WorldWideScience

Sample records for international food security

  1. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF). The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFS-RF) is a collaborative program of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and IDRC valued at CA $61 654 707 (CIDA: CA $50 000 000; IDRC: CA $11 654 707). The program ...

  2. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/AIFSC. Cultivate Africa's Future. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential ...

  3. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund(CIFSRF) is a program of Canada's International Development Research. Centre (IDRC) undertaken with the financial support of the. Government of Canada provided through Foreign ...

  4. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) invests in scaling up ... for farming families, and improve nutrition throughout the Global South. ... universities, civil society organizations, governments, and the private sector, ...

  5. Agriculture and Food Security | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1MB). Funding. The Agriculture and Food Security program funds research primarily through competitive calls. Announcements and details on eligibility and thematic focus for funding opportunities will be posted on IDRC's funding page.

  6. Better cassava boosts food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... ... of IDRC continues to this day to support my breeding work,” explains Nassar, now 72 years old ... Life-saving applications in Africa ... It improved national food security, restored economic balance to agricultural communities, ...

  7. Supporting food security solutions | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-04

    Oct 4, 2013 ... Including women in the crusade against hunger ... The knowledge, production practices, and defining of food conservation, preparation, and consumption ... and international leadership in vaccine development and research on human and ... Given equal treatment, farmers will fulfill their potential as worthy ...

  8. Renewal through Participation in Global Food Security Governance: Implementing the International Food Security and Nutrition Civil Society Mechanism to the Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.; Barling, D.

    2012-01-01

    The food commodity price rises from 2006 to 2008 engendered a period
    of political renewal and reform in the governance of global food security. The
    Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was designated as the main international forum dealing with food security and nutrition in 2009 as part

  9. Wastewater shores up food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-13

    Oct 13, 2010 ... Water enters the food system at various points along the path “from farm to fork. ... The findings will help to influence future WHO recommendations and government health policies – and to stop a valuable ... Related articles ...

  10. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  11. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The fund was designed to finance initiatives to solve global food and ... food security and enhance nutrition in developing countries; -increase food ... In a context of rising food prices, millions of Africans in marginal areas rely on a range of ...

  12. Solutions for a food-secure future | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... ... of people in developing countries lift themselves out of hunger and poverty. Through the Centre's Agriculture and Food Security program, IDRC invested more than CAD$179 million from 2009-2015 to develop, test, and scale up solutions that improve food security and nutrition in the developing world.

  13. Virtual Water and Food Security in Tunisia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the world grain market has social implications for Tunisia's small farmers and ... Thus, when a country exports an agricultural product, in effect it also exports ... Tunisia that incorporates the virtual water concept in a food security strategy.

  14. New bean products to improve food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    ... Agricultural Research Organisation and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research ... New bean products to improve food security. April 21, 2016. Image ... more lucrative market for smallholder bean farmers, most of whom are women.

  15. Food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no

  16. FOOD SECURITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing world population, the limitation of the natural availability for food production, the climate issues and the food consumption need for modification imposed a continuous updating of the food security concept. Although Romania has sufficient natural resources, which may ensure, by means of proper exploitation, the population’s food needs, the lack of a unitary approach at the government level, materialized in the dependence on imports and in fluctuations in the agro-food production, leads to a re-evaluation of national food needs. National food security may be affected by a series of risks and threats, which appeared due to an imbalance connected with the availability, the utility and the stability of the agro-food sector, interdependent elements that must be functional. The present article proposes an analysis of food security in Romania, with a short presentation of the concept in an international context.

  17. THE FOOD RUSH. A SECURITY RISK AND A CAUSE FOR INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana FILIP

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Access to food is more than ever a question of interest. The world needs to produce at least 50% more food to feed 9 billion people by 2050. The land, biodiversity, oceans, forests, and other forms of natural capital are being depleted at unprecedented rates. Unless we change how we grow our food and manage our natural capital, food security – especially for the world’s poorest – will be at risk. In this context we expect that the struggle for food to generate migration, conflicts and, why not, international intervention defined by the new Copenhagen School of Security Studies paradigm. Since March 2008 governments, UN agencies and many social movements have adopted positions on the causes of the food crisis and the means to address it. Unfortunately, while these parties are trying to coordinate their activities and suggest new approaches, the old recipes for producing more food are often brought up. Contradictory proposals are made and the thought given to the causes underlying hunger and the food crisis (social, economic and political discrimination and exclusion has gone largely unheeded. The first Millennium Development Goal, which called for cutting the percentage of hungry people by half by 2015, is clearly out of reach. But the food crisis might lead to a new world food order.

  18. The First International Conference on Global Food Security – A Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van M.K.; Giller, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Improving food security is difficult. There are many reasons why hunger and malnutrition persist, not least because deep social inequities and conflicts often dominate. Equally many approaches are needed to deal with this global problem. In the case of global food security, improvements can depend

  19. Proceedings of the seventh international food convention: nutritional security through sustainable development research and education for healthy foods - souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    At present, the application of advanced technology during production, processing, storage and distribution of food with an ultimate aim of strengthening the socio-economic status of farmers, entrepreneurs and rural artisan community has paramount importance. The convention made an effort to touch upon the following areas: food and nutritional security and sustainability, food processing and engineering, food safety management systems, food health and nutrition, skill development and entrepreneurship, food science and technology research etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  20. Materialism and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  1. Globalization of water and food through international trade: impacts on food security, resilience and justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; Suweis, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of water resources in general depends on geographic conditions but can be (virtually) modified by humans through mechanisms of globalization, such as trade, that make food commodities available to populations living far from the production regions. While trade is expected to improve access to food and (virtual) water, its impact on the global food system and its vulnerability to shocks remains poorly understood. It is also unclear who benefits from trade and whether it contributes to inequality and justice in resource redistribution. We reconstruct the global patterns of food trade and show with a simple model how the ongoing intensification of imports and exports has eroded the resilience of the global food system. Drawing on human rights theory, we investigate the relationship between inequality and injustice in access to water and food. We assess the fulfillment of positive and negative water and food rights and evaluate the obligations arising from the need to ensure that these rights are met throughout the world. We find that trade enhances the vulnerability to shocks but overall increase the number of people whose water and food rights are met.

  2. Beneficial impacts of an international grain reserve on global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Puma, M. J.; Frieler, K.

    2017-12-01

    Highly volatile food prices on global markets challenge food security. Only in the last decade, two pronounced food price spikes severely affected vulnerable populations worldwide by increasing malnutrition and hunger. This has stirred up the debate upon the usefulness of an international grain reserve. Whereas advocates argue that it could damp damaging price extremes, opponents question its effectiveness and are concerned about associated market distortions and costs. However, to our knowledge, a comprehensive quantitative assessment is still missing. For this purpose, we introduce an agent-based dynamic multi-regional model that consistently accounts for intra-annual strategic as well as commercial storage holding. For the case of wheat, we first show that the model is able to reproduce historical world market prices (see Fig. 1(a)) and regional ending stocks (stocks see Fig.1(b) for global ending stocks) from 1980 to the present. Having a bi-annual timestep, the model enables us to single out the main drivers of past short-term price volatility: regional, mainly weather induced, production variations followed by trade policies as the second most important driver. The latter include, both, long-term stockholding management decisions as well as short-term regional political responses to scarcity situations such as export restrictions and restocking attempts. We then quantitatively model a strategic wheat reserve managed by an international body such as the UN. We discuss a management scheme for the reserve that aims at stabilizing prices within a price band by buying at low and selling at high prices (cf. Fig. 1). Importantly, in order to minimize market distortions, this scheme is not designed to damp out price volatility completely, but to merely avoid damaging price extremes. Thus, it preserves the incentive for producers to invest in agricultural development and it can only complement and not replace local efforts to increase the food system's resilience

  3. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  4. Linking Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Climate and Food Security: an Initiative of International Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Humans face climatic and hydro-meteorological hazards on different scales in time and space. In particular natural hazards can have disastrous impact in the short term (flood) and in the long term (drought) as they affect human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. They represent a pending danger for vulnerable lifelines, infrastructure and the agricultural systems that depend on the water supply, reservoirs, pipelines, and power plants. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Extreme natural events such as extreme floods or prolonged drought can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. The beginning of the XX1st century has been marked by a significant number of natural disasters, such as floods, severe storms, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Extreme natural events cause devastation resulting in loss of human life, large environmental damage, and partial or total loss of infrastructure that, in the longer time, will affect the potential for agricultural recovery. Recent catastrophic events of the early 21st century (e.g. floods in Pakistan and Thailand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami) remind us once again that there is a strong coupling between complex solid Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric processes and that even developed countries such as Japan are subject to agricultural declines as a result of disastrous hydro-meteorological events. Scientific community recognizes that communication between the groups of experts of various international organizations dealing with natural hazards and their activity in disaster risk reduction and food security needs to be strengthened. Several international scientific unions and intergovernmental institutions set up a consortium of experts to promote studies of weather, climate and their interaction with agriculture, food and their socio

  5. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghizadeh Atefeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries.

  6. International cooperation for food and nutrition security: Systematization of the participatory, contextualized, and intersectoral educational practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene BURLANDY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study systematized the experience gained with the project Construindo capacidades em segurança alimentar e nutricional no Brasil, Canadá e Angola (2004-2010, Building food and nutrition security skills in Brazil, Canada, and Angola, whose objective was to qualify actions that promote food and nutrition security in the three countries using different educational practices. The activities were organized in the following subprojects: (a online distance learning courses; (b workshops to train managers, government technicians, representatives of civil society organizations, and social subjects who offered to act as a link between communities; and (c local pilot projects. The present study reports this experience. The educational practices implemented in the municipalities of Araçuaí (MG, Juazeiro (BA, and Fortaleza (CE were analyzed based on systematized information in the project reports and activity records (texts and photographs. The analytical reference was based on the concept of food and nutrition education, guided by the fundamentals of Popular Education and Paulo Freire; on the concept of food and nutrition security; and on the following analytical dimensions: participation, contextualization of educational practices, and intersectoriality. The results evidenced how educational practices contributed to the construction of shared concepts of food and nutrition security from an intersectoral and participatory perspective that values the peculiarities of diet in different socioeconomic and cultural contexts, and highlights daily situations and local traditions. They also expose the limits and potentialities of an experience of this magnitude, conducted from an interdisciplinarity perspective and using participatory methods.

  7. Food Security Strategies for Vanuatu

    OpenAIRE

    Welegtabit, Shadrack R.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes and analyzes food security conditions and policies in Vanuatu. The national food security systems are dualistic in nature, and the rural and urban food security systems are weakly related. Household food security in rural areas is primarily determined by access to arable land and fishery resources, whereas in urban areas household food security is primarily determined by access to employment. Household food security has been a concern in both rural and urban areas. Both ...

  8. Energy and water tradeoffs in enhancing food security: A selective international assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Maroulis, Jerry; Hafeez, Mohsin

    2009-01-01

    Rice is the major staple food in most Asian countries. However, with rapidly growing populations, sustained high productivity and yields through improving water productivity is critically important. Increasingly complex energy-agriculture relationships require an in-depth understanding of water and energy tradeoffs. This study contributes to energy and food policies by analysing the complex energy, water and economics dynamics across a selection of major rice growing countries. The results show that tradeoffs exist between yield and energy inputs with high yield attributed to higher levels of energy input. The selected developed countries show higher energy productivity, relative to all other energy inputs, compared to the selected developing counties, owing to enhanced mechanisation, on-farm technology and improved farm management. Among all countries, China has the highest water productivity due to water-saving irrigation practices. These practices offer opportunities for developed and developing countries to increase water productivity at the same time taking advantage of economic and energy benefits of reduced pumping. Sustained production from agriculture is vital to food security. Improved irrigation practices can offset environmental footprints in the short run but their large-scale implementation remains an issue. In the long run, investments are needed to buffer the negative impacts of food production on the environment. Investments to boost water productivity and improved energy use efficiency in crop production are two pathways to reduce energy dependency, enhanced natural resource sustainability and ensuring future food security.

  9. Weather, Climate and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, T.

    2016-12-01

    To climatologists food security is dominated by the impacts of weather and climate on food systems. But the link between the atmosphere and food security is more complex. Extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones impact directly on agriculture, but they also impact on the logistical distribution of food and can thus disrupt the food supply chain, especially in urban areas. Drought affects human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. It represents a pending danger for vulnerable agricultural systems that depend on the rainfall, water supply and reservoirs. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Drought, especially when it results in famine, can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. A holistic approach is required to understand the phenomena, to forecast catastrophic events such as drought and famine and to predict their societal consequences. In the Food Security recommendations of the Rio+20 Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development it states that it is important "To understand fully how to measure, assess and reduce the impacts of production on the natural environment including climate change, recognizing that different measures of impact (e.g. water, land, biodiversity, carbon and other greenhouse gases, etc) may trade-off against each other..." This talk will review the historical link between weather, climate, drought and food supplies; examine the international situation; and summarise the response of the scientific community

  10. [Food Security in Europe: comparison between the "Hygiene Package" and the British Retail Consortium (BRC) & International Food Standard (IFS) protocols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilo, A; Parisi, S; Delia, S; Anastasi, F; Bruno, G; Laganà, P

    2009-01-01

    The birth of Hygiene Package and of the Reg. CE no 2073/2005 in the food production field signalled a change in Italy. This process started in Italy in 1997 with the legislative decree no 155 on Self-control but in reality, it was implemented in the UK in 1990 with the promulgation of the Food Safety Act. This legal act was influenced by some basic rules corresponding to the application of HACCP standards. Since 1990 the British chains of distribution (Retailers) have involved all aspects of the food line in this type of responsibility. Due to this growing awareness for a need for greater regulation, a protocol, edited by British Retail Consortium was created in 1998. This protocol acted as a "stamp" of approval for food products and it is now known as the BRC Global Food Standard. In July 2008, this protocol became effective in its fifth version. After the birth of BRC, also French and German Retailers have established a standard practically equivalent and perhaps more pertinent to safety food, that is International Food Standard (IFS). The new approach is specific to the food field and strictly applies criteria which will ensure "safety, quality and legality" of food products, similarly to ISO 22000:2005 (mainly based on BRC & IFS past experiences). New standards aim to create a sort of green list with fully "proper and fit" Suppliers only, because of comprehensible exigencies of Retailers. It is expected, as we have shown, that Auditor authorities who are responsible for ensuring that inspections are now carried out like the Hygiene Package, will find these new standards useful. The advantages of streamlining this system is that it will allow enterprises to diligently enforce food safety practices without fear of upset or legal consequence, to improve the quality (HACCP) of management & traceability system; to restrict wastes, reprocessing and withdrawal of products. However some discordances about the interpretation of certain sub-field norms (e.g., water

  11. AGROECOLOGICAL FACTORS OF FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Moldavan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An experience of development of forms of economy in developed countries is analysed. Ways of development of domestic agriculture are proposed. The paper proved that Ukraine needs a new model of agriculture that was based not on the dynamic growth market of export production, and the balanced development of multipurpose field, which meets the needs of the country in food and foreign exchange earnings, warned to the depletion of natural resources. The extent of devastating effects of industrial model of agriculture development, which is oriented on economic growth without social and environmental price of its growth is revealed. Retrospective analysis of entry in international practice like formal institutional status of an alternative model in which an economic function of a branch (production and income is balanced with ecological (conservation potential land and social (food security is realized. Basic principles of ecologically oriented agriculture as a factor in long-term food security are formulated.

  12. African Journal of Food and Nutritional Security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Food and Nutritional Security, as an international journal, is intended to act as a forum for researchers working on food and nutritional security issues in Africa and the Third World in their widest range and perspectives. We believe this journal to have ceased publishing ...

  13. Food Security in Azerbaijan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamran Ismayilov

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the 21st century the society got some achievements in technological,education,economic,social-political,cultural and etc.sectors.But society couldn't solve fully the food security problem yet.According to the information given by FAO if in 1970 there were 400 billion hungry people in the world,in 2008 the number of hungry people was doubled and increased to 800 billion people.

  14. Gender and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the critical role that women play in food production and agricultural development. Women consistently have less access than men to resources and opportunities throughout the production chain. By removing such inequalities and incorporating women in decision making processe...

  15. International Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  16. Food Safety: an Integral Part of Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, Lizette

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many countries have developed integrated and harmonized food safety and quality control guidelines in accordance with national legislation and international standards to protect the health of consumers. But food safety standards alone are not enough. Radiation technology can complement and supplement existing technologies to ensure food security, safety and quality.

  17. Indicators of food and water security in an Arctic Health context--results from an international workshop discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lena Maria; Berner, James; Dudarev, Alexey A; Mulvad, Gert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Parkinson, Alan; Rautio, Arja; Tikhonov, Constantine; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council) Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs.

  18. Indicators of food and water security in an Arctic Health context – results from an international workshop discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Maria Nilsson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs.

  19. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Biofuels and food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. STREBKOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The major source of energy comes from fossil fuels. The current situation in the field of fuel and energy is becoming more problematic as world population continues to grow because of the limitation of fossil fuels reserve and its pressure on environment. This review aims to find economic, reliable, renewable and non-polluting energy sources to reduce high energy tariffs in Russian Federation. Biofuel is fuel derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. Other alternative energy sources including solar energy and electric power generation are also discussed. Over 100 Mt of biomass available for energy purposes is produced every year in Russian. One of the downsides of biomass energy is its potential threatens to food security and forage industries. An innovative approach proved that multicomponent fuel (80% diesel oil content for motor and 64% for in stove fuel can remarkably reduce the costs. This paper proposed that the most promising energy model for future is based on direct solar energy conversion and transcontinental terawatt power transmission with the use of resonant wave-guide technology.

  1. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  2. Global Food Security Governance: Civil Society Engagement in the Reformed Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007/8 world food prices spiked and global economic crisis set in, leaving hundreds of millions of people unable to access adequate food. The international reaction was swift. In a bid for leadership, the 123 member countries of the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security (CFS) adopted a

  3. Climate change and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their

  4. Securing Land Tenure, Improving Food Security and Reducing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Securing Land Tenure, Improving Food Security and Reducing Poverty in Rural ... land tenure regimes as obstacles to food security, economic integration and ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  5. Ensuring food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Valentinovich Patsiorkovskiy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the questions of further development of agricultural and food policy in the Russian Federation. The subject of in-depth consideration is the problem related to ensuring food safety. A critical review and analysis of major regulations in the field of food safety is made, including in the implementation of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. The necessity of the expansion of measures to improve the statistics of food poisoning is grounded. The basic reasons for the spread of management practices of production and sale of food products that pose a threat to human life are revealed. The factors of unhindered penetration of local markets in the cities and the surrounding countrysides with counterfeiting, smuggling and production of global junk food manufacturers and consumer goods are defined. A systematic view is put on the problems of food production in the private farms, ways to limit direct access to the market of food and food raw materials, which production was not controlled and who have not passed state registration, are suggested. One of these problems is creation of independent industrial structures that link production and sales of small-scale sector goods.

  6. National aspects of food security of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanina Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instability of a foreign policy situation and deepening of financial crisis actualize need of monitoring of food security’s condition as objective condition of economic sovereignty of Russia. Modern approaches to definition of food security of the state are considered in article. Critical evaluation of separate provisions of the Doctrine of food security of the Russian Federation is given. The analysis of a condition of food security of Russia in the directions of independence, economic and physical availability of the food is carried out on the basis of statistical data. Food security in Russia was reflected in the political decisions that defined the new economic policy of the state in the foreign market. modern import substitution program has shown its effectiveness, which is based on the absence of alternative paths of development. An important condition is the slow pace of development of the internal economy of Russia in conditions when domestic markets competition is virtually nonexistent. Food is a priority in the development of society, ensuring political and social balance, therefore, organizational solutions discussed in this material has a transdisciplinary character. The author’s conclusions can be useful to researchers who are trying to decide how macroeconomic objectives, and conducting research for innovative solutions in many sectors of the economy.

  7. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar-Quinonez Hugo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia. Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319. Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF. Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  8. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo; Uribe, Martha C Alvarez

    2008-05-23

    We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS) used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA - Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia). Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319). Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  9. The nature of international health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ya-Wen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Su, Yi-Yuan; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chang, Ya-Chen; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    Health issues occasionally intersect security issues. Health security has been viewed as an essential part of human security. Policymakers and health professionals, however, do not share a common definition of health security. This article aims to characterize the notions of health security in order to clarify what constitutes the nexus of health and security. The concept of health security has evolved over time so that it encompasses many entities. Analyzing the health reports of four multilateral organizations (the United Nations, World Health Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the European Union) produced eight categories of most significant relevance to contemporary health security, allowing comparison of the definitions. The four categories are: emerging diseases; global infectious disease; deliberate release of chemical and biological materials; violence, conflict, and humanitarian emergencies. Two other categories of common concern are natural disasters and environmental change, as well as chemical and radioactive accidents. The final two categories, food insecurity and poverty, are discussed less frequently. Nevertheless, food security is emerging as an increasingly important issue in public health. Health security is the first line of defence against health emergencies. As globalization brings more complexities, dealing with the increased scale and extent of health security will require greater international effort and political support.

  10. International and European Security Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Herbach

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Security law, or more comprehensively conflict and security law, on the international level represents the intersection of three distinct but interrelated fields: international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict, jus in bello, the law of collective security (most identified with the United Nations (UN system, jus ad bellum and arms control law (including non-proliferation. Security in this sense is multifaceted - interest security, military security and, as is often referred to in the context of the EU, human security. As such, the law covers a wide range of specific topics with respect to conflict, encompassing the use of force, including choice of weapons and fighting techniques, extending to the rules applicable in peacekeeping and peace enforcement, and yet also dictating obligations outside the context of conflict, such as safeguarding and securing dual-use materials (those with both peaceful and military applications to prevent malicious use.

  11. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  12. Fairtrade, Food Security and Globalization: Building Alternative Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Calisto Friant

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the politics and practices of Fairtrade certification in order to assess whether this alternative trading system could contribute to innovative solutions for global food security. The analysis begins by assessing the main challenges and problems characterizing the contemporary global food system. It then explores the history, vision and certification standards of the Fairtrade label. In the third section, the results of the impact studies of Fairtrade certification on producer livelihoods are discussed, analyzing the various strengths and weaknesses. Finally the article analyzes whether, and how, the Fairtrade system could positively contribute to improving global food security. To conclude this paper argues that the greatest strength of Fairtrate is not the certification mechanism itself but rather the social and environmental principles it represents. Fairtrade standards could serve to inform broader international policies, which could lead to a sustainable transformation of the global food system.

  13. INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENT SECURITIES: SPECIFIC FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Versal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It’s disclosed the features of the international government securities market during 1993 – 2012: main players are the developed countries (Western Europe, Canada, USA with the increasing role of developing countries; debt crises have the negative impact as on the development of the international government securities market, but also on the international capital market as a whole; debt crises are not a spontaneous phenomenon, and usually occur as a result of inadequate growth in GDP increasing government debt.

  14. Food Security and University Agricultural Students Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security and its relationship to sustainable agricultural and rural development have increasingly become matters of concern for developing countries and for the international community. While there are many complex factors that influence sustainable development and food security, it is clear that education in ...

  15. Research on food security makes a difference for African women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 avr. 2014 ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and empowering women are vital to meeting the challenges of improving food and nutrition security, and enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty. A central objective of the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) is ...

  16. Research on food security makes a difference for African women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and empowering women are vital to meeting the challenges of improving food and nutrition security, and enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty. A central objective of the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) is ...

  17. Barriers Preventing Food Security in Israel, 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Gal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the benefits of adopting the practice of long-term planning with the aim of helping decision makers and politicians to include scenario thinking in the process of determining food security in Israel, 2050. This study addresses the question of food security, a step that is in contrast with agricultural planning considerations of the past that have mainly focused on maximizing profits or relied on a closed mathematical model. Two teams of experts identified production limitations affecting long-term planning and the ability to ensure food security under these conditions. It was found that there are five key factors important for the decision process: population, land, water, technology and international trade. The data show that today Israel imports a very large scale of virtual land and virtual water in terms of agricultural products. This means that the attention of the decision makers must be diverted from considerations of short-term profit to long-term food security.

  18. Enhancing Food Security through Information and Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... national food security, and prior approval of the government's National Food Security and Nutrition Policy 2006-2015. In alignment with these governmental commitments, this project will enable researchers to provide policymakers with practical and sustainable solutions that directly respond to national food security goals ...

  19. Food Security Strategy Based on Computer Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruihui Mu

    2015-01-01

    Case analysis to identify innovative strategies for food security occurred in the Oriental Hotel, voluntarily implement food safety control. Food security strategy investigation and the reasons for their use of multiple data sources, including accommodation and catering industry to implement and document interviews with key decision makers in the hotel performed to observe the business environment were examined. This finding suggests that addressing food security, not only is the food control...

  20. Offices of Industrial Security International: A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, W

    1998-01-01

    The Defense Security Service (DSS), formerly the Defense Investigative Service (DIS), handles many of its overseas industrial security issues through its Offices of Industrial Security International...

  1. Behavioral dimensions of food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, C Peter

    2012-07-31

    The empirical regularities of behavioral economics, especially loss aversion, time inconsistency, other-regarding preferences, herd behavior, and framing of decisions, present significant challenges to traditional approaches to food security. The formation of price expectations, hoarding behavior, and welfare losses from highly unstable food prices all depends on these behavioral regularities. At least when they are driven by speculative bubbles, market prices for food staples (and especially for rice, the staple food of over 2 billion people) often lose their efficiency properties and the normative implications assigned by trade theory. Theoretical objections to government efforts to stabilize food prices, thus, have reduced saliency, although operational, financing, and implementation problems remain important, even critical. The experience of many Asian governments in stabilizing their rice prices over the past half century is drawn on in this paper to illuminate both the political mandates stemming from behavioral responses of citizens and operational problems facing efforts to stabilize food prices. Despite the theoretical problems with free markets, the institutional role of markets in economic development remains. All policy instruments must operate compatibly with prices in markets. During policy design, especially for policies designed to alter market prices, incentive structures need to be compatible with respect to both government capacity (bureaucratic and budgetary) and empirical behavior on the part of market participants who will respond to planned policy changes. A new theoretical underpinning to political economy analysis is needed that incorporates this behavioral perspective, with psychology, sociology, and anthropology all likely to make significant contributions.

  2. Food sovereignty and rural development: beyond food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alberto Pachón-Ariza¹

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food sovereignty and food security are not the same issue. Both are different but many people around the world confuse the two. This article explores and analyzes the issues surrounding food security and food sovereignty in order to explain the differences between them, identifies the principal statements in food sovereignty and compares some data from different countries in an attempt to highlight the fact that food security policies result in hunger, poverty and environmental damage. Food security and rural development share similar goals, both seek to improve the quality of life of peasants and rural inhabitants; however, economic ideas are unfortunately still prized more than people

  3. Fossil energy and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folke, G.

    2001-01-01

    To fulfil the basic goal of delivering food for the tables of the citizens, modern Western agriculture is extremely dependent on supporting material flows, infrastructure, and fossil energy. According to several observers, fossil fuel production is about to peak, i.e., oil extraction is no longer capable of keeping pace with the increasing demand. This situation may trigger an unprecedented increase in fossil energy prices, which may make the current highly energy dependent food production-distribution system highly vulnerable. The paper starts with a survey of this vulnerability. Also, the supply of phosphorus, a key factor in agriculture, may be at stake under such circumstances. The paper analyses this situation and discusses settlement structures integrated with agriculture that might increase food security by reducing energy demands. In the proposed ideal societal structure, agriculture is integrated with settlements and most of the food needed by the population is produced locally, and the nutrients for food production are recycled from households and animals by means of biological processes demanding considerably less mechanical investment and fossil support energy than the conventional type of agriculture. The vulnerability of this structure would be considerably lower, than that of the current system. (author)

  4. Food security and sustainability: can one exist without the other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elliot M; Dernini, Sandro; Burlingame, Barbara; Meybeck, Alexandre; Conforti, Piero

    2015-09-01

    To position the concept of sustainability within the context of food security. An overview of the interrelationships between food security and sustainability based on a non-systematic literature review and informed discussions based principally on a quasi-historical approach from meetings and reports. International and global food security and nutrition. The Rome Declaration on World Food Security in 1996 defined its three basic dimensions as: availability, accessibility and utilization, with a focus on nutritional well-being. It also stressed the importance of sustainable management of natural resources and the elimination of unsustainable patterns of food consumption and production. In 2009, at the World Summit on Food Security, the concept of stability/vulnerability was added as the short-term time indicator of the ability of food systems to withstand shocks, whether natural or man-made, as part of the Five Rome Principles for Sustainable Global Food Security. More recently, intergovernmental processes have emphasized the importance of sustainability to preserve the environment, natural resources and agro-ecosystems (and thus the overlying social system), as well as the importance of food security as part of sustainability and vice versa. Sustainability should be considered as part of the long-term time dimension in the assessment of food security. From such a perspective the concept of sustainable diets can play a key role as a goal and a way of maintaining nutritional well-being and health, while ensuring the sustainability for future food security. Without integrating sustainability as an explicit (fifth?) dimension of food security, today's policies and programmes could become the very cause of increased food insecurity in the future.

  5. Towards Comprehensive Food Security Measures: Comparing Key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security is a multi-dimensional issue that has been difficult to measure comprehensively, given the one-dimensional focus of existing indicators. Three indicators dominate the food security measurement debate: Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) and Coping Strategies ...

  6. Food security governance in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Candel, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    In spite of major advances in recent decades, food insecurity continues to be a pressing concern to policymakers across the world. Food security governance (FSG) relates to the formal and informal rules and processes through which interests are articulated, and decisions relevant to food security

  7. Does Financial Literacy Contribute to Food Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Katherine G; Zamarro, Gema

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity, not having consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members, is most common among low income households. However, income alone is not sufficient to explain who experiences food insecurity. This study investigates the relationship between financial literacy and food security. We find that low income households who exhibit financial literacy are less likely to experience food insecurity.

  8. Food production & availability--essential prerequisites for sustainable food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V

    2013-09-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.

  9. Deteriorating food security in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, C.; Samanta, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kumar, K.; Ganguly, S.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Srivastava, A. N.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    One of the major challenges we face on our planet is increasing agricultural production to meet the dietary requirements of an additional 2.5 billion people by the mid of the century while limiting cropland expansion and other damages to natural resources. This problem is even more so challenging given that nearly all the population growth will take place where the majority of the hungry live today and where ongoing and future climate changes are projected to most negatively impact agricultural production, the semi-arid tropics (SAT). The SAT contain 40% of the global irrigated and rainfed croplands in over 50 developing countries and a growing population of over a billion and half people, many of which live in absolute poverty and strongly depend on agriculture that is constrained by chronic water shortages. Rates of food grain production in many of the countries of the SAT have progressively increased since the mid 1960s aided by the Green Revolution and relatively favourable climatic conditions. However, aggregated agricultural production statistics indicate that the rate of food grain production has recently stalled or declined in several of the countries in this region, escalating the concerns over matters of food security, that is availability of food and one’s access to it, in a region where many people live in extreme poverty, depend on an agrarian economy and are expected to face increasingly worse climatic conditions in the near future. In this paper we analyze the agricultural deceleration and its drivers over the country of India, which faces the daunting challenge of needing a 50-100% increase in yields of major crops by the middle to the 21st century to feed its growing population. We analyze the long term (1982-2006) record of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) together with climate, land use, and crop production

  10. International Food Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Malov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The review article reveals the content of the concept of Food Regime, which is little-known in the Russian academic reference. The author monitored and codified the semantic dynamic of the terminological unit from its original interpretations to modern formulations based on the retrospective analysis. The rehabilitation of the academic merits of D. Puchala and R. Hopkins — authors who used the concept Food Regime for a few years before its universally recognized origin and official scientific debut, was accomplished with help of historical and comparative methods. The author implemented the method of ascension from the abstract to the concrete to demonstrating the classification of Food Regimes compiled on the basis of geopolitical interests in the sphere of international production, consumption, and distribution of foodstuffs. The characteristic features of historically formed Food Regime were described in the chronological order, as well as modern tendencies possessing reformist potential were identified. In particular, it has been established that the idea of Food Sovereignty (which is an alternative to the modern Corporate Food Regime is the subject for acute academic disputes. The discussion between P. McMichael P. and H. Bernstein devoted to the “peasant question” — mobilization frame of the Food Sovereignty strategy was analyzed using the secondary data processing method. Due to the critical analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to follow the principles of the Food Sovereignty strategy to prevent the catastrophic prospects associated with ecosystem degradation, accelerated erosion of soils, the complete disappearance of biodiversity and corporate autoc racy successfully. The author is convinced that the idea of Food Sovereignty can ward off energetic liberalization of nature, intensive privatization of life and rapid monetization of unconditioned human reflexes.

  11. FOOD SECURITY AND UNIVERSITY AGRICULTURAL STUDENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OGA AMOLEGBE

    Food security and its relationship to sustainable agricultural and rural development have ... JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL VOLUME 6, No. ... environmental degradation, rapid changes in.

  12. Enabling food security by verifying agricultural carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahiluoto, H; Smith, P; Moran, D

    2014-01-01

    Rewarding smallholders for sequestering carbon in agricultural land can improve food security while mitigating climate change. Verification of carbon offsets in food-insecure regions is possible and achievable through rigorously controlled monitoring......Rewarding smallholders for sequestering carbon in agricultural land can improve food security while mitigating climate change. Verification of carbon offsets in food-insecure regions is possible and achievable through rigorously controlled monitoring...

  13. Collaborating toward improving food security in Nunavut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakegijig, Jennifer; Osborne, Geraldine; Statham, Sara; Issaluk, Michelle Doucette

    2013-01-01

    Community members, Aboriginal organizations, public servants and academics have long been describing a desperate situation of food insecurity in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. The Nunavut Food Security Coalition, a partnership of Inuit Organizations and the Government of Nunavut, is collaborating to develop a territorial food security strategy to address pervasive food insecurity in the context of poverty reduction. The Nunavut Food Security Coalition has carried out this work using a community consultation model. The research was collected through community visits, stakeholder consultation and member checking at the Nunavut Food Security Symposium. In this paper, we describe a continuous course of action, based on community engagement and collective action, that has led to sustained political interest in and public mobilization around the issue of food insecurity in Nunavut. The process described in this article is a unique collaboration between multiple organizations that has led to the development of a sustainable partnership that will inform policy development while representing the voice of Nunavummiut.

  14. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous communities involved in fisheries and aquaculture are among the most food insecure in the Bolivian Amazon. Although fish could be the main source of protein, it is often not part of the local diet. This project - supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of ...

  15. Organic Agriculture in Development - The need for integrated production for food security. Proceedings and report of international workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2007-01-01

    Chemical fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, irrigation and improved cultivars were important ingredients of the Green Revolution that helped increase food production in Asia. Today, chemical input intensive system of crop husbandry are widely perceived as not sustainable in the long term. Total...

  16. Institutional diagnostics for African food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Greetje; Vink, Martinus; Vellema, Sietze

    2018-01-01

    Securing access to affordable and nutritious food is an urgent topic on the agenda for development strategies in Africa. Intervention strategies targeting food security triggered a long lasting debate whether science and technology driven interventions could be the panacea for hunger eradication.

  17. Food security governance: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candel, J.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The role of governance has been receiving increasing attention from food security scholars in recent years. However, in spite of the recognition that governance matters, current knowledge of food security governance is rather fragmented. To provide some clarity in the debate about the role of

  18. Water availability and management for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food security is directly linked to water security for food production. Water availability for crop production will be dependent upon precipitation or irrigation, soil water holding capacity, and crop water demand. The linkages among these components in rainfed agricultural systems shows the impact ...

  19. [The concept and measurement of food security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kirang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Young Jeon

    2008-11-01

    During the past two decades, food deprivation and hunger have been recognized to be not just the concerns of only underdeveloped or developing countries, but as problems for many affluent Western nations as well. Many countries have made numerous efforts to define and measure the extent of these problems. Based on these efforts, the theory and practice of food security studies has significantly evolved during the last decades. Thus, this study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the concept and measurement of food security. In this review, we introduce the definition and background of food security, we describe the impact of food insecurity on nutrition and health, we provide its measurements and operational instruments and we discuss its applications and implications. Some practical information for the use of the food security index in South Korea is also presented. Food security is an essential element in achieving a good nutritional and health status and it has an influence to reduce poverty. The information about the current understanding of food security can help scientists, policy makers and program practitioners conduct research and maintain outreach programs that address the issues of poverty and the promotion of food security.

  20. Food security in a world without borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The alleviation of poverty and the eradication of hunger and malnutrition are within reach. Considerable progress has been made over the past thirty years in reducing the numbers of the hungry, and projections over the next thirty years suggest that this progress will continue. The majority of developing countries have participated in this progress and have improved nutrition but there are significant regional differences. The current challenge is to build upon and accelerate the progress already made. Everyone is involved in this struggle against hunger and malnutrition, and to achieve these goals, global partnerships to enhance co-operation and co-ordination are being strengthened. Successful country experiences for improving food security and nutrition have demonstrated the importance of peace, political stability, and stable economic growth. There is also the need for increased foreign investment and increased ODA, particularly for African agriculture, debt relief, the better integration of LDCs in the global economy, their more secure access to markets and more equitable terms of trade, enhanced South-South co-operation, training and research and new high-yield and drought-resistant crop varieties. While all these have been commented on and recognised before, we must close the credibility gap in our political will by honouring our existing commitments for providing tangible benefits at the local level. For globalisation, the key issue is how the aggregate benefits of globalisation will be distributed and how to translate this into better nutrition. The LDCs, which are the most vulnerable and disadvantaged members of the international community, should be at the centre of this drive towards food security and take genuine ownership of policies, initiatives and activities to improve development. At the same time we need to succeed in making the developed world more aware of and responsive to the conditions of the LDCs. The most effective way to improve nutrition

  1. Contribution of Food Crops to Household Food Security Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also showed that farmers in the study area are relatively food secure. Inputs such as fertilizer, processing and storage facilities, improved seedlings, tractor, access to credit loan etc. should be made available to encourage farmers to improve household food security and raise their living standard. In addition ...

  2. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...

  3. DOES FINANCIAL LITERACY CONTRIBUTE TO FOOD SECURITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Grace Carman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity, not having consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members is most common among low income households. However, income alone is not sufficient to explain who experiences food insecurity. This study investigates the relationship between financial literacy and food security. We find that low income households who exhibit financial literacy are less likely to experience food insecurity.

  4. Biofuels and Food Security. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    In October 2011, the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) recommended a ''review of biofuels policies -- where applicable and if necessary -- according to balanced science-based assessments of the opportunities and challenges that they may represent for food security so that biofuels can be produced where it is socially, economically and environmentally feasible to do so''. In line with this, the CFS requested the HLPE (High Level Panel of Experts) to ''conduct a science-based comparative literature analysis taking into consideration the work produced by the FAO and Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) of the positive and negative effects of biofuels on food security''. Recommendations from the report include the following. Food security policies and biofuel policies cannot be separated because they mutually interact. Food security and the right to food should be priority concerns in the design of any biofuel policy. Governments should adopt the principle: biofuels shall not compromise food security and therefore should be managed so that food access or the resources necessary for the production of food, principally land, biodiversity, water and labour are not put at risk. The CFS should undertake action to ensure that this principle is operable in the very varied contexts in which all countries find themselves. Given the trend to the emergence of a global biofuels market, and a context moving from policy-driven to market-driven biofuels, there is an urgent need for close and pro-active coordination of food security, biofuel/bioenergy policies and energy policies, at national and international levels, as well as rapid response mechanisms in case of crisis. There is also an urgent need to create an enabling, responsible climate for food and non-food investments compatible with food security. The HLPE recommends that governments adopt a coordinated food security and energy security strategy, which would require articulation around the following five axes

  5. Biofuels and Food Security. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    In October 2011, the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) recommended a ''review of biofuels policies -- where applicable and if necessary -- according to balanced science-based assessments of the opportunities and challenges that they may represent for food security so that biofuels can be produced where it is socially, economically and environmentally feasible to do so''. In line with this, the CFS requested the HLPE (High Level Panel of Experts) to ''conduct a science-based comparative literature analysis taking into consideration the work produced by the FAO and Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) of the positive and negative effects of biofuels on food security''. Recommendations from the report include the following. Food security policies and biofuel policies cannot be separated because they mutually interact. Food security and the right to food should be priority concerns in the design of any biofuel policy. Governments should adopt the principle: biofuels shall not compromise food security and therefore should be managed so that food access or the resources necessary for the production of food, principally land, biodiversity, water and labour are not put at risk. The CFS should undertake action to ensure that this principle is operable in the very varied contexts in which all countries find themselves. Given the trend to the emergence of a global biofuels market, and a context moving from policy-driven to market-driven biofuels, there is an urgent need for close and pro-active coordination of food security, biofuel/bioenergy policies and energy policies, at national and international levels, as well as rapid response mechanisms in case of crisis. There is also an urgent need to create an enabling, responsible climate for food and non-food investments compatible with food security. The HLPE recommends that governments adopt a coordinated food security and energy security strategy, which would require articulation

  6. Urban household food security, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, J

    1997-12-01

    This article discusses the success of the Madagascar Food Security and Nutrition project in decreasing malnutrition and monitoring child health. Success has occurred in the following realms: effective collaboration between government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), capacity building through investment in training of community workers, increased quality of services provided by community nutrition workers, community involvement, government commitment, and a flexible program design. NGOs were able to respond to community concerns by adding program inputs without losing the focus on core nutrition interventions. Community workers were selected from a group of mothers. Women were trained to monitor the growth of all children under age 5. Children who were severely malnourished were identified and referred to rehabilitation centers for treatment lasting up to 3 weeks. The program offered support and nutrition education for mothers of sick children. One drawback of the treatment program was the inability of mothers to stay for long periods of time during the duration of treatment. The program offers distribution of iodine capsules as part of a long-term salt iodization program that is supported by UNICEF and the World Bank. The program also offers microcredit. Since 1993, 28,000 children under age 5 have been weighed each month. These children came from two provinces and belonged to 300,000 families. The monitored children were 66% of the total number of children aged under 5 years. Malnutrition rates decreased from 46% to 37%.

  7. Food Security and Climate Change in Cambodia | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Given the country's dependence on agriculture and natural resources, tackling climate change and food security together is essential. ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international ...

  8. [Food poisoning--importance of international perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2012-08-01

    It is important to obtain the information on food security in the countries other than Japan since more than 60 % of the food consumed come from these countries. Food security is now considered as a global issue. A global trend persuading us to provide safe food to humans is based on the concept of human security development associated with a sense of human mission to sustain one's life. Another global tendency pushing us to secure safety and hygiene of food is driven by the economic pressure coming from the rules in international trade established by Codex Committee under FAO/WHO. In contrast to these trends under globalization requesting safe and hygienic food, food habits based on tradition or religion are maintained locally in various parts of the world. These local habits include eating raw or improperly cooked foods, which may become a risk of being exposed to food poisoning pathogens. This issue may be adequately solved by a risk assessment approach based on the concept of appropriate level of protection (ALOP). Like or not, people in some local areas live in the unhygienic environment where they are unintentionally and frequently exposed to enteric pathogens or immunologically cross-reacting microorganisms through which they may acquire specific immunity to the pathogens and escape from infection by the pathogens. There are therefore many areas in the world where people understand the necessity to provide safe food at the international level (globalization) but actually consume food in varying hygienic conditions from area to area due in part to traditional food habits or living environments (localization); we call this situation as glocalization (global+local).

  9. Food security policies in India and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Elleby, Christian; Zobbe, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    dependence on price-based measures causes relatively larger and more volatile fiscal burdens, thereby likely making it more vulnerable in dealing with similar events in the future. These findings have important implications for food policy and food security in the two countries in the future.......Food insecurity is a much more serious concern in India than China. In addition to income and poverty differences, we argue in this paper that differences in food policies can further explain the different food security outcomes across the two countries. First, India mostly uses price-based input...

  10. World market or regional integration and food security in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); A. Klaasse Bos (Andries); C. Lutz (Clemens)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe problem of food security in West Africa was put on the international agenda in 1974 at the international food conference in Rome following the Great Sahelian Drought of 1968-1973. In those years preoccupation with food security was limited mainly to the Sahel countries and

  11. Urban environment and health: food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  12. Food security in the former Yugoslav republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankov Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze food security in the former Yugoslav republics after they became independent nations. For that purpose we use new Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO suite of food security that provides possibility for a more nuanced assessment of food insecurity. The results do show some clear evidence of differences among countries. Compared with other ex-Yugoslav countries Slovenia is the most food secure country. It has the highest gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity (GDP PPP as well as the highest value and growth rate of agricultural productivity. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Macedonia are more vulnerable to food insecurity.

  13. New technology for food systems and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, N J Newton

    2009-01-01

    In addition to product trade, technology trade has become one of the alternatives for globalization action around the world. Although not all technologies employed on the technology trade platform are innovative technologies, the data base of international technology trade still is a good indicator for observing innovative technologies around world. The technology trade data base from Sinew Consulting Group (SCG) Ltd. was employed as an example to lead the discussion on security or safety issues that may be caused by these innovative technologies. More technologies related to processing, functional ingredients and quality control technology of food were found in the data base of international technology trade platform. The review was conducted by categorizing technologies into the following subcategories in terms of safety and security issues: (1) agricultural materials/ingredients, (2) processing/engineering, (3) additives, (4) packaging/logistics, (5) functional ingredients, (6) miscellaneous (include detection technology). The author discusses examples listed for each subcategory, including GMO technology, nanotechnology, Chinese medicine based functional ingredients, as well as several innovative technologies. Currently, generation of innovative technology advance at a greater pace due to cross-area research and development activities. At the same time, more attention needs to be placed on the employment of these innovative technologies.

  14. FOOD SECURITY PROBLEMS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Polyanskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concepts and factors of food security and food sovereignty of the Russian Federation. The composition of the consumer basket, the most significant of its components, and based on threshold values of self-sufficiency is calculated in the dynamics of the prevalence of food independence. The groups of products, which are in the country to be at a level below the thresholds, regulated by the food security doctrine of the Russian Federation. Identified the possible General trend of development of agricultural production in the country.

  15. The Intersection of Environmental Variability, Policy, and Human Values: International Treaties, Yukon River Salmon, and Food Security in a Changing Arctic (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, S.; Loring, P. A.; Murray, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    2009 was a particularly devastating year for rural communities of the Yukon River in Alaska. For a number of reasons, including annual variability in Chinook and Chum salmon runs, imperfect monitoring and information, “best practices” management decisions by regulatory agencies, and international treaty obligations related to conservation and total allowable catch allocation, the smokehouses and freezers of many Alaska Native families, particularly those in up-river communities in the Yukon Flats region, are empty; a problem that has prompted Alaska’s Governor Sean Parnell to ask the US Federal Government to declare a disaster. However, depending on whom you ask, this year’s management of these resources, which provide food security and enable self-reliance in rural communities, may be evaluated as a failure or as a success. How can we reconcile an institutional assessment that claims success as defined in terms of internationally-agreed upon conservation and escapement goals, with the negative economic and health impacts on communities? We use this case to illustrate how the whole Yukon River watershed and drainage, including Alaska and Canada, provides an elegant, geographic context for the discussion and analysis of the human dimensions of environmental change and regional sustainability. Policymakers have arguably gone to great lengths to reconcile competing ‘uses’ of the Yukon River, including commercial and subsistence uses as well as conservation goals, but while managers continue to strive to be ‘adaptive learners’ in their approach to balancing these goals, the impacts on rural communities are immediate and cumulative, synergistic, temporally and spatially scaled, and directly related to rural livelihoods, community health, well-being and sustainability. The cost of this ‘adaptive’ process may be too high, both for the ecosystem and for the people who live there. Are we asking too much of the Yukon River? Are we asking too much of the

  16. Food security, fish-farming, and aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. MULTI-FUNDER INITIATIVE. The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) is a program of Canada's International Development Research. Centre (IDRC) undertaken with the financial support of the Government of Canada provided through ...

  17. Complicating food security: Definitions, discourses, commitments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ramp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food security is now commonly seen as one of the defining global issues of the century, intertwined with population and consumption shifts, climate change, environmental degradation, water scarcity, and the geopolitics attending globalization. Some analysts suggest that food security threats are so urgent that philosophical scruples must be set aside in order to concentrate all resources on developing and implementing radical strategies to avert a looming civilizational crisis. This article suggests that definitions of food security invoke commitments and have consequences, and that continued critical and conceptual attention to the language employed in food security research and policy is warranted.

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGY CAN IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIOTECHNOLOGY CAN IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA. ... and capacity to innovate and patent new materials as well as enforce biosafety requirements. In order for countries to access biotechnology products or technologies, it will ...

  19. Food security and land grabbing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.

    2011-01-01

    In the 1960s and early 1970s, many countries in South and Southeast Asia were the focus of world attention due to their frequent occurrence of food shortages. These shortages were met by large amounts of food imported through food aid or similar programmes. Several pessimistic predictions were

  20. Barriers Preventing Food Security in Israel, 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Yoav Gal

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the benefits of adopting the practice of long-term planning with the aim of helping decision makers and politicians to include scenario thinking in the process of determining food security in Israel, 2050. This study addresses the question of food security, a step that is in contrast with agricultural planning considerations of the past that have mainly focused on maximizing profits or relied on a closed mathematical model. Two teams of experts identified production lim...

  1. Barriers preventing food security in Israel, 2050:

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Yoav; Hadas, Efrat

    2014-01-01

    The article highlights the benefits of adopting the practice of long-term planning with the aim of helping decision makers and politicians to include scenario thinking in the process of determining food security in Israel, 2050. This study addresses the question of food security, a step that is in contrast with agricultural planning considerations of the past that have mainly focused on maximizing profits or relied on a closed mathematical model. Two teams of experts identified production lim...

  2. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

    2006-11-15

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

  3. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2006-01-01

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment

  4. Rising food prices and household food security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    produce),4 which is the case for the majority of South Africans. In South Africa ... Expressed as a proportion of average monthly income, the increase in the cost of .... innovation in food, nutrition and broader agricultural policies. Mieke Faber ...

  5. Food sustainability, food security and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development requires a deliberate choice in the direction of societal transition, but the options are narrowed down by the obligation to feed a growing world population. At present sufficient food is produced, but large differences exist in per capita supply. Poverty prevents many people

  6. IMPEDIMENTS AGAINST THE REALIZATION OF FOOD SECURITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achieving food security by the year 2020 is one of the Millennium. Development Goals ... Yes and No using percentages and such variables like corruption of officials, dependence on ... world population which doubled between 25 and 30 years. The growth in food ..... Analysis, Nsukka; Prize pub Ltd. Oyaide, W.J (2006) A ...

  7. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2011-01-01

    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  8. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  9. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  10. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  11. Drought, nutrition and food security

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Drought associated with climate change may lead to food and water shortage. Drought associated with climate change may lead to food and water shortage. Greater vulnerability to infectious diseases. Population displacements and mass migrations with all ...

  12. Diagnosing integrated food security strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candel, Jeroen J.L.

    2018-01-01

    The global food price crises of 2007-8 and 2010 and subsequent policy debates have led to increased recognition that the drivers of food insecurity and associated policies transcend the boundaries of traditional governmental sectors and jurisdictions. Building on this insight, many governments of

  13. Food security and sustainable intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfray, H Charles J; Garnett, Tara

    2014-04-05

    The coming decades are likely to see increasing pressures on the global food system, both on the demand side from increasing population and per capita consumption, and on the supply side from greater competition for inputs and from climate change. This paper argues that the magnitude of the challenge is such that action is needed throughout the food system, on moderating demand, reducing waste, improving governance and producing more food. It discusses in detail the last component, arguing that more food should be produced using sustainable intensification (SI) strategies, and explores the rationale behind, and meaning of, this term. It also investigates how SI may interact with other food policy agendas, in particular, land use and biodiversity, animal welfare and human nutrition.

  14. International Food Security: Insufficient Efforts by Host Governments and Donors Threaten Progress to Halve Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    AIDS human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome IEHA Initiative to End Hunger in Africa (A U.S. Presidential Initiative...term agricultural development have not been successful. The United States’ Presidential Initiative to End Hunger in Africa ( IEHA ...Africa, but these efforts are not integrated into IEHA . Given this fragmented approach to food security, the U.S. government is likely missing

  15. Food and nutrition security indicators: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Pangaribowo, Evita Hanie; Gerber, Nicolas; Torero, Maximo

    2013-01-01

    As the problems of food and nutrition insecurity are currently more complex, identifying and choosing relevant indicators is crucial. This paper identifies the need to go beyond the state-of-the-art because current FNS indicators do not account for the short-term economic shocks which have been identified as key factors for food and nutrition security. As the nature of food and nutrition security status is different between short- term and long-term causes, there is a need to differentiate be...

  16. The Food Crisis and Food Security: Towards a New World Food Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Golay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The worst food crisis since 1974 broke out in 2007-08. Higher world market prices of food commodities (especially wheat, rice, soya and maize sparked an unprecedented increase in the number of hungry people. Despite moderately lower prices since the summer of 2008, the number of the hungry continued to rise in 2009. This food crisis has placed the fight against hunger on the international agenda. Since March 2008 governments UN agencies and many social movements have adopted positions on the causes of the crisis and the means to address it. Unfortunately, while these parties are trying to coordinate their activities and suggest new approaches, the old recipes for producing more food are often brought up. Contradictory proposals are made and the thought given to the causes underlying hunger and the food crisis (social, economic and political discrimination and exclusion has gone largely unheeded. The first Millennium Development Goal, which calls for cutting the percentage of hungry people by half by 2015, is clearly out of reach. But the food crisis might lead to a new world food order based on the three pillars of food assistance, food security and the right to food.

  17. Functional foods as a way of strengthening food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Stukalo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solution of the problem of food security in the region plays an important role in providing the population with the necessary food. The article describes ways to achieve food security. Different opinions are presented on the causes of the problem of food security, in particular the spread of genetically modified organisms, as well as low incomes of the population, the volatility of food prices and insignificant reproduction opportunities. The analysis of production and consumption of various food products in the Russian Federation (RF in recent years has been carried out. Dynamics of consumption of the main types of food in the Voronezh region is also presented. An analysis has been made of the production and consumption of various food products in the Russian Federation (RF in recent years. Dynamics of consumption of the main types of food in the Voronezh region is also presented. A solution to the problem of food security with flour culinary products using non-traditional plant raw materials, also used as functional food products, was proposed. Examples are given of improving the quality of food products and increasing the content of dietary fiber and other useful nutrients, thanks to the use of secondary raw materials, bugs and processed products of plant origin. The food security of the region has only conditional territorial localization, since the economic relations that arise between the subjects of the food sector cover all subjects of the regional economy without exception. A special role in these relations in the conditions that have developed up to now is played by organizations related to the sphere of food production, as well as organizations that supply them with the most scarce and significant resources, i.e. organization of education, research and development. That is why, we believe that the main emphasis in the study of food security should be made on the specifics of the functioning of industrial organizations occupying a

  18. Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 sept. 2016 ... Jemimah Njuki is a senior program officer in the Agriculture and Food Security program at the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), based in Nairobi, Kenya. John R. Parkins is a professor in the Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology, University of Alberta, Canada ...

  19. Collaborating toward improving food security in Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wakegijig

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Community members, Aboriginal organizations, public servants and academics have long been describing a desperate situation of food insecurity in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Objective. The Nunavut Food Security Coalition, a partnership of Inuit Organizations and the Government of Nunavut, is collaborating to develop a territorial food security strategy to address pervasive food insecurity in the context of poverty reduction. Design. The Nunavut Food Security Coalition has carried out this work using a community consultation model. The research was collected through community visits, stakeholder consultation and member checking at the Nunavut Food Security Symposium. Results. In this paper, we describe a continuous course of action, based on community engagement and collective action, that has led to sustained political interest in and public mobilization around the issue of food insecurity in Nunavut. Conclusions. The process described in this article is a unique collaboration between multiple organizations that has led to the development of a sustainable partnership that will inform policy development while representing the voice of Nunavummiut.

  20. Social Status, Traditional Food Taboos and Food Security: A Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to examine adherence to traditional food taboos by women in Imo State, and relate that to social status and food security. Data was collected from 72 women across the three agricultural zones of the State. It was found that age, income and education are some factors affecting adherence to these ...

  1. Governing food security. Law, politics and the right to food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.; Hadiprayitno, I.

    2010-01-01

    With only five years left until the 2015 deadline to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, food security still is a dream rather than reality: 'a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary

  2. Households and food security: lessons from food secure households in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, Silvia; Douxchamps, Sabine; Kristjanson, Patti; Förch, Wiebke; Radeny, Maren; Mutie, Lanetta; Quiros, F.C.; Herrero, M.; Ndungu, Anthony; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background
    What are the key factors that contribute to household-level food security? What lessons can we learn from food secure households? What agricultural options and management strategies are likely to benefit female-headed households in particular? This paper addresses these questions

  3. Civil-military relations : enhancing international security

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The thesis describes how civil-military relations at the international level enhance international security, in particular, the way of development of international society in trying to orient its progress towards international peace, security and sustainable development. It focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The International Committee of Re...

  4. Feeding the planet: between food security and food safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Scarpellini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of food is indeed a systemic problem involving fundamental aspects of the social, cultural and economic organisation of our planet. This paper focuses on the main aspects related to the concepts of food security and food safety. While the first problem mainly affects less developed countries, the second concerns diet in the developed world. They are influenced by important factors such as the structure of food distribution, the effective access to food resources, the lack of confidence about the safety of the products, and the different consumption behaviours affected by social, economic and religious factors.

  5. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matin Qaim

    Full Text Available The role of genetically modified (GM crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  6. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

  7. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  8. Perspectives on the International and Internal Nuclear Security Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon

    2015-01-01

    The term, 'Nuclear Security' became more familiar to Korean public after the government hosted 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit. Nuclear Security is prevention of, detection of and response to criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities. Nuclear Security includes physical protection, security of radioactive sources, nuclear forensics, nuclear smuggling prevention, border monitoring, and cyber security with regard to nuclear and other radiological materials. This abstract will review recent international trends and discuss the nuclear security regime in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The international Nuclear Security Regime has been strengthened. The upcoming Chicago Summit in 2016 and the entry into force of the Amendment of Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (CPPNM) will bring major changes in nuclear security. The Republic of Korea hosted the 2012 Seoul Summit and strengthened domestic regime to meet international standards. The ROK has worked hard to contribute to the international security regime and to establish a robust domestic security regime against terrorist threats. Even if the nuclear security regime is robust, Risk-informed Nuclear Security management should be established to meet international standards and to implement effective as well as an efficient nuclear security regime

  9. Perspectives on the International and Internal Nuclear Security Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Soon [Korea Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The term, 'Nuclear Security' became more familiar to Korean public after the government hosted 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit. Nuclear Security is prevention of, detection of and response to criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities. Nuclear Security includes physical protection, security of radioactive sources, nuclear forensics, nuclear smuggling prevention, border monitoring, and cyber security with regard to nuclear and other radiological materials. This abstract will review recent international trends and discuss the nuclear security regime in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The international Nuclear Security Regime has been strengthened. The upcoming Chicago Summit in 2016 and the entry into force of the Amendment of Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (CPPNM) will bring major changes in nuclear security. The Republic of Korea hosted the 2012 Seoul Summit and strengthened domestic regime to meet international standards. The ROK has worked hard to contribute to the international security regime and to establish a robust domestic security regime against terrorist threats. Even if the nuclear security regime is robust, Risk-informed Nuclear Security management should be established to meet international standards and to implement effective as well as an efficient nuclear security regime.

  10. 136 Constraints to Food Security in Nigeria and Implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... security measures used by advanced countries. Introduction. Food is ... As a result, there is shortage of food which poses a threat to food security. The heavy ... Certain factors could be responsible for this persistent problem.

  11. Climate change impacts on global food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tim; von Braun, Joachim

    2013-08-02

    Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable to hunger and undernutrition. Likewise, it can be anticipated that food access and utilization will be affected indirectly via collateral effects on household and individual incomes, and food utilization could be impaired by loss of access to drinking water and damage to health. The evidence supports the need for considerable investment in adaptation and mitigation actions toward a "climate-smart food system" that is more resilient to climate change influences on food security.

  12. DYNAMICS OF FOOD SECURITY IN RECENT DECADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available By food security we understand the people's access, at all time, to food, needed for a healthy and active life. It can be thought at global, regional, state or local level, but only as a strategy with relevance only to the family, to be able to buy, thanks to its own production or purchase, sufficient food to meet the needs of all its members. Diet must be quantity sufficient, variety and of good enough quality and each family member should be healthy to take full advantage of consumed foods.

  13. International document on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This international document highlights the major issues related to the acceptance of irradiated food by consumers, governmental and intergovernmental activities, the control of the process, and trade. The conference recognized that: Food irradiation has the potential to reduce the incidence of foodborne diseases. It can reduce post-harvest food losses and make available a larger quantity and a wider variety of foodstuffs for consumers. Regulatory control by competent authorities is a necessary prerequisite for introduction of the process. International trade in irradiated foods would be facilitated by harmonization of national procedures based on internationally recognized standards for the control of food irradiation. Acceptance of irradiated food by the consumer is a vital factor in the successful commercialization of the irradiation process, and information dissemination can contribute to this acceptance

  14. International status of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation processing of foods has been studied for over 30 years. To a considerable extent this research was carried out in the framework of various international projects. After optimistic beginnings in the 1950s and long delays, caused by uncertainty about the health safety of foods so treated, food irradiation has now reached the stage of practical application in several countries. In order to prepare the way for world-wide accceptance of the new process, the Codex Alimentarius Commission has accepted an 'International General Standard for Irradiated Foods' and an 'International Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods'. Psychological barriers to a process associated with the word 'radiation' are still formidable; it appears, however, that acceptance by authorities, food industry and consumers continues to grow

  15. International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN): Promoting nuclear security education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad Samudi Yasir

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The need for human resource development programmes in nuclear security was underlined at several International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conferences and Board of Governors Meetings. Successive IAEA Nuclear Security Plans, the most recent of which was agreed by the Board of Governors in September 2009, give high priority to assisting States in establishing educational programmes in nuclear security in order to ensure the sustainability of nuclear security improvements. The current Nuclear Security Plan 1 covering 2010-2013 emphasizes on the importance of considering existing capacities at international, regional and national levels while designing nuclear security academic programmes. In the course of implementing the Plan, the IAEA developed a guide entitled Educational Programme in Nuclear Security (IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 12) that consists of a model of a MAster of Science (M.Sc.) and a Certificate Programme in Nuclear Security. This guide was aims at assisting universities or other educational institutes to developed academic programmes in nuclear security. Independently, some universities already offered academic programmes covering some areas of nuclear security, while other universities have asked the IAEA to support the implementation of these programmes. In order to better address current and future request for assistance in this area, the IAEA establish a collaboration network-International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN), among universities who are providing nuclear security education or who are interested in starting an academic programme/ course(s) in nuclear security. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) is a first local university became a member of INSEN since the beginning of the establishment. (author)

  16. Genetic Technology and Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States and globally, producers cultivate millions of hectares of genetically modified crops. In the United States, the USDA, EPA, and FDA govern authorization of GMOs under federal laws and agency regulations. Because food produced from GMOs is not considered materially different from

  17. Building the food secure city

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    In the downtown core, hawkers ply their trade in everything from ... In a project supported by the International Development .... governmental organization, Agriproject Foundation Department of ... Lulandala sees this as a missed opportunity.

  18. DOES FOOD SAFETY CONFLICT WITH FOOD SECURITY? THE SAFE CONSUMPTION OF FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Jean D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper concludes by saying no, food safety and security reinforce each other. It combines food safety and food security into the concept of "safe food consumption." Unsafe food consumption occurs when food contains known substances that lead to short or long term illness or death (botulism) and suspect substances that are believed to lead to delayed diseases (pesticides). It also occurs when hunger or over eating contribute to long-term illness and shorter life expectancy. The costs of il...

  19. Food security in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, Roger; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, James

    2012-01-01

    By 2080 the effects of climate change—on heat waves, floods, sea level rise, and drought—could push an additional 600 million people into malnutrition and increase the number of people facing water scarcity by 1.8 billion. The precise impacts will, however, strongly depend on socioeconomic conditions such as local markets and food import dependence. In the near term, two factors are also changing the nature of food security: (1) rapid urbanization, with the proportion of the global population living in urban areas expanding from 13 percent in 1975 to greater than 50 percent at present, and (2) trade and domestic market liberalization since 1993, which has promoted removal of import controls, deregulation of prices, and the loss of preferential markets for many small economies. Over the last two years, the worst drought in decades has devastated eastern Africa. The resulting food-security crisis has affected roughly 13 million people and has reminded us that there is still a long way to go in addressing current climate-related risks. In the face of such profound changes and uncertainties, our approaches to food security must evolve. In this article, we describe four key elements that, in our view, will be essential to the success of efforts to address the linked challenges of food security and climate change.

  20. Achieving food security in times of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S

    2010-11-30

    In spite of several World Food Summits during the past decade, the number of people going to bed hungry is increasing and now exceeds one billion. Food security strategies should therefore be revisited. Food security systems should begin with local communities who can develop and manage community gene, seed, grain and water banks. At the national level, access to balanced diet and clean drinking water should become a basic human right. Implementation of the right to food will involve concurrent attention to production, procurement, preservation and public distribution. Higher production in perpetuity should be achieved through an ever-green revolution based on the principles of conservation and climate-resilient farming. This will call for a blend of traditional ecological prudence with frontier technologies, particularly biotechnology and information communication technologies. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Crops and food security--experiences and perspectives from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Te; Fu, Tzu-Yu Richard; Chang, Su-San

    2009-01-01

    Food security is an important issue that is of concern for all countries around the world. There are many factors which may cause food insecurity including increasing demand, shortage of supply, trade condition, another countries' food policy, lack of money, high food and oil prices, decelerating productivity, speculation, etc. The food self-sufficiency ratio of Taiwan is only 30.6% weighted by energy in 2007. Total agriculture imports and cereals have increased significantly due to the expansion of livestock and fishery industries and improve living standard. The agriculture sector of Taiwan is facing many challenges, such as: low level of food self-sufficiency, aging farmers, large acreage of set-aside farmlands, small scale farming, soaring price of fertilizers, natural disasters accelerated by climate change, and rapid changes in the world food economy. To cope with these challenges, the present agricultural policy is based on three guidelines: "Healthfulness, Efficiency, and Sustainability." A program entitled "Turning Small Landlords into Large Tenants" was launched to make effective use of idle lands. Facing globalization and the food crisis, Taiwan will secure stable food supply through revitalization of its set-aside farmlands and international markets, and provide technical assistance to developing countries, in particular for staple food crops.

  2. Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security and Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamic interactions between bio-geophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of foods, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability, utilization and access, so that food security is diminished when ...

  3. Marketability and sustainability of food security programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketability and sustainability of food security programmes: products and productivity of agricultural projects. ... Project products are sold to community members who accounted to 79%, and few (1%) to individuals owning business, clinics and outside the community. Project members advertised their produce mainly ...

  4. Bayesian networks and food security - An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to Bayesian networks. Networks are defined and put into a Bayesian context. Directed acyclical graphs play a crucial role here. Two simple examples from food security are addressed. Possible uses of Bayesian networks for implementation and further use in decision

  5. Research Award: Agriculture and Food Security

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, ... programming through a research acvity focusing on agriculture and food security, specifically on the gender and social (equity) dimensions of ...

  6. Research award: Agriculture and Food Security | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research shows that appropriate food security interventions can improve ... sector within the context of increased productivity and reduction of post-harvest loss, rural ... The successful candidate will allocate 50% of his/her time for a research ... with a focus on agriculture;; Business administration and/or management, with a ...

  7. Bioenergy production and food security in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    This will in turn, facilitate industrialization in other sectors of economy through provision of affordable ... bioenergy production on food security, land allocation for energy crop production can be regulated. ... bility determines the type of industries, and the cost of ...... African countries, yeast and crude enzyme production.

  8. Food security and HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    households in Homa Bay, Kenya. The paper argues that once patients are stable, they can effectively be engaged in farming with minimal financial and technical support, resulting in enhanced food security of the affected households. More importantly, it helps to reduce. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and improve the individual's ...

  9. Maternal Strategies to Access Food Differ by Food Security Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen S; McCurdy, Karen; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Household food insecurity is associated with health and behavior risk. Much less is known about how food insecurity is related to strategies that adults use in accessing food: how and where they shop, use of alternative food sources, and their ability to manage resources. To examine how maternal behaviors, including shopping, accessing alternative sources of food, and managing resources, are related to household food security status (HHFSS). Cross-sectional study collecting survey data on HHFSS, shopping behaviors, use of alternative food sources, and managing resources obtained from low-income mothers of preschool-aged children. One hundred sixty-four low-income mothers of young children (55% Hispanic) from two communities in Rhode Island. HHFSS was measured using 10 items from the 18-item Core Food Security Module to assess adult food security. Mothers were surveyed about where, when, and how often they shopped; the strategies they use when shopping; their use of alternative sources of food, including federal, state, and local assistance; and their ability to manage their resources. Analysis of variance and χ 2 analyses assessed the associations between demographic variables, shopping, accessing alternative food sources, and managing resources, and HHFSS. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the associations between HHFSS and maternal demographic variables, food shopping, strategies, alternative sources of food, and ability to manage resources. Maternal age and language spoken at home were significantly associated with HHFSS; food insecurity was 10% more likely among older mothers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.17) and 2.5 times more likely among Spanish-speaking households (compared with non-Spanish speaking [aOR 3.57, 95% CI 1.25 to 10.18]). Food insecurity was more likely among mothers reporting more informal strategies (aOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.01; P<0.05) and perceiving greater inability to manage resources (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1

  10. Impacts of Floods Events on Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, E.; Pacetti, T.; Rulli, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The analysis of the interactions among natural disasters and food security is particularly significant for developing countries where food availability (one of the four pillars of food security together with access, utilization and stability) can be highly jeopardize by extreme events that damage the primary access to food, i.e. the agriculture. The main objective of this study is to analyze the impact of flood events on food security for two disastrous flood events in Bangladesh on 2007 and in Pakistan on 2010, selected here as case studies based on the existing literature related to extreme floods.The adopted methodology integrates remote sensing data, agricultural statistics, and water footprint values in order to (i) evaluating the potentially affected agricultural areas; (ii) converting the affected areas into crop loss; (iii) estimating the associated calories and water footprint losses. In Bangladesh, the estimated lost rice is around 12.5% of the total potential production, which implies a 5.3% calories loss with respect to the total potential energy provided by rice and 4.4% of total WF associated to national food supply. In Pakistan, the results show a crops loss of 19% for sugarcane and 40% for rice, with a related calories loss of 8.5% and a WF loss of 13.5%.The results highlight the countries vulnerability to flood, being both countries strongly dependent on local agricultural production. The 2007 flood event reflected critically upon Bangladeshi food security, almost doubling the existing food deficit. The same happened in Pakistan where an already scarce food supply has been worsened by the 2010 flood.Method results are fully repeatable; whereas, for remote sensed data the sources of data are valid worldwide and the data regarding land use and crops characteristics are strongly site specific, which need to be carefully evaluated.These case studies stress the importance of integrating different analysis approaches to carry out an assessment of the

  11. International Legal Framework for Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The responsibility for nuclear security rests entirely with each State. There is no single international instrument that addresses nuclear security in a comprehensive manner. The legal foundation for nuclear security comprises international instruments and recognized principles that are implemented by national authorities. Security systems at the national level will contribute to a strengthened and more universal system of nuclear security at the international level. The binding security treaties are; Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the 2005 amendment thereto, Safeguards Agreements between the Agency and states required in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Model Protocol additional to agreement(s) between State(s) and the Agency for the application of Safeguards Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

  12. [Biofuels, food security and transgenic crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. There is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. The finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. There is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. Nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. Biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. Climate change and biofuels are challenging FAO efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. Given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. The present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology.

  13. Radiation processing of food to ensure food safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Radiation processing of food utilizes the controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations such as γ-rays , electrons and X-rays on food. Gamma-rays and X-rays are short wavelength radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum. The approved sources of gamma radiation for food processing are radioisotopes (Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137), electron beam (up to 10 MeV) and X-rays (up to 5 MeV) wherein the latter two are generated by machines using electricity. γ-radiation can penetrate deep into the food materials causing the desired effects. Irradiation works by disrupting the biological processes that lead to decay. While interacting with water and other biomolecules that constitute the food and living organisms, radiation energy is absorbed by these molecules. The interactions of radiation and radiolytic products of water with DNA impair the reproduction of microorganism and insects, and thus help in achieving the desired objectives pertaining to food safety and security

  14. The second international workshop on enterprise security

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, V; Ramachandran, M; Yen, NN; Walters, RJ; Wills, G

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to our second international workshop on Enterprise Security as part of CloudCom 2015, Vancouver, Canada, November 30-December 3, 2015. The first international workshop held in Singapore has been a major success since then we have achieved greater team activities, research, and international collaborations as the major and significant outcome of our first workshop on this topic. Enterprise Security involves all business, products, governments, organization, and their contractors. This ...

  15. A scoping review of traditional food security in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Amanda; Bersamin, Andrea; Loring, Philip; Johnson, Rhonda; Tholl, Melissa

    2018-12-01

    Food insecurity is a public health concern. Food security includes the pillars of food access, availability and utilisation. For some indigenous peoples, this may also include traditional foods. To conduct a scoping review on traditional foods and food security in Alaska. Google Scholar and the High North Research Documents were used to search for relevant primary research using the following terms: "traditional foods", "food security", "access", "availability", "utilisation", "Alaska", "Alaska Native" and "indigenous". Twenty four articles from Google Scholar and four articles from the High North Research Documents were selected. The articles revealed three types of research approaches, those that quantified traditional food intake (n=18), those that quantified food security (n=2), and qualitative articles that addressed at least one pillar of food security (n=8). Limited primary research is available on food security in Alaskan. Few studies directly measure food security while most provide a review of food security factors. Research investigating dietary intake of traditional foods is more prevalent, though many differences exist among participant age groups and geographical areas. Future research should include direct measurements of traditional food intake and food security to provide a more complete picture of traditional food security in Alaska.

  16. Potential risks and threats to international security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today we can ascertain with certainty that in the early part of the 21st century, the challenges addressed to the current security environment tend to become increasingly diffuse, less predictable and multidimensional, being both a feature of external security, as well as an internal one and, of course, becoming an indispensable part of security policies and strategies. Therefore, the need for international cooperation as a foundation for the stability of the security environment has increased. It should provide a sense of trust and peace by ensuring the absence of danger both for the individual and for the community to which he belongs.

  17. Groundwater Depletion Embedded in International Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent hydrological modeling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world's food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world's population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  18. Groundwater depletion embedded in international food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent hydrological modelling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world’s food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world’s population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  19. Agricultural biodiversity, food security and climate change: a call for research and international collaboration.; Biodiversidad agricola, seguridad alimentaria y cambio climatico: una llamada a la investigacion y a la colaboracion internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgkin, T.; Frison, E.; Fanzo, J.; Lopez Noriega, I.

    2011-07-01

    The events of these last years have shown that there are still major problems in the global food supply and food security and food prices can change very quickly. Therefore the reduction of food stocks, such as poor harvests, competition with bio fuels production, land grabbing and speculation have been identified as causing this situation. whatever the cause, the crisis has shown how far we are to achieve genuine food security. (Author) 31 refs.

  20. Contribution of Food Crops to Household Food Security Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Department of Agricultural Economics And Extension, Usmanu Danfodiyo ... farmers to household food security in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara ... They earn more revenue from rice (87%), sorghum (35%), melon (14.2%), ... the type of crops they grow on their farm .... help farmers achieve high crop yield, ability to.

  1. The food puzzle : pathways to securing food for all

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Dorp, van M.; Driel, van W.F.; Groot, J.J.; Lee, van der J.; Verhagen, A.; Bezlepkina, I.

    2014-01-01

    This book is about the work that Wageningen University & Research centre (Wageningen UR) has been carrying out under the research programme, Global Food Security: Scarcity and Transition (also known as the Knowledge-base 1 programme). It tells a story about how multidisciplinary teams of

  2. The EU as an international security provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wolff, Stefan; Whitman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This contribution develops a framework of analysis that covers the actors involved in the policy making process of international security provision, the dynamics of this process itself, its outcomes (concrete strategies and policies) and their impact. Our efforts to establish such a framework...... of analysis, which could serve as the foundation for a mid-range theory of the EU as an international security provider, will examine the relevance of, and apply, existing theories of international relations/international security and foreign policy analysis to the specific case of the EU. The framework...... that will emerge from this analysis will then be tested and applied empirically in the following contributions that focus on how particular policies are formulated and implemented, and that analyse, in single and comparative case studies, the impact and effectiveness of the EU as an international security provider....

  3. Food irradiation receives international acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddoes, J M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario. Commercial Products

    1982-04-01

    Irradiation has advantages as a method of preserving food, especially in the Third World. The author tabulates some examples of actual use of food irradiation with dates and tonnages, and tells the story of the gradual acceptance of food irradiation by the World Health Organization, other international bodies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). At present, the joint IAEA/FAO/WHO standard permits an energy level of up to 5 MeV for gamma rays, well above the 1.3 MeV energy level of /sup 60/Co. The USFDA permits irradiation of any food up to 10 krad, and minor constituents of a diet may be irradiated up to 5 Mrad. The final hurdle to be cleared, that of economic acceptance, depends on convincing the food processing industry that the process is technically and economically efficient.

  4. Food irradiation receives international acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Irradition has advantages as a method of preserving food, especially in the Third World. The author tabulates some examples of actual use of food irradiation with dates and tonnages, and tells the story of the gradual acceptance of food irradiation by the World Health Organization, other international bodies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). At present, the joint IAEA/FAO/WHO standard permits an energy level of up to 5 MeV for gamma rays, well above the 1.3 MeV energy level of 60 Co. The USFDA permits irradiation of any food up to 10 krad, and minor constituents of a diet may be irradiated up to 5 Mrad. The final hurdle to be cleared, that of economic acceptance, depends on convincing the food processing industry that the process is technically and economically efficient

  5. Promoting Food Safety and Food Security in Rural Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikhiram N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at two villages, Ban Mae Kampong, Mae On, Chiang Mai and Ban Pa Miang, Muang, Lampang, Northern Thailand. This community is supported by Thai government tourism ministry to develop their skills in order to create and offer rural tourism. The study focus on community member groups who are involved with rural tourism activities; Homestay members, food preparation management members, tour guides, community leader groups, in order to assess the acceptance, collaboration and preparation of safety indigenous food menu and food security management where will support rural tourism community objectives. This study was carried out as in a participatory stage which included various seminars and workshops of rural tourism management concluded from homestay services, Thai herbs medication beneficiary, basic and applied nutrition concepts, indigenous healthy food productivity with standardized recipes, food safety handling and food security management for preparing food for themselves as well as suitable for tourism consumption. In addition of this useful vegetarian calendar information, which is highly appropriate serving as a tool for their daily meal management.

  6. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  7. Food Security In South Asia: Major Challenges And Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Galistcheva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is analysis of the state of food security of the South Asian countries at the present time. The methodological basis of the study is such methods as induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis. The systematic approach to the overall study of the South Asian countries’ economy and the state of its food security in particular has become the base of this research. Historical and statistical method were used to solve the main task of the research to reveal the conditions of the region’s agricultural development and food availability and food accessibility in the region as well as to carry out an assessment of the ability of households to obtain nutritious food all year round. The author also used the comparative method to analyze the South Asian countries’ approaches to realization of food policy that has allowed to reveal the specific tools used by certain countries of the region and the common characteristics of all countries of South Asia. While selecting the research topics the author proceeded from the idea that the problem of the state of food security of the South Asian countries has not been studied for the last two decades. The research required to attract and summarize a large amount of statistical data that has been drawn from many sources including official-sites of international organizations and South Asian countries. The author also used Russian and Indian scientific journals and monographs. The article highlights the state of food security in the region in accordance with criteria offered by the FAO. The author examines the situation in the South Asian countries’ agriculture sector, its productivity, the volume of production, food waste as well as the countries’ dependency on food imports. The article also presents some information on food accessibility which is generally considered within the context of household income, food distribution systems and ability of the household to obtain food

  8. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  9. Trade-Off or Convergence? The Role of Food Security in the Evolution of Food Discourse in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Gianluca; Malandrin, Vanessa; Rossi, Adanella

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role that "food security" has played in the evolution of the food discourse in Italy, a country with a strong and internationally recognized food culture. We identify three phases of this evolution: in the first phase, from the end of the Second World War to the end of the 1980s, the "modernization"…

  10. Competitiveness and food security at the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vasil'evich Fyodorov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with food safety as one of the areas of food security and food sovereignty. A review of concepts, models, acts on the power of international and national levels is made. The authors formulate a conclusion about the need for a measure of «food quality» with the release of the functional components of fitness (the ability to perform specified functions with the purpose and safety (restrictions on the content of harmful substances in the products. The analysis of the competitiveness of local products is made on the quality characteristics based on the proportion of output indicator of inadequate quality or dangerous to health in the total volume of products placed on the market. The paper identifies key areas of federal and regional levels to comply with the quality of food.

  11. Natural Resources Management for Sustainable Food Security in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Natural Resources Management for Sustainable Food Security in the Sahel ... as well as strategies for managing the resource base with a view to improving food security. ... InnoVet-AMR grants to support development of innovative veterinary ...

  12. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-21

    May 21, 2015 ... Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya ... America, and the Caribbean with funds from the Government of Canada's fast-start financing. ... Water management and food security in vulnerable regions of China.

  13. ESSENCE OF THE PROBLEM OF ENSURING FOOD SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Lalayan G. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we have revealed the essence of the problem of ensuring food security in detail. The components of economic safety at macroeconomic level are described, defining conditions of ensuring national food security are shown

  14. Poverty Mapping Project: Poverty and Food Security Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Poverty and Food Security Case Studies dataset consists of small area estimates of poverty, inequality, food security and related measures for subnational...

  15. Linking smallholder agriculture and water to household food security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linking smallholder agriculture and water to household food security and nutrition. ... Promoting household food security and reducing malnutrition rates of a growing population with the same amount of water is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-21

    May 21, 2015 ... Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya ... livestock fodder, with important outcomes for household food security. ... and all counties have since committed funding toward scaling up successful technologies.

  17. A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Mostova

    2017-12-01

    of food security consists of two blocks: the analyses of the external and internal environment. It is proposed, in order to improve the validity of the strategic analysis, to evaluate strengths and weaknesses, threats, and opportunities at the time of analysis, as well as to explore the trends of their change in dynamics. For this purpose, the author proposed establishing the persistence of the identified strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities. To accomplish it, the persistent strengths of possibilities include, in the author’s opinion, characteristics with a positive dynamic over the examined period while the persistent weaknesses and threats include, accordingly, those with a negative dynamic. Practical implications. Result of the present research is the advanced matrix of a SWOT-analysis of food security, which complements traditional method with the grouping according to the basic strategic groups of food security (production, market, resources, consumption, as well as the level of persistence of strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities, depending on the dynamics of the proposed characteristics. The main practical outcome of the developed procedure is the list of strategic recommendations based on the identified strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities of food security, depending on the level of their persistence. The value and originality of the scientific results are in that as a result of the proposed procedure, there will be built an effective instrument for carrying out a strategic analysis of the country’s food security. Based on the strategic analysis of the persistent strengths, the author identified the main com-petitive advantages of the country’s food security, which are to be strengthened, while implementing supporting strategic measures and control. It is established that the non-persistent strengths of food security of Ukraine would require a more effective management in comparison with those persistent, as

  18. Demeter's Resilience: an International Food Defense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Morgan; Kennedy, Shaun; Busta, Frank

    2010-07-01

    The National Center for Food Protection and Defense (NCFPD), which is led by the University of Minnesota, hosted an international food defense exercise on 27 to 29 May 2008. Established in 2004, NCFPD is a Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence with the mission of defending the food system through research and education. Tabletop exercises are practice-based scenarios intended to mimic real life experiences. The objective of the exercise discussed in this article was to facilitate discussion to increase awareness among exercise participants of both the threat that would be posed by an intentional attack on the food supply and the international impact of such an attack. Through facilitated discussion, exercise participants agreed on the following themes: (i) recognition of a foodborne disease outbreak is driven by the characteristics of the illness rather than the actual number of ill individuals; (ii) during the course of a foodborne outbreak there are generally multiple levels of communication; (iii) a common case definition for a foodborne disease is difficult to develop on a global scale; and (iv) the safety and health of all individuals is the number one priority of all parties involved. Several challenges were faced during the development of the exercise, but these were overcome to produce a more robust exercise. The following discussion will provide an overview of the challenges and the strategies used to overcome them. The lessons learned provide insight into how to plan, prepare, and host an international food defense exercise.

  19. International Security in the World Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna P

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the urgent topic of the evolution of international relations, the issue of establishing international security, and the development of international economic cooperation based on the principles of security. In order to analyze the current status of international security in the world and to identify key factors that hinder the way of establishing a positive global community, researches by the international analytical centers together with the institutes for international security and cooperation have been generalized. To this end, both the status of and changes in the Global Peace Index in the recent years has been disclosed, the position of Ukraine in the world according to this index has been examined. It has been proven that the main international security problems are related to the armed conflicts, civil wars, political violence, terrorism impacting the development of humanity as a whole, the status of international relations, the evolution of the world economy as well as national economies. Further researches should be focused on how the status of peace in the countries impacts their economic status and the status of international cooperation in other areas of economic cooperation, excluding the military. It should be answered particularly, how the above indicated status affects strengthening the Ukraine's position in the world.

  20. Development of Food Security Information System Based on Business Intelligence in Food Security Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrawaty, Manise; Harisno, Harisno

    2014-01-01

    Food is the main basic need of human, because of that fulfillment of human need of food has to be fulfilled. So it can fulfill that need, then government institution, Food Security Agency (BKP) is formed so it can monitor fulfillment of food need of society. The goals of this writing are to develop food security information system that provides dashboard facility based on business intelligence, to develop food security information system that can give fast, precise and real time information a...

  1. Economics of Food Security: Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Saravia-Matus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews selected key challenges regarding food security from both an academic and policy-oriented angle. In the analysis of the main constraints to achieve food access and availability in low and high-income societies, a detailed distinction is made between technological and institutional aspects. In the case of low-income economies, the emphasis is placed on the socio-economic situation and performance of small-scale farmers while in high-income economies the focus is shifted towards issues of price volatility, market stability and food waste. In both scenarios, productivity and efficiency in the use of resources are also considered. The objective of this assessment is to identify the type of policy support which would be most suitable to fulfil the increasing food demand. Innovation programmes and policies which inte- grate institutional coordination and technical support are put forward as strategic tools in the achievement of food security goals at regional and global level.

  2. International security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war also ended the focus on the bilateral approach to arms control and disarmament. Key concepts of security needed to be revisited, along with their implications for the disarmament and arms control agenda. Though there is currently a unipolar global security environment, there remain important tasks on the multilateral arms control agenda. The major task is that of reducing and eliminating weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. The author contends that maintaining reliance on the nuclear-weapons option makes little sense in a time when the major Powers are strengthening their partnerships in economics, trade, peacemaking and building. (author)

  3. Strategy to Enhance International Supply Chain Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... at 1901, 1903, October 13, 2006) which require the development of a strategic plan to enhance the security of the international supply chain, including protocols for the expeditious resumption of the flow of trade following...

  4. Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and Kwara states of ... A simple purposive random sampling technique was used to select 100 cocoa ... from the information were analysed with Descriptive Statistics, Food Security ... taken per day (p<0.05) would improve the food security status of households ...

  5. Improving food security and nutrition through research | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Informing policy through agriculture and food security research. Improving the uptake of agricultural and food security research into policy and practice is a central objective of IDRC's Agriculture and Food Security program. To maximize the impact of proven solutions, the program set out to inform and engage both Canadian ...

  6. Food security in the MENA region: the imperative rehabilitation of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 حزيران (يونيو) 2013 ... Food security in the MENA region: the imperative rehabilitation of agriculture ... Overcoming the food security challenge necessarily requires sustainably ... Local climate change data is securing food and livelihoods in southern Africa ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics ...

  7. A framework for evaluating food security and nutrition monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying cost and time-efficient approaches to food security and nutrition monitoring programs is fundamental to increasing the utility and sustainability. ... In meeting these challenges, the role of continued evaluation of food security monitoring systems - for their impact on food security decision-making - cannot be ...

  8. Determinants of food security among cocoa producing households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was set out to analyse the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in Abia state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to: determine the food security status of the households and estimate the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in the study area.

  9. 76 FR 45223 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program Announcement Type... program promotes education, child development, and food security for poor [[Page 45224

  10. International status of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1982-09-01

    Recent international moves that are likely to result in an increasing acceptance of irradiated foods are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the activities of the FAO, WHO, Codex Alimentarius and to attitudes in the United States and the Asian-Pacific region. In 1979, the Codex Alimentarius Commission adopted a Recommended General Standard for Irradiated Food. A resume is given of a revised version of the standard that is presently under consideration. However, remaining barriers to trade in irradiated food are briefly discussed, such as legal and regulatory problems, labelling, public acceptance and economic viability

  11. International codes concerning the security of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Explained is the title subject with international and Japanese official argument or publications and actions, where the security is defined as protection of sealed and unsealed radioisotopes (RI) from malicious acts. IAEA worked out the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in 2004 based on its preceding argument and with the turning point of the terrorism 3.11 (2001), and Nuclear Security Recommendations on radioactive material and associated facilities (2011), for whose prerequisite, Security of radioactive sources: implementing guide (2009) and Security in the transport of radioactive material (2008) had been drawn up. The Code of Conduct indicates the security system to regulate the sealed sources that each nation has to build up through legislation, setup of regulatory agency, registration of the sources, provision of concerned facilities with radiation protection, etc. For attaining this purpose, IAEA defined Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (2005, 2012), Categorization of radioactive sources (2005) and Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-VALUES) (2006). For updating the related matters, IAEA holds international conferences somewhere in the world every year. The Nuclear Security Recommendations indicate the nation's responsibility of building up and maintaining the security system above with well-balanced measures between the safe and secure use of RI without the invalid inhibition of their usage. Japan government worked out the concept essential for ensuring the nuclear security in Sep. 2011, in which for RI, defined were the risk and benefit in use and security, and securing role of the present legal systems concerning the safety handling and objective RI involved in their registration system. Securing measures of RI in such usage as medical and industrial aids must be of advanced usefulness and safety in harmony with activities of other countries. (T.T)

  12. Climate-smart agriculture for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Leslie; Thornton, Philip; Campbell, Bruce M.; Baedeker, Tobias; Braimoh, Ademola; Bwalya, Martin; Caron, Patrick; Cattaneo, Andrea; Garrity, Dennis; Henry, Kevin; Hottle, Ryan; Jackson, Louise; Jarvis, Andrew; Kossam, Fred; Mann, Wendy; McCarthy, Nancy; Meybeck, Alexandre; Neufeldt, Henry; Remington, Tom; Sen, Pham Thi; Sessa, Reuben; Shula, Reynolds; Tibu, Austin; Torquebiau, Emmanuel F.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, which includes most of the world's poor. Climate change disrupts food markets, posing population-wide risks to food supply. Threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems. CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways through four main action areas: (1) building evidence; (2) increasing local institutional effectiveness; (3) fostering coherence between climate and agricultural policies; and (4) linking climate and agricultural financing. CSA differs from 'business-as-usual' approaches by emphasizing the capacity to implement flexible, context-specific solutions, supported by innovative policy and financing actions.

  13. The International Legal Framework for Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The term 'nuclear security' is generally accepted to mean 'the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities.' While the ultimate responsibility for nuclear security within a State rests entirely with that State, the need for regional and international cooperation has become increasingly evident with the growing recognition that the ability to prevent, detect and respond to the threats to nuclear security within one State is affected by the adequacy and effectiveness of nuclear security measures taken by other States, particularly when nuclear material is transported across national frontiers. Since the early 1970s, the IAEA has been called upon to play an ever increasing role in assisting States, upon request, to strengthen their national legal infrastructures and physical protection systems, as well as to facilitate regional and international efforts to enhance nuclear security, including measures to protect against nuclear terrorism. This publication brings together the legally binding primary international instruments and the internationally accepted non-binding instruments that constitute the international legal framework for nuclear security. It does not discuss the safety and safeguards related instruments, which also form a part of the broader legal framework for nuclear security. By setting out the legislative bases for the mandate of the IAEA in the area of nuclear security, it is hoped that this publication will increase awareness of the IAEA's role in facilitating national, regional and international efforts to enhance nuclear security , including measures to protect against nuclear terrorism. It is also intended to serve as a guide in carrying out the IAEA's nuclear security mandate and functions assigned to it under these instruments, including in the elaboration of nuclear security

  14. Food security and sustainable resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Dennis; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    The projected growth in global food demand until mid-century will challenge our ability to continue recent increases in crop yield and will have a significant impact on natural resources. The water and land requirements of current agriculture are significantly less than global reserves but local shortages are common and have serious impacts on food security. Recent increases in global trade have mitigated some of the effects of spatial and temporal variability. However, trade has a limited impact on low-income populations who remain dependent on subsistence agriculture and local resources. Potential adverse environmental impacts of increased agricultural production include unsustainable depletion of water and soil resources, major changes in the global nitrogen and phosphorous cycles, human health problems related to excessive nutrient and pesticide use, and loss of habitats that contribute to agricultural productivity. Some typical case studies from China illustrate the connections between the need for increased food production and environmental stress. Sustainable options for decreasing food demand and for increasing production include reduction of food losses on both the producer and consumer ends, elimination of unsustainable practices such as prolonged groundwater overdraft, closing of yield gaps with controlled expansions of fertilizer application, increases in crop yield and pest resistance through advances in biotechnology, and moderate expansion of rain fed and irrigated cropland. Calculations based on reasonable assumptions suggest that such measures could meet the food needs of an increasing global population while protecting the environment.

  15. Practices on nuclear security and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ning

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear terrorism has been a great threat against the safety and security of the world. It has been reached the consensus by international community to strengthen the nuclear security regime to protect the nuclear and other radiological materials and related facilities. Protection of the security of nuclear and other radiological materials in use, storage and transport and related facilities is always a important issue faced by each country and it depends on the technologies, funds and human resources can be utilized. As nuclear technology has been widely used in different area, China competent authorities have issued a series of regulations, implementation rules and guidelines on security of nuclear and radioactive materials and related facilities. China supports and has taken an active part in the international efforts to strengthen the international nuclear security regime to combat nuclear terrorism. China has paid great importance on international cooperations on nuclear security with IAEA and other countries. More than 10 various national workshops and training courses on nuclear security and physical protection were delivered per year, which provided a communication platform for Chinese facility operators and managers to know the international technology-development and share the research achievements. In cooperation with the IAEA, China has held a great number of regional and national training courses on physical protection and nuclear security since 1998. Different types of training, such as training on awareness, Design Basis Threat (DBT), physical security system design, equipments operation and vulnerability analysis, benefited the administrators, facility operators, engineers and technical staff in charge of physical security system design, operation and maintenance from China and regional countries. Under the framework of the bilateral agreement on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Technology (PUNT), China and U.S. jointly conducted a Technical Demo

  16. A Positive Path for Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: Options and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Stacey L.; Shapouri, Shahla

    2010-01-01

    African Governments and international donors are focused on improving the region’s ability to grow food to mitigate projected long-term deterioration in food security. An ERS study shows that improving grain yields is the key to reducing food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Investment and technology adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa will be a challenge.

  17. Global climate change and international security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.

    1991-01-01

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  18. Food security in an era of economic volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Rosamond L; Falcon, Walter P

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes international commodity price movements, assesses food policies in response to price fluctuations, and explores the food security implications of price volatility on low-income groups. It focuses specifically on measurements, causes, and consequences of recent food price trends, variability around those trends, and price spikes. Combining these three components of price dynamics shows that the variation in real prices post-2000 was substantially greater than that in the 1980s and 1990s, and was approximately equal to the extreme volatility in commodity prices that was experienced in the 1970s. Macro policy, exchange rates, and petroleum prices were important determinants of price variability over 2005–2010, highlighting the new linkages between the agriculture-energy and agriculture-finance markets that affect the world food economy today. These linkages contributed in large part to misguided expectations and uncertainty that drove prices to their peak in 2008. The article also argues that there is a long-lasting effect of price spikes on food policy around the world, often resulting in self-sufficiency policies that create even more volatility in international markets. The efforts by governments to stabilize prices frequently contribute to even greater food insecurity among poor households, most of which are in rural areas and survive on the margin of net consumption and net production. Events of 2008—and more recently in 2010—underscore the impact of price variability for food security and the need for refocused policy approaches to prevent and mitigate price spikes.

  19. Climate change - Agricultural land use - Food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, János; Széles, Adrienn

    2015-04-01

    In Hungary, plougland decreased to 52% of its area by the time of political restructuring (1989) in comparison with the 1950s. Forested areas increased significantly (18%) and lands withdrawn from agricultural production doubled (11%). For today, these proportions further changed. Ploughlands reduced to 46% and forested areas further increased (21%) in 2013. The most significat changes were observed in the proportion of lands withdrawn from agricultural production which increased to 21%. Temperature in Hungary increased by 1°C during the last century and predictions show a further 2.6 °C increase by 2050. The yearly amount of precipitation significantly decreased from 640 mm to 560 mm with a more uneven temporal distribution. The following aspects can be considered in the correlation between climate change and agriculture: a) impact of agriculture on climate, b) future impact of climate change on agriculture and food supply, c) impact of climate change on food security. The reason for the significant change of climate is the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) which results from anthropological activities. Between 2008 and 2012, Hungary had to reduce its GHG emission by 6% compared to the base period between 1985-1987. At the end of 2011, Hungarian GHG emission was 43.1% lower than that of the base period. The total gross emission was 66.2 million CO2 equivalent, while the net emission which also includes land use, land use change and forestry was 62.8 million tons. The emission of agriculture was 8.8 million tons (OMSZ, 2013). The greatest opportunity to reduce agricultural GHG emission is dinitrogen oxides which can be significantly mitigated by the smaller extent and more efficient use of nitrogen-based fertilisers (precision farming) and by using biomanures produced from utilised waste materials. Plant and animal species which better adapt to extreme weather circumstances should be bred and maintained, thereby making an investment in food security. Climate

  20. Dietary Intake Contributions of Food and Beverages by Source and Food Security Status in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spees, Colleen K; Clark, Jill E; Hooker, Neal H; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Taylor, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    To compare the consumption patterns and diet quality of foods and beverages obtained from various sources by food security status. Cross-sectional analysis of 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. A total of 4,789 adults (aged >19 years) with dietary intake and food security data. The contribution of foods and beverages to energy, nutrients, and diet quality by locations where food was obtained was compared across food security status. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression. Almost all US adults consumed food and beverages obtained from grocery stores, regardless of food security status (about 95%), which accounted for one half to two thirds of total macronutrient intakes. The diet quality of foods from grocery stores was better in highly food-secure adults. Convenience stores are used most by very low food-secure adults; those foods had the poorest diet quality profile. Dietary patterns of marginally food-secure adults more closely resembled sources and intakes of low and very low food-secure adults. Food-insecure adults use food sources differently, resulting in diet quality differences of foods and beverages obtained. Place-based interventions in the food environment may have differential effects by food security status. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Food Security in Nigeria: An Examination of Food Availability and Accessibility in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chimaobi Valentine Okolo; Chizoba Obidigbo

    2015-01-01

    As a basic physiology need, threat to sufficient food production is threat to human survival. Food security has been an issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria. Results of the tests revea...

  2. Biofuels and food security: Micro-evidence from Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negash, Martha; Swinnen, Johan F.M.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable controversy about the impact of biofuels on food security in developing countries. A major concern is that biofuels reduce food security by increasing food prices. In this paper we use survey evidence to assess the impact of castor production on poor and food insecure rural households in Ethiopia. About 1/3 of poor farmers have allocated on average 15% of their land to the production of castor beans under contract in biofuel supply chains. Castor production significantly improves their food security: they have fewer months without food and the amount of food they consume increases. Castor cultivation is beneficial for participating households’ food security in several ways: by generating cash income from castor contracts, they can store food for the lean season; castor beans preserve well on the field which allows sales when farmers are in need of cash (or food); spillover effects of castor contracts increases the productivity of food crops. Increased food crop productivity offsets the amount of land used for castor so that the total local food supply is not affected. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of biofuel production contracts on farmers’ food security. • We apply endogenous switching regression method on survey data from Ethiopia. • Impact is heterogeneous across groups. • Food security significantly improved for contract participants by 25%. • Spillover effects improve food productivity that offsets the amount of land diverted to biofuel

  3. [Review of food policy approaches: from food security to food sovereignty (2000-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Giraldo, Luis Alirio; Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro

    2015-07-01

    Food policies have attracted special interest due to the global food crisis in 2008 and promotion of the Millennium Development Goals, leading to approaches by different fields. This thematic review aims to describe the main theoretical and methodological approaches to food security and food sovereignty policies. A search was performed in databases of scientific journals from 2000 to 2013. 320 complete articles were selected from a total of 2,699. After reading the articles to apply the inclusion criteria, 55 items were maintained for analysis. In conclusion, with the predominance of food security as a guiding policy, food sovereignty has emerged as a critical response to be included in designing and researching food policies. Food policies are essential for achieving public health goals. Public health should thus take a leading role in linking and orienting such policies.

  4. Soils and food security | Nortcliff | Nigerian Journal of Technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A threat impacting on food security strongly in Africa is nutrient mining where insufficient nutrients are returned to the soil after crop production. The impacts of global change on food security and the potential impacts of global markets for food and land are also briefly discussed. Nigerian Journal of Technological Research ...

  5. Food security and productivity among urban farmers in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study to investigated food security and productivity among urban farmers' in Kaduna State Two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 213 respondents for the study. Interview schedule was used to collect data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (food security index, food insecurity/ surplus gap index ...

  6. Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An analysis. ... per cent of its total food needs and in poor years, it produces no more than 25 per cent. ... food security by introducing modern technology, irrigation, terracing, soil and ...

  7. Food Security, Land and Territorial Dynamics in Bolivia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... national food supply, in favour of large agro-industrial producers in the East. These changes have affected the food security of more than 70% of the rural population. ... resulting in decreased food production and increased illegal imports of food. Recently the government abandoned its policy of selling food below market ...

  8. Nuclear Technologies Secure Food For Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    use of such techniques to protect plants and animals against disease and pests means many more farmers can produce enough food to feed their own families and to sell on markets. Ultimately, fewer people go hungry. The IAEA collaborates with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in providing support through a joint division in Vienna. ''While our profile is modest, the size of our footprint is significant,'' said Qu Liang, Director of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques. ''We are putting the benefits of tried and tested nuclear technologies into the hands of farmers, particularly small producers in poorer countries, to improve their food security and livelihood.'' ''The assistance is driven by advanced technologies,'' Liang added. ''But what we are delivering has to be appropriate to farmers' needs. That means crops that can flourish in changing and often harsher conditions, pest control without a chemical legacy and protection for livestock.'' The Scientific Forum will be opened by the IAEA Director General and ministers from Indonesia, Kenya and Vietnam. FAO Director General Graziano da Silva will deliver a video address. The Forum will address IAEA activities in the fields of food production, food protection and food safety. Each session features a panel of experts who will present and discuss the benefits of nuclear techniques in food and agriculture. A moderator will guide the discussions. (IAEA)

  9. National and international safety, safeguardability and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    All nuclear power and fuel cycle facility development must comply with the predecided national regulation and security codes which each country's Atomic Energy Commission stipulates. Those codes will basically evolve as technologies and the social system will develop, change and shift. It is also to be noted that the IAEA's international guidelines have been adopted particularly by developing countries as a good reference for their proper establishment of their safety codes. The report first discusses the plant safety regulation of the inherently safe reactors in comparison to the existing code (or licensing guide) of the Japanese government. Then the new trend seen now in a regulatory body (the US NRC) is reviewed and a proposal of the smooth transition into the new philosophy is presented. In the second part of the paper, the fuel safeguarding and facility security (or physical protection) are discussed, because in the case of inherently safe reactors like ISER-PIUS, it seems that safety has much more to do with the safeguard and the security. In the third part, the international relevances to the security of the ISER-PIUS are discussed, because any ISER-PIUS will be meaningless unless they are used extensively and freely in any part of the world precluding the security concerns. In collaborative use of the state and international codes, regulatory guides and practices, it is evident that ISER-PIUS system can clear the requirements on all the aspects by ample margin. (Nogami, K.)

  10. Food Security Framings within the UK and the Integration of Local Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, James; Maye, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical interpretation of food security politics in the UK. It applies the notion of food security collective action frames to assess how specific action frames are maintained and contested. The interdependency between scale and framing in food security discourse is also scrutinised. It does this through an examination of…

  11. Risk assessment for sustainable food security in China according to integrated food security--taking Dongting Lake area for example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoxing; Liu, Liming; Liu, Yabin; Yao, Lan

    2013-06-01

    Integrated food security covers three aspects: food quantity security, food quality security, and sustainable food security. Because sustainable food security requires that food security must be compatible with sustainable development, the risk assessment of sustainable food security is becoming one of the most important issues. This paper mainly focuses on the characteristics of sustainable food security problems in the major grain-producing areas in China. We establish an index system based on land resources and eco-environmental conditions and apply a dynamic assessment method based on status assessments and trend analysis models to overcome the shortcomings of the static evaluation method. Using fuzzy mathematics, the risks are categorized into four grades: negligible risk, low risk, medium risk, and high risk. A case study was conducted in one of China's major grain-producing areas: Dongting Lake area. The results predict that the status of the sustainable food security in the Dongting Lake area is unsatisfactory for the foreseeable future. The number of districts at the medium-risk range will increase from six to ten by 2015 due to increasing population pressure, a decrease in the cultivated area, and a decrease in the effective irrigation area. Therefore, appropriate policies and measures should be put forward to improve it. The results could also provide direct support for an early warning system-which could be used to monitor food security trends or nutritional status so to inform policy makers of impending food shortages-to prevent sustainable food security risk based on some classical systematic methods. This is the first research of sustainable food security in terms of risk assessment, from the perspective of resources and the environment, at the regional scale.

  12. 49 CFR 659.27 - Internal safety and security reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal safety and security reviews. 659.27... State Oversight Agency § 659.27 Internal safety and security reviews. (a) The oversight agency shall... safety and security reviews in its system safety program plan. (b) The internal safety and security...

  13. Food Aid and Security: The Hunger Professionals' Dilemma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waters, Dale C

    1995-01-01

    .... Those providing aid to the starving are finding out that food alone is not enough. Without security -- without lasting political solutions -- food is just another weapon to sustain the conflicts and magnify the suffering...

  14. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    "Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Husband it and it will grow food, our fuel, and our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it" Vedas Sanskrit Scripture, 1500 BC. As the world's population increases issues of food security become more pressing as does the need to sustain soil fertility and to minimize soil degradation. Soil and land are finite resources, and agricultural land is under severe competition from many other uses. Lack of adequate food and food of poor nutritional quality lead to under-nutrition of different degrees, all of which can cause ill- or suboptimal-health. The soil can affect human health directly and indirectly. Direct effects of soil or its constituents result from its ingestion, inhalation or absorption. For example, hook worms enter the body through the skin and cause anaemia, and fungi and dust can be inhaled resulting in respiratory problems. The soil is the source of actinomycetes on which our earliest antibiotics are based (actinomycin, neomycin and streptomycin). Furthermore, it is a potential reservoir of new antibiotics with methods such as functional metagenomics to identify antibiotic resistant genes. Indirect effects of soil arise from the quantity and quality of food that humans consume. Trace elements can have both beneficial and toxic effects on humans, especially where the range for optimal intake is narrow as for selenium. Deficiencies of four trace elements, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc, will be considered because of their substantial effects on human health. Relations between soil and human health are often difficult to extricate because of the many confounding factors present such as the source of food, social factors and so on. Nevertheless, recent scientific understanding of soil processes and factors that affect human health are enabling greater insight into the effects of soil on our health. Multidisciplinary research that includes soil

  15. The Food Security of Ukraine: Status, Threats, Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnichenko Yevhenii M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the existing approaches to the normative treatment of the category of «food security». An author’s own definition of the concept of «food security» has been proposed, which must be understood as the status of provision to society foods of adequate quality and sufficient quantity. An author’s own approach as to the feasibility of applying qualitative parameters for food security assessment and a critical attitude to quantitative indicators has been formulated. The Food security index and the Ukrainian rating for 2012-2016 with emphasizing the negative tendencies and developments have been provided. The article also provides a detailed characterization of the main indicators of Ukraine’s food security in 2016 by the three directions, which are: financial accessibility of foods; physical accessibility of foods; food quality and safety. Strengths and weaknesses of Ukraine’s food security and the main threats to food security were determined, the main prospects were allocated.

  16. International Conference SES 2006. Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The International Conference SES 2006 (Secure Energy Supply, Bezpecna dodavka energie) was realised in Bratislava, during September 26 - 29, 2006 in the hotel Crowne Plaza and deals with most important problems of world and Slovak energetics. In work of Conference took part 108 slovak and 33 foreign participant from 11 countries of the world. Negotiations were realised in five sessions. First two days were devoted to lectures and second two days were visits of selected slovak energetic equipment. On the Conference has resounded matter of fact, that secure energy supply is extremely important subject for economy, but also for population

  17. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar Azad Kashyap, Chandra; Singh, Swati

    2017-04-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health welfare of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  18. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  19. Reducing food wastage, improving food security? An inventory study on stakeholders’ perspectives and the current state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, J.; Candel, J.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the relation between food wastage reduction and the improvement of food security. The central question of this inventory study is to what extent interventions to reduce food wastage are effective contributions for food security, in particular for local access in

  20. Boulder Food Rescue: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Food Waste and Increasing Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewald, Craig A; Kuo, Elena S; Dansky, Hana

    2018-05-01

    Food waste and food insecurity are both significant issues in communities throughout the U.S., including Boulder, Colorado. As much as 40% of the food produced in the U.S. goes uneaten and ends up in landfills. Nearly 13% of people in the Boulder region experience some level of food insecurity. Founded in 2011, Boulder Food Rescue supports community members to create their own food security through a participatory approach to an emergency food system. The organization uses a web-application "robot" to manage a schedule of volunteers. They coordinate with individuals at low-income senior housing sites, individual housing sites, family housing sites, after-school programs, and pre-schools to set up no-cost grocery programs stocked with food from local markets and grocers that would otherwise go to waste. Each site coordinator makes decisions about how, when, and where food delivery and distribution will occur. The program also conducts robust, real-time data collection and analysis. Boulder Food Rescue is a member and manager of the Food Rescue Alliance, and its model has been replicated and adapted by other cities, including Denver, Colorado Springs, Seattle, Jackson Hole, Minneapolis, Binghamton, and in the Philippines. Information for this special article was collected through key informant interviews with current and former Boulder Food Rescue staff and document review of Boulder Food Rescue materials. Boulder Food Rescue's open source software is available to other communities; to date, 40 cities have used the tool to start their own food rescue organizations. Boulder Food Rescue hopes to continue spreading this model to other cities that are considering ways to reduce food waste and increase food security. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  1. Climate change and critical thresholds in China's food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Wei; Lin, Erda; Ju, Hui; Xu, Yinlong

    2007-01-01

    Identification of 'critical thresholds' of temperature increase is an essential task for inform policy decisions on establishing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets. We use the A2 (medium-high GHG emission pathway) and B2 (medium-low) climate change scenarios produced by the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, the crop model - CERES, and socio-economic scenarios described by IPCC SRES, to simulate the average yield changes per hectare of three main grain crops (rice, wheat, and maize) at 50 km x 50 km scale. The threshold of food production to temperature increases was analyzed based on the relationship between yield changes and temperature rise, and then food security was discussed corresponding to each IPCC SRES scenario. The results show that without the CO2 fertilization effect in the analysis, the yield per hectare for the three crops would fall consistently as temperature rises beyond 2.5C; when the CO2 fertilization effect was included in the simulation, there were no adverse impacts on China's food production under the projected range of temperature rise (0.9-3.9C). A critical threshold of temperature increase was not found for food production. When the socio-economic scenarios, agricultural technology development and international trade were incorporated in the analysis, China's internal food production would meet a critical threshold of basic demand (300 kg/capita) while it would not under A2 (no CO2 fertilization); whereas basic food demand would be satisfied under both A2 and B2, and would even meet a higher food demand threshold required to sustain economic growth (400 kg/capita) under B2, when CO2 fertilization was considered

  2. Global Food Security Problems in the Modern World Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadyrova, Madina A.; Dikinov, Andzor H.; Tajmashanov, Hassan È.; Shidaev, Lomali A.; Shidaeva, Eliza A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Food problem at the present stage of development of mankind is that due to improper and overly intensive use of natural resources, increasing demand for livestock products, increasing per capita food consumption and other factors, there has been a steady rise in food prices, represents a threat to food security in the countries with…

  3. Epilogue: global food security, rhetoric, and the sustainable intensification debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, T.W.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The need to feed nine billion people in 2050 has given rise to widespread debate in science and policy circles. The debate is largely framed in neo-Malthusian terms, and elements of global food security (resilience of the food system, food quantity and quality, right to and access to food) demand

  4. Linking research and food security policies in MENA | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 حزيران (يونيو) 2013 ... Hammou Laamrani works for IDRC as a specialist in agriculture, water, and knowledge management. He believes that ... Food security challenges are also related to the low adoption of technologies to optimize food availability and storage, reduce post-harvest losses, and improve food safety. Unless food ...

  5. ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY AMONG SMALLHOLDER FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN ARID AREAS OF BORNO STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, , D; Bukar , U; Umar , J; Abdulsalam , B; Dahiru , B

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The study assessed food security situation among smallholder farming househ Borno State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting 200 household respondents. Data were collected with the use of interview scheduled and structured questionnaires. Result revealed that 91% of the respondents were male, 59% were full time farmers and 33% of the households had farming experience of 11 household respondents were food secure. Logit result indicates that the...

  6. International Food Security: Insufficient Efforts by Host Governments and Donors Threaten Progress to Halve Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melito, Thomas; Thomas, Phillip J; Bray, Carol; Chen, Ming; Chung, Debbie; De Alteriis, Martin; DeWolf, Leah; Dowling, Mark; Finkler, Etana; Hudson Acknowledgments, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    ..., and the impact of poor health on the agricultural workforce. Additional factors, including rising global commodity prices and climate change, will likely further exacerbate food insecurity in the region...

  7. Assessing food security status among farming households in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... relative to urban farming practices was found to influence the food security status of the respondents. This is justified from the χ2 value of 9.263 and 6.443 returned for this factor and which is significant at 0.05 level of significance. Keywords: Food security; Odds; Urban farming. Moor Journal of Agricultural Research Vol.

  8. Climate change and food security in Tanzania: analysis of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of literature was conducted in order to identify knowledge gaps in climate change and food security research in Tanzania. The review focused on published literature covering the past 20 years addressing climate change effects on various components of the food security. The review of literature reveals, among ...

  9. Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South. Page couverture du livre: Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South. Directeur(s):. Jemimah Njuki, John R. Parkins et Amy Kaler. Maison(s) d'édition: Routledge, CRDI. 29 septembre 2016. ISBN : 9781138680418. 312 pages. e-ISBN :.

  10. Reducing risks to food security from climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Vermeulen, Sonja Joy; Aggarwal, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    , with very little attention paid to more systems components of cropping, let alone other dimensions of food security. Given the serious threats to food security, attention should shift to an action-oriented research agenda, where we see four key challenges: (a) changing the culture of research; (b) deriving...

  11. Effect of social capital on food security among rural farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the effect of social capital on food security of rural farming households in Abia State, Nigeria with specific focus on measuring social capital dimensions among the rural farming households; determining the food security status of the households; analyzing the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of ...

  12. Scaling up: Expanding the impact of food security and nutrition ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    Together with partners, IDRC is scaling up proven food security and ... In rural Kenya and Uganda, a pre-mix for preparation of yogurt in community-based kitchens is key to ... Pre-cooked beans for improving food security, nutrition, and income.

  13. The pervasive triad of food security, gender inequity and women's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study was designed to explore the interactions between food securing activities, health and gender equity from the perspective of rural east African women. The specific objectives were to document the critical interaction among these three issues—food security, gender inequity, women's health within the ...

  14. Determinants of Household Food Security in Drought Prone Areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper documents the determinants of household-level food security based on the data collected in 2003 from 954 randomly-selected households in major drought-prone areas of Ethiopia; namely from the West and East Haraghe zones of Oromiya and South Gonder zone of Amhara. The food security is assessed using ...

  15. Verification of the existence of food security projects in Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequency tables and charts were computed on a computer spreadsheet. The findings of this Study revealed that there are 347 food security projects in Limpopo Province with 338 declared functional. This Study will provide policy makers with policy directives on how a database of food security projects can be kept so that ...

  16. A study of institutional environment and household food security at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked into the current scenario of food security in Rwanda. After analysing the national level institutional and food security scenarios by using available secondary data, the researchers used primary data that have been collected from a random sample of 200 households spreading over six sectors of the Huye ...

  17. Women's status and children's food security in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Guha-Khasnobis, Basudeb; Hazarika, Gautam

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the role of women’s intra-household status relative to men in children’s food security in Pakistan. Data from the 1991 Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) yield a measure of evidence of a positive relation between women’s intra-household status and children’s food security.

  18. Food Security and Productivity among Urban Farmers in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Food Security and Productivity among Urban Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v22i1.15. Saleh, M.K. ... increase income of urban farmers in the area. Keywords: Food security, urban agricultural productivity, farming household. ..... Access to Bank loans. 8. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial and ...

  19. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Switching to Sudan grass for livestock fodder will increase food security in Kenya Farmers learned new techniques for producing livestock fodder, with important outcomes for household food security. ... The company provided drip kits to 300 farmers in Tana River for chilli production (through loans of US$74 per kit).

  20. Framing GM Crops as a Food Security Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibden, Jacqui; Gibbs, David; Cocklin, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The spectre of a food security crisis has raised important questions about future directions for agriculture and given fresh impetus to a long-standing debate about the potential contribution of agricultural biotechnology to food security. This paper considers the discursive foundations for promotion of agricultural biotechnology, arguing that…

  1. Factors associated with household food security of participants of the MANA food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo; Taylor, Christopher A; Alvarez Uribe, Martha Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore demographic and economic characteristics associated with household food security of 2,784 low-income households with pre-school aged children receiving food supplements from the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia - MANA (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia) in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Included in the study was a 12-item household food security survey was collected from a cross-sectional, stratified random sample of MANA participants in which households were characterized as food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure, and severely food insecure. It was hypothesized that household food security status would be strongly associated with demographic characteristics, food expenditure variables, and food supplement consumption by children in MANA. Food insecure households were characterized by more members, older parents, and lower income (p < 0.0001). Rural residence and female head of households had higher rates of food insecurity (p < 0.01). Food insecure households had the lowest monthly expenditures food (p < 0.0001). Severely food insecure households saved the highest percentage of per capita food expenditure from consuming MANA supplements (p < 0.0001), similarly, MANA food supplement intakes were greatest in households reporting the most food insecurity (p < 0.001). The results of this study are important to describe characteristics of the population benefiting from the MANA nutrition intervention by their unique level of household food security status.

  2. Gender roles, food system biodiversity, and food security in Indigenous Peoples' communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2017-11-01

    Traditional knowledge and practice of Indigenous Peoples related to their food use and well-being is a wealth of information for academic study and for public health nutrition. Despite unique long-evolved heritages of knowledge of ecosystem resources, Indigenous Peoples comprise 15% of the global poor, but only 5% of the world's population, and they experience poverty, discrimination, and poor nutritional health at far greater rates than mainstream populations in their nations of residence. These disparities are unacceptable in all human rights frameworks, and the call to alleviate them resonates through all human development programmes and the United Nations organizations. The scholars contributing to this special issue of Maternal and Child Nutrition describe how gender roles and the right to food for several cultures of Indigenous Peoples can be fostered to protect their unique foods and traditions, providing food sovereignty and food and nutrition security benefits, especially for women and children. Aspects of societal maternal or paternal lineality and locality, division of labour, spirituality and decision-making are described. These factors structure the impact of gender roles with Indigenous worldviews on the dynamics of family food access, its availability and use, and the use of local food biodiversity. Cultures of Indigenous Peoples in Ecuador, Nigeria, Thailand, India, Canada, Japan, and Morocco are discussed. This publication is a work of the Task Force on Traditional, Indigenous and Cultural Food and Nutrition of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  4. Trade and commerce in improved crops and food: an essay on food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershen, Drew L

    2010-11-30

    Agricultural trade between nations is a significant proportion of total international trade. Agricultural trade in transgenic crops faces extra complications due to the existence of domestic and international regimes that focus specifically on agricultural biotechnology. These specialized regimes create legal and commercial challenges for trade in transgenic crops that have significant implications for the food security of the nations of the world. By food security, one should understand not just the available supply of food, but also the quality of the food and the environmental impact of agricultural production systems. These specialized regimes for transgenic crops can either encourage or hinder the adoption of agricultural biotechnology as a sustainable intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers hope for agronomic improvements for agricultural production, socio-economic betterment for farmers and environmental benefits for societies. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers particular hope for the poorest farmers of the world because agricultural biotechnology is a technology in the seed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. International Efforts for the Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Lee, Ho Jin; Shim, Hye Won; Lee, Jong Uk

    2005-01-01

    Many concerns have been focused on the nuclear security since the 9.11. With increasing the threat related to nuclear material and nuclear facilities, the demand of strengthening the international physical protection system has been raised. Along with this, the international communities are making their efforts to increase nuclear security. The agreement of revising the 'Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials'(hereafter, CPPNM), which was held in Vienna on the July of 2005, was one of these efforts. U.N is also preparing the 'International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism' to show its firm resolution against nuclear terror. It is important to understand what measures should be taken to meet the international standard for establishing national physical protection system. To do this, international trend on the physical protection system such as CPPNM and U.N. convention should be followed. This paper explains about the content of the CPPNM and U.N convention. They will be helpful to consolidate the physical protection system in Korea

  6. Economic abuse and intra-household inequities in food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Elaine M

    2006-01-01

    Food insecurity affected over 2.3 million Canadians in 2004. To date, the food security literature has not considered the potential impact of economic abuse on food security, but there are three ways in which these two important public health issues may be related: 1) victims of economic abuse are at risk of food insecurity when they are denied access to adequate financial resources; 2) the conditions that give rise to food insecurity may also precipitate intimate partner violence in all its forms; 3) women who leave economically abusive intimate heterosexual relationships are more likely to live in poverty and thus are at risk of food insecurity. This paper presents a case of one woman who, during a qualitative research interview, spontaneously reported economic abuse and heterosexual interpersonal violence. The economic abuse suffered by this participant appears to have affected her food security and that of her children, while her husband's was apparently unaffected. There is an urgent need to better understand the nature of intra-household food distribution in food-insecure households and the impact of economic abuse on its victims' food security. Such an understanding may lead to improved food security measurement tools and social policies to reduce food insecurity.

  7. Understanding food security issues in remote Western Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Nyaradi, Anett; Lester, Matthew; Sauer, Kay

    2014-08-01

    Food insecurity in remote Western Australian (WA) Indigenous communities. This study explored remote community store managers' views on issues related to improving food security in order to inform health policy. A census of all remote WA Indigenous community store managers was conducted in 2010. Telephone interviews sought managers' perceptions of community food insecurity, problems with their store, and potential policy options for improving the supply, accessibility, affordability and consumption of nutritious foods. Descriptive analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. Managers stated that freight costs and irregular deliveries contributed to high prices and a limited range of foods. Poor store infrastructure, compromised cold chain logistics, and commonly occurring power outages affected food quality. Half of the managers said there was hunger in their community because people did not have enough money to buy food. The role of nutritionists beyond a clinical and educational role was not understood. Food security interventions in remote communities need to take into consideration issues such as freight costs, transport and low demand for nutritious foods. Store managers provide important local knowledge regarding the development and implementation of food security interventions. SO WHAT? Agencies acting to address the issue of food insecurity in remote WA Indigenous communities should heed the advice of community store managers that high food prices, poor quality and limited availability are mainly due to transport inefficiencies and freight costs. Improving healthy food affordability in communities where high unemployment and low household income abound is fundamental to improving food security, yet presents a significant challenge.

  8. Climate Change and Food In/Security: A Critical Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Saidul Islam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of climate change has been gaining widespread attention and concern as it has the ability to directly/indirectly affect our standard of living and quality of life. It has often been postulated that changes in climate would have a vast effect on food production systems and that food security might be threatened due to increasing climate change. However, it seems that research on climate change and food in/security has often been one-sided; with climate change being identified as the cause of food insecurity and not how the systems in place to ensure food security have exacerbated the issue of climate change. This paper thus seeks to give a more balanced view and thus understanding of the complex relationship between climate change and food security by critically examining both systems.

  9. Household Food Security Policy Analysis A System Dynamics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isdore Paterson Guma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Household food security FS is complex and requires multiple stakeholder intervention. Systemic approach aids stakeholders to understand the mechanisms and feedback between complexities in food security providing effective decision making as global resource consumption continues to grow. The study investigated food security challenges and a system dynamics model was developed for evaluating policies and intervention strategies for better livelihood at household level. Dynamic synthesis methodology questionnaires and interview guide were used to unearth food security challenges faced by households. A causal loop diagram was drawn. The model demonstrates a balance between food stock seeds preserved seeds for sale and consumption from crop harvest throughout the food cycles. This research makes contribution to the literature by evaluating dynamic synthesis methodology and FS policy discussions from a feedback point of view.

  10. Biofuels. Environment, technology and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Jose C.; Lora, Electo S.; Venturini, Osvaldo J.; Yanez, Edgar E.; Castillo, Edgar F.; Almazan, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    The imminent decline of the world's oil production, its high market prices and environmental impacts have made the production of biofuels to reach unprecedent volumes over the last 10 years. This is why there have been intense debates among international organizations and political leaders in order to discuss the impacts of the biofuel use intensification. Besides assessing the causes of the rise in the demand and production of biofuels, this paper also shows the state of the art of their world's current production. It is also discussed different vegetable raw materials sources and technological paths to produce biofuels, as well as issues regarding production cost and the relation of their economic feasibility with oil international prices. The environmental impacts of programs that encourage biofuel production, farmland land requirements and the impacts on food production are also discussed, considering the life cycle analysis (LCA) as a tool. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels is inevitable and that international cooperation, regulations and certification mechanisms must be established regarding the use of land, the mitigation of environmental and social impacts caused by biofuel production. It is also mandatory to establish appropriate working conditions and decent remuneration for workers of the biofuels production chain. (author)

  11. EU Failing FAO Challenge to Improve Global Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A

    2016-07-01

    The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME. AN (INTERNATIONAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Stoica

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades organized crime has become a transnational phenomenon, and its impact is still far from being fully known and understood by common people. Its forms of manifestation, whether explicit, or subtle, are permanently evolving and adapting. As a result, its interference with the activities from the legal area makes it difficult to identify and counteract. After a long period of time when it was more a peripheral phenomenon, current transnational organized crime tends to become a major danger to the political, social and economic stability of the states. Through its nature and goals, as well as through the complexity of its forms of manifestation, transnational organized crime represents a major challenge for the state and nonstate organizations that deal with national and international security This paper focuses on the phenomenon starting from some of the most influent theories in international relations, presents the current features of transnational organized criminal groups and analyzes the causes and the favoring factors of the phenomenon, as well as the impact of the phenomenon upon national and international security at political, economic-financial and military level. The approach is an interdisciplinary one and also covers the nexus between transnational organized crime and international terrorism.

  13. The Impact of Emotional Social Support on Elders' Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Woltil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity persists as a social problem in the U.S., putting its victims at risk of poor nutritional and overall health. Being food insecure is defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally safe foods or the inability to access such foods in socially acceptable ways. Food insecurity research tends to focus on younger populations, particularly households with children. Food insecurity among the elderly is, therefore, poorly understood, both in prevalence and in prevention and intervention methods. Addressing this gap, the present study examined the relationships between emotional social support and food security using data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in an effort to further the understanding of food insecurity among elders. Specifically, the effects of an emotional social support presence, number of support sources and types of support sources on food security were observed using OLS linear regression. Results indicated that emotional social support alleviated the risk of food insecurity, even when household income, marital/partnership status and health status were controlled for. However, the source of the support mattered: elders who reported a spouse as the primary source of support were more likely to report being food secure, while those who reported an “other” primary source of support were more likely to report being food insecure. Number of support sources were not significantly related to food security.

  14. Food Security and Diet Among American Indians in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Kelly; Hale, Jason; Chase, Brian; Clark, Lauren; He, Jianghua; Daley, Christine M

    2018-04-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine levels of food security among American Indians (AI) living in the Midwest and possible correlations between food security levels and various health outcomes, diet, and demographic variables. This study used a cross-sectional design to determine health behaviors among AI. Participants (n = 362) were recruited by AI staff through various cultural community events in the Midwest, such as powwows and health fairs. Inclusion criteria included the following: age 18 years or older, self-identify as an AI, and willing to participate in the survey. Of all participants, 210 (58%) had either low or very low food security, with 96 in the very low category (26.5%). Participants with very low food security tended to have significantly more chronic conditions. Additional significant differences for very low food security existed by demographic variables, including having no insurance (p security levels and the consumption of fast food within the past week (p value = 0.0420), though no differences were found in fruit and vegetable consumption. AI in our sample had higher levels of food insecurity than those reported in the literature for other racial/ethnic groups. AI and non-Native health professionals should be aware of the gravity of food insecurity and the impact it has on overall health. Additional research is needed to determine specific aspects of food insecurity affecting different Native communities to develop appropriate interventions.

  15. Research Award: Agriculture and Food Security Program

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    diversify small‐scale agriculture, improve nutritional quality, and income by ... strategies for youth engagement in agri-food value chains for improved food ... successful examples of youth in agri-food businesses and for connecting youth.

  16. Critical water requirements for food, methodology and policy consequences for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.

    2004-01-01

    Food security and increasing water scarcity have a dominant place on the food policy agenda. Food security requires sufficient water of adequate quality because water is a prerequisite for plant growth. Nowadays, agriculture accounts for 70% of the worldwide human fresh water use. The expected

  17. International food aid – directions of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sapa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Permanently unsolved world food insecurity problem makes the international community search for solutions. One of the used methods is international food aid directed to developing countries. Long term analyses of the food aid flows allow to identify some tendencies that show: increase of emergency food aid and decrease of direct transfer. These tendencies also apply to the two biggest food donors i.e. the USA and the EU. The noticeable directions of changes are based on the international community initiatives, on which the national regulation are formed later.

  18. From food production to food security: developing interdisciplinary, regional-level research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, J.S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Food security is a condition whereby “all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO World Food Summit, 1996). Globally, food production has kept

  19. Bourdieu, International Relations and European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Despite promising attempts to apply the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu to International Relations (IR), the field could still profit from unexplored potential in his thinking for understanding pivotal theoretical and empirical puzzles. This article takes the failure to fully grasp the paradigmatic...... case of European security after the Cold War as an example of how IR would benefit from reformulating not only its empirical research questions but also several of its central conceptual building blocks with the aid of Bourdieusian sociology. The separation between theory and practice...... and the overemphasis on military power and state actors blind IR from seeing the power struggles that reshaped European security. Instead, a Bourdieusian reformulation adds new types of agency, focuses on the social production of forms of power, and stresses the processual rather than the substantive character...

  20. Personal security a guide for international travelers

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Personal Security: A Guide for International Travelers provides the perfect mix of lessons-learned, tools, and recommendations from experts so that readers can personalize their own approach to managing travel risks. If followed, the information provided will allow readers to get out and experience the local culture while still traveling safely.-Bernie Sullivan, Director Global Security, Hanesbrands Inc....a must-have for any traveler. Having worked in South and Southeast Asia, I know the advice provided in the book holds the key to keeping safe, avoiding dangerous situations, and managing threats when they occur. The book's methodological framework, combined with the author's extensive experience and hands-on knowledge, provide very practical and useful advice.-Kathrine Alexandrowiz, Independent consultant at Kathalyst, former coordinator for the "Regional Risk Management Project for NGOs in Asia Pacific" (ECHO)... a go-to guide for all travelers irrespective of mission or purpose. An excellent piece of work...

  1. World Food Security and Insecurity, 1974-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriesberg, Martin

    In the decade since the World Food Conference of 1974, increased attention has been directed to the problems of world food security. The emphasis on technologies of production, while important, have not sufficed. Two major shortcomings of the World Food Conference and the efforts it stimulated were (1) the failure to recognize the relationship…

  2. Boosting food security in sub-Saharan Africa through cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boosting food security in sub-Saharan Africa through cassava production: a case study of Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Economic History ... The paper argues that cassava which is widely grown in Sub-Saharan Africa with a lot of variety of food derivatives from it can reduce to the barest minimum the present state of food ...

  3. Satellite Technology Contribution to Water and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of supplies of food, the relationship to food security, the ability of all people to attain sufficient food for an active and healthy life, and the ability to use satellite technology and remote sensing to assist with planning and act as an early warning system.

  4. ​Improving potato production for increased food security of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. In Colombia, food security is a national concern, and indigenous communities of Nariño are among the most food insecure in the country. Potato is the staple food crop and main source of family income for the region's smallholder farms — many of which are headed by women. One of the biggest threats to ...

  5. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1. Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safety. Many cases of food borne diseases either acute poisoning or chronic exposure are largely under reported. In this globalized world, though the food chain extends over thousands of miles from different continents, an error or contamination in one country can affect the health of consumers on the other part of the world. To ensure full impact, these actions must build on principles of government stewardship, engagement of civil society, (2.According to UN, access to a safe and secure food supply is a basic human right. Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts which have an impact on the health outcomes and quality of human lives. As per Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, (3. Based on the definition of Food security, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time. Apart from that food security is also affected by Poverty and Climate change.Food safety is an umbrella term that encompasses many aspects like food items handling, preparation and storage of food to prevent illness and injury. The other important issues are chemical, microphysical and microbiological aspects of food safety, (4. Control of

  6. Perceived and geographic food access and food security status among households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Liese, Angela D; Bell, Bethany A; Martini, Lauren; Hibbert, James; Draper, Carrie; Burke, Michael P; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the association of both perceived and geographic neighbourhood food access with food security status among households with children. This was a cross-sectional study in which participants' perceptions of neighbourhood food access were assessed by a standard survey instrument, and geographic food access was evaluated by distance to the nearest supermarket. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. The Midlands Family Study included 544 households with children in eight counties in South Carolina, USA. Food security status among participants was classified into three categories: food secure (FS), food insecure (FI) and very low food security among children (VLFS-C). Compared with FS households, VLFS-C households had lower odds of reporting easy access to adequate food shopping. VLFS-C households also had lower odds of reporting neighbourhood access to affordable fruits and vegetables compared with FS households and reported worse selection of fruits and vegetables, quality of fruits and vegetables, and selection of low-fat products. FI households had lower odds of reporting fewer opportunities to purchase fast food. None of the geographic access measures was significantly associated with food security status. Caregivers with children who experienced hunger perceived that they had less access to healthy affordable food in their community, even though grocery stores were present. Approaches to improve perceived access to healthy affordable food should be considered as part of the overall approach to improving food security and eliminating child hunger.

  7. Perceived and Geographic Food Access and Food Security Status among Households with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Bethany; Martini, Lauren; Hibbert, James; Draper, Carrie; Jones, Sonya J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of both perceived and geographic neighborhood food access with food security status among households with children. Design This was a cross-sectional study in which participants’ perceptions of neighborhood food access were assessed by a standard survey instrument, and geographic food access was evaluated by distance to the nearest supermarket. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Subjects The Midlands Family Study included 544 households with children in eight counties in South Carolina. Food security status among participants was classified into three categories: food secure (FS), food insecure (FI) and very low food security among children (VLFS-C). Results Compared to FS households, VLFS-C households had lower odds of reporting easy access to adequate food shopping. VLFS-C households also had lower odds of reporting neighborhood access to affordable fruits and vegetables compared to FS households and reported worse selection of fruits and vegetables, quality of fruits and vegetables and selection of low-fat products. FI households had lower odds of reporting fewer opportunities to purchase fast food. None of the geographic access measures was significantly associated with food security status. Conclusions Caregivers with children that experienced hunger perceived that they had less access to healthy affordably food in their community, even though grocery stores were present. Approaches to improve perceived access to healthy affordable food should be considered as part of the overall approach to improving food security and eliminating child hunger. PMID:27133939

  8. Carbon plants nutrition and global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of carbon nutrition on agricultural productivity, a physiological-process-based crop simulation model, driven by the 1961-1990 monthly climate data from global FAO dataset, was developed and applied to four crops (wheat, maize, rice and soybean -WMRS) which account for 64% of the global caloric consumption of humans. Five different temperatures and CO2 scenarios (current; glacial; pre-industrial; future_1 with 560 ppmv for CO2 and +2 °C for temperature; and future_2 with 800 ppmv for CO2 and +4 °C) were investigated. The relative values of WMRS global productions for past and future scenarios were, respectively, 49% of the present-day scenario for glacial, 82% for pre-industrial, 115% for future_1 and 124% for future_2. A sensitive growth of productivity of future scenarios (respectively to 117% and 134%) was observed if the northward shift of crops was allowed, and a strong increase was obtained without water limitation (from 151% to 157% for the five scenarios) and without biotic and abiotic stresses (from 30% to 40% for WMRS subject to the current scenario). Furthermore since the beginning of the Green Revolution (roughly happened between the '30s and the '50s of the twentieth century) production losses due to sub-optimal levels of CO2 and to biotic and abiotic stresses have been masked by the strong technological innovation trend still ongoing, which, in the last century, led to a strong increase in the global crop production (+400%-600%). These results show the crucial relevance of the future choices of research and development in agriculture (genetics, land reclamation, irrigation, plant protection, and so on) to ensure global food security.

  9. Indian parliamentarians meet to discuss population and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    96 parliamentarians and state legislators attended a seminar on November 8 on food security, population, and development. The one-day meeting was held at the Parliament House Annex in New Delhi and organized by the Indian Association of Parliamentarians on Population and Development as part of a regional campaign to highlight the relationship between population and food security. The first session of the day focused upon the impact of population on food security and nutrition, the second session was on the strategy for food security through poverty alleviation, and the third session discussed food security through trade and self-sufficiency. The participants believe that population size is growing faster than food production. Furthermore, it is important to view both food production and the capacity of people to buy food. Poverty is rooted in unemployment and unemployment is the result of overpopulation. As such, overpopulation causes unemployment which results in the inability of the poor to buy food. A declaration was adopted at the seminar.

  10. A View of Food Security through A Policy Coherent Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Member States “Food and nutrition security exists when all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to food, which is safe and consumed in sufficient quantity and quality to meet their dietary needs and food preferences, and is supported by an environment of adequate sanitation...... by increasing availability, affordability and consumption of biodiverse, safe, nutritious foods aligned with dietary recommendations and environmental sustainability.  Given that the number of chronically undernourished (stunted) could double over next 15 years, the Post-2015 Agenda and its Poverty Reduction......The term “food and nutrition security” reflects the multisector collaboration needed between those working with food security and nutrition security. The term expresses an integrated development goal to help guide implementation of policy and cost-effective programmatic action: As agreed by FAO...

  11. Prospects of international trade in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation is gaining recognition as a physical process for reducing food losses, enhancing hygienic quality of food and facilitating food trade. At present, 36 countries have approved the use of irradiation for processing collectively over 40 food items either on an unconditional or restricted basis. Commercial use of irradiated foods and food ingredients is being carried out in 22 countries. Technology transfer on food irradiation is being intensified to local industry in different regions. Worldwide, a total of 40 commercial/demonstration irradiators available for treating foods have been or are being constructed. Acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods were discussed at the International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food, jointly convened by FAO, IAEA, WHO and ITC-UNCTAD/GATT in Geneva, Switzerland, 12-16 December 1988. An ''International Document on Food Irradiation'' was adopted by consensus at this Conference which will facilitate wider acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods. (author)

  12. Beyond Food Security to Realizing Food Rights in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly D.

    2013-01-01

    The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several…

  13. A Pathway to Energy and Food Security with Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amelia Dias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous rise in commodity prices and the global production of biofuels, between 2007 and 2008, strengthened discussions, which persist currently, about the competition of land use between biofuel production and food production. The objective of this paper is to compare and evaluate the arguments from both sides. The methodology used was an analysis of the relevant and comprehensive reports and manuscripts on the topic, comparing them to the available data from international organizations and agencies. Biodiesel received special attention in this analysis. The conclusion is that hunger and poverty problems are due to structural and historical roots and they do not have a cause-effect relationship with biodiesel production. In fact, the production of biodiesel, under specific regulatory and production conditions, can be a driver of economic development improving energy security and promoting social inclusion in poor countries, which still have land available for agriculture. 

  14. Food and Livelihood Security in Punjab through Water, Energy and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Food and Livelihood Security in Punjab through Water, Energy and Agricultural Management ... management and facilitating access to resources by low-income farmers. ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation.

  15. Research award: Agriculture and Food Security 2019 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The AFS program works with organizations to intensify and diversify small‐scale ... and social) without adversely impacting societies and the environment. ... loss, rural economic development, improved food and nutrition security, and the ...

  16. Food security and nutrition: Innovation helps the world's poor feed ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... ... in 1970, IDRC has contributed to increased food security and better nutrition. ... made farming practices more efficient, preserved environments, and brought ... the developing world has always been central to IDRC's work.

  17. Research Awards: Agriculture and Food Security program Deadline ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... HEAD OFFICE / SIÈGE : 150 Kent Street / 150, rue Kent PO Box ... to pursue their research goals in a dynamic team environment in ... You should have an interest in agriculture, food security, nutrition, rural livelihoods, and.

  18. Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-29

    Sep 29, 2016 ... It investigates how food security and gender inequity are conceptualized within ... underlying social, cultural, and economic causes of gender inequality. Taken together, these combined approaches enable women and men to ...

  19. Improving food security and nutrition through research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-06

    Oct 6, 2016 ... In Canada, the 2012 federal budget highlighted CIFSRF's success, noting how the ... New animal vaccines could keep more African farmers in business ... Research on food security makes a difference for African women.

  20. Perception of Climate Variability on Agriculture and Food Security by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    This paper focuses on how men and women farmers perceive climatic variability in Idanre ... Poor women and their ... Climate Change, Food Security and Poverty ..... 50. 8.3. Total. 180. 100. Marital status. Single. Married. Divorced. Widowed.

  1. Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin, Nigeria. ... that rural-urban migration results in shortage of manpower for agricultural activities. ... to support education, health care, sanitation and safe drinking water supply.

  2. Climate Change Adaptation, Water, and Food Security in Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate Change Adaptation, Water, and Food Security in Pakistan ... those living in the Indus floodplains or on the edges of its deserts - received little attention. ... farmers' decision-making in water stressed regions, and the wider political and ...

  3. Healthier, more nutritious potatoes improve food security in Colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... Healthier, more nutritious potatoes improve food security in Colombia ... farmers, have high commercial potential, and are popular with consumers. ... children and adolescents is an alarming trend throughout the Caribbean.

  4. Food Security Status of People with Disabilities in Selassie Kebele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food Security Status of People with Disabilities in Selassie Kebele , Hawassa Town, Southern Ethiopia. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Individuals with physical type of disabilities accounted for the largest proportion of ...

  5. Food Security and Climate Change in Cambodia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Food Security and Climate Change in Cambodia ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.

  6. ICT-Based Framework for Improved Food Security in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The six regional decision support systems in this model is a comprehensive database ... from research findings and innovations, inputs from agricultural extension officers, ... Keywords: Food Security, Interactive websites, National Internet host, ...

  7. Improving Food and Nutrition Security in the Philippines through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving food and nutrition security in the Philippines through school ... Implementation of the Community Health Assessment Program in the Philippines ... This project will address the effects of fast-paced economic growth in the Greater ...

  8. Food Security and Human Rights in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiprayitno, I.

    2010-01-01

    Food is crucial to an adequate standard of living. The acknowledgement of the right to food in government policies is fundamental to the protection of human dignity, particularly in relation to food insecurity. It allows the right-holder to seek redress and hold government accountable for

  9. Global Food Security in a Changing Climate: Considerations and Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M. K.; Brown, M. E.; Backlund, P. W.; Antle, J. M.; Carr, E. R.; Easterling, W. E.; Funk, C. C.; Murray, A.; Ngugi, M.; Barrett, C. B.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Dancheck, V.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.; Mata, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Grace, K.; Jiang, H.; Bellemare, M.; Attavanich, W.; Ammann, C. M.; Maletta, H.

    2015-12-01

    Global food security is an elusive challenge and important policy focus from the community to the globe. Food is provisioned through food systems that may be simple or labyrinthine, yet each has vulnerabilities to climate change through its effects on food production, transportation, storage, and other integral food system activities. At the same time, the future of food systems is sensitive to socioeconomic trajectories determined by choices made outside of the food system, itself. Constrictions for any reason can lead to decreased food availability, access, utilization, or stability - that is, to diminished food security. Possible changes in trade and other U.S. relationships to the rest of the world under changing conditions to the end of the century are considered through integrated assessment modelling under a range of emissions scenarios. Climate change is likely to diminish continued progress on global food security through production disruptions leading to local availability limitations and price increases, interrupted transport conduits, and diminished food safety, among other causes. In the near term, some high-latitude production export regions may benefit from changes in climate. The types and price of food imports is likely to change, as are export demands, affecting U.S. consumers and producers. Demands placed on foreign assistance programs may increase, as may demand for advanced technologies. Adaptation across the food system has great potential to manage climate change effects on food security, and the complexity of the food system offers multiple potential points of intervention for decision makers at every level. However, effective adaptation is subject to highly localized conditions and socioeconomic factors, and the technical feasibility of an adaptive intervention is not necessarily a guarantee of its application if it is unaffordable or does not provide benefits within a relatively short time frame.

  10. Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom

    • Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....

  11. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Microphysical particles such as glass and metal can be hazardous and cause serious injury to consumers. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of food and impact food safety. Like food security, food safety is also effected by poverty and climate change. Hence Foo

  12. Development of the innovative food industry in the conditions of ensuring food security

    OpenAIRE

    Berdiev S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to ensure the safety of food and through the development of innovative food industry and learning to increase the production of food. Work to ensure food security of the Republic of Uzbekistan has its own characteristics and analysis of trends and problems identified in this area. As well as ensuring the safety of food and food industry offer based on the priority directions of scientific and practical recommendations developed.

  13. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  14. Food and nutrition security as gendered social practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, A.

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the world, the food security of households and the nutrition security of individual household members, in particular that of children, are still at risk, in spite of the progress made in combatting hunger at the global level. The prevailing opinion among scientists and development

  15. Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara

    2010-01-01

    We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.

  16. Measuring food security in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić-Brankov Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this paper is analysis of Serbian food security system across a set of indicators, with special emphasis to 2012 Global Food Security Index (GFSI. The results generally provided two major weakness of the Serbian food system: Gross domestic product (GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity and Corruption. Paper points out the need to improve the current food security system and proposed a number of measures for its improvement. Among other things appropriate nutritional standards and strategies will have to be adopted; investors' confidence must be strengthened and must be dealt with in a serious fight against corruption in the agriculture and food sector. The development of rural areas, reducing regional disparities and stabilization of agricultural production will certainly contribute to the tough battle against poverty.

  17. Household food security and infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Aatekah; Kleinbaum, David G; Suchdev, Parminder S; Faruque, Asg; Das, Sumon K; Schwartz, Benjamin; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-07-01

    To determine the association between household food security and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Bangladesh. Prospective, cohort study using structured home interviews during pregnancy and 3 and 9 months after delivery. We used two indicators of household food security at 3-months' follow-up: maternal Food Composition Score (FCS), calculated via the World Food Programme method, and an HHFS index created from an eleven-item food security questionnaire. Infant feeding practices were characterized using WHO definitions. Two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj, Bangladesh. Mother-child dyads (n 2073) who completed the 9-months' follow-up. Complementary feeding was initiated at age ≤4 months for 7 %, at 5-6 months for 49 % and at ≥7 months for 44 % of infants. Based on 24 h dietary recall, 98 % of infants were still breast-feeding at age 9 months, and 16 % received ≥4 food groups and ≥4 meals (minimally acceptable diet) in addition to breast milk. Mothers' diet was more diverse than infants'. The odds of receiving a minimally acceptable diet for infants living in most food-secure households were three times those for infants living in least food-secure households (adjusted OR=3·0; 95 % CI 2·1, 4·3). Socio-economic status, maternal age, literacy, parity and infant sex were not associated with infant diet. HHFS and maternal FCS were significant predictors of subsequent infant feeding practices. Nevertheless, even the more food-secure households had poor infant diet. Interventions aimed at improving infant nutritional status need to focus on both complementary food provision and education.

  18. Food Security and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Adult Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mazidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a biomarker of biologic age. Whether food security status modulates LTL is still unknown. We investigated the association between food security and LTL in participants of the 1999–2002 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Methods. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to evaluate the association between food security categories and LTL controlling for sex, race, and education and accounting for the survey design and sample weights. Results. We included 10,888 participants with 5228 (48.0% being men. They were aged on average 44.1 years. In all, 2362 (21.7% had less than high school, 2787 (25.6% had achieved high school, while 5705 (52.5% had done more than high school. In sex-, race-, and education-adjusted ANCOVA, average LTL (T/S ratio for participants with high food security versus those with marginal, low, or very low food security was 1.32 versus 1.20 for the age group 25–35 years and 1.26 versus 1.11 for the 35–45 years, (p<0.001. Conclusion. The association between food insecurity and LTL shortening in young adults suggest that some of the future effects of food insecurity on chronic disease risk in this population could be mediated by telomere shortening.

  19. Promoting Food Security for All Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Sixteen million US children (21%) live in households without consistent access to adequate food. After multiple risk factors are considered, children who live in households that are food insecure, even at the lowest levels, are likely to be sick more often, recover from illness more slowly, and be hospitalized more frequently. Lack of adequate healthy food can impair a child's ability to concentrate and perform well in school and is linked to higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems from preschool through adolescence. Food insecurity can affect children in any community, not only traditionally underserved ones. Pediatricians can play a central role in screening and identifying children at risk for food insecurity and in connecting families with needed community resources. Pediatricians should also advocate for federal and local policies that support access to adequate healthy food for an active and healthy life for all children and their families. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Global Climate Change, Food Security and the U.S. Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Walsh, Margaret; Hauser, Rachel; Murray, Anthony; Jadin, Jenna; Baklund, Peter; Robinson, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Climate change influences on the major pillars of food security. Each of the four elements of food security (availability,access,utilization,andstability) is vulnerable to changes in climate. For example,reductions in production related to regional drought influence food availability at multiple scales. Changes in price influences the ability of certain populations to purchase food (access). Utilization maybe affected when production zones shift, reducing the availability of preferred or culturally appropriate types of food within a region. Stability of the food supply may be highly uncertain given an increased incidence of extreme climatic events and their influence on production patterns.

  1. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  2. Food and nutrition security in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Dangol, Narendra

    2018-01-01

    The status of food and nutrition security and its underlying factors in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is investigated. In this region, one third to a half of children (security in the HKH region. To achieve sustainable food and nutrition security in the mountains, this study suggests a multi-sectoral integrated approach with consideration of nutritional aspects in all development processes dealing with economic, social, agricultural and public health issues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide

  4. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  5. Agrofuels Production and its Relation with Food Security and Food Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vargas Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses agrofuels production as a reason for increasing the dissociation between the human being, the land and the environment, considering the issues involving food security and food sovereignty. By using the deductive method, it aims to demonstrate that the growing distance between men and land is one of the results determined by capitalism, which is based on exploitation and maximized land production in order to obtain profit, interfering thereas in national food security and food sovereignty. Thus, it first deals with the relation between the human being, land, the environment, economy, State and politics, focusing on environmental  human  rights  protagonism  such  as  side  for  recognizing  and  developing /enveloping fundamental rights material. Secondly, it brings agrofuels production scenario and its relation with food security and sovereignty. Finally, it concepts food security and food sovereignty, establishing its differences in order to permit the build up a solid reality that is also able to secure their implement in an economy of family polycultural basis even if there is an opposite side oriented by capitalism and protected by State, specially in which concerns to productions and environmental excessive exploitation. The article concludes that to secure fundamental rights the being needs to recognize oneself as part of the environment in order to develop a significant State behavior which will reflect on economical politics that favors food security and food sovereignty.

  6. Influence of Family Size, Household Food Security Status, and Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. ... Keywords: Family size, food insecurity, stunting, breastfeeding, U5 children ... for young children and women in their childbearing years. Food security ... Two in five children are short for their ages; half of .... At the time of data analysis, the child's.

  7. The role of biotechnology in ensuring food security and sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security and sustainable agriculture have become a burning issues in the national discuss at all levels of government as plans are being made for a changing global climate and increasing global population. One of the most important environmental challenges facing the developing world is how to meet current food ...

  8. A Socially Inclusive Pathway to Food Security: The Agroecological Alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. McKay (Ben)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction__ With roughly 1 billion people unable to meet their minimum daily caloric intake, the issue of food security is imperative to overcoming rural poverty. The way in which we produce food plays an extremely important role in solving the hunger epidemic and reaching

  9. World Food Security and Insecurity, 1984-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kenneth R.

    Effective economic demand, rather than resource constraints, will continue to be the dominant limiting factor in improving the security of world food supplies between now and the year 2000. The global demand for food will continue to grow but the rate of growth is declining in virtually all regions, easing the pressure on agricultural resources.…

  10. Food security status and coping strategies of rural households with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Food insecurity is a growing public health concern in Nigeria especially where all efforts towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) of eradicating extreme hunger and poverty by 2015 is yet to be realized. This cross sectional study was designed to assess food security status of rural ...

  11. Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban communities in the Free State ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... In all areas, a high percentage of HIV-infected respondents relied on a limited number of foods to ...

  12. The Gender Perspective of Household Food Security in Meskan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    they are often neglected and deprived of services and amenities which leads to their vulnerability to poverty, food insecurity, gender bias and effects of environmental change. Accordingly, the principal objective of this study is to assess the food security situation and the type of coping strategies pursued by female and male- ...

  13. Food preservation and security at household level in rural Nsukka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, food insecurity at the household level can partly be attributed to poor preservation of post-harvest surpluses. This study sought to demonstrate a relationship (if any) between preservation of post harvest surpluses and food security at rural household level. Eha-Alumona and Opi-Uno, in Nsukka, Enugu State were ...

  14. Biomass for Energy and the Impacts on Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine; Barbir, F; Ulgiati, S

    2010-01-01

    In climate policies in the developed world the use of biomass as an energy source plays an important role Indications exist that these policies are affecting global food security In this chapter we compare the global demands for food, feed and energy in the near future We distinguish between

  15. Impact of water scarcity on food security at micro level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  16. Impact of water scarcity on food security at macro level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  17. Impact of water scarcity on food security at meso level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  18. Empowering billions with food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Suresh D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There are virtually millions of people -who die needlessly every year due to contaminated water and food. There are virtually many millions more who are starving due to an inadequate supply of food. Billions of pounds of food are unnecessarily wasted due to insect and other damage. Deaths and illness due to contaminated food or inadequate food are at catastrophic levels in many regions of the world. A majority of the food and water borne illnesses and deaths are preventable. It can be prevented by improved food production methods, improved food processing technologies, improved food distribution systems and improved personal hygiene. Food irradiation technology is over 100 years old. Yet, this technology is poorly understood by governments and corporate decision makers all around the world. Many consumers also are unfortunately misinformed of this technology. There is an urgent need for nations and people around the world to empower themselves with the knowledge and the expertise to harness this powerful technology. Widespread and sensible adoption of this technology can empower billions around the world with clean and abundant food supplies. It is unconscionable in the 21st century for governments to allow people to die or go hungry when the technology to prevent them is readily available

  19. The impact of potential political security level on international tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Rae Kim; Chang Huh; Seung Hyun Kim

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of potential political security in an effort to fill in two foregoing research gaps in international tourism. To investigate the relationship between political security and international tourism, a simple regression model was employed. Secondary data were collected from a variety of sources, such as international...

  20. Post-harvest Proteomics and Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; Lurie, S.; Hertog, W.; Nicolai, B.; Mes, J.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee sufficient food supply for a growing world population, efforts towards improving crop yield and plant resistance should be complemented with efforts to reduce postharvest losses. Post-harvest losses are substantial and occur at different stages of the food chain in developed and

  1. Food security through large scale investments in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the human appropriation of freshwater resources is for food production. There is some concern that in the near future the finite freshwater resources available on Earth might not be sufficient to meet the increasing human demand for agricultural products. In the late 1700s Malthus argued that in the long run the humanity would not have enough resources to feed itself. Malthus' analysis, however, did not account for the emergence of technological innovations that could increase the rate of food production. The modern and contemporary history has seen at least three major technological advances that have increased humans' access to food, namely, the industrial revolution, the green revolution, and the intensification of global trade. Here we argue that a fourth revolution has just started to happen. It involves foreign direct investments in agriculture, which intensify the crop yields of potentially highly productive agricultural lands by introducing the use of more modern technologies. The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of verified land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with large scale land acquisitions. We

  2. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfray, H Charles J; Beddington, John R; Crute, Ian R; Haddad, Lawrence; Lawrence, David; Muir, James F; Pretty, Jules; Robinson, Sherman; Thomas, Sandy M; Toulmin, Camilla

    2010-02-12

    Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here.

  3. The development of the food barn in achieving food security of poor household in Wonogiri Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminah

    2018-03-01

    Food barn has function as food stock which managed by households both individually and collectively. It has important role in food security. This study aims to determine the factors that influence the development of food barns, and formulate alternative strategies in the development of food barns in Wonogiri regency. The samples of this research were determined by random sampling. The data collection technique was done by interview, field observation and focus group discussion (FGD). The data analysis was done quantitatively with multiple regression, and qualitative information. The results showed that the age of respondents included in the category of middle age, their level of education was mostly from elementary school, most of their occupation were farmers, they had narrow knowledge of land management, and their income was around 1-2 million rupiah/month. In fact, the perception of food barns, institutional regulation of food barns, and the Economic institutions of food barn have a positive significant influence toward food barn development, filling the food barn and institutional capacity of food barn groups in realizing the food security of poor household in Wonogiri Regency. In food barn development, there are positive and clear perceptions of the food barn, institutional regulations. It indicates that significant as well as the economic institution of food barn are needed so that the food security can be realized.

  4. International Nuclear Security Situation And China’s Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chong

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010,the three Nuclear Security Summits have made a number of achievements,but the international nuclear security situation is still not relaxed.The rapid development of China’s domestic nuclear facilities and a large amount of nuclear and radioactive materials related to nuclear power,active international nuclear black market in China’s surrounding regions,rather serious domestic and international terrorist threats as well as the emerging technology development bring about new challenges to nuclear security.Facing the complicated and long-term nuclear security situation,China from the perspective of monitoring mechanism,laws and regulations system,technical capability-building and nuclear emergency preparedness,takes a series of effective measures to build the national nuclear security capacity,and strictly fulfills its international obligations,actively participates in upgrading the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and relevant international rules,and actively takes part in the Nuclear Security Summit process,strengthens bilateral cooperation on nuclear security with major countries especially the United States of America,and jointly organizes various training with International Atomic Energy Agency,which has made great contributions to upgrading the global nuclear security level.At the end of the Nuclear Security Summit process,China should continue to strengthen its domestic nuclear security capacity building,and promote the international community to treat the root causes and symptoms,adopt a comprehensive strategy,and work together,effectively prevent and dissolve the nuclear terrorist threats.

  5. Impact of Cash Transfer on Food Security: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mohammadi-Nasrabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cash transfer (CTs is an increasingly popular social protection mechanism used by many developing countries to improve the food security and nutritional status of lower socio-economic groups. This paper is a review of the literature regarding the impact of CT programs on the food security of recipient households in the developing countries, including Iran. We looked for all original studies, performed in the developing countries and published in any language, containing at least one outcome related to food and nutritional security of the beneficiary population using Pub Med, Iran Medex, SID (Scientific Information Database, ISI (Information Sciences Institute database, INP (Iran’s Nutrition Publication Abstracts, IRANDOC and Magiran. Searches used the following terms or keywords: “household food security”, “household food insecurity” and “cash transfer” on any publication published within 1990-2015. A total of 12 studies evaluating the influence of CT programs on the recipients’ food and nutrition security were identified. CT programs have the potential to deliver a range of benefits not only through reducing extreme poverty but also by providing effective support for broader human development objectives, including better nutrition, as well as health and education outputs and outcomes. The extent to which programs can have these different impacts will depend critically on the availability of complementary services, the local context, and the specifics of program design, including the transfer value. However, findings in Iran suggest that the replacement of staple food subsidies by CT has led to a significant increase in household food insecurity (especially marginal or mild food insecurity. Keywords: Household food security, Cash transfer, Developing countries

  6. Improving Land Dry Farmer Capacity Toward Adequate Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Land dry farmers have not enrolled in supporting food security. Most of the farmer are the peasants with low capacity to produce food. The purpose of the research is to formulate policy recommendation to increase capacity of the peasants for support food security. The data were collected using following techniques: questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling (SEM. The research results showed that the peasant characteristics and the peasants capacity are within low category, influencing the level of food security. The Government are expected actively to increase the peasant’s capacity by optimizing efforts: providing extension and training in participatory ways; increasing role of facilitator and researcher in empowerment process, increasing the peasants’ access to production input, credit facilities and wider markets, give incentive to the peasants so that they can do double working, as well as increasing coordination between government institutions and stakeholder.

  7. Food security: what the community wants. Learning through focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, D; Dewolfe, J A; Thompson, L

    1994-01-01

    We used focus groups to learn the range of issues threatening food security of low income residents in our community. Five major themes emerged from the discussions: literacy, money, time, mental health and self-esteem, suggesting several approaches that could help ensure food security: 1) education, 2) sharing of resources, 3) coalition building, and 4) advocacy. Education programs have to be practical, allowing for demonstrations and hands-on learning while emphasizing skill building and problem solving. Incorporating a social aspect into learning may compensate for the social isolation and would capitalize on the impressive mutual support we witnessed. Strategies based on self-help and peer assistance may counteract low self-esteem and overcome suspicion of health professionals. A community-wide effort is needed to address the factors contributing to food insecurity. We envision the formation of a coalition of professionals, agencies, and low income people to develop a comprehensive strategy for achieving food security.

  8. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    diets are heavily dependent on cereals and root crops that contain minimal protein and deplete the soil of nitrogen. Combatting stunting and ... case approaches. The project will increase access to high-yielding pulse seeds for more than ...

  9. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team will test innovative mechanisms such as elec- tronic vouchers to target vulnerable groups on a large scale. E-voucher discounts delivered by mobile phone to 65,000 lactat- ing mothers will provide a temporary price incentive to help build a market for the product. The scheme will also enable researchers.

  10. Food & nutrition security: Challenges in the new millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Ramachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR and under five mortality rate (U5 MR. India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa. If wasting [low body mass index (BMI for age in children and low BMI in adults] which is closely related to adequacy of current food intake is used as an indictor for the assessment of household food security, India fares better. The nineties witnessed the emergence of dual nutrition burden with persistent inadequate dietary intake and undernutrition on one side and low physical activity / food intake above requirements and overnutrition on the other side. Body size and physical activity levels are two major determinants of human nutrient requirements. The revised recommended dietary allowances (RDA for Indians takes cognisance of the current body weight and physical activity while computing the energy and nutrient requirements. As both under- and overnutrition are associated with health hazards, perhaps time has come for use of normal BMI as an indicator for food security.

  11. The world in a box? Food security, edible insects, and "One World, One Health" collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists in the Netherlands are cultivating edible insects to address concerns of international food security. Committed to the One World, One Health (OWOH) movement, their research aims to create a safe and effective global solution to the conjoined problems of climate change and an increasing

  12. The Work of Hunger: Security, Development and Food-for-Work in Post-crisis Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamey Essex

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Food-for-work programs distribute food aid to recipients in exchange for labor, and are an important mode of aid delivery for both public and private aid providers. While debate continues as to whether food-for-work programs are socially just and economically sensible, governments, international institutions, and NGOs continue to tout them as a flexible and cost-effective way to deliver targeted aid and promote community development. This paper critiques the underlying logic of food-for-work, focusing on how this approach to food aid and food security promote labor force participation by leveraging hunger against poverty, and how the ideological and practical assumptions of food-for-work become enmeshed within discourses of geopolitical security. I rely on a case study examination of US-funded food-for-work programs implemented in Jakarta, Indonesia following the 1997 financial crisis. The crisis produced acute food insecurity and poverty in Indonesia, provoking fears of mob violence by the hungry poor and the spread of radical Islamism in the post-crisis political vacuum. Food-for-work programs were, in this context, meant to resolve the problems of both food insecurity and geopolitical insecurity by providing food to targeted populations, employment to those otherwise thrown out of work, and resituating the hungry poor in relation to broader scales of local, national, and global power.

  13. ANNEX A: RESEARCH FOR FOOD SECURITY

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    rvernooy

    2013-04-05

    Apr 5, 2013 ... CIDA's aim is to i) manage Canada's support and ... Food and nutritional insecurity, climate change, new and emerging diseases, and the .... groups). All projects require the sound assessment of environmental impact and the.

  14. Household food security and adequacy of child diet in the food insecure region north in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Agbadi

    Full Text Available Adequate diet is of crucial importance for healthy child development. In food insecure areas of the world, the provision of adequate child diet is threatened in the many households that sometimes experience having no food at all to eat (household food insecurity. In the context of food insecure northern Ghana, this study investigated the relationship between level of household food security and achievement of recommended child diet as measured by WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding Indicators.Using data from households and 6-23 month old children in the 2012 Feed the Future baseline survey (n = 871, descriptive analyses assessed the prevalence of minimum meal frequency; minimum dietary diversity, and minimum acceptable diet. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of minimum acceptable diet with household food security, while accounting for the effects of child sex and age, maternal -age, -dietary diversity, -literacy and -education, household size, region, and urban-rural setting. Household food security was assessed with the Household Hunger Scale developed by USAID's Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project.Forty-nine percent of children received minimum recommended meal frequency, 31% received minimum dietary diversity, and 17% of the children received minimum acceptable diet. Sixty-four percent of the children lived in food secure households, and they were significantly more likely than children in food insecure households to receive recommended minimum acceptable diet [O.R = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82]. However, in 80% of food secure households, children did not receive a minimal acceptable diet by WHO standards.Children living in food secure households were more likely than others to receive a minimum acceptable diet. Yet living in a food secure household was no guarantee of child dietary adequacy, since eight of 10 children in food secure households received less than a minimum acceptable diet. The results

  15. Food Security and Weight Status in Children: Interactions With Food Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh T; Ford, Christopher N; Yaroch, Amy L; Shuval, Kerem; Drope, Jeffrey

    2017-02-01

    It is unclear whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) or National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation modifies the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in children. Data were included for 4,719 children aged 9-17 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between household food security (full, marginal, low, and very low) and BMI percentile. Adjusted models were also stratified by SNAP and NSLP participation. There was no significant overall relationship between household food security and BMI percentile. In SNAP non-participants, there was no apparent overall relationship between BMI percentile and household food security. However, BMI percentile in children from households with low food security was significantly higher than that of children from fully food-secure households (risk difference [RD]=5.95, 95% CI=1.11, 10.80). Among SNAP participants, there was no significant relationship between household food security and BMI percentile. By NSLP participation category, there was a non-significant trend toward increasing BMI percentile with decreasing household food security in those reporting two or fewer (RD=1.75, 95% CI= -0.79, 4.29) and two to three (RD=1.07; 95% CI= -1.74, 3.89) lunches/week. There was no apparent relationship between household food security and BMI percentile in those reporting four or more lunches/week. Although the overall relationship between household food security and weight status in school-aged children was not statistically significant, there was some evidence that the relationship may differ by SNAP or NSLP participation, suggesting the need for more research. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cooperative Security: New Horizons for International Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Richard; Mihalka, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Both are controversial. Richard Cohen presents a compelling and highly original model of Cooperative Security -- a term that once was applied almost exclusively to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE...

  17. IT Security Specialist | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The IT Security Specialist takes a strategic role in the delivery of Infrastructure ... on IT Security to project managers, business clients and senior management. ... as a team member or a team leader by undertaking research, investigations, ...

  18. Determinants of Household Food Security in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ayu Mutiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food security at household level is a very important precondition to foster the national and regional food security. Many people migrate to urban areas in the hope of improving their welfare. Generally people think that in the city there are more opportunities, but the opposite is true. The problem is more complex in the city especially for people who do not have adequate skills and education. This study aims to address whether  age of household head, household size, education level of household head, income, and distribution of subsidized rice policy affect the food security of urban poor households in Purbalingga district. A hundred respondents were selected from four top villages in urban areas of Purbalingga with the highest level of poverty. Using binary logistic regression, this study finds significant positive effect of education of household head and household income and significant negative effect of household size and raskin on household food security, while age of household head has no significant effect on household food security. The results imply the need for increased awareness of family planning, education, improved skills, and increased control of the implementation of subsidized rice for the poor.

  19. Food product prices and its implications for food security in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The study examined the prices of food products and its implications for food security in Nigeria. Data was ... The study show that food price inflation is caused by frequent hike in the prices of ...

  20. Obesity and food security in Yazd primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam soltani Z

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food security is defined as access, for all people at all times, to enough food for an active and healthy life. Food security includes: 1 the ready availability of nutritionally-adequate and safe food, and 2 an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways. The increase in childhood as well as adulthood obesity and food insecurity has caused many recent investigations on obesity, food insecurity and some associated factors. However, there appears to be a lack of published information regarding some factors affecting obesity and food insecurity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence obesity and food insecurity and some associated factors among Yazd province primary school students in Iran.Methods: Using two-stage cluster sampling, a total of 3245 students (1587 boys and 1658 girls, aged 9-11 years, were randomly selected from primary school pupils in Yazd, Iran. From these, 187 students having BMIs ≥95th percentile, as defined by Hosseini et al. (1999, were identified as obese and 187 pupils of the same age and gender having BMIs between the 15th and 85th percentiles were selected as controls. Data were collected using 24-hour food-recall and USDA food insecurity questionnaires.Results: We found that the prevalence of obesity among students aged 9-11 years was 13.3%, and the prevalence of food insecurity was 30.5%. Daily energy intakes, compared to those recommended by the RDA, carbohydrate intake and energy percentages from proteins and carbohydrates were higher in obese children, and all macronutrient intakes per kilogram of body weight were significantly higher. An association between obesity and food insecurity was observed with adjusted fat intake.Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity and food insecurity is high among Yazd primary school students, and high-level intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate are associated with obesity. Furthermore, variation in the rate of fat intake

  1. Impact of Climate Change on Food Security in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yator, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to address the existing gap on the impact of climate change on food security in support of policy measures to avert famine catastrophes. Fixed and random effects regressions for crop food security were estimated. The study simulated the expected impact of future climate change on food insecurity based on the Representative Concentration Pathways scenario (RCPs). The study makes use of county-level yields estimates (beans, maize, millet and sorghum) and daily climate data (1971 to 2010). Climate variability affects food security irrespective of how food security is defined. Rainfall during October-November-December (OND), as well as during March-April-May (MAM) exhibit an inverted U-shaped relationship with most food crops; the effects are most pronounced for maize and sorghum. Beans and Millet are found to be largely unresponsive to climate variability and also to time-invariant factors. OND rains and fall and summer temperature exhibit a U-shaped relationship with yields for most crops, while MAM rains temperature exhibits an inverted U-shaped relationship. However, winter temperatures exhibit a hill-shaped relationship with most crops. Project future climate change scenarios on crop productivity show that climate change will adversely affect food security, with up to 69% decline in yields by the year 2100. Climate variables have a non-linear relationship with food insecurity. Temperature exhibits an inverted U-shaped relationship with food insecurity, suggesting that increased temperatures will increase crop food insecurity. However, maize and millet, benefit from increased summer and winter temperatures. The simulated effects of different climate change scenarios on food insecurity suggest that adverse climate change will increase food insecurity in Kenya. The largest increases in food insecurity are predicted for the RCP 8.5Wm2, compared to RCP 4.5Wm2. Climate change is likely to have the greatest effects on maize insecurity, which is likely

  2. Food security status of rural farming households in Iwo, Ayedire and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work reports on the food security status of rural farming households in ... in the study area and determine factors that affect household food security. ... in this research were Head Count Method, Food Insecurity Gap and Squared ...

  3. Food Security and Staple Crops. Staple Food Around the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, Lizette

    2012-01-01

    Of more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, only a few hundred contribute significantly to our food supplies. Almost all of the world’s food energy intake is satisfied by just a few crop plants. Rice, maize and wheat make up two-thirds of this already small group of foods. These three grains are the staple foods for more than four billion people both as a source of nutrition and income. A staple crop, by definition, dominates the major part of our diet and supplies a major proportion of our energy and nutrient needs. If staple crops are threatened by drought, pests or nutrient-poor soils, hunger and poverty can rise dramatically.

  4. Sensors for Food Safety and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.

    Active packaging of food products is aimed at extending shelf life, preserving and improving quality, taste characteristics and appearance of a product. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) have become widely used with oxygen sensitive foods, as it enables to inhibit or delay undesirable processes inside packs such as oxidation of lipids and hemecontaining pigments, enzymatic degradation, microbial spoilage, etc. In MAP process, the package container with food is flushed with a mixture of CO2, N2, and O2 gases to replace air, and then sealed. The function of CO2 is to decrease the growth rate of micro-organisms, N2 displaces O2 and also prevents the packaging from collapsing when some of the CO2 is absorbed by moisture in the product1. The majority of MAP foods are packed under the atmosphere with considerably reduced oxygen levels, while products such as raw meat, fruit and vegetables require high concentration of oxygen to keep their appearance and/or shelf life.

  5. International acceptance of irradiated food. Legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The three international organizations competent in the field of irradiation processing for the preservation of food (FAO, WHO, IAEA), convened, at the end of 1977, an Advisory Group to revise and update the recommendations of a similar group which met in early 1972. The Advisory Group considered how national regulations could be harmonized so as to facilitate the international movement of irradiated food. This publication contains the Report of the Advisory Group, which summarizes the considerations of the Group on regulatory control over the irradiation plant and irradiation of foods, and on assurances for comparability of control (international labelling and documentation). Annexes 1 to 6 are included in order to complete the relevant information on the legal aspects of this subject. They include a Draft General Standard for Irradiated Foods, a Draft Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, Recommendations of a Consultation Group on the Legal Aspects of Food Irradiation, a Listing of the Legislation on Food Irradiation Adopted in Member States (1971-1976), and Model Regulations for the Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food

  6. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  7. On the Water-Food Nexus: an Optimization Approach for Water and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Sarah; Abou Najm, Majdi; Yassine, Ali; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2016-04-01

    Water and food security is facing increased challenges with population increase, climate and land use change, as well as resource depletion coupled with pollution and unsustainable practices. Coordinated and effective management of limited natural resources have become an imperative to meet these challenges by optimizing the usage of resources under various constraints. In this study, an optimization model is developed for optimal resource allocation towards sustainable water and food security under nutritional, socio-economic, agricultural, environmental, and natural resources constraints. The core objective of this model is to maximize the composite water-food security status by recommending an optimal water and agricultural strategy. The model balances between the healthy nutritional demand side and the constrained supply side while considering the supply chain in between. It equally ensures that the population achieves recommended nutritional guidelines and population food-preferences by quantifying an optimum agricultural and water policy through transforming optimum food demands into optimum cropping policy given the water and land footprints of each crop or agricultural product. Through this process, water and food security are optimized considering factors that include crop-food transformation (food processing), water footprints, crop yields, climate, blue and green water resources, irrigation efficiency, arable land resources, soil texture, and economic policies. The model performance regarding agricultural practices and sustainable food and water security was successfully tested and verified both at a hypothetical and pilot scale levels.

  8. Earth Observation for Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Heike; Mauser, Wolfram; Gernot, Klepper

    2016-08-01

    The global and regional potentials of Earth Observation (EO) to contribute to food security and sustainable agriculture in the 2050-timeframe were analysed in the ESA study EO4Food, whose outcome will be presented (www.EO4Food.org). Emphasis was put on the global societal, economic, environmental and technological megatrends that will create demand for food and shape the future societies. They will also constitute the background for developments in EO for food security and sustainable agriculture. The capabilities of EO in this respect were critically reviewed with three perspectives 1) the role of EO science for society, 2) observables from space and 3) development of future science missions.It was concluded that EO can be pivotal for the further development of food security and sustainable agriculture. EO allows to support the whole economic and societal value chain from farmers through food industry to insurance and financial industry in satisfying demands and at the same time to support society in governing sustainable agriculture through verifyable rules and regulations. It has the potential to become the global source of environmental information that is assimilated into sophisticated environmental management models and is used to make agriculture sustainable.

  9. Revitalization of food barns in supporting sustainable food security in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riptanti, E. W.; Qonita, A.; Suprapti

    2018-02-01

    Rice barns have been developed in some areas in Central Java, but several problems seem to appear, leading to nonoptimal functions of nonactive food barns. The present article aims to examine revitalization of food barns through systematic, integrated, and sustainable empowerment. The research design is exploratory research to generate data that are in-depth qualitative and quantitative. Survey was applied in four regencies including Wonogiri, Purworejo, Temanggung, and Batang. Key informants comprise caretakers of food barns, village apparatus, public figures, and Food Security Office apparatus. The research results revealed that the food barns have not been managed in professional manners. Active roles of all members and caretakers, village government, and Food Security Agency are, therefore, required in revitalizing the food barns. In order to perform social functions well, the food barns should be profit-oriented to achieve sustainability.

  10. Food security and food insecurity in Europe: An analysis of the academic discourse (1975-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Anita; Kjærnes, Unni

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we address the academic discourse on food insecurity and food security in Europe as expressed in articles published in scientific journals in the period 1975 to 2013. The analysis indicates that little knowledge has been produced on this subject, and that the limited research that has been produced tends to focus on the production of food rather than on people's access to food. The lack of knowledge about European food insecurity is particularly alarming in these times, which are characterised by increasing social inequalities and poverty, as well as shifting policy regimes. More empirical, comparative and longitudinal research is needed to survey the extent of food security problems across European countries over time. There is also a need to identify groups at risk of food insecurity as well as legal, economic, practical, social, and psychological constraints hindering access to appropriate and sufficient food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Security in Africa: The big picture | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-23

    Feb 23, 2011 ... Populations are growing, economies are improving – and conflict is declining. ... in crucial sectors such as communications technology, food security, and ... population growth and urbanization have been the main drivers of ...

  12. Attempt of the evaluation of the food security in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Batko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The food security belongs to the group of needs which are perceptible by the man. It can be analyzed at the household, national, regional and global levels. In our times it is contending with different threats resulting among others from the population increase in the world, demand for the food, reducing aquatic resources, climate change, soaring prices and wasting food products. According to the FAO about 805 million people are undernourished. The study focused on determining the physical, economic availability and appropriate food quality on the Polish market from 2011 to 2013. The conducted examinations shows that Poland was self‑sufficient in supplying agri-food commodity, food expenditure of households remained stable and least failings stated in national and EU food available on our territory. The value engineering of the Global Index Food Security in 2014 was allowed to say that Poland is among a thirty of the best states ensuring the appropriate availability, the accessibility and the food quality in the country.

  13. Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Farmer, William; Strzepek, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Due to their reliance on rain-fed agriculture, both as a source of income and consumption, many low-income countries are considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change. Here, we estimate the impact of climate change on food security in Tanzania. Representative climate projections are used...... as the channel of impact, food security in Tanzania appears likely to deteriorate as a consequence of climate change. The analysis points to a high degree of diversity of outcomes (including some favorable outcomes) across climate scenarios, sectors, and regions. Noteworthy differences in impacts across...

  14. Food security for infants and young children: an opportunity for breastfeeding policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Libby

    2015-01-01

    Increased global demand for imported breast milk substitutes (infant formula, follow-on formula and toddler milks) in Asia, particularly China, and food safety recalls have led to shortages of these products in high income countries. At the same time, commodification and trade of expressed breast milk have fuelled debate about its regulation, cost and distribution. In many economies suboptimal rates of breastfeeding continue to be perpetuated, at least partially, because of a failure to recognise the time, labour and opportunity costs of breast milk production. To date, these issues have not figured prominently in discussions of food security. Policy responses have been piecemeal and reveal conflicts between promotion and protection of breastfeeding and a deregulated trade environment that facilitates the marketing and consumption of breast milk substitutes. The elements of food security are the availability, accessibility, utilization and stability of supply of nutritionally appropriate and acceptable quantities of food. These concepts have been applied to food sources for infants and young children: breastfeeding, shared breast milk and breast milk substitutes, in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) guidelines on infant feeding. A preliminary analysis indicates that a food security framework may be used to respond appropriately to the human rights, ethical, economic and environmental sustainability issues that affect the supply and affordability of different infant foods. Food security for infants and young children is not possible without high rates of breastfeeding. Existing international and national instruments to protect, promote and support breastfeeding have not been implemented on a wide scale globally. These instruments need review to take into account the emerging trade environment that includes use of the internet, breast milk markets and globalised supply chains for breast milk substitutes. New

  15. Indigenous Knowledge - A Holistic View Through a Food Security Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angnaboogok, V.; Behe, C.; Daniel, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid changes occurring within the Arctic heighten the need to understand the multiple drivers pushing change and their cumulative impacts. Most importantly to better understand Arctic change a holistic view is needed that can only be achieved through bringing together multiple knowledge systems and scientific disciplines. Inuit have called the Arctic home from time immemorial acquiring a knowledge system. The Inuit knowledge system continues to grow, and holds methodologies and assessment processes that provide a pathway for holistically understanding the Arctic. This holistic view is largely attributed to a focus on relationships between system components, close attention to food webs, and a unique understanding of interconnecting systems. The Alaskan Inuit understanding of food security represents an Indigenous way of viewing the world - where food security encompasses complex and interlinked cultural and environmental systems. These systems are comprised of connections among the health of people, animals, and plants; the different states of land, sea, and air; and the cultural fabric held together by language, cultural expression, and social integrity. Within the Inuit knowledge system, it is impossible to disentangle some of these relationships; when we discuss an Inuit food security perspective, it is this interconnectivity and these relationships that we refer to. This presentation will offer an introduction to what it means to adopt a food security lens approach - a view needed to build our knowledge of the changes that are occurring and further our understanding of cumulative impacts while illuminating the nexus between all pieces that make up Arctic ecosystems.

  16. Climate, migration, and the local food security context: Introducing Terra Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlak, Allison M.; Kugler, Tracy A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the connection between environmental factors and migration are difficult to execute because they require the integration of microdata and spatial information. In this article, we introduce the novel, publically available data extraction system Terra Populus (TerraPop), which was designed to facilitate population-environment studies. We showcase the use of TerraPop by exploring variations in the climate-migration association in Burkina Faso and Senegal based on differences in the local food security context. Food security was approximated using anthropometric indicators of child stunting and wasting derived from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and linked to the TerraPop extract of climate and migration information. We find that an increase in heat waves was associated with a decrease in international migration from Burkina Faso, while excessive precipitation increased international moves from Senegal. Significant interactions reveal that the adverse effects of heat waves and droughts are strongly amplified in highly food insecure Senegalese departments. PMID:27974863

  17. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.

  18. A Socially Inclusive Pathway to Food Security: The Agroecological Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Ben McKay

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction__ With roughly 1 billion people unable to meet their minimum daily caloric intake, the issue of food security is imperative to overcoming rural poverty. The way in which we produce food plays an extremely important role in solving the hunger epidemic and reaching the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of eradicating extreme hunger and poverty. The dominant model of agricultural development practised by many countries today is based on chemical-intensive agr...

  19. Complexity of food preparation and food security status in low-income young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Stringer, Bernadette; Haines, Ted

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore whether preparing more complex meals was associated with higher food security status. This mixed-methods, community-based study involved the use of semistructured interviews to examine the cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Fifty participants aged 18 to 35 were recruited at 10 locations in five low-income neighbourhoods. Food security status was the main outcome measure and the main exposure variable, "complex food preparation," combined the preparation of three specific food types (soups, sauces, and baked goods) using basic ingredients. Low-income women preparing a variety of meals using basic ingredients at least three times a week were more than twice as likely to be food secure as were women preparing more complex meals less frequently. Women who prepared more complex meals more frequently had higher food security. Whether this means that preparing more complex foods results in greater food security remains unclear, as this was an exploratory study.

  20. China's new problems of food security revealed by the Food Equivalent Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilong LIN,Ruichao LI,Cangyu JIN,Chong WANG,Maohong WEI,Jizhou REN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available China's food security has a great influence on the world, and has always been the top priority in China. In recent years, as the concept of food security is evolving into one of nutrition security and the importance of food diversity is increasing, research based on nutrition security and broad food systems are increasingly needed in today's China. Thus, not only grain for human consumption, but also animal foods have been integrated into the Food Equivalent, which is used to analyze China's current agriculture system and reveal the water resource distribution. The results indicated that the average animal food consumption has risen by 78.6%, and now China's daily supply of animal food per capita has reached about 50% of that in the USA and 80% of that in the South Korea. So there exist an obvious disparity in animal food supply between China and these two countries. It is impossible for the China's current agricultural system to achieve the level in the USA. Under China's current agricultural system, the consumption proportion of feed grain had surpassed the consumption of food grain, increased sharply from 33% in 1992 to 67% in 2011. However, the growth potential of total grain output is approaching an upper limit, so the continued growth of feed grain demand exerts great pressure on the China's food supply. The discordance of the spatial distribution of water resource and virtual water revealed that China's current agriculture system had a low efficiency in being able to achieve food and nutrition security. China's current "grain farming" cannot meet the demand of increasing nutrition and appropriate resource utilization. The implementation of grassland agriculture appears feasible and necessary for saving feed grain, providing a large number of high-quality animal foods and appropriate water resource utilization.

  1. Food Irradiation. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-11-15

    For some years research has been done in several countries, with the object of contributing to the world's food supplies, on the application of nuclear methods to food preservation and processing. The importance of food preservation is of particular relevance in certain regions of the world where up to thirty per cent of harvested foodstuffs are being lost because of damage by animal pests and microorganisms. A series of international meetings have been held on this subject; the first, held in 1958 at Harwell, was followed by further meetings in 1960 in Paris and in 1961 in Brussels. The International Symposium on Food Irradiation organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations through their Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Agriculture, and held at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, Karlsruhe, from 6 to 10 June 1966, at the generous invitation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, is the most recent of this series of meetings. It was held for the purpose of exchanging the most up-to-date results of research, of contributing towards co-operative efforts between Member States, and of stimulating trade in the international exchange of irradiated products between nations. Papers describing research over the past fourteen years were given by outstanding authorities; the results point to a breakthrough having been achieved in the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation, notwithstanding some problems still to be solved, such as overcoming changes in colour, flavour, odour or texture. The Symposium was attended by over 200 scientists from 25 countries and four international organizations. Sixty-nine papers were presented. It was shown that a wide variety of foodstuffs exist for which radiation could be used for three different purposes: to produce indefinitely stable products, to rid food of organisms that constitute health hazards, and to extend the normal shelf or market life

  2. Food Irradiation. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    For some years research has been done in several countries, with the object of contributing to the world's food supplies, on the application of nuclear methods to food preservation and processing. The importance of food preservation is of particular relevance in certain regions of the world where up to thirty per cent of harvested foodstuffs are being lost because of damage by animal pests and microorganisms. A series of international meetings have been held on this subject; the first, held in 1958 at Harwell, was followed by further meetings in 1960 in Paris and in 1961 in Brussels. The International Symposium on Food Irradiation organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations through their Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Agriculture, and held at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, Karlsruhe, from 6 to 10 June 1966, at the generous invitation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, is the most recent of this series of meetings. It was held for the purpose of exchanging the most up-to-date results of research, of contributing towards co-operative efforts between Member States, and of stimulating trade in the international exchange of irradiated products between nations. Papers describing research over the past fourteen years were given by outstanding authorities; the results point to a breakthrough having been achieved in the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation, notwithstanding some problems still to be solved, such as overcoming changes in colour, flavour, odour or texture. The Symposium was attended by over 200 scientists from 25 countries and four international organizations. Sixty-nine papers were presented. It was shown that a wide variety of foodstuffs exist for which radiation could be used for three different purposes: to produce indefinitely stable products, to rid food of organisms that constitute health hazards, and to extend the normal shelf or market life

  3. International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    D. Ho Analyst in Agricultural Policy Charles E. Hanrahan Senior Specialist in Agricultural Policy February 3, 2010 Congressional Research Service...U.S. Treasury. 10 In United States agricultural policy , “monetization” is a P.L. 480 provision (Section 203) first included in the Food Security Act...Contact Information Melissa D. Ho Analyst in Agricultural Policy mho@crs.loc.gov, 7-5342 Charles E. Hanrahan Senior Specialist in Agricultural

  4. Food security politics and the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Philip; Schneider, Mindi

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews proposals regarding the recent food crisis in the context of a broader, threshold debate on the future of agriculture and food security. While the MDGs have focused on eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, the food crisis pushed the hungry over the one billion mark. There is thus a renewed focus on agricultural development, which pivots on the salience of industrial agriculture (as a supply source) in addressing food security. The World Bank's new 'agriculture for development' initiative seeks to improve small-farmer productivity with new inputs, and their incorporation into global markets via value-chains originating in industrial agriculture. An alternative claim, originating in 'food sovereignty' politics, demanding small-farmer rights to develop bio-regionally specific agro-ecological methods and provision for local, rather than global, markets, resonates in the IAASTD report, which implies agribusiness as usual ''is no longer an option'. The basic divide is over whether agriculture is a servant of economic growth, or should be developed as a foundational source of social and ecological sustainability. We review and compare these different paradigmatic approaches to food security, and their political and ecological implications.

  5. Research helps improve food security and nutrition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    agricultural productivity, improving nutrition, and raising incomes of men and women smallholder farmers. IDRC accomplishes this through joint partnerships with Global. Affairs Canada and the Australian Centre for International. Agricultural Research. Our researchers use a variety of approaches to: • Increase productivity of ...

  6. A Study on Food Security Problems and Business Credit Crisis in Chinese Food Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Yanni Li; Dan Cui; Wenxuan Zhao; Jiayin Li; Fuguang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Food security has become a big issue in China for some big incidents occurred in recent years. happened. This study has a survey on these cases and analyzes the reasons from the aspect of enterprises and government. Some solutions are put forward to solve the problems about food security and business credit crisis in China currently. The purpose is to guide enterprises to set up a sound operation system and gain long-term profits.

  7. International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, Mario D.

    2001-01-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor is described in the first part of the presentation. IRIS is a light water cooled reactor with an integral configuration, where steam generators, pumps and pressurizer are inside the reactor vessel. Partially funded by the DOE NERI program, IRIS is being developed by an international consortium of 16 organizations from seven countries. A key IRIS characteristic is its 'safety by design' approach which strives to eliminate, by design, as many accidents as possible rather than coping with their consequences. Initial returns are very positive; out of the eight Class IV accidents considered in the AP600 only one remains as a Class IV in IRIS, and at much reduced probability. Small-to-medium LOCAs have minimal consequences as the core remains safely under water for days, without the need for safety injection or water makeup. In spite of its novelty IRIS is firmly grounded on proven LWR technology and therefore a prototype is not needed to assure design certification. Rather, very extensive scaled tests will be performed to investigate the performance of in-vessel components such as steam generators and pumps, both individually and as interactive systems. Accident sequences will also be simulated and tested to prove IRIS safety by design claims. The first core fuel is less than 5% enriched and the fuel assembly is very similar to existing PWR assemblies, so there is no licensing challenge regarding the fuel. Because of the safety by design approach, yielding simplifications In design and accident management (e.g., IRIS does not have an emergency core cooling system), some accident scenarios are eliminated and others have lesser consequences. Thus, simplification and streamlining of the regulatory process might be possible. Risk informed regulation will be coupled with safety by design to show lower accident and damage probabilities. This could lead to a relaxation of siting regulatory requirements. It is

  8. Climate Change, Nutrition and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2010-01-01

    Food security and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa have long been affected by variations in the weather. Vulnerability to these hazards, along with economic shocks and an adverse political environment, is often uneven in a community. Some individuals and households are more susceptible to emergencies or crises than others, and thus determining who is most vulnerable are and how they are responding to a shock or crises is essential to understand the impact on food security. Daily, quantitative and global observations derived from satellite remote sensing instruments can contribute to understanding how food production has declined due to drought, flood or other weather-related hazard, but it can say nothing about the likelihood that the people living in that area are suffering food insecurity as a result. As Amartya Sen argued, a famine can occur even when there is an absolute surplus of food in a region. Thus organizations like the US Agency for International Development's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) work to integrate biophysical and socio-economic indicators together with on-the ground assessments to estimate the food security consequences of a variety of events. Climate change is likely to restructure local, regional and global agricultural systems and commodity markets. Although remote sensing information has been used to identify seasonal production declines for the past two decades, new ways of using the data will need to be developed in order to understand, document and respond to the impact of climate change on food security as it is manifested in shorter term shocks. In this article, the contribution of remote sensing is explained, along with the other factors that affect food security

  9. Science implementation of Forecast Mekong for food and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2012-01-01

    Forecast Mekong is a significant international thrust under the Delta Research and Global Observation Network (DRAGON) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and was launched in 2009 by the U.S. Department of State and the Foreign Ministers of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam under U.S. Department of State Secretary Hillary R. Clinton's Lower Mekong Initiative to enhance U.S. engagement with countries of the Lower Mekong River Basin in the areas of environment, health, education, and infrastructure. Since 2009, the USGS has worked closely with the U.S. Department of State; personnel from Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam; nongovernmental organizations; and academia to collect and use research and data from the Lower Mekong River Basin to provide hands-on results that will help decisionmakers in future planning and design for restoration, conservation, and management efforts in the Lower Mekong River Basin. In 2012 Forecast Mekong is highlighting the increasing cooperation between the United States and Lower Mekong River Basin countries in the areas of food and environmental security. Under the DRAGON, Forecast Mekong continues work in interactive data integration, modeling, and visualization system by initiating three-dimensional bathymetry and river flow data along with a pilot study of fish distribution, population, and migratory patterns in the Lower Mekong River Basin. When fully developed by the USGS, in partnership with local governments and universities throughout the Mekong River region, Forecast Mekong will provide valuable planning tools to visualize the consequences of climate change and river management.

  10. Climate change and food security: health impacts in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Iain R; Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Bentham, Graham; Boxall, Alistair B A; Draper, Alizon; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Hulme, Mike; Hunter, Paul R; Nichols, Gordon; Waldron, Keith W

    2012-11-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will affect global food production, with uncertain consequences for human health in developed countries. We investigated the potential impact of climate change on food security (nutrition and food safety) and the implications for human health in developed countries. Expert input and structured literature searches were conducted and synthesized to produce overall assessments of the likely impacts of climate change on global food production and recommendations for future research and policy changes. Increasing food prices may lower the nutritional quality of dietary intakes, exacerbate obesity, and amplify health inequalities. Altered conditions for food production may result in emerging pathogens, new crop and livestock species, and altered use of pesticides and veterinary medicines, and affect the main transfer mechanisms through which contaminants move from the environment into food. All these have implications for food safety and the nutritional content of food. Climate change mitigation may increase consumption of foods whose production reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Impacts may include reduced red meat consumption (with positive effects on saturated fat, but negative impacts on zinc and iron intake) and reduced winter fruit and vegetable consumption. Developed countries have complex structures in place that may be used to adapt to the food safety consequences of climate change, although their effectiveness will vary between countries, and the ability to respond to nutritional challenges is less certain. Climate change will have notable impacts upon nutrition and food safety in developed countries, but further research is necessary to accurately quantify these impacts. Uncertainty about future impacts, coupled with evidence that climate change may lead to more variable food quality, emphasizes the need to maintain and strengthen existing structures and policies to regulate food production, monitor food quality and safety, and

  11. Enabling Water-Energy–Food Nexus: A New Approach for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in Mountainous Landlocked Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek Bahadur Gurung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Majority of landlocked mountainous countries are poorly ranked in Human Development Index (HDI, mostly due to poor per capita agriculture production, increasing population, unemployment, expensive and delayed transportation including several other factors. Generally, economy of such countries substantially relies on subsistence agriculture, tourism, hydropower and largely on remittance etc. Recently, it has been argued that to utilize scarce suitable land efficiently for food production, poor inland transport, hydropower, irrigation, drinking water in integration with other developmental infrastructures, an overarching policy linking water - energy – food nexus within a country for combating water, energy and food security would be most relevant. Thus, in present paper it has been opined that promotion of such linkage via nexus approach is the key to sustainable development of landlocked mountainous countries. Major land mass in mountainous countries like Nepal remains unsuitable for agriculture, road and other infrastructure profoundly imposing food, nutrition and energy security. However, large pristine snowy mountains function as wildlife sanctuaries, pastures, watershed, recharge areas for regional and global water, food and energy security. In return, landlocked mountainous countries are offered certain international leverages. For more judicious trade off, it is recommended that specific countries aerial coverage of mountains would be more appropriate basis for such leverages. Moreover, for sustainability of mountainous countries an integrated approach enabling water - energy – food nexus via watershed-hydropower-irrigation-aquaculture-agriculture-integrated linking policy model is proposed. This model would enable protection of watershed for pico, micro, and mega hydro power plants and tail waters to be used for aquaculture or irrigation or drinking water purposes for food and nutrition security.

  12. Information and technology: Improving food security in Uganda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-06-23

    Jun 23, 2014 ... Information and technology: Improving food security in Uganda ... knowledge to make decisions about planting, harvesting, and managing livestock, but ... to be effective for minimizing risks and increasing agricultural productivity. ... In time, this network of information – made possible by digital technology ...

  13. Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and poverty reduction in ... “Drivers of development” is an old concept and it goes back to a generation of ... process of positive cumulative changes in the economy and in people's ... in general and how they relate to rice production and marketing are addressed.

  14. Pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural dwellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... among rural dwellers: Case of women pastoralists in ... The study of the pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural ... production, storage or trade but also and perhaps more ... overall rural development and poverty eradication, ... panying pressures to raise productivity and efficiency and.

  15. Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and poverty reduction in Sub-Sahara Africa. ... the popular conception of the 1950s with labour, surplus models (“development with unlimited supplies of labour”) with agriculture as an unlimited pool of costless labour, waiting to be transferred to the industrial sector.

  16. The Contribution of Urban Agriculture to Food Security of Individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research followed purposive sampling technique in order to select the study area. As it contains the largest number of individual formers practising urban ... to play a sign!ficant role in improving the households 'food security and income. It ...

  17. Small-scale Aquaculture to Strengthen Food Security in Cambodia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small-scale Aquaculture to Strengthen Food Security in Cambodia (CIFSRF) ... for their families' consumption in the same ponds as large fish, which can be sold for income. ... The project also studies opportunities to scale up the model for broader use ... Assessing improvements in nutrition outcomes following agricultural ...

  18. Managing Wetlands for Improved Food Security in Uganda | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will determine the food security status of households adjacent to wetlands and the part that wetlands resources contribute to it. They will analyze the tradeoffs in using wetlands for crop production. And, they will test, adapt and promote agricultural technologies that enhance productivity while minimizing ...

  19. Shocks in economic growth=shocking effects for food security?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavallari, A.; Fellmann, T.; Hubertus Gay, H.

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic and financial turmoil raises the question on how global economic growth affects agricultural commodity markets and, hence, food security. To address this question, this paper assesses the potential impacts of faster economic growth in developed and emerging economies on the one

  20. Analysis of food security and poverty status of rural farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the relationship between poverty and food security among rural faming households in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling was used to select respondents for the study. Questionnaire was administered to one hundred and eighty households who were randomly selected from three different Local ...

  1. The Land and Agrarian Reform and Food Security: Lessons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence the aim of this article is to create a historical review of the land and agrarian issues in developing countries in general, and in Africa in particular, as well as map up a landscape of the political economy of land and agrarian reform in the current millennium, and demonstrate how these relate to the issue of food security ...

  2. The Paris Agreement on Climate Change: Agriculture and Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan

    Climate change has a profound impact on agriculture and on food security. At the same time agriculture contributes to climate change to a considerable extent. Fortunately there is also much to gain since the agricultural sector holds significant climate change mitigation potential through reductions

  3. Global change, urban livelihoods and food security; presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Food security research and policy have focused more on the rural poor where the incidence and depth of poverty is more pronounced. Urban livelihoods are based on cash income and many people in urban areas are employed in the informal sector which...

  4. Managing Wetlands for Improved Food Security in Uganda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, little is known about the contribution of wetland resources to household food security or the environmental impact of using wetlands for agriculture or other purposes. Researchers will ... IDRC is pleased to announce the results of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  5. Household food security status and coping strategies of rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household food security status and coping strategies of rural dwellers in Irewole local government areas of Osun State. CG Ajala. Abstract. No Abstract. Bowen Journal of Agriculture Vol. 3 (2) 2006: pp. 192-199. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Phosphorus recycling and food security in the long run

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weikard, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Food security for all is a global political goal and an outstanding moral concern. The common response to this concern is agricultural intensification, which includes among other things increasing inputs of fertilisers. The paper addresses the fact that phosphorus (P) is essential for

  7. Pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural dwellers case of women pastoralist was carried out in Oyo state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 100 women. The women are purposively sampled such that their husbands were pastoralists or that they are involved in pastoral farming.

  8. Contribution of food security projects on poverty alleviation to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite South Africa's economic growth having been accelerated considerably in the country, poverty levels have not decreased as one would have experienced. Food Security Projects initiated by the government of South Africa in order to help alleviate poverty within Limpopo Province have proved unsustainable and ...

  9. Food Security: Selected Global and U.S. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Food security is researched and dealt with on local, regional, national, and global levels with solutions ranging from local farmers' market initiatives to increasing crop yields through genetically modified plants to streamlining global supply chains. Because of its broad, interdisciplinary nature, it is necessary to narrow the focus of this…

  10. Impact of the national special programme for food security on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of the national special programme for food security on poverty alleviation among women in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... In addition, majority (60.2%) of the participants were literate and participated more in cassava and maize production, while insufficient loan ranked first among the problems encountered by the ...

  11. Towards Food Security and Youth Participation in Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling implications were raised to ensure food security in the two States, Cross River and Akwa Ibom and the nation at large such as reversing rural-urban migration to urban-rural migration, providing more social amenities in the rural areas, giving interest free loans and giving the youths adequate political education ...

  12. Agricultural pest control programmes, food security and safety | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural pest management control strategies are primarily concerned with food security and safety. Popular pest control methods include application of synthetic pesticides, biopesticides (plant extracts), non-chemical pest management and integrated pest management (IPM). The resistance of some of the pests to the ...

  13. Managing climatic risks for enhanced food security: Key information capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaghi, R.; Badjeck, M.C.; Bakari, D.; Pauw, de E.D.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Defourny, P.; Donato, S.; Gommes, R.; Jlibene, M.; Ravelo, A.C.; Sivakumar, M.V.K.; Telahigue, N.; Tychon, B.

    2010-01-01

    Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational

  14. Modelling effective and simultaneous promotion of food security and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This ineffectiveness extends to promoting household food security within the context of encouraging biodiversity conservation on farm lands. To examine this, this paper draws on recently conducted research to sketch the current model within which extension pursues these seemingly dichotomous objectives and identifies ...

  15. Food Security Problems in Borabu Division, Nyamira District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food Security Problems in Borabu Division, Nyamira District. ... Finally, the paper highlights some of the major problems associated with land use for instance, labour shortages, lack of credit facilities, type of farm implements used, overutilization of land, limited extension services, and extinction of indigenous crops. Last but ...

  16. Emerging Trends in Development of International Information Security Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the key trends shaping the international regime on information security. International cooperation in this area at the global level encounters contradictions of state interest. The main actors of the information security are the United States, Russia, China and the EU countries (Britain, France and Germany. The main contradiction is developing between the US on one side and Russia and China on the other. EU countries occupy the middle position, gravitating to that of US. The article proves that international cooperation on information security will reflect the overall logic of the development of international cooperation, which is characterized by a new model of cooperation, with the participation of state and non-state actors, known as multi-stakeholder partnerships and multi-level cooperation. The logic of the formation of an international regime on information security is closest to the logic of the formation of the international non-proliferation regime. It is in the interest of Russia to support the trend towards regionalization of information security regime. Russia can form a regional information security regime in the former Soviet Union on the basis of the CSTO and SCO and potentially on a wider Eurasian space. Such regional regime would give Russia an opportunity to shape the international regime and closely monitor emerging information security issues in the former Soviet Union, and remove the potential threat of "color revolutions".

  17. International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT) was set up in November 1978 for a period of five years at the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation, Wageningen, The Netherlands under an Agreement between the FAO, IAEA and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries of the Government of the Netherlands. Under this Agreement, the irradiation facilities, office space and services of the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation are put at IFFIT's disposal. Also the closely located Research Foundation, ITAL, provides certain facilities and laboratory services within the terms of the Agreement. The FAO and IAEA contribute US-Dollar 25,000. Annually for the duration of IFFIT. (orig.) [de

  18. FOOD SECURITY, NUTRITION AND SUSTAINABILITY AT RESTAURANT UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thainara Araujo Franklin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy eating is one of the factors that may influence the establishment of the health of an individual and the health quality of food consumed. Faced with the daily rush, with long days of activities, a large number of the population uses University restaurants for food. Thus, these sites should pay attention to the variables involved in the process of food production through the use of safe food and adequate nutrition for consumers. For this reason, knowledge of food security and sustainable development condition are relevant for discussion and information about employee training for food handling and conservation of these. Thus, the sanitary conditions and knowledge of restaurant employees on this topic were collected through a questionnaire composed of 18 questions containing information on sociodemographic, food security, nutrition and sustainability. We used the Packcage The Statistical Software for Social Sciences for Windows (SPSS version 21.0 for tabulation and analysis of data. It was found that most employees responded correctly to questions relating to hygiene and sanitary practices and have knowledge about the sustainable development of the restaurant.

  19. Matriarchy, Buddhism, and food security in Sanephong, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisai, Solot; Chotiboriboon, Sinee; Sapsuwan, Charana; Tantivatanasathien, Praiwan; Setapun, Nuchjaree; Duangnosan, Prangtong; Thongkam, Nattapach; Chuangyanyong, Sasiwimon

    2017-11-01

    Sanephong is a matriarchal Karen community located in western Thailand. The community benefits greatly from the availability of local foods, such as cereals, tubers, wild vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, and animals. In the first phase of this project, 387 distinct local foods were identified, which were shown to be good sources of energy, protein, and vitamins. Despite the availability of a variety of nutritious local foods, the majority of households surveyed expressed concern over a decline in local foods due to changing socio-economic and environmental conditions. This study used a qualitative research approach to look at the dual influences of matriarchy and Buddhism on food security in the community. Through this approach, matriarchal values central to the community were adopted as a framework; these included care, consensus, collaboration, and cosmological respect. In Sanephong, women are central to life in the community, and matriarchal cultural practices reflect a nurturing spirit-for both the earth and family. The community practices Buddhism, which is very complementary to the matriarchal system. A type of gift economy within the Buddhist context, known as dhana, transfers food from the wealthy to the poor with no expectation of reciprocity. Consequently, matriarchy and Buddhism jointly promote food security in the community. Studies of matriarchal societies help society-at-large to understand the potential benefits of systems that contrast the current patriarchal paradigm. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Legal dictionary of food security in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Collart Dutilleul , François; Bugnicourt , Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This dictionary contains about 170 entries and presents an overview of the different issues related to worldwide food insecurity, with a particular yet not exclusive focus on the existing rules and regulations.

  1. Experiments in Globalisation, Food Security and Land Use Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H.; Rounsevell, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels. PMID:25437010

  2. Experiments in globalisation, food security and land use decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H; Rounsevell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels.

  3. Experiments in globalisation, food security and land use decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calum Brown

    Full Text Available The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels.

  4. Security and Office Administration Coordinator | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Under the supervision of the Manager, Local Operations (MLO), the Security and ... Sees to the continuous updating and relevance of the Business Continuity Plan ... BCP to local management (Manager and Regional Director) and to the Head ...

  5. Ecosystem and Food Security in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, C. B.

    2011-12-01

    Observed and projected impacts of climate change for ecosystem and food security tend to appear as changes in the risk of both desirable and undesirable outcomes. As a consequence, it is useful to frame the challenge of adaptation to a changing climate as a problem in risk management. For some kinds of impacts, the risks are relatively well characterized. For others, they are poorly known. Especially for the cases where the risks are poorly known, effective adaptation will need to consider approaches that build dynamic portfolios of options, based on learning from experience. Effective adaptation approaches also need to consider the risks of threshold-type responses, where opportunities for gradual adaptation based on learning may be limited. Finally, effective adaptation should build on the understanding that negative impacts on ecosystems and food security often result from extreme events, where a link to climate change may be unclear now and far into the future. Ecosystem and food security impacts that potentially require adaptation to a changing climate vary from region to region and interact strongly with actions not related to climate. In many ecosystems, climate change shifts the risk profile to increase risks of wildfire and biological invasions. Higher order risks from factors like pests and pathogens remain difficult to quantify. For food security, observational evidence highlights threshold-like behavior to high temperature in yields of a number of crops. But the risks to food security may be much broader, encompassing risks to availability of irrigation, degradation of topsoil, and challenges of storage and distribution. A risk management approach facilitates consideration of all these challenges with a unified framework.

  6. Exploring water and food security: the water footprint of domestic food production in the Gaza Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh

  7. The cult of the amateur in agriculture threatens food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2008-09-01

    The incorporation of science and technology into agriculture has led to enormous growth in crop yields, providing food security in many countries. From the 1950s onwards there has been increasing interference in agricultural policy by a few scientists who are marginal to agriculture and from a variety of unqualified groups. These groups and individuals have used fear and anxiety and have greatly exaggerated minor problems to persuade an unqualified public of supposed dangers in food and to try and change agricultural policy. Fear and emotion do not lead to good policy, and the cult of the amateur that has developed could have serious repercussions on vital food security and future agriculture in developing countries; it must be soundly rejected.

  8. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Guarino, L.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop

  9. Food governance transformation : aligning food security with sustainable farming practices in developing communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional approaches used to improve farming practices and access to food in developing communities are underpinned by policy, technology, and the science of modernization. The focus has been on securing a sufficient quantity of food derived from extensive monocultures. This quantity focus is

  10. The International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Security Education Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAUNEGGER-GUELICH, A.; RUKHLO, V.; GREGORIC, M.; COLGAN, P.

    2011-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has not diminished. In response to the concerns of States, an international nuclear security framework has emerged through the establishment of a number of legally binding and non-binding international instruments which obligates or commits States to carry out a number of actions to protect against nuclear terrorism. In this context, the need for human resource development programmes in nuclear security was underscored at several International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conferences and Board of Governors' Meetings. In the pursuit of this need, the IAEA provides a comprehensive nuclear security training programme to States on a regular basis, and has developed a concept that seeks to effectively pass ownership of nuclear security knowledge and skills to States through the establishment of a Nuclear Security Support Centre. In addition, the IAEA has developed a technical guidance titled IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 12 - Educational Programme in Nuclear Security that consists of a model of a Master of Science (M.Sc.) and assists educational institutions to provide nuclear security education. The article sets out IAEA efforts in the area of nuclear security training and education, including the assistance to States for establishing a Nuclear Security Support Centre. It underlines the objective and content of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 12, discusses different concepts on how to establish nuclear security at universities and, emphasizes on the IAEA efforts to assist educational and research institutions, and other stake holders to enhance global nuclear security by developing, sharing and promoting excellence in nuclear security education. (author)

  11. Food sovereignty, food security and health equity: a meta-narrative mapping exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Anelyse M; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M

    2015-10-01

    There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity--i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced--and food systems, where the concepts of 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a 'meta-narrative synthesis' on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1--Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2--Occupational Exposures; 3--Environmental Change; 4--Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5--Intake of Contaminants; 6--Nutrition; 7--Social Determinants of Health and 8--Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to strengthen both food

  12. Subsistence Food Production Practices: An Approach to Food Security and Good Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankoana, Sejabaledi A

    2017-10-05

    Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and good health. Data collected from a purposive sample show that subsistence crops produced in the home-gardens and fields, and those collected from the wild, are sources of grain, vegetables and legumes. Sources of grain and legumes are produced in the home-gardens and fields, whereas vegetables sources are mostly collected in the wild and fewer in the home-gardens. These food sources have perceived health potential in child and maternal care of primary health care.

  13. McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (McGovern-Dole program) helps support education, child development, and food security for some of the world's poorest children. It provides for donations of U.S. agricultural products, as well as financial and technical assistance, for school feeding and maternal and…

  14. The Association between Food Security and Store-Specific and Overall Food Shopping Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaonan; Liese, Angela D; Hibbert, James; Bell, Bethany A; Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A

    2017-12-01

    Food security is a severe problem in the United States. Few studies have examined its relationship with food shopping behaviors. This study aimed to examine the association between food security and store-specific and overall food shopping among residents of low-income neighborhoods. We conducted a cross-sectional study. Five hundred twenty-seven households were recruited from two counties in South Carolina from November 2013 to May 2014, and 474 households were included in the final analysis. Food security was assessed using the 18-item US-Household Food Security Module questionnaire, and classified into three categories: high or marginal food security (FS), low food security (LFS), and very low food security (VLFS). Store-specific shopping behaviors including frequency, store type, and transportation were queried via in-person interview for the three most-frequented grocery stores. Distance from participants' homes to their reported stores was calculated using Geographic Information Systems. Multivariate linear regression for analyses of distance and frequency and multinomial/ordinary logistic regression for analyses of store type and transportation were used. Compared to FS participants, a significantly higher proportion of VLFS participants reported a convenience/dollar store as their most-frequented store (odds ratio [OR] 2.31, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.95) or a lack of transportation (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.33). They also shopped less frequently (b=-.31, P=0.03) at their third most-frequented store and traveled fewer total miles for shopping (b=-4.71, P=0.04). In analyses considering all stores jointly, LFS participants had lower odds of shopping at both supermarkets and convenience/dollar stores (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.91) compared to food-secure residents. The current findings suggest that households with VLFS tend to shop more frequently in stores that have less-healthful options, such as convenience/dollar stores. These findings lend support to ongoing

  15. Food Security Under Shifting Economic, Demographic, and Climatic Conditions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Global demand for food, feed, and fuel will continue to rise in a more populous and affluent world. Meeting this demand in the future will become increasingly challenging with global climate change; when production shocks stemming from climate variability are added to the new mean climate state, food markets could become more volatile. This talk will focus on the interacting market effects of demand and supply for major food commodities, with an eye on climate-related supply trends and shocks. Lessons from historical patterns of climate variability (e.g., ENSO and its global teleconnections) will be used to infer potential food security outcomes in the event of abrupt changes in the mean climate state. Domestic food and trade policy responses to crop output and price volatility in key producing and consuming nations, such as export bans and import tariffs, will be discussed as a potentially major destabilizing force, underscoring the important influence of uncertainty in achieving--or failing to achieve--food security.

  16. Food security assessment in the coastal area of Demak Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harini, R.; Handayani, H. N.; Ramdani, F. R.

    2018-04-01

    Food security is an issue of national and global level. Food is a basic human need to live. Without food will threaten human life. This research was conducted in coastal area of Demak Regency. This research is to understand the potential of human resources, natural resources and assess the level of food security of coastal communities. The data used are primary data through interviews with the local community. Also used Secondary data from government agencies. Data analysis used qualitative and quantitative descriptive methods through graphs, tables and maps. The results showed that potential of human resources in Demak coastal area (Wedung, Purworejo, and Sidogemah villages) is low. It can be indicated from education level of respondents in Demak are elementary school and junior high school. Beside, total households income are about 2-4 million. This study found that the households sampled are 90% is food insecured households. The most of households in Demak coastal area are about 90% households include on insecurity food category.

  17. Climate resilient crops for improving global food security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankher, Om Parkash; Foyer, Christine H

    2018-05-01

    Food security and the protection of the environment are urgent issues for global society, particularly with the uncertainties of climate change. Changing climate is predicted to have a wide range of negative impacts on plant physiology metabolism, soil fertility and carbon sequestration, microbial activity and diversity that will limit plant growth and productivity, and ultimately food production. Ensuring global food security and food safety will require an intensive research effort across the food chain, starting with crop production and the nutritional quality of the food products. Much uncertainty remains concerning the resilience of plants, soils, and associated microbes to climate change. Intensive efforts are currently underway to improve crop yields with lower input requirements and enhance the sustainability of yield through improved biotic and abiotic stress tolerance traits. In addition, significant efforts are focused on gaining a better understanding of the root/soil interface and associated microbiomes, as well as enhancing soil properties. © 2018 The Authors Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Improving food security empowerment in Indonesia- Timor Leste border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, G. D. P.; Yustikaningrum, R. V.

    2018-03-01

    Post Referendum 1999, Indonesia and Timor Leste have a strategic challenge to provide food consistently around the border. This research intended to discover an appropriate strategy to tackle fragility of food security in the land border of Indonesia-Timor Leste, to improve collaborative actions between parties, as well as, opportunity to actualize food cross-border trading between local farmers and factories. For the result, there are two approaches will be applied. First, the empowerment term refers to the strategy of empowerment in strengthening the capability and capacity of human capital as one of the determinant factors of the resilience and self-sufficiency achievement. Second, the gender approach looks at the women and men build confidence, resilience, and independence which one of them through an educational intervention that enable the local people to manage food chain. Atambua is a region count as relatively as high poverty, poor human capital, weak quality and competitiveness of agriculture products, livestock and fishery, SMEs, and infrastructure. Thus, field study research is applied to find the actual and strategic effort aim to lead the achievement of food security and to engage Atambua over food trade to Timor Leste.

  19. Consumer health hazards in international food trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Emerging risks have been defined as potential food-borne, feed-borne, or diet-related hazards that may become a risk for human health in the future. This study disentangles how emerging risks relate to international trade. It develops a basic framework for the economic analysis of emerging risks,

  20. Factors affecting food security and contribution of modern technologies in food sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premanandh, Jagadeesan

    2011-12-01

    The concept of food insecurity is complex and goes beyond the simplistic idea of a country's inability to feed its population. The global food situation is redefined by many driving forces such as population growth, availability of arable lands, water resources, climate change and food availability, accessibility and loss. The combined effect of these factors has undeniably impacted global food production and security. This article reviews the key factors influencing global food insecurity and emphasises the need to adapt science-based technological innovations to address the issue. Although anticipated benefits of modern technologies suggest a level of food production that will sustain the global population, both political will and sufficient investments in modern agriculture are needed to alleviate the food crisis in developing countries. In this globalised era of the 21st century, many determinants of food security are trans-boundary and require multilateral agreements and actions for an effective solution. Food security and hunger alleviation on a global scale are within reach provided that technological innovations are accepted and implemented at all levels. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  2. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  3. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  4. ESA's Food Security Thematic Exploitation Platform "Supporting Sustainable Food Production from Space"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliams, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    In line with the paradigm shift in Earth Observation of "Bringing the users to the data", ESA provides collaborative, virtual work environments giving access to EO data and tools, processors, and ICT resources through coherent interfaces. These coherent interfaces are categorized thematically, tailored to the related user communities and named Thematic Exploitation Platforms (TEP). The Food Security Thematic Exploitation Platform (FS-TEP) is the youngest out of seven TEPs and is developed in an agile mode in close coordination with its users. It will provide a "one stop platform" for the extraction of information from EO data for services in the food security sector mainly in Europe & Africa, allowing both access to EO data and processing of these data sets. Thereby it will foster smart, data-intensive agricultural and aquacultural applications in the scientific, private and public domain. The FS-TEP builds on a large and heterogeneous user community, spanning from application developers in agriculture to aquaculture, from small-scale farmers to agricultural industry, from public science to the finance and insurance sectors, from local and national administration to international agencies. To meet the requirements of these groups, the FS-TEP will provide different frontend interfaces. Service pilots will demonstrate the platform's ability to support agriculture and aquaculture with tailored EO based information services.The project team developing the FS-TEP and implementing pilot services during a 30 months period (started in April 2017) is led by Vista GmbH, Germany, supported by CGI Italy, VITO, Belgium, and Hatfield Consultants, Canada. It is funded by ESA under contract number 4000120074/17/I-EF.

  5. Biosocial risks of food: international aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Corvo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption is influenced by a series of issues that affect both individuals, and people and cultures of the different parts of the world. It studies biosocial risks that have dramatic implications: obesity, anorexia and bulimia; malnutrition and hunger, involving more than 800 million people; the waste food, a real paradox of the global world; the land grabbing. These are very different problems because of causes and dynamics, but all of them require a profound change to be affected: a greater awareness of eating behaviour, an educational action on food topics, an intervention of regulatory institutions, local and international, which guarantees a fair market for products and food sovereignty.

  6. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. [Calculation on ecological security baseline based on the ecosystem services value and the food security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling; Jia, Qi-jian; Li, Chao; Xu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of coastal economy in Hebei Province caused rapid transition of coastal land use structure, which has threatened land ecological security. Therefore, calculating ecosystem service value of land use and exploring ecological security baseline can provide the basis for regional ecological protection and rehabilitation. Taking Huanghua, a city in the southeast of Hebei Province, as an example, this study explored the joint point, joint path and joint method between ecological security and food security, and then calculated the ecological security baseline of Huanghua City based on the ecosystem service value and the food safety standard. The results showed that ecosystem service value of per unit area from maximum to minimum were in this order: wetland, water, garden, cultivated land, meadow, other land, salt pans, saline and alkaline land, constructive land. The order of contribution rates of each ecological function value from high to low was nutrient recycling, water conservation, entertainment and culture, material production, biodiversity maintenance, gas regulation, climate regulation and environmental purification. The security baseline of grain production was 0.21 kg · m⁻², the security baseline of grain output value was 0.41 yuan · m⁻², the baseline of ecosystem service value was 21.58 yuan · m⁻², and the total of ecosystem service value in the research area was 4.244 billion yuan. In 2081 the ecological security will reach the bottom line and the ecological system, in which human is the subject, will be on the verge of collapse. According to the ecological security status, Huanghua can be divided into 4 zones, i.e., ecological core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecological restoration zone and human activity core zone.

  8. Time to eat? The relationship between food security and food-related time use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Timothy K M; Nanney, M Susie; Tuttle, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In the present analysis, we seek to establish a relationship between time spent on food-related activities and food security status as well as between time spent on these activities and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp Program) participation and benefit level. After matching similar households using Coarsened Exact Matching, we estimate the relationship between food-related time, food insecurity and SNAP participation and benefit level using a comprehensive data set that combines two subsets of the Current Population Survey from years 2004-2010: the Food Security Supplement and the American Time Use Survey. City, suburban and rural areas of the USA. Non-institutionalized US population over the age of 15 years. Total sample size is 10 247 households. In single households, food insecurity and SNAP participation are associated with 20% more time in meal preparation and 13% less time eating. Similarly, in married households, SNAP participation and benefit level are associated with 32% less time in meal preparation while food insecurity is associated with 17% less time eating and 14% less time in grocery shopping. A significant relationship exists between time spent on food-related activities and food insecurity and SNAP. This implies that federal and state government may need to consider the time constraints many low-income households face when reforming food assistance programmes.

  9. The Factor of Food in Biopolitics and National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kravchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the role of food factor in the liberal biopolitics from its birth to the present day. According to the author, the consequences of this policy of food administration are ambivalent in character. On the one hand, there are real gains in mass production of food, its delivery to the consumer, medical supervision of the implementation of its quality. However, on the other hand, the basic principles of this biopolitics - scientism, formal rationalism, pragmatism and commercialism have not allowed to solve the problems of social inequality in the access to healthy food and of illuminating the hunger. In the end of the last century the liberal biopolitics acquired globo-networked and neo-liberal character but the corresponding transition from the national to the global scale administration of food production only intensified risks and challenges of modern human nutrition. In a number of countries including Russia there appeared the problems of food security. The adopted national programs to address these challenges in a "world risk society" (U. Beck will not solve them without fully understanding and practical implementation of the principle of the indivisibility of food security for all peoples of the world and implementation of the global food security. To achieve this, the author believes, it is necessary to abandon the "repair" of the current neo-liberal wing of biopolitics and its pragmatic and mercantilist approaches to human nutrition and pass over to a humanistic biopolitics. There offered a concrete roadmap motion to it, in particular, intending to strengthen the natural sciences and engineering for the production of food with the theoretical instruments of social sciences and humanities; to replace the outdated positivistic, scientistic postulate «knowledge - power" with the formula of ethical, humanistically oriented responsibility of scientists: "the integral knowledge of all sciences - quality food for the health of all

  10. Security as a Power Element within Contemporary International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Gabriel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, more than ever, in a globalized and constantly changing world, Europe has to face new stakes and challenges. The globalization, climate change, power supply and the new threats to security are challenges that Europe of the XXIst century has to cope with. The early XXIst century coincides with a new era in the international politics, the future evolution of the worls and the new international order, with the economy and security being the central spots.

  11. Overview of the terrorist threat to international peace and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution deals with the implications of terrorism for international peace and security and the escalation to mass terrorism. The topics covered are: impact of the latest terrorist events on the United States, impact on the international community; illegitimacy of terrorism; need for global action; the role of the united Nations; the crucial role for disarmament and counter-proliferation activities, especially in finding means of enhancing the security of materials that could easily be misused

  12. Business opportunities for aquaculture in Kenya; With special reference to food security : Key findings & Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothuis, A.J.; Duijn, van A.P.; Rijsingen, J.C.M.; Pijl, van der W.; Rurangwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess the potential role of aquaculture in improving food security in Kenya. It addresses current bottlenecks that prevent aquaculture from achieving its food security objectives and identifies possible interventions. This study furthermore explores business opportunities for

  13. The Internal Aspects of Ukrainian National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazhenov, Igor

    1997-01-01

    .... Poor economic conditions, organized crime, high levels of corruption within the government, and an irresponsible parliament are the primary causes of instability in Ukraine. Resolution of these issues is vital to Ukrainian National Security as well as the continuation of Ukrainian independence.

  14. International Conference SES 2009: Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: Opening addresses; (I) Energy policy; (II) Environment, Renewable sources and NPPs; (III) Secure energy supply - New nuclear units. Verbal 21 presentations have been inputted into INIS, all in the form of the full authors' presentations.

  15. New Insights on AIDS, Food, and Nutrition | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-14

    Oct 14, 2010 ... Food Security, Livelihoods and HIV: Challenges and Responses ... that may otherwise have to take children out of school and reduce food intake. ... transfer programs can provide communities and families with safety nets in ...

  16. Energy security for India: Biofuels, energy efficiency and food productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts

  17. Minapadi Development Strategy in Supporting National Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Sri; Bambang, Azis Nur

    2018-02-01

    Efforts to achieve food security, especially food self-sufficiency, face severe challenges. Intensification needs to be done in optimizing the existing land by applying integrated agriculture. One of them is by integrating agriculture and fishery aspect with implementation of minapadi. Minapadi cultivation has actually grown since a long time, but in the course of time this system Began displaced because of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Become flagship Minapadi back in line with the increasing public awareness of the importance of sustainable environment, health, increasing demand for organic products that are free from pesticide residues which means safe for consumption. Minapadi is the answer to the fulfillment of people's need for carbohydrate and protein food. Blending the fulfillment of carbohydrates is rice as the staple food of most people with the fulfillment of animal protein from fish commodities to add nutritional value. In realizing the food security strategy is required Minapadi development. This descriptive research aims to find out various minapadi development strategies in several regions with different methods based on the literature and previous studies. The result is the formulation of minapadi development strategy in an area not necessarily can be applied in other areas.This occurs because of differences in setting criteria/ variables based on the characteristics and potential of a region, the strengths and opportunities, as well as the weaknesses and threats that the area may encounter.

  18. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Aaron, Debra K; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. The Concept of Security in International Relations Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orozco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War and the emergence of globalisation have transformed the reality of International Relations, which has meant a change in the theories which this reality had assumed. The concept of security reveals itself as an organisational idea on the different phenomena of globalisation, carrying out a programme of research that goes beyond the realistic presumptions of military power or of the idealistic principles of research for peace. This article explores the new meanings of security for International Relations theory and discusses the theoretical models that influence policy design and that aim to confront the problems and challenges of security in globalisation.

  20. Debating food security policy in two different ideational settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    in Australia and Norway is compared. In Australia, agricultural normalism (agricultural markets and production are considered to be similar to those of other economic sectors) has been dominant since the mid-1980s, while Norwegian agricultural policy making has been dominated by agricultural exceptionalism...... (agriculture is considered a unique economic sector with special market and production conditions). It is demonstrated in the article how these two opposing institutionalised ideational foundations have influenced the nature of the food security debate in the two countries. In Australia, the debate emphasises...... the positive role of the market and trade in providing global food security. In Norway, the debate highlights the need to regulate market forces and restrict trade in order to allow countries to develop their own agricultural sectors....

  1. FINANCIAL SECURITY OF FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the fi nancial security of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009–2013, with particular emphasis on the processing industry of milk and cheese production, including those operating in the form of dairy cooperatives. The analysis was conducted using unpublished data of GUS, as well as individual fi nancial data on dairy cooperatives. The study indicates that the manufacturing sector of food and beverage production, as well as milk processing and cheese making, according to the established measures of fi nancial security, can be considered safe. This assessment, however, is varied and results from the specifi c industries, especially in relation to capital management.

  2. Climate Change Dynamics and Imperatives for Food Security in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide D. Onafeso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Decadal variability in African rainfall is projected from General Circulation Models (GCMs to continue under elevated greenhouse gas scenarios. Effects on rain intensity, spatio-temporal variability of growing seasons, flooding, drought, and land-use change impose feedbacks at regional-local scales. Yet, empirical knowledge of associated impacts on crop yield is limited; thus, we examined the imperatives for food security in Nigeria. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression suggests impending drought in the northern region where livestock farming is predominant. Relative contributions of climate independent variables in determining crop yield by backward selection procedures with stepwise approach indexed the impacts of annual climate variability by a parameter computed as annual yield minus mean annual yield divided by the standard deviation. Results show Z-distribution approximately 5 to + 5, when 3 indicate impacts significant at 95% confidence levels. In conclusion, we established the interwoven relationship between climatic change and food security.

  3. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  4. Future Oceans: Meeting the Challenges of Securing Aquatic Food Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Dieckmann, U.

    2012-01-01

    Seafood is the primary source of animal protein for more than one billion people. Many economies and communities, in particular those in developing nations and coastal regions, depend on fisheries. Whereas the dire effects of overfishing on open-access ocean fisheries are already recognized, impacts of catches on freshwater systems are still underestimated. IIASA’s fisheries research elucidates how to secure and expand aquatic food resources, emphasizing three topical challenges. First, impro...

  5. Food Security in India, China, and the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    efficient cultivars (a plant produced by selective breeding), genetically modified organisms ( GMOs ), and building canals to transport water to...genetically modified organisms ( GMOs ). DARPA was interested in the details of China’s agriculture, trade, and future prospects for food security...to breed cultivars that are more water-efficient and tolerant of increased cropping intensity (Zhang et al. 2013). Despite import bans on GMO crops

  6. Agriculture in Bangladesh : A Note on Food Security by Enhancing Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Awami League's Election Manifesto 2008 appropriately recognizes the importance of ensuring food security for all in Bangladesh. Food Security requires increasing agricultural growth which in turn is a key factor in reducing poverty in the country. Food security also requires increasing agricultural production and protecting consumers. Sustained production increases, in turn, require tec...

  7. Biofuels and food security: biting off more than we can chew?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Rivero Acha, Sergio Luis; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the demonization of biofuels in relation to food security and assess whether or not the negativity towards biofuels is justified. We first examine the concept of food security which has been a concern long before the emergence of biofuels. We show that creating food security is

  8. Distribution of Budget Shares for Food: An Application of Quantile Regression to Food Security 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. Moss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines, using quantile regression, the linkage between food security and efforts to enhance smallholder coffee producer incomes in Rwanda. Even though in Rwanda smallholder coffee producer incomes have increased, inhabitants these areas still experience stunting and wasting. This study examines whether the distribution of the income elasticity for food is the same for coffee and noncoffee growing provinces. We find that that the share of expenditures on food is statistically different in coffee growing and noncoffee growing provinces. Thus, the increase in expenditure on food is smaller for coffee growing provinces than noncoffee growing provinces.

  9. The international safeguards and domestic safeguards and security interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitworth, A.

    1996-01-01

    The International Safeguards Division, in conjunction with the Office of Safeguards and Security, organized a workshop on the international safeguards/domestic safeguards and security interface that was held in March 1996. The purpose of the workshop was to identify and resolve domestic safeguards and security issues associated with the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The workshop drew heavily upon lessons learned in the application of IAEA safeguards at storage facilities in oak Ridge, Hanford, and Rocky Flats. It was anticipated that the workshop would facilitate a consistent DOE safeguards and security approach for the implementation of IAEA safeguards in the DOE complex. This paper discusses the issues and resolutions of several issues raised at the workshop that involve primarily the domestic material control and accountability program

  10. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture without compromising food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Soussana, Jean-François; Levesque, Antoine; Valin, Hugo; Wollenberg, Eva; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Fricko, Oliver; Gusti, Mykola; Herrero, Mario; Smith, Pete; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To keep global warming possibly below 1.5 °C and mitigate adverse effects of climate change, agriculture, like all other sectors, will have to contribute to efforts in achieving net negative emissions by the end of the century. Cost-efficient distribution of mitigation across regions and economic sectors is typically calculated using a global uniform carbon price in climate stabilization scenarios. However, in reality such a carbon price would substantially affect food availability. Here, we assess the implications of climate change mitigation in the land use sector for agricultural production and food security using an integrated partial equilibrium modelling framework and explore ways of relaxing the competition between mitigation in agriculture and food availability. Using a scenario that limits global warming cost-efficiently across sectors to 1.5 °C, results indicate global food calorie losses ranging from 110-285 kcal per capita per day in 2050 depending on the applied demand elasticities. This could translate into a rise in undernourishment of 80-300 million people in 2050. Less ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in the land use sector reduces the associated food security impact significantly, however the 1.5 °C target would not be achieved without additional reductions outside the land use sector. Efficiency of GHG mitigation will also depend on the level of participation globally. Our results show that if non-Annex-I countries decide not to contribute to mitigation action while other parties pursue their mitigation efforts to reach the global climate target, food security impacts in these non-Annex-I countries will be higher than if they participate in a global agreement, as inefficient mitigation increases agricultural production costs and therefore food prices. Land-rich countries with a high proportion of emissions from land use change, such as Brazil, could reduce emissions with only a marginal effect on food availability. In contrast

  11. Visualizing alternative phosphorus scenarios for future food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina-Simone Neset

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialogue on the technical, behavioral and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real-time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialogue to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1 the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2 the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3 the potential of a decreased animal product consumption, and (4 the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency

  12. Visualizing Alternative Phosphorus Scenarios for Future Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neset, Tina-Simone; Cordell, Dana; Mohr, Steve; VanRiper, Froggi; White, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure, and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialog on the technical, behavioral, and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialog to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1) the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2) the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3) the potential of decreased animal product consumption, and (4) the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency and yield gains in

  13. The International Food Policy Research Institute: Sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Food Policy Research Institute(IFPRI) mainly works for sustainable food security and end of world hunger. The vision of this organization is to make the world free from hunger and malnutrition and where food policy decisions are transparent with participation of consumers and producers. This organization operates in five different regions including North Africa and Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Central Asia, East Asia and Southeast A...

  14. Research on the Food Security Condition and Food Supply Capacity of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1 model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80% under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.

  15. Research on the food security condition and food supply capacity of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Xiang, Youzhen; Hao, Wenhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1) model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80%) under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.

  16. Emerging Roles of Women in the National Food Security Campaign of the Federal Government of Nigeria: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ademilua, O.S; Adeeko, A; Gbotoso, O.A; Akomolafe, A.M; Ishola, O.O

    2017-01-01

    The issue of food security in Nigeria is of national concern as it affects young and old, male and female. The review assessed the emerging roles of women and their contributions to food security in Nigeria. Specifically, it explained the concept of food security, identified the specific roles of women in food security and identified factors affecting women participation in national food security. Food security is a situation that exist when all people at all times, have physical, social and ...

  17. MEASURING CHILDREN'S FOOD SECURITY IN U.S. HOUSEHOLDS, 1995-99

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Bickel, Gary

    2002-01-01

    The capacity to accurately measure the food security status of children in household surveys is an essential tool for monitoring food insecurity and hunger at the most severe levels in U.S. households and for assessing programs designed to prevent or ameliorate these conditions. USDA has developed a children's food security scale to meet this measurement need. The scale is calculated from 8 questions in the 18-item food security survey module that ask specifically about food-related experienc...

  18. Food security for community-living elderly people in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang; Rosenberg, Mark; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Hua

    2016-11-01

    Food security has been identified as an important issue for elderly people's quality of life and ageing in place. A food security index composed of three indicators (food intake, food quality and food affordability) was developed to measure the food security status of community-living elderly people. Food security was then examined among community-living elderly in the central urban districts of Beijing, China. Data were collected by a questionnaire survey in the summer of 2013 and the response rate was 78.5%. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were applied to analyse food security and the associations between food security and demographic and socioeconomic factors. The results showed that 54.2% of the surveyed elderly experienced food security. Participants with better education (OR = 1.68) and better health (OR = 1.47) were more likely to experience food security. The young-old were less likely to experience food security than the older old (OR = 0.94). Elderly people who lived with their children were less likely to experience food security than those who lived alone (OR = 0.43). The results of impact factors on food security highlight both similarities with studies from more developed countries and the unique challenges faced in a rapidly changing China with its unique social, cultural and political systems. The food security index we developed in this study is a simple and effective measure of food security status, which can be used in surveys for evaluating the food security status of elderly people in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasson Albert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the near future. There are many examples of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, some of them having reached catastrophic dimensions, for example, in the Horn of Africa or southern Madagascar. Food insecurity is not just about insufficient food production, availability, and intake, it is also about the poor quality or nutritional value of the food. The detrimental situation of women and children is particularly serious, as well as the situation among female teenagers, who receive less food than their male counterparts in the same households. Soaring food prices and food riots are among the many symptoms of the prevailing food crisis and insecurity. Climate change and weather vagaries, present and forecast, are generally compounding food insecurity and drastically changing farming activities, as diagnosed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR in June 2011. The key cause of food insecurity is inadequate food production. Since the global food crisis of 2007–2008, there has been an increasing awareness throughout the world that we must produce more and better food; and we should not be derailed from this goal, despite some relief brought by the good cereal harvests in 2011–2012. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, which needs and wants to make its own green revolution. The African challenge indeed is key to mitigating food insecurity in the world. Commitments were made by the heads of states and governments of the African Union

  20. Civil-Military Relations: Enhancing International Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    .... In particular, it focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and The International Committee of Red Cross...

  1. Kosovo: The Quest for Lasting Internal Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    .... Given the legacy of violence in the region, it is not surprising that the situation in Kosovo is still far from settled and will most likely require long-term engagement from the international community...

  2. Rebuilding northern foodsheds, sustainable food systems, community well-being, and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, S Craig; Loring, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    Multiple climatic, environmental and socio-economic pressures have accumulated to the point where they interfere with the ability of remote rural Alaska Native communities to achieve food security with locally harvestable food resources. The harvest of wild foods has been the historical norm, but most Alaska Native villages are transitioning to a cash economy, with increasing reliance on industrially produced, store-bought foods, and with less reliable access to and reliance on wild, country foods. While commercially available market foods provide one measure of food security, the availability and quality of market foods are subject to the vagaries and vulnerabilities of the global food system; access is dependent on one's ability to pay, is limited to what is available on the shelves of small rural stores, and, store-bought foods do not fulfill the important roles that traditional country foods play in rural communities and cultures. Country food access is also constrained by rising prices of fuel and equipment, a federal and state regulatory framework that sometimes hinders rather than helps rural subsistence users who need to access traditional food resources, a regulatory framework that is often not responsive to changes in climate, weather and seasonality, and a shifting knowledge base in younger generations about how to effectively harvest, process and store wild foods. The general objective is to provide a framework for understanding the social, cultural, ecological and political dimensions of rural Alaska Native food security, and to provide information on the current trends in rural Alaska Native food systems. This research is based on our long-term ethnographic, subsistence and food systems work in coastal and interior Alaska. This includes research about the land mammal harvest, the Yukon River and coastal fisheries, community and village gardens, small livestock production and red meat systems that are scaled appropriately to village size and capacity

  3. Rebuilding northern foodsheds, sustainable food systems, community well-being, and food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Craig Gerlach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Multiple climatic, environmental and socio-economic pressures have accumulated to the point where they interfere with the ability of remote rural Alaska Native communities to achieve food security with locally harvestable food resources. The harvest of wild foods has been the historical norm, but most Alaska Native villages are transitioning to a cash economy, with increasing reliance on industrially produced, store-bought foods, and with less reliable access to and reliance on wild, country foods. While commercially available market foods provide one measure of food security, the availability and quality of market foods are subject to the vagaries and vulnerabilities of the global food system; access is dependent on one's ability to pay, is limited to what is available on the shelves of small rural stores, and, store-bought foods do not fulfill the important roles that traditional country foods play in rural communities and cultures. Country food access is also constrained by rising prices of fuel and equipment, a federal and state regulatory framework that sometimes hinders rather than helps rural subsistence users who need to access traditional food resources, a regulatory framework that is often not responsive to changes in climate, weather and seasonality, and a shifting knowledge base in younger generations about how to effectively harvest, process and store wild foods. Objective . The general objective is to provide a framework for understanding the social, cultural, ecological and political dimensions of rural Alaska Native food security, and to provide information on the current trends in rural Alaska Native food systems. Design . This research is based on our long-term ethnographic, subsistence and food systems work in coastal and interior Alaska. This includes research about the land mammal harvest, the Yukon River and coastal fisheries, community and village gardens, small livestock production and red meat systems that

  4. The Politics of International Terrorism in the Security Complexes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-06-13

    Jun 13, 2006 ... International Relations and Security Studies, Department of Political Science and .... porary international relations in the Greater Horn of Africa. ..... In the case .... terrorist organisation, and all its sponsors and supporters as terrorist col- ... every act of violence to the label of terrorist, to the extent that public.

  5. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  6. Contributing to Food Security in the Context of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Since the laboratories of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications were established in Seibersdorf in 1962, the world’s population has grown from 3.14 billion to 7.15 billion, which, combined with continuously increasing industrialization and economic development, has led to greater global food demand. This has placed substantial stress on natural resources as well as the agricultural production chain. The challenges to food safety and security have also been amplified by the impacts of climate change, which have global ramifications, as noted in the March 2014 report of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate change impacts include higher temperatures, drought, more frequent extreme weather events and increased soil salinity which can have severe effects on agricultural production. Helping Member States adapt to and mitigate these impacts is a main focus of the five laboratories of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in Seibersdorf. These laboratories are dedicated to increasing food security and safety using nuclear science and technology

  7. Neither International nor Global: Rethinking the Problematic Subject of Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chandler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the problematic of the international and the global has been a barrier to understanding the transformation of security discourse over the last decade. Academic treatments of security within the discipline of international relations have been structured by the traditional liberal binaries, which conceive of political communities capable of constituting securing subjects at either the level of the state or the global. Today’s dominant framing of the security problematic seems to evade easy articulation within this structure and in some readings is seen to presage a transitory stage from the international to the global. An alternative reading is sketched out here, that of the post- liberal, which suggests that the apparent shift towards the global can not be captured from within the liberal problematic and highlights that rather than traditional disagreements over the nature of the subject of security – the constitution of the securing actor – we are witnessing the disappearance of securing agency itself.

  8. Risk Management in Agriculture for Food Security in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.; National Research CouncilScientific; Technological Research (Conicet)

    2013-05-01

    The Americas are extremely important as a unique contributor to Food Security. It provides from tropical to temperate crops. Not only they are able to feed their own population, but contribute significantly to the food supply of the population in developed, emergent and underdeveloped countries. This fact has given the region a unique responsibility to develop a regional risk-management strategy to manage food insecurity at a local, national, regional and global level. Although international agencies such as UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Instituto Interamericano para la Cooperación en Agricultura (IICA) and the regional centres of the Consultative Group for International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) and the World Bank (WB), are engaged in actions for Risk Management in Agriculture for reducing Food Insecurity. However there is a need to build a framework and/or comprehensive regional strategy for the Americas. It would identify areas for promoting research projects where natural and social science work together for producing relevant scientific information and tools i.e. maps, indicators, models and scenarios, early warning systems, etc. to cooperate with both policy and decision makers in the public and private sectors. This would eventually lead to a comprehensive regional programme for reducing food insecurity. The purpose of International Council for Science-International Research and the International Research for Disaster Risk programme (ICSU-IRDR) and ICSU Regional Office for Latinamerica and the Caribbean (ICSU-ROLAC) is to promote the cooperation of the relevant scientific fields in both natural science and social science in a multi and trans-disciplinary approach on risk management to reduce food insecurity. Also both ICSU-IRDR and ICSU-ROLAC are building a case for the inclusion of the scientific community in the revision of the Hjogo Framework for Action for Disaster Reduction to be held in 2015 as risk management for reducing food

  9. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters..., California. 165.1192 Section 165.1192 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport...

  10. Food security in the context of HIV: towards harmonized definitions and indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J; Castleman, Tony; Grede, Nils; Heap, Amie; Bloem, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Integration of HIV and food security services is imperative to improving the health and well-being of people living with HIV. However, consensus does not exist on definitions and measures of food security to guide service delivery and evaluation in the context of HIV. This paper reviews definitions and indicators of food security used by key agencies; outlines their relevance in the context of HIV; highlights opportunities for harmonized monitoring and evaluation indicators; and discusses promising developments in data collection and management. In addition to the commonly used dimensions of food availability, access, utilization and stability, we identify three components of food security-food sufficiency, dietary quality, and food safety-that are useful for understanding and measuring food security needs of HIV-affected and other vulnerable people. Harmonization across agencies of food security indicators in the context of HIV offers opportunities to improve measurement and tracking, strengthen coordination, and inform evidence-based programming.

  11. Household economic and food security after the 2010 Pakistan floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Leidman, Eva; Aung, Tricia; Kirsch, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The 2010 floods inundated one-fifth of Pakistan and affected more than 20 million people. To characterize the impact of the floods and subsequent humanitarian response on household economy and food security. A cross-sectional 80 x 20 cluster survey (n = 1,569 households) was conducted using probability proportional to size sampling in the four most flood-affected provinces 6 months after the floods. Analysis included both descriptive statistics and regression models, with receipt of food aid (in the first month), dietary quality, and household income at 6 months postflood as outcomes. Need for food aid was nearly ubiquitous (98.9%); however, only half of the study population ever received food aid. Displacement was not a significant predictor of food aid receipt (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.98); however urban location (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 2.00 to 3.86) and damage to the home (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.34 to 5.60) were significantly associated. Some of the hardest-hit groups, including both farmers and day laborers, were significantly less likely to receive food aid (p floods was relatively low, and many of the most affected populations were less likely to receive aid, suggesting that targeting should be improved in future responses.

  12. International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN) and the Nuclear Security Training and Support Centre (NSSC) Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, Dmitriy

    2013-01-01

    International Nuclear Security Education Network established in 2010: A partnership between the IAEA and universities, research institutions and other stakeholders - •Promotion of nuclear security education; • Development of educational materials; • Professional development for faculty members; • Collaborative research and resource sharing. Currently over 90 members from 38 member states. Mission: to enhance global nuclear security by developing, sharing and promoting excellence in nuclear security education. Nuclear Security Support Centre: Primary objectives are: • Develop human resources through the implementation of a tailored training programme; • Develop a network of experts; • Provide technical support for lifecycle equipment management and scientific support for the detection of and the response to nuclear security events

  13. Delivering high-level food industry skills for future food security through Advanced Training Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council’s Advanced Training Partnerships initiative represents a significant investment in the provision of high-level skills for the UK food industry sector to address global food security from farm to fork. This paper summarises the background, aims and scope of the Advanced Training Partnerships, their development so far, and offers a view on future directions and evaluation of impact.

  14. Ecosystem Management: Tomorrow’s Approach to Enhancing Food Security under a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rivington

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that a sustainable ecosystem management approach is vital to ensure the delivery of essential ‘life support’ ecosystem services and must be mainstreamed into societal conscience, political thinking and economic processes. Feeding the world at a time of climate change, environmental degradation, increasing human population and demand for finite resources requires sustainable ecosystem management and equitable governance. Ecosystem degradation undermines food production and the availability of clean water, hence threatening human health, livelihoods and ultimately societal stability. Degradation also increases the vulnerability of populations to the consequences of natural disasters and climate change impacts. With 10 million people dying from hunger each year, the linkages between ecosystems and food security are important to recognize. Though we all depend on ecosystems for our food and water, about seventy per cent of the estimated 1.1 billion people in poverty around the world live in rural areas and depend directly on the productivity of ecosystems for their livelihoods. Healthy ecosystems provide a diverse range of food sources and support entire agricultural systems, but their value to food security and sustainable livelihoods are often undervalued or ignored. There is an urgent need for increased financial investment for integrating ecosystem management with food security and poverty alleviation priorities. As the world’s leaders worked towards a new international climate change agenda in Cancun, Mexico, 29 November–10 December 2010 (UNFCCC COP16, it was clear that without a deep and decisive post-2012 agreement and major concerted effort to reduce the food crisis, the Millennium Development Goals will not be attained. Political commitment at the highest level will be needed to raise the profile of ecosystems on the global food agenda. It is recommended that full recognition and promotion be given of the linkages

  15. Children's Food Security and Intakes from School Meals. Final Report. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamites, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Using 2005 data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment survey, this study examines the contribution of school meals to the food and nutrient intake of children in food-secure, marginally secure, and food-insecure households. The study finds that children from food-insecure and marginally secure…

  16. Climate Change after the International : Rethinking Security, Territory and Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripple, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    What does a politics after the international mean? Many strands of contemporary scholarship converge on the image of the international as obsolete, but strongly diverge on the contours of the kinds of politics that are superseding it. The modern state has been pivotal to the meaning of security, territory and authority - concepts central to the idea of the international - but they do not necessarily have to be tied to the state. This thesis offers a critique of International Relations theory combined with a study of climate change. A departure in 'process philosophy' facilitate a rethinking of security, territory and authority as activities rather than things, as verbs rather than nouns. The author shows that a multiplicity of practices of securitization, territorialization, and authorization are visible in the climate issue. The book goes beyond, and reflects upon, the traditional study of 'International Environmental Politics' as a particular subfield of International Relations

  17. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (pfoods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies.

  18. Wild Food, Prices, Diets and Development: Sustainability and Food Security in Urban Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Q. Sneyd

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses wild food consumption in urban areas of Cameroon. Building upon findings from Cameroon’s Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA this case study presents empirical data collected from 371 household and market surveys in Cameroonian cities. It employs the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food’s framework for understanding challenges related to the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of food. The survey data suggest that many wild/traditional foods are physically available in Cameroonian cities most of the time, including fruits, vegetables, spices, and insects. Cameroonians spend considerable sums of their food budget on wild foods. However, low wages and the high cost of city living constrain the social and economic access most people have to these foods. The data also suggest that imports of non-traditional staple foods, such as low cost rice, have increasingly priced potentially more nutritious or safe traditional local foods out of markets after the 2008 food price crisis. As a result, diets are changing in Cameroon as the resource-constrained population continues to resort to the coping strategy of eating cheaper imported foods such as refined rice or to eating less frequently. Cameroon’s nutrition transition continues to be driven by need and not necessarily by the preferences of Cameroonian consumers. The implications of this reality for sustainability are troubling.

  19. Food Security in Nigeria: The Role of Peasant Farmers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food Security in Nigeria: The Role of Peasant Farmers in Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Nigerian food crisis is a product of colonial disorientation that has led to neglect of the peasant agriculture and food ...

  20. Culture and Internal Security of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    subsistence farming , and only 17 percent (4.5 million) of the total population reside in urban areas.2 Per capita Gross Domestic Product is 562 United...people. The influx of hundreds of international non- governmental organizations and the mushrooming of media houses did a lot to create awareness in

  1. Exploring the impact of the 2008 global food crisis on food security among vulnerable households in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Robson, Kristin; Gutilla, Margaret J; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne; Norlund, Petra

    2014-04-01

    Recurring food crises endanger the livelihoods of millions of households in developing countries around the globe. Owing to the importance of this issue, we explore recent changes in food security between the years 2004 and 2010 in a rural district in Northeastern South Africa. Our study window spans the time of the 2008 global food crises and allows the investigation of its impacts on rural South African populations. Grounded in the sustainable livelihood framework, we examine differences in food security trajectories among vulnerable sub populations. A unique panel data set of 8,147 households, provided by the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS), allows us to employ a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach to estimate adjusted growth curves for the differential change in food security across time. We observe an overall improvement in food security that leveled off after 2008, most likely resulting from the global food crisis. In addition, we discover significant differences in food security trajectories for various sub populations. For example, female-headed households and those living in areas with better access to natural resources differentially improved their food security situation, compared to male-headed households and those households with lower levels of natural resource access. However, former Mozambican refugees witnessed a decline in food security. Therefore, poverty alleviation programs for the Agincourt region should work to improve the food security of vulnerable households, such as former Mozambican refugees.

  2. Profiles of Food Security for US Farmworker Households and Factors Related to Dynamic of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward H; Saldana, Santiago; Arcury, Thomas A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Trejo, Grisel; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-10-01

    We recruited 248 farmworker families with preschool-aged children in North Carolina and examined food security indicators over 24 months to identify food security patterns and examine the dynamic of change over time. Participants in the Niños Sanos study, conducted 2011 to 2014, completed quarterly food security assessments. Based on responses to items in the US Household Food Security Survey Module, we identified different states of food security by using hidden Markov model analysis, and examined factors associated with different states. We delineated factors associated with changes in state by using mixed-effect ordinal logistic regression. About half of the households (51%) consistently stayed in the most food-secure state. The least food-secure state was transient, with only 29% probability of this state for 2 consecutive quarters. Seasonal (vs migrant) work status, having immigration documents (vs not documented), and season predicted higher levels of food security. Heterogeneity in food security among farmworker households calls for tailoring intervention strategies. The transiency and unpredictability of low food security suggest that access to safety-net programs could reduce low food security risk in this population.

  3. Problematising internal security: Crime, community and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Bruun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problematisation of crime, crime prevention and security in contemporary security policy programmes using three Finnish internal security programmes and theory-based content analysis. The study is based on the theory (the perspective of an analytics of government. The findings highlight the central meaning of social exclusion and community as security practices wherein social exclusion is seen as a threat to security and a risk for crime. Indeed, community-based crime prevention plays a central role in the programmes along with the worry about serious crimes and the high level of homicides. A fluid governing policy without crime and accidents is the implicit goal of these programmes.

  4. International Regulations for Transport of Radioactive Materials, History and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2013-01-01

    International Regulations for the transport of radioactive materials have been published by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These Regulations have been widely adopted into national Regulations. Also adopted into different modal Regulations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA) and International Martime Organization (IMO). These Regulations provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of general public, transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination, criticality hazard and thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive wastes and materials. Several reviews conducted in consultation with Member States (MS) and concerned international organizations, resulted in comprehensive revisions till now. Radioactive materials are generally transported by specialized transport companies and experts. Shippers and carriers have designed their transport operations to comply with these international Regulations. About 20 million consignments of radioactive materials take place around the world each year. These materials were used in different fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research, consumer product and electric power generation. After September 11,2001, the IAEA and MS have worked together to develop a new guidance document concerning the security in the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA have initiated activities to assist MS in addressing the need for transport security in a comprehensive manner. The security guidance and measures were mentioned and discussed. The transport security becomes more developed and integrated into national Regulations of many countries beside the safety Regulations. IAEA and other International organizations are working with MS to implement transport security programs such as guidance, training, security assessments and upgrade assistance in these fields.

  5. PERSPECTIVE: Climate change, biofuels, and global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2007-03-01

    % of global palm oil, 88% of global palm oil exports)—2005 data from FAOSTAT: faostat.fao.org/site/395/default.aspx. Note2 For example, the use of a 'global season' for calculating temperatures is problematic. In the case of soybean, a substantial portion of global soybean production occurs in the southern hemisphere, mostly in Brazil and Argentina, yet the global season for temperature was July August—a time when soybean is not grown in these countries. Likewise the global season for rice was January October, a period in which two consecutive rice crops are grown in tropical and subtropical irrigated systems of Asia—systems that account for a large portion of global rice production. Photo of Kenneth G Cassman Dr Cassman is Director of the Nebraska Center for Energy Science Research at the University of Nebraska and the Heuermann Professor of Agronomy. His work focuses on ensuring local and global food security while improving environmental quality in many of the world's most productive cropping systems. Previous positions include: research agronomist in Brazil, Egypt and the Philippines; faculty member at the University of California-Davis; division/department head at the International Rice Research Institute and the University of Nebraska. He received a PhD from the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture (1979) and a BS in Biology from the University of California, San Diego (1975).

  6. Status and determinants of small farming households' food security and role of market access in enhancing food security in rural Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Ijaz Ahmed

    Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, lack of resources and little market accessibility are among the major factors that affect small farming household food security. This study aims to investigate the status of small farming households' food security, and its determinants including the role of market accessibility factors in enhancing food security at household level. In addition, this study also determines the households' perception about different kinds of livelihoods risks. This study is based on a household survey of 576 households conducted through face-to-face interviews using structured interviews in Punjab, Pakistan. Food security status is calculated using dietary intake method. The study findings show that one-fourth of the households are food insecure. The study findings reveal that farm households perceive increase in food prices, crop diseases, lack of irrigation water and increase in health expenses as major livelihood risks. Further, the results of logistic regression show that family size, monthly income, food prices, health expenses and debt are main factors influencing the food security status of rural households. Furthermore, the market accessibility factors (road distance and transportation cost do significantly affect the small farming household food security. The results suggest that local food security can be enhanced by creating off-farm employment opportunities, improved transportation facilities and road infrastructure.

  7. Food sovereignty, food security and health equity: a meta-narrative mapping exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Anelyse M.; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity—i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced—and food systems, where the concepts of ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a ‘meta-narrative synthesis’ on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1—Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2—Occupational Exposures; 3—Environmental Change; 4—Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5—Intake of Contaminants; 6—Nutrition; 7—Social Determinants of Health and 8—Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to

  8. Is maternal food security a predictor of food and drink intake among toddlers in Oregon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Barradas, Danielle T; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; May, Ashleigh L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity has detrimental effects on the mental, physical, and behavioral health of developing children. Few studies, however, have sought to determine whether associations exist between food insecurity and intake of vegetables, fresh or canned fruit, candy or cookies, French fries, fast food, water, milk, fruit juices, fruit drinks, soda, and sports drinks. To identify independent associations that exist between maternal food insecurity and food and drink intake among toddlers, population-based data from the 2006-2008 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System follow-back survey (Oregon PRAMS-2) of 1,522 mothers of 2-year-old children were analyzed. Maternal food insecurity was defined as mothers' report of eating less because of lack of money for food. Typical weekly child food and drink intake was examined using polytomous logistic regression: 0-1 days/week, 2-3 days/week, and 4-7 days/week. Maternal food insecurity prevalence was 11.7 %. Compared to toddlers of food secure mothers, toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed vegetables (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for 4-7 days/week = 0.31; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.12, 0.79) and fruit (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 0.25; 95 % CI 0.08, 0.75) fewer days of the week. Toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed soda (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 3.21; 95 % CI 1.12, 9.14) more days of the week. Maternal food insecurity is associated with weekly intake of certain foods and drinks. Among toddlers, consumption of fewer vegetables and fruit, and more soda may help explain the link between food insecurity and poor health.

  9. Short Communication: A qualitative assessment of food security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2007/08 post-election violence in Kenya resulted in the displacement of an estimated 600 000 people. Current published research suggests that many of these internally displaced persons (IDPs) continue to have issues accessing basic needs, including food and water, impacting morbidity and mortality. This study ...

  10. A Catalyst for Change: Drought and Food Security in the Near East Region (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    In the Near East, drought at the turn of the 21st century was reported to be the worst in 50 years, affecting millions of people across the region. The drought caused a wide range of effects, including widespread crop failures and livestock losses, increased drinking water shortages and disease stress, additional debt, and forced mass migrations to urban areas and other countries, all of which affected food security. As devastating as the drought was for people and the environment, the event created a “policy window” - a time during which the public’s and policy makers’ attention was directed toward a particular issue, creating an advantageous political environment for addressing the problem. In this case, the drought revealed the need for enhanced mitigation and drought relief coordination. It has served as the impetus for several countries and international organizations to work together to foster new policies and training activities to reduce drought risk and enhance food security in the region.

  11. THE CREATION OF THE FOOD SECURITY SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CONDREA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food security has a complex determination which is dependent both on the agricultural sector policies and on the general macroeconomic framework, the revenue sharing policies, fiscal policies, social, commercial policies, etc.The concept of food security determines the main directions of the policy that favors the population’ welfare,poverty overcoming, changing of the consumption structure, demographic development, human health protection and improvement. In order to assure the foodstuffs of plant origin it was necessary to sow 741808, 85 hectares in 2012 year. The livestock of hens needed to assure the production of eggs for internal consumption, incubation and quantity of meat for 2012 year is 14, 5 million capita. The livestock of pigs needed to assure pork for consumption and the livestock for reproduction and export is 440076, 45 capita.

  12. SETT facility of International Nuclear Security Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyung Min

    2012-01-01

    After the Cold War was put to an end, the international community, especially the Western world, was concerned about Soviet nuclear materials falling into wrong hands, especially of terrorists. Later, the growing threat posed by terrorist networks such as the Taliban and al Qaeda led to a global campaign to deny such networks materials which may be used for the development of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). The 9 11 attacks made a section of the international community highly apprehensive of WMD terrorism, especially its nuclear version. From this point of view, it is clear that nuclear facilities which contain nuclear materials are very attractive targets for those who have intention of nuclear terror

  13. SETT facility of International Nuclear Security Academy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyung Min [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    After the Cold War was put to an end, the international community, especially the Western world, was concerned about Soviet nuclear materials falling into wrong hands, especially of terrorists. Later, the growing threat posed by terrorist networks such as the Taliban and al Qaeda led to a global campaign to deny such networks materials which may be used for the development of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). The 9 11 attacks made a section of the international community highly apprehensive of WMD terrorism, especially its nuclear version. From this point of view, it is clear that nuclear facilities which contain nuclear materials are very attractive targets for those who have intention of nuclear terror

  14. The Current State of the International Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ивашов, Леонид Григорьевич

    2013-01-01

    The author examines the modern geopolitical world and assesses the threats to Russia’s security. These threats are demonstrated to be hitched to the goals of the US National Strategy and, in particular, to the US plans on deployment of anti-ballistic missile system. The author argues that in this situation the mainstay of Russia’s foreign policy should become “security through cooperation.”Key words: international security, anti-ballistic missile, preemptive war, geopolitical centers, UN Secu...

  15. 75 FR 32977 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed... Permit Opening Transactions by Market Makers To Accommodate Closing Transactions of Other Market... International Securities Exchange, LLC (``Exchange'' or ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  16. Food security in indigenous and peasant populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Arango, Marcos; Gutiérrez-Builes, Lina Andrea; Ríos-Osorio, Leonardo Alberto

    2018-04-01

    Food security and the vulnerability among indigenous and peasant populations has become a topic of interest to public health all around the world, leading to the investigation about measurement, classification and factors that determine it. This systematic review aims to describe the situation of food security in indigenous and peasant communities, and the methods used for evaluation. The literature search was performed on the Pub Med (5), ScienceDirect (221) and Scopus (377) databases searching for publications between 2004 and 2015, a total of 603 items were located with the search engines. At the end of the screening process and after adding the items found in the gray literature, 25 papers were obtained to write the review. In the 11 years evaluated between 2004 and 2015, scientific activity around the theme was poor with just 4.54% of the publications on this subject, but for 2011 the percentage increased to 13 publications, 63%. Various factors that influence the development of food insecurity are climate change, the diversity of agriculture, globalization and market westernization.

  17. Internal Interface Diversification as a Security Measure in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampsa Rauti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available More actuator and sensor devices are connected to the Internet of Things (IoT every day, and the network keeps growing, while software security of the devices is often incomplete. Sensor networks and the IoT in general currently cover a large number of devices with an identical internal interface structure. By diversifying the internal interfaces, the interfaces on each node of the network are made unique, and it is possible to break the software monoculture of easily exploitable identical systems. This paper proposes internal interface diversification as a security measure for sensor networks. We conduct a study on diversifiable internal interfaces in 20 IoT operating systems. We also present two proof-of-concept implementations and perform experiments to gauge the feasibility in the IoT environment. Internal interface diversification has practical limitations, and not all IoT operating systems have that many diversifiable interfaces. However, because of low resource requirements, compatibility with other security measures and wide applicability to several interfaces, we believe internal interface diversification is a promising and effective approach for securing nodes in sensor networks.

  18. The Conceptualization of Energy Security: the International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzychenko Mykola V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews and analyzes existing interpretations of the term of «energy security», which are used by international organizations, individual countries, and foreign scientists. As result of a generalization of the numerous existing conceptual-methodical and substantive approaches to the definition of energy security, its main components and possible ways of its ensuring, it has been found that the concept of energy security includes many multifactor components that are interconnected by numerous functional linkages, including economic, political, social, and ecological aspects. The issues related to geology, geography, and time factor have impact on interpretation of energy security. But in general, energy security can be seen in a one-aspect dimension that is largely based on the security of energy supplies (availability of energy resources and in a multi-aspect dimension which, in addition to the security of energy supplies, also takes into consideration a number of other important interrelated aspects of energy security, particularly in the areas of accessibility of energy resources, energy efficiency, and environmental safety.

  19. Wild plants spark revival in traditional foods | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... Newly trained in commercial food preparation and marketing, the nutritional ambassadors are popularizing these widely available foods. The research, which ... Small-scale agriculture plays an essential role in reducing poverty and improving food security for rural and urban people. IDRC Digital Library

  20. Achieving the four dimensions of food security for resettled refugees in Australia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlis, Tanya; Islam, Wasima; Upton, Penney

    2018-04-01

    Food security is defined by four dimensions: food availability, access, utilisation and stability. Resettled refugees face unique struggles securing these dimensions and, thus, food security when moving to a new country. This systematic review aimed to identify the challenges Australian refugees experience in achieving the four dimensions of food security. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed; the SPIDER tool was used to determine eligibility criteria. Three databases were searched using terms relating to food in/security and refugees from 2000 to 20 May 2017. Seven articles were retained for analysis. Studies were categorised against the four dimensions, with four studies identifying challenges against all dimensions. Challenges contributing to high levels of food insecurity in each dimension included: availability and cost of traditional foods, difficulty in accessing preferred food outlets, limited food knowledge and preparation skills and food stability due to low income and social support. Food insecurity adversely impacts refugee health and integration. Methodical research framed by the four dimensions of food security is imperative to address challenges to securing food security in refugee groups and assisting in the development of sustainable interventions. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.