damage studies of laser fusion final lenses. Finally, we compare ESS-Bilbao with other facilities.

  3. Materials-related issues in the safety and licensing of nuclear fusion facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N.; Merrill, B.; Cadwallader, L.; Di Pace, L.; El-Guebaly, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Panayotov, D.; Pinna, T.; Porfiri, M.-T.; Reyes, S.; Shimada, M.; Willms, S.

    2017-09-01

    Fusion power holds the promise of electricity production with a high degree of safety and low environmental impact. Favourable characteristics of fusion as an energy source provide the potential for this very good safety and environmental performance. But to fully realize the potential, attention must be paid in the design of a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) or a commercial power plant to minimize the radiological hazards. These hazards arise principally from the inventory of tritium and from materials that become activated by neutrons from the plasma. The confinement of these radioactive substances, and prevention of radiation exposure, are the primary goals of the safety approach for fusion, in order to minimize the potential for harm to personnel, the public, and the environment. The safety functions that are implemented in the design to achieve these goals are dependent on the performance of a range of materials. Degradation of the properties of materials can lead to challenges to key safety functions such as confinement. In this paper the principal types of material that have some role in safety are recalled. These either represent a potential source of hazard or contribute to the amelioration of hazards; in each case the related issues are reviewed. The resolution of these issues lead, in some instances, to requirements on materials specifications or to limits on their performance.

  4. Status of radiation damage dosimetry for fusion materials testing in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberman, A.; Dierckx, R.; Nolthenius, H.J.; Voorbraak, W.P.

    1992-04-01

    The EURATOM Working Group on Reactor Dosimetry (EWGRD) has issued in the past several documents in order to establish standardized procedures and recommendations on neutron spectrum information, fluence measurements, damage cross-section data, etc. The main goal of this status report is to review the suitable material irradiation characterization parameters, in such a way that experimental results, obtained in a research reactor environment, can be applied in the design of the fusion power plants. Recent developments in fusion reactor technology programs and mainly the large European component qualification tests undertaken for NET (Next European Torus) have led the EWGRD to consider new requirements. Particularly the application of ceramics (tritium breeding blankets, insulators) addresses new requirements: damage to sublattices, relevance of 'dpa' as irradiation parameter, etc. This report presents the status of available metrology methods, recommended cross-sections and damage assessment, relevant to fusion technology material irradiations. (author). 42 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Fusion neutron effects on magnetoresistivity of copper stabilizer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinan, M.W.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Eight copper wires were repeatedly irradiated at 4.2 to 4.4 K with 14.8 MV neutrons and isochronally annealed at temperatures up to 34 0 C for a total of five cycles. Their electrical resistances were monitored during irradiation under zero applied magnetic field. After each irradiation the magnetoresistances were measured in applied transverse magnetic fields of up to 12 T. Then the samples were isochronally annealed to observe the recovery of the resistivity and magnetoresistivity. After each anneal at the highest temperature (34 0 C), some of the damage remained and contributed to the damage state observed following the subsequent irradiation. In this way, we were able to observe how the changes in magnetoresistance would accumulate during the repeated irradiations and anneals expected to be characteristic of fusion reactor magnets. For each succeeding irradiation the fluence was chosen to produce approximately the same final magnetoresistance at 12 T, taking account of the accumulating residual radiation damage. The increment of magnetoresistivity added by the irradiation varied from 35 to 65% at 12 T and from 50 to 90% at 8 T for the various samples

  6. Fusion reactor materials: Semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-09-01

    These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The major areas of concern covered in this report are irradiation facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; ceramics and superconducting magnet materials. There are 61 reports cataloged separately. (LSP)

  7. International research co-operation in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 26th report by the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science presents a review of work done in Swiss institutes in 2003 as part of international research into thermonuclear fusion. A broad outline of the project and of its significance within the wider field of thermonuclear fusion research is given. This is followed by a review of the significant events in the world of fusion research, with emphasis placed on ITER and on the EURATOM fusion programme. A further chapter summarises events in Switzerland in 2003 and the report closes with a list of contacts for more information. Three annexes provide information on the current situation in fusion research, as well as scientific and technical highlights of the work performed in 2003 at the Plasma Physics Research Centre CRPP at the Federal Institute of Technology EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. Annex 3 reports on results obtained at the Physics Institute of the University of Basle. The annexes are for the benefit of the technically and scientifically versed reader, and brief summaries of them are given in the main body of the report

  8. The high-density Z-pinch as a pulsed fusion neutron source for fusion nuclear technology and materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Sethian, J.D.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The dense Z-pinch (DZP) is one of the earliest and simplest plasma heating and confinement schemes. Recent experimental advances based on plasma initiation from hair-like (10s μm in radius) solid hydrogen filaments have so far not encountered the usually devastating MHD instabilities that plagued early DZP experiments. These encouraging results along with debt of a number of proof-of principle, high-current (1--2 MA in 10--100 ns) experiments have prompted consideration of the DZP as a pulsed source of DT fusion neutrons of sufficient strength (/dot S//sub N/ ≥ 10 19 n/s) to provide uncollided neutron fluxes in excess of I/sub ω/ = 5--10 MW/m 2 over test volumes of 10--30 litre or greater. While this neutron source would be pulsed (100s ns pulse widths, 10--100 Hz pulse rate), giving flux time compressions in the range 10 5 --10 6 , its simplicity, near-time feasibility, low cost, high-Q operation, and relevance to fusion systems that may provide a pulsed commercial end-product (e.g., inertial confinement or the DZP itself) together create the impetus for preliminary considerations as a neutron source for fusion nuclear technology and materials testings. The results of a preliminary parametric systems study (focusing primarily on physics issues), conceptual design, and cost versus performance analyses are presented. The DZP promises an expensive and efficient means to provide pulsed DT neutrons at an average rate in excess of 10 19 n/s, with neutron currents I/sub ω/ /approx lt/ 10 MW/m 2 over volumes V/sub exp/ ≥ 30 litre using single-pulse technologies that differ little from those being used in present-day experiments. 34 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Structural materials requirements for in-vessel components of fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der

    2000-01-01

    The economic production of fusion energy is determined by principal choices such as using magnetic plasma confinement or generating inertial fusion energy. The first generation power plants will use deuterium and tritium mixtures as fuel, producing large amounts of highly energetic neutrons resulting in radiation damage in materials. In the far future the advanced fuels, 3 He or 11 B, determine power plant designs with less radiation damage than in the first generation. The first generation power plants design must anticipate radiation damage. Solid sacrificing armour or liquid layers could limit component replacements costs to economic levels. There is more than radiation damage resistance to determine the successful application of structural materials. High endurance against cyclic loading is a prominent requirement, both for magnetic and inertial fusion energy power plants. For high efficiency and compactness of the plant, elevated temperature behaviour should be attractive. Safety and environmental requirements demand that materials have low activation potential and little toxic effects under both normal and accident conditions. The long-term contenders for fusion power plant components near the plasma are materials in the range from innovative steels, such as reduced activation ferritic martensitic steels, to highly advanced ceramic composites based on silicon carbide, and chromium alloys. The steels follow an evolutionary path to basic plant efficiencies. The competition on the energy market in the middle of the next century might necessitate the riskier but more rewarding development of SiCSiC composites or chromium alloys

  10. Engineering spinal fusion: evaluating ceramic materials for cell based tissue engineered approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis was to advance the development of tissue engineered posterolateral spinal fusion by investigating the potential of calcium phosphate ceramic materials to support cell based tissue engineered bone formation. This was accomplished by developing several novel model

  11. Helium generation in fusion-reactor materials. Progress report, October-December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneff, D.W.; Farrar, H. IV.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to measure helium generation rates of materials for Magnetic Fusion Reactor applications in the Be(d,n) neutron environment, to characterize this neutron environment, and to develop helium accumulation neutron dosimeters for routine neutron fluence and energy spectrum measurements in Be(d,n) and Li(d,n) neutron fields

  12. Status of neutron dosimetry and damage analysis for the fusion materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    The status of neutron flux and spectral measurements is described for fusion material irradiations at reactor, T(d,n), Be(d,n), and spallation neutron sources. Such measurements are required for the characterization of an irradiation in terms of displacement damage, gas and transmutant production. Emphasis is placed on nuclear data deficiencies with specific recommendations for cross section measurements and calculations

  13. New ideas in dosimetry and damage calculations for fusion materials irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear data and techniques are being developed to improve our ability to characterize fusion materials irradiations in terms of neutron fluence and spectra as well as damage parameters such as atomic displacements, gas production, and other transmutation. The production of long-lived isotopes are being measured near 14 MeV, including reactions from Al, Fe, and Mo to 26 Al, 53 Mn, and 94 Nb, and measurements for other reactions are in progress. These data can be used for fusion reactor dosimetry, plasma diagnostics, and the estimation of radioactivity in fusion reactor materials. Dosimetry cross sections are being measured for fission reactors using Be(d,n) sources (E/sub d/= 7 to 40 MeV) and monoenergetic neutron sources from 1 to 14 MeV. These data can be used to adjust activation cross sections. Spallation cross sections are being measured for higher-energy accelerator neutron sources. Helium production cross sections are being tested at all fusion irradiation facilities. We have recently discovered a new thermal helium production in copper, similar to the well-known effect in nickel. Recommended procedures have been published for the calculation of helium from both copper and nickel in mixed-spectrum reactors. A new program SPECOMP has recently been developed to calculate displacement damage for compounds. This program uses the SPECTER recoil atom distributions and integrates over secondary displacement functions for each combination of incident ion and matrix material to determine displacement cross sections for alloys, insulators, and breeder materials

  14. Material property evaluations of bimetallic welds, stainless steel saw fusion lines, and materials affected by dynamic strain aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudland, D.; Scott, P.; Marschall, C.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Pipe fracture analyses can often reasonably predict the behavior of flawed piping. However, there are material applications with uncertainties in fracture behavior. This paper summarizes work on three such cases. First, the fracture behavior of bimetallic welds are discussed. The purpose of the study was to determine if current fracture analyses can predict the response of pipe with flaws in bimetallic welds. The weld joined sections of A516 Grade 70 carbon steel to F316 stainless steel. The crack was along the carbon steel base metal to Inconel 182 weld metal fusion line. Material properties from tensile and C(T) specimens were used to predict large pipe response. The major conclusion from the work is that fracture behavior of the weld could be evaluated with reasonable accuracy using properties of the carbon steel pipe and conventional J-estimation analyses. However, results may not be generally true for all bimetallic welds. Second, the toughness of austenitic steel submerged-arc weld (SAW) fusion lines is discussed. During large-scale pipe tests with flaws in the center of the SAW, the crack tended to grow into the fusion line. The fracture toughness of the base metal, the SAW, and the fusion line were determined and compared. The major conclusion reached is that although the fusion line had a higher initiation toughness than the weld metal, the fusion-line J-R curve reached a steady-state value while the SAW J-R curve increased. Last, carbon steel fracture experiments containing circumferential flaws with periods of unstable crack jumps during steady ductile tearing are discussed. These instabilities are believed to be due to dynamic strain aging (DSA). The paper discusses DSA, a screening criteria developed to predict DSA, and the ability of the current J-based methodologies to assess the effect of these crack instabilities. The effect of loading rate on the strength and toughness of several different carbon steel pipes at LWR temperatures is also discussed.

  15. 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaisar, S.; Khan, A.N.; Mukhtar, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The 13th international symposium on advanced materials (ISAM) was held from september 23-27, 2013, at islamabad, Pakistan. The main theme of this conference was to discuss the ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. In five day of the symposium, nearly Two hundred and twenty seven contributory and invited papers, comprising of Nineteen technical sessions and two poster sessions were presented. Renowned scientists and researchers from foreign and local institutes have shared their counter parts on the topics of common interest. This symposium provided an ideal opportunity for exchange of information amongst scientists, engineers and researchers from all over pakistan and other countries of the world. (A.B.)

  16. Some safety considerations of liquid lithium as a fusion breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Test results and conclusions are presented for the reaction of steam with a high temperature lithium pool and for the reaction of high temperature lithium spray with a nitrogen atmosphere. The reactions are characterized and evaluated in regard to the potential for mobilization of radioactive species associated with the liquid breeder under postulated fusion reactor accident conditions. These evaluations include measured lithium temperature responses, atmosphere temperature and pressure responses, gas consumption and generation, aerosol quantities and particle size characterization, and potentially radioactive species releases. Conclusions are made as to the consequences of these safety considerations for the use of lithium as a fusion reactor breeder material

  17. An inert-gas furnace for neutron scattering measurements of internal stresses in engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R.; Paradowska, A. M.; Chowdhury, M. A. H.; Goodway, C. M.; Done, R.; Kirichek, O.; Oliver, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    The ENGIN-X beamline is a dedicated engineering science facility at ISIS optimized for the measurement of strain, and thus stress, deep within crystalline materials using the atomic lattice planes as an atomic ‘strain gauge’. Internal stresses in materials have a considerable effect on material properties including fatigue resistance, fracture toughness and strength. The growing interest in properties of materials at high temperatures may be attributed to the dynamic development in technologies where materials are exposed to a high-temperature environment for example in the aerospace industry or fission and fusion nuclear reactors. This article describes in detail the design and construction of a furnace for neutron scattering measurements of internal stress in engineering materials under mechanical load and in elevated temperature environments, designed to permit a range of gases to provide a non-oxidizing atmosphere for hot samples.

  18. Tritium interactions with steel and construction materials in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.S.

    1990-11-01

    The literature on the interactions of tritium and tritiated water with metals, glasses, ceramics, concrete, paints, polymers and other organic materials is reviewed in this report Some of the processes affecting the amount of tritium found on various materials, such as permeation, sorption and the conversion of tritium found on various materials, such as permeation, sorption and conversion of elemental tritium (T 2 ) to tritiated water (HTO), are also briefly outlined. Tritium permeation in steels is fairly well understood, but effects of surface preparation and coatings on sorption are not yet clear. Permeation of T 2 into other metals with cleaned surfaces has been studied thoroughly at high temperature, and the effect of surface oxidation has also been explored. The room-temperature permeation rates of low-permeability metals with cleaned surfaces are much faster than indicated by high-temperature results, because of grain-boundary diffusion. Elastomers have been studied to a certain extent, but some mechanisms of interaction with tritium gas and sorbed tritium are unclear. Ceramics have some of the lowest sorption and permeation rates, but ceramic coatings on stainless steels do not lower permeation or tritium as effectively as coatings obtained by oxidation of the steel, probably because of cracking caused by differences in thermal expansion coefficient. Studies on concrete are in their early stages; they show that sorption of tritiated water on concrete is a major concern in cleanup of releases of elemental tritium into air in tritium handling facilities. Some of the codes for modelling releases and sorption of T 2 and HTO contain unproven assumptions about sorption and T 2 → HTO conversion. Several experimental programs will be required in order to clear up ambiguities in previous work and to determine parameters for materials which have not yet been investigated. (146 refs., tab.)

  19. The problem of helium in structural materials for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.S.; Zakharov, A.P.; Chuev, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The processes of helium buildup in some metals and alloys at different energy neutron flux irradiation under thermonuclear reactor conditions are considered. The data on high temperature helium embrittlement of a number of stainless steels, titanium and aluminium alloys etc. are given A review of experiments concerning the implanted helium behaviour is presented. Possible reactions between helium atoms and point defects or their clusters are discussed. Analysed are material structure variations upon buildup in them up to 1 at % of helium

  20. Irradiation creep experiments on fusion reactor candidate structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, H.; Cundy, M.R.; Schuele, W.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation creep rates were determined for annealed and cold-worked AMCR- and 316-type steel alloys in the high flux reactor at Petten, for various irradiation temperatures, stresses and for neutron doses up to 4 dpa. Primary creep elongations were found in all annealed materials. A negative creep elongation was found in cold-worked materials for stresses equal to or below about 100 MPa. An increase of the negative creep elongation is found for decreasing irradiation temperatures and decreasing applied stresses. The stress exponent of the irradiation creep rate in annealed and cold-worked AMCR alloys is n = 1.85 and n = 1.1, respectively. The creep rates of cold-worked AMCR alloys are almost temperature independent over the range investigated (573-693 K). The results obtained in the HFR at Petten are compared with those obtained in ORR and EBR II. The smallest creep rates are found for cold-worked materials of AMCR- and US-PCA-type at Petten which are about a factor two smaller than the creep rates obtained of US-316 at Petten or for US-PCA at ORR or for 316L at EBR II. The scatter band factor for US-PCA, 316L, US-316 irradiated in ORR and EBR II is about 1.5 after a temperature and damage rate normalization

  1. Report of 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors, Yayoi Research Group; 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In this report, the lecture materials of Yayoi Research Group, 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors which was held at the University of Tokyo on March 25, 1996, are collected. This workshop was held also as 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. This workshop has the character of the preparatory meeting for the session on `Interface effect in nuclear fusion energy system` of the international workshop `Interface effect in quantum energy system`, and 6 lectures and one comment were given. The topics were deuterium transport in Mo under deuterium ion implantation, the change of the stratum structure of graphite by hydrogen ion irradiation, the tritium behavior in opposing materials, the basic studies of the irradiation effects of solid breeding materials, the research on the behavior of hydroxyl group on the surface of solid breeding materials, the sweep gas effect on the surface of solid breeding materials, and the dynamic behavior of ion-implanted deuterium in proton-conductive oxides. (K.I.)

  2. Report of 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors, Yayoi Research Group; 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In this report, the lecture materials of Yayoi Research Group, 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors which was held at the University of Tokyo on March 25, 1996, are collected. This workshop was held also as 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. This workshop has the character of the preparatory meeting for the session on 'Interface effect in nuclear fusion energy system' of the international workshop 'Interface effect in quantum energy system', and 6 lectures and one comment were given. The topics were deuterium transport in Mo under deuterium ion implantation, the change of the stratum structure of graphite by hydrogen ion irradiation, the tritium behavior in opposing materials, the basic studies of the irradiation effects of solid breeding materials, the research on the behavior of hydroxyl group on the surface of solid breeding materials, the sweep gas effect on the surface of solid breeding materials, and the dynamic behavior of ion-implanted deuterium in proton-conductive oxides. (K.I.)

  3. Report of the 1990 workshop on plasma-materials interactions for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The 1990 Workshop of the Working Group in Research Committee on A and M Data, on plasma-materials interactions was held at the Headquarters of JAERI, Tokyo, on July 10-11, 1990. The aim of the Workshop was to obtain future prospects for the activities of the Working Group, by discussing current problems in plasma-materials interactions relevant to fusion research. This report contains all the 16 papers presented at hte Workshop, which are mainly concerned with problems in the first wall of large Tokamak devices, such as retention and release of hydrogen in carbon materials, sputtering and problems in material data system. (author)

  4. Papers presented at the fourteenth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the contributions of the CIEMAT's Fusion Unit to the 14th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research that was held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Wurzburg, Germany from 30 September to 7 October 1992. Three papers were presented that summarized the main lines of work done in the Unit during the previous two years: The first one on the theoretical advances in the understanding of the Flexible Heliac TJ-II under construction, the second on the confinement studies performed in the operating TJ-I Tokamak and the third one on the description of the physical properties of the soon to be started TJ-IU Torsatron. (Author) 25 refs

  5. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-09-28

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the ''non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  7. International safeguards without material balance areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanborn, J.B.; Lu Mingshih; Indusi, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recently altered perceptions of the role of the non-proliferation regime, as well as continued IAEA funding constraints, suggest a need to re-examine the fundamentals of IAEA verification strategy. This paper suggests that abandoning certain material balance area (MBA) related concepts that nominally form the basic framework of ''full-scope'' safeguards would result in a more flexible inspection regime. The MBA concept applied in the domestic context enables a national authority to localize losses in space and in time and to minimize the need to measure in-process inventory. However, these advantages do not accrue to an international verification regime because it cannot truly verify the ''flows'' between MBAs without extensive containment/surveillance measures. In the verification model studied, the entire nuclear inventory of a state is periodically declared and verified simultaneously in one or two large segments (containing possibly many MBAS). Simultaneous inventory of all MBAs within a segment would occur through advance ''mailbox'' declarations and random selection of MBAs for on-site verification or through enhanced containment/surveillance techniques. Flows are generally speaking not verified. This scheme would free the inspectorate from the obligation to attempt to verify on-site each stratum of the material balance of every facility declaring significant quantities of nuclear material

  8. Fundamental radiation effects studies in the fusion-materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1981-10-01

    Some examples of progress being made in DAFS studies are given. The primary parameters in which most damage models are expressed are total displacements per atom (dpa), total helium concentration (appm), and the helium-to-dpa ratio. The concentrations of other transmutation products than helium have assumed significance in certain cases as will be seen below. The number of dpa is generally taken proportional to the damage energy, the total energy deposited in a material, corrected for the fraction dissipated in electronic excitation and ionization

  9. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This is the twenty-first in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The report covers the following topics: vanadium alloys; silicon carbide composite materials; ferritic/martensitic steels; copper alloys and high heat flux materials; austenitic stainless steels; insulating ceramics and optical materials; solid breeding materials; radiation effects, mechanistic studies and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; and irradiation facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods

  10. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E. I.; Storm, E.

    2013-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density science (HEDS), is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  11. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E.I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The National Ignition Facility (NIF, a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF and high-energy-density science (HEDS, is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL. A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC, an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE. This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  12. Large area imaging of hydrogenous materials using fast neutrons from a DD fusion generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, J. T.; Williams, D. L.; Gary, C. K.; Piestrup, M. A.; Faber, D. R.; Fuller, M. J.; Vainionpaa, J. H.; Apodaca, M.; Pantell, R. H.; Feinstein, J.

    2012-05-01

    A small-laboratory fast-neutron generator and a large area detector were used to image hydrogen-bearing materials. The overall image resolution of 2.5 mm was determined by a knife-edge measurement. Contact images of objects were obtained in 5-50 min exposures by placing them close to a plastic scintillator at distances of 1.5 to 3.2 m from the neutron source. The generator produces 109 n/s from the DD fusion reaction at a small target. The combination of the DD-fusion generator and electronic camera permits both small laboratory and field-portable imaging of hydrogen-rich materials embedded in high density materials.

  13. Low-activation structural ceramic composites for fusion power reactors: materials development and main design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.S.; Le Bars, N.; Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Salavy, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Development of advanced Low-Activation Materials (LAMs) with favourable short-term activation characteristics is discussed, for the use as structural materials in a fusion power reactor (in order to reduce the risk associated with a major accident, in particular those related with radio-isotopes release in the environment), and to try to approach the concept of an inherently safe reactor. LA Ceramics Composites (LACCs) are the most promising LAMs because of their relatively good thermo-mechanical properties. At present, SiC/SiC composite is the only LACC considered by the fusion community, and therefore is the one having the most complete data base. The preliminary design of a breeding blanket using SiC/SiC as structural material indicated that significant improvement of its thermal conductivity is required. (author) 11 refs.; 3 figs

  14. Large area imaging of hydrogenous materials using fast neutrons from a DD fusion generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, J.T.; Williams, D.L.; Gary, C.K.; Piestrup, M.A.; Faber, D.R.; Fuller, M.J.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Apodaca, M.; Pantell, R.H.; Feinstein, J.

    2012-01-01

    A small-laboratory fast-neutron generator and a large area detector were used to image hydrogen-bearing materials. The overall image resolution of 2.5 mm was determined by a knife-edge measurement. Contact images of objects were obtained in 5–50 min exposures by placing them close to a plastic scintillator at distances of 1.5 to 3.2 m from the neutron source. The generator produces 10 9 n/s from the DD fusion reaction at a small target. The combination of the DD-fusion generator and electronic camera permits both small laboratory and field-portable imaging of hydrogen-rich materials embedded in high density materials.

  15. Introduction to the special issue on the technical status of materials for a fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, D.; Zinkle, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Materials determine in a fundamental way the performance and environmental attractiveness of a fusion reactor: through the size (power fluxes to the divertor, neutron fluxes to the first wall); economics (replacement lifetime of critical in-vessel components, thermodynamic efficiency through operating temperature etc); plasma performance (erosion by plasma fluxes to the divertor surfaces); robustness against off-normal accidents (safety); and the effects of post-operation radioactivity on waste disposal and maintenance. The major philosophies and methodologies used to formulate programmes for the development of fusion materials are outlined, as the basis for other articles in this special issue, which deal with the fundamental understanding of the issues regarding these materials and their technical status and prospects for development.

  16. The Science and Technology Challenges of the Plasma-Material Interface for Magnetic Fusion Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Dennis

    2013-09-01

    The boundary plasma and plasma-material interactions of magnetic fusion devices are reviewed. The boundary of magnetic confinement devices, from the high-temperature, collisionless pedestal through to the surrounding surfaces and the nearby cold high-density collisional plasmas, encompasses an enormous range of plasma and material physics, and their integrated coupling. Due to fundamental limits of material response the boundary will largely define the viability of future large MFE experiments (ITER) and reactors (e.g. ARIES designs). The fusion community faces an enormous knowledge deficit in stepping from present devices, and even ITER, towards fusion devices typical of that required for efficient energy production. This deficit will be bridged by improving our fundamental science understanding of this complex interface region. The research activities and gaps are reviewed and organized to three major axes of challenges: power density, plasma duration, and material temperature. The boundary can also be considered a multi-scale system of coupled plasma and material science regulated through the non-linear interface of the sheath. Measurement, theory and modeling across these scales are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on establishing the use dimensionless parameters to understand this complex system. Proposed technology and science innovations towards solving the PMI/boundary challenges will be examined. Supported by US DOE award DE-SC00-02060 and cooperative agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  17. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This proceeding is a compilation of peer reviewed papers presented at the 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013) held from September 23-27, 2013, at Islamabad, Pakistan. In my capacity as ISAM-2013 Secretary, I feel honoured that the symposium has ended on a positive note. The ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. ISAM and other similar forums serve to fulfill this need. The five day deliberations of ISAM 2013, consisted of 19 technical sessions and 2 poster sessions. In all, 277 papers were presented, inclusive of 80 contributory, invited and oral presentations. The symposium also hosted panel discussions led by renowned scientists and eminent researchers from foreign as well as local institutes. The ultimate aim of this proceeding is to record in writing the new findings in the field of advanced materials. I hope that the technical data available in this publication proves valuable to young scientists and researchers working in this area of science. At the same time, I wish to acknowledge Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing UK, for accepting the research papers from ISAM-2013 for publication in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The proceeding will be available on the IOP website as an online open access document. I am profoundly thankful to the Symposium Chairman for his steadfast support and valuable guidance without which ISAM 2013 could not have been the mega event that it turned out to be. My gratitude to all our distinguished participants, session chairs/co-chairs, and reviewers for their active role in the symposium. I appreciate the entire organizing committee for the zest and ardor with which each committee fulfilled its obligations to ISAM. Last yet not the least, my thankfulness goes to all our sponsors for wilfully financing the event. Dr. Sara Qaisar Symposium Secretary Further

  18. Micromechanical modelling of functionally graded W-Cu materials for divertor plate components in a fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasik, M.M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technol. (Finland); Ueda, S.

    1999-10-01

    Thermonuclear fusion process implementation has many materials problems and one of them is related to removal of impurities from plasma. In the International thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), a divertor concept has been incorporated for this purpose. In this work, the development of a micromechanical model for FGM is presented and its application to thermal-elasto-plastic analysis is discussed for the case of W-Cu FGM for ITER divertor plates. The model allows the prediction of basic properties of 3-D FGM, computations of thermal stresses, and, in some limits, it may be used for pre-design evaluation of dynamic strain/stress distribution and inelastic behaviour. The model is found to be very useful at the first stages of graded materials design and computation of properties in the nodal points for more detailed numerical analysis. (orig.) 10 refs.

  19. Nuclear data for the production of radioisotopes in fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.; Schenter, R.E.; Mann, F.M.; Ikeda, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The fusion materials irradiation facility (FMIF) is a neutron source generator that will produce a high-intensity 14-MeV neutron field for testing candidate fusion materials under reactor irradiation conditions. The construction of such a facility is one of the very important development stages toward realization of fusion energy as a practical energy source for electricity production. As a result of the high-intensity neutron field, 10 MW/m 2 or more equivalent neutron wall loading, and the relatively high-energy (10- to 20-MeV) neutrons, the FMIF, as future fusion reactors, also bears the potential capability of producing a significant quantity of radioisotopes. A study is being conducted to identify the potential capability of the FMIF to produce radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications. Two types of radioisotopes are involved: one is already available; the second might not be readily available using conventional production methods. For those radioisotopes that are not readily available, the FMIF could develop significant benefits for future generations as a result of the availability of such radioisotopes for medical or industrial applications. The current production of radioisotopes could help finance the operation of the FMIF for irradiating the candidate fusion materials; thus this concept is attractive. In any case, nuclear data are needed for calculating the neutron flux and spectrum in the FMIF and the potential production rates of these isotopes. In this paper, the authors report the result of a preliminary investigation on the production of 99 Mo, the parent radioisotope for 99m Tc

  20. Release of hydrogen isotopes from carbon based fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the annealing behavior of hydrogen isotopes in carbon based materials. Also, the density of the material and structural changes after thermal treatment and ion irradiation are examined. The study of hydrogen diffusion in diamondlike carbon films revealed an activation energy of 2.0 eV, while the deuterium diffusion, due to better measuring sensitivity, is found to be concentration dependent with the effective diffusion coefficient becoming smaller with decreasing deuterium concentration. To explain the experimentally observed profiles, a model according to which atomic deuterium diffuses and deuterium in clusters is immobile is developed. The concentration of immobile D was assumed to be an analytical function of the total D concentration. To describe the annealing behavior of D incorporated in diamondlike carbon films during the deposition process, a model taking into account diffusion of free D and thermal detrapping and trapping of D was developed. The difference in the analysis explains the disagreement of activation energy (1.5 ± 0.2 eV) with the value of 2,9± 0.1 eV obtained for D implanted samples earlier. The same model was applied to describe the experimental profiles in Si doped diamondlike carbon films. Si affects the retention of D in diamondlike carbon films. The amount of D depends on Si content in the co-deposited but not implanted samples. Besides, Si incorporation into carbon coating decreases to some extent the graphitization of the films and leads to formation of a structure which is stable under thermal treatment and ion irradiation. Hydrogen migration in the hydrogen and methane co-deposited films was also studied. In samples produced in methane atmosphere and annealed at different temperatures, the hydrogen concentration level decreases in the bulk, with more pronounced release at the surface region. In the case of coatings deposited by a methane ion beam, the H level also decreases with increasing

  1. Advanced Computational Materials Science: Application to Fusion and Generation IV Fission Reactors (Workshop Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, RE

    2004-07-15

    The ''Workshop on Advanced Computational Materials Science: Application to Fusion and Generation IV Fission Reactors'' was convened to determine the degree to which an increased effort in modeling and simulation could help bridge the gap between the data that is needed to support the implementation of these advanced nuclear technologies and the data that can be obtained in available experimental facilities. The need to develop materials capable of performing in the severe operating environments expected in fusion and fission (Generation IV) reactors represents a significant challenge in materials science. There is a range of potential Gen-IV fission reactor design concepts and each concept has its own unique demands. Improved economic performance is a major goal of the Gen-IV designs. As a result, most designs call for significantly higher operating temperatures than the current generation of LWRs to obtain higher thermal efficiency. In many cases, the desired operating temperatures rule out the use of the structural alloys employed today. The very high operating temperature (up to 1000 C) associated with the NGNP is a prime example of an attractive new system that will require the development of new structural materials. Fusion power plants represent an even greater challenge to structural materials development and application. The operating temperatures, neutron exposure levels and thermo-mechanical stresses are comparable to or greater than those for proposed Gen-IV fission reactors. In addition, the transmutation products created in the structural materials by the high energy neutrons produced in the DT plasma can profoundly influence the microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of these materials. Although the workshop addressed issues relevant to both Gen-IV and fusion reactor materials, much of the discussion focused on fusion; the same focus is reflected in this report. Most of the physical models and computational methods

  2. End-stage hindfoot arthrosis: outcomes of tibiocalcaneal fusion using internal and Ilizarov fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Brooke; Watson, J Tracy; Jackman, James; Fissel, Brian; Karges, David E

    2014-01-01

    End-stage post-traumatic pantalar arthrosis from ankle, pilon, and talus fractures has often been complicated by infection, bone loss, and a soft tissue deficit. Patients can present with neuropathy, diabetes, tobacco use, and previously failed arthrodesis. Fusion in this population has been challenging, with nonunion rates up to 30%, often leading to amputation. We reviewed the results of a standardized protocol that combined simultaneous internal fixation with the Ilizarov technique to achieve fusion in high-risk patients. With institutional review board approval, a retrospective review of the patients treated with simultaneous internal fixation and an Ilizarov frame was undertaken. The records and radiographs allowed identification of the comorbidities and the presence or absence of successful fusion. Complications were acknowledged and treated. Fifteen patients had undergone the procedure. The mean follow-up period was 27.9 (range 9 to 67) months. Thirteen patients (86.67%) had had previous fusion failure. Twelve patients (80%) had developed post-traumatic arthrosis, 5 (33.33%) of whom had open injuries. All patients had 1 comorbidity, and 10 (66.67%) had multiple, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes (types 1 and 2), and smoking. Four patients (26.67%) presented with deep infection and bone loss. Union was achieved in 11 (73.33%), with 12 (80%) patients experiencing profound pain relief. Seven patients (46.67%) required symptomatic hardware removal. Three patients (20%) eventually underwent below-the-knee amputation for recalcitrant nonunion. Statistically significant correlations were found between smoking and wound infection and revision and between nonunion and amputation. Our results have indicated that combined internal fixation with Ilizarov application can provide a strong surgical option for the management of end-stage, pantalar arthritis. More studies are needed to compare the cohort outcomes and gait analysis in these patients with those who have

  3. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC): Panel 6 report on the Neutron-Interactive Materials (NIM) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    To be commercially accepted, fusion energy must be competitive with other energy sources, especially those producing electricity. Studies like ARIES suggest that direct economic advantages will be difficult to obtain, so one needs to look at the broad array of energy source characteristics. Although one cannot know the precise competitive market in the first half of the next century, safety and environmental performance will surely receive very close attention both now and in the future. Fission energy's economic prospects and public acceptance have been hampered by safety and environmental concerns, especially radioactive waste and the feared potential for catastrophic health impacts from worst-case accidents. Other energy sources may also suffer from safety and environmental problems - fossil fuels produce chemical pollutants, and solar energy entails high use of land and generation of some toxic materials. Even conservation is sometimes not without problems, such as increased indoor air pollution due to reduced ventilation. Successful development of fusion energy requires a materials R ampersand D effort of much larger magnitude and wider breadth than is currently in place. The Neutron Interactive Materials Program (NIM) Program, as defined by the DOE, only includes structural materials and ceramic insulators. However, neutron interactive material requirements include not only the structure, but also plasma-facing surfaces, divertor, coolant, breeder, neutron multiplier, magnets, insulators, and diagnostic component materials. The Panel addressed the broader range of neutron interactive materials, but with greater focus on structural materials

  4. Liquid Metals as Plasma-facing Materials for Fusion Energy Systems: From Atoms to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Koel, Bruce E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bernasek, Steven L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Carter, Emily A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Debenedetti, Pablo G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-06-23

    The objective of our studies was to advance our fundamental understanding of liquid metals as plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems, with a broad scope: from atoms to tokamaks. The flow of liquid metals offers solutions to significant problems of the plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems. Candidate metals include lithium, tin, gallium, and their eutectic combinations. However, such liquid metal solutions can only be designed efficiently if a range of scientific and engineering issues are resolved that require advances in fundamental fluid dynamics, materials science and surface science. In our research we investigated a range of significant and timely problems relevant to current and proposed engineering designs for fusion reactors, including high-heat flux configurations that are being considered by leading fusion energy groups world-wide. Using experimental and theoretical tools spanning atomistic to continuum descriptions of liquid metals, and bridging surface chemistry, wetting/dewetting and flow, our research has advanced the science and engineering of fusion energy materials and systems. Specifically, we developed a combined experimental and theoretical program to investigate flows of liquid metals in fusion-relevant geometries, including equilibrium and stability of thin-film flows, e.g. wetting and dewetting, effects of electromagnetic and thermocapillary fields on liquid metal thin-film flows, and how chemical interactions and the properties of the surface are influenced by impurities and in turn affect the surface wetting characteristics, the surface tension, and its gradients. Because high-heat flux configurations produce evaporation and sputtering, which forces rearrangement of the liquid, and any dewetting exposes the substrate to damage from the plasma, our studies addressed such evaporatively driven liquid flows and measured and simulated properties of the different bulk phases and material interfaces. The range of our studies

  5. Comparative study of somatostatin-human serum albumin fusion proteins and natural somatostatin on receptor binding, internalization and activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Peng

    Full Text Available Albumin fusion technology, the combination of small molecular proteins or peptides with human serum albumin (HSA, is an effective method for improving the medicinal values of natural small molecular proteins or peptides. However, comparative studies between HSA-fusion proteins or peptides and the parent small molecules in biological and molecular mechanisms are less reported. In this study, we examined the binding property of two novel somatostatin-HSA fusion proteins, (SST142-HSA and (SST282-HSA, to human SSTRs in stably expressing SSTR1-5 HEK 293 cells; observed the regulation of receptor internalization and internalized receptor recycling; and detected the receptors activation of HSA fusion proteins in stably expressing SSTR2- and SSTR3-EGFP cells. We showed that both somatostatin-HSA fusion proteins had high affinity to all five SSTRs, stimulated the ERK1/2 phosphorylation and persistently inhibited the accumulation of forskolin-stimulated cAMP in SSTR2- and SSTR3-expressing cells; but were less potent than the synthetic somatostatin-14 (SST-14. Our experiments also showed that somatostatin-HSA fusion proteins did not induce the receptors internalization; rather, they accelerated the recycling of the internalized receptors induced by SST-14 to the plasma membrane. Our results indicated that somatostatin-HSA fusion proteins, different from SST-14, exhibit some particular properties in binding, regulating, and activating somatostatin receptors.

  6. Proceedings of the sixth IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Satoru; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

    2004-03-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the Sixth International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on December 2-5, 2003, at SEAGAIA in Miyazaki City, Japan with 69 participants who attended from Europe, the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, China, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into nine sessions; Status of beryllium study, Plasma and tritium interactions, ITER oriented issues, Neutron irradiation effects, Beryllide application, Disposal and recycling, Molten salt, Health and safety issues and Panel discussion. In the Panel discussion, the international collaboration for three topics, i.e., Neutron irradiation effects, Beryllide application, Recycling and Disposal, were discussed, and necessary items for the international collaboration were proposed. The 46 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Neutron irradiation effects on superconducting and stabilizing materials for fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, W.

    1984-05-01

    Available low-temperature neutron irradiation data for the superconductors NbTi and Nb 3 Sn and the stabilization materials Cu and Al are collected and maximum tolerable doses for these materials are defined. A neutron flux in a reactor of about 10 9 n/cm 2 s at the magnet position is expected. However, in fusion experiments the flux can be higher by an order of magnitude or more. The energy spectrum is similar to a fission reactor. A fluence of about 10 18 n/cm 2 results during the lifetime of a fusion magnet (about 20 full power years). At this fluence and energy spectrum no severe degradation of the superconducting properties of NbTi and Nb 3 Sn will occur. But the radiation-induced resistivity is for Cu about a twentieth of the room temperature resistivity and a tenth for Al. (orig.) [de

  8. The path to fusion power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris; Ward, David

    2007-04-15

    Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in power station conditions the materials that would be used in their construction. Assuming no major adverse surprises, an orderly fusion development programme could lead to a prototype fusion power station putting electricity into the grid within 30 years, with commercial fusion power following some 10 or more years later. In the second half of the century, fusion could therefore be an important part of the portfolio of measures that are needed to cope with rising demand for energy in an environmentally responsible manner. In this paper, we describe the basics of fusion, its potential attractions, the status of fusion R&D, the remaining challenges and how they will be tackled at the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor and the proposed International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, and the timetable for the subsequent commercialization of fusion power.

  9. Towards a programme of testing and qualification for structural and plasma-facing materials in ‘fusion neutron’ environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, D.; Heidinger, R.; Muroga, T.; Zinkle, S. J.; Moeslang, A.; Porton, M.; Boutard, J.-L.; Gonzalez, S.; Ibarra, A.

    2017-09-01

    Materials damage by 14.1MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactions can only be characterised definitively by subjecting a relevant configuration of test materials to high-intensity ‘fusion-neutron spectrum sources’, i.e. those simulating closely D-T fusion-neutron spectra. This provides major challenges to programmes to design and construct a demonstration fusion reactor prior to having a large-scale, high-intensity source of such neutrons. In this paper, we discuss the different aspects related to these ‘relevant configuration’ tests, including: • generic issues in materials qualification/validation, comparing safety requirements against those of investment protection; • lessons learned from the fission programme, enabling a reduced fusion materials testing programme; • the use and limitations of presently available possible irradiation sources to optimise a fusion neutron testing program including fission-neutron irradiation of isotopically and chemically tailored steels, ion damage by high-energy helium ions and self-ion beams, or irradiation studies with neutron sources of non-fusion spectra; and • the different potential sources of simulated fusion neutron spectra and the choice using stripping reactions from deuterium-beam ions incident on light-element targets.

  10. Materials compatibility considerations for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor is a fusion reactor concept that incorporates a fission-suppressed breeding blanket for the production of 233 U to be used in conventional fission power reactors. The present paper reports on compatibility considerations related to the blanket design. These considerations include solid-solid interactions and liquid metal corrosion. Potential problems are discussed relative to the reference blanket operating temperature (490 0 C) and the recycling time of breeding materials (<1 year)

  11. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 42-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero, J.

    1991-01-01

    The bulletin is published by the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide atomic and molecular data relevant to fusion research and technology. In Part I the indexed papers are listed separately for (i) structure and spectra (energy levels, wavelengths; transition probabilities, oscillator strengths; polarizabilities, electric moments; interatomic potentials); (ii) atomic and molecular collisions (photon collisions; electro collisions; heavy-particle collisions; homonuclear sequences), and (iii) surface interactions (sputtering; trapping, detrapping; adsorption, desorption; surface damage; blistering, flaking; chemical reactions). Part II contains the bibliographic data for the above listed topics and for plasma composition and impurities; plasma heating, cooling and fuelling; fusion research of general interest; high energy laser- and beam-matter interaction; interaction of atomic particles with fields. A list of evaluated data bases on atomic and molecular collisions and on particle-surface interactions is also given

  12. 5. IEA International workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The collection includes the abstracts of reports presented to the 5-th IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. The themes of reports are as follows: status of beryllium technology for fusion in Russia; manufacturing and testing of Be armoured first wall mock-up for ITER; development of the process of diffusion welding of metals stainless steel-copper-beryllium into a single composite; some features of beryllium-laser beam interaction; the effect of irradiation dose on tritium and helium release from neutron irradiated beryllium; thermal properties of neutron irradiated Be 12 Ti. The results of investigating the mechanical properties variation and swelling of beryllium under high temperature neutron irradiation are presented [ru

  13. Lipopolysaccharide-induced multinuclear cells: Increased internalization of polystyrene beads and possible signals for cell fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi, E-mail: nakanim@iwate-med.ac.jp; Yano, Shio; Futai, Masamitsu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPS induces multinuclear cells from murine macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells. •Large beads are internalized by cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. •The multinuclear cell formation is inhibited by anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL10. •Signal transduction for cell fusion is different from that for inflammation. -- Abstract: A murine macrophage-derived line, RAW264.7, becomes multinuclear on stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria. These multinuclear cells internalized more polystyrene beads than mononuclear cells or osteoclasts (Nakanishi-Matsui, M., Yano, S., Matsumoto, N., and Futai, M., 2012). In this study, we analyzed the time courses of cell fusion in the presence of large beads. They were internalized into cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. However, the multinuclear cells once formed showed only low phagocytosis activity. These results suggest that formation of the multinuclear cells and bead internalization took place simultaneously. The formation of multinuclear cells was blocked by inhibitors for phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospholipase C, calcineurin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, interleukin 6 and 10 also exhibited inhibitory effects. These signaling molecules and cytokines may play a crucial role in the LPS-induced multinuclear cell formation.

  14. Scientific report. Plasma-wall interaction studies related to fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmerman, G. De

    2006-01-01

    This scientific report summarises research done on erosion and deposition mechanisms affecting the optical reflectivity of potential materials for use in the mirrors used in fusion reactors. Work done in Juelich, Germany, at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, the JET laboratory in England and in Basle is discussed. Various tests made with the mirrors are described. Results obtained are presented in graphical and tabular form and commented on. The influence of various material choices on erosion and deposition mechanisms is discussed

  15. A specific flagellum beating mode for inducing fusion in mammalian fertilization and kinetics of sperm internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Benjamin; Garroum, Nabil; Perez, Eric; Willaime, Hervé; Gourier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The salient phases of fertilization are gamete adhesion, membrane fusion, and internalization of the spermatozoon into the oocyte but the precise timeline and the molecular, membrane and cell mechanisms underlying these highly dynamical events are far from being established. The high motility of the spermatozoa and the unpredictable location of sperm/egg fusion dramatically hinder the use of real time imaging optical techniques that should directly provide the dynamics of cell events. Using an approach based on microfluidics technology, the sperm/egg interaction zone was imaged with the best front view, and the timeline of the fertilization events was established with an unparalleled temporal accuracy from the onset of gamete contact to full sperm DNA decondensation. It reveals that a key element of the adhesion phase to initiate fusion is the oscillatory motion of the sperm head on the oocyte plasma membrane generated by a specific flagellum-beating mode. It also shows that the incorporation of the spermatozoon head is a two steps process that includes simultaneous diving, tilt, and plasma membrane degradation of the sperm head into the oocyte and subsequent DNA decondensation. PMID:27539564

  16. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero, J.

    1993-06-01

    The bulletin is published by the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide atomic and molecular data relevant to fusion research and technology. In Part I the indexed papers are listed separately for (i) structure and spectra (energy levels, wavelengths; transition probabilities, oscillator strengths; interatomic potentials); (ii) atomic and molecular collisions (photon collisions; electron collisions; heavy-particle collisions; homonuclear sequences; isoelectronic sequences), and (iii) surface interactions (sputtering; chemical reactions; trapping and detrapping; surface damage; blistering, flaking; secondary electron emission). Part II contains the bibliographic data for the above listed topics and for high energy laser- and beam-matter interaction; interaction of atomic particles with fields. The atomic and molecular data needs in fusion research, as identified during the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on 'Atomic and Molecular Database for Hydrogen Recycling and Helium Exhaust from Fusion Reactors', June 1992, Vienna, are listed, covering (i) atomic and molecular collision processes, (ii) particle-surface interaction processes, and (iii) the status of data bases on atomic and molecular data and plasma-surface interactions. News on the ALADDIN (A labelled Atomic Data INterface) system is provided. Finally, a list of evaluated atomic and molecular data bases is provided

  17. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 54-55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    This bulletin is published by the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide atomic and molecular data relevant to fusion research and technology. In the first part the indexed papers are listed separately for (i) structure and spectra (energy levels, wavelengths, transition probabilities, oscillator strengths, polarizabilities, electric moments, interatomic potentials), (ii) atomic and molecular collisions (photon collisions, electron collisions, heavy-particle collisions), and (iii) surface interactions (sputtering, chemical reactions, trapping and detrapping, adsorption, desorption, reflection, and secondary electron emission). There are also chapters with beam-matter interactions and data on interactions of atomic particles with fields. In the second Part contains the bibliographic data, essentially for the above listed topics

  18. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. Nos. 50-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero, J.; Stephens, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    This bulletin is published by the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide atomic and molecular data relevant to fusion research and technology. In part 1 the indexed papers are listed separately for (i) structure and spectra (energy levels, wavelengths, transition probabilities, oscillator strengths, polarizabilities, electric moments, interatomic potentials); (ii) atomic and molecular collisions (photon collisions, electron collisions, heavy-particle collisions); and (iii) surface interactions (sputtering, chemical reactions, trapping and detrapping, adsorption, desorption, reflection, and secondary electron emission). Part 2 contains the bibliographic data, essentially for the above listed topics

  19. Report of the DOE panel on low activation materials for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    In February, 1982, the Office of Fusion Energy, DOE, through its Division of Development and Technology, established a Panel to examine materials with attractive radioactivation characteristics for applications in fusion power reactors. Since February, the Panel has met together and in subgroups numerous times. Input from knowledgeable people was elicited via a two day workshop held at UCLA in April, 1982. The agenda, titles of talks, and speakers are given in Appendix II. We present here a synopsis of the Panel's findings based upon both external information provided to us and upon the work and deliberations of the Panel itself. Conclusions and recommendations follow. Background technical information brought together by the Panel is relegated to Appendices III and IV.

  20. Oxidation/volatilization rates in air for candidate fusion reactor blanket materials, PCA and HT-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Kraus, H.G.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Jones, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Large uncertainties exist in the quantity of neutron-induced activation products that can be mobilized in potential fusion accidents. The accidental combination of high temperatures and oxidizing conditions might lead to mobilization of a significant amount of activation products from structural materials. Here, the volatilization of constituents of PCA and HT-9 resulting from oxidation in air was investigated. Tests were conducted in flowing air at temperatures from 600 to 1300 0 C for 1, 5, or 20 hours. Elemental volatility was calculated in terms of the weight fraction of the element volatilized from the initial alloy. Molybdenum and manganese were the radiologically significant primary constituents most volatilized, suggesting that molybdenum and manganese should be minimized in fusion steel compositions. Higher chromium content appears beneficial in reducing hazards from mobile activation products. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the oxide layer on samples

  1. Energy from inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book contains 22 articles on inertial fusion energy (IFE) research and development written in the framework of an international collaboration of authors under the guidance of an advisory group on inertial fusion energy set up in 1991 to advise the IAEA. It describes the actual scientific, engineering and technological developments in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It also identifies ways in which international co-operation in ICF could be stimulated. The book is intended for a large audience and provides an introduction to inertial fusion energy and an overview of the various technologies needed for IFE power plants to be developed. It contains chapters on (i) the fundamentals of IFE; (ii) inertial confinement target physics; (iii) IFE power plant design principles (requirements for power plant drivers, solid state laser drivers, gas laser drivers, heavy ion drivers, and light ion drivers, target fabrication and positioning, reaction chamber systems, power generation and conditioning and radiation control, materials management and target materials recovery), (iv) special design issues (radiation damage in structural materials, induced radioactivity, laser driver- reaction chamber interfaces, ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces), (v) inertial fusion energy development strategy, (vi) safety and environmental impact, (vii) economics and other figures of merit; (viii) other uses of inertial fusion (both those involving and not involving implosions); and (ix) international activities. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Advanced materials characterization and modeling using synchrotron, neutron, TEM, and novel micro-mechanical techniques - A European effort to accelerate fusion materials development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Fu, C.-C.; Kaprolat, A.

    2013-01-01

    having energies up to 14 MeV. In addition to withstanding the effects of neutrons, the mechanical stability of structural materials has to be maintained up to high temperatures. Plasma-exposed materials must be compatible with the fusion plasma, both with regard to the generation of impurities injected......For the realization of fusion as an energy source, the development of suitable materials is one of the most critical issues. The required material properties are in many aspects unique compared to the existing solutions, particularly the need for necessary resistance to irradiation with neutrons...... as testing under neutron flux-induced conditions. For the realization of a DEMO power plant, the materials solutions must be available in time. The European initiative FEMaS-CA – Fusion Energy Materials Science – Coordination Action – aims at accelerating materials development by integrating advanced...

  3. Cellular Foams: A Potential Innovative Solid Breeder Material for Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, S.; Ghoniem, N.; Williams, B.; Babcock, J.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic foam and cellular materials are being used in a wide variety of industries and are finding ever growing number of applications. Over the past decade advances in manufacturing of cellular materials have resulted in ceramics with highly uniform interconnected porosities ranging in size from a few μm to several mm. These relatively new ceramic foam materials have a unique set of thermo-mechanical properties, such as excellent thermal shock resistance and high surface to volume ratios. Based on new advances in processing ceramic foams, we suggest the development of ceramic foams or cellular ceramics for solid breeders in fusion reactor blankets. A cellular breeder material has a number of thermo-mechanical advantages over pebble beds, which can enhance blanket performance, improve operational stability, and reduce overall blanket costs

  4. Report of the 1991 workshop on particle-material interactions for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Annual Workshop on Particle-Material Interactions in the Working Group of the Research Committee on A and M Data was held at the head-quarters of JAERI, Tokyo, on December 12-13, 1991. The purpose of the Workshop was to obtain future prospects for the activities of the Working Group, by discussing current states and problems in the research on particle-material interactions relevant to the thermocontrolled fusion. The present report contains 16 papers presented at the Workshop, which are mainly concerned with plasma-facing materials in ITER, radiation damage in carbon materials, trapping, emission and permeation of hydrogen in metals, and heavy ion-solid surface interactions. (author)

  5. The emissivity of W coatings deposited on carbon materials for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruset, C., E-mail: ruset@infim.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Falie, D.; Grigore, E.; Gherendi, M.; Zoita, V. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Zastrow, K.-D.; Matthews, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Courtois, X.; Bucalossi, J. [IRFM, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 SAINT PAUL LEZ DURANCE (France); Likonen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The emissivity of tungsten coatings deposited on carbon substrates such as CFC and fine grain graphite was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm in the temperature range of 400 °C–1200 °C. • The emissivity of other materials of interest for nuclear fusion such as tungsten and beryllium was measured as well. • The influence of substrate structure and of the viewing angle on the emissivity of W coatings was investigated in detail. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings deposited on carbon materials such as carbon fiber composite (CFC) or fine grain graphite are currently used in fusion devices as amour for plasma facing components (PFC). More than 4000 carbon tiles were W-coated by Combined Magnetron Sputtering and Ion Implantation technology for the ITER-like Wall at JET, ASDEX Upgrade and WEST tokamaks. The emissivity of W coatings is a key parameter required by protection systems of the W-coated PFC and also by the diagnostic tools in order to get correct values of temperature and heat loading. The emissivity of tungsten is rather well known, but the literature data refer to bulk tungsten or tungsten foils and not to coatings deposited on carbon materials. The emissivity was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm. It was found that the structure of the substrate has a significant influence on the emissivity values. The temperature dependence of the emissivity in the range of 400 °C–1200 °C and the influence of the viewing angle were investigated as well. The results are given in a table for W coatings and for other materials of interest for fusion such as bulk W and bulk Be.

  6. Helium desorption in EFDA iron materials for use in nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar R, A. R.; Pinedo V, J. L.; Sanchez, F. J.; Ibarra, A.; Vila, R.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the implantation with monoenergetic ions (He + ) was realized with an energy of 5 KeV in iron samples (99.9999 %) EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement) using a collimated beam, after this a Thermal Desorption Spectrometry of Helium (THeDS) was made using a leak meter that detects amounts of helium of up to 10 - - 12 mbar l/s. Doses with which the implantation was carried out were 2 x 10 15 He + /cm 2 , 1 x 10 16 He + /cm 2 , 2 x 10 16 He + /cm 2 , 1 x 10 17 He + /cm 2 during times of 90 s, 450 s, 900 s and 4500 s, respectively. Also, using the SRIM program was calculated the depth at which the helium ions penetrate the sample of pure ion, finding that the maximum distance is 0.025μm in the sample. For this study, 11 samples of Fe EFDA were prepared to find defects that are caused after implantation of helium in order to provide valuable information to the manufacture of materials for future fusion reactors. However understand the effects of helium in the micro structural evolution and mechanical properties of structural materials are some of the most difficult questions to answer in materials research for nuclear fusion. When analyzing the spectra of THeDS was found that five different groups of desorption peaks existed, which are attributed to defects of He caused in the material, these defects are He n V (2≤n≤6), He n V m , He V for the groups I, II and IV respectively. These results are due to the comparison of the peaks presented in the desorption spectrum of He, with those of other authors who have made theoretical calculations. Is important to note that the thermal desorption spectrum of helium was different depending on the dose with which the implantation of He + was performed. (Author)

  7. The emissivity of W coatings deposited on carbon materials for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruset, C.; Falie, D.; Grigore, E.; Gherendi, M.; Zoita, V.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Matthews, G.; Courtois, X.; Bucalossi, J.; Likonen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The emissivity of tungsten coatings deposited on carbon substrates such as CFC and fine grain graphite was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm in the temperature range of 400 °C–1200 °C. • The emissivity of other materials of interest for nuclear fusion such as tungsten and beryllium was measured as well. • The influence of substrate structure and of the viewing angle on the emissivity of W coatings was investigated in detail. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings deposited on carbon materials such as carbon fiber composite (CFC) or fine grain graphite are currently used in fusion devices as amour for plasma facing components (PFC). More than 4000 carbon tiles were W-coated by Combined Magnetron Sputtering and Ion Implantation technology for the ITER-like Wall at JET, ASDEX Upgrade and WEST tokamaks. The emissivity of W coatings is a key parameter required by protection systems of the W-coated PFC and also by the diagnostic tools in order to get correct values of temperature and heat loading. The emissivity of tungsten is rather well known, but the literature data refer to bulk tungsten or tungsten foils and not to coatings deposited on carbon materials. The emissivity was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm. It was found that the structure of the substrate has a significant influence on the emissivity values. The temperature dependence of the emissivity in the range of 400 °C–1200 °C and the influence of the viewing angle were investigated as well. The results are given in a table for W coatings and for other materials of interest for fusion such as bulk W and bulk Be.

  8. Recent developments in neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations for fusion-materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is intended as an overview of activities designed to characterize neutron irradiation facilities in terms of neutron flux and energy spectrum and to use these data to calculate atomic displacements, gas production, and transmutation during fusion materials irradiations. A new computerized data file, called DOSFILE, has recently been developed to record dosimetry and damage data from a wide variety of materials test facilities. At present data are included from 20 different irradiations at fast and mixed-spectrum reactors, T(d,n) 14 MeV neutron sources, Be(d,n) broad-spectrum sources, and spallation neutron sources. Each file entry includes activation data, adjusted neutron flux and spectral data, and calculated atomic displacements and gas production. Such data will be used by materials experimenters to determine the exposure of their samples during specific irradiations. This data base will play an important role in correlating property changes between different facilities and, eventually, in predicting materials performance in fusion reactors. All known uncertainties and covariances are listed for each data record and explicit references are given to nuclear decay data and cross sections

  9. Fusion fuel blanket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-05-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of a fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium is converted into useful product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. As fusion research turns from present short-pulse physics experiments to long-burn engineering tests in the 1990's, energy removal and tritium production capabilities become important. This technology will involve new materials, conditions and processes with applications both to fusion and beyond. In this paper, we introduce features of proposed blanket designs and update and status of international research. In focusing on the Canadian blanket technology program, we discuss the aqueous lithium salt blanket concept, and the in-reactor tritium recovery test program

  10. Proceedings of the international workshop on spallation materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, L.K.; Ullmaier, H. [comps.

    1996-10-01

    This document contains papers which were presented at the International Workshop on Spallation Materials Technology. Topics included: overviews and thermal response; operational experience; materials experience; target station and component design; particle transport and damage calculations; neutron sources; and compatibility.

  11. Proceedings of the international workshop on spallation materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Ullmaier, H.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains papers which were presented at the International Workshop on Spallation Materials Technology. Topics included: overviews and thermal response; operational experience; materials experience; target station and component design; particle transport and damage calculations; neutron sources; and compatibility

  12. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  13. Structures and Materials of Reactor Internals for PWR in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Kim, W. S.; Kwon, S. C.; Kwon, J. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, H. P.; Yoo, C. S.; Lee, S. R.; Jung, M. K.; Hwang, S. S

    2007-10-15

    Nuclear reactor types in Korea are PWR type reactor (Westinghouse, Combustion Engineering, Farmatome type) and CANDU type reactor. Structures and Materials for reactor internal of PWR type were investigated. Reactor internal was composed of lower core support structure, upper core support assembly, incore instrumentation support structure. Lower core support structure of these structures is the most important. The major material for the reactor internal is type 304 and 316 stainless steel and radial support clevis bolts are made of Inconel. The main damage mechanism for reactor internal was IASCC and the effect of IASCC on reactor internal was investigated. The accident for reactor internal was also investigate.

  14. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  15. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [es

  16. 2. International workshop on spallation materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsughi, F.; Mansur, L.K.; Sommer, W.F.; Ullmaier, H.

    1997-11-01

    This document contains 25 papers consisting an abstract prepared by the authors, followed by copies of the presentation viewgraphs used by speakers. The topics were: Target options for SINQ; Overview of the NSNS target system; ISIS target and moderator materials; Trispal project; JHF N-ARENA; Design, load conditions and manufacturing aspect of the ESS MERCURY TARGET unit; Radiation damage simulatiion to measure recoil spectra distribution; Radiation damage calculation to spallation neutron source materials; Hadron-induced neutron production in Pb and U targets from 1-5 GeV; Proton beam effects on W rods, surface cooled by water; Corrosion and fatigue behavior of metals and alloys in high radiation fields; compability of materials with mercury for NSNS target system; Research activities at PSI on structural materials for spallation neutron source; The accelerator production of tritium materials reserach program and Los Alamos National Laboratory; Experimental program on irradiation effects in structural materials of the Trispal project; First pulsed power materials test at Livermore; Plan of thermal shock fracture test at JAERI; Is there a hydrogen problem in target materials in high-power spatllation source?; Materials consideration for the NSNS target; Materials durability issures in spallation neutron source applications; Post-irradiation investigations at the FZJ; Microstructure and hardening of steels containing high helium concentrations; Tensile properties and microstructure of the F82H ferritic-martensitic steel after irradiation in the PIREX facility

  17. Results of lumbar spondylodeses using different bone grafting materials after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonderHoeh, Nicolas Heinz; Voelker, Anna; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard

    2017-11-01

    Can a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HA) and autologous bone from decompression sites produce similar results when used for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)? In the current literature, autologous iliac crest bone grafts (ICBGs) have been reported the gold standard for this procedure. Indeed, to date, no clinical data have confirmed that a mixture of equal volumes of HA and local autologous bone produce similar results in term of fusion as the same volume of autologous ICBG alone. Study design/setting This study was approved by the local ethics committee and completed in a prospective, randomized, single-blinded manner. The results of lumbar fusion using TLIF and different bone grafting materials were compared. Patient sample The patient sample included patients with spinal lumbar degenerative disease. Outcome measures The clinical outcome was determined using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The radiological outcomes and fusion rates were determined with radiographs evaluated using the McAfee criteria and computed tomography (CT) data evaluated by the Williams criteria. Three blinded investigators (one radiologist and two orthopedic surgeons) assessed the data. The secondary variables included donor site morbidity. Methods The patients were admitted to our department for orthopedic surgery with degenerative lumbar pathologies (L2-S1) that required stabilization in one or two segments using a TLIF procedure. The patients were 18-80 years old. Only those patients who had degenerative lumbar pathologies and agreed to be educated about the study were included. The patients were divided into the following two randomized groups: group A: TLIF procedure using autologous ICBGs alone; and group B: TLIF procedure using local bone from decompression site mixed with hydroxyapatite. Each group received equal graft volumes. The mixture in group B consisted of equal volumes of local autograft (5 cc) and synthetic

  18. International conventions for measuring radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    In buildings, whether civil or industrial, natural radioactivity always occurs at different degrees in the materials (main building materials, decorative materials). Concerns on radioactivity from building materials is unavoidable for human living and developing. As a member of WTO, China's measuring method of radioactivity for building materials, including radionuclides limitation for building materials, hazard evaluation system etc, should keep accordance with the international rules and conventions. (author)

  19. Decree 2805 by means of which the National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, is established

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Decree has for object to establish a National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, under the supervision of the National Council for the Nuclear Industry Development. Its aims are to account nuclear materials, to control nuclear activities, to preserve and control nuclear information, to keep technical relationship with specialized organizations, and to garant nuclear safeguards [es

  20. Gene expression, single nucleotide variant and fusion transcript discovery in archival material from breast tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Norton

    Full Text Available Advantages of RNA-Seq over array based platforms are quantitative gene expression and discovery of expressed single nucleotide variants (eSNVs and fusion transcripts from a single platform, but the sensitivity for each of these characteristics is unknown. We measured gene expression in a set of manually degraded RNAs, nine pairs of matched fresh-frozen, and FFPE RNA isolated from breast tumor with the hybridization based, NanoString nCounter (226 gene panel and with whole transcriptome RNA-Seq using RiboZeroGold ScriptSeq V2 library preparation kits. We performed correlation analyses of gene expression between samples and across platforms. We then specifically assessed whole transcriptome expression of lincRNA and discovery of eSNVs and fusion transcripts in the FFPE RNA-Seq data. For gene expression in the manually degraded samples, we observed Pearson correlations of >0.94 and >0.80 with NanoString and ScriptSeq protocols, respectively. Gene expression data for matched fresh-frozen and FFPE samples yielded mean Pearson correlations of 0.874 and 0.783 for NanoString (226 genes and ScriptSeq whole transcriptome protocols respectively, p<2x10(-16. Specifically for lincRNAs, we observed superb Pearson correlation (0.988 between matched fresh-frozen and FFPE pairs. FFPE samples across NanoString and RNA-Seq platforms gave a mean Pearson correlation of 0.838. In FFPE libraries, we detected 53.4% of high confidence SNVs and 24% of high confidence fusion transcripts. Sensitivity of fusion transcript detection was not overcome by an increase in depth of sequencing up to 3-fold (increase from ~56 to ~159 million reads. Both NanoString and ScriptSeq RNA-Seq technologies yield reliable gene expression data for degraded and FFPE material. The high degree of correlation between NanoString and RNA-Seq platforms suggests discovery based whole transcriptome studies from FFPE material will produce reliable expression data. The RiboZeroGold ScriptSeq protocol

  1. Proceedings of the Symposium on Structural and Refractory Materials for Fusion and Fission Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaa, J.; Samaras, M.; Serrano de Caro, M.; Victoria, M.; Wirth, B.

    2008-01-01

    The development of future fusion and Generation IV fission reactor power plant concepts will require extensive materials research to solve numerous technological problems. Structural components in these future reactors will be subjected to complex thermomechanical loading, higher operating temperatures, and high-irradiation doses (up to 100 dpa) which are beyond the current capabilities of conventional materials. Consequently, numerous worldwide research activities are under way to develop and qualify novel structural materials. At present, the most attractive candidate materials include low-activation ferritic martensitic steels and their ODS variants, vanadium alloys, SiC/SiC composites, as well as refractory materials like tungsten alloys and their ODS variants. The aim of this symposium is to provide an open forum for the discussion of materials issues and problems, and to promote future collaborations. Papers cover the following areas: Materials processing and development by composition and treatment; Irradiation effects, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties degradation; Modeling of damage evolution and alloy stability; Mechanical properties and structural integrity; Materials-design interface, characterization, and modeling of constitutive behavior; Nuclear fuel element modeling; Ferritic/martensitic steels and ODS variants

  2. Data compilation for radiation effects on hydrogen recycle in fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Kunio; Fukushima, Kimichika; Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1984-05-01

    Irradiation tests of materials by hydrogen isotopes are under way, to investigate the hydrogen recycling process where exchange of fuel particles takes place between plasma and the wall of the nuclear fusion reactor. In the report, data on hydrogen irradiation are collected and reviewed from the view point of irradiation effects. Data are classified into, (1) Re-emmission, (2) Retention, (Retained hydrogen isotopes, Depth profile in the materials and Thermal desorption spectroscopy), (3) Permeation and (4) Ion impact desorption. Research activities in each area are arranged according to the date of publication, research institutes, materials investigated, so that overview of present status can be made. Then, institute, author and reference are shown for each classification with tables. The list of literature is also attached. (author)

  3. Particle and energy reflection of fusion α-particles from some first wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhengming Luo; Bin Jiang; Qing Hou

    1993-01-01

    The particle and energy reflection coefficients of fusion α-particles with energies from 100 eV to 100 keV from the surfaces of some first wall materials are calculated by the improved bipartition model for light ion transport. The influence of the surface barrier upon the reflection of α-particles is investigated. The calculated data also include the dependence of the reflection coefficients on the angle of incidence. The comparisons of present results with those of relevant experiments and Monte Carlo simulations show that the bipartition model may yield reasonably accurate reflection data for light ions. (author)

  4. Helium flaking in metals and alloys promising as first-wall materials in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Ionova, E.S.; Mansurova, A.N.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Nikol'skij, Yu.V.; Stepanchikov, V.A.; Chelnokov, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    Main peculiar features of flaking (the process of separating an irradiated layer from the metal surface under the pressure of intruded gas) in dependence on radiation doses, target temperature during irradiation, ions energy, orientation and chemical composition of targets are given. A review is represented on flaking in various materials promising for the first wall in fusion reactors under helium ion bombardment. Flaking is observed in the temperature range of 0.1 to 0.45, Tsub(melt) and leads to surface erosion to a greater extent than blistering [ru

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of interactions between hydrogen and fusion-relevant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooij, Dagmar de

    2010-01-01

    In a thermonuclear reactor fusion between hydrogen isotopes takes place, producing helium and energy. The so-called divertor is the part of the fusion reactor vessel where the plasma is neutralized in order to exhaust the helium. The surface plates of the divertor are subjected to high heat loads and high fluxes of energetic hydrogen and helium. In the next generation fusion device - the tokamak ITER - the expected conditions at the plates are particle fluxes exceeding 10 24 per second and square metre, particle energies ranging from 1 to 100 eV and an average heat load of 10 MW per square metre. Two materials have been identified as candidates for the ITER divertor plates: carbon and tungsten. Since there are currently no fusion devices that can create these harsh conditions, it is unknown how the materials will behave in terms of erosion and hydrogen retention. To gain more insight in the physical processes under these conditions molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted. Since diamond has been proposed as possible plasma facing material, we have studied erosion and hydrogen retention in diamond and amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H). As in experiments, diamond shows a lower erosion yield than a-C:H, however the hydrogen retention in diamond is much larger than in a-C:H and also hardly depending on the substrate temperature. This implies that simple heating of the surface is not sufficient to retrieve the hydrogen from diamond material, whereas a-C:H readily releases the retained hydrogen. So, in spite of the higher erosion yield carbon material other than diamond seems more suitable. Experiments suggest that the erosion yield of carbon material decreases with increasing flux. This was studied in our simulations. The results show no flux dependency, suggesting that the observed reduction is not a material property but is caused by external factors as, for example, redeposition of the erosion products. Our study of the redeposition showed that the

  6. Spectrographic determination of impurities in ceramic materials for nuclear fusion reactors. II. Analysis of magnesium aluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Rucandio, M.I.; Melon, A.

    1990-01-01

    The determination of minor and trace elements in the magnesium aluminate, considered as possible mataerial in thermonuclear fusion reactors, has been studied. The concentaration ranges are 0.1-0.3 % for Ca, Si and Y, and at the ppm level for Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Ta, Ti, V and Zr. Atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current arc excitation and photographic detection has been employed. For Hf, Ta and Zr the use of 40% of copper fluoride as a carrier and of Nb as internal standard provide suitable sensitivities and precissions, while for the rest of elements the best results are obtained with graphite power in different proportions and Rb or Sn as internal standard. (Author). 4 refs

  7. 2nd International Symposium on Materials Chemistry (ISMC-2008)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2010-01-15

    Jan 15, 2010 ... The Special issue of this journal is based on the lectures delivered at the 2nd International. Symposium on Materials Chemistry (ISMC-2008) held during 2–6 December 2008 at. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The success of the first International Sympo- sium on Materials Chemistry, organized ...

  8. Composite materials for high heat and particle flux components in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Brooks, J.N.; DeWald, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    We discuss the use of composite materials based on the use of self-sustaining coatings to reduce sputtering-induced erosion in magnetic confinement fusion devices while providing enhanced high-heat flux properties. One material, a copper-lithium alloy has been described previously. A second group of materials consists of porous tungsten, tungsten carbide, or tantalum, impregnated with an alkali metal alumino-silicate. These materials form an alkali metal overlayer similar to that found on the Cu-Li alloy. A third group of materials is obtained by infiltrating the porous high-Z refractory metal with an alkali metal-bearing alloy such as Cu-Li or Al-Li. These materials combine the high thermal conductivity of the infiltrate material with the high-temperature strength and melt layer stability of tungsten or tantalum. Calculations of the sputtering properties indicate that it may be possible to use a tungsten composite limiter at plasma edge temperatures up to approx.300 eV

  9. Fusion materials studies and technological experiments in test thermonuclear reactor-tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altovskij, I.V.; Gornostaev, B.D.; Blinov, I.A.; Gur'ev, V.V.; Zujkov, G.A.; Osadchij, N.A.; Tochenyj, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive studies of materials (strength, radiation resistance, reliability and safety) should be made to substantiate designs during the initial stage of R and D and the choice of the final version for the design of the blanket and energy conversion system. It is evident that those experimental devices which are available or planned are not capable of simulating effects on the OTR blanket units (high neutron flux, strong electromagnetic fields, stresses due to coolant pressure at operating temperature and own weight, plasma effects, etc.). Therefore, in OTR design, constructive decisions should be taken on the use of the tokamak OTR as a unique experimental device for real full-scale tests of construction, uranium, lithium and protective materials (antidiffusion coatings for radiation safety, etc.) intended for long term reliable and safe operation in future commercial fusion reactors. In the paper, consideration is given to some experimental devices intended for the study of the physical and mechanical properties of materials under loads typical of blanket operation; research into the mutual compatibility of construction materials, with coolant and operating materials; the study of the efficiency and reliability of material coatings; and the determination of optimal operating temperature ranges for materials, etc. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs

  10. Intelligibility Is Equity: Can International Students Read Undergraduate Admissions Materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zachary W.

    2018-01-01

    Fewer international students have applied to and enrolled in US institutions, as 40 per cent of US institutions reported a drop in international applications since 2016. Subsequently, US institutions must ensure that their international admissions materials are as equitable and transparent as possible. Expanding previous work, this study examines…

  11. Evolution and results of LCT, international collaboration of superconducting coil development for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Susumu

    1987-01-01

    This international collaboration has been promoted centering around the International Energy Agency since ten years ago. This work is that of advancing joint experiments on the equal footing by several countries gathering with large hardwares. As the result, unlike the international collaboration carried out so far, much experiences have been brought in. Now this work is going to be successfully completed. At this time, the realities of the international collaboration experienced through this work are reported while referring to a part of the technical results. Superconductors were found at the end of 1950s, and the technical development of superconducting coils has been advanced mainly for the equipment of high energy physics in foreign countries, while in Japan, for MHD electricity generation and magnetic levitation train. The TFTR (USA), JET (Euratom) and JT-60 (Japan) aiming at the attainment of critical plasma use normal conduction coils, but the agreement on the LCT project was signed in the autumn of 1977, which aims at the development of the superconducting coils for fusion experimental reactors. The development of coil manufacture in respective countries and the experiments in Japan and Euratom, some episode in the negotiation, the experiment on six coils and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Proceedings: 2nd IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1995-09-01

    The 2nd IEA International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion was held September 6--8, 1995 at Jackson Lake Lodge, Wyoming. Forty-four participants took part in the workshop representing Europe, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the United States including representatives from both government laboratories and private industry. The workshop was divided into six technical sessions and a ``town meeting`` panel discussion. Technical sessions addressed the general topics of: Thermomechanical Properties; Manufacturing Technologies; Radiation Effects; Plasma/Tritium Interactions; Safety, Applications, and Design; and Joining and Testing. This volume contains the majority of the papers presented at the workshop. In some instances, the authors of the papers could not be present at the workshop, and the papers were given by others, sometimes in summary form and in some instances combined with others. The full papers are included here in the sequence in which they would have been given. In other instances, presentations were made but no papers were submitted for publication. Those papers do not appear here. In summary, the workshop was very successful. The main objectives of bringing key members of the fusion beryllium community together was certainly met. Forty-four participants registered, and 35 papers were presented. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy data bases.

  13. Survey of Materials for Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors Vol 1 Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph Collin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemistry Materials and Life Sciences Directorate

    2007-07-03

    Materials for fusion-fission hybrid reactors fall into several broad categories, including fuels, blanket and coolant materials, cladding, structural materials, shielding, and in the specific case of inertial-confinement fusion systems, laser and optical materials. This report surveys materials in all categories of materials except for those required for lasers and optics. Preferred collants include two molten salt mixtures known as FLIBE (Li2BeF4) and FLINABE (LiNaBeF4). In the case of homogenous liquid fuels, UF4 can be dissolved in these molten salt mixtures. The transmutation of lithium in this coolant produces very corrosive hydrofluoric acid species (HF and TF), which can rapidly degrade structural materials. Broad ranges of high-melting radiation-tolerant structural material have been proposed for fusion-fission reactor structures. These include a wide variety of steels and refractory alloys. Ferritic steels with oxide-dispersion strengthening and graphite have been given particular attention. Refractory metals are found in Groups IVB and VB of the periodic table, and include Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, and W, as serve as the basis of refractory alloys. Stable high-melting composites and amorphous metals may also be useful. Since amorphous metals have no lattice structure, neutron bombardment cannot dislodge atoms from lattice sites, and the materials would be immune from this specific mode of degradation. The free energy of formation of fluorides of the alloying elements found in steels and refractory alloys can be used to determine the relative stability of these materials in molten salts. The reduction of lithium transmutation products (H+ and T+) drives the electrochemical corrosion process, and liberates aggressive fluoride ions that pair with ions formed from dissolved structural materials. Corrosion can be suppressed through the use of metallic Be and Li, though the molten salt becomes laden with colloidal suspensions of Be and Li corrosion

  14. Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop on the Theory of Fusion Plasmas 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas took place in Varenna from August 29 to September 2 2016. Several issues of interest for fusion plasmas were addressed, namely MHD stability, RF heating, collisional and turbulent transport, plasma wall interaction, and physics of burning plasmas. The articles published in this special issue illustrate nicely the well balanced combination of physics, applied mathematics, and computer sciences that characterizes this workshop. Let us mention several attractive topics, which are addressed in this issue. The question of 3D MHD equilibrium in tokamaks has received a great deal of attention, in connection with external resonant magnetic perturbations in tokamaks, and also stochastic edge in stellarators. The reader will also find some recent developments related to the effect of current drive and heating on the stability of tearing modes. As usual, turbulent transport is addressed in much detail. Several papers address specific numerical aspects of fluid and gyrokinetic codes, including code optimisation. Physics issues are abundantly dealt with, such as the impact of fast particles on turbulence, and particle transport. New numerical techniques to model wave propagation are presented, which provide significant advances in the field. Refinements such as the effect of density fluctuation on wave propagation, or the interaction between particles and the electromagnetic field near antennas, have also been studied in depth. Finally, specific issues such as nonlocal transport, decay of zonal flows, and the effect of neutrals on rotation have been investigated. A striking feature of the 2016 edition was the large number of young faces among the participants. This is a great satisfaction for the organizers since a new generation of scientists is certainly needed whilst several devices come to operation, or will do so in a foreseeable future. The diversity and quality of the papers published in

  15. Investigation of Liquid Metal Embrittlement of Materials for use in Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel; Jaworski, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Liquid metals can provide a continually replenished material for the first wall and extraction blankets of fusion reactors. However, research has shown that solid metal surfaces will experience embrittlement when exposed to liquid metals under stress. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes in structural strength of the solid metal materials and test different surface treatments that can limit embrittlement. Research was conducted to design and build an apparatus for exposing solid metal samples to liquid metal under high stress and temperature. The apparatus design, results of tensile testing, and surface imaging of fractured samples will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  16. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of W/SiC bonding for structural material in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, H.; Shibayama, T.; Shimoda, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kohyama, A.

    2011-01-01

    The SiC/SiC composites are expected to be employed as structural materials in fusion reactors after DEMO. Tungsten may be used as armor material of divertor to protect from the high temperature heat flux. An advanced SiC/SiC composite, NITE SiC/SiC, has excellent resistance to high stress and temperature, and diffusion and sinter bonding methods using high temperature are able to join SiC/SiC composites. This work evaluates the microstructure of interphases when tungsten is joined to SiC to screen potential bonding techniques. The W/SiC joints were produced by diffusion bonding, sinter bonding and liquid phase sinter bonding methods using the hot-pressing methods. Evaluation by SEM, EPMA, TEM and shear test showed the promise of these bonding methods.

  17. A survey of the properties of copper alloys for use as fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, G.J.; Forty, C.B.A.

    1992-01-01

    Pure copper and some selected dilute alloys are widely utilised in experimental plasma confinement devices and have also been proposed for various applications in fusion power reactors where a high thermal or electrical conductivity in the material is required. Available data on physical mechanical properties of a number of commercial coppers and alloys at elevated temperatures are collated and reviewed as an aid to materials selection and component design. Properties examined include the thermal and electrical conductivities, thermal fatigue resistance, softening behaviour, and creep and fatigue strengths. The effects of neutron irradiation on copper alloys are briefly discussed in terms of radiation damage and its influence on conductivity and mechanical properties, the compositional changes occurring through transmutation and the induced activity and associated γ-dose rate and biological hazard potential. Data emerging from recent fission reactor irradiation programmes on void swelling and changes in electrical conductivity and mechanical properties are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  18. Preliminary evaluation of beta-spodumene as a fusion reactor structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.; Schmunk, R.E.; Henslee, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Beta-spodumene was investigated as a candidate material for use in fusion reactor environments. Properties which support the use of beta-spodumene include good thermal shock resistance, a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, a low-Z composition which would result in minimum impact on the plasma, and flexibility in fabrication processes. Specimens were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a fluence of 5.3 x 10 22 n/m 2 , E > 0.1 MeV, and 4.9 x 10 23 n/m 2 thermal fluence in order to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the impact of irradiation on the material. Preliminary data indicate that the mechanical properties of beta-spodumene are little affected by irradiation. Gas production and release have also been investigated

  19. Thermal-fatigue properties of coated materials for fusion device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullendore, A.W.; Whitley, J.B.; Mattox, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The adherence of plasma sprayed coatings of TiC, VC, TiB 2 and B on substrates of Cu, 316 SS, Mo, Ta and Poco AXF-5Q artificial graphite has been evaluated in a pulsed electron beam, thermal fatigue environment. The materials are candidates for application as limiter and armor components of tokamak fusion devices. Up to 500 cycles of heating at power densities of 1.5 kW/cm 2 for 1.5 sec. were used. Materials were tested both in the as-sprayed (19 to 33% porosity) condition and after hot isostatic pressing (HIP) to increase coating density. Some (e.g. TiC on Mo and Ta) showed good survivability in both the as-sprayed and HIP densified conditions. TiB 2 on Mo and Ta and VC on Poco graphite were improved while TiC + V on Mo and Ta were degraded by the HIP treatment

  20. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1994. V.2. Proceedings of the fifteenth international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of the proceedings of the 15th International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research held in Seville, Spain, from 26 September - 1 October 1994. Contained it volume 2 are the combined poster sessions on core plasma physics and divertor and edge physics (20 papers), the combined poster session on plasma heating and current drive and concept optimization (17 papers), the combined poster session on helical system physics, pinches and open systems (10 papers), as well as the oral papers on pinches and open systems (6 papers); the ITER project (19 papers); and on new devices, reactors and technology (24 papers). Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Materials and components for X-ray diagnostic use on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshey, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray diagnostic equipment will operate on Princeton's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during Hydrogen (HH and DH), Deuterium (DD) and Tritium (DT) discharges. The environmental requirements on diagnostic equipment with direct conductance to the Tokamak's vacuum are demanding. The materials and components will be subjected to: (a) ultra-high vacuum of 1 x 10 -8 torr, (b) temperature cycling from 15 0 C to 250 0 C, (c) radiation to 1 x 10 8 rads, (d) magnetic fields to 6 Tesla. In addition, selection of materials must also be based upon minimizing the formation of significant quantities of long lived radioactive elements created by the bombardment of 14 MeV neutrons. Shielding materials must also meet flammability requirements. This paper deals with the selection of materials and components as used on the TFTR X-ray Imaging Systems and the TFTR Pulse-Height Analysis Systems. The trade-offs that led to selection of materials are discussed. Test results and sources of test data are presented

  2. High-speed surface temperature measurements on plasma facing materials for fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Masanori; Kobayashi, Masanobu

    1996-01-01

    For the lifetime evaluation of plasma facing materials in fusion experimental machines, it is essential to investigate their surface behavior and their temperature responses during an off-normal event such as the plasma disruptions. An infrared thermometer with a sampling speed as fast as 1×10-6 s/data, namely, the high-speed infrared thermometer (HSIR), has been developed by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan. To evaluate an applicability of the newly developed HSIR on the surface temperature measurement of plasma facing materials, high heat flux beam irradiation experiments have been performed with three different materials under the surface heat fluxes up to 170 MW/m2 for 0.04 s in a hydrogen ion beam test facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. As for the results, HSIR can be applicable for measuring the surface temperature responses of the armor tile materials with a little modification. It is also confirmed that surface temperatures measured with the HSIR thermometer show good agreement with the analytical results for stainless steel and carbon based materials at a temperature range of up to 2500 °C. However, for aluminum the HSIR could measure the temperature of the high dense vapor cloud which was produced during the heating due to lower melting temperature. Based on the result, a multichannel arrayed HSIR thermometer has been designed and fabricated.

  3. Antibody-Induced Internalization of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, A; De Schryver, M; Van der Gucht, W; Heykers, A; Pintelon, I; Hotard, A L; Moore, M L; Melero, J A; McLellan, J S; Graham, B S; Broadbent, L; Power, U F; Caljon, G; Cos, P; Maes, L; Delputte, P

    2017-07-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections remain a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalizations among infants. Infection recurs frequently and establishes a weak and short-lived immunity. To date, RSV immunoprophylaxis and vaccine research is mainly focused on the RSV fusion (F) protein, but a vaccine remains elusive. The RSV F protein is a highly conserved surface glycoprotein and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies induced by natural infection. Here, we analyzed an internalization process of antigen-antibody complexes after binding of RSV-specific antibodies to RSV antigens expressed on the surface of infected cells. The RSV F protein and attachment (G) protein were found to be internalized in both infected and transfected cells after the addition of either RSV-specific polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) or RSV glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), as determined by indirect immunofluorescence staining and flow-cytometric analysis. Internalization experiments with different cell lines, well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells (WD-PBECs), and RSV isolates suggest that antibody internalization can be considered a general feature of RSV. More specifically for RSV F, the mechanism of internalization was shown to be clathrin dependent. All RSV F-targeted MAbs tested, regardless of their epitopes, induced internalization of RSV F. No differences could be observed between the different MAbs, indicating that RSV F internalization was epitope independent. Since this process can be either antiviral, by affecting virus assembly and production, or beneficial for the virus, by limiting the efficacy of antibodies and effector mechanism, further research is required to determine the extent to which this occurs in vivo and how this might impact RSV replication. IMPORTANCE Current research into the development of new immunoprophylaxis and vaccines is mainly focused on the RSV F protein since, among others, RSV F-specific antibodies are

  4. In-waveguide measurements of MMW dielectric properties of ceramic materials for the US fusion reactor materials research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.C. III; Farnum, E.F.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to obtain accurate measurements of dielectric properties of candidate ceramic insulating materials for fusion reactors. As part of an IEA collaboration, a set of round-robin materials was purchased for comparing dielectric measurements at laboratories in the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, US, and Japan. P. Pells at Aldermasten, UK, purchased MACOR 9658, a glass-mica composite, and Roger Stoller, from ORNL, purchased WESGO AL-300 and AL-995, polycrystalline alumina standards. The authors obtained some of each of these materials for making these measurements. The results have been shared with the other IEA partners, and P. Pells is preparing a summary document. They used the millimeter wave apparatus described below and elsewhere in detail to measure the dielectric properties of these materials at 90 to 100 Ghz at room temperature. The nominal purity of AL-300 was 0.967; the nominal purity of AL-995 was 0.995. Their method was to measure the power transmission coefficient. They used computerized data reduction techniques to compute k (the dielectric constant) and tanδ (the loss tangent) directly from transmission maxima and their corresponding frequencies; to verify this method, they applied the same technique to theoretically derived channel spectra that were obtained by solving exactly the complex transmission coefficient, given k and tanδ. The alumina material with a lower level of purity resulted in higher loss but lower dielectric constant. They obtained dielectric constants that were higher for all the materials than manufacturer-reported values taken at lower frequencies. In addition, they obtained higher dielectric constant values than those found by other investigators at 100 GHz for AL-995 and MACOR. Tanδ values were in good agreement with those of other investigators obtained by free-space methods and dispersive Fourier-transform techniques in the same frequency range

  5. Materials recycle and waste management in fusion power reactors. Progress report for 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogler, S.; Jung, J.; Steindler, M.J.; Maya, I.; Levine, H.E.; Peterman, D.D.; Strausburg, S.; Schultz, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Several components of a STARFIRE fusion reactor have been studied. The breeding ratios were calculated as a function of lithium enrichment and neutron multiplier for systems containing either Li 2 O or LiAlO 2 . The lithium requirements for a fusion economy were also estimated for those cases and the current US resources were found to be adequate. However, competition with other lithium demands in the future emphasizes the need for recovering and reusing lithium. The radioactivities induced in the breeder and the impurities responsible for their formation were determined. The residual radioactivities of several low-activation structural materials were compared with the radioactivity from the prime candidate alloy (PCA) a titanium modified Type 316 stainless steel used in STARFIRE. The impurities responsible for the radioactivity levels were identified. From these radioactive impurity levels it was determined that V15Cr5Ti could meet the requirements for shallow land burial as specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10CFR61), whereas PCA would require a more restrictive disposal mode, i.e. in a geologic medium. The costs for each of these disposal modes were then estimated

  6. Development and evaluation of plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Roedig, M.; Schmidt, A.; Thomser, C.

    2010-01-01

    More and more attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO 2 -emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible meterials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PEMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. Materials for plasma facing components have to fulfill a number of requirements. First of all the materials have to be plasma compatible, i.e. they should exhibit a low atomic number to avoid radiative losses whenever atoms from the wall material will be ionized in the plasma. In addition, the materials must have a high melting point, a high thermal conductivity, and adequate mechanical properties. To select the most suitable material candidates, a comprehensive data base is required which includes all thermo-physical and mechanical properties. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm -2 , meanwhile the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm -2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat

  7. Development and evaluation of plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Roedig, M.; Schmidt, A.; Thomser, C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    More and more attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO{sub 2}-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible meterials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PEMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. Materials for plasma facing components have to fulfill a number of requirements. First of all the materials have to be plasma compatible, i.e. they should exhibit a low atomic number to avoid radiative losses whenever atoms from the wall material will be ionized in the plasma. In addition, the materials must have a high melting point, a high thermal conductivity, and adequate mechanical properties. To select the most suitable material candidates, a comprehensive data base is required which includes all thermo-physical and mechanical properties. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm{sup -2}, meanwhile the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm{sup -2} for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs

  8. Prototype tokamak fusion reactor based on SiC/SiC composite material focusing on easy maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, S.; Ueda, S.; Kurihara, R.; Kuroda, T.; Miura, H.; Sako, K.; Takase, H.; Seki, Y.; Adachi, J.; Yamazaki, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Mori, S.; Shinya, K.; Murakami, Y.; Senda, I.; Okano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Yoshida, T.

    2000-01-01

    If the major part of the electric power demand is to be supplied by tokamak fusion power plants, the tokamak reactor must have an ultimate goal, i.e. must be excellent in construction cost, safety aspect and operational availability (maintainability and reliability), simultaneously. On way to the ultimate goal, the approach focusing on the safety and the availability (including reliability and maintainability) issues must be the more promising strategy. The tokamak reactor concept with the very high aspect ratio configuration and the structural material of SiC/SiC composite is compatible with this approach, which is called the DRastically Easy Maintenance (DREAM) approach. This is because SiC/SiC composite is a low activation material and an insulation material, and the high aspect ratio configuration leads to a good accessibility for the maintenance machines. As the intermediate steps along this strategy between the experimental reactor such as international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) and the ultimate goal, a prototype reactor and an initial phase commercial reactor have been investigated. Especially for the prototype reactor, the material and technological immaturities are considered. The major features of the prototype and commercial type reactors are as follows. The fusion powers of the prototype and the commercial type are 1.5 and 5.5 GW, respectively. The major/minor radii for the prototype and the commercial type are of 12/1.5 m and 16/2 m, respectively. The plasma currents for the prototype and the commercial type are 6 and 9.2 MA, respectively. The coolant is helium gas, and the inlet/outlet temperatures of 500/800 and 600/900 deg. C for the prototype and the commercial type, respectively. The thermal efficiencies of 42 and 50% are obtainable in the prototype and the commercial type, respectively. The maximum toroidal field strengths of 18 and 20 tesla are assumed in the prototype and the commercial type, respectively. The thermal

  9. Analysis of Induced Gamma Activation by D-T Neutrons in Selected Fusion Reactor Relevant Materials with EAF-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klix Axel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of lanthanum, erbium and titanium which are constituents of structural materials, insulating coatings and tritium breeder for blankets of fusion reactor designs have been irradiated in a fusion peak neutron field. The induced gamma activities were measured and the results were used to check calculations with the European activation system EASY-2010. Good agreement for the prediction of major contributors to the contact dose rate of the materials was found, but for minor contributors the calculation deviated up to 50%.

  10. Integral activation experiment of fusion reactor materials with d-Li neutrons up to 55 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Moellendorff, Ulrich von [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wada, Masayuki [Business Automation Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    An integral activation experiment of fusion reactor materials with a deuteron-lithium neutron source was performed. Since the maximum energy of neutrons produced was 55 MeV, the experiment with associated analysis was one of the first attempts for extending the energy range beyond 20 MeV. The following keywords represent the present study: d-Li neutrons, 55 MeV, dosimetry, SAND-II, spectrum adjustment, LA-150, MCNP, McDeLi, IFMIF, fusion reactor materials, integral activation experiment, low-activation, F82H, vanadium-alloy, IEAF, ALARA, and sequential charged particle reaction. (author)

  11. Proceedings of the 26th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference - International Cryogenic Material Conference 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, T. S.; Sharma, R. G.; Kar, S.

    2017-02-01

    International Conference ICEC 26 - ICMC 2016 was organized at New Delhi, India during March 7-11, 2016. Previous conference ICEC25-ICMC 2014 was held at the University of Twente, The Netherlands in July 2014. Next Conference ICEC 27- ICMC 2018 will be held at Oxford, UK during September 3-7, 2018 1. Introduction This is a biennial international conference on cryogenic engineering and cryogenics materials organized by the International Cryogenic Engineering Committee and the International Cryogenic Material Committee. For some years, the host country has been alternating between Europe and Asia. The present conference was held at the Manekshaw Convention Centre, New Delhi, India during March 7-11, 2016 and hosted jointly by the Indian Cryogenics Council (ICC) and the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi. Put all together as many as 547 persons participated in the conference. Out of these 218 were foreign delegates coming from 25 countries and the rest from India. 2. Inaugural Session & Course Lectures The pre conference short course lectures on “Cryocoolers” and “Superconducting Materials for Power Applications” were organized on 7th March. Cryocooler course was given jointly by Dr. Chao Wang from M/s. Cryomech, USA and Prof. Milind Atrey from IIT Bombay, India. The Course on Superconducting Materials was given by Prof. Venkat Selvamanickam from the University of Houston, USA. The conference was inaugurated in the morning of March 8th in a typical Indian tradition and in the presence of the Chief Guest, Dr. R Chidambaram (Principle Scientific Adviser to Govt. of India), Guest of Honour, Prof. H Devaraj (Vice Chairman University Grant Commission), Prof Marcel ter Brake ( Chair, ICEC Board), Prof. Wilfried Goldacker (Chair, ICMC board), Dr. D Kanjilal (Director IUAC), Dr R K Bhandari, (President, Indian Cryogenic Council ). Dr. T S Datta, Chair Local Organizing Committee coordinated the proceedings of the inaugural function. 3. Technical

  12. International regulations regarding exchange of Rubus plant material

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes the international quarantine regulations regarding plant material exchange for Rubus. US federal importation regulations are summarized along with aspects of Rubus that presented as noxious weed. Requirements for exporting Rubus to foreign countries are also described. Proper...

  13. Recycling issues facing target and RTL materials of inertial fusion designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Sawan, M.; Henderson, D.; Varuttamaseni, A.

    2005-01-01

    Designers of heavy ion (HI) and Z-pinch inertial fusion power plants have explored the potential of recycling the target and recyclable transmission line (RTL) materials as an alternate option to disposal in a geological repository. This work represents the first time a comprehensive recycling assessment was performed on both machines with an exact pulse history. Our results offer two divergent conclusions on the recycling issue. For the HI concept, target recycling is not a 'must' requirement and the preferred option is the one-shot use scenario as target materials represent a small waste stream, less than 1% of the total nuclear island waste. We recommend using low-cost hohlraum materials once-through and then disposing of them instead of recycling expensive materials such as Au and Gd. On the contrary, RTL recycling is a 'must' requirement for the Z-pinch concept in order to minimize the RTL inventory and enhance the economics. The RTLs meet the low level waste and recycling dose requirements with a wide margin when recycled for the entire plant life even without a cooling period. While recycling offers advantages to the Z-pinch system, it adds complexity and cost to the HI designs

  14. Analyses of the activation of near term fusion reactor compound materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengar, I.

    2007-01-01

    One of the important questions that still have to be solved for the next generation fusion reactors is the choice of the material to be used for the first wall. An important criteria is low activation due to neutron bombardment from the plasma. One of the promising materials is the SiC/SiC composite. Its main elemental constituents, namely the C and Si, have very good activation characteristics. The main contribution to activity arises, however, from trace elements, which are needed in the sintering process and remain in the material afterwards. Before the preparation process of the material, the activation characteristics of individual constituents are needed. The activation properties of the whole sample could than be estimated by summing the weighted properties of individual constituents. The activity of a particular trace element is, however, not necessarily dependent only on the percentage of the element in the sample, but also on the presence of other elements in the compound due to the charge particle production and/or (n, 2n) reactions. The extension of this effect is investigated and to what extent individual calculations, performed for a single element, mimic the real situation. Further the activation characteristic for several possible sintering aid elements is theoretically investigated with the use of the FISPACT inventory code. (author)

  15. Spectrographic Determination of Impurities in Ceramic Materials for Nuclear fusion Reactors. II. Analysis of Magnesium Aluminate; Determinacion Espectrografia de Impurezas en materiales Ceramicos para Fusion Nuclear. II. Analisis de Aluminato de Magnesio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucandio, M. I.; Roca, M.; Melon, A.

    1990-07-01

    The determination of minor and trace elements in the magnesium aluminate, considered as possible material in thermonuclear fusion reactors, has been studied. The concentration ranges are 0.1 - 0.3 % for Ca, SI and Y, and at the ppm level for Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Se, Ta, Ti, V and Zr. Atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current are excitation and photographic detection has been employed. For Hf, Ta and Zr the use of 40% of copper fluoride as a carrier and of Nb as internal standard provide suitable sensitivities and precessions, while for the rest of elements the best results are obtained with graphite powder in different proportions and Rb or Sn as internal standard. (Author)4 refs.

  16. Spectrographic determination of impurities in ceramic materials for nuclear fusion reactors III. Analysis of magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melon, A. M.; Roca, M.; Rucandio, M. I.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of minor and trace elements in the magnesium oxide, considered as possible ceramic material in thermonuclear fusion reactors, has been studied. The concentration ranges are 0.1 - 0.3% for Ca, Si and Y, and at the ppm level for Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Se, Ti, V and Zr. Atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current are excitation and photographic detection has been employed. In order to eliminate the effect due to the differences in density between standards and samples, which are a source of errors, a chemical treatment of both is carried out. Likewise, for attaining conditions more suitable for the volatilization of certain impurities, these are determined with the sample in fluoride form. (Author) 11 refs

  17. Spectrographic determination of impurities in ceramic materials for nuclear fusion reactors III. Analysis of magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melon, A.M.; Roca, M.; Rucandio, M.I.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of minor and trace elements in the magnesium oxide, considered as possible ceramic material in thermonuclear fusion reactors, has been studied. The concentration ranges are 0.1 - 0.3 % for Ca, Si and Y, and at the ppm level for Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Ti, V and Zr. Atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current arc excitation and photographic detection has been employed. In order to eliminated the effect due to the differences in density between standards and samples, which are a source of errors, a chemical treatment of both is carried out. Likewise, for attaining conditions more suitable for the volatilization of certain impurities, these are determined with the sample in fluoride form. (author)

  18. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility lithium system: a design and development status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbury, P.J.; Bazinet, G.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system is outlined. This unique liquid lithium recirculating system, the largest of its kind in the world, is described with emphasis on the liquid lithium target assembly and other important components necessary to provide lithium flow to the target. The operational status and role of the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) in the design of the FMIT lithium system are discussed. Safety aspects of operating the FMIT lithium system in a highly radioactive condition are described. Potential spillage of the lithium is controlled by cell liners, by argon flood systems and by remote maintenance features. Lithium chemistry is monitored and controlled by a side-stream loop, where impurities measured by instruments are collected by hot and cold traps

  19. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility lithium system: a design and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbury, P.J.; Bazinet, G.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system is outlined. This unique liquid lithium recirculating system, the largest of its kind in the world, is described with emphasis on the liquid lithium target assembly and other important components necessary to provide lithium flow to the target. The operational status and role of the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) in the design of the FMIT lithium system are discussed. Safety aspects of operating the FMIT lithium system in a highly radioactive condition are described. Potential spillage of the lithium is controlled by cell liners, by argon flood systems and by remote maintenance features. Lithium chemistry is monitored and controlled by a side-stream loop, where impurities measured by instruments are collected by hot and cold traps.

  20. A spallation-based irradiation test facility for fusion and future fission materials

    CERN Document Server

    Samec, K; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Romanets, Y; Behzad, M; Aleksan, R; Bousson, S

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s FP7 TIARA program for developing accelerator-based facilities has recently demonstrated the unique capabilities of a compact and powerful spallation source for irradiating advanced nuclear materials. The spectrum and intensity of the neutron flux produced in the proposed facility fulfils the requirements of the DEMO fusion reactor for ITER, ADS reactors and also Gen III / IV reactors. Test conditions can be modulated, covering temperature from 400 to 550°C, liquid metal corrosion, cyclical or static stress up to 500 MPa and neutron/proton irradiation damage of up to 25 DPA per annum. The entire “TMIF” facility fits inside a cube 2 metres on a side, and is dimensioned for an accelerator beam power of 100 kW, thus reducing costs and offering great versatility and flexibility.

  1. Advanced tungsten materials for plasma-facing components of DEMO and fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, R., E-mail: Rudolf.Neu@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fakultät für Maschinenbau, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Riesch, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Coenen, J.W. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Brinkmann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Calvo, A. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Elgeti, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); García-Rosales, C. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Greuner, H.; Hoeschen, T.; Holzner, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Klein, F. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Koch, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Development of W-fibre enhanced W-composites incorporating extrinsic toughening mechanisms. • Production of a large sample (more than 2000 long fibres) for mechanical and thermal testing. • Even in a fully embrittled state, toughening mechanisms are still effective. • Emissions of volatile W-oxides can be suppressed by alloying W with elements forming stable oxides. • WCr10Ti2 has been successfully tested under accidental conditions and high heat fluxes. - Abstract: Tungsten is the major candidate material for the armour of plasma facing components in future fusion devices. To overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten, which strongly limits its operational window, a W-fibre enhanced W-composite material (W{sub f}/W) has been developed incorporating extrinsic toughening mechanisms. Small W{sub f}/W samples show a large increase in toughness. Recently, a large sample (50 mm × 50 mm × 3 mm) with more than 2000 long fibres has been successfully produced allowing further mechanical and thermal testing. It could be shown that even in a fully embrittled state, toughening mechanisms as crack bridging by intact fibres, as well as the energy dissipation by fibre-matrix interface debonding and crack deflection are still effective. A potential problem with the use of pure W in a fusion reactor is the formation of radioactive and highly volatile WO{sub 3} compounds and their potential release under accidental conditions. It has been shown that the oxidation of W can be strongly suppressed by alloying with elements forming stable oxides. WCr10Ti2 alloy has been produced on a technical scale and has been successfully tested in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS. Recently, W-Cr-Y alloys have been produced on a lab-scale. They seem to have even improved properties compared to the previously investigated W alloys.

  2. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques, and Instrumentation, Industrial Applications, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1986-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. Contents cover the three main areas of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactor and Particle Accelerator Applications, and Nuclear Data), (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, and Tracers), and (iii) Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

  3. Posterior Decompression, Lumber Interbody Fusion and Internal Fixation in the Treatment of Upper Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Zhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the clinical outcomes of posterior decompression, interbody fusion and internal fixationfor the treatment of the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Methods: Twelve patients with the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were treated by posterior decompression, interbosy fusion and internal fixation. The time of the operation, the amount of bleeding and the clinical efficacy were evaluated. Results: The time of operation was (143±36 min and the amount of bleeding during operation was (331.5±47.9 mL. There was no spinal cord and injuries, nerve injury, epidural damage and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. All patients were followed up for 10~19 months with the average being 12.6 months. The functional scoring of Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA before the operation was (11.4±3.3 scores and final score after follow-up was (22.9±3.1 scores and there were statistical difference (P<0.01. Lumber interbody fusion of all patients completed successfully and the good rate after the operation was 91.7%. Conclusion: Posterior decompression, interbody fusion and internal fixation for the treatment of the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation was characterized by full exposure, safety and significant efficacy.

  4. Analysis of the tritium-water (T-H2O) system for a fusion material test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.; Reed, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    The need for a high flux, high energy neutron test facility to evaluate performance of fusion reactor materials is urgent. An accelerator based D-Li source is generally accepted as the most reasonable approach to a high flux neutron source in the near future. The idea is to bombard a high energy (35 MeV) deuteron beam into a lithium target to produce high energy neutrons to simulate the fusion environment. More recently it was proposed to use a 21 MeV triton beam incident on a water jet target to produce the required neutron source for testing and simulating fusion material environments. The advantages of such a system are discussed. Major concerns regarding the feasibility of this system are also highlighted

  5. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Prescriptions on the usage of internationally regulated goods'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law. Terms are explained, such as area for incoming and outgoing of goods, main measuring point, batch and real stocks. Applications for the permission of the use of internationally regulated goods shall be filed, in which the kinds of such goods for the materials and equipments in each partner country, with which international agreement was concluded, and the quantity and expected period of use of each regulated material must be written. The users of such regulated materials shall keep the records on the usage of such materials in each factory or establishment. Such records include the quantities of receiving and delivering and stocks of nuclear raw material of each kind, radiation control reports and the records of accidents in the facilities for using nuclear raw materials. Applications for the approval of the stipulation on the management of measurement shall be filed, in which the functions and organizations of the persons engaging in the measurement and control of internationally regulated goods, the establishment of the areas for receiving and delivering the goods and the marks to be put on such areas, etc. Applications for the designation as the persons engaging in information processing works are specified. (Okada, K.)

  6. XHM-1 alloy as a promising structural material for water-cooled fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Alekseev, A.B.; Kazennov, Yu.I.; Khramtsov, V.F.; Kondrat'ev, V.P.; Krasina, T.A.; Rechitsky, V.N.; Stepankov, V.N.; Votinov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    Experience gained in utilizing austenitic stainless steel components in water-cooled power reactors indicates that the main cause of their failure is the steel's propensity for corrosion cracking. In search of a material immune to this type of corrosion, different types of austenitic steels and chromium-nickel alloys were investigated and tested at VNIINM. This paper presents the results of studying physical and mechanical properties, irradiation and corrosion resistance in a water coolant at <350 C of the alloy XHM-1 as compared with austenitic stainless steels 00Cr16Ni15Mo3Nb, 00Cr20Ni25Nb and alloy 00Cr20Ni40Mo5Nb. Analysis of the results shows that, as distinct from the stainless steels studied, the XHM-1 alloy is completely immune to corrosion cracking (CC). Not a single induced damage was encountered within 50 to 350 C in water containing different amounts of chlorides and oxygen under tensile stresses up to the yield strength of the material. One more distinctive feature of the alloy compared to steels is that no change in the strength or total elongation is encountered in the alloy specimens irradiated to 32 dpa at 350 C. The XHM-1 alloy has adequate fabricability and high weldability characteristics. As far as its properties are concerned, the XHM-1 alloy is very promising as a material for water-cooled fusion reactor components. (orig.)

  7. Radiation durability of polymeric materials in solid polymer electrolyzer for fusion tritium plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hiroki, Akihiro; Tamada, Masao

    2009-02-01

    This document presents the radiation durability of various polymeric materials applicable to a solid-polymer-electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer to be used in the tritium facility of fusion reactor. The SPE water electrolyzers are applied to the water detritiation system (WDS) of the ITER. In the ITER, an electrolyzer should keep its performance during two years operation in the tritiated water of 9TBq/kg, the design tritium concentration of the ITER. The tritium exposure of 9TBq/kg for two years is corresponding to the irradiation of no less than 530 kGy. In this study, the polymeric materials were irradiated with γ-rays or with electron beams at various conditions up to 1600 kGy at room temperature or at 343 K. The change in mechanical and functional properties were investigated by stress-strain measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and so on. Our selection of polymeric materials for a SPE water electrolyzer used in a radiation environment was Pt + Ir applied Nafion N117 ion exchange membrane, VITON O-ring seal and polyimide insulator. (author)

  8. The problem of material accountancy. Difference between the international material accountancy and the Japanese material accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Koji

    2001-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the development of SSAC (State's system of Accounting for and Control of nuclear material) of Japan began. Moreover, 24 years have been passed after SSAC was employed. The maintenance on the law for carrying out SSAC in the meantime also progressed, and the system of SSAC has also been established favorably. However, new correspondence was internationally called for about the safeguards for reprocessing facilities or uranium enrichment facilities, and innovative safeguards concepts like NRTA or LFUA were developed. The LASCAR (Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards) forum was held on the safeguards for a large scale reprocessing facility, and international agreement on the safeguards was progressed. When we look back upon the history of such safeguards development in recent years, most people can see little problem on the contents of the national safeguards system itself. As the history shows, however, the passive approach has been taken in developing the Japanese safeguards system. We have always tried to seek a solution on the basis 'What is the minimum requirement in order to receive international safeguards.' Now, the nuclear fuel cycle of Japan has reached the maximum scale in the world. To Japan which promotes commercial use of plutonium, the world community is supervising this severely. Under such a situation it is no doubt that passive safeguards correspondence can no longer be allowed. The author thinks that it is coming when the old nuclear management system completed based on a passive attitude should be improved. What should an active nuclear material management system be? In this presentation, the author wishes to explore the clue to it. (author)

  9. A Polymorphism within the Internal Fusion Loop of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Modulates Host Cell Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Markus; Crone, Lisa; Dietzel, Erik; Paijo, Jennifer; González-Hernández, Mariana; Nehlmeier, Inga; Kalinke, Ulrich; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    The large scale of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa in 2013-2016 raised the question whether the host cell interactions of the responsible Ebola virus (EBOV) strain differed from those of other ebolaviruses. We previously reported that the glycoprotein (GP) of the virus circulating in West Africa in 2014 (EBOV2014) exhibited reduced ability to mediate entry into two nonhuman primate (NHP)-derived cell lines relative to the GP of EBOV1976. Here, we investigated the molecular determinants underlying the differential entry efficiency. We found that EBOV2014-GP-driven entry into diverse NHP-derived cell lines, as well as human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, was reduced compared to EBOV1976-GP, although entry into most human- and all bat-derived cell lines tested was comparable. Moreover, EBOV2014 replication in NHP but not human cells was diminished relative to EBOV1976, suggesting that reduced cell entry translated into reduced viral spread. Mutagenic analysis of EBOV2014-GP and EBOV1976-GP revealed that an amino acid polymorphism in the receptor-binding domain, A82V, modulated entry efficiency in a cell line-independent manner and did not account for the reduced EBOV2014-GP-driven entry into NHP cells. In contrast, polymorphism T544I, located in the internal fusion loop in the GP2 subunit, was found to be responsible for the entry phenotype. These results suggest that position 544 is an important determinant of EBOV infectivity for both NHP and certain human target cells. IMPORTANCE The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2013 entailed more than 10,000 deaths. The scale of the outbreak and its dramatic impact on human health raised the question whether the responsible virus was particularly adept at infecting human cells. Our study shows that an amino acid exchange, A82V, that was acquired during the epidemic and that was not observed in previously circulating viruses, increases viral entry into diverse target cells

  10. Book of abstracts of the joint EC-IAEA topical meeting on development of new structural materials for advanced fission and fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Materials performance and reliability are key issues for the safety and competitiveness of future nuclear installations: Generation IV nuclear systems for increased sustainability, advanced systems for non-electrical uses of nuclear energy, partitioning and transmutation systems, as well as thermo-nuclear fusion systems. These systems will have to feature high thermal efficiency and optimized utilization of fuel combined with minimized nuclear waste. For the sustainability of the nuclear option, there is a renewed interest worldwide in new reactor systems, closed fuel cycle research and technology development, and nuclear process heat applications. This requires the development and qualification of new high temperature structural materials with improved radiation and corrosion resistance. To achieve the challenging materials performance parameters, focused research and targeted testing of new candidate materials are necessary. Recent developments regarding new classes of materials with improved microstructural features, such as fibre-reinforced ceramic composite materials, oxide dispersion strengthened steels or advanced ferritic-martensitic steels are promising since they combine good radiation resistance and corrosion properties with high-temperature strength and toughness. In view of a successful and timely implementation of design parameters, in particular for primary circuits, new structural materials have to be qualified during the next decade. To this end an international R and D effort is being undertaken. Recent progress in materials science, supported by computer modelling and advanced materials characterisation techniques, has the potential to accelerate the process of new structural materials development. The scope of the meeting is information exchange and cross-fertilisation of various disciplines, including an overview of recent status of world-wide R and D activities. A comprehensive review of the designs of fission as well as fusion reactor systems

  11. Introduction to reactor internal materials for pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Suk; Hong, Joon Hwa; Jee, Se Hwan; Lee, Bong Sang; Kuk, Il Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    This report reviewed the R and D states of reactor internal materials in order to be a reference for researches and engineers who are concerning on localization of the materials in the field or laboratory. General structure of PWR internals and material specification for YGN 3 and 4 were reviewed. States-of-arts on R and D of stainless steel and Alloy X-750 were reviewed, and degradation mechanisms of the components were analyzed. In order to develop the good domestic materials for reactor internal, following studies would be carried out: microstructure, sensitization behavior, fatigue property, irradiation-induced stress corrosion cracking/radiation-induced segregation, radiation embrittlement. (Author) 7 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.,.

  12. Nuclear materials control and accountability internal audit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, M.A.; Abbott, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy Order (DOE) 5633.3, Control and Accountability for Nuclear Materials, includes several requirements for development and implementation of an internal audit program. Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc., manages five sites in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge and has a Central Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability (NMC and A) Manager with matrixed responsibility for the NMC and A program at the five sites. The Energy Systems Central NMC and A Manager has developed an NMC and A Internal Audit Handbook which defines the functional responsibilities, performance criteria, and reporting and documentation requirements for the Energy Systems NMC and A Internal Audit Program. The initial work to develop and implement these standards was tested at the K-25 Site when the site hired an internal auditor to meet the DOE requirements for an NMC and A Internal Audit program

  13. Results of the Rhine-Ruhr international materials conference and award 2005. Materials for energy technology in the 21st century - Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper contains the origin wording of 16 lectures (speech) and discussions, which were held on the first Rhine-Ruhr International Materials Conference in Essen, Germany, on October 23 and 24, 2005. The focus of the gathering was on materials research, development and production in the field of energy engineering. The following topics are dealt with: Energy Concepts for Closing the Gap between Demand and Environmental Protection (Klaus Toepfer); Materials Science: The Competitive Factor in the Global Energy Technology Development (Roland Schenkel); The Necessity for Innovation in the EU as Seen by a New Member State (K.J. Kurzydlowski); New Pathways for Cooperation between Materials Science and Industry (Paul M. Siffert); Energy Demand and Environmental Protection - how to get both in line (Mark Radka); Chinese Energy Efficiency Policy leading to cleaner Production in China (Ming Yang); The Global Significance of Solar Energy Supply (Adolf Goetzberger); The Vision of Sustainable Development of Nuclear Energy (Patrick Ledermann); Improving the Efficiency of Energy Technology with Novel Materials (Johannes Teyssen); New Material Concepts for High Efficiency and Low Risk Exploitation of Energy (Koichi Yagi); Materials Systems for Tomorrow's Gas Turbines (Wilfried Kurz); Science and Technological Advances in Fusion Energy Research, ITER and beyond (Bernard Saoutic); Materials, Systems and Milestones for Economically and Environmentally Attractive Fusion Power Plants (Ian Cook); Fuel Cells - The State of the Art: Applications, Feasibility, Technology and Outlook for the Next Decade (Roland Diethelm); Wind Energy - Significance and Challenges for Tomorrow (Christian Nath); Solar Energy - Time Scale for the Full Application (Volker Wittwer)

  14. Status review of methods for the calculation of fast neutron nuclear data for structural materials of fast and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulo, V.

    1989-01-01

    The report contains the texts of the 9 invited papers delivered during the Second Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Methods for the Calculation of Fast Neutron Nuclear Data for Structural Materials and Fast and Fusion Reactors'' held in Vienna during 15-17 February 1988. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 9 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0130 (Notice No.10-2)] Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1); Draft Revision Available for Comment AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  16. Plasma-Materials Interactions (PMI) and High-Heat-Flux (HHF) component research and development in the US Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1986-10-01

    Plasma particle and high heat fluxes to in-vessel components such as divertors, limiters, RF launchers, halo plasma scrapers, direct converters, and wall armor, and to the vacuum chamber itself, represent central technical issues for fusion experiments and reactors. This is well recognized and accepted. It is also well recognized that the conditions at the plasma boundary can directly influence core plasma confinement. This has been seen most dramatically, on the positive side, in the discovery of the H-mode using divertors in tokamaks. It is also reflected in the attention devoted worldwide to the problems of impurity control. Nowadays, impurities are controlled by wall conditioning, special discharge cleaning techniques, special coatings such as carbonization, the use of low-Z materials for limiters and armor, a careful tailoring of heat loads, and in some machines, through the use of divertors. All programs, all experiments, and all designers are now keenly aware that PMI and HHF issues are key to the successful performance of their machines. In this brief report we present general issues in Section 2, critical issues in Section 3, existing US PMI/HHF experiments and facilities in Section 4, US International Cooperative PMI/HHF activities in Section 5, and conclude with a discussion on major tasks in PMI/HHF in Section 6

  17. International Regulations for Transport of Radioactive Materials, History and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2013-01-01

    International Regulations for the transport of radioactive materials have been published by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These Regulations have been widely adopted into national Regulations. Also adopted into different modal Regulations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA) and International Martime Organization (IMO). These Regulations provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of general public, transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination, criticality hazard and thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive wastes and materials. Several reviews conducted in consultation with Member States (MS) and concerned international organizations, resulted in comprehensive revisions till now. Radioactive materials are generally transported by specialized transport companies and experts. Shippers and carriers have designed their transport operations to comply with these international Regulations. About 20 million consignments of radioactive materials take place around the world each year. These materials were used in different fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research, consumer product and electric power generation. After September 11,2001, the IAEA and MS have worked together to develop a new guidance document concerning the security in the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA have initiated activities to assist MS in addressing the need for transport security in a comprehensive manner. The security guidance and measures were mentioned and discussed. The transport security becomes more developed and integrated into national Regulations of many countries beside the safety Regulations. IAEA and other International organizations are working with MS to implement transport security programs such as guidance, training, security assessments and upgrade assistance in these fields.

  18. Change in properties of superconducting magnet materials by fusion neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Arata; Nishijima, Shigehiro; Takeuchi, Takao; Nishitani, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    A fusion reactor will generate a lot of high energy neutron and much energy will be taken out of the neutrons by a blanket system. Since some neutrons will stream out of a plasma vacuum vessel through neutral beam injection ports and penetrate a blanket system, a superconducting magnet system, which provides high magnetic field to confirm high energy particles, will be irradiated by a certain amount of neutrons. By developing the new NBI system or by reducing the penetration, the neutron fluence to the superconducting magnet will be able to be reduced. However, it is not easy to achieve the lower streaming and penetration at the present. Therefore, investigations on irradiation behavior of superconducting magnet materials are desired and some novel researches have been performed from 1970s. In general, the critical current of the superconducting wire increases under fast neutron environment comparing with that of the non-irradiated wire, and then decreased to almost zero as an increase of neutron fluence. On the other hand, the critical temperature of the wire starts to get down around 10 22 n/m 2 of neutron fluence and the temperature margin will be decreased during the operation by the neutron irradiation. In this paper, some aspects of irradiated materials will be overviewed and general tendency will be discussed focussing on knock-on effect of fast neutron and long range ordering of A15 compounds

  19. DUCTILE-PHASE TOUGHENED TUNGSTEN FOR PLASMA-FACING MATERIALS IN FUSION REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, Charles H.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Overman, Nicole R.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Stevens, Erica L.; Wagner, Karla B.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Odette, G Robert; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Cunningham, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Tungsten (W) and W-alloys are the leading candidates for plasma-facing components in nuclear fusion reactor designs because of their high melting point, strength retention at high temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and low sputtering yield. However, tungsten is brittle and does not exhibit the required fracture toughness for licensing in nuclear applications. A promising approach to increasing fracture toughness of W-alloys is by ductile-phase toughening (DPT). In this method, a ductile phase is included in a brittle matrix to prevent on inhibit crack propagation by crack blunting, crack bridging, crack deflection, and crack branching. Model examples of DPT tungsten are explored in this study, including W-Cu and W-Ni-Fe powder product composites. Three-point and four-point notched and/or pre-cracked bend samples were tested at several strain rates and temperatures to help understand deformation, cracking, and toughening in these materials. Data from these tests are used for developing and calibrating crack-bridging models. Finite element damage mechanics models are introduced as a modeling method that appears to capture the complexity of crack growth in these materials.

  20. Report of the 2nd workshop on particle material interactions for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Kunio; Gesi, Kazuo; Iwata, Tadao

    1984-02-01

    The plenary session of the sub-committee for the data-banking of particle-material interactions in the Research Committee of A M Data Center was held at the JAERI Headquarters, Tokyo, February 24 and 25, 1982. The subsequent local meeting was held in Osaka branch office of JAERI, June 10, 1982. The aim of this workshop has been not only to make clear the present status in the A M data banking and the material science relevant to fusion research, but also to obtain an overview of the approaches that should be developed for solving the problems. In these workshops, 16 papers on the specified fields were presented by the committee members. This report contains these papers, and the investigation report in 1982 fiscal year on Diffusional Behaviour of Hydrogen and it's Isotope in Iron and Steel is added supplementarily. The contents of this report are composed of 4 chapters which are connected with each other concerning A M activities of hydrogen recycling: 1) Perspective review, 2) Re-emission and Retention, 3) Desorption and Diffusion, and 4) Radiation effects of neutron and ions on hydrogen recycling process. (author)

  1. Results of the international Large Coil Task: a milestone for superconducting magnets in fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Fietz, W.A.; Gauss, S.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the Large Coil Task (LCT) was to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting toroidal field coils and to prove the design principles and fabrication techniques to be applied for the magnets in a tokamak experimental power reactor. This has been achieved by an international development effort involving the US DOE, EURATOM, JAERI and the Swiss government. Six different D-shaped test coils were separately designed, developed and constructed by the LCT participants, then extensively tested together in a compact toroidal array. Detailed information on coil design and manufacture and all test data were shared among the LCT participants. The full six-coil array tests were carried out in a continuous period from the beginning of 1986 until September 1987. Beside the originally planned tests to reach an 8 T design point performance, the tests went well beyond this goal, reaching 9 T peak field in each coil. The experiments also delineated the limits of operability and demonstrated the coil safety under abnormal conditions. For fusion application the transient a.c. field behaviour in the coils was also of great interest. Three of the coils have been tested in this respect and showed excellent performance, with loss values in agreement with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  2. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance

  3. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

  4. 16. International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF'06)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonin, A.; Ausset, P.; Babadunni, O.; Barnard, J.; Barriga-Carrasco, M.; Bawa, O.; Benedetti, C.; Bieniosek, F.; Bouchigny, S.; Bret, A.; Celata, Ch.; Chieze, J.P.; Coelho, L.F.; Cohen, R.; Coleman, J.; Cremer, S.; Crouseilles, N.; Davidson, R.; Debonnel, Ch.; Deutsch, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Efremov, V.; Fedosejevs, R.; Fertman, A.; Friedman, A.; Gardes, D.; Gericke, D.; Gilson, E.; Golubev, A.; Gombert, M.M.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.; Gutnic, M.; Haber, I.; Hammel, B.; Hasegawa, J.; Hegelich, B.M.; Henestroza, E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Horioka, K.; Jacoby, J.; Kaganovich, I.; Katagiri, K.; Kawata, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Kurilenkov, Y.; Latu, G.; Lenglet, A.; Logan, G.; Lund, St.; Maynard, G.; Molvik, A.; Nishinomiya, S.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Piriz, A.R.; Popoff, R.; Pusterla, M.; Qin, H.; Roth, M.; Roy, P.; Sant' Anna, M.; Sasaki, T.; Sefkow, A.; Seidl, P.; Sharkov, B.; Sharp, W.; Sonnendrucker, E.; Spiller, P.; Startsev, E.; Stoltz, P.; Synakowski, E.; Tahir, N.; Takayama, K.; Tashev, B.; Turchetti, G.; Turtikov, V.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Vay, J.L.; Velarde, P.; Welch, D.R.; Westenskow, G.; Weyrich, K.; Yaramyshev, St.; Zenkevich, P

    2006-07-01

    The contributions to this symposium have been divided into 8 issues: 1) overviews of national fusion programs, 2) other fusion programs, 3) accelerators, 4) warm dense matter, 5) ion beam neutralization, 6) atomic physics, 7) beam dynamics, and 8) stopping power. This document gathers only the resumes of the articles.

  5. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control

  6. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  7. PREFACE: MRS International Materials Research Conference (IMRC-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanguo; Qiu, Yong; Li, Yongxiang

    2009-03-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the MRS International Materials Research Conference (IMRC-2008) held in Chongqing, China, 9-12 June 2008. IMRC-2008 included 9 symposia of A. Eco/Environmental Materials, B. Sustainable Energy Materials, C. Electronic Packaging Materials, D. Electronic Materials, E. Materials and Processes for Flat-panel Displays, F. Functional Ceramics, G. Transportation Materials, H. Magnesium and I. Biomaterials for Medical Applications. Nearly 1200 participants from 33 countries attended the conference, and the conference organizers received more than 700 papers. After the peer review processes, 555 papers were selected to be published in 9 Journals or proceedings, including J. of Materials Research (JMR), Rare Metal Materials and Engineering, J. of Univ. Science and Technology Beijing, Biomedical Materials: Materials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, Materials Science Forum, and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Among the 555 selected papers, 91 papers are published in this volume, and the topics mainly cover electronic matrials, processes for flat-panel displays and functional ceramics. The editors would like to give special thanks to the graduate students Liwu Jiang, Ming Li and Di He from Beihang University for their hard work compiling and typesetting each paper in this volume. Zhanguo Wang, Yong Qiu and Yongxiang Li Editors

  8. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Reports on Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program, Review of the Proposed Proof-of-Principle Programs, Review of the Possible Pathways for Pursuing Burning Plasma Physics, and Comments on the ER Facilities Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee was asked to conduct a review of Fusion Materials Research Program (the Structural Materials portion of the Fusion Program) by Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of Energy Research for the Department of Energy. This request was motivated by the fact that significant changes have been made in the overall direction of the Fusion Program from one primarily focused on the milestones necessary to the construction of successively larger machines to one where the necessary scientific basis for an attractive fusion energy system is. better understood. It was in this context that the review of current scientific excellence and recommendations for future goals and balance within the Program was requested.

  9. Summary Report of the 1. Research Coordination Meeting on Testing and Improving the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Simakov, S.P.

    2013-09-01

    In accordance with the recommendations of the International Nuclear Data Committee in May 2012, the Nuclear Data Section of IAEA has initiated a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP number F41031) with the main goal to test, validate and improve the international dosimetry library for fission and fusion (IRDFF). The output of this CRP will be a reference dosimetry database of cross sections and decay data with corresponding documentation. It will serve to the needs of fission, fusion and accelerator applications. The first Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) was held 1 to 5 July 2013 in IAEA. At this meeting, the attendees discussed the objectives of the whole CRP, presented their contributions and elaborated on consolidated recommendations and actions for implementation over the next 1.5 year period. This Summary Report documents the individual contributions and joint decisions made during this meeting. (author)

  10. Characterization of scintillator materials for fast-ion loss detectors in nuclear fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ramos, M. C.; García López, J.; García-Muñoz, M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, M.; Carmona Gázquez, M.; Zurro, B.

    2014-08-01

    . The solid angle subtended by the fiber is ∼2.2 × 10-5 sr. The final element is a compact and high sensitive spectrometer, QE6500 (Ocean Optics Inc.) with a 2D area detector which allow us to measure simultaneously in the range of 200-1100 nm with a spectral resolution ∼1-2 nm. The measured signals were analyzed and stored with the SpectraSuite software [6]. The absolute calibration of the optical system described above was carried out with a HL-2000-CAL Tungsten Halogen Calibration Standard light source which provides absolute intensity values (in μW/cm2/nm) at the fiber port at wavelengths from 360-1050 nm.The beam fluxes used to irradiate the phosphors were ∼ 1012 p/cm2s- for the IL yields determination, and up to ten times higher for the degradation analyses.The Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) measurements of the screens were accomplished in the same vacuum chamber using protons at 3 MeV and 5 MeV. Two different energies were employed due to the large difference between the thicknesses of the samples. The proton beam intensity was 10 nA and the beam size 1 mm of diameter. The analysis were performed with a Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon (PIPS) detector of 300 mm2, positioned at 150° and with a 10 μm thick aluminized mylar foil placed at the detector surface to avoid the light emitted by the scintillators. The RBS spectra were analyzed using the SIMNRA code [7].The scintillators investigated in this work were selected according to their availability, radiation hardness, fast response, and/or prior use in plasma diagnostics. In this paper, three different kinds of materials have been analyzed. The TG-Green (so called by the manufacturer, Sarnoff Corporation, USA) is a Eu doped SrGa2S4 powder substrate with density of 3.65 g/cm3, and presents an emission at 540 nm with a very short decay time.≈490 ns [8]. A TG-Green scintillator coating has been applied, for the first time, to a fusion plasma diagnostics for the detection of fast

  11. Study on structural materials used in thermonuclear fusion technology; Estudo de materiais estruturais na tecnolgia da fusao termonuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billa, R. [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Amaral, D. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica

    1995-12-31

    The main problem related to the construction of a thermonuclear fusion reactor is the absence of suitable materials for the process, concerning to temperature limits, heat flux and life time. The first wall is the most critical part of the structure, being submitted to radiation effects, ionic corrosion and coolant, besides thermal fatigue and tension produced by cyclical burning. The AISI 316(17-12SPH) stainless steel is used as structural material, which has a wide known database. This work proposes an alternative material study to be used in the future thermonuclear fusion reactors. As a option a study on the utilization of Cr-Mn(Fe-17 Mn-10 Cr-0,1 C) steels and their alloy variations is presented 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Papers presented at the Fourteenth International conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. Organization International de la Energia Atomica Wuerzberg, Alemania 30 September - 7 October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the contributions of the CIEMAT's Fusion Unit to the 14th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research that was held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Wuerzberg, Germany from 30 September to 7 October 1992. Three papers were presented that summarized the, main lines of work done in the Unit during the previous two years: The first one on the theoretical advances in the understanding of the Fexible Heliac TJ-II under construction, the second on the confinement studies performed in the operating TJ-I Tokamak and the third one on the description of the physical properties of the soon to be started TJ-IU Torsatron. (Author) 25 refs

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of interactions between hydrogen and fusion-relevant materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    In a thermonuclear reactor fusion between hydrogen isotopes takes place, producing helium and energy. The so-called divertor is the part of the fusion reactor vessel where the plasma is neutralized in order to exhaust the helium. The surface plates of the divertor are subjected to high heat loads

  14. Silk-Silk Interactions between Silkworm Fibroin and Recombinant Spider Silk Fusion Proteins Enable the Construction of Bioactive Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilebäck, Linnea; Chouhan, Dimple; Jansson, Ronnie; Widhe, Mona; Mandal, Biman B; Hedhammar, My

    2017-09-20

    Natural silk is easily accessible from silkworms and can be processed into different formats suitable as biomaterials and cell culture matrixes. Recombinant DNA technology enables chemical-free functionalization of partial silk proteins through fusion with peptide motifs and protein domains, but this constitutes a less cost-effective production process. Herein, we show that natural silk fibroin (SF) can be used as a bulk material that can be top-coated with a thin layer of the recombinant spider silk protein 4RepCT in fusion with various bioactive motifs and domains. The coating process is based on a silk assembly to achieve stable interactions between the silk types under mild buffer conditions. The assembly process was studied in real time by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. Coatings, electrospun mats, and microporous scaffolds were constructed from Antheraea assama and Bombyx mori SFs. The morphology of the fibroin materials before and after coating with recombinant silk proteins was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. SF materials coated with various bioactive 4RepCT fusion proteins resulted in directed antibody capture, enzymatic activity, and improved cell attachment and spreading, respectively, compared to pristine SF materials. The herein-described procedure allows a fast and easy route for the construction of bioactive materials.

  15. Spectrographic Determination of Impurities in Ceramic Materials for Nuclear Fusion Reactors. I. Analysis of Alumina; Determinacion Espectrografica de impurezas en materiales ceramicos para fusion nuclear. I.- Analisis de alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucandio, M. I.; Roca, M.; Melon, A.

    1990-07-01

    The determination of minor and trace elements in the aluminium oxide considered as possible ceramic material in thermonuclear fusion reactors has been studied. The concentration ranges are 0.1 - 0.3 * for Ca, Si and Y, and at the ppm level for Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Se, Ta, Ti, V and Zr. Atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current ore excitation and photographic detection has been employed. For Hf, Mg, Ta, Ti, V and Zr the use of 40% of copper fluoride as a carrier and of Nb as lnternal standard provide suitable sensitivities and precessions, while for the rest of elements the bent results are obtained with graphite powder in different proportions and Rb or Sn as internal standard. (Author) 7 refs.

  16. PREFACE: 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shu; Sekino, Tohru; Tanaka, Shun-ichiro; Sato, Tsugio; Lu, Li; Xue, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    The 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011) was held in Sendai, Japan, on 2-6 August 2011. This Special Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) consists of partial manuscripts which were presented at ISFM2011. Advanced materials have experienced a dramatic increase in demand for research, development and applications. The aim of the International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM) was to provide an overview of the present status with historical background and to foresee future trends in the field of functional materials. The 4th symposium, ISFM 2011, covered a wide variety of topics within state-of-the-art advanced materials science and technology, and focused especially on four major categories including: Environmental Materials, Electronic Materials, Energy Materials and Biomedical Materials. As you know, a massive earthquake and the Tsunami that followed occurred near the Tohoku region on 11 March 2011. After the earthquake, although there were many difficulties in continuing to organize the symposium, we received warm encouragement from many researchers and societies, especially from the members of the International Advisory Committee and Organizing Committee, so that ISFM2011 could be held on schedule. We are honored that ISFM2011 was the first formal international academic conference held in the Tohoku area of Japan after the 11 March earthquake. About 140 participants from 14 countries took part in the ISFM2011 symposium, which included five plenary talks by world-leading scientists, 32 invited talks, and many oral and poster presentations. We are delighted to see that many researchers are interested in the synthesis and the properties as well as the applications of functional materials. Many fruitful and exciting research achievements were presented in the symposium. We believe that this symposium provided a good chance for scientists to communicate and exchange opinions with each other. We would also like to

  17. Developments on the RF system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Johnson, H.P.; Riggin, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The rf system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator is currently in the design phase at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). The 35-MeV, 100-mA deuteron beam will require approximately 6 MW of rf power at 80 MHz. The EIMAC 8973 power tetrode, capable of a 600-kW cw output, has been chosen as the final amplifier tube for each of 15 amplifier chains. The final power stage of each chain is designed to perform as a linear Class B amplifier. Each low-power rf system (less than or equal to 100W) is to be phase, amplitude, and frequency controlled to provide a drive signal for each high-power amplifier. Beam dynamics for particle acceleration and for minimal beam spill require each rf amplifier output to be phase controlled to +-1 0 . The amplitude of the accelerating field must be held to +-1%. A varactor-tuned electronic phase shifter and a linear phase detector are under development for use in this system. To complement hardware development, analog computer simulations are being performed to optimize the closed-loop control characteristics of the system

  18. International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials Science and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers the proceedings of the plenary sessions, invited lectures, and papers presented at the International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials Science and Applications (ICRTMSA-2016). It also features revealing presentations on various aspects of Materials Science, such as nanomaterials, photonic crystal fibers, quantum dots, thin film techniques, crystal growth, spectroscopic procedures, fabrication and characterisation of new materials / compounds with enhanced features, and potential applications in nonlinear optical and electro-optic devices, solar cell device, chemical sensing, biomedical imaging, diagnosis and treatment of cancer, energy storage device etc. This book will be of great interest to beginning and seasoned researchers alike.

  19. International workshop on advanced materials for high precision detectors. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicquevert, B.; Hauviller, C.

    1994-01-01

    These proceedings gather together the contributions to the Workshop on Advanced Materials for High Precision Detectors, which was held from 28-30 September 1994 in Archamps, Haute-Savoie, France. This meeting brought together international experts (researchers, physicists and engineers) in the field of advanced materials and their use in high energy physics detectors or spacecraft applications. Its purpose was to discuss the status of the different materials currently in use in the structures of detectors and spacecraft, together with their actual performances, technological implications and future prospects. Environmental effects, such as those of moisture and radiation, were discussed, as were design and manufacturing technologies. Some case studies were presented. (orig.)

  20. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Cobb, D.D.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Barnes, J.W.; Scheinman, L.

    1980-04-01

    The first volume of this report summarizes the results and conclusions for this study of conventional and advanced nuclear materials accounting systems applicable for both large (1500 MTHM/y) and small (210 MTHM/y) spent-fuel reprocessing facilities subject to international verification

  1. International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.G.

    1985-03-01

    The bulletin presents a selected bibliography (462 literature pieces) on atomic and molecular data relevant to fusion research and technology. It also gives a list of indexed papers, separately on structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface effects

  2. International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.G.

    1985-12-01

    This bulletin presents a selected bibliography (363 literature pieces) on atomic and molecular data for fusion. It also gives a list of indexed papers on structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions

  3. Liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Gijn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Paris and Vienna Conventions do not affect the application of any international transport agreement already in force. However, in certain circumstances both the nuclear operator and the carrier may be held liable for nuclear damage which arises during international transports of nuclear materials. The ensuing cumulation of liabilities under the Nuclear and Transport Conventions may cause serious problems in obtaining adequate insurance cover for such transports. The 1971 Brussels Convention seeks to solve this problem by exonerating any person who might be held liable for nuclear damage under an international maritime convention or national law. Similar difficulties are encountered in the case of transports of nuclear materials between states which have and states which have not ratified the Paris and Vienna Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  4. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.; Rumble, J. Jr.; Smith, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    This bulletin deals with atomic and molecular data for fusion. A bibliography for the most recent data presented in the document is provided. Work in progress is briefly reported. The bulletin contains a list of references covering the year 1979 for all the publications on controlled fusion and plasma physics. A short description of the Programme of the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit is outlined

  5. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.A.; Bannister, M.E.; Delcroix, J.L.; Fuhr, J.

    2001-06-01

    This bulletin comprises updated atomic and molecular data for fusion. It includes the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA. It contains two parts: a bibliographic database for atomic and molecular data for fusion research, and numerical databases of recommended and evaluated atomic, molecular and plasma-surface interaction data. The indexed papers are also listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions

  6. Overview of Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Siamidis, John

    2009-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B (MISSE 7B) is the most recent in a series of experiments flown on the exterior of International Space Station for the purpose of determining the durability of materials and components in the space environment. A collaborative effort among the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, industry, and academia, MISSE 7B will be flying a number of NASA experiments designed to gain knowledge in the area of space environmental effects to mitigate risk for exploration missions. Consisting of trays called Passive Experiment Containers, the suitcase sized payload opens on hinges and allows active and passive experiments contained within to be exposed to the ram and wake or zenith and nadir directions in low Earth orbit, in essence, providing a test bed for atomic oxygen exposure, ultraviolet radiation exposure, charged particle radiation exposure, and thermal cycling. New for MISSE 7B is the ability to monitor experiments actively, with data sent back to Earth via International Space Station communications. NASA?s active and passive experiments cover a range of interest for the Agency. Materials relevant to the Constellation Program include: solar array materials, seal materials, and thermal protection system materials. Materials relevant to the Exploration Technology Development Program include: fabrics for spacesuits, materials for lunar dust mitigation, and new thermal control coatings. Sensors and components on MISSE 7B include: atomic oxygen fluence monitors, ultraviolet radiation sensors, and electro-optical components. In addition, fundamental space environmental durability science experiments are being flown to gather atomic oxygen erosion data and thin film polymer mechanical and optical property data relevant to lunar lander insulation and the James Web Space Telescope. This paper will present an overview of the NASA experiments to be flown on MISSE 7B, along with a summary of the

  7. Modeling of cascade and sub-cascade formation at high pka energies in irradiated fusion structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, A.; Metelkin, E.V.; Semenov, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A new theoretical model is developed for the investigations of cascade and sub-cascade formation in fusion structural materials under fast neutron irradiation at high primary knock atom (PKA) energies. Under 14 MeV neutron irradiation especially of light fusion structural materials such as Be, C, SiC materials PKA will have the energies up to 1 MeV. At such high energies it is very difficult to use the Monte Carlo or molecular dynamic simulations. The developed model is based on the analytical consideration of elastic collisions between displaced moving atoms into atomic cascades produced by a PKAs with the some kinetic energy obtained from fast neutrons. The Tomas-Fermy interaction potential is used for the describing of elastic collisions between moving atoms. The suggested model takes into account also the electronic losses for moving atoms between elastic collisions. The self consistent criterion for sub-cascade formation is suggested here which is based on the comparison of mean distance between two consequent PKA collisions and size of sub-cascade produced by PKA. The analytical relations for the most important characteristics of cascades and sub-cascade are determined including the average number of sub-cascades per one PKA in the dependence on PKA energy, the distance between sub-cascades and the average cascade and sub-cascade sizes as a function of PKA energy. The developed model allows determining the total numbers, distribution functions of cascades and sub-cascades in dependence on their sizes and generation rate of cascades and sub-cascades for different fusion neutron energy spectra. Based on the developed model the numerical calculations for main characteristics of cascades and sub-cascades in different fusion structural materials are performed using the neutron flux and PKA energy spectra for fusion reactors: ITER and DEMO. The main characteristics for cascade and sub-cascade formation are calculated here for the

  8. An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Zachary S; Barnard, Harold S; Lanza, Richard C; Sorbom, Brandon N; Stahle, Peter W; Whyte, Dennis G

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (~1 m), high-current (~1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields--in between plasma shots--to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ~5 μm into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

  9. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as material delivery and receipt area, stock fluctuation, batch, real inventory, effective value, fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for the permission of using internationally regulated goods shall list the kinds of the goods classifying into materials and facilities for each partner country of international agreements concerning these goods. When such goods are utilized by fabricators, persons who install reactors, reprocessors or users, they shall file application to the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency for each works or enterprise where these goods are employed. The application shall include names and addresses, the names and places of works or enterprises where the goods are used, the kinds and quantities of the goods and expected period of usage etc. Records shall be made on the items specified for refiners, fabricators, persons who install reactors and users, respectively, and kept for particular periods. Measurement control, analysis method and business rules are defined. Reports shall be submitted to the Director General on the receipt and delivery, control, and stock fluctuation of nuclear raw materials and fuel materials, etc. (Okada, K.)

  10. Characterization of a novel caudal vertebral interbody fusion in a rat tail model: An implication for future material and mechanical testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Yeh

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: The rat caudal disc interbody fusion model proved to be an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible model. Future research into adjuvant treatments like growth factor injection and alternative fusion materials under conditions of osteoporosis using this model would be worthwhile.

  11. Early Career. Harnessing nanotechnology for fusion plasma-material interface research in an in-situ particle-surface interaction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, Jean Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-08-08

    This project consisted of fundamental and applied research of advanced in-situ particle-beam interactions with surfaces/interfaces to discover novel materials able to tolerate intense conditions at the plasma-material interface (PMI) in future fusion burning plasma devices. The project established a novel facility that is capable of not only characterizing new fusion nanomaterials but, more importantly probing and manipulating materials at the nanoscale while performing subsequent single-effect in-situ testing of their performance under simulated environments in fusion PMI.

  12. Establishment of the first WHO International Standard for etanercept, a TNF receptor II Fc fusion protein: Report of an international collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Meenu; Bird, Chris; Dilger, Paula; Rigsby, Peter; Jia, Haiyan; Gross, Marie Emmanuelle Behr

    2017-08-01

    Etanercept, a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor Fc fusion protein is an effective treatment option in adults with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis or plaque psoriasis and paediatrics with juvenile idiotypic arthritis and plaque psoriasis. Patent expiration in Europe and intense development of various etanercept products worldwide triggered a need for an international reference standard to facilitate determination of biological activity. Therefore, three candidate preparations of etanercept were lyophilized and evaluated in a multi-centre collaborative study comprising twenty eight laboratories from 15 countries for their suitability to serve as an international standard for the bioactivity of TNF receptor II Fc fusion proteins (international nonproprietary name, Etanercept). The preparations were tested for neutralization activity against the third TNF-α international standard (IS) in different in vitro cell-based assays, e.g., cytotoxicity, apoptosis and reporter gene methods. Regardless of the assay and the amount of TNF-α IS used, potency estimates for the different preparations were very similar. An indication of the inhibitory activity of etanercept in terms of the biological activity of the TNF-α IS based on ED50 data derived from a limited number of laboratories using a cytotoxicity assay was also derived. Results indicated that the candidate preparation coded 13/204 was stable and suitable to serve as an international standard for the biological activity of etanercept. Therefore, the preparation coded 13/204 was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2015 as the WHO first International Standard for TNF receptor II Fc fusion protein (INN, etanercept) with an assigned in vitro bioactivity of 10,000IU per ampoule. It should be noted that this first-in-class international standard for a Fc fusion protein, available from the National Institute for Biological

  13. The effects of material property assumptions on predicted meltpool shape for laser powder bed fusion based additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Chong; Ashby, Kathryn; Pal, Deepankar; Stucker, Brent; Phan, Nam

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide guidance on material specifications for powders used in laser powder bed fusion based additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The methodology was to investigate how different material property assumptions in a simulation affect meltpool prediction and by corrolary how different material properties affect meltpool formation in AM processes. The sensitvity of meltpool variations to each material property can be used as a guide to help drive future research and to help prioritize material specifications in requirements documents. By identifying which material properties have the greatest affect on outcomes, metrology can be tailored to focus on those properties which matter most; thus reducing costs by eliminating unnecessary testing and property charaterizations. Futhermore, this sensitivity study provides insight into which properties require more accurate measurements, thus motivating development of new metrology methods to measure those properties accurately. (paper)

  14. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1994. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  15. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion, 1980-1993. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1993. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (I) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  16. Analysis of International Space Station Vehicle Materials on MISSE 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria; Golden, Johnny; Kravchenko, Michael; O'Rourke, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station Materials and Processes team has multiple material samples on MISSE 6, 7 and 8 to observe Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environmental effects on Space Station materials. Optical properties, thickness/mass loss, surface elemental analysis, visual and microscopic analysis for surface change are some of the techniques employed in this investigation. Results for the following MISSE 6 samples materials will be presented: deionized water sealed anodized aluminum; Hyzod(tm) polycarbonate used to temporarily protect ISS windows; Russian quartz window material; Beta Cloth with Teflon(tm) reformulated without perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and electroless nickel. Discussion for current and future MISSE materials experiments will be presented. MISSE 7 samples are: more deionized water sealed anodized aluminum, including Photofoil(tm); indium tin oxide (ITO) over-coated Kapton(tm) used as thermo-optical surfaces; mechanically scribed tin-plated beryllium-copper samples for "tin pest" growth (alpha/beta transformation); and beta cloth backed with a black coating rather than aluminization. MISSE 8 samples are: exposed "scrim cloth" (fiberglass weave) from the ISS solar array wing material, protective fiberglass tapes and sleeve materials, and optical witness samples to monitor contamination.

  17. Decoupling internalization, acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion during phagocytosis of InlA coated beads in epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D Blanchette

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple method to measure and decouple particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA, a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated phagocytosis. We were able to independently measure the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads with antibody quenching, a pH sensitive dye and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we exploited the phagosomal acidification process to demonstrate an additional, real-time method for tracking bead binding, internalization and phagosomal acidification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using this method, we found that the time scales for internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion ranged from 23-32 min, 3-4 min and 74-120 min, respectively, for MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Both the static and real-time methods developed here are expected to be readily and broadly applicable, as they simply

  18. Fusion Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. (1). Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  19. Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on material chemistry in nuclear environment (MATERIAL CHEMISTRY '02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The volume contains all presented papers during the 3rd International Symposium on Material Chemistry in Nuclear Environment: MATERIAL CHEMISTRY 02 (MC'02), held March 13-15, 2002. The purpose of this symposium is to provide an international forum for the discussion of recent progress in the field of materials chemistry in nuclear environments. This symposium intends to build on the success of the previous symposiums held in Tsukuba in 1992 and 1996. The topics discussed in the symposium MC'02 are Chemical Reaction and Thermodynamics, Degradation Phenomena, New Characterization Technology, Fabrication and New Materials, Composite Materials, Surface Modification, and Computational Science. The 61 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  1. Computer system for International Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Database support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunjan, R.; Kabalevsky, S.; Kiselev, V.; Serov, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents description of the computer tools for support of International Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Database developed at IAEA. Work was focused on raw, qualified, processed materials data, search, retrieval, analysis, presentation and export possibilities of data. Developed software has the following main functions: provides software tools for querying and search of any type of data in the database; provides the capability to update the existing information in the database; provides the capability to present and print selected data; provides the possibility of export on yearly basis the run-time IRPVMDB with raw, qualified and processed materials data to Database members; provides the capability to export any selected sets of raw, qualified, processed materials data

  2. International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rattan, Sunita; Verma, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials and Devices, which was conceived as a major contribution to large-scale efforts to foster Indian research and development in the field in close collaboration with the community of non-resident Indian researchers from all over the world. The research articles collected in this volume - selected from among the submissions for their intrinsic quality and originality, as well as for their potential value for further collaborations - document and report on a wide range of recent and significant results for various applications and scientific developments in the areas of Materials and Devices. The technical sessions covered include photovoltaics and energy storage, semiconductor materials and devices, sensors, smart and polymeric materials, optoelectronics, nanotechnology and nanomaterials, MEMS and NEMS, as well as emerging technologies.

  3. Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC and A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC and A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships

  4. Building on knowledge base of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors to develop materials technology for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, B.; Rao, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: There are strong synergies between fission and fusion research. Similarities extend to candidate structural materials, methods of theoretical and experimental investigations, high operating temperatures, fast neutron exposure and similar underlying physical phenomena. Enhancing the cross-fertilization of fission and fusion R and D programmes would mutually benefit the development of both kinds of nuclear reactors for sustainable nuclear energy. Materials used in fusion energy systems must be fully code qualified for high-temperature applications that include creep, low cycle fatigue, thermo-mechanical fatigue and creep-fatigue interaction. Evaluation of various mechanical properties of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic alloys are underway for establishing reliable data bases for development of a suitable code and further optimization and redesign of the alloys for fusion reactor components. The alloys 316L (N) and derived variants of Mod.9Cr1Mo steel are anticipated for use in fusion systems and the RCC-MR code would serve as a backbone for the initial design of various components. In this respect, the efforts made in India for developing these materials, their characterization and applicability of RCC-MR code are highlighted. The salient features of consortium approach and the experience that has led to manufacturing of main and safety vessel components from 316L (N) with close dimensional tolerances, thick section forged components and seamless tubes of Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for steam generators will be presented. The finite element analysis has been used for optimal design of die and punch for the near net shape forming of petals of main vessel of PFBR. The safe temperature and strain rate domains were established using dynamic materials model for forming of 316L (N) and 9Cr1Mo steels by various industrial processes. Welds are weak links in the design of both fission and fusion systems. Detailed investigations have led to

  5. An international interdisciplinary graduate school in laser and material science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargin, Evelyne; Sarger, Laurent; Kaluza, Malte; Nolte, Stefan; Richardson, Martin; Richardson, Kathleen

    2009-06-01

    The main objective is to establish the first transatlantic Graduate School, proposing a truly international education, training and research platform in the field of Photonics and Material sciences. The wide scope of Photonics encompasses many application fields that will be mostly covered by various curricula involving Laser Optics and Material Sciences and Interactions. This cooperation will build a very efficient scientific international community able to address the 21 century challenges in Photonics and applications. Indeed, the highest level of education, namely Master and PhD , will address the so called "Skill shortage" that impact on our economy. The truly interdisciplinary theme of this graduate school is also a guarantee for the insertion of the graduate into the workforce.

  6. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.; Smith, F.J.

    1978-10-01

    This bulletin deals with atomic and molecular data for fusion (spectroscopic data, atomic and molecular collisions, surface effects, ...). Particular emphasis is given to data applicable to Tokamak devices. A bibliography for the most recent data presented in the document is provided. A description of work in progress and ''Data Requests'' in the fusion field are also mentioned. Cross-sections for the electron impact excitation of 2sub(p1/2) and 2sub(p3/2) states of the lithium-line ions C 3+ , F 23+ , Mo 39+ and W 71+ calculated in the relativistic Coulomb-Born approximation are presented

  7. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero, J.

    1993-12-01

    This bulletin, published by the IAEA, provides atomic and molecular data references relevant to fusion research and technology. In part I the indexation of the papers is provided separately for (i) structure and spectra, (ii) atomic and molecular collisions, and (iii) surface interactions. Part II contains the bibliographic data for the above-listed topics and for high-energy laser and beam-matter interaction of atomic particles with fields. Also included are sections on atomic and molecular data needs for fusion research and on news about ALADDIN (A Labelled Atomic Data INterface) and evaluated data bases

  8. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.; Langley, R.A.

    1981-11-01

    This bulletin deals with atomic and molecular data for fusion. A bibliography for the most recent data presented in the document is provided. Work in progress is briefly reported: Electron ionization cross sections for light elements, single electron capture by highly charged ions colliding with hydrogen, inconel 626 surface exfoliation, cavities in nickel induced by helium ion irradiation, electron impact excitation of hydrogenic ions. The bulletin contains a list of references for the publications on controlled fusion and plasma physics for 1980 and 1981

  9. Preface: 10th International Symposium on Knappable Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Mangado Llach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The University of Barcelona hosted from 7 to 11 September 2015, the International Symposium on Knappable Materials at the Building of the Faculty of Geography and History in the Raval campus in the city centre. The pleasant atmosphere of research and exchange of knowledge and experience was due in large part to the hard work and outstanding management and organizational skills of the institutions and individuals involved.

  10. Measurement of internal stress within bulk materials using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.; Andreani, C.; Hutchings, M.T.; Windsor, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measures stress through the small changes in atomic lattice parameters caused by strain. The method is similar to X-ray diffraction with the vital difference that a thermal neutron beam penetrates several centimetres in most materials allowing measurements within bulk samples. Ways of achieving the high resolution necessary for quantitative measurements are described. Results are presented for the strains in a mild steel bar subjected to known elastic stresses, and on the internal stresses in a deformed bar. (author)

  11. Mechanisms of Plastic and Fracture Instabilities for Alloy Development of Fusion Materials. Final Project Report for period July 15, 1998 - July 14, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to develop new computational tools for the simulation and analysis of plasticity and fracture mechanisms of fusion materials, and to assist in planning and assessment of corresponding radiation experiments

  12. Mechanisms of Plastic and Fracture Instabilities for Alloy Development of Fusion Materials. Final Project Report for period July 15, 1998 - July 14, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoniem, N. M.

    2003-07-14

    The main objective of this research was to develop new computational tools for the simulation and analysis of plasticity and fracture mechanisms of fusion materials, and to assist in planning and assessment of corresponding radiation experiments.

  13. Critical survey of the neutron-induced creep behaviour of steel alloys for the fusion reactor materials programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, H.

    1985-01-01

    The differences between the irradiation environment of a fission reactor and that of a fusion reactor are respectively described in relation to the radiation damage found and expected in the two types of nuclear reactor. It is shown that the microstructure developing for instance in stainless steel alloys is almost invariant to whether the production rate of helium is high or low. The finding is valid up to neutron doses corresponding to about 60 dpa. For this reason, irradiation creep data obtained in fission reactors may be used, with caution, for predicting creep behaviour in fusion reactors.It was further recognized that irradiation creep performed with high energy particles from an accelerator, yields results which are comparable to those obtained in fission reactors. For this reason, simulation creep experiments are found to be valuable for the development of irradiation creep resistant materials using, for example, high energy electrons or protons. Such kind of experiments are performed in many laboratories. For irradiation doses larger than 60 dpa, predictions with respect to creep rates in fission and fusion reactors are difficult. In end-of-life tests, which concern swelling, ductility, tensile properties, rupture, fatigue and embrittlement, the presence of helium, due to its production rate being much higher in most materials exposed to 14 MeV neutrons than to fission neutrons, may be of great importance

  14. 8th international workshop on plasma edge theory in fusion devices. Abstracts of invited and contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, S.K.; Heikkinen, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 8th International Workshop on Plasma Edge Theory in Fusion Devices, held at Dipoli Congress Centre, Espoo, Finland, is organised on behalf of the International Scientific Committee by Helsinki University of Technology and VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland). Similar to the seven preceding Workshops, it addresses the theory for the boundary layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. It reflects the present status of the theory for the edge region of fusion plasmas. Emphasis is placed on the development of theory and of appropriate numerical methods as well as on self-consistent modelling of experimental data (including also empirical elements). The following topics are covered: basic edge plasma theory, models of special phenomena and edge control, and integrated edge plasma modelling. The International Scientific Committee has selected the papers and compiled the scientific programme. All other arrangements have been made by the Local Organising Committee. The Workshop is supported by the European Commission, High-Level Scientific Conferences. This Book of Abstracts contains the scientific programme and the abstracts of the invited and contributed papers. The Workshop has seven invited lectures of 60 minutes duration (including 10 minutes for discussion). In addition, 10 contributed papers were selected for oral presentation of 30 minutes duration (including five minutes for discussion). All oral presentations are given in plenary sessions. The remaining 34 contributed papers are presented as posters in three sessions. The invited lectures and contributed oral papers are presented also as posters. All invited and contributed papers will be refereed and published also as a regular issue of the journal Contributions to Plasma Physics. (orig.)

  15. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.

    1980-07-01

    This bulletin deals with atomic and molecular data for fusion. A bibliography for the most recent data presented in the document is provided. Work in progress is briefly reported. (The experiment ATOS, at I.V. Kurchatov Institute for studying interaction of unstable atomic and molecular formations. The improvement of spectroscopic diagnostics for high temperature plasmas). Needs for alpha particle diagnostics are briefly underlined

  16. International power supply policy and the globalisation of research: the example of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.; Gloede, F.; Lessmann, E.

    2001-01-01

    At the present state of our information, we can affirm that fusion research, as far as the necessary financial expenditures and their political justification are concerned, is a matter of politically controversial debate. In the political arenas, projects like controlled nuclear fusion are discussed primarily with regard to the controllability of complex technical systems and the sustainability of our future supply of electric power. The attempt to discuss this problem will have to consider: (i) on the one hand, already established concepts of sustainability; (ii) and on the other, the - according to the present state of our knowledge - foreseeable characteristics of a system of power generation and supply based on fusion reactors. Not only do the goals of global technology projects have to be embedded in patterns of universally accepted legitimisation (sustainability), but the organisation of research and development is also changing into networks acting globally. In this sense, globalisation means not only the worldwide linking of financial markets and the permanent availability of information and communication networks, but above all the creation of global organisations of research and innovation processes. The globalisation of research and development of technology has several dimensions: (i) the recognition and treatment of global problems; (ii) the transformation and evolution of new forms of organisation and cooperation in a global community of researchers; (iii) the constitution of Global Change Research. Fusion is playing a 'pathfinder role' for these processes and is at the same time itself an expression of the globalisation of the production of technology

  17. International power supply policy and the globalisation of research: the example of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, G.; Gloede, F. E-mail: fritz.gloede@itas.fzk.de; Lessmann, E

    2001-11-01

    At the present state of our information, we can affirm that fusion research, as far as the necessary financial expenditures and their political justification are concerned, is a matter of politically controversial debate. In the political arenas, projects like controlled nuclear fusion are discussed primarily with regard to the controllability of complex technical systems and the sustainability of our future supply of electric power. The attempt to discuss this problem will have to consider: (i) on the one hand, already established concepts of sustainability; (ii) and on the other, the - according to the present state of our knowledge - foreseeable characteristics of a system of power generation and supply based on fusion reactors. Not only do the goals of global technology projects have to be embedded in patterns of universally accepted legitimisation (sustainability), but the organisation of research and development is also changing into networks acting globally. In this sense, globalisation means not only the worldwide linking of financial markets and the permanent availability of information and communication networks, but above all the creation of global organisations of research and innovation processes. The globalisation of research and development of technology has several dimensions: (i) the recognition and treatment of global problems; (ii) the transformation and evolution of new forms of organisation and cooperation in a global community of researchers; (iii) the constitution of Global Change Research. Fusion is playing a 'pathfinder role' for these processes and is at the same time itself an expression of the globalisation of the production of technology.

  18. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.J.

    1987-05-01

    The bulletin provides information on atomic and molecular data for fusion research. In Part I the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface effects. Part II contains all the bibliographic data for both indexed and non-indexed references (536 references). An author index is included

  19. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.

    1984-06-01

    This bulletin deals with atomic and molecular data for fusion. A bibliography for the most recent data presented in the document is provided. Work in progress is also briefly reported (Collision strengths and recombination coefficients for ions of C,N,O; Reactions between ions and atomic hydrogen; Cross sections for electron impact ionisation of Ne + , Ti + and Ni + ions)

  20. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.

    1983-09-01

    This bulletin deals with atomic and molecular data for fusion. A bibliography for the most recent data presented in the document is provided. Work in progress is briefly reported (OIV in temperature and density diagnostics, measured cross section for electron impact ionization of Iron and Tungsten)

  1. Characterization of Decommissioned PWR Vessel Internals Materials Samples: Material Certification, Fluence, and Temperature (Nonproprietary Version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, M.; Shogan, R.; Fero, A.; Snyder, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores, operate under extreme environmental conditions due to coolant chemistry, operating temperature, and neutron exposure. Extending the life of PWRs require detailed knowledge of the changes in mechanical and corrosion properties of the structural austenitic stainless steel components adjacent to the fuel. This report contains basic material characterization information of the as-installed samples of reactor internals material which were harvested from a decommissioned PWR

  2. 2nd (final) IAEA research co-ordination meeting on 'plasma-material interaction data for mixed plasma facing materials in fusion reactors'. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    2001-11-01

    The proceedings and conclusions of the 2nd Research Co-ordination Meeting on 'Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Mixed Plasma Facing Materials in Fusion Reactors', held on October 16 and 17, 2000 at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, are briefly described. This report includes a summary of the presentations made by the meeting participants and a review of the accomplishments of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). In addition, short summaries from the participants are included indicating the specific research completed in support of this CRP. (author)

  3. RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H-W; Garrecht, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended o...

  4. Functional model and general principles of structural materials selection for fusion tokamak reactor first wall and blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinokurov, V.F.; Glukhikh, V.A.; Gorynin, I.V.; Kazantsev, A.N.; Parshin, A.M.; Saksaganskij, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The functional mathematical model of the most energy-stressed components of the reactor (the first wall and blanket) is developed. This model is the basis for the quantitative estimate of various concepts and design options from promise view points, physical and technological requirements may be formulated in general and limiting properties may be found. In this way the first wall and blanket may be directly introduced within the framework of multi-parametric system analysis and fusion reactor optimization. The concept of base structure is suggested as a generalized representation of ''the first-wall-blanket structure'' and its functions. A set of structural, thermophysical and hydraulic parameters is introduced to describe the base structure. The calculated model is presented, permitting by variation of structural and physical parameters to determine technical and economic reactor parameters as the functions of plasma parameters and structural material properties. The mechanisms of fusion reactor destructive effects on structural materials characteristics are analyzed. Comparative estimates of promising steels and alloys of various classes and modifications are given. The effect of neutron irradiation dose and temperature on strength, plasticity and swelling of materials and their compatibility with gas and liquid metal coolants are shown. Structural, physical and technological methods to improve operating characteristics and to raise radiation material resistance are discussed. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Proceedings of the international symposium on materials testing reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Materials Testing Reactors hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The symposium was held on July 16 to 17, 2008, at the Oarai Research and Development Center of JAEA. This symposium was also held for the 40th anniversary ceremony of Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) from achieving its first criticality. The objective of the symposium is to exchange the information on current status, future plan and so on among each testing reactors for the purpose of mutual understanding. There were 138 participants from Argentina, Belgium, France, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Korea, the Russian Federation, Sweden, the United State, Vietnam and Japan. The symposium was divided into four technical sessions and three topical sessions. Technical sessions addressed the general topics of 'status and future plan of materials testing reactors', 'material development for research and testing reactors', irradiation technology (including PIE technology)' and 'utilization with materials testing reactors', and 21 presentations were made. Also the topical sessions addressed 'establishment of strategic partnership', 'management on re-operation work at reactor trouble' and 'basic technology for neutron irradiation tests in MTRs', and panel discussion was made. The 21 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. 10th International School of Materials Science and Technology : Intercalation in Layered Materials "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This volume is prepared from lecture notes for the course "Intercalation in Layered Materials" which was held at the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture at Erice, Sicily in July, 1986, as part of the International School of Materials Science and Tech­ nology. The course itself consisted of formal tutorial lectures, workshops, and informal discussions. Lecture notes were prepared for the formal lectures, and short summaries of many of the workshop presentations were prepared. This volume is based on these lecture notes and research summaries. The material is addressed to advanced graduate students and postdoctoral researchers and assumes a background in basic solid state physics. The goals of this volume on Intercalation in Layered Materials include an introduc­ tion to the field for potential new participants, an in-depth and broad exposure for stu­ dents and young investigators already working in the field, a basis for cross-fertilization between workers on various layered host materials...

  7. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, S. E.; Lehman, J. R.; Frazier, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400degC. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  8. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This bulletin provides atomic and molecular data references relevant to thermonuclear fusion research and technology. In part I the indexing of the papers is given separately for (i) structure and spectra (energy levels, wavelengths; transition probabilities, oscillator strengths; interatomic potentials), (ii) atomic and molecular collisions (photon collisions, electron collisions, heavy particle collisions), and (iii) surface interactions (sputtering, surface damage, blistering, flaking, arcing, chemical reactions). Part II contains the bibliographic data for the above listed topics and for plasma composition and impurities, plasma heating, cooling and fuelling, high energy laser- and beam- matter interaction, bibliographic and numerical data collections, and on interaction of atomic particles with fields. Also included are sections on atomic and molecular data needs for fusion research and on news about ALADDIN (A Labelled Atomic Data Interface) and evaluated-data bases

  9. Coxiella burnetii exhibits morphological change and delays phagolysosomal fusion after internalization by J774A.1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D; Mallavia, L P

    2000-07-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of Q fever, is an obligate intracellular bacterium proliferating within the harsh environment of the phagolysosome. Mechanisms controlling trafficking to, and survival of pathogens within, the phagolysosome are unknown. Two distinct morphological variants have been implicated as playing a role in C. burnetii survival. The dormant small-cell variant (SCV) is resistant to extracellular stresses and the more metabolically active large-cell variant (LCV) is sensitive to environmental stresses. To document changes in the ratio of SCVs to LCVs in response to environment, a protein specific to SCV, ScvA, was quantitated. During the first 2 h after internalization of C. burnetii by J774A.1 cells, the level of ScvA decreased, indicating a change from a population containing primarily SCVs to one containing primarily LCVs. In vitro experiments showed that 2 h of incubation at pH 5.5 caused a significant decrease in ScvA in contrast to incubation at pH 4.5. Measuring in vitro internalization of [(35)S]methionine-[(35)S]cysteine in response to pH, we found the uptake to be optimal at pH 5.5. To explore the possibility that after uptake C. burnetii was able to delay phagolysosomal fusion, we used thorium dioxide and acid phosphatase to label phagolysosomes during infection of J774A.1 cells. We determined that viable C. burnetii was able to delay phagolysosomal fusion. This is the first time that a delay in phagolysosomal fusion has been shown to be a part of the infection process of this pathogenic microorganism.

  10. Overview of the RFX-mod contribution to the international Fusion Science Program

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Puiatti, M.E.; Dal Bello, S.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Agostini, M.; Antoni, V.; Auriemma, F.; Barbisan, M.; Barbui, T.; Baruzzo, M.; Battistella, M.; Belli, F.; Bettini, P.; Bigi, M.; Bilel, R.; Boldrin, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonfiglio, D.; Brombin, M.; Buffa, A.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Cester, D.; Chacon, L.; Chapman, B.E.; Chitarin, G.; Ciaccio, G.; Cooper, W.A.; Dalla Palma, M.; Deambrosis, S.; Delogu, R.; De Lorenzi, A.; De Masi, G.; Dong, J.Q.; Escande, D.F.; Esposito, B.; Fassina, A.; Fellin, F.; Ferro, A.; Finotti, C.; Franz, P.; Frassinetti, L.; Furno Palumbo, M.; Gaio, E.; Ghezzi, F.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Gobbin, M.; Gonzales, W.A.; Grando, L.; Guo, S.C.; Hanson, J.D.; Hirshman, S.P.; Innocente, P.; Jackson, J.L.; Kiyama, S.; Komm, Michael; Laguardia, L.; Li, C.; Liu, Y.Q.; Lorenzini, R.; Luce, T.C.; Luchetta, A.; Maistrello, A.; Manduchi, G.; Mansfield, D.K.; Marchiori, G.; Marconato, N.; Marocco, D.; Marcuzzi, D.; Martines, E.; Martini, S.; Matsunaga, G.; Mazzitelli, G.; Miorin, E.; Momo, B.; Moresco, M.; Okabayashi, M.; Olofsson, E.; Paccagnella, R.; Patel, N.; Pavei, M.; Peruzzo, S.; Pilan, N.; Pigatto, L.; Piovan, R.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Piron, L.; Predebon, I.; Rea, C.; Recchia, M.; Rigato, V.; Rizzolo, A.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rostagni, G.; Ruset, C.; Ruzzon, A.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Sakakita, H.; Sanchez, R.; Sarff, J.S.; Sartori, E.; Sattin, F.; Scaghanm, A.; Scarin, P.; Schmitz, O.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Spong, D.A.; Spizzo, G.; Stevanato, L.; Takechi, M.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Trevisan, G.L.; Urso, G.; Valente, M.; Valisa, M.; Veranda, M.; Vianello, N.; Viesti, G.; Villone, F.; Vincenzi, P.; Visona, N.; Wang, Z.R.; White, R.B.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Xu, X.Y.; Yanovskiy, V.; Zamengo, A.; Zanca, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zilli, E.; Zuin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 10 (2015), s. 104012-104012 ISSN 0029-5515. [Fusion Energy Conference 2014 (FEC) /25./. St Petersburg, 13.10.2014-18.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * tokamak * reversed field pinch * single helicity * 3D boundary Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/55/10/104001

  11. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.A.; Bannister, M.E.; Delcroix, J.L.; Fuhr, J.

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin is prepared by the IAEA to assist in the development of fusion research and technology. In part 1 the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA is presented. In part 2, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions and surface interactions. Part 3 contains all the bibliographic data for both indexed and non-indexed references

  12. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 62. August 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, D.; Bannister, M.E.; Delcroix, J.L.; Fuhr, J.

    2003-10-01

    This bulletin comprises updated atomic and molecular data for fusion. It contains four parts. In part one the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA is presented. In part two, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions. Part three contains the bibliographic data for both indexed and and non-indexed references. The author index (part four) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part three

  13. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 65. July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, D.; Bannister, M.E.; Bretagne, J.; Fuhr, J.

    2006-08-01

    This bulletin comprises updated atomic and molecular data for fusion. It contains four parts. In part one the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA is presented. In part two, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions. Part three contains the bibliographic data for both indexed and and non-indexed references. The author index (part four) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part three

  14. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 64. October 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, D.; Bannister, M.E.; Bretagne, J.; Fuhr, J.

    2005-10-01

    This bulletin comprises updated atomic and molecular data for fusion. It contains four parts. In part one the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA is presented. In part two, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions. Part three contains the bibliographic data for both indexed and and non-indexed references. The author index (part four) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part three

  15. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, D.; Bannister, M.E.; Bretagne, J.; Fuhr, J.

    2004-10-01

    This bulletin comprises updated atomic and molecular data for fusion. It contains four parts. In part one the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA is presented. In part two, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions. Part three contains the bibliographic data for both indexed and and non-indexed references. The author index (part four) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part three

  16. Summary of the joint conference of the 11th International Stellarator Conference and the 8th International Toki Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion 'Helical System Research'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 'International Stellarator Conference' (under the aegis of the stellarator cooperation agreement of the IEA: International Energy Agency) is held every two years. The 'International Toki Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion' has been held annually at Toki-city, Japan at which a selected topic on plasma physics and fusion engineering is discussed. This year both conferences were held as a joint conference in Toki-city, September 29-October 3, 1997, that was hosted by the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) and supported by the Ministry of Education, Gifu-prefecture, Toki-city, and the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research. The main theme was 'Helical System Research'. (author)

  17. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  18. Japanese magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Horton, C.W.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This report is the work of six US scientists who surveyed and assessed Japanese research and development in magnetic fusion. All of the panelists are very familiar with Japanese fusion research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and through personal contacts with Japanese colleagues and with US colleagues who have visited Japanese research facilities. This report concentrates on the period from the early 1980s through June 1989. The technical accomplishments during this period are reviewed, and the Japanese capabilities and outlook for future contributions are assessed. Detailed evaluations are provided in the areas of basic and applied plasma physics, tokamak confinement, alternate confinement approaches, plasma technology, and fusion nuclear technology and materials. With a sustained national commitment, Japan will surpass US and West European capabilities in the early to middle 1990s in several important areas of fusion research and development. For example, it is expected that the planned upgrade of the Japanese JT-60 tokamak will surpass both the US Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European tours (JET) in the usual measures of plasma performance in the 1992 to 1993 timeframe, and will take a clear international lead in large-tokamak research by 1994 to 1995. The Japanese fusion program has the human and technological resources required to build and operate a fusion engineering test reactor without external participation. By the same measure, Japan would be a highly desirable partner in the bilateral undertaking of such a project

  19. Internal transfers of special nuclear material - March 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Paragraph 70.51(e) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires, with certain exceptions stated in the rule, that each licensee authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material (SNM) maintain certain procedures. These procedures are to include: (1) records of the quantities of SNM added to or removed from the process; (2) documentation of all transfers of SNM between material-balance areas to show the identity and quantity of SNM transferred; (3) requirements for authorized signatures on each document used to record the transfer of SNM between material-balance areas; and (4) means for control of and accounting for internal transfer documents. Paragraph 70.58(e) requires licensees to establish, maintain, and follow a system for measuring the SNM transferred between material-balance areas and item-control areas. Paragraph 70.58(f) requires that licensees have a program that evaluates and controls the quality of their measurement system. Additionally, all licensees authorized to possess SNM must comply with paragraph 70.51(b) of 10 CFR Part 70. That rule requires licensees to keep records showing, among other things, the inventory of all SNM in their possession and its location. This guide sets forth acceptable methods for controlling and documenting transfers of SNM within a plant site in order to meet the requirements listed above

  20. Mapping residual and internal stress in materials by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, Ph.J.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron diffraction provides one of the few means of mapping residual stresses deep within the bulk of materials and components. This article reviews the basic scientific methodology by which internal strains and stresses are inferred from recorded diffraction peaks. Both conventional angular scans and time-of-flight measurements are reviewed and compared. Their complementarity with analogous synchrotron X-ray methods is also highlighted. For measurements to be exploited in structural integrity calculations underpinning the safe operation of engineering components, measurement standards have been defined and the major findings are summarised. Examples are used to highlight the unique capabilities of the method showing how it can provide insights ranging from the basic physics of slip mechanisms in hexagonal polycrystalline materials, through the materials optimisation of stress induced transformations in smart nano-materials, to the industrial introduction of novel friction welding processes exploiting stress residual measurements transferred from prototype sub-scale tests to the joining of full-scale aero-engine assemblies. (author)

  1. Characterization of arc-heated plasma for the study of plasma material interactions under fusion reactor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chea Hong; Oh, Phil Yong [High Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Se Youn [Department of Quantum System Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Bong Guen, E-mail: bghong@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Quantum System Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • An arc-heated plasma wind tunnel with power of 0.4 MW has been developed for the study of plasma material interactions. • The characteristics of the plasma flow were investigated with the gas flow rate ranging from 10 g/s to 16 g/s and input current ranging from 200 A to 350 A. • An arc-heated plasma wind tunnel is capable of producing ion flux and high heat flux that are relevant for the study of plasma material interactions under fusion reactor conditions. - Abstract: An arc-heated plasma wind tunnel with power of 0.4 MW has been constructed at Chonbuk National University (CBNU) in Korea. A segmented arc plasma torch was adopted as the plasma source and was designed to produce a supersonic plasma flow with enthalpy greater than 270 kJ/mol at a velocity of Mach 3. The characteristics of the plasma flow were investigated for gas flow rates ranging from 5 × 10{sup 5} to 8 × 10{sup 5} sccm and input current ranging from 200 to 350 A. The facility is capable of producing ion flux greater than 10{sup 24} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, as well as heat flux greater than 10 MW/m{sup 2}, levels that are relevant for the study of plasma material interactions under fusion reactor conditions.

  2. EURATOM strategy towards fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C.

    2007-01-01

    Research and development (Research and Development) activities in controlled thermonuclear fusion have been carried out since the 60's of the last century aiming at providing a new clean, powerful, practically inexhaustive, safe, environmentally friend and economically attractive energy source for the sustainable development of our society.The EURATOM Fusion Programme (EFP) has the leadership of the magnetic confinement Research and Development activities due to the excellent results obtained on JET and other specialized devices, such as ASDEX-Upgrade, TORE SUPRA, FTU, TCV, TEXTOR, CASTOR, ISTTOK, MAST, TJ-II, W7-X, RFX and EXTRAP. JET is the largest tokamak in operation and the single device that can use deuterium and tritium mixes. It has produced 16 MW of fusion power, during 3 seconds, with an energy amplification of 0.6. The next steps of the EFP strategy towards fusion energy are ITER complemented by a vigorous Accompanying Programme, DEMO and a prototype of a fusion power plant. ITER, the first experimental fusion reactor, is a large-scale project (35-year duration, 10000 MEuros budget), developed in the frame of a very broad international collaboration, involving EURATOM, Japan, Russia Federation, United States of America, Korea, China and India. ITER has two main objectives: (i) to prove the scientific and technical viability of fusion energy by producing 500 MW, during 300 seconds and a energy amplification between 10 and 20; and (ii) to test the simultaneous and integrated operation of the technologies needed for a fusion reactor. The Accompanying Programme aims to prepare the ITER scientific exploitation and the DEMO design, including the development of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). A substantial part of this programme will be carried out in the frame of the Broader Approach, an agreement signed by EURATOM and Japan. The main goal of DEMO is to produce electricity, during a long time, from nuclear fusion reactions. The

  3. Elastic recoil detection method using DT neutrons for hydrogen isotope analysis in fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Naoyoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Nishitani, Takeo

    2005-01-01

    The Fusion Neutronics Source of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has started the study on the hydrogen isotope analysis for fusion components since 2002 on the basis of the techniques such as nuclear activation method, ion beam method and imaging plate method. In this study, we propose the elastic recoil detection analysis (NERDA) method using 14.1 MeV neutron beam to extend the analyzable depth of hydrogen isotopes analysis up to several hundreds micrometers. An experimental setup for NERDA was constructed and a proof-of-principle experiment was then made using a standard sample of deuterated polyethylene film containing a known concentration of deuterium with thickness of 100 μm. The depth resolution of the present condition was estimated to be 158 μm for the sample. (author)

  4. Mechanical properties of materials in fusion reactor first-wall and blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    With respect to the effects of irradiation on mechanical properties, the most significant difference between fast fission and fusion reactor spectra is the relatively large amount of helium produced by (n,..cap alpha..) transmutations in the latter. Relevant information on the effects of large amounts of helium (with concomitant displacement damage) comes from irradiation of alloys containing nickel in mixed spectrum reactors. At helium levels of interest for fusion reactor development, properties are degraded to unacceptable levels above Tm/2. Below this temperature, strength and ductility are retained and fractures remain transgranular. Importantly, the properties remain sensitive to composition and structure. A comparison of the response of bcc refractory alloys to that of stainless steel at equivalent damage levels shows the same general trends in properties with homologous temperature. The refractory alloys do offer potential for higher temperature applications because of their melting temperatures.

  5. Mechanical properties of materials in fusion reactor first-wall and blanket systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    With respect to the effects of irradiation on mechanical properties, the most significant difference between fast fission and fusion reactor spectra is the relatively large amount of helium produced by (n,α) transmutations in the latter. Relevant information on the effects of large amounts of helium (with concomitant displacement damage) comes from irradiation of alloys containing nickel in mixed spectrum reactors. At helium levels of interest for fusion reactor development, properties are degraded to unacceptable levels above Tm/2. Below this temperature, strength and ductility are retained and fractures remain transgranular. Importantly, the properties remain sensitive to composition and structure. A comparison of the response of bcc refractory alloys to that of stainless steel at equivalent damage levels shows the same general trends in properties with homologous temperature. The refractory alloys do offer potential for higher temperature applications because of their melting temperatures

  6. Data Evaluation and the Establishment of a Standard Library of Atomic, Molecular and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion. Summary Report of an IAEA Consultants' Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2012-08-01

    Seven experts in the field of atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M+PMI) data and data evaluation for fusion plasma physics met with IAEA A+M Data Unit staff at IAEA Headquarters to provide advice towards the establishment of an evaluated and recommended library of A+M+PMI data for fusion. The proceedings and conclusions of the meeting are summarized here. (author)

  7. 2014 International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Webb, Jeff; Ding, Jun

    2014-06-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering 2014 (MOIME 2014), was held at the Grand Mercure Harmoni, Opal Room 3rd Floor, Jakarta, Indonesia, during 29-30 March 2014. The MOIME 2014 conference is designed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. MOIME 2014 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Material Engineering, Industrial Engineering and all areas that relate to Optimization. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 97 papers and after rigorous review, 24 papers were accepted. The participants come from 7 countries. There are 4 (four) parallel session and 2 Invited Speakers and one workshop. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of MOIME 2014. The Editors of the MOIME 2014 Proceedings Editors Dr Ford Lumban Gaol Jeff Webb, PhD Professor Jun Ding, PhD

  8. Mapping residual and internal stress in materials by neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Philip J.

    2007-09-01

    Neutron diffraction provides one of the few means of mapping residual stresses deep within the bulk of materials and components. This article reviews the basic scientific methodology by which internal strains and stresses are inferred from recorded diffraction peaks. Both conventional angular scans and time-of-flight measurements are reviewed and compared. Their complementarity with analogous synchrotron X-ray methods is also highlighted. For measurements to be exploited in structural integrity calculations underpinning the safe operation of engineering components, measurement standards have been defined and the major findings are summarised. Examples are used to highlight the unique capabilities of the method showing how it can provide insights ranging from the basic physics of slip mechanisms in hexagonal polycrystalline materials, through the materials optimisation of stress induced transformations in smart nanomaterials, to the industrial introduction of novel friction welding processes exploiting stress residual measurements transferred from prototype sub-scale tests to the joining of full-scale aeroengine assemblies. To cite this article: P.J. Withers, C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  9. Austenitic Steels at Low Temperature: Joint International Cryogenic Engineering Conference and International Cryogenic Materials Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, T; ICEC-ICMC

    1983-01-01

    The need for alternate energy sources has led to the develop­ ment of prototype fusion and MHD reactors. Both possible energy systems in current designs usually require the use of magnetic fields for plasma confinement and concentration. For the creation and maintenance of large 5 to 15 tesla magnetic fields, supercon­ ducting magnets appear more economical. But the high magnetic fields create large forces, and the complexities of the conceptual reactors create severe space restrictions. The combination of re­ quirements, plus the desire to keep construction costs at a mini­ mum, has created a need for stronger structural alloys for service at liquid helium temperature (4 K). The complexity of the required structures requires that these alloys be weldable. Furthermore, since the plasma is influenced by magnetic fields and since magnet­ ic forces from the use of ferromagnetic materials in many configur­ ations may be additive, the best structural alloy for most applica­ tions should be nonmagnetic. Thes...

  10. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 49

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero, J.

    1995-06-01

    This issue of the bulletin provides atomic and molecular data references relevant to fusion research and technology. In part 1 the indexation of the papers is provided separately for (i) structure and spectra, (ii) atomic and molecular collisions, and (iii) surface interactions. Part 2 contains the bibliographic data for the above-listed topics and brief bibliographic lists for the following topics: (a) fusion research of general interest, (b) high energy laser- and beam-matter interaction, (c) bibliographic and numerical data collections, and (d) interaction of atomic particles with fields. Moreover, the creation of the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) is announced by the IAEA. AMDIS contains three main parts: the Atomic and Molecular Bibliographic Data System (AMBDAS), the numerical database of recommended and evaluated atomic, molecular and plasma-surface interaction data ALADDIN and an electronic bulletin board with information regarding data needs, meetings and programs of the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit. AMDIS may be reached via INTERNET. For information on how to access AMDIS, an electronic mail inquiry can be sent (address: ''pms'' followed by the usual ''at'' symbol followed by ''ripcrs01.iaea.or.at'')

  11. Compendium of structure and collision data in the first 12 issues of the international bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.; Rumble, J. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    This document is a compendium of the structure, spectra and collision data in the first 12 issues of the International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion. The Bulletin is issued quarterly by the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist the development of fusion research and technology. Not included in this compendium are those parts of the Bulletin concerned with Surface Effects, Work in Progress, Contributed Numerical Data, and Data Requests. Where necessary, corrections have been made to the data previously published to make the compendium as accurate as possible. The editors would appreciate any information on errors, duplications or omissions which would make future compendia more accurate and useful. (author)

  12. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  13. Rabies Internalizes into Primary Peripheral Neurons via Clathrin Coated Pits and Requires Fusion at the Cell Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinotti, Silvia; Whelan, Sean P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The single glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RABV) dictates all viral entry steps from receptor engagement to membrane fusion. To study the uptake of RABV into primary neuronal cells in culture, we generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus in which the G protein was replaced with that of the neurotropic RABV CVS-11 strain (rVSV CVS G). Using microfluidic compartmentalized culture, we examined the uptake of single virions into the termini of primary neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and ventral spinal cord. By pharmacologically disrupting endocytosis at the distal neurites, we demonstrate that rVSV CVS G uptake and infection are dependent on dynamin. Imaging of single virion uptake with fluorescent endocytic markers further identifies endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits as the predominant internalization mechanism. Transmission electron micrographs also reveal the presence of viral particles in vesicular structures consistent with incompletely coated clathrin pits. This work extends our previous findings of clathrin-mediated uptake of RABV into epithelial cells to two neuronal subtypes involved in rabies infection in vivo. Chemical perturbation of endosomal acidification in the neurite or somal compartment further shows that establishment of infection requires pH-dependent fusion of virions at the cell body. These findings correlate infectivity to existing single particle evidence of long-range endosomal transport of RABV and clathrin dependent uptake at the plasma membrane. PMID:27463226

  14. Integrated Prediction and Mitigation Methods of Materials Damage and Lifetime Assessment during Plasma Operation and Various Instabilities in Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This report describes implementation of comprehensive and integrated models to evaluate plasma material interactions during normal and abnormal plasma operations. The models in full3D simulations represent state-of-the art worldwide development with numerous benchmarking of various tokamak devices and plasma simulators. In addition, significant number of experimental work has been performed in our center for materials under extreme environment (CMUXE) at Purdue to benchmark the effect of intense particle and heat fluxes on plasma-facing components. This represents one-year worth of work and resulted in more than 23 Journal Publications and numerous conferences presentations. The funding has helped several students to obtain their M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees and many of them are now faculty members in US and around the world teaching and conducting fusion research. Our work has also been recognized through many awards.

  15. Integrated Prediction and Mitigation Methods of Materials Damage and Lifetime Assessment during Plasma Operation and Various Instabilities in Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, Ahmed [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This report describes implementation of comprehensive and integrated models to evaluate plasma material interactions during normal and abnormal plasma operations. The models in full3D simulations represent state-of-the art worldwide development with numerous benchmarking of various tokamak devices and plasma simulators. In addition, significant number of experimental work has been performed in our center for materials under extreme environment (CMUXE) at Purdue to benchmark the effect of intense particle and heat fluxes on plasma-facing components. This represents one-year worth of work and resulted in more than 23 Journal Publications and numerous conferences presentations. The funding has helped several students to obtain their M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees and many of them are now faculty members in US and around the world teaching and conducting fusion research. Our work has also been recognized through many awards.

  16. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  17. INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Werner

    2005-10-01

    members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has

  18. Fracture Toughness Round Robin Test International in pressure tube materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagarcia, M.P.; Liendo, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Part of the pressure tubes surveillance program of CANDU type reactors is to determine the fracture toughness using a special fracture specimen and test procedure. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited decided to hold a Round Robin Test International and 9 laboratories participated worldwide in which several pressure tube materials were selected: Zircaloy-2, Zr-2.5%Nb cold worked and Zr-2.5%Nb heat treated. The small specimens used held back the thickness and curvature of the tube. J-R curves at room temperature were obtained and the crack extension values were determined by electrical potential drop techniques. These values were compared with results generated from other laboratories and a bid scatter was founded. It could be due to slight variations in the test method or inhomogeneity of the materials and a statistical study must be done to see if there is any pattern. The next step for the Round Robin Test would be to make some modifications in the test method in order to reduce the scatter. (Author)

  19. Comparison of electron beam and laser beam powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process for high temperature turbine component materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Kirka, Michael M [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines, Inc.

    2016-04-01

    The evolving 3D printer technology is now at the point where some turbine components could be additive manufactured (AM) for both development and production purposes. However, this will require a significant evaluation program to qualify the process and components to meet current design and quality standards. The goal of the project was to begin characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nickel Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo) test bars fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes that use either an electron beam (EB) or laser beam (LB) power source. The AM materials produced with the EB and LB processes displayed significant differences in microstructure and resultant mechanical properties. Accordingly, during the design analysis of AM turbine components, the specific mechanical behavior of the material produced with the selected AM process should be considered. Comparison of the mechanical properties of both the EB and LB materials to those of conventionally processed Nickel Alloy X materials indicates the subject AM materials are viable alternatives for manufacture of some turbine components.

  20. International Conference on Materials Science and Technology (ICMST 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Ginson P.

    2015-02-01

    FROM THE CONVENOR'S DESK The Department of Physics, St. Thomas College Pala, is highly privileged to organize an International Conference on Materials Science and Technology (ICMST 2012) during 10-14 June 2012, and as Convenor of the conference it is with legitimate pride and immense gratitude to God that I remember the most enthusiastic responses received for this from scientists all over the world. In a time of tremendous revolutionary changes in Materials Science and Technology, it is quite in keeping with the tradition of a pioneering institute that St. Thomas College is, to have risen to the occasion to make this conference a reality. We have no doubt that this proved to be a historic event, a real breakthrough, not only for us the organizers but also for all the participants. A conference of this kind provides a nonpareil, a distinctly outstanding platform for the scholars, researchers and the scientists to discuss and share ideas with delegates from all over the world. This had been most fruitful to the participants in identifying new collaborations and strengthening existing relations. That experts of diverse disciplines from across the world were sitting under one roof for five days, exchanging views and sharing findings, was a speciality of this conference. The event has evoked excellent responses from all segments of the Materials Science community worldwide. 600 renowned scholars from 28 countries participated in this. We were uniquely honoured to have Prof. C.N.R. Rao, Chairman, Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India, to inaugurate this conference. May I take this opportunity to thank all those who have contributed their valuable share, diverse in tone and nature, in the making of this conference. My whole hearted gratitude is due to the international and national members of the advisory committee for their valuable guidance and involvement. I place on record my heartfelt gratitude to our sponsors. I am sure that this conference has