WorldWideScience

Sample records for international fishery agreement

  1. International Fisheries Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games...... and stability of international fisheries agreements. A key message that emerges from this literature strand is that self-enforcing cooperative management of internationally shared fish stocks is generally difficult to achieve. Hence, the international legal framework and regulations play a decisive role...

  2. On international fisheries agreements, entry deterrence, and ecological uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Hans; Grønbæk, Lone; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    2017-05-15

    A prerequisite for an international fisheries agreement (IFA) to be stable is that parties expect the benefits from joining the agreement to exceed the benefits from free riding on the agreement, and parties only comply with the agreement as long as this is true. The agreement, therefore, implicitly builds on an expectation of the ecological condition of the natural resource. Game theoretical models often assume that all parties have the same (often perfect) information about the resource and that the exploitation is an equilibrium use of the stock. As stated by experts in natural science, the fish ecology still has many open questions, for example how to predict population dynamics, migration patterns, food availability, etc. In some cases, parties disagree about the state, abundance, and migration of a stock, which can reduce the possibilities of reaching an agreement for exploitation of the stock. This paper develops a model and applies it to the North-East Atlantic mackerel fishery, in order to analyze an IFA under different ecological scenarios, and also combines the model with the economic theory of entry deterrence. The model is used empirically to determine whether the parties with original access to the resource have an advantage when forming an agreement with a new party in having the ability to fish the stock down to a smaller size and thereby prevent another party from entering into the fishery. With a basis in entry deterrence, combined with lack of information, the paper illustrates the obstacles that have made an agreement for the North-East Atlantic mackerel so difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. International Agreements in the Multispecies Baltic Sea Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Emmi; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2016-01-01

    between the three countries can be stabilised when the most efficient country compensates the other countries. This solution is not feasible when using a single-species model for the cod population; thus, taking into account the multispecies nature of the Baltic Sea fisheries, the scope of cooperation...

  4. International Fisheries Management and Recreational Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oinonen, Soile; Grønbæk, Lone; Laukkanen, Marita

    2016-01-01

    This article studies how accounting for the benefits of recreational fisheries affects the formation and stability of an international fisheries agreement (IFA) on the management of Baltic salmon stocks. The interaction between four countries is modelled through a partition function game, under two...... scenarios. In the first scenario, countries take their participation decision for the IFA based only on the net present value of profits from commercial fisheries. In the second scenario, the net present value of the recreational benefits from angling is also considered. The results show that accounting...... for recreational benefits leads to the formation of the grand coalition, whereas only partial cooperation occurs when payoffs are confined to profits from commercial fisheries....

  5. International environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, Aart

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of environmental externalities at the global level requires international agreements between sovereign states. Game theory provides an appropriate theoretical tool for analysis. However, game theory can result in a wide range of outcomes, and therefore it is important to discuss the

  6. International nuclear agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miatello, A.; Severino, R.

    1988-01-01

    This multilingual glossary, in the laborious compilation of which the authors have been greatly assisted by a group of professional translators and experts, presents for the first time a substantial number of entries in four languages (English, French, German and Italian), whose terminology and phraseology, all bearing the appropriate normative reference, has been drawn from the official text of the most relevant international agreements on nuclear policy. It is complemented by a thorough critical study on the status of nonproliferation by Lawrence Scheinman and Josef Pilat. Librarians, translators and interpreters as well as scholars and researchers in international law will find this volume a reference tool of specific interest

  7. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.

    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  8. 75 FR 1023 - International Fisheries Regulations; Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...; Pelagic Fisheries; Hawaii-based Shallow-set Longline Fishery; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... process is preserved for closing the Hawaii-based shallow-set longline fishery as a result of the fishery...

  9. International agreements on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombey, N.

    1982-01-01

    The satellite detection of a nuclear explosion in the South Atlantic and Israel's destruction of a research reactor in Iraq make it essential to strengthen existing monitoring and enforcement programs to prevent proliferation. While there was no reliable evidence that either South Africa or Iraq was violating non-proliferation agreements, worst case scenarios can demonstrate to unfriendly countries that South Africa had diverted fuel to test a nuclear weapon and that Iraq is intending to produce weapons-grade plutonium 239. The situation can be improved by formulating better terms and conditions for internationalizing access to materials. Nuclear suppliers need to agree on terms that will assure their customers that contracts for civil programs will be honored. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which includes both nuclear suppliers and customers, could achieve stronger agreements that take into account recent technological advances that will expand enrichment and reprocessing activities. 23 references, 1 figure

  10. 43 CFR 24.5 - International agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.5 International agreements. (a) International conventions... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International agreements. 24.5 Section 24... shall be to recommend that the United States negotiate and accede to only those international agreements...

  11. Analysis of international negotiations and trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Górriz Gonzalo, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze international trade agreements and negotiations. For that purpose, two agreements made by the United States are chosen to be analyzed. In the first place, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) agreement, that was signed by the United States, Canada and Mexico in 1994 in order to create a free trade area. In addition, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) will be analyze, an agreement that is still being negotiated between the United Stat...

  12. Verification of international environmental agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, J.H.; Victor, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Problems and opportunities frequently cross national borders. Informal and formal international arrangements-loosely termed regimes, defined in this paper as systems of rule or government that have widespread influence-arise for the collective management of such transboundary issues. Regimes are pervasive; their number and extent have grown markedly in the 20th century, especially since the Second World War. Students of the international system study the conditions under which regimes are formed and the factors that contribute to their success. These include distribution of power among states, the nature of the issue, its linkages to other issues, the roles and functions of international organizations, the processes of bargaining and rule-making, and the influence of domestic politics. Scholars also theorize how regimes are maintained and changed. In the past two decades students of international cooperation have increasingly applied their tools to issues of the environment and natural resources

  13. Building a fisheries research network | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... In the capture fishery, the “common property” nature of the resource meant there ... to put fisheries and coastal resource management high on policy agendas. ... AFSSRN has entrenched the idea that fishing, like pretty much all human activity, ... Entrepreneurship has been a major driver of growth and job ...

  14. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide

  15. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  16. Agency Agreements Process Champion Support Intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksa, Ember

    2018-01-01

    This document will provide information on the 2018 Spring semester NIFS Intern who represented the Office of Chief Financial Officer (OCFO) as a Reimbursable Accountant at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This intern supported the Agency Agreements Process Champions and Team Lead, Susan Kroskey, Sandy Massey and Mecca Murphy, with major initiatives to advance the KSC OCFO's vision of creating and innovating healthy financial management practices that maximize the value of resources entrusted to NASA. These initiatives include, but are not limited to: updating the Agency Guidance and NASA Procedural Guidance 9090.1 Agreements, implementing a new budget structure to be utilized across all centers, submitting a Call Request (CRQ) to enhance non-federal customer reporting, initiating a discussion to incorporate a 3-year funding program for NASA agreements, and undertaking the Office of Inspector General (OIG) Audit. In support of these initiatives, this intern identified technical methods to enhance and reduce the workload of financial processes for reimbursable and non-reimbursable agreements, prepared reports in support of accounting functions, and performed administrative work and miscellaneous technical tasks in support of the OCFO as requested. In conclusion of the internship, the intern will become knowledgeable on reimbursable accounting, reimbursable policy, types of reimbursable agreements, the agreements process, estimated pricing reports, and the roles and responsibilities of the Financial Accounting and Financial Services offices.

  17. Fisheries Partnership Agreements – Rebranding or a real step towards sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Nordberg, E.

    2003-01-01

    The earth’s fish stocks are declining. Due to fierce competition, the hunt for a share of the limited resource is intensified. African countries – many struggling against poverty and famine - sell out fishing opportunities to the over-capitalised European fleet. Instead of helping to lift the African fisheries sector into progress, the sell-out of fishing rights serves the interests of the heavily subsidized European fleet. Today, agreements exist with 20 countries and correspond to a Communi...

  18. Understanding the development of international environmental agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jens

    There are many different theoretical schools concerned with how international regimes develop, and each supplies its own interpretation focusing on one or a few aspects of the process. Such ‘one shot’ explanations may be fruitful for scientific debate, but less useful as conceptual frameworks...... for practitioners and planners manoeuvring in a complex world. On the basis of a review of selected theories of international and environmental regulation, this article initiates the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the development of internationalenvironmental agreements. The point...... of departure for developing the model is the actor-structure debate within social science and theory of international relations. Based on critical realism, a framework is developed specifying the relation between collective action problem situations and negotiation situations. It is argued that the main...

  19. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  20. OPEC's response to international climate agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaten, J.; Golombek, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies a game between a group of countries that have agreed to participate in an international climate agreement (the signatories) and OPEC. The purpose of the signatories is to design carbon taxes that maximize their total net income, given a goal on global carbon emissions. As a response to the climate agreement, OPEC imposes an oil tax on its member states that maximizes OPEC's profits. Within a numerical model we find the subgame-perfect equilibrium of a game in which each player chooses when to fix his decision variables. It is shown that in equilibrium the group of signatories chooses to be the leader and OPEC chooses to be the follower. It is demonstrated, however, that for both agents the order of move is of minor (numerical) importance. Hence, the players have limited incentives for strategic behaviour. 17 refs

  1. 77 FR 51709 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Migratory Species; Bigeye Tuna Catch Limit in Longline Fisheries for 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region (Pelagics FEP) developed by the Western Pacific Fishery Management... Pelagics FEP. Section 113(a) further directs the Secretary of Commerce, for the purposes of annual...

  2. International Fisheries Agreements and Non-consumptive Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Laukkanen, Marita; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk

    larger than without non- consumptive values under all possible coalition scenarios (full, partial and no cooperation). However, considering non-consumptive values does not affect the outcome of the game in terms of the prospects for cooperation: even with substantial non-consumptive benefits, the outcome...... through a coalition game that accounts for both direct consumptive values (harvesting profits) and non-consumptive values of the fish stock per se. The results show that accounting for non-consumptive values helps conserve the fish stock in that equilibrium fishing efforts are smaller and fish stock...

  3. Economic essays on marine invasive species and international fisheries agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, as explained in Chapter 1, which focus on different aspects of marine ecological change. Part A considers marine Invasive Alien Species (IAS), which are taxa introduced outside of their native range. The detrimental consequences of invasions for human

  4. International petroleum agreements : Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Foreign investment in the oil and gas sector has had a profound impact on the development of crude oil production in Cuba. In 1982, in order to encourage economic development, the Cuban government adopted a form of Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for international petroleum agreements. In 1990, the first PSC was negotiated with a consortium of European companies. This was followed in 1992 through 1994 with companies from Canada, Europe and Latin America. Then in 1995, a more comprehensive foreign investment law was enacted to further encourage foreign investment in Cuba. Onshore and shallow water regions of Cuba were divided into 45 blocks, 19 of which were under licence in 2001. In addition, in 1999 the government of Cuba offered 53 blocks in the deep water zones of the Cuban sector of the Gulf of Mexico to foreign investment, of which 6 are already under licence. Most exploration for oil and gas since 1991 has been carried out by foreign companies. Crude oil production in 1991 totalled 11,000 bopd of heavy oil production from the north coast of Cuba. By 2001, domestic crude oil production increased to more than 50,000 bopd, mostly due to foreign investment in exploration and development. This paper described the model form for Cuban Production Sharing Contracts with reference to parties, rights granted, terms, relinquishments, minimum exploration commitments, discovery of hydrocarbons and recovery of petroleum operation expenses. The paper also discussed gross production, cost recovery for contractors, and sharing of profits with contractors and the state oil company, CubaPetroleo. 1 fig

  5. 47 CFR 73.1650 - International agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agreements for the Broadcasting Service in Region 2: (i) MF Broadcasting 535-1605 kHz, Rio de Janeiro, 1981. (ii) MF Broadcasting 1605-1705 kHz, Rio de Janeiro, 1988. (3) Bi-lateral Agreements between the United...

  6. 45 CFR 650.7 - Awards affected by international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Awards affected by international agreements. 650.7 Section 650.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... research performer such rights in any subject invention as are contemplated in the international agreement...

  7. Climatic changes: explicative guide of international agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The following themes of the negotiation in the United Nations Convention framework, on the climatic changes and the kyoto protocol are taken into account: the observation, the information communication, the policies and the measures, the developing countries, the flexibility mechanisms, the soils utilizations and the regime evolution. For each theme the document recalls quickly how the theme is detailed in the Convention and in the Protocol, it presents then the decisions and the adopted rules and defines the agreements contain, in terms of challenges and implication in the protocol implementation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the different bilateral and multilateral agreements concluded recently between the different OECD countries and concerning the nuclear energy domain: Argentina - Australia: Agreement concerning Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). Argentina - Brazil: Joint Declaration regarding the Creation of the Argentinean-Brazilian Agency for Nuclear Energy Applications (2001). Australia - Czech Republic / Australia - Hungary: Agreements on Co-operation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and the Transfer of Nuclear Material (2001). Australia - Indonesia: Arrangement Concerning Co-operation on Nuclear Safeguards and Related Matters (2001). Austria - Switzerland: Agreement on the Early Exchange of Information in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation. Brazil - United States: Extension of the Agreement concerning Research and Development in Nuclear Material Control, Accountancy, Verification, Physical Protection, and Advanced Containment and Surveillance Technologies for International Safeguards Applications (2001). Czech Republic - Republic of Korea: Agreement for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). European Union- Russian Federation: Agreements on Nuclear Safety and Controlled Nuclear Fusion (2001). France - United States: Agreement for Co-operation in Advanced Nuclear Reactor Science and Technology (2001). Japan - United Kingdom: Co-operation Agreement on Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Fast Breeder Reactor and Other Related Technologies (2001). Republic OF Korea - United States: Annex IV Joint Project on Cintichem Technology (2000). Morocco - United States: Protocol amending the Co-operation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). Multilateral Agreements: Agreement for Information Exchange on Radiological Surveillance in Northern Europe (2001). Status of Conventions in the Field of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  9. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VI. International agreement profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on world energy. The international agreement profiles in WENDS are all energy-related and are organized by energy technology. These are: coal; conservation; fusion; geothermal; nuclear fission; oil, gas, and shale; solar, wind, and ocean thermal; and other (cooperation in electrical power equipment acquisition, energy, energy research, etc.). The agreement profiles are accessible by energy technology and alphabetically by country.

  10. Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to establish the baseline data on fishery biology of Sillaginopsis panijus which is very endemic in the southern coastal waters of Bangladesh. Altogether 300 individuals of S. panijus were sampled from five catchment areas within the Ganges delta in which males represent 46% and females 54% of the total sampled population. The overall sex ratio in the populations agrees with the expected value of 1:1 in normal population. The values of allometric coefficient (b of the LWRs indicated positive allometric growth (b > 3 in female and combined sexes, while male showed a negative allometric growth (b 0.900. The mean values of CFs for males were higher than those of females in all different length classes. The study would expedite future studies on population assessment and sustainable conservation of the fish species along the southern coastal region of Bangladesh.

  11. The oil market and international agreements on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, K.; Fimreite, O.; Golombek, R.; Hoel, M.

    1992-01-01

    According to most scientists, greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced significantly relative to current trends to avoid dramatic adverse climatic changes during the next century. CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas, so any international agreement will certainly cover CO 2 emissions. Any international agreement to reduce emissions of CO 2 is going to have a significant impact on the markets for fossil fuels. The analysis shows that it is not only the amount of CO 2 emissions permitted in an agreement which matters for fossil fuel prices, but also the type of agreement. Two obvious forms of agreements, which under certain assumptions both are cost efficient, are (a) tradeable emission permits, and (b) an international CO 2 tax. If the fossil fuel markets were perfectly competitive, these two types of agreements would have the same effect on the producer price of fossil fuels. However, fossil fuel markets are not completely competitive. It is shown that, under imperfect competition, direct regulation of the 'tradeable quotas' type tends to imply higher producer prices and a larger efficiency loss than an international CO 2 tax giving the same total CO 2 emissions. A numerical illustration of the oil market indicates that the difference in producer prices for the two types of CO 2 agreements is quite significant. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. The oil market and international agreements on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, K.; Fimreite, Oe.; Golombek, R.; Hoel, M.

    1991-01-01

    In order to avoid a relatively large risk of dramatic adverse climatic changes during the next century, greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced significantly relative to present emissions. CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas, so any international agreement will certainly cover CO 2 emissions. Any international agreement to reduce emissions of CO 2 is going to have a significant impact on the markets for fossil fuels. The analysis shows that is not only the amount of CO 2 emissions permitted in an agreement which matters for fossil fuel prices, but also the type of agreement. Two obvious forms of agreements, which under certain assumptions both are cost efficient, are (a) tradeable emission permits, and (b) an international CO 2 tax. If the fossil fuel markets were perfectly competitive, these two types of agreements would have the same effect on the producer price of fossil fuels. However, fossil fuel markets are not completely competitive. It is shown that, under imperfect competition, direct regulation of the ''tradeable quotas'' type tends to imply higher producer prices than an international CO 2 tax giving the same total CO 2 emissions. A numerical illustration of the oil market indicates that the difference in producer prices for the two types of CO 2 agreements is quite significant. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Signalling in international environmental agreements. Using pre-agreement emission level as a signalling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper addresses the question about strategic incentives in international environmental agreements and tries to give a positive description of how the design of the agreement influences the strategic behaviour of potential participants before they enter the treaty. A common feature of the design of agreements is that the reduction obligations (RO) are made contingent on a pre-agreement or baseline emission. As it is assumed that countries posses better information about their reduction costs than does the international body in charge of deciding the RO, countries might have incentives to signal higher costs by increasing their baseline emission, and thereby reducing the costs of entering the agreement. The appropriate analytical framework is to use a signalling game approach, where the pre-agreement emission level conveys information about the privately informed country`s reduction cost. In this paper two types of agreement design are considered, one with uniform obligations, and one with differentiated obligations. This enables us to make a comparison between two different reduction regimes. The result is that the predicted outcomes vary with regard to both the environmental effectiveness and the associated expected costs for the participating countries. This means that when private information is considered, the anticipation of a given institutional framework has significant impact on the resulting distortion of the total emission level, highlighting the necessity of taking this into consideration when future designs are proposed. (au)

  14. Signalling in international environmental agreements: Using pre-agreement emission level as a signalling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the question about strategic incentives in international environmental agreements and tries to give a positive description of how the design of the agreement influences the strategic behaviour of potential participants before they enter the treaty. A common feature of the design of agreements is that the reduction obligations (RO) are made contingent on a pre-agreement or baseline emission. As it is assumed that countries posses better information about their reduction costs than does the international body in charge of deciding the RO, countries might have incentives to signal higher costs by increasing their baseline emission, and thereby reducing the costs of entering the agreement. The appropriate analytical framework is to use a signalling game approach, where the pre-agreement emission level conveys information about the privately informed country's reduction cost. In this paper two types of agreement design are considered, one with uniform obligations, and one with differentiated obligations. This enables us to make a comparison between two different reduction regimes. The result is that the predicted outcomes vary with regard to both the environmental effectiveness and the associated expected costs for the participating countries. This means that when private information is considered, the anticipation of a given institutional framework has significant impact on the resulting distortion of the total emission level, highlighting the necessity of taking this into consideration when future designs are proposed. (au)

  15. 78 FR 58240 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... above will not be counted against the U.S. limit. All other bigeye tuna captured by longline gear in the Convention Area by U.S. longline vessels and retained will be counted against the U.S. limit of 3,763 mt... false killer whale under ESA and the deep-set fishery's interaction with one sperm whale. This...

  16. 76 FR 60790 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... coastal fisheries. During the IATTC's 82nd Meeting, IATTC scientific staff showed estimates illustrating a... of the Americas, the 50[deg] N. and 50[deg] S. parallels, and the 150[deg] W. meridian. The members..., Vanuatu, and Venezuela. Currently, the only cooperating non-member is the Cook Islands. Cooperating non...

  17. 75 FR 36619 - International Fisheries; South Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Procedures to Request Licenses and a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... fishery in the past should be afforded greater opportunity to participate in the future. This concept was... would otherwise be the case. This concept also was suggested in the public comments on the ANPR. Finally... board vessels consist of hardware and software that are type-approved by the Treaty Administrator. This...

  18. 77 FR 8758 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species; High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (Convention). These regulations would implement certain decisions of the Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly... Convention focuses on the conservation and management of HMS and the management of fisheries for HMS. As a...

  19. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  20. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  1. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Industrial and Biological Section. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science. P.O. Box 31. Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  2. STABILITY OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS IN LEADERSHIP MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin ZHANG; Shouyang WANG; Lei ZU

    2008-01-01

    International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) are a form of cooperation ratified by countries which can improve the management of shared environmental resources. The authors analyze the stability of International Environmental Agreements in leadership model. In 2006, Diamantoudi & Sartzetakis found that a stable coalition consists of either 2, 3, or 4 members if the number of countries is greater than 4. Their model is reconsidered. It is shown that the size of stable IEAs decreases from 3 to 2 when the total number of countries involved increases. However, a situation that can guarantee 4 to be the size of stable IEAs could not be found.

  3. The 'horizontal direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at a less discussed topic in European legal scholarship: the horizontal direct effect of EU international agreements and the Court of Justice’s apparent reluctance to expressly confirm it. It is argued that the direct effect of EU international agreements has been confirmed...... in proceedings involving private individuals/professionals against the private regulatory bodies of a profession or a State owned and controlled entity. However, direct effect has not yet been expressly confirmed in cases involving veritable horizontal relationships, between private parties of equal positions...

  4. Agreements registered with the International Atomic Energy Agency. 11 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The eleventh edition of Legal Series No. 3 contains agreements registered up to 31 December 1993. The book is divided into three parts. Part I consists of a chronological list, by date of entry into force, of all agreements registered with the Agency. Part II of the booked is devoted to six major multilateral agreements for which the Agency is depository. All these agreements are listed in Part I in the appropriate chronological order, but information relating to signatories and parties appears in Part II. Since this listing reflects the current, not historical, situations, it does not reflect countries which are no longer parties. Part III is the Country Annex, with an additional section including international organizations and other parties with whom the Agency has agreements. It gives a tabular, alphabetical presentation of information set out in Parts I and II, which may serve as an index to specific agreements and an overview of the types of agreements to which particular countries are party. For historical purposes, Part III reflects all countries, even those no longer existing, which were or are party to a specific agreement

  5. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  6. Legal questions about negotiating a new international climate agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljean-Dubois, Sandrine; Wemaere, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Although the last IPCC report emphasized the need for urgent action, international cooperation on the climate has stalled. The second phase (2013-2020) of the Kyoto Protocol has been merely symbolic. The Cancun agreement, which made the Copenhagen one operational, laid the basis for a more flexible system for the period up to 2020. Negotiations on the period after 2020, which started in Durban in 2011, should end with a new agreement in Paris in late 2015. This future agreement should apply to all, as stipulated in the Durban Platform. However the increasing symmetry of obligations between North and South has been achieved by significantly lowering the goals set by each country with regard to its economic situation and national priorities. What kind of agreement will come out of Paris? What legal form will it take?

  7. The 'primacy' and 'direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    The rules on invoking EU norms before the Court of Justice and Member State courts are at the core of EU constitutional law. International agreements binding on the EU form an integral part of EU law and have primacy over inconsistent secondary EU legislation. Moreover, they also have primacy over...

  8. Cleaner Technologies and the Stability of International Environmental Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper shows that, if countries are farsighted when deciding whether to defect from a coalition, then the implementation of cleaner technologies may jeopardize the chances of reaching an international environmental agreement. The grand coalition may be destabilized by the

  9. Attainability of international environmental agreements as a social situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lise, W.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of social situations to study whether international environmental agreements (IEAs), mainly those on greenhouse gas emission reductions, can be attained. A game theoretic model is generally a black box for decision makers, where the mechanisms, which lead to solution(s)

  10. LEASE AGREEMENTS FINANCIAL REPORTING ISSUES ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MAISURADZE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available On January 13th 2016, the Board for International Accounting Standards  published the  new International Standard 16 of Financial Reporting,   named as “Lease”, which will substitute the International Accounting Standard 17 of financial reporting “Lease”. ISFR 16 ensures reflection of practically all lease agreements in the financial reporting, which, in is part, meets the requirements of investors regarding reliability and transparency of the information related to a financial state of an enterprise. The Article considers the changes caused by ISFR 16, which relate to recognition of the lease agreements as the asset, their accounting and, impact on the financial reporting. Relevant conclusions are provided regarding the above mentioned issues.

  11. IAEA and International Science and Technology Center sign cooperative agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA and the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) today signed an agreement that calls for an increase in cooperation between the two organizations. The memorandum of understanding seeks to amplify their collaboration in the research and development of applications and technology that could contribute to the IAEA's activities in the fields of verification and nuclear security, including training and capacity building. IAEA Safeguards Director of Technical Support Nikolay Khlebnikov and ISTC Executive Director Adriaan van der Meer signed the Agreement at IAEA headquarters in Vienna on 22 October 2008. (IAEA)

  12. Regional cooperation based on multilateral international agreements in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Multilateral international agreements have defined the framework of behavior and cooperation in various fields and aspects of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Thus, obligations have been defined in the following areas: nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, physical protection of nuclear material, liability for nuclear damage, nuclear safety, early notification about a nuclear accident and assistance in case of nuclear accident. Obligations regarding radioactive waste management should be defined soon. This paper gives a review of obligations from particular agreements with a special emphasis on those which are being realized through mutual cooperation of concerned countries and are important for safe use of nuclear energy. (author)

  13. Incentives to participate in an international environmental agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, M.; Schneider, K.

    1997-01-01

    For international environmental problems involving many countries, such as the climate problem, it is unlikely that all countries will participate in an international environmental agreement. If some countries commit themselves to cooperate, while the remaining countries act independently and in pure self-interest, it appears to be possible to achieve a Pareto improvement if the non-signatory countries reduce their emissions, in exchange for transfers from the countries which sign an agreement. However, the paper shows that the prospect of receiving a transfer for reducing one's emissions provided the country does not commit itself to cooperation, tends to reduce the incentive a country might have to commit itself to cooperation. Moreover, if the disincentive effect of such side payments is strong, total emissions will be higher in a situation with side payments than in a situation in which the signatory countries commit themselves to not give transfers to free riding countries. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 2 appendices, 13 refs

  14. 78 FR 14755 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... satisfy the international obligations of the United States as a Contracting Party to the Convention. (2... international obligations of the United States as a Contracting Party to the Convention. List of Subjects in 50...) and to satisfy the international obligations of the United States under the Convention on the...

  15. International Environmental Agreements with Endogenous or Exogenous Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhai Hong; Larry Karp

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of endogenous and exogenous risk on the equilibrium (expected) membership of an International Environmental Agreement when countries are risk averse. Endogenous risk arises when countries use mixed rather than pure strategies at the participation game, and exogenous risk arises from the inherent uncertainty about the costs and benefits of increased abate- ment. Under endogenous risk, an increase in risk aversion increases expected participation. Under exogenous risk and ...

  16. International Technology-Oriented Agreements to Address Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Fischer, C.; Newell, R.G.; Ueno, T.

    2007-01-01

    Much discussion has surrounded possible alternatives for international agreements on climate change, particularly post-2012. Among these alternatives, technology-oriented agreements (TOAs) are perhaps the least well defined. We explore what TOAs may consist of, why they might be sensible, which TOAs already exist in international energy and environmental governance, and whether they have the potential to make a valuable contribution to addressing climate change. We conclude that TOAs aimed at knowledge sharing and coordination, research, development, or demonstration could increase the overall efficiency and effectiveness of international climate cooperation, but have limited environmental effectiveness on their own. Technology transfer agreements are likely to have similar properties unless the level of resources expended on them is large, in which case they could be environmentally significant. Technology mandates, standards, or incentives can be environmentally effective, within the applicable sector. However, they are likely to be less cost-effective than broad-based, flexible approaches that place a price on emissions. These results indicate that TOAs have the potential to improve the effectiveness of the global response to climate change. The success of specific TOAs will depend on their design, implementation, and the role they are expected to play relative to other components of the climate policy portfolio

  17. 76 FR 82180 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... international obligations of the United States as a Contracting Party to the Convention, NMFS must implement... necessary for the United States to satisfy its international obligations under the Convention on the... (Convention), to which it is a Contracting Party. DATES: Effective on December 30, 2011, comments must be...

  18. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... States, Vanuatu, and Venezuela. Bolivia and the Cook Islands are cooperating non-members. International... Pacific bluefin mortality. In addition, the Department of the Interior, Office of Environmental Policy and...

  19. OPEC`s response to international climate agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braaten, J.; Golombek, R.

    1996-03-01

    This publication studies a game between a group of countries that have agreed to participate in an international climate agreement (the signatories) and OPEC. The task of the signatories is to design carbon taxes that maximize their total net income, given a goal on global carbon emissions. In response to the climate agreement, OPEC imposes an oil tax on its member states that maximizes OPEC`s profits. Within a numerical model, the subgame-perfect equilibrium of a game is found in which each player chooses when to fix his decision variables. It is shown that, in equilibrium, the group of signatories chooses to be the leader and OPEC chooses to be the follower. It is demonstrated, however, that for both agents the order of move is of minor (numerical) importance. Hence, the players have limited incentives for strategic behaviour. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. A History of the International Agreement on Iran's Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabius, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    In May 2012, in the aftermath of the French presidential election, Iranian nuclear program posed a major challenge concerning both regional security questions and global efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation. The situation was characterized by a diplomatic stalemate, sanctions and the concerning development of Iran's nuclear program. Many fear that Iran's current program development will warrant military intervention in an effort to prevent further success. France therefore decided to implement a policy of 'constructive firmness' in the hope of reaching a robust and verifiable agreement that shows real progress in the international effort to prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons. The following text is an accurate account of the process leading up to this major agreement by one of its main actors

  1. Legal Framework and Mechanism of Marine Fisheries Subsidies in the Aspects of International Trade and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Adijaya Yusuf; Melda Kamil Ariadno; Arie Afriansyah

    2015-01-01

    Issues in fisheries have been regulated in various International conventions. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 (UNCLOS 1982) has builta regime in the field of conservation and management of fishery resources based upon maritime zones or fish species that exist and available in this zone. However, UNCLOS 1982 only focuses on the issue of fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the high seas, thus it was not sufficient to overcome the problems of high frequen...

  2. Qualitative content analysis for international comparison of data usage agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Haux

    2017-04-01

    Undertaking an overview of privacy conditions can be a valuable step in comparing privacy and security requirements in different national regulations. The qualitative content analysis was found a suitable approach for this purpose because it enables the detection of fine characteristics. By using an incremental design, it is possible to adapt the coding system to include additional partners. However, the current coding system has the limitation that heterogeneity between the agreements leads to a fine granularity of categories that hamper the comparability between partners. Despite these problems, the approach allows the comparison of data privacy and supports the development of a data integration process for international harmonisation.

  3. 2 CFR 176.90 - Non-application to acquisitions covered under international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are: (1) The World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (Aruba, Austria, Belgium... under international agreements. 176.90 Section 176.90 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND...-application to acquisitions covered under international agreements. Acquisitions covered by international...

  4. License agreements: segmentation within the international market of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Díaz Vera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The self-replicating nature of seeds poses a challenge for the traditional configuration of Intellectual property rights, as it overlooks the boundary that prevents amateurs from replicating the technology embedded on it. The territorial scope of IP rights and the lack of an international consensus regarding the exhaustion of IP right aggravates the issue. This loophole enhances the segmentation of markets through license agreements of patents and plant varieties which multinationals employ to drag resources all along the market chain, by demanding payment of fees to each shackle. This might constitute an infringement of Competition Law regimes which is undertaken differently according with the tradition of each country but always with the aim of protecting the well-functioning of their internal market.

  5. Which approach should Europe adopt to reach an international agreement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Laurent; Durande, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    The goal of international negotiations on the climate should be an agreement that, applying to everyone, both addresses the issues of attenuation and adaptation, and focuses on the means for implementing a worldwide transition toward low-carbon economies. The European Union's position during negotiations has been laid down in the conclusions adopted by all member states of the Council of Europe. During bargaining sessions, meetings will be organized to coordinate EU member states' actions so that Europe speaks with a single voice. In this respect, the EU approach does not differ from France's. In effect, coordination between ministerial departments in France is ensured by the Secretariat General des Affaires Europeennes (SGAE), the secretary-general being the councilor on Europe to the President of the Republic

  6. Increasing Participation and Compliance in International Climate Change Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, S.; Stavins, R.

    2002-11-01

    Scientific and economic consensus increasingly points to the need for a credible and cost-effective approach to address the threat of global climate change, but the Kyoto Protocol to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change appears incapable of inducing significant participation and compliance. We assess the Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures that have been proposed, with particular attention to their respective abilities to induce participation and compliance. We find that those approaches that offer cost-effective mitigation are unlikely to induce significant participation and compliance, while those approaches that are likely to enjoy a reasonably high level of implementation by sovereign states are sorely lacking in terms of their anticipated cost effectiveness. The feasible set of policy architectures is thus limited to second-best alternatives. Much more attention needs to be given - both by scholarly research and by international negotiations - to aspects of future international climate agreements that will affect the degrees of participation and compliance that can reasonably be expected to be forthcoming

  7. Cooperation Agreement. The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  8. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [fr

  9. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  10. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [es

  11. International Environmental Agreements: Emissions Trade, Safety Valves and Escape Clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2010-01-01

    We explain how the structure of multi-national or multi-regional environmental agreements affect their chance of success. Trade in emissions permits has ambiguous and in some cases surprising effects on both the equilibrium level of abatement, and on the ability to persuade nations or regions to participate in environmental agreements. An escape clause policy and a safety valve policy have essentially the same properties when membership in environmental agreement is pre-determined, but they create markedly different effects on the incentives to join such an agreement. The two policies lead to a qualitative difference in the leverage that a potential member of the agreement exercises on other members

  12. Assessing the Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenaz B. Seelarbokus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly claimed that assessing the effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs from the environmental problem-solving perspective is challenging because environmental data are not available. However, not much research has been done on the characterization of the nature and causes of such data unavailability. This article analyzes the term “data unavailability” and provides three typologies for data unavailability: (a “true unavailability,” where data collection complexities and resource constraints limit data collection and analysis; (b “false unavailability,” which refers to the existence of relevant data, but failure to report due to various causes; and (c “external availability,” which refers to the existence of relevant data in several organizations and research institutions, but with no established networks for data sharing between such institutions and the IEA institutions. This article discusses the causes for the various types of data unavailability and makes recommendations for promoting data availability.

  13. Legal Framework and Mechanism of Marine Fisheries Subsidies in the Aspects of International Trade and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adijaya Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues in fisheries have been regulated in various international conventions. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 (UNCLOS 1982 has builta regime in the field of conservation and management of fishery resources based upon maritime zones or fish species that exist and available in this zone. However, UNCLOS 1982 only focuses on the issue of fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ and the high seas, thus it was not sufficient to overcome the problems of high frequent of fishing in maritime zones which are fully subject to the jurisdiction of coastal states, such as in the Inland waters, archipelagic waters and the Territorial Sea. This article aims to examine the legal framework and mechanisms of fisheries subsidies in the aspects of trade and sustainable development. In this article, discussion would carried out in order to examine the legal framework and mechanisms of marine fisheries subsidies that are implemented with the principles of fair-trade and sustainable development, both in the international level, as well as in the national level. Thus, this research is expected to be able to bridge the interests of developed countries and developing countries, especially Indonesia, in order to achieve fair trade in the field of fisheries and resource utilization of sustainable fisheries.

  14. The precautionary principle in fisheries management under climate change: How the international legal framework formulate it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, E.; Imanullah, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    One of the objectives of fisheries management is to reach long-term sustainable benefits of the fish stocks while reducing the risk of severe or irreversible damage to the marine ecosystem. Achieving this objective needs, the good scientific knowledge and understanding on fisheries management including scientific data and information on the fish stock, fishing catch, distribution, migration, the proportion of mature fish, the mortality rate, reproduction as well as the knowledge on the impact of fishing on dependent and associated species and other species belonging to the same ecosystem, and further the impact of climate change and climate variability on the fish stocks and marine ecosystem. Lack of this scientific knowledge may lead to high levels of uncertainty. The precautionary principle is one of the basic environmental principles needed in overcoming this problem. An essence of this principle is that, in facing the serious risk as a result of the limited scientific knowledge or the absence of complete evidence of harm, it should not prevent the precautionary measures in minimizing risks and protecting the fish stocks and ecosystem. This study aims to examine how the precautionary principle in fisheries management be formulated into the international legal framework, especially under the climate change framework.

  15. International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) Agreement Between the United States of American and Other Governments and Operating Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of State, Washington, DC.

    The INTELSAT (International Telecommunications Satellite) agreement was reached because of the desirability of continuing the development of a telecommunications satellite system. INTELSAT's aim was to achieve a single global commercial system as part of an improved global telecommunications network which will provide expanded services to all…

  16. 78 FR 77621 - Forum To Discuss Proposed Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... implement the PLTIA. Additional information concerning the proposed rules and the Hague Agreement, and any... [Docket No. PTO-C-2013-0059] Forum To Discuss Proposed Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning... Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs (``Hague...

  17. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  18. THE TPP AND TTIP TRADE AGREEMENTS: THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free trade is one of the ultimate purposes of the free trade agreements currently negotiated over the world. Two of these trials are represented by the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The common feature of these two trade deals is represented by the United States, a global actor that is making sure that it will be able to trade in best conditions on both of its geographical shores: on the Pacific and on The Atlantic. The negotiations are still ongoing, but results are expected on both sides. An important issue for the third parties, but not only, is represented by the secrecy of the negotiations undertaken and the lack of transparency shown by the negotiating Governments. If the agreements are concluded, a major global impact on trade and investments is expected, with significant positive implications for the TPP and TTIP negotiating states.

  19. THE UTILITY OF THE BARTER AGREEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA RĂVAŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explain how barter, as an economic institution, can help deal with the problem of contract enforcement across national borders in international trade and within borders in transition economies.

  20. International R&D collaboration networks and free trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hua Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the analysis of optimal industrial and strategic trade policy in the presence of oligopoly and other forms of imperfect competition, so as to make contact with important empirical regularities and policy concerns, such as international R&D collaboration, unionization and free trade. First, in the context of international competition in which R&D plays an important role, we study the consequences of allowing governments to subsidize R&D and coalition devi...

  1. Progress toward international agreement to improve reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.I.; Graham, B.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of nearly one-half of the 114 member states of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), including the United States, have participated in the development of an international nuclear safety conventions proposed multilateral treaty to improve civil nuclear power reactor safety. A preliminary draft of the convention has been developed (referred to as the draft convention for this report), but discussions are continuing, and when the final convention text will be completed and presented to IAEA member states for signature is uncertain. This report responds to the former and current Chairman's request that we provide information on the development of the nuclear safety convention, including a discussion of (1) the draft convention's scope and objectives, (2) how the convention will be implemented and monitored, (3) the views of selected country representatives on what provisions should be included in the draft convention, and (4) the convention's potential benefits and limitations

  2. Double Taxation Agreements: Between EU Law and Public International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    After the first drafts of the Treaty of Lisbon were available outside of the small circle of cogniscenti, specialists of the various policies tried to establish whether the new Treaty on European Union (TEU) and Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) contained anything relevant for their specific areas of law. People interested in tax law and those interested in the relation between EU law and public international law quickly established that one familiar yet not always well u...

  3. International conventions and agreements in the ecological area: In light of modern civilization and international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of authors examine the problem of environmental protection in their papers. The concept of sustainable development and intensive use of modern technology in order to overcome the environmental problems of modern civilization becomes an imperative. Theoretical engagement in ecological issues is not enough. It is necessary to implement ecological measures in practice and to spread environmental awareness. Modern science and social practice have interdependence of economy and ecology in their focus. The main direction of social change is movement from economic to ecological paradigm that involves an ethical responsibility to the current and future generations. There is a need to establish effective programs to protect the environment at the national and supranational level. Active international cooperation in the field of ecology has resulted in the formulation of a number of documents on environmental protection. This paper illustrates the importance of environmental protection and the necessity of implementing international conventions and agreements in the environmental field, with focus on their impact on international trade.

  4. Contested Norms in Inter-National Encounters: The ‘Turbot War’ as a Prelude to Fairer Fisheries Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Wiener

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is about contested norms in inter-national encounters in global fisheries governance. It illustrates how norms work by reconstructing the trajectory of the 1995 ‘Turbot War’ as a series of inter-national encounters among diverse sets of Canadian and European stakeholders. By unpacking the contestations and identifying the norms at stake, it is suggested that what began as action at cross-purposes (i.e. each party referring to a different fundamental norm, ultimately holds the potential for fairer fisheries governance. This finding is shown by linking source and settlement of the dispute and identifying the shared concern for the balance between the right to fish and the responsibility for sustainable fisheries. The article develops a framework to elaborate on procedural details including especially the right for stakeholder access to regular contestation. It is organised in four sections: section 1 summarises the argument, section 2 presents the framework of critical norms research, section 3 reconstructs contestations of fisheries norms over the duration of the dispute, and section 4 elaborates on the dispute as a prelude to fairer fisheries governance. The latter is based on a novel conceptual focus on stakeholder access to contestation at the meso-layer of fisheries governance where organising principles are negotiated close to policy and political processes, respectively. The conclusion suggests for future research to pay more attention to the link between the ‘is’ and the ‘ought’ of norms in critical norms research in International Relations theories (IR.

  5. 47 CFR 73.23 - AM broadcast station applications affected by international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... consistency with international relationships and as to which no final decision has been rendered, whenever action under this section becomes appropriate because of inconsistency with international relationships... international agreements. 73.23 Section 73.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  6. International petroleum exploration and exploitation agreements: a comprehensive environmental appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiguo Gao

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the environmental aspects of international petroleum exploration and exploitation is outlined. Four case studies of modern petroleum contracts from four developing countries are presented. These are Thailand's modern concession contract, Indonesia's production sharing contract, Brazil's risk service contract and China's hybrid contract. The failure of these four countries to provide adequate environmental regulation through their petroleum contracts is typical of many countries in the developing world. An urgent need exists to recognise that important environmental and resource consequences are associated with the developments authorised by petroleum contracts and that appropriate legal changes must be made to take them into account. Environmental sustainability should be an explicit part of all investment arrangements. (UK)

  7. Safety in nuclear technology through introduction of internationally binding agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Presents the Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE) views in favour of continued utilisation of nuclear energy for electrical power generation. Nuclear energy helps to conserve finite natural resources of coal, oil, and gas for future generations, and avoids the considerable amount of environmental pollution produced by coal-burning power stations. Risks arise in every technology, but these must be considered in relation to the utility of the technology. Development of other forms of energy conversion must continue, but use of nuclear energy at the present time cannot be avoided without incurring great adverse economic and environmental pollution consequences. Safety aspects must be the object of committed and continuous research, and must be internationally agreed. (H.V.H.)

  8. Are stricter investment rules contagious? Host country competition for foreign direct investment through international agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Roy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the trend toward international investment agreements (IIAs) with stricter investment rules is driven by competitive diffusion, namely defensive moves of developing countries concerned about foreign direct investment (FDI) diversion in favor of competing host countries. Accounting for spatial dependence in the formation of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and preferential trade agreements (PTAs) that contain investment provisions, we find that the increase in agreements with ...

  9. THE STATUS OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS CONCLUDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE EU LEGAL ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoston Mohay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a member of the international community and is a party to numerous international agreements. The status of these international agreements in the EU legal order however is not made expressly clear by the Treaties. The most pertinent question that arises is whether secondary EU law may be reviewed in the light of international agreements in annulment procedures or preliminary ruling procedures before the Court of Justice of the EU. In its jurisprudence the Court of Justice has tied the possibility of review to the question of the direct effect of international treaties, but there are some issues of consistency in this regard. This problem is a part of the broader question of the relationship of international law and EU law, including the question whether this relationship is more akin to a monist or a dualist approach.

  10. An empirical test of new developments in coalition theory for the design of international environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Sáiz Pérez, M.E.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    We consider new developments in coalition theory for the design of international environmental agreements (IEAs). Applying an empirical model on climate change that comprises benefit and cost estimates from abatement for 12 world regions, we analyze how the design of an agreement affects the success

  11. Political and legal problems of international nuclear supply agreements: the Euratom experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyses the Chapters in the Euratom Treaty which are relevant to uranium supply agreements and the European Community's powers in international relations as conferred by the Treaty. It also examines the agreements concluded by Euratom with the US, Canada and Australia respectively with emphasis on their nuclear non-proliferation aspects. (NEA) [fr

  12. Trading in Education: The "Agreement on Internal Trade," Labour Mobility and Teacher Certification in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately…

  13. International Standards: Past Free Trade Agreements and the Prospects in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasson Leif Johan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership represents a strategic vision of transatlantic relations, including job creation, global leadership, and establishing high international standards. This paper discusses how three recent bi-lateral and regional agreements, along with positions adopted in transatlantic negotiations, convey respective side's acceptable parameters, and how international standards are emerging from and disseminated through agreements involving the European Union and the United States

  14. The Development Standard Agreement Influences on National and International Business Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindawati Cindawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing business traffic either nationally or internationally forces the business practices to establish a standard agreement to secure the products and to protect the buyer from any risks. The standard agreement successfully meets the demand of international trade which urgently need the high speed and the accuracy. The objective of this research is to find out how does the development of agreement affect to the commerce practices and what are the requirements of standard agreement in accordance with the right and obligation. A qualitative method is applied in searching data of business practices. This study uses a normative research which guides the rule of law or determines some business standards and norms. The finding of this study show that the development of agreement strongly affects to the commerce practices, and standar agreement is urgently needed by business practices as a guideline to perform business traffic as smooth as buyer and seller expect, then both seller and buyer should know the three alternative way used as the procedures of standard agreement, namely; contract signing, notification document agreement, and notification by bulletin board. At last, a standard agreement could be accepted as legal agreement corresponding to willingness and trustworthy.

  15. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Engineering Design Activities (EDA). Agreement and protocol 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains protocol 1 to the agreement among the European Atomic Energy Community, the government of Japan, the Government of the Russian Federation, and the Government of the United States of America on cooperation in the engineering design activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which activities shall be conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  16. 76 FR 72907 - International Affairs; U.S. Fishing Opportunity in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... changing economic and other circumstances, these vessels will now be unable to fish during 2011. New... characteristics and economics of the fishery for future use by the U.S. fishing industry. Any Canadian vessel...

  17. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The text of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959, is re produced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. As required by section 38 of the Agreement, the Director General will transmit certified copies, in the Agency's four working languages, to the Government of each Member State

  18. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter

  19. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-08-17

    The text of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959, is re produced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. As required by section 38 of the Agreement, the Director General will transmit certified copies, in the Agency's four working languages, to the Government of each Member State.

  20. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [ru

  1. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [fr

  2. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [es

  3. Economic gains from introducing international ITQs - the case of the mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Fitzpatrick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a balance between fishing capacity and fishing opportunities is one of the major challenges in European fisheries. One way to achieve this is to introduce individual tradable quotas or similar management measures. In several mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic...... that the gross cash flow can be improved by 21% by allowing the mackerel and herring quotas to be traded internationally in the Northeast Atlantic. This rent gain arises mainly from increased productivity by allowing tradability between areas and fleets. The analysis also shows that the Danish pelagic fleet...... will gain from increasing its share of mackerel and herring quotas, whereas the Irish fleets are incentivised to sell quota, if individual quotas are allowed to be traded among countries. This result is in line with the qualitative analyses that show that Irish fishermen targeting herring in the Celtic Sea...

  4. On Banks, Courts and International Law: The Intergovernmental Agreement on the Single Resolution Fund in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabbrini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    In May 2014, 26 Member States of the EU concluded an intergovernmental agreement on the transfer and mutualization of contribution to the Single Resolution Fund (SRF). This international treaty constitutes a core component of the second pillar of the European Banking Union – the Single Resolution...... Mechanism, to wind down failing banks in the Euro-zone – and complements an EU regulation adopted by the European Parliament and the Council creating the SRF. This article critically analyses the choice to use international law to adopt the rules on transfer and mutualization of contributions to the SRF....... Moreover, as the article explains, resort to international law is unsound from a policy point of view. The use of an international treaty to regulate the transfer and mutualization of contributions to the SRF opens the door for national courts’ review of the agreement – a prospect which contrasts...

  5. The size of stable international environmental agreements in the case of stock pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.; de Zeeuw, A.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the literature on stability of International Environmental Agreements is essen- tially static and can therefore not identify changes in the size of the stable coalition in connection with changes in the stock of pollutants. This is a relevant issue because most global pollution problems are

  6. Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade : an analysis using matching econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; Trojanowska, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the heterogeneous effects of trade agreements (TAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on the volume of international trade. We extend Baier and Bergstrand’s (2009a) application of matching econometrics by distinguishing between different types of TAs and WTO

  7. Sustainable Fisheries in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Kamil Ariadno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries activity has increased significantly in number. As a result, we might see high investment in fisheries is due to the high demand for fish and fisheries products. Therefore, marine resources as well as other living resources are at risk in being harmed by excessive fisheries activities, for example: the use of trawl. Indonesia, as a Maritime State, need to impose sustainable fisheries because the principle of utilizing sustainable fisheries resources as adopted in the Law on Fisheries (Law No. 31 Year 2004 as amended by Law No. 45 Year 2009 to control fishery activities.Fishery activities are regulated not only by the Law on Fisheries but also international regulation adopted worldwide such as the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF. CCRF was prepared to include primary principles to elaborate the mechanism of fishery activities which is designated not to cost harmful damages in fisheries activities. CCRF is also accompanied by several technical guidelines that provide certain procedures to be applied to (1 fishing operations; (2 the precautionary approach as applied to capture fisheries and species introductions; (3 integrating fisheries into coastal area management; (4 fisheries management; (5 aquaculture development; and (6 inland fisheries. Consequently, CCRF is intended to cover any kind of fishery anywhere in the world not just marine capture fisheries, but also freshwater fisheries as well as aquaculture both marine and freshwater aquaculture. Excessive fishery activities would then not be harmful if Indonesia is willing to impose regulation which is significantly and effectively to manage these kind of fishery activities. Along with the fact that Indonesia is recognized as a Marine State, there is no reason to hold back in addressing this situation.

  8. Assessing implementation mechanisms for an international agreement on research and development for health products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2012-11-01

    The Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are currently debating the substance and form of an international agreement to improve the financing and coordination of research and development (R&D) for health products that meet the needs of developing countries. In addition to considering the content of any possible legal or political agreement, Member States may find it helpful to reflect on the full range of implementation mechanisms available to bring any agreement into effect. These include mechanisms for states to make commitments, administer activities, manage financial contributions, make subsequent decisions, monitor each other's performance and promote compliance. States can make binding or non-binding commitments through conventions, contracts, declarations or institutional reforms. States can administer activities to implement their agreements through international organizations, sub-agencies, joint ventures or self-organizing processes. Finances can be managed through specialized multilateral funds, financial institutions, membership organizations or coordinated self-management. Decisions can be made through unanimity, consensus, equal voting, modified voting or delegation. Oversight can be provided by peer review, expert review, self-reports or civil society. Together, states should select their preferred options across categories of implementation mechanisms, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. The challenge lies in choosing the most effective combinations of mechanisms for supporting an international agreement (or set of agreements) that achieves collective aspirations in a way and at a cost that are both sustainable and acceptable to those involved. In making these decisions, WHO's Member States can benefit from years of experience with these different mechanisms in health and its related sectors.

  9. Energy technologies at the cutting edge: international energy technology collaboration IEA Implementing Agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottinger, C. (ed.)

    2007-05-15

    Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change issues in a cost-effective way are the main challenges of energy policies and in the longer term will be solved only through technology cooperation. To encourage collaborative efforts to meet these energy challenges, the IEA created a legal contract - Implementing Agreement - and a system of standard rules and regulations. This allows interested member and non-member governments or other organisations to pool resources and to foster the research, development and deployment of particular technologies. For more than 30 years, this international technology collaboration has been a fundamental building block in facilitating progress of new or improved energy technologies. There are now 41 Implementing Agreements. This is the third in the series of publications highlighting the recent results and achievements of the IEA Implementing Agreements. This document is arranged in the following sections: Cross-cutting activities (sub-sectioned: Climate technology initiative; Energy Technology Data Eexchange; and Energy technology systems analysis programme); End-use technologies (sub-sectioned: Buildings; Electricity; Industry; and Transport; Fossil fuels (sub-sectioned: Clean Coal Centre; Enhanced oil recovery Fluidized bed conversion; Greenhouse Gas R & D; Multiphase flow sciences); Fusion power; Renewable energies and hydrogen; and For more information (including detail on the IEA energy technology network; IEA Secretariat Implementing Agreement support; and IEA framework. Addresses are given for the Implementing Agreements. The publication is based on core input from the Implementing Agreement Executive Committee.

  10. The Return of the Cultural Exception and its Impact on International Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Bartsch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the influence of the French concept of the “cultural exception” on European media policy and international agreements. After briefly reviewing the historical background of the cultural exception in France, the essay describes how demands for the cultural exception and those for diversity affect inter-/transnational agreements within the European Union and around the world. Special focus is placed on the current secret EU/US Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement (TTIP negotiations that nearly failed because of France’s insistence that media and culture be exempted. The author argues that the concept of the “cultural exception” has been revived in recent years. However, due to the dual character of media (which is both a cultural and economic good, and the lack of a global media policy, the culture and trade debate will continue.

  11. Potential of border tax adjustments to deter free riding in international climate agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcu Irfanoglu, Zeynep; Sesmero, Juan P.; Golub, Alla

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct assessment of the hypothesis that trade sanctions in the form of border tax adjustments (BTAs) used by the United States against China, constitute a viable enforcement mechanism to sustain compliance with a range of emissions taxes in the context of agreements to curb global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The performance of BTAs is then compared with those of punitive tariffs on the basis of the range of emission taxes that can be successfully enforced by their implementation. Results show that BTAs are a viable enforcement mechanism for international GHG mitigation agreements. However the maximum level of carbon tax that can be enforced varies dramatically with (1) the marginal damage of pollution perceived by Chinese authorities, and (2) the legal limitations that GATT rules may impose on BTAs. Finally, while BTAs seem a promising enforcement mechanism in the context of climate agreements, punitive tariffs seem to be capable of supporting a much stricter environmental target.

  12. International Energy Agency Implementing Agreements and Annexes: A Guide for Building Technologies Program Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Runci, Paul; Meier, Alan

    2008-08-01

    This report presents results from a program evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Buildings Technologies Program (BTP) participation in collaborative international technology implementing agreements. The evaluation was conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the fall of 2007 and winter 2008 and was carried out via interviews with stakeholders in four implementing agreements in which BTP participates, reviews of relevant program reports, websites and other published materials. In addition to these findings, the report includes a variety of supporting materials such that aim to assist BTP managers who currently participate in IEA implementing agreements or who may be considering participation.

  13. The Paris Climate Conference: What kind of international agreement in 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmet, Sylvie; Watkinson, Paul; Navizet, Damien

    2015-01-01

    At stake during the 21. Climate Conference (COP21) to be held in Paris in 2015 is the adoption of a worldwide agreement that can be applied to all countries. This agreement, which will take effect by 2020, will focus not only on reducing greenhouse gases and adapting to climate change but also on funding and concrete actions for sustainable, resilient economic development. Throughout the coming year, France, which hosts and chairs the COP21, must see to it that a transparent, inclusive process allows all parties to express their viewpoints and be heard. An agreement is not the only result expected of this conference. For the sake of fairness and in order to limit global warming to 2 deg. C, pledges and commitments, including financial ones, from countries in favor of protecting the climate are expected too. International recognition will also have to be provided to climate-related initiatives that have already been launched

  14. The role of bilateral agreements for cooperation in establishing international norms for nuclear exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, M.A.; Kraemer, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    It seems unlikely that a broad multilateral political consensus on the appropriate nuclear control norms will soon be achieved. Bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements will continue to be the dominant political instruments governing international nuclear commerce. Recent developments make the authors optimistic that flexible implementation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 will permit a more effective U.S. policy in the field of nuclear commerce. (CW) [de

  15. Beyond Sister City Agreements: Exploring the Challenges of Full International Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Mexican-American Attitudes toward Mexico,” International Migration Review 32, no. 2 ( Summer 1998). 36 de la Garza and DeSipio, “Interests Not Passions...Daily Times, October 7, 2014, 2. 44 Diana L. Haytko, John L. Kent, and Angela Hausman , “Mexican Maquiladoras: Helping or Hurting the US/Mexico...standing of a local player in a regional game. These interoperable agreements make sense from a political 175 Lawrence Freedman, Strategy-A History (New

  16. Legitimacy in global governance of sovereign default: the role of international investment agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Brahms, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the legitimacy of investor-state arbitration under international investment agreements in sovereign debt restructuring. The paper presents mechanisms governing sovereign default generally, namely collective action clauses and informal negotiation in the London and Paris clubs and then discusses how sovereign debt restructuring is governed by IIAs, looking at how the clauses affect restructuring. Taking the conception of legitimacy in global governance by Buchanan and Keoha...

  17. Pre-Ratification Judicial Review of International Agreements to be Concluded by the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2018-01-01

    incrementally shaping the law of EU external relations, and determining the manner in which the Union may enter into formal international relations. Understanding the Court’s importance in this field has been done time and again, but yet, consideration of the pre-ratification judicial review option, available...... in many cases, and being forced to wade into institutional debates over competence and the autonomy of the Union’s legal order, this chapter underlines the important role that the Court has played in external relations prior to international agreements being entered into, and seeks to carve out a formula...

  18. Fisheries economics and fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peder

    2013-01-01

    spent too much time on fundamentals in fisheries economics at the expense of the development of applicable models for fisheries managers? Of course, this question is relevant only IF fisheries economics and fisheries economists have a role to play in fisheries management.......Professor Rögnvaldur Hannesson's influence on the development and history of fisheries economics is unquestionable. Also, he has strongly pointed out the potential gains from a more active use of fisheries economics in fisheries management. In light of this, one may ask if fisheries economists have...

  19. An Experimental Study on Internal and External Negotiation for Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankyoung Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally studies the performance of negotiation considering individual and party, like a country, share of benefit over the best ones. It experiments two-stage bargaining games, internal and external negotiations. From the experimental results, this paper shows strong tendency to select fair allocation in the internal negotiations, but the tendency would be weaker with attractive outside option. In addition, the outside option may claim difference in individual benefit. From the regressions on individual performance in the negotiations, being a proposing party would matter to enhance the performance. However, relative individual performance within party fairness matters. Still attractive no-agreement options happen to break the tendency. As policy implication for trade negotiation, this paper warns that possible loss in individual benefit from not active participation to the external negotiations, no active role of proposer in case that players stick to internal allocations, and deviation of advantageous sector due to attractive outside options.

  20. Fulfilling environment related international commitments through implementation of multilateral environmental agreements (meas) in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Gillani, Z.A

    2014-01-01

    Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAS) help addresses the environmental problem being faced by the international community as a whole. The ultimate goal of reaching MEAs is to realize sustainable development across the globe. According to World Bank (2006), Pakistan's economy loses Rs.365 billion annually to environmental hazards. A key mechanism available under international law for countries to work together on global environmental issues is through MEAs. Pakistan is signatory to several MEAs and has acceded to other non-legally binding instruments, such as Agenda-21, Rio Principles and Johannesburg Plan of Implementation aiming at sustainable development of natural resources. As a party to various Conventions and Protocols, Pakistan has participating in different Conferences of Parties (COPs), Meetings of Parties (MOPs), and international consultative and technical meetings regarding MEAs organized by the United Nations and other international forum. Pakistan has been actively participating in and keeping liaison with institutional elements of each of these MEAs, i.e. COPs, the secretariat, advisory bodies, subsidiary bodies, clearing-house mechanisms, for effective decision making regarding the overall implementation and development of programme of work and strategic plans, budget and the revision of annexes to the treaties. Priorities and objectives of MEAs vary significantly from one international instrument to another while the common aspects include the sustainable development and use of natural resources and the protection of the environment in such a way as to ensure its judicious use. Based on different stages of implementation of these MEAs, the spectrum in priorities of Pakistan has quite broad. Pakistan attaches greater emphasis to crosscutting themes for MEAs that are primarily of a functional nature, such as strengthening of the capacities to meet the country's obligations or responsibilities under these agreements; enhancing coordination

  1. THE TRIPS AGREEMENT, INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND DEVELOPMENT: SOME LESSONS FROM STRENGTHENING IPR PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shugurov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the impact of the TRIPS Agreement provisions on further development of international technology transfer (ITT mainly to developing countries. The authors review the critical specificity of ITT connected with the adoption of TRIPS. Much attention is paid to an analysis of what is most discussed among international experts in the area of the issues on the dual results of stronger intellectual property rights (IPRs concerning various groups of developing countries. Their study also examines a number of problems with implementation of the TRIPS provisions, conducive to ITT, in the context of the TRIPS-plus era as a new stage in strengthening IPR protection. Bearing in mind the fragmentation of the international regime of IPR protection because of the adoption of numerous regional free trade agreements, the authors outline the possible position of advanced developing and least developed countries with respect to using TRIPS potentials for development of ITT under reasonable and just terms, with the aim of overall prosperity.

  2. Potential of border tax adjustments to deter free riding in international climate agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfanoglu, Zeynep Burcu; Golub, Alla; Sesmero, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct assessment of the hypothesis that trade sanctions in the form of border tax adjustments (BTAs) used by the United States against China, constitute a viable enforcement mechanism to sustain compliance with a range of emissions taxes in the context of agreements to curb global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The performance of BTAs is then compared with those of punitive tariffs on the basis of the range of emission taxes that can be successfully enforced by their implementation. Results show that BTAs are a viable enforcement mechanism for international GHG mitigation agreements. However the maximum level of carbon tax that can be enforced varies dramatically with (1) the marginal damage of pollution perceived by Chinese authorities, and (2) the legal limitations that GATT rules may impose on BTAs. Finally, while BTAs seem a promising enforcement mechanism in the context of climate agreements, punitive tariffs seem to be capable of supporting a much stricter environmental target. (letter)

  3. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  4. The Warwick Agreement on femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAI syndrome): an international consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R; Dickenson, E J; O'Donnell, J; Agricola, R; Awan, T; Beck, M; Clohisy, J C; Dijkstra, H P; Falvey, E; Gimpel, M; Hinman, R S; Hölmich, P; Kassarjian, A; Martin, H D; Martin, R; Mather, R C; Philippon, M J; Reiman, M P; Takla, A; Thorborg, K; Walker, S; Weir, A; Bennell, K L

    2016-10-01

    The 2016 Warwick Agreement on femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome was convened to build an international, multidisciplinary consensus on the diagnosis and management of patients with FAI syndrome. 22 panel members and 1 patient from 9 countries and 5 different specialties participated in a 1-day consensus meeting on 29 June 2016. Prior to the meeting, 6 questions were agreed on, and recent relevant systematic reviews and seminal literature were circulated. Panel members gave presentations on the topics of the agreed questions at Sports Hip 2016, an open meeting held in the UK on 27-29 June. Presentations were followed by open discussion. At the 1-day consensus meeting, panel members developed statements in response to each question through open discussion; members then scored their level of agreement with each response on a scale of 0-10. Substantial agreement (range 9.5-10) was reached for each of the 6 consensus questions, and the associated terminology was agreed on. The term 'femoroacetabular impingement syndrome' was introduced to reflect the central role of patients' symptoms in the disorder. To reach a diagnosis, patients should have appropriate symptoms, positive clinical signs and imaging findings. Suitable treatments are conservative care, rehabilitation, and arthroscopic or open surgery. Current understanding of prognosis and topics for future research were discussed. The 2016 Warwick Agreement on FAI syndrome is an international multidisciplinary agreement on the diagnosis, treatment principles and key terminology relating to FAI syndrome.Author note The Warwick Agreement on femoroacetabular impingement syndrome has been endorsed by the following 25 clinical societies: American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM), Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports and Exercise Medicine (ACPSEM), Australasian College of Sports and Exercise Physicians (ACSEP), Austian Sports Physiotherapists, British Association of Sports and Exercise

  5. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

    2014-02-01

    Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition.

  6. The Nordic Countries interests in principles for international greenhouse gas agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Meyer, H.; Stephensen, P.; Soerensen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of this report is the interests of the Nordic countries in international agreements on greenhouse gases. The subject is approached mainly from an economic point of view. Introductory, the climate convention are described, with special attention to obligations to emission reductions. Important discussion points are timing of the reductions as well as the question of meeting the reductions by cooperation with other countries through joint-implementation projects. The different attitudes of the Nordic countries to these issues are discussed. In the following, the technical and economic possibilities for meeting the reduction objectives of each country are described. For this purpose, governmental plans and studies (on bottom-up as well as top-down studies) are brought into focus. A discussion of the differences and similarities of the methodology of the studies are carried out. Finally, the report focuses on costs of reducing emissions in the Nordic countries. A comparison between the different Nordic countries, as well as between the Nordic countries and the other OECD countries is done. The analysis points out, that the Nordic countries are characterized by relatively high costs in general. Another conclusion is, that the costs of reduction after the year 2000/2005 are much lower than costs of reductions in the short run. An exception to this is Denmark. This points out, that some Nordic countries prefer emission reductions through joint-implementation projects in other countries, rather than reductions through restrictive agreements in the sort run. (au) (29 tabs., 28 ills., 45 refs.)

  7. The effects of R&D investments in international environmental agreements with asymmetric countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancardi, Marta; Villani, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the stability of international environmental agreements (IEAs) in a dynamic context where abatement levels are associated with the stock pollutant evolution. We underline two meaningful aspects of this matter. Firstly, we consider asymmetry among countries, dividing them in two types: developed countries that have a considerable environmental awareness and developing ones that pay a less attention to environmental preservation. Secondly, we introduce a positive externality in the cooperation where countries coordinate their R&D activities sharing the investments in order to avoid duplication of green activities. Otherwise, the non-cooperators support completely their R&D investments for clean technologies. These two aspects encourage the formation of stable coalitions till to determine conditions for which also the grand coalition is stable.

  8. Amendment to the agreement between CERN and Ukraine concerning the granting of the status of Associate Member at CERN Extension of the deadline for the notification of the completion of the internal approval procedures of the agreement by Ukraine

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Amendment to the agreement between CERN and Ukraine concerning the granting of the status of Associate Member at CERN Extension of the deadline for the notification of the completion of the internal approval procedures of the agreement by Ukraine

  9. 76 FR 45231 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries..., South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office... fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and...

  10. 75 FR 51242 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions; and NOAA... representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils...

  11. The European Union Building Peace Near and Afar: Monitoring the Implementation of International Peace Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máire Braniff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU support and contribution to international peace and security continues to develop with involvement in the Balkans, South Caucasus, Africa, Middle East and South Asia (Council of the European Union 2005. Within the broad range of civilian and military interventions under the Common Security and Defence policy (CSDP there have been two monitoring missions that have emerged from peace agreements, in Aceh (2005-2006 and in Georgia (2008 to date. This article maps the evolution EU’s role in international peace building by focusing on how this role is increasingly constructed by the scope of monitoring missions which it has embarked upon outside of its borders. A thematic analysis of literature is used to explore how the EU’s monitoring role has evolved regarding the different degrees of intervention, time-frame and size of the monitoring mission which have resulted in a multi-level impact regarding societal transition. The article finds that political will, shadows of past and future missions and intergovernmental concerns dominates how the EU’s monitoring missions unfurl, affecting the practice of monitors and other EU actors in local conflict settings and contemplates scenarios for future monitoring missions.

  12. International inter-rater agreement in scoring acne severity utilizing cloud-based image sharing of mobile phone photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, Negar; Ornelas, Jennifer N; Clark, Ashley K; Ali, Ifrah; Sharon, Victoria R; Al Mubarak, Luluah; Lopez, Andrés; Alikhan, Ali; Al Dabagh, Bishr; Firooz, Alireza; Awasthi, Smita; Liu, Yu; Li, Chin-Shang; Sivamani, Raja K

    2017-09-01

    Cloud-based image sharing technology allows facilitated sharing of images. Cloud-based image sharing technology has not been well-studied for acne assessments or treatment preferences, among international evaluators. We evaluated inter-rater variability of acne grading and treatment recommendations among an international group of dermatologists that assessed photographs. This is a prospective, single visit photographic study to assess inter-rater agreement of acne photographs shared through an integrated mobile device, cloud-based, and HIPAA-compliant platform. Inter-rater agreements for global acne assessment and acne lesion counts were evaluated by the Kendall's coefficient of concordance while correlations between treatment recommendations and acne severity were calculated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. There was good agreement for the evaluation of inflammatory lesions (KCC = 0.62, P cloud-based image sharing for acne assessment. Cloud-based sharing may facilitate acne care and research among international collaborators. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Lack of grading agreement among international hemostasis external quality assessment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John D; Jennings, Ian; Meijer, Piet; Bon, Chantal; Bonar, Roslyn; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Higgins, Russell A; Keeney, Michael; Mammen, Joy; Marlar, Richard A; Meley, Roland; Nair, Sukesh C; Nichols, William L; Raby, Anne; Reverter, Joan C; Srivastava, Alok; Walker, Isobel

    2018-01-01

    : Laboratory quality programs rely on internal quality control and external quality assessment (EQA). EQA programs provide unknown specimens for the laboratory to test. The laboratory's result is compared with other (peer) laboratories performing the same test. EQA programs assign target values using a variety of methods statistical tools and performance assessment of 'pass' or 'fail' is made. EQA provider members of the international organization, external quality assurance in thrombosis and hemostasis, took part in a study to compare outcome of performance analysis using the same data set of laboratory results. Eleven EQA organizations using eight different analytical approaches participated. Data for a normal and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and a normal and reduced factor VIII (FVIII) from 218 laboratories were sent to the EQA providers who analyzed the data set using their method of evaluation for aPTT and FVIII, determining the performance for each laboratory record in the data set. Providers also summarized their statistical approach to assignment of target values and laboratory performance. Each laboratory record in the data set was graded pass/fail by all EQA providers for each of the four analytes. There was a lack of agreement of pass/fail grading among EQA programs. Discordance in the grading was 17.9 and 11% of normal and prolonged aPTT results, respectively, and 20.2 and 17.4% of normal and reduced FVIII results, respectively. All EQA programs in this study employed statistical methods compliant with the International Standardization Organization (ISO), ISO 13528, yet the evaluation of laboratory results for all four analytes showed remarkable grading discordance.

  14. Lack of grading agreement among international hemostasis external quality assessment programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John D.; Jennings, Ian; Meijer, Piet; Bon, Chantal; Bonar, Roslyn; Favaloro, Emmanuel J.; Higgins, Russell A.; Keeney, Michael; Mammen, Joy; Marlar, Richard A.; Meley, Roland; Nair, Sukesh C.; Nichols, William L.; Raby, Anne; Reverter, Joan C.; Srivastava, Alok; Walker, Isobel

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory quality programs rely on internal quality control and external quality assessment (EQA). EQA programs provide unknown specimens for the laboratory to test. The laboratory's result is compared with other (peer) laboratories performing the same test. EQA programs assign target values using a variety of methods statistical tools and performance assessment of ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ is made. EQA provider members of the international organization, external quality assurance in thrombosis and hemostasis, took part in a study to compare outcome of performance analysis using the same data set of laboratory results. Eleven EQA organizations using eight different analytical approaches participated. Data for a normal and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and a normal and reduced factor VIII (FVIII) from 218 laboratories were sent to the EQA providers who analyzed the data set using their method of evaluation for aPTT and FVIII, determining the performance for each laboratory record in the data set. Providers also summarized their statistical approach to assignment of target values and laboratory performance. Each laboratory record in the data set was graded pass/fail by all EQA providers for each of the four analytes. There was a lack of agreement of pass/fail grading among EQA programs. Discordance in the grading was 17.9 and 11% of normal and prolonged aPTT results, respectively, and 20.2 and 17.4% of normal and reduced FVIII results, respectively. All EQA programs in this study employed statistical methods compliant with the International Standardization Organization (ISO), ISO 13528, yet the evaluation of laboratory results for all four analytes showed remarkable grading discordance. PMID:29232255

  15. 76 FR 78258 - Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ....htm . Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment I. Introduction The Federal... merger in this market. Specifically, the Consent Agreement requires that Valeant return the marketing... highly concentrated. Pursuant to a co-marketing agreement between Valeant and Spear Pharmaceuticals...

  16. Work for the International Energy Agency's Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA) in 2006; Arbeiten fuer das IEA Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA) 2006 - Jahresbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybach, L.; Megel, T.

    2006-12-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses work done in 2006 within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA). Information exchange with representatives of countries where geothermal energy is used is discussed as are the contributions made in this area by Swiss representatives. In particular, comprehensive appendices to the report present the Swiss Country Report, a basic paper on geothermal sustainability, comments on the environmental impact of geothermal energy development and risks posed by fluid injection in enhanced geothermal systems.

  17. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada's invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations.

  18. IEA hydrogen agreement, task 15: photobiological hydrogen production - an international collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, P.; Asada, Y.; Benemann, J.; Hallenbeck, P.; Melis, A.; Miyake, J.; Seibert, M.; Skulberg, O.

    2000-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production, the production of H 2 by microorganisms, has been an active field of basic and applied research for many years. Realization of practical processes for photobiological hydrogen production from water using solar energy would result in a major, novel source of sustainable and renewable energy, without greenhouse gas emissions or environmental pollution. However, development of such processes requires significant scientific and technological advances, and long-term basic and applied R and D. This International Energy Agency (lEA) Task covers research areas and needs at the interface of basic and applied R and D which are of mutual interest to the countries and researchers participating in the lEA Hydrogen Agreement. The overall objective is to sufficiently advance the basic and early-stage applied science in this area of research over the next five years to allow an evaluation of the potential of such a technology to be developed as a practical renewable energy source for the 21st Century. (author)

  19. Sharing R&D investments in international environmental agreements with asymmetric countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancardi, Marta; Villani, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies the coalition formation and the stability of the International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) in a pollution abatement dynamic model. We point out two meaningful aspects of this topic. Firstly, we consider asymmetry among countries, dividing them into two types: developed countries with a considerable environmental awareness and developing ones that pay less attention to environmental preservation. In addition, the former have a high-technology industry that allows for a unit abatement cost lower than the latter, and that are characterized by a labour-intensive industrial structure. Secondly, we introduce a positive externality in the cooperation by considering the R&D investment as two costs, namely the research investment and the developing cost. We assume that countries can coordinate their R&D activities by sharing their fixed research investments in order to avoid duplication of green activities. Moreover, by collaborating developing efforts, cooperators benefit from a reduction of a unit abatement cost higher than defectors. On the other hand, although non-cooperators completely support R&D investments for clean technologies, they realize lower abatements and benefits of a spillover effect due to development investments realized by cooperators. These two aspects could encourage the formation of stable coalitions.

  20. Describing Peripancreatic Collections According to the Revised Atlanta Classification of Acute Pancreatitis: An International Interobserver Agreement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwense, Stefan A; van Brunschot, Sandra; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Besselink, Marc G; Bollen, Thomas L; Bakker, Olaf J; Banks, Peter A; Boermeester, Marja A; Cappendijk, Vincent C; Carter, Ross; Charnley, Richard; van Eijck, Casper H; Freeny, Patrick C; Hermans, John J; Hough, David M; Johnson, Colin D; Laméris, Johan S; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Mortele, Koenraad J; Sarr, Michael G; Stedman, Brian; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Werner, Jens; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Gooszen, Hein G; Horvath, Karen D

    2017-08-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with peripancreatic morphologic changes as seen on imaging. Uniform communication regarding these morphologic findings is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment. For the original 1992 Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement is poor. We hypothesized that for the revised Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement will be better. An international, interobserver agreement study was performed among expert and nonexpert radiologists (n = 14), surgeons (n = 15), and gastroenterologists (n = 8). Representative computed tomographies of all stages of acute pancreatitis were selected from 55 patients and were assessed according to the revised Atlanta classification. The interobserver agreement was calculated among all reviewers and subgroups, that is, expert and nonexpert reviewers; interobserver agreement was defined as poor (≤0.20), fair (0.21-0.40), moderate (0.41-0.60), good (0.61-0.80), or very good (0.81-1.00). Interobserver agreement among all reviewers was good (0.75 [standard deviation, 0.21]) for describing the type of acute pancreatitis and good (0.62 [standard deviation, 0.19]) for the type of peripancreatic collection. Expert radiologists showed the best and nonexpert clinicians the lowest interobserver agreement. Interobserver agreement was good for the revised Atlanta classification, supporting the importance for widespread adaption of this revised classification for clinical and research communications.

  1. Finding a legal framework for transnational collective agreements through private international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoek, A.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The exact definition of transnational company agreements may be elusive, but agreements between representatives of workers and management that span more than one jurisdiction do exist is practice. They are a growing social phenomenon to which law must formulate an answer. This contribution looks at

  2. International climate protection legislation. The way towards a global climate agreement in the sense of common but differentiated responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahrmarkt, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Climate Change is one of the most important issues in the 21st century. Its extensive impacts regarding society, policy, economy and environment and its threats require an effective reaction at the international level. But does the newly adopted Paris Agreement comply to the expectations? Or how could an effective Climate Agreement be achieved to meet climate effectiveness and climate justice? To answer these questions this study analyses the development of international climate change law in a comprehensive way. In combination with analysing the principle of common, but differentiated responsibility it is possible to present new aspects for a climate Agreement by learning from failures of the past and embracing the raising threat brought about by climate change.

  3. Current and future role of agreements for cooperation as the framework for international nuclear commerce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, P.N.

    1976-01-01

    An agreement for cooperation in the civil use of atomic energy was established by Congress as the primary vehicle for ensuring that the benefits of cooperation outweigh the risks. The elements and nature of the agreement for cooperation are reviewed in this article. The evolution of some of the more significant provisions of the agreements and the type of activities conducted under them are discussed. The question is raised as to whether or not these agreements for cooperation are strong enough in the light of nations of the world becoming more concerned with the implications of burgeoning nuclear power activities. The question, ''Should these agreements be elevated to the status of treaties.'' is asked also

  4. 32 CFR 536.111 - Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). Responsibility for... civilian component is attached, including the legal office of another armed force, to carry out the responsibility to investigate. The investigation will comply with the responsible Service's implementing claims...

  5. 75 FR 52510 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office, HMS Management Division... fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and...

  6. 75 FR 23676 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States... of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast... fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and...

  7. INFX GUIDE: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BILATERAL AGREEMENTS FOR COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (INFX: INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION EXCHANGE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, K. M.; Lakey, L. T.; Leigh, I. W.; Jeffs, A. G.

    1985-07-01

    As the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have increased the magnitude and scope of their cooperative activities with other nations in the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management field, a need has developed for ready sources of information concerning foreign waste management programs, DOE technology exchange policies, bilateral fuel cycle and waste management agreements and plans and activities to implement those agreements. The INFX (International InLormation E~change) Guide is one of a series of documents that have been prepared to provide that information. The INFX Guide has been compiled under the charter of PNL's International Support Office (IPSO) to maintain for DOE a center to collect, organize, evaluate and disseminate information on foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. Because the information in this document is constantly subject to change, the document is assembled in loose-leaf form to accommodate frequent updates.

  8. Forensic botany II, DNA barcode for land plants: Which markers after the international agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M

    2015-03-01

    The ambitious idea of using a short piece of DNA for large-scale species identification (DNA barcoding) is already a powerful tool for scientists and the application of this standard technique seems promising in a range of fields including forensic genetics. While DNA barcoding enjoyed a remarkable success for animal identification through cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) analysis, the attempts to identify a single barcode for plants remained a vain hope for a longtime. From the beginning, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) showed a lack of agreement on a core plant barcode, reflecting the diversity of viewpoints. Different research groups advocated various markers with divergent set of criteria until the recent publication by the CBOL-Plant Working Group. After a four-year effort, in 2009 the International Team concluded to agree on standard markers promoting a multilocus solution (rbcL and matK), with 70-75% of discrimination to the species level. In 2009 our group firstly proposed the broad application of DNA barcoding principles as a tool for identification of trace botanical evidence through the analysis of two chloroplast loci (trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) in plant species belonging to local flora. Difficulties and drawbacks that were encountered included a poor coverage of species in specific databases and the lack of authenticated reference sequences for the selected markers. Successful preliminary results were obtained providing an approach to progressively identify unknown plant specimens to a given taxonomic rank, usable by any non-specialist botanist or in case of a shortage of taxonomic expertise. Now we considered mandatory to update and to compare our previous findings with the new selected plastid markers (matK+rbcL), taking into account forensic requirements. Features of all the four loci (the two previously analyzed trnH-psbA+trnL-trnF and matK+rbcL) were compared singly and in multilocus solutions to assess the most suitable combination for

  9. Communication between scientists, fishery managers and recreational fishers: lessons learned from a comparative analysis of international case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dedual, M.; Sague Pla, O.; Arlinghaus, R.

    2013-01-01

    The management of recreational fisheries benefits from good collaboration between scientists, managers and recreational fishers. However, the level of collaboration largely depends on the levels of effective communication among the different stakeholders. This paper presents the views of scientists......, managers and fishers concerning the quality of communication in eleven case studies of recreational fisheries. Case studies were synthesised and common reasons why communication did not always flow as intended were identified. The prevalent barriers to good communication, and therefore collaboration...... included a lack of rigorous scientific information transfer from scientists to fishers and managers, a fear from fishers that management actions will limit fishing opportunities, pre‐existing antagonism between commercial and recreational fisheries, and fishers' suspicion of science. Overcoming...

  10. Agreement Between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities. Addition to the List of Facilities Subject to Safeguards Under the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities (hereinafter “the Agreement”), India shall notify the Agency in writing of its decision to offer any facility identified by India for Agency safeguards under the Agreement. Any facility so notified by India becomes subject to the Agreement as of the date of receipt by the Agency of such written notification from India, and is to be included in the Annex to the Agreement. On 11 March 2014, the Agency received from India written notification, pursuant to Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement, of its decision to bring one additional facility under safeguards in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. Pursuant to Paragraph 14 4(a) of the Agreement, the Annex to the Agreement has been updated and is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency

  11. 76 FR 43726 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Developing a Method for Conducting an Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... advance internal quality assurance. The awardee will work closely with designated NIC staff on all aspects... services, and (3) provide sufficient guidance for an organization to begin to strategize desired internal... technical assistance, additional funding, or enhancing internal quality assurance. Purpose: This methodology...

  12. 78 FR 71869 - Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... transmittal fee to it, for its own benefit, in respect of any international application filed through it... the World Trade Organization.'' Article 6(2) provides that ``[t]he international design application...) provides for domestic benefit claims with respect to international design applications designating the...

  13. Emissions Trading Regimes and Incentives to Participate in International Climate Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, B.; Carraro, C.

    2003-11-01

    This paper analyses whether different emissions trading regimes provide different incentives to participate in a cooperative climate agreement. Different incentive structures are discussed for those countries, namely the US, Russia and China, that are most important in the climate negotiation process. Our analysis confirms the conjecture that, by appropriately designing the emission trading regime, it is possible to enhance the incentives to participate in a climate agreement. Therefore, participation and optimal policy should be jointly analysed. Moreover, our results show that the US, Russia and China have different most preferred climate coalitions and therefore adopt conflicting negotiation strategies

  14. Fisheries regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Frost, Hans Staby; Abildtrup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Economists normally claim that a stock externality arises within fisheries because each individual fisherman does not take the effect on stock size into account when making harvest decisions. Due to the stock externality, it is commonly argued that fisheries regulation is necessary, but regulatory...... decisions are complicated by a tremendous amount of uncertainty and asymmetric information. This paper provides an overview of selected parts of the literature on the regulation of fisheries under uncertainty and asymmetric information, and possible areas for future research are identified. Specifically...

  15. Agreement and Diagnostic Performance of FITNESSGRAM®, International Obesity Task Force, and Hungarian National BMI Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Marton, Orsolya; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined agreement between all 3 standards (as well as relative diagnostic associations with metabolic syndrome) using a representative sample of youth from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study. Method: Body mass index (BMI) was assessed in a field sample of 2,352 adolescents (ages 10-18.5 years) and metabolic syndrome…

  16. 78 FR 66899 - International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the United States, the Government of Canada and the Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article...

  17. Effect of the International Agreement on Government Procurement and the Government Procurement Chapter of the North American Free Trade Agreement on public contracting opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Heldreth, Steven E.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper explores the specific legal content of the 1979 and 1993 Agreements on Government Procurement as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement's Chapter Ten (Government Procurement). One chapter addresses the use of free trade agreements, associated problems, and how the agreements have been applied to the public sector. The content of each of the primary documents is an...

  18. International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation Interim Agreement EPA Case No. 08-0113-00

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 27, 2008, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), suspended International Business Machines (IBM) from receiving Federal Contracts, approved subcontracts, assistance, loans and other benefits.

  19. The Text of an Agreement for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency, the Osterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie GmbH and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices, which was signed on 16 September 1964 and entered into force on 1 January 1965, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency,

  20. The Text of an Agreement for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-08-12

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency, the Osterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie GmbH and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices, which was signed on 16 September 1964 and entered into force on 1 January 1965, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency,.

  1. Co-operation Agreement. The Text of the Agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 25 May 1998, pursuant to Article 8 [fr

  2. Co-operation Agreement. The Text of the Agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 25 May 1998, pursuant to Article 8 [es

  3. Co-operation agreement. The text of the agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for accounting and control of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-25

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials which entered into force on 25 May 1998

  4. Co-operation agreement. The text of the agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for accounting and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials which entered into force on 25 May 1998

  5. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  6. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.

  7. ASPECTS REGARDING THE ENFORCEABILITY AGAINST THIRD PARTIES OF CHOICE OF COURT AGREEMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Oprea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem enforceability of agreements conferring jurisdiction to persons other than the parties that have accepted knows no textual legal settlement in European procedural law. Through its action, the European Court of Justice, however, brought important clarifications in the matter, without following yet a uniform: the disputes brought before it, the high European court preferred for certain hypotheses to consider solutions of national law, effectiveness agreements conferring jurisdiction admissible conditioning; other times, she opted for the formulation of European autonomous substantive rules recognizing or, alternatively, directly denying their effectiveness. In an attempt to bring more clarity in the matter, the study proposes a review of existing solutions, identifying their justifications and offering several key milestones that should be considered in solving concrete problems in practice.

  8. Improvements to enforcement of multilateral environmental agreements to control international shipments of chemicals and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Somboon, Vira; Wun'gaeo, Surichai; Middleton, Carl; Tingsabadh, Charit; Limjirakan, Sangchan

    2016-06-01

    Illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals has caused severe damage on human health and the environment, and brought big challenges to countries to meet their commitments to related multilateral environmental agreements. Synergy-building, like organising law enforcement operations, is critical to address illegal trade in waste and chemicals, and further improve the effectiveness of environmental enforcement. This article discusses how and why law enforcement operations can help countries to implement chemical and waste-related multilateral environmental agreements in a more efficient and effective way. The research explores key barriers and factors for organising law enforcement operations, and recommends methods to improve law enforcement operations to address illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Non-conventional provisions in regional trade agreements : do they enhance international trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Kimura, Fukunari; Nabeshima, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    The scope of recent regional trade agreements (RTAs) is becoming much wider in terms of including several provisions such as competition policy or intellectual property. This paper empirically examines how far advanced, non-conventional provisions in RTAs increase trade values among RTA member countries, by estimating the gravity equation with more disaggregated indicators for RTAs. As a result, we find that the provision on competition policy has the largest impacts on trade values, followin...

  10. Agreement between diagnoses of childhood lymphoma assigned in Uganda and by an international reference laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jackson Orem,1–3 Sven Sandin,1 Caroline E Weibull,1 Michael Odida,4 Henry Wabinga,4 Edward Mbidde,2,3 Fred Wabwire-Mangen,5 Chris JLM Meijer,6 Jaap M Middeldorp,6 Elisabete Weiderpass1,7,81Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Uganda Cancer Institute, 3School of Medicine, 4School of Biomedical Sciences, 5School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; 6Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 7Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo; Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 8Samfundet Folkhälsan, Helsinki, FinlandBackground: Correct diagnosis is key to appropriate treatment of cancer in children. However, diagnostic challenges are common in low-income and middle-income countries. The objective of the present study was to assess the agreement between a clinical diagnosis of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL assigned in Uganda, a pathological diagnosis assigned in Uganda, and a pathological diagnosis assigned in The Netherlands.Methods: The study included children with suspected NHL referred to the Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between 2004 and 2008. A clinical diagnosis was assigned at the Mulago National Referral Hospital, where tissue samples were also obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were used for histological diagnosis in Uganda, and were re-examined in a pathology laboratory in The Netherlands, where additional pathological, virological and serological testing was also carried out. Agreement between diagnostic sites was compared using kappa statistics.Results: Clinical and pathological diagnoses from Uganda and pathological diagnosis from The Netherlands was available for 118 children. The agreement between clinical and pathological diagnoses of NHL assigned in Uganda was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84–95; kappa 0.84; P < 0

  11. Development of international fisheries for the eastern Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ) from the late 1880s until 1938

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Karlsdottir, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    of indicators of fishing effort and qualitative information on developments in fishing technology. This information has been assembled for different countries and locations in the Baltic Sea. We first summarize the multi-decadal development of national cod fisheries and their relative importance during......The paper provides an overview of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries from the end of the 1880s until 1938, in order to improve the knowledge of long-term stock dynamics. The data compiled and included in the study comprise catches and economic values of exploited fish species, time series...... the first decades of the 20th century. We then assess whether these data can be used to estimate the relative roles of fishing and ecosystem changes on variations in catches. We conclude that the assembled data reveal biologically meaningful variations in the state of the cod stock and that some...

  12. Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the Republic of Austria. A further supplemental agreement to the Headquarters Agreement. Supplemental Agreement pursuant to Section 4(b) of the Agreement between the Republic of Austria and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The text of the exchange of Notes, dated 6 July 1995 and 29 September 1995 respectively, between the IAEA and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Austria regarding Section 4(b) of the Headquarters Agreement which allows the IAEA 'to establish and operate such additional radio and other telecommunications facilities as may be specified by supplemental agreement ....' is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency

  13. Lack of grading agreement among international hemostasis external quality assessment programs

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, John D.; Jennings, Ian; Meijer, Piet; Bon, Chantal; Bonar, Roslyn; Favaloro, Emmanuel J.; Higgins, Russell A.; Keeney, Michael; Mammen, Joy; Marlar, Richard A.; Meley, Roland; Nair, Sukesh C.; Nichols, William L.; Raby, Anne; Reverter, Joan C.

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory quality programs rely on internal quality control and external quality assessment (EQA). EQA programs provide unknown specimens for the laboratory to test. The laboratory's result is compared with other (peer) laboratories performing the same test. EQA programs assign target values using a variety of methods statistical tools and performance assessment of ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ is made. EQA provider members of the international organization, external quality assurance in thrombosis and h...

  14. Developing an approach to assessing the political feasibility of global collective action and an international agreement on antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers Van Katwyk, Susan; Danik, Marie Évelyne; Pantis, Ioana; Smith, Rachel; Røttingen, John-Arne; Hoffman, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global issue. International trade, travel, agricultural practices, and environmental contamination all make it possible for resistant microbes to cross national borders. Global collective action is needed in the form of an international agreement or other mechanism that brings states together at the negotiation table and commits them to adopt or implement policies to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms. This article describes an approach to assessing whether political and stakeholder interests can align to commit to tackling AMR. Two dimensions affecting political feasibility were selected and compared across 82 countries: 1) states' global influence and 2) self-interest in addressing AMR. World Bank GDP ranking was used as a proxy for global influence, while human antibiotic consumption (10-year percent change) was used as a proxy for self-interest in addressing AMR. We used these data to outline a typology of four country archetypes, and discuss how these archetypes can be used to understand whether a proposed agreement may have sufficient support to be politically feasible. Four types of countries exist within our proposed typology: 1) wealthy countries who have the expertise and financial resources to push for global collective action on AMR, 2) wealthy countries who need to act on AMR, 3) countries who require external assistance to act on AMR, and 4) neutral countries who may support action where applicable. Any international agreement will require substantial support from countries of the first type to lead global action, and from countries of the second type who have large increasing antimicrobial consumption levels. A large number of barriers exist that could derail efforts towards global collective action on AMR; issues of capacity, infrastructure, regulation, and stakeholder interests will need to be addressed in coordination with other actors to achieve an agreement on AMR. Achieving a global agreement on

  15. Climatic changes: explicative guide of international agreements; Changements climatiques: guide explicatif des accords internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The following themes of the negotiation in the United Nations Convention framework, on the climatic changes and the kyoto protocol are taken into account: the observation, the information communication, the policies and the measures, the developing countries, the flexibility mechanisms, the soils utilizations and the regime evolution. For each theme the document recalls quickly how the theme is detailed in the Convention and in the Protocol, it presents then the decisions and the adopted rules and defines the agreements contain, in terms of challenges and implication in the protocol implementation. (A.L.B.)

  16. The definition of polytrauma: variable interrater versus intrarater agreement--a prospective international study among trauma surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Nerida E; Enninghorst, Natalie; Sisak, Krisztian; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2013-03-01

    The international trauma community has recognized the lack of a validated consensus definition of "polytrauma." We hypothesized that using a subjective definition, trauma surgeons will not have substantial agreement; thus, an objective definition is needed. A prospective observational study was conducted between December 2010 and June 2011 (John Hunter Hospital, Level I trauma center). Inclusion criteria were all trauma call patients with subsequent intensive care unit admission. The study was composed of four stages as follows: (1) four trauma surgeons assessed patients until 24 hours, then coded as either "yes" or "no" for polytrauma, and results compared for agreement; (2) eight trauma surgeons representing the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands graded the same prospectively assessed patients and coded as either "yes" or "no" for polytrauma; (3) 12 months later, the original four trauma surgeons repeated assessment via data sheets to test intrarater variability; and (4) individual subjective definitions were compared with three anatomic scores, namely, (a) Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than 15, (b) ISS of greater 17, and (c) Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of greater than 2 in at least two ISS body regions. A total of 52 trauma patients were included. Results for each stage were as follows: (1) κ score of 0.50, moderate agreement; (2) κ score of 0.41, moderate agreement; (3) Rater 1 had moderate intrarater agreement (κ score, 0.59), while Raters 2, 3, 4 had substantial intrarater agreement (κ scores, 0.75, 0.66, and 0.71, respectively); and (4) none had most agreement with ISS of greater than 15 (κ score, 0.16), while both definitions ISS greater than 17 and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of greater than 2 in at least two ISS body regions had on average fair agreement (κ scores, 0.27 and 0.39, respectively). Based on subjective assessments, trauma surgeons do not agree on the definition of polytrauma, with the subjective

  17. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Acuerdo sobre privilegios e inmunidades del Organismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-31

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [Spanish] El Acuerdo sobre Privilegios e Inmunidades del Organismo Internacional de Energia Atomica, cuyo texto se reproduce en este documento, fue aprobado por la Junta de Gobernadores el dia 1 de julio de 1959. Como se dispone en la seccion 38, el Director General ha remitido copias certificadas del Acuerdo a cada uno de los Estados que son Miembros del Organismo, y se las remitira a todos los Estados que pasen a serlo en lo sucesivo.

  18. 76 FR 63906 - Henry Gordy International, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... International, Inc., containing a civil penalty of $1,100,000.00. DATES: Any interested person may ask the... report of a death involving a Target Set on or about May 1, 2006, after an 8-year-old boy choked on a dart and died on March 9, 2006. 8. In response to the death reported on or about May 1, 2006, Henry...

  19. The trends and constructive ambiguity in international agreements on intellectual property and pharmaceutical affairs: Implications for domestic legislations in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-Bok; Lee, Tae-Jin

    2017-06-06

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in international agreements including Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), Korea-United States Free Trade Agreements, and Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreements on intellectual property and pharmaceutical affairs with the updated framework. The study also assesses constructive ambiguity in international agreements, which might affect the implementation process through interpretation and domestic legislations. Five flexibility clauses and three TRIPS-plus provisions were selected, and presence of constructive ambiguity in the agreements was analysed to draw actual trends in international agreements. Flexibility provisions excluding compulsory licensing were not noticeably changed, and TRIPS-plus provisions including data exclusivity and patent linkage were expanded in scope or newly appeared, respectively. The clause regarding compulsory licensing, extension of the patent term, data exclusivity, and patent linkage showed unclear definitions or the lack of adequate explanations. With constructive ambiguity in those clauses, a country who wants to join international agreements in the near future could amend domestic legislations to minimise the detrimental effect of international agreements on access to medicines.

  20. Pre-Ratification Judicial Review of International Agreements to be Concluded by the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2018-01-01

    incrementally shaping the law of EU external relations, and determining the manner in which the Union may enter into formal international relations. Understanding the Court’s importance in this field has been done time and again, but yet, consideration of the pre-ratification judicial review option, available...... for how ex ante judicial review can work in developing the Union into an even more enhanced global actor, through its own unique judicial order....

  1. Domestic Compliance with International Environmental Agreements: A Review of Current Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Roginko, A.

    1994-01-01

    This essay is an attempt to review the main determinants of compliance with international environmental commitments at the domestic level, with special attention to: 1) the mechanisms by which states determine whether or not to comply, and the roles actors, other than governments, play in these issues, and 2) regime rules and factors exogenous to the regime that affect variation in compliance, with implications for mechanisms by which compliance can be improved.

  2. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Doukakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90 compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95. Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  3. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Pikitch, Ellen K; Rothschild, Anna; DeSalle, Rob; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90) compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95). Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail). Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  4. 77 FR 19647 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Production to Reduce Trade Deficits. c. Bilateral Agreements (Mexico, Canada, Others). 17. Budgets. a. FY2012... meeting is to enable NMFS and NOAA officials and others to exchange information with the Regional Fishery... Fisheries Management--Past, Present and Future. 6. Panel Discussion. 7. Litigation. a. Regional Fishery...

  5. Conceptualizing threats to tobacco control from international economic agreements: the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; McGrady, Benn; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Lencucha, Raphael; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-10-19

    Using the results of dozens of interviews with key actors involved in tobacco control policymaking, we examine these actors' perceptions of threats to tobacco control policy efforts from international economic policies on trade and investment. We also evaluate, from a legal perspective, the genuine threats that exist or potential challenges that economic policies may pose to the Brazilian government's public health efforts. We find that most actors did not perceive these economic policies as a major threat to tobacco control. Objectively, we found that some threats do exist. For example, Brazil's attempt to ban most tobacco additives and flavorings continues to met resistance at the World Trade Organization.

  6. Ethical principles in international nuclear trade and the role of international treaties and agreements in their implementation. Reflections on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalanti, C. de A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing importance of nuclear energy (on the threshold of the twenty-first century) and of its ethical uses is considered, including major political events in recent years, their social and economic consequences in the world scene. International Nuclear Law is seen as the most adequate instrument to promote the ethical uses of nuclear energy on a worldwide basis, so that mankind can benefit safely and properly and improving their living conditions in general. Problems associated with access to nuclear technology, plants, equipments and materials are addressed. Basic principles of international agreements ruling nuclear trade, ethical aspects are also covered. The different markets involved in international nuclear trade and their specific requirements are described. Certain international treaties on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are discussed such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty as are international conventions on matters related to the use of nuclear energy, such as the environment and protection of personnel. The author concludes by debating whether ethical uses of nuclear energy are a possible reality or merely utopia. Prospects on the future of international nuclear trade are considered. (author)

  7. New International Agreements About Space Techniques Among Argentina, China and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A. M.; Podestá, R.; Actis, E.; Adarvez, S.; Quinteros, J.; Li, J.; Saunier, J.; Podestá, F.; Ramos, F.; Aguilera, J.; Sosa, G.; Hauser, D.

    2018-01-01

    The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems (IERS) is in charge of defining and materializing celestial reference systems (ICRS - ICRF) and terrestrial reference systems (ITRS - ITRF). In order to perform this task it uses data from the following techniques: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS). Nowadays, the Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) has two instruments with these advanced techniques: SLR and a permanent GNSS station. In the nearby future a 40 m diameter radio telescope will be available that will be operated in VLBI mode along with a DORIS buoy which will be co-localized with a SLR telescope and GNSS antennas. In this way OAFA will become a zero station, first class, of the ITRF 2014 frame.

  8. Towards a Novel Integrated Approach for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Support of International Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Henne, S.; Brunner, D.; Emmenegger, L.; Manning, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Krummel, P. B.; Dunse, B. L.; DeCola, P.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    In the recently adopted Paris Agreement the community of signatory states has agreed to limit the future global temperature increase between +1.5 °C and +2.0 °C, compared to pre-industrial times. To achieve this goal, emission reduction targets have been submitted by individual nations (called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, INDCs). Inventories will be used for checking progress towards these envisaged goals. These inventories are calculated by combining information on specific activities (e.g. passenger cars, agriculture) with activity-related, typically IPCC-sanctioned, emission factors - the so-called bottom-up method. These calculated emissions are reported on an annual basis and are checked by external bodies by using the same method. A second independent method estimates emissions by translating greenhouse gas measurements made at regionally representative stations into regional/global emissions using meteorologically-based transport models. In recent years this so-called top-down approach has been substantially advanced into a powerful tool and emission estimates at the national/regional level have become possible. This method is already used in Switzerland, in the United Kingdom and in Australia to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and independently support the national bottom-up emission inventories within the UNFCCC framework. Examples of the comparison of the two independent methods will be presented and the added-value will be discussed. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and partner organizations are currently developing a plan to expand this top-down approach and to expand the globally representative GAW network of ground-based stations and remote-sensing platforms and integrate their information with atmospheric transport models. This Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (IG3IS) initiative will help nations to improve the accuracy of their country-based emissions inventories and their ability to evaluate the

  9. Peruvian anchoveta as a telecoupled fisheries system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Carlson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries are coupled human and natural systems (CHANS across distant places, yet fisheries research has generally focused on better understanding either fisheries ecology or human dimensions in a specific place, rather than their interactions over distances. As economic and ideational globalization accelerate, fisheries are becoming more globally connected via movements of fish products and fisheries finances, information, and stakeholders throughout the world. As such, there is a pressing need for systematic approaches to assess these linkages among global fisheries, their effects on ecosystems and food security, and their implications for fisheries science and sustainability. Use of the telecoupling framework is a novel and insightful method to systematically evaluate socioeconomic and environmental interactions among CHANS. We apply the telecoupling framework to the Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens fishery, the world's largest single-species commercial fishery and a complex CHANS. The anchoveta fishery has diverse and significant telecouplings, socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances, with the rest of the world, including fishmeal and fish oil trade, monetary flow, knowledge transfer, and movement of people. The use of the telecoupling framework reveals complex fishery dynamics such as feedbacks (e.g., profit maximization causing fishery overcapitalization and surprises (e.g., stock collapse resulting from local and long-distance ecological and socioeconomic interactions. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery illustrates how the telecoupling framework can be used to systematically assess the magnitude and diversity of local and distant fisheries interactions and thereby advance knowledge derived from traditional monothematic research approaches. Insights from the telecoupling framework provide a foundation from which to develop sustainable fisheries policy and management strategies across local, national, and international

  10. Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material in all peaceful nuclear activities of Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to all Nuclear Material in all Peaceful Nuclear Activities of Ukraine is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 28 September 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 13 January 1995.

  11. Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material in all peaceful nuclear activities of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to all Nuclear Material in all Peaceful Nuclear Activities of Ukraine is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 28 September 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 13 January 1995

  12. The research with animal lab, colombia most accomplish the international agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mrad

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se realiza investigación en un marco pleno de ética  y se mantiene el bienestar de los animales, la calidad de la ciencia y los datos que se deriven del trabajo serán lo mejor que se puede lograr. La experimentación animal es y seguirá siendo fundamental en la investigación biológica y biomédica, puesto que gracias a ella la humanidad ha podido hacer acopio de los más grandes descubrimientos por y para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida humana y animal (Mrad y Cardozo, 1998. La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS en su XI Reunión Interamericana de 1.980 dejaba claro que "los países que han logrado un gran avance en el control de las enfermedades humanas y animales son aquellos que han establecido mecanismos y entidades que se dedican al mejor desarrollo de la Ciencia de los Animales de Laboratorio". También se ocupan de éste tema organismos internacionales como ICLAS (International Council of Laboratory Animal Science, ILAR (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, así como muchas asociaciones dedicadas al cuidado de animales de laboratorio como son AALAS (American Associaton of Laboratory Animal Science y FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations

  13. Agreement Between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities. Addition to the List of Facilities Subject to Safeguards Under the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities (hereinafter “the Agreement”), India shall notify the Agency in writing of its decision to offer any facility identified by India for Agency safeguards under the Agreement. Any facility so notified by India becomes subject to the Agreement as of the date of receipt by the Agency of such written notification from India, and is to be included in the Annex to the Agreement. On 11 March 2014, the Agency received from India written notification, pursuant to Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement, of its decision to bring one additional facility under safeguards in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. Pursuant to Paragraph 14 4(a) of the Agreement, the Annex to the Agreement has been updated and is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency [es

  14. Model protocol additional to the agreement(s) between state(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document is a model Additional Protocol designed for States having a Safeguards Agreement with the Agency, in order to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguard system as a contribution to global nuclear non-proliferation objectives.

  15. Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This document is a model Additional Protocol designed for States having a Safeguards Agreement with the Agency, in order to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguards system as a contribution to global nuclear non-proliferation objectives

  16. Model protocol additional to the agreement(s) between state(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This document is a model Additional Protocol designed for States having a Safeguards Agreement with the Agency, in order to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguard system as a contribution to global nuclear non-proliferation objectives

  17. The Nordic Countries interests in principles for international greenhouse gas agreements; Nordens interesser i principper for internationale drivhusgasaftaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Meyer, H.; Stephensen, P.; Soerensen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of this report is the interests of the Nordic countries in international agreements on greenhouse gases. The subject is approached mainly from an economic point of view. Introductory, the climate convention are described, with special attention to obligations to emission reductions. Important discussion points are timing of the reductions as well as the question of meeting the reductions by cooperation with other countries through joint-implementation projects. The different attitudes of the Nordic countries to these issues are discussed. In the following, the technical and economic possibilities for meeting the reduction objectives of each country are described. For this purpose, governmental plans and studies (on bottom-up as well as top-down studies) are brought into focus. A discussion of the differences and similarities of the methodology of the studies are carried out. Finally, the report focuses on costs of reducing emissions in the Nordic countries. A comparison between the different Nordic countries, as well as between the Nordic countries and the other OECD countries is done. The analysis points out, that the Nordic countries are characterized by relatively high costs in general. Another conclusion is, that the costs of reduction after the year 2000/2005 are much lower than costs of reductions in the short run. An exception to this is Denmark. This points out, that some Nordic countries prefer emission reductions through joint-implementation projects in other countries, rather than reductions through restrictive agreements in the sort run. (au) (29 tabs., 28 ills., 45 refs.)

  18. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Accord sur les Privileges et Immunites ee 'Agence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-31

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [French] Le texte de l'Accord sur les privileges et immunites de l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique, qui a ete approuve par le Conseil des gouverneurs le 1er juillet 1959, est reproduit dans le present document pour l'information de tous les Etats Membres. Conformment aux dispositions de la section 38 de l'Accord, le Directeur general a adresse au gouvernement de chaque Etat Membre une copie certifiee conforme de l'Accord et en enverra une auv gouvernement de chaque nouvel Etat Membre.

  19. Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards to civilian nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 1 August 2008. It was signed in Vienna on 2 February 2009. Pursuant to paragraph 108 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 11 May 2009, the date on which the Agency received from India written notification that India's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  20. The Agency's Agreement with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization concerning the Joint Operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste. Extension of the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    By an exchange of letters between the Directors General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Agency, the duration of the agreement between the two organizations concerning the joint operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste has been extended until 31 December 1986.

  1. The Agency's Agreement with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization concerning the Joint Operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste. Extension of the Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-02-15

    By an exchange of letters between the Directors General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Agency, the duration of the agreement between the two organizations concerning the joint operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste has been extended until 31 December 1986.

  2. Introduction to fisheries oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Fisheries oceanography can be applied to fisheries ecology, fisheries management and practical fishing. Physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, currents, waves, light, oxygen and salinity) have profound effect on fish...

  3. Research into fisheries equity and fairness—addressing conservation burden concerns in transboundary fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Q.; Campbell, B.; Bailey, M.L.; Molenaar, E.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and management of transboundary fisheries must account for diverse national interests while adopting compromises necessary to develop and implement robust conservation and management measures. The United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement requires states to ensure that conservation and

  4. International codes and agreements to restrict the promotion of harmful products can hold lessons for the control of alcohol marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Jane; Lobstein, Tim; Godfrey, Fiona; Johns, Paula; Brookes, Chris; Jernigan, David

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The 2011 UN Summit on Non-Communicable Disease failed to call for global action on alcohol marketing despite calls in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases 2013-20 to restrict or ban alcohol advertising. In this paper we ask what it might take to match the global approach to tobacco enshrined in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), and suggest that public health advocates can learn from the development of the FCTC and the Code of Marketing on infant formula milks and the recent recommendations on restricting food marketing to children. Methods Narrative review of qualitative accounts of the processes that created and monitor existing codes and treaties to restrict the marketing of consumer products, specifically breast milk substitutes, unhealthy foods and tobacco. Findings The development of treaties and codes for market restrictions include: (i) evidence of a public health crisis; (ii) the cost of inaction; (iii) civil society advocacy; (iv) the building of capacity; (v) the management of conflicting interests in policy development; and (vi) the need to consider monitoring and accountability to ensure compliance. Conclusion International public health treaties and codes provide an umbrella under which national governments can strengthen their own legislation, assisted by technical support from international agencies and non-governmental organizations. Three examples of international agreements, those for breast milk substitutes, unhealthy foods and tobacco, can provide lessons for the public health community to make progress on alcohol controls. Lessons include stronger alliances of advocates and health professionals and better tools and capacity to monitor and report current marketing practices and trends. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. 75 FR 20985 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ....net SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  6. 75 FR 39918 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...-4366. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management... Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries Science Center... researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International...

  7. 77 FR 34024 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and.... and 4 p.m. on June 28, 2012. Pelagics and International Fisheries is scheduled on the agenda for the...

  8. Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional elements in fisheries policy and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Robert L.; Benson, Ashleen J.; Brooks, Kate

    2017-01-01

    While international agreements and legislation call for incorporation of four pillars of sustainability, the social (including cultural), economic and institutional aspects (the ‘human dimension’) have been relatively neglected to date. Three key impediments have been identified: a relative lack...... of explicit social, economic and institutional objectives; a general lack of process (frameworks, governance) for routine integration of all four pillars of sustainability; and a bias towards biological considerations. Practical integration requires a ‘systems’ approach with explicit consideration...... in fisheries to immediately take five practical steps toward integrating ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects: (1) Adopt the perspective of the fishery as a ‘system’ with interacting natural, human and management elements; (2) Be aware of both strategic and operational aspects of fisheries...

  9. Agreement on the establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. Latest status. Declarations/reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, for which the Director General of the IAEA is depositary, was done in Paris on 21 November 2006. Pursuant to Article 22 thereof, the Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project 'shall enter into force thirty days after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Agreement by the People's Republic of China, EURATOM, the Republic of India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America. The text of the Agreement is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  10. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. Latest status. Declarations/reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, for which the Director General of the IAEA is depositary, was done in Paris on 21 November 2006. Pursuant to Article 25 thereof, the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project 'shall enter into force thirty days after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Agreement by the People's Republic of China, EURATOM, the Republic of India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation.' The text of the Agreement is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  11. The Text of the Agency's Agreement with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Concerning the Joint Operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-10-20

    The text of the agreement between the Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) concerning the joint operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, which was signed by the Director General of the Agency on 3 July and by the Director General of UNESCO on 15 July 1969, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The agreement will enter into force on 1 January 1970.

  12. The Text of the Agency's Agreement with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Concerning the Joint Operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The text of the agreement between the Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) concerning the joint operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, which was signed by the Director General of the Agency on 3 July and by the Director General of UNESCO on 15 July 1969, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The agreement will enter into force on 1 January 1970.

  13. Text of the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization concerning the joint operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization concerning the Joint Operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993 and by the UNESCO General Conference on 16 November 1993

  14. Text of the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 25 February 1993, by the UNESCO General Conference on 16 November 1993, and ratified by the Italian Parliament on 2 January 1995.

  15. Text of the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993, by the UNESCO General Conference on 16 November 1993, and ratified by the Italian Parliament on 2 January 1995

  16. Targeting improved patient outcomes using innovative product listing agreements: a survey of Canadian and international key opinion leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Melissa Thompson,1 Chris Henshall,2 Louis P Garrison,3 Adrian D Griffin,4 Doug Coyle,2,5 Stephen Long,6 Zayna A Khayat,7 Dana L Anger,1 Rebecca Yu8 1Cornerstone Research Group Inc., Burlington, ON, Canada; 2Health Economics Research Group, Brunel University London, London UK; 3Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research and Policy Program, School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 4Government Affairs & Policy, Johnson & Johnson, High Wycombe, UK; 5School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 6Health and Life Sciences, Global Public Affairs, Calgary, AB, 7Health Systems Innovation at MaRS Discovery District, Toronto, ON, Canada; 8Strategic Health Technology Assessment, Government Affairs & Market Access, Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objectives: To address the uncertainty associated with procuring pharmaceutical products, product listing agreements (PLAs are increasingly being used to support responsible funding decisions in Canada and elsewhere. These agreements typically involve financial-based rebating initiatives or, less frequently, outcome-based contracts. A qualitative survey was conducted to improve the understanding of outcome-based and more innovative PLAs (IPLAs based on input from Canadian and international key opinion leaders in the areas of drug manufacturing and reimbursement. Methods: Results from a structured literature review were used to inform survey development. Potential participants were invited via email to partake in the survey, which was conducted over phone or in person. Responses were compiled anonymously for review and reporting. Results: Twenty-one individuals participated in the survey, including health technology ­assessment (HTA key opinion leaders (38%, pharmaceutical industry chief executive officers/vice presidents (29%, ex-payers (19%, and current payers/drug plan managers/HTA (14%. The participants suggested that ~80%–95% of

  17. THE JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TO DELIVER A CANCELLATION JUDGMENT REGARDING THE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS TO WHICH THE EU IS PARTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Mariana POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the case where international agreements are treated as legal acts of EU institutions, they may be subject to judicial review exercised by the Court in Luxembourg. Given the fact that we assimilate international agreements to legal acts of the European Union, we would be tempted to ask ourselves the following questions: to what extent declaring an agreement, by a judgment of the Court of Justice of the EU delivered in the action for cancellation, as being inapplicable to the EU legal order, affects the security of international relationships? If these relationships are affected, is it possible to exclude the subsequent verification conducted by the Court? In the study below, our purpose is to find answer to these questions.

  18. A conceptual framework for investigating the impacts of international trade and investment agreements on noncommunicable disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Ashley; Ruckert, Arne; VanDuzer, J Anthony; Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Stuckler, David; Labonte, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    We developed a conceptual framework exploring pathways between trade and investment and noncommunicable disease (NCD) outcomes. Despite increased knowledge of the relevance of social and structural determinants of health, the discourse on NCD prevention has been dominated by individualizing paradigms targeted at lifestyle interventions. We situate individual risk factors, alongside key social determinants of health, as being conditioned and constrained by trade and investment policy, with the aim of creating a more comprehensive approach to investigations of the health impacts of trade and investment agreements, and to encourage upstream approaches to combating rising rates of NCDs. To develop the framework we employed causal chain analysis, a technique which sequences the immediate causes, underlying causes, and root causes of an outcome; and realist review, a type of literature review focussed on explaining the underlying mechanisms connecting two events. The results explore how facilitating trade in goods can increase flows of affordable unhealthy imports; while potentially altering revenues for public service provision and reshaping domestic economies and labour markets-both of which distribute and redistribute resources for healthy lifestyles. The facilitation of cross-border trade in services and investment can drive foreign investment in unhealthy commodities, which in turn, influences consumption of these products; while altering accessibility to pharmaceuticals that may mediate NCDs outcomes that result from increased consumption. Furthermore, trade and investment provisions that influence the policy-making process, set international standards, and restrict policy-space, may alter a state's propensity for regulating unhealthy commodities and the efficacy of those regulations. It is the hope that the development of this conceptual framework will encourage capacity and inclination among a greater number of researchers to investigate a more comprehensive

  19. 75 FR 56903 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    .... 100503209-0430-02] RIN 0648-AY85 Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels... program for charter vessels in the guided sport fishery for Pacific halibut in the waters of International... necessary to achieve the halibut fishery management goals of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council...

  20. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Panama to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 23 March 1984 between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [fr

  1. Agreement of 9 September 1996 between Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Antigua and Barbuda to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [fr

  2. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Panama to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 23 March 1984 between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  3. Agreement of 9 September 1996 between Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Antigua and Barbuda to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  4. Agreement of 18 April 1975 between Honduras and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Honduras to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 18 April 1975 between the Republic of Honduras and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  5. The gravity model specification for modeling international trade flows and free trade agreement effects: a 10-year review of empirical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kepaptsoglou, Konstantinos; Karlaftis, Matthew G.; Tsamboulas, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    The gravity model has been extensively used in international trade research for the last 40 years because of its considerable empirical robustness and explanatory power. Since their introduction in the 1960's, gravity models have been used for assessing trade policy implications and, particularly recently, for analyzing the effects of Free Trade Agreements on international trade. The objective of this paper is to review the recent empirical literature on gravity models, highlight best practic...

  6. Guidelines for the International Observation by the Agency of Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes under the Provisions of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or Analogous Provisions in Other International Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    On 21 June 1972 the Board of Governors approved guidelines for the international observation by the Agency of nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes under the provisions of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or analogous provisions in other international agreements. These guidelines are now reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  7. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998

  8. Agreement of 9 June 1994 between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Croatia to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency. The amendments agreed upon in the Exchange of Letters entered into force on 26 May 2008, the date on which the Agency received from Croatia written notification that Croatia's internal requirements for entry into force had been fulfilled

  9. Describing Peripancreatic Collections According to the Revised Atlanta Classification of Acute Pancreatitis An International Interobserver Agreement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwense, Stefan A.; van Brunschot, Sandra; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Besselink, Marc G.; Bollen, Thomas L.; Bakker, Olaf J.; Banks, Peter A.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Cappendijk, Vincent C.; Carter, Ross; Charnley, Richard; van Eijck, Casper H.; Freeny, Patrick C.; Hermans, John J.; Hough, David M.; Johnson, Colin D.; Laméris, Johan S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Mayerle, Julia; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Sarr, Michael G.; Stedman, Brian; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Werner, Jens; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Horvath, Karen D.; Aghdassi, Ali A.; van Enckevort, Conny C.; de Haas, Robbert J.; Horsthuis, Karin; van der Jagt, Michel F.; Kok, Niels F.; Koopmanschap, Desirée H.; Koppe, Manuel J.; Krak, Nanda C.; Lane, Charlotte E.; Lee, Jean H.; de Lussanet, Q.; Saunders, Michael D.; Swaroop Vege, Santhi; van der Vlugt, Manon; van Wageningen, Bas; Wassenaar, Eelco; van Wely, Bob J.; Wijnhoven, Bas P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with peripancreatic morphologic changes as seen on imaging. Uniform communication regarding these morphologic findings is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment. For the original 1992 Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement is poor.

  10. Publication concerning the scope of the agreement concerning privileges and exemptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The agreement of July 1, 1959, concerning the privileges and exemptions of the IAEA have come into force in Maroc on March 30, 1977, and in the Mongolian People's Republic on January 12, 1976, with some reservations. (HSCH) [de

  11. Fishery Performance Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  12. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  13. Mitigating humanitarian crises during non-international armed conflicts: the role of human rights and ceasefire agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Lottie

    2016-01-01

    Situations of humanitarian crisis are often caused by armed conflicts. Given the prevalence of non-international armed conflicts today, ways of ameliorating these situations are at the forefront of concerns. The international humanitarian law rules governing non-international armed conflict remain much less developed than those for international armed conflicts. This is exacerbated by the lack of direct human rights obligations for non-state armed groups, which makes governing the behaviour o...

  14. KB WOT Fisheries 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.; Verver, S.W.

    2017-01-01

    The KB WOT Fisheries programme is developed to maintain and advance the expertise needed to carry out the statutory obligations in fisheries monitoring and advice of The Netherlands. The contents of the KB WOT Fisheries programme for 2017 reflects the scientific and management needs of the WOT

  15. High agreement on family affluence between children's and parents' reports: international study of 11-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke; Currie, Candace

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the agreement between parents' and children's reports on four items of family affluence: number of cars, own bedroom, number of family holidays, and number of computers, and to analyse predictors of disagreement. DESIGN: Cross sectional child-parent validation study of selec...

  16. Announcement on the scope of application of the agreement on the privileges and exemptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The German Democratic Republic does not feel bound by articles 26 and 34 of the Convention enacting obligatory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice. With regard to the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice in controversies arising from the interpretation or application of the Convention, the GDR holds the view that in every single case the consent of all parties concerned is necessary for the commitment of a specific controversy to the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice. This reservation also applies to the terms under article 34 according to which the opinion of the International Court of Justice is considered to be of binding force. (orig./AK) [de

  17. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, T. Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.; McIntyre, Peter B.; De Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin M.; Cowx, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social–ecological system dynamics.

  18. Agreement Between New Zealand and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with New Zealand to Amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between New Zealand and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Prolilferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The amendments agreed upon in the Exchange of Letters entered into force on 24 February 2014, the date on which the Agency received New Zealand's affirmative reply

  19. Protocol Additional to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in France is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998. Pursuant to Article 16 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 30 April 2004, the date on which the Agency received written notification that the European Atomic Energy Community and France had met their respective internal requirements for entry into force

  20. International cooperation and nuclear development. On the approval of the Argentina - Australia co-operation agreement for the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol Varela, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Argentina, with its National Atomic Energy Commission, has been maintaining during more than half a century an important activity for the development of nuclear energy and its peaceful applications. As a consequence of this tradition, it has strengthened its experience with the contribution to the international co-operation, as in the case of the Argentina-Australia co-operation agreement for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, signed on August 8th, 2001 and ratified by the Argentine Law No. 26.014. Both countries are parties of several international treaties and conventions: physical protection of nuclear materials, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear accidents, fuel and wastes management, and others. These legal instruments are complemented by agreements for the applications of safeguards with the International Atomic Energy Agency. On the basis of these regulations the parties agreed to establish co-operation conditions in accordance with the pledge of non-proliferation. Furthermore the agreement states that the Governments have the power to designate the governmental organizations or individuals, as well as the legal entities, which will carry out the co-operation. The co-operation covers basic and applied research, development, design, construction and operation of nuclear reactors and other installations of the nuclear fuel cycle, its related technology as well as nuclear medicine, radioisotopes, etc [es

  1. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  2. 76 FR 34061 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with... Workshops are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and...; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and...

  3. The Paris Agreement: a new international framework to facilitate the uptake of carbon pricing. Climate Brief No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, Lara; Vaidyula, Manasvini; Afriat, Marion; Alberola, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the implementation of domestic carbon pricing has been expanding at the national and sub-national level. This trend can be attributed to stakeholders and sectors at various levels recognising the benefits of carbon pricing and the ability of these policies to achieve cost-effective reductions. In contrast to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement has adopted a hybrid approach calling on all Parties to determine their own contributions to mitigate climate change affording flexibility to countries in their choice of policy tools. This new format of action gives the responsibility to Parties and sub-governments to implement domestic carbon pricing policies without recommending a specific tool. Article 6 of the Paris Agreement promotes the use of voluntary cooperative approaches by introducing the prospect for Parties to use: ITMOs, SDM and non-market approaches. This provision could create a suitable framework to support the development of trans-national carbon pricing policies by recognising the value of mitigation actions which could directly or indirectly put a price on carbon. Overall expansion of domestic carbon pricing policies will depend on whether it can enable a cost-effective transition to a low-carbon economy with subsequent benefits and co-benefits. Additionally, it will depend on how the rules and modalities of the Paris Agreement, defined in the coming months and years, can be applied to the development of effective carbon pricing policies

  4. Beyond duplicity and ignorance in global fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pauly

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The three decades following World War II were a period of rapidly increasing fishing effort and landings, but also of spectacular collapses, particularly in small pelagic fish stocks. This is also the period in which a toxic triad of catch underreporting, ignoring scientific advice and blaming the environment emerged as standard response to ongoing fisheries collapses, which became increasingly more frequent, finally engulfing major North Atlantic fisheries. The response to the depletion of traditional fishing grounds was an expansion of North Atlantic (and generally of northern hemisphere fisheries in three dimensions: southward, into deeper waters and into new taxa, i.e. catching and marketing species of fish and invertebrates previously spurned, and usually lower in the food web. This expansion provided many opportunities for mischief, as illustrated by the European Union’s negotiated ‘agreements’ for access to the fish resources of Northwest Africa, China’s agreement-fee exploitation of the same, and Japan blaming the resulting resource declines on the whales. Also, this expansion provided new opportunities for mislabelling seafood unfamiliar to North Americans and Europeans, and misleading consumers, thus reducing the impact of seafood guides and similar effort toward sustainability. With fisheries catches declining, aquaculture—despite all public relation efforts—not being able to pick up the slack, and rapidly increasing fuel prices, structural changes are to be expected in both the fishing industry and the scientific disciplines that study it and influence its governance. Notably, fisheries biology, now predominantly concerned with the welfare of the fishing industry, will have to be converted into fisheries conservation science, whose goal will be to resolve the toxic triad alluded to above, and thus maintain the marine biodiversity and ecosystems that provide existential services to fisheries. Similarly, fisheries

  5. The Long and Winding Road to a “Stake in the Internal Market” under the Association Agreement between the EU and Ukraine – with a Particular Focus on Telecommunication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batura, Olga; Kretova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of the granting a full internal market treatment to Ukraine arguably constitutes the core of the comprehensive Association Agreement (AA) between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine signed in June 2014. With regard to the internal market treatment the Association Agreement contain...

  6. 75 FR 61705 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  7. The Sustainable Use and Conservation of Biodiversity in ABNJ: What can be achieved using existing international agreements?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rayfuse, R.; Ardron, J.; Warner, R.; Gjerde, K.

    2014-01-01

    While the international community debates the desirability and possible content of a new global instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction, alternative approaches to improving the application and implementation of existing

  8. International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) terminology in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness ≥ 4.5 mm: agreement and reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladkevicius, P; Installé, A; Van Den Bosch, T; Timmerman, D; Benacerraf, B; Jokubkiene, L; Di Legge, A; Votino, A; Zannoni, L; De Moor, B; De Cock, B; Van Calster, B; Valentin, L

    2018-02-01

    To estimate intra- and interrater agreement and reliability with regard to describing ultrasound images of the endometrium using the International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) terminology. Four expert and four non-expert raters assessed videoclips of transvaginal ultrasound examinations of the endometrium obtained from 99 women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness ≥ 4.5 mm but without fluid in the uterine cavity. The following features were rated: endometrial echogenicity, endometrial midline, bright edge, endometrial-myometrial junction, color score, vascular pattern, irregularly branching vessels and color splashes. The color content of the endometrial scan was estimated using a visual analog scale graded from 0 to 100. To estimate intrarater agreement and reliability, the same videoclips were assessed twice with a minimum of 2 months' interval. The raters were blinded to their own results and to those of the other raters. Interrater differences in the described prevalence of most IETA variables were substantial, and some variable categories were observed rarely. Specific agreement was poor for variables with many categories. For binary variables, specific agreement was better for absence than for presence of a category. For variables with more than two outcome categories, specific agreement for expert and non-expert raters was best for not-defined endometrial midline (93% and 96%), regular endometrial-myometrial junction (72% and 70%) and three-layer endometrial pattern (67% and 56%). The grayscale ultrasound variable with the best reliability was uniform vs non-uniform echogenicity (multirater kappa (κ), 0.55 for expert and 0.52 for non-expert raters), and the variables with the lowest reliability were appearance of the endometrial-myometrial junction (κ, 0.25 and 0.16) and the nine-category endometrial echogenicity variable (κ, 0.29 and 0.28). The most reliable color Doppler variable was color score (mean weighted

  9. Regional metier definition: a comparative investigation of statistical methods using a workflow applied to international otter trawl fisheries in the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Deporte, Nicolas; Ulrich, Clara; Mahevas, Stephanie; Demaneche, Sebastien; Bastardie, Francois

    2012-01-01

    The European Common Fisheries Policy recognizes the importance of accounting for heterogeneity in fishing practices, and metier-based sampling is now at the core of the EU Data Collection Framework. The implementation of such an approach would require Member States to agree on the standard regional metier definitions and on practical rules to categorize logbook records into metiers. Several alternative approaches have been used in the past to categorize landings profiles, but no consensus has...

  10. Proceeding of the second steering conference relating to the 'agreement on the Implementation of Research at the Chernobyl Center for International Research' between CHECIR and JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Togawa, Orihiko; Moriuchi, Shigeru; Rybalko, S.I.; Sukhoruchkin, A.K.; Kazakov, S.V.

    1994-11-01

    On June, 1992, JAERI and CHECIR concluded an agreement on the Implementation of Research at the Chernobyl Center for International Research (CHECIR). Based on the agreement, JAERI started 'Study on Assessment and Analysis of Environmental Radiological Consequences and Verification of an Assessment System.' CHECIR and JAERI make it a rule to hold steering conference twice a year in order to ensure mutual understanding and exchange of opinion because it its indispensable for smooth and effective implementation of this project. The first steering conference in Japan was held in February of 1994, and three research leaders of CHECIR side were invited from Ukraine. At that time, they gave lectures concerning the environmental Headquarter of JAERI. Progress reports on subject-1 and subject-2 were given from JAERI side at the steering conference. The 5 of presented papers are indexed individually. (author)

  11. 75 FR 35033 - U-Haul International, Inc. and AMERCO; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... closest competitor in the consumer truck rental industry to join with U-Haul in a collusive scheme to...-Haul International, Inc. U-Haul's primary competitors in the truck rental industry are Avis Budget... several years leading up to 2006, Mr. Shoen was aware that price competition from Budget was forcing U...

  12. Fisheries Closed Areas Strengthen Scallop Larval Settlement and Connectivity Among Closed Areas and Across International Open Fishing Grounds: A Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kimberley T. A.; Gentleman, W. C.; DiBacco, C.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether a measured increase in average body size of adult sea scallops inside three fishery closed areas on Georges Bank (GB), United States (US), was sufficient to increase larval supply to closed areas and open fishing areas in both US and Canadian areas of the Bank. The effects of adult scallop density-at-size and fecundity-at-size on egg production were compared among open and closed fishery areas, countries, and time periods before and after the closed areas were established. Estimated egg production was then used to define spawning conditions in a coupled biological-physical larval tracking model that simulated larval development, mortality, and dispersal. Results showed that order of magnitude increases in larval settlement after closure were facilitated by increases in size-dependant egg production inside and dispersal from Closed Areas I and II, but not Nantucket Lightship Closed Area. The distributions of both egg production and larval settlement became more uniform across the Bank, causing the relative contribution of Canadian larvae to US scallop aggregations to decrease after establishment of Closed Areas I and II. Decreases in small and medium-sized scallop density in Canada and decreases in large scallops over the US-Southern Flank after closure caused local declines in egg production but were not sufficient to negatively affect larval settlement at the regional scale. Our model suggests that the establishment of fishery closed areas on GB considerably strengthened larval supply and settlement within and among several adult scallop aggregations.

  13. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  14. International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT) was set up in November 1978 for a period of five years at the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation, Wageningen, The Netherlands under an Agreement between the FAO, IAEA and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries of the Government of the Netherlands. Under this Agreement, the irradiation facilities, office space and services of the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation are put at IFFIT's disposal. Also the closely located Research Foundation, ITAL, provides certain facilities and laboratory services within the terms of the Agreement. The FAO and IAEA contribute US-Dollar 25,000. Annually for the duration of IFFIT. (orig.) [de

  15. How Brazil Transferred Billions to Foreign Coffee Importers: The International Coffee Agreement, Rent Seeking and Export Tax Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2003-01-01

    Rent seeking is well known, but empirical evidence of its effects is relatively rare. This paper analyzes how the domestic and international rent seeking caused Brazil to provide coffee export tax rebates that transferred foreign exchange to coffee importers. Although Brazil was the world's largest exporter, it began to pay export tax rebates to selected coffee importers in 1965 and, by 1988, had paid rebates totaling $8 billion. Brazil explained these rebates as a mechanism to price disc...

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the People's Republic of China and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the People's Republic of China and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 31 December 1998. Pursuant to Article 10 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the date on which the Agency received from China written notification that China's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force have been met, i.e. on 28 March 2002

  17. Bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Ten bilateral agreements are presented. These are: 1) Co-operation agreement relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and EURATOM (1996); 2) Agreement on co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and Greece (1997); 3) Implementing arrangement for technical exchange and co-operation in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and the United States (1997); 4) Agreement concerning co-operation in nuclear science and technology between Australia and Indonesia (1997); 5) Implementation of the 1985 Agreement for co-operation concerning the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between the People's Republic of China and the United States (1998); 6) Protocol of co-operation between France and Lithuania (1997); 7) Agreement on co-operation in energy research, science and technology, and development between Germany and the United States (1998); 8) Agreement on early notification of a nuclear accident and exchange of information on nuclear facilities between Greece and Romania (1997); 9) Agreement on early notification of nuclear accidents and co-operation in the field of nuclear safety between Hungary and the Ukraine (1997); 10) Agreement in the field of radioactive waste management between Switzerland and the United States (1997). (K.A.)

  18. Amendment to the Agreement between CERN and the Republic of Cyprus concerning the granting of the status of Associate Membership as the pr-stage to Membership at CERN Extension of the deadline for internal approval of the agreement by the Republic of Cyprus

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Amendment to the Agreement between CERN and the Republic of Cyprus concerning the granting of the status of Associate Membership as the pr-stage to Membership at CERN Extension of the deadline for internal approval of the agreement by the Republic of Cyprus

  19. Elaboration of the international transfer mechanism of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions on the basis of the Russian federal law About agreements of products sharing'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, N.R.; Koulikovskaya, L.

    2001-01-01

    Suggestions for a comprehensive legal framework for the implementation in Russia of the flexibility mechanisms established under the Kyoto Protocol (i.e. joint implementation; clean development mechanism; international emissions trading) are proposed. It is suggested that the legal framework be established using the principles embodied in the existing Russian federal law, 'About agreements of product sharing' adopted in 1995. As a basic requirement, it is suggested that the new federal law must include the fundamental elements required to create possibilities for the Russian Federation to participate in the process of certified emission reductions (CER) transfer, emissions reduction unit (ERU) negotiation, and adjusted amount units (AAU) trading within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol implementation. The new law must also embody the basic procedures required to enter into agreements at the international, inter-regional and inter-sectoral levels. Failure to develop the legislative support and the legal framework to facilitate valid Russian participation in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol will prevent many valuable initiatives and projects from being realized

  20. Regional métier definition: A comparative investigation of statistical methods using a workflow applied to the international otter trawl fisheries in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deporte, Nicolas; Ulrich, Clara; Mahévas, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The European Common Fisheries Policy recognizes the importance of accounting for heterogeneity in fishing practices, and métier-based sampling is now at the core of the EU Data Collection Framework. The implementation of such an approach would require Member States to agree on the standard regional...... métier definitions and on practical rules to categorize logbook records into métiers. Several alternative approaches have been used in the past to categorize landings profiles, but no consensus has yet emerged. A generic open-source workflow is developed to test and compare a selection of methods...

  1. 75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic... are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; the..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  2. Studies and design activities for implementing the international agreements on abatement of pollution from thermoelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, L.

    1991-01-01

    The main provisions and resulting obligations from conventions, protocols, declarations, especially the 1970 Geneva Convention on long range transboundary air pollution are presented as well as their protocols on the reduction by 30 % of sulfur emissions and the control of nitrogen emissions or transboundary fluxes. The UN/ECE draft Convention on environmental impact assessment is also considered. A framework of the related study and design activities for implementation of pollution reduction solutions in power plants with reference to national and international emission standards and environmental protection laws is also presented. The conclusion of the report is that future energy development will be strongly influenced by the resulting commitments implying important human and financial efforts. 15 refs

  3. Multilateral and bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Finland has made both multilateral and bilateral agreements on the exchange of information related to radiation safety. The first arrangements for international agreements and exchange of information were made after the Chernobyl accident. In 1987, Finland joined the convention on early notification of a nuclear power accident coordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency. The convention is applied to accidents that cause of may cause emissions of radioactive substances that might affect the radiation safety of another country. Besides the convention on early notification, some other individual agreements have also been made. These include the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) system and power companies own information exchange systems. Finland has conducted bilateral agreements with the Nordic countries and the Soviet Union on the notification of accidents and exchange of nuclear power plant information. Today, Russia answers for the Soviet Union's contractual obligations. (orig.)

  4. Agreement of 30 September 1993 between the Republic of Armenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Armenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 21 September 1993 and signed in Vienna on 30 September 1993. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 5 May 1994

  5. Agreement of 22 September 1994 between the Republic of Zambia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Zambia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 8 June 1994 and signed in Vienna on 22 September 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 22 September 1994

  6. The text of the Agreement of 16 May 1986 between the Government of Monaco and the Agency concerning the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity and the privileges and immunities of the Agency within the Principality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document reproduces the Seat Agreement between the Government of Monaco and the Agency concerning the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity and defining the privileges and immunities of the Agency in Monaco, as approved by the Board of Governors of the IAEA In September 1985 and signed on 16 May 1985. The agreement entered into force on 17 October 1986

  7. Global warming agreements, international trade and energy/carbon embodiments: an input-output approach to the Italian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongelli, I.; Tassielli, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the Kyoto Protocol the absence of Green House Gases (GHGs) commitments of developing countries (non-Annex I) and the more flexible terms of implementation which are allowed to countries shifting toward a market economy (transition economies) naturally lead to the absence or to less constraining national measures and policies of reduction of the GHGs emissions which, in turn, may determine a comparative advantage in the production of the highest energy/carbon intensive commodities for these countries. These arguments are valid also considering the future implementation of the European Emission Allowance Trading Scheme (EATS). Thus, developing countries may become a haven for the production of not environmental-friendly commodities; in this case, the so-called Pollution Haven Hypothesis, stating that due to freer international trade the comparative advantage may change the economic structure and consequently the trade patterns of the countries linked by trade relationships, could occur. This would lead to the increase of the transfers of energy and carbon embodied in traded commodities from developing countries and transition economies toward Kyoto or EATS constrained countries. The aim of this paper is to verify if for Italy, as a Kyoto and EATS complying country, evidence of a change in the trade patterns, occurred on the basis of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis, does exist and to estimate the magnitude of the under-estimation of the carbon actually emitted: the carbon leakage. The Input-Output model has been used to calculate the intensities of energy consumption and the related Green House Gases emission, for each Italian economic sector

  8. 75 FR 4535 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); data workshop...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction... Workshops are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and...; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and...

  9. A method to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries: An application to a Norwegian trawler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L., E-mail: linda.veldhuizen@wur.nl [Animal Production Systems group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen (Netherlands); Berentsen, P.B.M. [Business Economics group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands); Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, I.J.M. de [Animal Production Systems group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries is, both in terms of method development and measurement, not well developed. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a method consisting of indicators and rubrics (i.e. categories that articulate levels of performance) to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries. This method was applied to a Norwegian trawler that targets cod and haddock in the northeast Atlantic. Based on previous research, 13 social sustainability issues were selected. To measure the state of these issues, 17 process and outcome indicators were determined. To interpret indicator values, rubrics were developed for each indicator, using standards set by international conventions or data retrieved from national statistics, industry agreements or scientific publications that explore rubric scales. The indicators and rubrics were subsequently used in a social sustainability assessment of a Norwegian trawler. This assessment indicated that overall, social sustainability of this trawler is relatively high, with high rubric scores, for example, for worker safety, provisions aboard for the crew and companies' salary levels. The assessment also indicated that the trawler could improve on healthy working environment, product freshness and fish welfare during capture. This application demonstrated that our method provides insight into social sustainability at the level of the vessel and can be used to identify potential room for improvement. This method is also promising for social sustainability assessment of other capture fisheries. - Highlights: • A method was developed for social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries. • This method entailed determining outcome and process indicators for important issues. • To interpret indicator values, a rubric was developed for each indicator. • Use of this method gives insight into social sustainability and improvement options. • This method is promising for social

  10. A method to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries: An application to a Norwegian trawler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, I.J.M. de

    2015-01-01

    Social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries is, both in terms of method development and measurement, not well developed. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a method consisting of indicators and rubrics (i.e. categories that articulate levels of performance) to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries. This method was applied to a Norwegian trawler that targets cod and haddock in the northeast Atlantic. Based on previous research, 13 social sustainability issues were selected. To measure the state of these issues, 17 process and outcome indicators were determined. To interpret indicator values, rubrics were developed for each indicator, using standards set by international conventions or data retrieved from national statistics, industry agreements or scientific publications that explore rubric scales. The indicators and rubrics were subsequently used in a social sustainability assessment of a Norwegian trawler. This assessment indicated that overall, social sustainability of this trawler is relatively high, with high rubric scores, for example, for worker safety, provisions aboard for the crew and companies' salary levels. The assessment also indicated that the trawler could improve on healthy working environment, product freshness and fish welfare during capture. This application demonstrated that our method provides insight into social sustainability at the level of the vessel and can be used to identify potential room for improvement. This method is also promising for social sustainability assessment of other capture fisheries. - Highlights: • A method was developed for social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries. • This method entailed determining outcome and process indicators for important issues. • To interpret indicator values, a rubric was developed for each indicator. • Use of this method gives insight into social sustainability and improvement options. • This method is promising for social

  11. Bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The bilateral agreements concern Brazil with United States relative to the co operation in nuclear energy, Germany with Russian Federation relative to the elimination and disposal of nuclear weapons; The multilateral agreements concerns the signature of the Protocols to amend the Paris and Brussels Conventions, the multilateral nuclear environmental programme in the Russian Federation, the status of Conventions in the field of nuclear energy. (N.C.)

  12. The Tensions between Internal and External Multilateralism in the Case Law of the Court of Justice of the European Union Concerning International Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola

    2016-01-01

    The European Union’s (EU) commitment to multilateralism is enshrined in Article 21(1) of the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), which proclaims that the EU “shall promote multilateral solutions to common problems”. It is also reflected in numerous documents and treaties produced within the frame......The European Union’s (EU) commitment to multilateralism is enshrined in Article 21(1) of the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), which proclaims that the EU “shall promote multilateral solutions to common problems”. It is also reflected in numerous documents and treaties produced within...... to multilateralism externally appears problematic. This chapter examines the articulation between this internal and external multilateralism of the EU in the case-law of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU). It asks the question whether the main tool of legal interpretation deployed by the Court – teleological...

  13. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 8 March 2011. It was signed on 15 April 2011 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 15 April 2011, upon signature by the representatives of Pakistan and the Agency

  14. Agreement between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 5 June 2012. It was signed on 6 June 2012 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 25 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 4 April 2013, the date on which the Agency received from Bosnia and Herzegovina written notification that Bosnia and Herzegovina's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met.

  15. Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of a Nuclear Power Station from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 22 February 2007. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 22 February 2007, upon signature by the Director General of the Agency and by the authorised representative of Pakistan

  16. Agreement between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 13 June 2007. It was signed in Vienna on 27 September 2007. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 27 September 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Burundi and the Agency. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  17. Agreement between the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 1 March 2005. It was signed on 3 May 2005 in New York. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 3 May 2005, upon signature by the representatives of the Marshall Islands and the Agency

  18. Agreement between the Republic of Tajikistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Republic of Tajikistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 12 June 2002. It was signed on 2 July 2003 in Vienna and on 7 July 2003 in Tashkent. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 14 December 2004. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  19. Agreement between the United Republic of Tanzania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the United Republic of Tanzania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 24 February 1992, It was signed on 28 July 1992 in Vienna and on 26 August 1992 in Geneva. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 1 February 2005. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  20. Agreement between the Republic of Yemen and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Republic of Yemen and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 12 September 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 21 September 2000. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 14 August 2002. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  1. Agreement between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement concluded between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 20 September 2005. It was signed on 21 July 2006 in Gaborone, Botswana, and on 24 August 2006 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 24 August 2006, upon signature by the representatives of Botswana and the Agency

  2. Agreement between the Republic of Niger and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Niger and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 20 March 2001. It was signed on 11 June 2002 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 February 2005, the date on which the Agency received from Niger written notification that Niger's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  3. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Cameroon and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Cameroon and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 24 February 1992. It was signed on 21 May 1992 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 17 December 2004. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  4. Agreement between the Republic of Palau and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Palau and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 1 March 2005. It was signed on 10 May 2005 in New York and 13 May 2005 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 13 May 2005, upon signature by the representatives of Palau and the Agency

  5. Research and Development Strategy for Fishery Technology Innovation for Sustainable Fishery Resource Management in North-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of fishery technologies supports food sustainability to achieve a steady supply of fish and fishery products. However, the priorities for research and development (R&D in fishery technologies vary by region due to differences in fish resource availability, environmental concerns, and consumer preferences for fishery products. This study examines trends in fishery technology innovations using data on patents granted as an indicator of changing R&D priorities. To clarify changes in R&D priorities, we apply a decomposition analysis framework that classifies fishery technologies into three types: harvesting, aquaculture, and new products. This study mainly focuses on China, Japan, and Korea as the major fishing countries in the north-east Asia region. The results show that the number of fishery technology patents granted increased between 1993 and 2015; in particular, the number of aquaculture patents granted has grown rapidly since 2012. However, the trend in Japan was the opposite, as the apparent priority given to aquaculture technology innovation decreased between 1993 and 2015. The trends and priority changes for fishery technology inventions vary by country and technology group. This implies that an international policy framework for fishery technology development should recognize that R&D priorities need to reflect diverse characteristics across countries and the technologies employed.

  6. Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Portugal on 27 June 2006 and the United States on 13 December 2006, and by the Director General of the IAEA on 14 December 2006. Pursuant to the Article XII.1 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 19 April 2007, the date on which the Agency received written notification from Portugal that its internal requirements for entry into force had been met

  7. Fisheries Reclamation Events

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows waterbodies that have been treated for fish removal(i.e., reclaimed)by DNR Fisheries. Some waterbodies have had multiple treatments. Attributes...

  8. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  9. Postscript: Everyday Life and Mediated Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    Two waypoints were identified at the beginning of this book. The first was a reflection on the different ways social sciences have conceptualized, criticized, and worked with market-based fisheries management. The second was a promise to show diversity and complexity in the social and cultural ma...... perspectives concerning the strong and international currents favoring market-based fisheries. In addition, I suggest mediated fisheries as a possible alternative management principle instead of distribution based purely on market mechanisms.......Two waypoints were identified at the beginning of this book. The first was a reflection on the different ways social sciences have conceptualized, criticized, and worked with market-based fisheries management. The second was a promise to show diversity and complexity in the social and cultural......, in general, the two approaches had diverging views on market-based fisheries management, and I have suggested that these originate in the different research objects, instruments, and assumptions that underlie the social sciences. In this postscript, I reflect on the two waypoints, and I discuss the wider...

  10. International agreements on commercial representation

    OpenAIRE

    Slanař, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to describe the possibilities for fixing the position of a company in the market through contracts for commercial representation with a focus to finding legal and economic impact on the company that contracted for exclusive representation.

  11. Criminal fisheries practices and their perverse effects in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Aliou; Nauen, Cornelia E.

    2017-04-01

    Enforcing sustainable use of natural resources is a challenging task for developing countries, although modern earth observation technologies can help. Exploitation of marine living resources is a very demanding show-case for lessons about the problem as well as for insights into possible remedies. The extent of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing reaches very high proportions in West Africa and accounts for approximately half of total extractions according to most recent independent research results by the Sea Around Us Project. Based on field research in Senegal and neighbouring countries, we argue that the scale of illegal practices, needs to be classified as criminal and no longer as a fisheries management problem. The perpetrators are mostly international industrial fleets operating across borders alternating between organised crime and activities within legitimate agreements. This makes persecution particularly difficult for under-resourced authorities in developing countries with insufficient means for monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) and little capacity to use earth observation technology to track exploitation patterns. The net results are firstly significant financial losses for the countries, estimated elsewhere for West African countries except Namibia at US 1.7 billion for the period 2000 to 2010. The perverse social, institutional and environmental effects may even turn out to be more far-reaching. Among these are the reduction of women entrepreneurs in the dynamic local small-scale fishing industry to low-paid labour in industrial processing plants, break down of traditional solidarity chains within the small-scale sector under excessive economic pressure from industrial competition, corruption and other forms of delegitimisation of public institutions and degradation of the marine ecosystems with serious effects on local food security. We discuss these effects in the light of field research carried out mostly in Senegal and

  12. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met

  13. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met [es

  14. The Texts of the Agreements Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations and the Federal Government of the Republic of Austria Regarding the Headquarters Seat and Related Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The texts of seven agreements concluded between the Agency and the Republic of Austria, as well as between the Agency, the United Nations and the Republic of Austria, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  15. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 17 June 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the governments of Colombia and the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993 and 2 December 1993, between the Agency and the Governments of Colombia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 17 June 1994, pursuant to Article XII

  16. The Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America Terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and Terminating the Protocol Suspending that Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and terminating the Protocol suspending that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Protocol entered into force on 27 June 1974, pursuant to Section 6 thereof.

  17. Climate and oceanic fisheries: recent observations and projections and future needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salinger, M.J.; Bell, Johan D.; Evans, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence show that climatic variation and global warming can have a major effect on fisheries production and replenishment. To prevent overfishing and rebuild overfished stocks under changing and uncertain environmental conditions, new research partnerships between fisheries scie...... scientists and climate change experts are required. The International Workshop on Climate and Oceanic Fisheries held in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, 3–5......Several lines of evidence show that climatic variation and global warming can have a major effect on fisheries production and replenishment. To prevent overfishing and rebuild overfished stocks under changing and uncertain environmental conditions, new research partnerships between fisheries...

  18. Decree No 2674/1973 of 19 October 1973 determining the authorities competent for application of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    In accordance with the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) signed by Spain on 22 November 1972, every Government Parts to the Agreement must designate the authorities competent for its application, which in Spain are the Minister of the Interior, the Minister for Public Works and the Minister for Industry. Radioactive materials are classified as dangerous goods under the ADR. (N.E.A.) [fr

  19. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 7 December 1991 and signed in Vienna on 13 December 1991

  20. Agreement of 21 December 1993 between the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 2 December 1993 and signed in Vienna on 6 December 1993 and in Riga on 21 December 1993

  1. Agreement of 26 July 1994 between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 8 June 1994 and signed in Almaty on 26 July 1994

  2. Agreement of 18 November 1993 between the Kingdom of Tonga and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Kingdom of Tonga and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1975 and signed in Vienna on 31 October 1990 and in Nuku'Alofa on 18 November 1993

  3. Agreement of 26 July 1994 between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 8 June 1994 and signed in Almaty on 26 July 1994.

  4. Agreement between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 November 1999, signed in Vienna on 17 December 1999, and entered into force on the same date

  5. USVI commercial fisheries cost data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To assist the Caribbean Fishery Management Council in managing marine living resources in the United States Virgin Islands, the Southeast Fisheries Science Center...

  6. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States [fr

  7. Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Project and Supply Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Poland on 8 January 2007, the United States on 12 January 2007 and by the Director General of the IAEA on 16 January 2007. Pursuant to the Article XII of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 January 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Poland, the United States and the Director General of the IAEA

  8. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States

  9. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States [es

  10. 75 FR 24702 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Bay International Terminals, Inc. Operating Agreement. Parties: Tampa Bay International Terminals, Inc. and Tampa Port Authority. Filing Parties: Greg Lovelace, Director Cargo & Cruise Marketing; Tampa Port...

  11. Inclusive blue swimming crab fishery management initiative in Betahwalang Demak, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofar, A.; Redjeki, S.; Madduppa, H.; Abbey, M.; Tasunar, N.

    2018-02-01

    There has been a growing interest in the sustainability of the blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus, BSC) fisheries in Indonesia. The fishery is operated on a small-scale basis and yet it significantly contributes to the Indonesia’s fisheries as the third biggest export commodities following tuna and shrimp. The project inclusively (i) brings together coastal and fishing communities, university, the private sector, government at various levels and international agencies, (ii) bottom up approach is integrated with top-down (government policy) approach and (iii) integration o f conservation into fisheries management. This approach resulted in better understanding and participation among the coastal fishing communities on sustainable fisheries and the necessity to perform fisheries management. This led to the establishment of BSC fishery management body (legally support by Village Regulation - No.06/2013 on BSC fishery management in 2013, followed by a District Regulation No.523/0166/2014 on BSC fishery management in 2014. More recently, the Governor of Central Java issued a Governor Regulation No. 33/2017 on Crab and Lobster fisheries management and a Governor Decree No. 523/93/2017 on the establishment of the BSC fisheries management committee in Central Java. Further impacts have been raised awareness in sustainable BSC fishery management in surrounding districts in other provinces, namely East Java and Southeast Sulawesi. There remains, further needs to strengthen fishery governance by means of integrating national and local government effort in sustaining the fisheries, including the Issuance and effective implementation of the provincial decree on BSC fishery management for Central Java, that will enable the use of province’s resource to implement fisheries management and strengthen law enforcement. To help improve the stock, a plan for stock enhancement should also be developed with proper monitoring program and community commitment to avoid “put and

  12. Fisheries and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Fish stocks and the fisheries based on them have always experienced variability due to climate. Changes in temperature, salinity, winds, ocean currents, oxygen, and other factors affect their distribution, growth, survival, and recruitment. Examples of such effects are given for several regions...... of the oceans and the processes are described. Poleward distribution shifts have occurred since the 1960s and can be attributed to the effects of anthropogenic climate change with a high degree of confidence. In addition to climate effects, fisheries are subjected to other anthropogenic stresses, including high...... fishing mortality, loss of habitat, pollution, and introduction of alien species. These interact and may reduce the resilience of exploited stocks, although climate change may also increase productivity in some cases. Fisheries production depends on primary production, but to date we have low confidence...

  13. Agreement of 30 January 1992 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1991 and signed in Vienna on 30 January 1992. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 25, on 10 April 1992 [fr

  14. Agreement of 5 April 1995 between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 5 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 26, on 5 April 1995

  15. Agreement of 7 May 1996 between the Saint Kitts and Nevis and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and protocol thereof) between Saint Kitts and Nevis and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 10 July 1995 and in Basseterre on 7 May 1996. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 7 May 1996. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  16. Agreement of 26 June 1995 between the Republic of Zimbabwe and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Zimbabwe and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 26 June 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 26 June 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II.

  17. Agreement of 14 April 1995 between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 22 November 1994 and in Minsk on 14 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 2 August 1995

  18. Agreement of 26 June 1995 between the Republic of Zimbabwe and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Zimbabwe and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 26 June 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 26 June 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  19. Agreement of 20 April 1995 between the Union of Myanmar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Union of Myanmar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 20 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 20 April 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II.

  20. Agreement of 8 October 1994 between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 21 February 1994 and signed in Vienna on 5 April 1994 and in Tashkent on 8 October 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 8 October 1994.

  1. Agreement of 9 June 1994 between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 8 June 1994 and signed in Vienna on 9 June 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 19 January 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II.

  2. Agreement of 3 May 1996 between the government of the commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereof) between the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 10 July 1995 and in Roseau, Dominica on 3 May 1996. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 3 May 1996. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  3. Agreement of 7 May 1996 between the Saint Kitts and Nevis and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and protocol thereof) between Saint Kitts and Nevis and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 10 July 1995 and in Basseterre on 7 May 1996. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 7 May 1996. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II.

  4. Agreement of 9 June 1994 between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 8 June 1994 and signed in Vienna on 9 June 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 19 January 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  5. Agreement of 3 May 1996 between the government of the commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereof) between the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 10 July 1995 and in Roseau, Dominica on 3 May 1996. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 3 May 1996. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II.

  6. Agreement of 5 April 1995 between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 5 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 26, on 5 April 1995.

  7. Agreement of 20 April 1995 between the Union of Myanmar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Union of Myanmar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 20 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 20 April 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  8. Agreement of 14 April 1995 between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 22 November 1994 and in Minsk on 14 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 2 August 1995.

  9. Agreement of 8 October 1994 between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 21 February 1994 and signed in Vienna on 5 April 1994 and in Tashkent on 8 October 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 8 October 1994

  10. Agreement of 30 January 1992 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1991 and signed in Vienna on 30 January 1992. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 25, on 10 April 1992 [es

  11. Agreement of 30 January 1992 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1991 and signed in Vienna on 30 January 1992. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 25, on 10 April 1992

  12. Fisheries in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. PAPACONSTANTINOU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a description of the Mediterranean fisheries, and its level of exploitation and to address the main questions dealing with its management. The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed marine area with generally narrow continental shelves. The primary production of the Mediterranean is among the lowest in the world (26-50g C m-2 y-1. The Mediterranean fisheries can be broken down into three main categories: small scale fisheries, trawling and seining fisheries, which operated on demersal, small pelagic and large pelagic resources. After a general description of the state of the resources in the different areas of the Mediterranean it is concluded that (a the overall pictures from the western to the eastern Mediterranean are not considerably different, (b the total landings in the Mediterranean have been increased the last decades, and (c from the perspective of stock assessment, the very few available time series data show stable yield levels. In general fisheries management in the Mediterranean is at a rela- tively early stage of development, judging by the criteria of North Atlantic fisheries. Quota systems are generally not applied, mesh-size regulations usually are set at low levels relative to scientific advice, and effort limitation is not usually applied or, if it is, is not always based on a formal resource assessment. The conservation/management measures applied by the Mediterranean countries can be broadly separated into two major categories: those aiming to keep the fishing effort under control and those aiming to make the exploitation pattern more rational. The most acute problems in the management of the Mediterranean resources are the multispecificity of the catches and the lack of reliable official statistics.

  13. 77 FR 31327 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... fisheries, including Columbia River fisheries issues, the NOAA Habitat Blueprint, and the Council's.... Thompson, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc...

  14. CROATIAN FISHERIES IN 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jahutka

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with all the relevant statistic data regarding fisheries of Republic of Croatia, including freshwater fisheries data (aquaculture of fish and other aquatic organisms, commercial and sports fisheries, marine fisheries data (mariculture, commercial fisheries, small–scale fisheries and processing of fish and other marine organisms, as well as data about import and export of fish and fish products and the data about financial subventions in fisheries. Regarding aquaculture (freshwater fish farming in 2004 there have been noticed slight changes comparing to 2003. The total freshwater fish production in 2004 was 5,618 tons (4,259 tons of warm–water species and 1,359 tons of cold–water species. Total areas and production areas were increased comparing to 2003 (total areas 1.94% and production areas 5.42%. Total catch of freshwater fish in 2004 was 567 tons. The total marine fish species production was increased cca. 20% comparing to 2003. Mussels farming, which is slightly increasing since 1999, during 2004 was decreased, while oysters farming were stagnating. The catch of marine fish was increased by 9.74% comparing to 2003. The biggest increase is noticed regarding catch of demersal and other fish species. As well as the increase of the total catch, the number of commercial fishermen and fishing vessels was also increased in 2003. The number of fishermen who fish for their own consumption (without the right to sell fish–small scale fishermen in 2004 was 13,700. The total production of fish products in 2004 was 14,270 tons, which is 24.89% less comparing to 2003. Along this decrease, there has been also noticed an increasing trend of the production assortments, specially salted anchovy. The value of import in 2004 was higher than the value of export, although the export/import balance was higher in amount on the import side. Financial subventions payments in 2004 were 67.21% higher comparing to the first year of payments (1997

  15. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  16. TRIPS 與羅爾斯的國際正義理論初探 The TRIPS Agreement and John Rawls’s Theory of International Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    王敏銓 Eric Min-Chiuan Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available 本文探討政治哲學家約翰〃羅爾斯(John Rawls)於1990 年代後期發展的國際正義理論如何適用於對「與貿易有關的智財權協定」(TRIPS)的訂定背景的分析,目的是在建立一個對於TRIPS 加以批判的觀點。羅爾斯的國際正義理論主要發展於他的「人民間法」(The Law of Peoples)一書,但與羅爾斯以前的著作,包括「正義論」(A Theory of Justice)與「政治自由主義」(Political Liberalism)有脈絡上密不可分的關係。本文詴圖應用在這些著作中提出的概念,包括第二(國際)原始立場、無知面紗、暫時狀態與重疊共識的區別等。在另一面,TRIPS 的訂立過程呈現的問題,如貿易與智財權的連結、對於國際智財權體制的功能的基本不合意、對開發中國家的不帄衡負擔等,都是「政治自由主義」所要解釋的問題,也就是基於暫時協定的體制,如何能克服穩定性上的困難,而達成重疊共識的目標。本文係針對此問題所提出的初步的看法。 The topic of this article is how the theory of international justice developed by political philosopher John Rawls in the mid-1990s can be applied to analyzing TRIPS, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, and its drafting process. The purpose here is to construct a point of view for the critique of TRIPS. Rawls’s theory of international justice was primarily developed in his The Law of Peoples but also bore imprints from the previous works, including A Theory of Justice and Political Liberalism. The author of this article has intended to apply several concepts proposed by Rawls in these works, including the second stage of the original position, the veil of ignorance, modus vivendi, and overlapping consensus. Many issues relating to TRIPS’ drafting process are in effect the questions that Political Liberalism has intended to answer; these

  17. Subsidy Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle Bagwell; Robert W. Staiger

    2004-01-01

    International disputes over subsidies are increasingly disrupting the world trading system. The creation of the WTO was nearly prevented by disputes in the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations over the issue of negotiating disciplines on agricultural subsidies, an issue which continues to plague the ongoing Doha Round of WTO negotiations. Ongoing disputes over subsidies that violate existing WTO rules have led to the largest amount of authorized retaliation in GATT/WTO history. Yet the internat...

  18. Endangered species: where leatherback turtles meet fisheries.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraroli , S.; Georges , J.-Y.; Gaspar , P.; Le Maho , Y.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The dramatic worldwide decline in populations of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) is largely due to the high mortality associated with their interaction with fisheries, so a reduction of this overlap is critical to their survival. The discovery of narrow migration corridors used by the leatherbacks in the Pacific Ocean raised the possibility of protecting the turtles by restricting fishing in these key areas. Here we use satellite tracking to show that the...

  19. International climate protection legislation. The way towards a global climate agreement in the sense of common but differentiated responsibility; Internationales Klimaschutzrecht. Der Weg zu einem Weltklimavertrag im Sinne von gemeinsamer, aber differenzierter Verantwortlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahrmarkt, Lena

    2016-07-01

    Climate Change is one of the most important issues in the 21st century. Its extensive impacts regarding society, policy, economy and environment and its threats require an effective reaction at the international level. But does the newly adopted Paris Agreement comply to the expectations? Or how could an effective Climate Agreement be achieved to meet climate effectiveness and climate justice? To answer these questions this study analyses the development of international climate change law in a comprehensive way. In combination with analysing the principle of common, but differentiated responsibility it is possible to present new aspects for a climate Agreement by learning from failures of the past and embracing the raising threat brought about by climate change.

  20. Agreement between the Republic of Montenegro and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Montenegro and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 13 June 2007. It was signed on 26 May 2008 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 25 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 4 March 2011, the date on which the Agency received from the Republic of Montenegro written notification that Montenegro's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  1. Agreement Between the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 22 February 1989. It was signed in Vienna on 22 November 1991. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on the date upon which the Agency received from Laos written notification that Laos' statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force have been met, i.e. on 5 April 2001. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  2. Agreement between the Kingdom of Bahrain and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Kingdom of Bahrain and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 11 September 2007. It was signed in Vienna on 19 September 2007. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 10 May 2009, the date on which the Agency received from the Kingdom of Bahrain written notification that Bahrain's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  3. Agreement between the State of Qatar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the State of Qatar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 24 September 2008. It was signed in Vienna on 19 January 2009. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 21 January 2009, the date on which the Agency received from the State of Qatar written notification that Qatar's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  4. Agreement between the Republic of Mozambique and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Mozambique and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 22 November 2007. It was signed on 23 June 2010 in Lisbon, Portugal, and on 8 July 2010 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 1 March 2011, the date on which the Agency received from the Republic of Mozambique written notification that Mozambique's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  5. Agreement between the Republic of Moldova and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Republic of Moldova and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 12 September 1995. It was signed on 27 September 1995 in Vienna and 14 June 1996 in Chisinau. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 17 May 2006, the date upon which the Agency received from Moldova written notification that Moldova's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  6. Agreement between the Sultanate of Oman and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Sultanate of Oman and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 20 September 1999. It was signed on 28 June 2001 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 5 September 2006, the date upon which the Agency received from Oman written notification that Oman's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force the same date

  7. Agreement between the United Arab Emirates and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the United Arab Emirates and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 28 November 2002. It was signed in Abu Dhabi on 15 December 2002. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Safeguards Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 9 October 2003, the date upon which the Agency received from the United Arab Emirates written notification that the United Arab Emirates' statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  8. Agreement between the Republic of Seychelles and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Seychelles and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 18 March 2003. It was signed on 29 March 2004 in Windhoek and on 7 April 2004 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 19 July 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Seychelles written notification that Seychelles' statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  9. Agreement between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 16 June 2005. It was signed in Vienna on 16 June 2005. 2. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 13 January 2009, the date upon which the Agency received from Saudi Arabia written notification that Saudi Arabia's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  10. Fisheries Exploitation by Albatross Quantified With Lipid Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda G. Conners

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mortality from incidental bycatch in longline fishery operations is a global threat to seabird populations, and especially so for the albatross family (Diomedeidae in which 15 out of 22 species are threatened with extinction. Despite the risks, fisheries remain attractive to many species of seabird by providing access to high-energy foods in the form of discarded fish and offal, target fish, and baited hooks. Current policy regarding fisheries management is increasingly aimed at discard reform, exemplified by a discard ban initiated in the European Union Common Fisheries Policy in 2014. While there is global agreement on the importance of minimizing the waste inherent in bycatch and discards, there is also growing concern that there is a need to understand the extent to which marine animals rely on fisheries-associated resources, especially at the colony and individual levels. We used a novel adaptation of quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA to quantify fisheries-associated prey in the diet of two threatened North Pacific albatross species. Diet was estimated with QFASA using multiple lipid classes from stomach oil collected from incubating and chick-brooding Laysan and black-footed albatrosses across three breeding seasons. Prey-specific error was estimated by comparing QFASA estimated diets from known “simulated” diets, which informed the level of precaution appropriate when interpreting model results. Fisheries-associated diet occurred in both albatross species across both the incubation and chick-brood stages; however, neither species relied on fisheries food as the dominant food source (consisting of <10% of the total pooled proportional diet in each species. While total diet proportion was low, the incidence of fisheries-associated resources in albatross diets was highest in the 2009–2010 breeding season when there was a strong central Pacific El Niño. Additionally, the diets of a few individuals consisted almost

  11. Challenges in integrating shrot-term behaviour in a mixed-fishery Management Strategies Evaluation frame: a case study of the North Sea flatfish fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, B.S.; Vermard, Y.; Ulrich, C.; Hutton, T.; Poos, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a fleet-based bioeconomic simulation model to the international mixed flatfish fishery in the North Sea. The model uses a Management Strategies Evaluation framework including a discrete choice model accounting for short-term temporal changes in effort allocation across fisheries.

  12. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    .... 101206604-1758-02] RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...) to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  13. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    .... 101206604-1620-01] RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational...

  14. 77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    .... 120813333-2647-01] RIN 0648-BC28 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery...

  15. 78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    .... 120813333-3107-02] RIN 0648-BC28 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational...

  16. Co-operation Agreement. The Text of the Agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; Acuerdo de Cooperacion. Texto del Acuerdo de 25 de Mayo de 1998 entre el Organismo Internacional de Energia Atomica y la Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-30

    The text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 25 May 1998, pursuant to Article 8 [Spanish] El texto del Acuerdo de Cooperacion entre el Organismo Internacional de Energia Atomica y la Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares se reproduce en el presente documento para informacion de todos los Miembros. El Acuerdo entro en vigor el 25 de mayo de 1998 en conformidad con lo dispuesto en el articulo 8.

  17. The Sicomines Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Johanna

    of the global political economy have shifted, and that China’s position as a foreign policy actor is now consolidated. Continuity, since the 2009 amendment of the agreement, which came about partly as a result of China’s ambitions to take up an active role in the International Monetary Fund (IMF......), was to the benefit of the policy preferences of the IMF and the World Bank. This case thus indicates that since China’s own aspirations are changeable, its emergence as an alternative development partner may not bring about any substantive change of direction for the DRC’s international relations. Furthermore......The Sicomines multibillion minerals-for-infrastructure deal was struck in 2007 between the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and China. The paper investigates the drivers behind the original conception of the agreement, outlines the structure of the contract, analyses the dynamics at play during...

  18. Agreement of 20 September 1988 between the People's Republic of China and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The document contains two parts. The first part stipulates the agreement of China to accept IAEA safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in peaceful nuclear facilities to be designated by China within its territory with a view to enabling the Agency to verify that such material is not withdrawn, except as provided for in this Agreement, from those facilities while such material is subject to safeguards under this Agreement. The second part specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I

  19. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The first review meeting of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management resulted in the assembly of the most comprehensive information yet available on the status of these ones in the world. The review process has prompted improvements in others. The discussions in the two week meeting addressed all of the important issues confronting countries in managing spent fuel and radioactive waste safely. It revealed areas for improvement at both the national and international levels. he joint convention review process is designed principally for the review of the National reports of contracting parties. However, there are also global issues in the area of spent fuel and radioactive waste management and issues of special interest, to groups of countries to consider. The future development of the convention may therefore have to include suitable additional mechanisms to allow these aspects to be addressed. (N.C.)

  20. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  1. Projected impacts of climate change on marine fish and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollowed, Anne B.; Barange, Manuel; Beamish, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews current literature on the projected effects of climate change on marine fish and shellfish, their fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities throughout the northern hemisphere. The review addresses the following issues: (i) expected impacts on ecosystem productivity and habitat......) implications for food security and associated changes; and (v) uncertainty and modelling skill assessment. Climate change will impact fish and shellfish, their fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities through a complex suite of linked processes. Integrated interdisciplinary research teams are forming...... in many regions to project these complex responses. National and international marine research organizations serve a key role in the coordination and integration of research to accelerate the production of projections of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and to move towards a future where...

  2. Case Studies of integrated hydrogen systems. International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Final report for Subtask A of task 11 - Integrated Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucan, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    1999-12-31

    Within the framework of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Task 11 was undertaken to develop tools to assist in the design and evaluation of existing and potential hydrogen demonstration projects. Emphasis was placed on integrated systems, from input energy to hydrogen end use. Included in the PDF document are the Executive Summary of the final report and the various case studies. The activities of task 11 were focused on near- and mid-term applications, with consideration for the transition from fossil-based systems to sustainable hydrogen energy systems. The participating countries were Canada, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United States. In order for hydrogen to become a competitive energy carrier, experience and operating data need to be generated and collected through demonstration projects. A framework of scientific principles, technical expertise, and analytical evaluation and assessment needed to be developed to aid in the design and optimization of hydrogen demonstration projects to promote implementation. The task participants undertook research within the framework of three highly coordinated subtasks that focused on the collection and critical evaluation of data from existing demonstration projects around the world, the development and testing of computer models of hydrogen components and integrated systems, and the evaluation and comparison of hydrogen systems. While the Executive Summary reflects work on all three subtasks, this collection of chapters refers only to the work performed under Subtask A. Ten projects were analyzed and evaluated in detail as part of Subtask A, Case Studies. The projects and the project partners were: Solar Hydrogen Demonstration Project, Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern, Bayernwerk, BMW, Linde, Siemens (Germany); Solar Hydrogen Plant on Residential House, M. Friedli (Switzerland); A.T. Stuart Renewable Energy Test Site; Stuart Energy Systems (Canada); PHOEBUS Juelich

  3. Agreements concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany under international law in the field of environmental protection. Annex: Treaties with the GDR. (Source index in the Federal Law Gazette, part II). (As of September 15, 1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1987-01-01

    This compilation contains all agreements under international law in the field of environmental protection, the FRG has joined and that have been published and/or announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. The summary is of September 15, 1987. The classification is made according to the subjects: waste management law, pollution abatement law, nuclear law and energy and mining law and within these according to the date of treaty/agreement. For easier access, there are a chronological index, an index of the contracting states and an index of the places of contract. In the annex the relevant treaties with the German Democratic Republic are indicated. (orig./HP) [de

  4. The safety of fishery products

    OpenAIRE

    Zugravu Gheorghe, Adrian; Turek Rahoveanu, Maria Magdalena; Turek Rahoveanu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The paper follows two main objectives: to understand consumers' perception and image of fishery products and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of fishery products. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of products, consequently with impact on product consumption. The present research is focused on the fishery products, regardless of their presentation - fresh, frozen or processed. This paper conduc...

  5. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    I. Status of conventions in the field of nuclear energy as of December 2012: Non-proliferation and nuclear security (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty); Nuclear safety and emergency response (Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management); Liability and compensation for nuclear damage (Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Brussels Supplementary Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Protocol to Amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage). II. Status of conventions in the field of environmental protection/assessment which affect nuclear energy use as of December 2012: Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention), Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention), Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kiev Protocol), Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR). III. OECD member country participation in the nuclear energy treaties/conventions and in the

  6. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    I. Status of treaties and conventions in the field of nuclear energy as of November 2013: Non-proliferation and nuclear security (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty); Nuclear safety and emergency response (Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management); Liability and compensation for nuclear damage (Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Brussels Supplementary Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Protocol to Amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention); Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; II. Status of conventions in the field of environmental protection/assessment which affect nuclear energy use as of December 2011: Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters - Aarhus Convention (Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention), Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment to the Espoo Convention (Kiev Protocol), Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR)); III. Participation in the nuclear energy treaties

  7. Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document contains two parts. Part I stipulates the agreement of Ukraine to accept safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Part II specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1995, signed in Vienna on 21 September 1995, and entered into force on 22 January 1998

  8. Agreement between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the International Atomic Energy agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). It contains two parts: Part I stipulates the agreement of Azerbaijan to accept safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Part II specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 14 September 1998, signed in Vienna on 6 November 1998, and entered into force on 29 April 1999. The Protocol entered into force on the same date

  9. Evolutionary impact assessent: accounting for evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laugen, A.T.; Engelhard, G.H.; Whitlock, R.; Mollet, F.M.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Managing fisheries resources to maintain healthy ecosystems is one of the main goals of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF). While a number of international treaties call for the implementation of EAF, there are still gaps in the underlying methodology. One aspect that has received substantial

  10. 75 FR 1753 - Fisheries of the Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Atlantic croaker and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; international... Conservation and Management Act, provided the public has been notified of the Council's intent to take final...

  11. Summary sensory workshop Uganda, 21 - 25 November 2005, Uganda Fisheries Laboratory in Entebbe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) has requested The Netherlands Institute of Fisheries Research (RIVO) to organize a sensory workshop in Uganda. ICEIDA is establishing a fisheries laboratory in Uganda in cooperation with the Ugandan government. One of the tasks within this

  12. On the sustainability of inland fisheries: Finding a future for the forgotten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Allison, Edward H.; Beard, Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Arthington, Angela; Bartley, Devin; Cowx, Ian G.; Fuentevilla, Carlos; Léonard, Nancy J.; Lorenzen, Kai; Lynch, Abigail; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Youn, So-Jung; Tayor, William W.; Welcomme, Robin

    2016-01-01

    At present, inland fisheries are not often a national or regional governance priority and as a result, inland capture fisheries are undervalued and largely overlooked. As such they are threatened in both developing and developed countries. Indeed, due to lack of reliable data, inland fisheries have never been part of any high profile global fisheries assessment and are notably absent from the Sustainable Development Goals. The general public and policy makers are largely ignorant of the plight of freshwater ecosystems and the fish they support, as well as the ecosystem services generated by inland fisheries. This ignorance is particularly salient given that the current emphasis on the food-water-energy nexus often fails to include the important role that inland fish and fisheries play in food security and supporting livelihoods in low-income food deficit countries. Developing countries in Africa and Asia produce about 11 million tonnes of inland fish annually, 90 % of the global total. The role of inland fisheries goes beyond just kilocalories; fish provide important micronutrients and essentially fatty acids. In some regions, inland recreational fisheries are important, generating much wealth and supporting livelihoods. The following three key recommendations are necessary for action if inland fisheries are to become a part of the food-water-energy discussion: invest in improved valuation and assessment methods, build better methods to effectively govern inland fisheries (requires capacity building and incentives), and develop approaches to managing waters across sectors and scales. Moreover, if inland fisheries are recognized as important to food security, livelihoods, and human well-being, they can be more easily incorporated in regional, national, and global policies and agreements on water issues. Through these approaches, inland fisheries can be better evaluated and be more fully recognized in broader water resource and aquatic ecosystem planning and decision

  13. Agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocols thereto) between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 21 March 2000 by the representative of the Government of the French Republic and the Director General of the IAEA, and on 26 September 2000 by the representative of the European Atomic Energy Community. Pursuant to Article 23 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 26 October 2007, one month after the Agency has received notification from both France and the European Atomic Energy Community that their respective internal requirements for entry into force have been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocols, the Protocols entered into force on the same date

  14. Law 16.867 International Agreement approve the Basilea amendment about the control of the transborder movement of the dangerous wastes and elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Approve you the Amendment to the Agreement of Basile on the Control of the Transborder Movements of the Dangerous Waste and their Elimination, adopted by the Conference of the Parts, in their Third Meeting, taken place in Geneva-Switzerland - of the 18 at the 22 of September of 1995 [es

  15. Jurisdiction in international civil and commercial cases : a comparative study of the law in the IBSA countries and the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    LL.M. (International Commercial Law) This dissertation concerns a comparative analysis of Brazilian, Indian and South African private international law principles on the exercise of jurisdiction in international civil and commercial cases. The intention is to uncover the fundamental grounds of jurisdiction in these legal systems and in doing so draw attention to their comparable characteristics. Emphasis is placed on matters of a commercial nature. Furthermore, a discussion of the Hague Co...

  16. Benefits of Ratification of the Madrid Protocol (Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks) for the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasari, Risti Dwi

    2013-01-01

    The role of marks in the era of globalization of markets is very important, especially in maintaining fairbusiness competition and preventing piracy of marks that will be detrimental to the registered mark, bothdomestically and Internationally. Therefore, the business requires International trademark registrationprocedures in order to obtain legal protection in both countries of origin and in other countries where theexpansion of business is required. Along with the development of Internation...

  17. Fisheries management under nutrient influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Cecilia; Nielsen, Max; Waldo, Staffan

    2018-01-01

    A fisheries management model that identifies the economic optimal management of fisheries under the influence of nutrients is presented. The model starts from the idea that growth in fish biomass increases with increasing availability of nutrients owing to higher food availability up to a peak...

  18. Fisheries Information Network in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Sarojini

    During the early 1980s the Indonesian government made a policy decision to develop fisheries as an important sector of the national economy. In doing so, it recognized the need for the collection and dissemination of fisheries research information not only for the scientists themselves, but also for the ultimate transfer of technology through…

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998 [fr

  20. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Canada and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between Canada and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 24 September 1998 [fr

  1. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Madagascar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Madagascar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 18 June 2003. It was signed in Vienna on 18 September 2003 [fr

  2. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Lesotho and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Lesotho and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 24 September 2008. It was signed on 22 April 2010 in Berlin, Germany, and on 26 April 2010 in Vienna, Austria [es

  3. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Madagascar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Madagascar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 18 June 2003. It was signed in Vienna on 18 September 2003 [es

  4. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Malawi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Malawi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 November 2006. It was signed on 5 May 2007 in Lilongwe, Malawi, and on 26 July 2007 in Vienna, Austria [es

  5. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 September 1997. It was signed in Vienna on 30 September 1997 [es

  6. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 4 March 2008. It was signed in Vienna on 23 July 2010

  7. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Republic of Turkey and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 7 June 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 6 July 2000

  8. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement 1 concluded between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (TLATELOLCO) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 29 November 2001. It was signed in the City of Panama on 11 December 2001

  9. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Slovenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Republic of Slovenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998, signed in Vienna on 26 November 1998, and entered into force on 22 August 2000

  10. Protocol Additional the the agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which was approved by the Board of Governors on 14 September 1998, signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998, and entered into force on 6 July 2000

  11. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998 [es

  12. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Kingdom of Norway and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Kingdom of Norway and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which was approved by the Board of Governors on 24 March 1999, signed in Vienna on 29 September 1999, and entered into force on 16 May 2000.

  13. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-25

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 8 December 1997, signed in Vienna on 11 March 1998, and entered into force on 5 July 2000.

  14. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-29

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 September 1999 and signed in Vienna on 29 September 1999. The Protocol entered into force on 29 September 1999.

  15. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Principality of Monaco and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-29

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC/524) concluded between the Principality of Monaco and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998, signed in Vienna on 30 September 1999, and entered into force on the same date.

  16. Protocol Additional the the agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-28

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which was approved by the Board of Governors on 14 September 1998, signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998, and entered into force on 6 July 2000.

  17. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Slovenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-14

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Republic of Slovenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998, signed in Vienna on 26 November 1998, and entered into force on 22 August 2000.

  18. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Poland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-20

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Poland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which was approved by the Board of Governors on 23 September 1997, signed in Vienna on 30 September 1997, and entered into force on 5 May 2000.

  19. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Hungary and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-18

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Hungary and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998, signed in Vienna on 26 November 1998, and entered into force on 4 April 2000.

  20. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the People's Republic of Bulgaria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-25

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the People's Republic of Bulgaria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 14 September 1998, signed in Vienna on 24 September 1998, and entered into force on 10 October 2000.

  1. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III.1 and 4 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-16

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III.1 and 4 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998 and signed in Vienna on 4 December 1998. The Protocol entered into force on 16 December 1998.

  2. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Iraq and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Iraq and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 24 September 2008. It was signed on 9 October 2008 in Vienna

  3. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 September 1997. It was signed in Vienna on 30 September 1997

  4. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998

  5. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 5 March 2013. It was signed on 22 March 2013 in Vienna, Austria

  6. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Madagascar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Madagascar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 18 June 2003. It was signed in Vienna on 18 September 2003

  7. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Malawi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Malawi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 November 2006. It was signed on 5 May 2007 in Lilongwe, Malawi, and on 26 July 2007 in Vienna, Austria

  8. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Lesotho and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Lesotho and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 24 September 2008. It was signed on 22 April 2010 in Berlin, Germany, and on 26 April 2010 in Vienna, Austria

  9. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 4 March 2008. It was signed in Vienna on 23 July 2010

  10. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Armenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Amendment of Article 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the amendment to the Article 17 of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Armenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The amendment was approved by the Board of Governors in June 1999, and entered into force on 10 September 1999

  11. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 9 March 2004. It was signed on 10 March 2004 in Vienna

  12. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of The Gambia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of The Gambia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 3 March 2010. It was signed on 7 October 2011 in Banjul, The Gambia, and on 18 October 2011 in Vienna, Austria

  13. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Singapore and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Singapore and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 20 September 2005. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 2005

  14. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Mauritius and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Mauritius and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 14 September 2004. It was signed on 9 December 2004 in Vienna

  15. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Mongolia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Mongolia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 September 2001. It was signed in Vienna on 5 December 2001

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Uruguay and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Uruguay and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 23 September 1997. It was signed in Vienna on 29 September 1997

  17. Protocol between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Zaire and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)1 is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 28 November 2002. It was signed in Vienna on 9 April 2003

  18. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 7 June 2000. It was signed on 15 August 2000 in Vienna [es

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Iraq and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Iraq and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 24 September 2008. It was signed on 9 October 2008 in Vienna [es

  20. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 4 March 2008. It was signed in Vienna on 23 July 2010 [es

  1. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 5 March 2013. It was signed on 22 March 2013 in Vienna, Austria [es

  2. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 September 1997. It was signed in Vienna on 30 September 1997 [fr

  3. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Armenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Entry into force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Pursuant to Article 17 of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Armenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Additional Protocol entered into force on 28 June 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Armenia written notification that Armenia's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  4. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 9 March 2004. It was signed on 10 March 2004 in Vienna [es

  5. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Poland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Poland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which was approved by the Board of Governors on 23 September 1997, signed in Vienna on 30 September 1997, and entered into force on 5 May 2000

  6. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 September 1999 and signed in Vienna on 29 September 1999. The Protocol entered into force on 29 September 1999

  7. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Kingdom of Norway and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Kingdom of Norway and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which was approved by the Board of Governors on 24 March 1999, signed in Vienna on 29 September 1999, and entered into force on 16 May 2000

  8. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 8 December 1997, signed in Vienna on 11 March 1998, and entered into force on 5 July 2000

  9. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the People's Republic of Bulgaria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the People's Republic of Bulgaria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 14 September 1998, signed in Vienna on 24 September 1998, and entered into force on 10 October 2000

  10. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Hungary and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Hungary and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998, signed in Vienna on 26 November 1998, and entered into force on 4 April 2000

  11. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III.1 and 4 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III.1 and 4 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998 and signed in Vienna on 4 December 1998. The Protocol entered into force on 16 December 1998

  12. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Principality of Monaco and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC/524) concluded between the Principality of Monaco and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998, signed in Vienna on 30 September 1999, and entered into force on the same date

  13. The role of the state system of accounting for and control of nuclear material and its relationship with the international safeguards agreements for the set-up of peaceful nuclear programs and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhadhbi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays an important role in the development of the economy and is considered as a key element with regard to the growth of the world energy demand due to the limitation of other natural energy resources, its contribution to the protection of the environment and the reduction of CO 2 emission. Several countries, including some Arab countries, are planning to consider the nuclear option in the near future. To provide an assurance to the international community of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the International Atomic Energy Agency established legal tools, called Safeguards Agreements, to be accepted by every state willing to run nuclear programmes for peaceful purposes. The most important basis required by these agreements is the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material, which plays a primary role for effective and efficient fulfilment of the state commitment with regard to the international safeguards agreements. The requirements for the set-up of a State System of Accounting for and Control , its role, its objectives and its fundamental elements are deeply presented. (author)

  14. Brazil and the strengthening of safeguard system of the International Atomic Energy Agency: from the four-part agreement to the additional protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Carmen Lidia Richter Ribeiro

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the evolution of IAEA verification system, that constitutes one of the main fundaments of the Non-proliferation nuclear weapons regimen, and to point out elements that contribute to inform the Brazilian position related to the Model Protocol additional to agreements for safeguard application: instrument that comprehend the most recent multilateral efforts of the nuclear verification

  15. License agreement, employee work

    OpenAIRE

    Poncová, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    The rigorous thesis is focused on license agreement and employee work. The aim of the thesis is not only an analysis of the use of a copyrighted work by a person different from the author of the work, but also an analysis of the performance of copyright by a person different from the author of the work. The thesis consists of five chapters. The opening chapter provides a summary of the notion of copyright, its sources at the national and international levels, but also the European Union legis...

  16. International Energy Agency (IEA): Implementing Agreement for Co-operation in the Research and Development of Wind Turbine Systems (IEA Wind)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-15

    This fact sheet covers the work that is being done via the International Energy Agency Task 34 (WREN). The fact sheet highlights the objective, strategy, primary activities, members, and contacts for this task.

  17. 78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through 11 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial fisheries in the area from the U.S...: Background In the 2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS...

  18. 78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... in the ocean salmon fisheries. This inseason action modified the commercial fisheries in the area... ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS announced the commercial and recreational...

  19. 78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and 5 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial fisheries in...: Background In the 2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS...

  20. Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing countries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a "precautionary principle." Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this paper, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries.

  1. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Manach, Frédéric; Chaboud, Christian; Copeland, Duncan; Cury, Philippe; Gascuel, Didier; Kleisner, Kristin M; Standing, André; Sumaila, U Rashid; Zeller, Dirk; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

  2. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Le Manach

    Full Text Available The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements, while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

  3. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous communities involved in fisheries and aquaculture are among the most food insecure in the Bolivian Amazon. Although fish could be the main source of protein, it is often not part of the local diet. This project - supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of ...

  4. 76 FR 2084 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Department of Fish & Game Report. International Pacific Halibut Commission Report. United States Coast Guard Report. United States Fish & Wildlife Service Report. Protected Species Report (including update on Steller Sea Lion (SSL); Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed salmon). American Fisheries Act (AFA...

  5. 75 FR 2111 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... bycatch alternatives; review preliminary Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) report (SSC only); review and adopt... of Fish and Game (ADF&G) Report d. International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) Report e. U.S. Coast Guard Report f. NMFS Enforcement Report/Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) Report g. U.S. Fish...

  6. 76 FR 283 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Vessel Capacity Limit in the Purse Seine Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... of implementing a capacity management regime, the United States chose to further limit its fleet... Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) Resolution on the Capacity of the Tuna Fleet Operating.... industry consistent with the IATTC management framework. DATES: These regulations become effective on...

  7. 75 FR 54078 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Vessel Capacity Limit in the Purse Seine Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Environmental Policy Act and the IRFA are available at http://swr.nmfs.noaa.gov/ or may be obtained from Rod..., United States, Vanuatu, and Venezuela. The current Cooperating Non-Parties, Cooperating Fishing Entities...

  8. 78 FR 20291 - Fisheries of the United States; Billfish Conservation Act of 2012 Implementing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... fishery. A report on trade of billfish published by the International Game Fish Association (IGFA) in June... with a limited exception for black marlin, marlin meat, whether fresh, smoked, canned, or preserved by...

  9. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Commission's Interstate Fishery Management Plan (ISFMP) for Coastal Sharks. Subsequently, the Commission... New Jersey failed to carry out its responsibilities under the Coastal Sharks ISFMP, and if the...

  10. Hoffman etal 2016 Fisheries Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Fish collection data associated with the data analysis presented in Hoffman et al. 2016. Fisheries 41(1):26-37, DOI: 10.1080/03632415.2015.1114926. This dataset is...

  11. Morocco - Small-Scale Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The final performance evaluation roadmap for the Small-Scale Fisheries Project (PPA-MCC) is developed using a grid constructed around indicators relating to Project...

  12. Considerations during the Proposal Stages of a Marine Fisheries Reserve in Conil de la Frontera (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    With the fishing sector presently going through a range of problems internationally, the creation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and Marine Fishery Reserves (MFRs) is a choice in which various fisheries, environmental and research groups are showing a stronger belief. Within such systems, conventional measures are replaced by an ‘ecosystem-approach’ and stakeholder participation is considered fundamental. This investigation takes a look at the internal workings as well as external influe...

  13. Act of 20 July 1978 establishing provisions enabling the International Atomic Energy Agency to undertake inspections and verifications on the Belgian territory in execution of the International Agreement of 5 April 1973 made in implementation of paragraph 1 and 4 of Article III of the Treaty of 1 July 1968 on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to authorise representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency to carry out inspections and verifications in installations in Belgium where source materials and special fissionable materials are produced, stored or used. These inspections are organised in the frame of the Agreement on verification of safeguards concluded between that Agency and Euratom. (NEA) [fr

  14. International global climate change negotiations. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session, July 15, 1997--The economic and environmental impact of the proposed agreement -- November 11, 1997--Status of International Global Climate Change Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In these hearings attention was focused on the following: the economic and environmental impact of the proposed agreement; and the status of international global climate change negotiations. US policy must be based on both the best scientific information available and on a clear understanding of the economic impacts of any actions that may be taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  15. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nonproliferation and Arms Control Analysis Dept.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  16. Reconciling single-species TACs in the North Sea demersal fisheries using the Fcube mixed-fisheries advice framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Reeves, Stuart A.; Vermard, Youen

    2011-01-01

    be exhausted before the TAC of another, leading to catches of valuable fish that cannot be landed legally. This important issue is, however, usually not quantified and not accounted for in traditional management advice. A simple approach using traditional catch and effort information was developed, estimating...... catch potentials for distinct fleets (groups of vessels) and métiers (type of activity), and hence quantifying the risks of over- and underquota utilization for the various stocks. This method, named Fcube (Fleet and Fisheries Forecast), was applied successfully to international demersal fisheries...... other stocks and corresponding effort reductions are applied....

  17. Senate report n. 327 law project authorizing the approbation of international agreements on the civil liability in the domain of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this law project is to approve two protocols aiming to modify the OECD convention on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain. After a short presentation of the international regime of civil liability in the nuclear domain with the Paris and Vienna conventions, the author analyzes the main improvements offered by the two protocols of February 2004 facing the french legislation. (A.L.B.)

  18. 76 FR 65155 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...; Swordfish Retention Limits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... consistent with regulations implementing the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council's Pacific Pelagics...

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Iraq and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to Article 17 of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Iraq and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the Additional Protocol), the Additional Protocol, which had been applied provisionally from 17 February 2010, entered into force on 10 October 2012, the date upon which the Agency received written notification from Iraq that Iraq's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met [es

  20. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 20 September 2005. It was signed on 21 July 2006 in Gaborone, Botswana, and on 24 August 2006 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 24 August 2006, upon signature by the representatives of Botswana and the Agency

  1. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Madagascar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Madagascar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 18 June 2003. It was signed in Vienna on 18 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Madagascar and the Agency, i.e., on 18 September 2003

  2. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 18 June 2003. It was signed on 6 February 2004 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 9 May 2007, the date on which the Agency received from Kazakhstan written notification that Kazakhstan's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met [es

  3. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Madagascar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-23

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Madagascar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 18 June 2003. It was signed in Vienna on 18 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Madagascar and the Agency, i.e., on 18 September 2003.

  4. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Government of Iceland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-23

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Iceland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed in Vienna on 12 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Iceland and the Agency, i.e., on 12 September 2003.

  5. Protocol between the government of the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency additional to the agreement for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 7 December 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 12 July 2001. 2. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Latvia and the Agency, i.e. on 12 July 2001

  6. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Government of the Republic of South Africa and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection With the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement 1 concluded between the Government of the Republic of South Africa and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 12 June 2002. It was signed in Vienna on 13 September 2002. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of South Africa and the Agency, i.e. on 13 September 2002

  7. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 18 June 2003. It was signed on 6 February 2004 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 9 May 2007, the date on which the Agency received from Kazakhstan written notification that Kazakhstan's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  8. Protocol additional to the agreement between the People's Republic of Bangladesh and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-04

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement' concluded between the People's Republic of Bangladesh and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 September 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 30 March 2001. 2. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Bangladesh and the Agency, i.e. on 30 March 2001.

  9. Protocol between the government of the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency additional to the agreement for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-28

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 7 December 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 12 July 2001. 2. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Latvia and the Agency, i.e. on 12 July 2001.

  10. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Afghanistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Afghanistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 1 March 2005. It was signed on 19 July 2005 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 19 July 2005, upon signature by the representatives of Afghanistan and the Agency

  11. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Saint Kitts and Nevis and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non‑Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Saint Kitts and Nevis and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 10 September 2013. It was signed on 16 April 2014 in Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and on 19 May 2014 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 19 May 2014, upon signature by the representatives of Saint Kitts and Nevis and the Agency

  12. Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 13 June 2007. It was signed in Vienna on 27 September 2007. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 27 September 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Burundi and the Agency

  13. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 5 March 2013. It was signed on 22 March 2013 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 22 March 2013, upon signature by the representatives of the Denmark and the Agency.

  14. Protocol additional to the agreement between the Republic of Mali and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement 1 concluded between the Republic of Mali and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 10 September 2002. It was signed in Vienna on 12 September 2002. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Mali and the Agency, i.e. on 12 September 2002

  15. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 18 June 2003. It was signed on 6 February 2004 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 9 May 2007, the date on which the Agency received from Kazakhstan written notification that Kazakhstan's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met [fr

  16. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Entry into force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Pursuant to Article 17 of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Additional Protocol, which was applied provisionally from 12 June 1998, entered into force on 11 June 2004, the date upon which the Agency received written notification from Ghana that Ghana's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met. The text of the Additional Protocol is reproduced in document INFCIRC/226/Add.1

  17. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Government of Iceland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Iceland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed in Vienna on 12 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Iceland and the Agency, i.e., on 12 September 2003

  18. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Palau and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Palau and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 1 March 2005. It was signed on 10 May 2005 in New York and 13 May 2005 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 13 May 2005, upon signature by the representatives of Palau and the Agency

  19. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Malta and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Malta and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 28 November 2002. It was signed on 24 April 2003 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 12 July 2005, the date on which the Agency received from Malta written notification that Malta's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  20. Protocol Additional to the agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 7 June 2000. It was signed on 15 August 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 24 January 2006, the date on which the Agency received from Ukraine written notification that Ukraine's constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  1. Protocol additional to the agreement between the People's Republic of Bangladesh and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement' concluded between the People's Republic of Bangladesh and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 September 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 30 March 2001. 2. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Bangladesh and the Agency, i.e. on 30 March 2001

  2. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Colombia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Colombia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 25 November 2004. It was signed in Vienna on 11 May 2005. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 5 March 2009, the date on which the Agency received from Colombia written notification that Colombia's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  3. Access to generic antiretrovirals: inequality, intellectual property law, and international trade agreements Acceso a antirretrovirales genéricos: desigualdad, derecho de propiedad intelectual y acuerdos comerciales internacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arachu Castro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The governments of numerous low- and middle-income countries are currently instituting rules that strengthen changes in domestic intellectual property legislation, often made to conform to the mandates of "free" trade agreements signed with the United States. These measures frequently include intellectual property provisions that extend beyond the patent law standards agreed upon in recent World Trade Organization negotiations, which promised to balance the exigencies of public health and patent holders. In this paper, we analyze the concern that this augmentation of patent law standards will curtail access to essential medicines, particularly as they relate to the AIDS pandemic. We critically examine the potential threats posed by trade agreements vis-à-vis efforts to provide universal access to antiretroviral medications and contend that the conditioning of economic development upon the strengthening of intellectual property law demands careful attention when public health is at stake. Finally, we examine advocacy successes in challenging patent law and conclude that greater advocacy and policy strategies are needed to ensure the protection of global health in trade negotiations.Actualmente diversos países de renta media y baja están creando leyes de propiedad intelectual más rígidas, muchas veces para adaptarse a las exigencias de los tratados de "libre" comercio con los Estados Unidos. Tales medidas suelen incluir dispositivos que transcienden las normas sobre patentes negociadas recientemente en la Organización Mundial del Comercio, que prometían equilibrar las exigencias de la salud pública y las de patentes. Este artículo analiza la preocupación de que este endurecimiento restrinja el acceso a medicamentos esenciales, en particular en el contexto de la pandemia de SIDA. El artículo examina las amenazas potenciales creadas por los tratados comerciales contra los esfuerzos dirigidos para el acceso universal a los

  4. Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT) is a role-based Intranet application used for processing SSA's Reimbursable Agreements according to SSA's standards. AWT provides...

  5. Flexible Labour, Flexible Production and Innovation-by-Agreement: International Comparisons Contesting the Lindbeck-Snower Insider-Outsider Thesis and 'Structural Reforms' in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Carla Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper critiques the case for flexibilisation of labour markets. It evidences that influential claims for this in terms of an insider-outsider thesis by former Nobel economics committee member Assar Lindbeck and the British economist Dennis Snower were purely theoretical without offering any evidence, or recognising contrary evidence. It cites a recent admission by the IMF that there is no basis for claiming that protection of employee rights inhibits economic efficiency and cites also a questioning of structural reforms and an obsession with competitiveness by Benoît Cœuré, an Executive Director of the ECB. It illustrates that the achievement of some of the most competitive companies in the world, in Japan, has been based on reinforcing insider rights through commitment to lifetime employment for core employees and how this has enabled high levels of efficiency and process innovation through continuous improvement. It relates this to theories of psychological and social contracts, and evidences the influence of this flexible production rather than flexible labour market model on the recommendation of innovation-by-agreement in the 2000 Lisbon Agenda of the European Council including the right to work-life balance which has not been integral to flexible production in Japan. It then summarises some implications.

  6. Agreement between Mexico and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in relation to the Latin America nuclear weapons non proliferation Treaty and the nuclear weapons non proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Mexico hereby pledges to accept the application of safeguarding means to all basic or fissionable special materials in all nuclear activities carried out with peaceful purposes within its territory, under its jurisdiction, or under its control anywhere. This comprises solely the purpose of verifying that these materials are not diverted to applications of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. All safeguards stipulated within this Agreement are to be implemented in such a way that they do not impair the economic or technologic development of Mexico, or international cooperation regarding all nuclear activities with peaceful purposes, including the international exchange of nuclear materials, avoiding all unjustified intervention in the nuclear activities with peaceful goals in Mexico. That is particularly specific in the exploitation of the nuclear facilities, additionally promoting the fact that they adjust to the cautious practices necessary to develop nuclear activities in an economical as well as safe fashion

  7. Agreements on climatic protection - the verification problem. IKARUS. Instrumente fuer Klimagas-Reduktionsstrategien. Final report. Subproject 9: International Greenhouse Gas Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Hoffmann, H.J.; Katscher, W.; Kotte, U.; Lauppe, W.D.; Stein, G.

    1995-12-31

    The sustained reduction of climate gas emissions associated with the generation, conversion and utilization of energy is clearly becoming an ever more important task in energy and environmental policy. Different strategies are conceivable in order to fulfil this mission. The aim of the IKARUS Project (Instrumente fuer Klimagas-Reduktionsstrategien - Instruments for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies) was to provide a set of tools with which strategies can be developed and reconstructed (making conceptual use of the various technologies) and also tested with respect to their internal consistency and examined with regard to their economic impacts. Corresponding to the great complexity of the task in hand and the technological range of energy applications, the set of instruments is very extensive. It consists of two parts: a data base with a comprehensive data collection and several computer models of various types.The ``Verification`` project was integrated into IKARUS as a link between the national project and the international environment, enabling the examination of technologies and methods for verifying the compliance of statesparty to the Framwork Convention on Climate Change (FCCC).(orig/KW)

  8. 78 FR 64200 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... held at the Caribbean Fishery Management Council Headquarters, located at 270 Mu[ntilde]oz Rivera...

  9. 76 FR 55363 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) [[Page 55364... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...; telephone: (206) 526-6150. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place...

  10. 75 FR 55745 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT) and... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sardine stock assessment for 2010. Other issues relevant to Coastal Pelagic Species fisheries management...

  11. 75 FR 33245 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a working... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... be held at the Pacific Fishery Management Council office, Large Conference Room, 7700 NE Ambassador...

  12. 78 FR 77658 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Potential changes to management measures for the west coast drift gillnet fishery. 2. Developments to...

  13. 77 FR 75614 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE. Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland, OR...

  14. 75 FR 49890 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT) and... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... will be available at the following location: Pacific Fishery Management Council, Small Conference Room...

  15. 75 FR 80470 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a working... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE. Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland, OR...

  16. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  17. Technology Partnership Agreements | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership Agreements Technology Partnership Agreements Looking for Funding? We do not fund any projects under a technology partnership agreement. The partner provides the necessary resources and, in using technology partnership agreements. See a summary of our Fiscal Year 2017 technology partnership

  18. Untying the Mediterranean Gordian Knot: A Twenty First Century Challenge for Fisheries Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Vielmini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of fisheries in the Mediterranean basin has often been described as a unique and complex challenge, due to their multi-specificity, the diversity of gear-types, and the number of nations involved. This perspective has gone hand-in-hand for decades with a lack of strong political will from decision-makers, who have been unwilling to put Mediterranean fisheries management high on their agendas. Over time, exploitation rates of demersal stocks have increased and in 2016, 97% of shared stocks assessed in the Mediterranean were reported to be overfished. An alarm bell about the chronic overfishing of Mediterranean fish stocks was rung by European policy makers in 2015, exactly 20 years after the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization mandated that states should ensure the sustainable use of fishery resources. In this perspective, we: (i review the context of fisheries management in the Mediterranean; (ii identify the potential factors that may have hindered management and; (iii discuss how the reformed European Union Common Fisheries Policy and the binding commitments laid down in its text may lead to knock-on effects for fisheries management in the international Mediterranean context, if properly implemented. In this line, we also present the example of demersal fisheries management in the Strait of Sicily, which may represent a starting point for science-based management in the Mediterranean.

  19. Understanding Global Supply Chains and Seafood Markets for the Rebuilding Prospects of Northern Gulf Cod Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Khan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although fisheries production and seafood trade are global in scope, with billions of dollars in exports, the rebuilding of collapsed fisheries often focus on national fisheries policy and management measures, with little attention to global supply chains and international consumer markets. Even with two moratoria and two decades of policy changes since the Northern Gulf cod fisheries collapsed in eastern Canada, rebuilding has stalled and the fishing industry and coastal communities continue to undergo challenges with economic viability and resource sustainability. This paper examines and analyzes the global supply chain and marketing dimension of Northern Gulf cod fisheries. Drawing upon fisheries bioeconomics and governance theory, a pre- and post-collapse analysis is undertaken to understand key drivers and institutional mechanisms along global fish supply chains for an effective and successful rebuilding. Findings indicate that the collapse of the cod fishery has cascading effects that go beyond ecosystem changes to new harvesting activities, industry restructuring, supply chain reorganization, new global markets and consumer preference for certified seafood. This suggests that a holistic rebuilding approach is necessary, one that integrates institutional and behavioral changes for both producers and consumers at various scales of fisheries production, political economy issues, as well as cross-scale policies on marine conservation and regional economic development.

  20. REVIEW OF THE NEGOTIATION OF THE MODEL PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE AGREEMENT(S) BETWEEN STATE(S) AND THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY FOR THE APPLICATION OF SAFEGUARDS,INFCIRC/540 (Corrected) VOLUME I/III SETTING THE STAGE: 1991-1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Saum-Manning, L.; Houck, F.; Anzelon, G.

    2010-01-01

    Events in Iraq at the beginning of the 1990s demonstrated that the safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needed to be improved. It had failed, after all, to detect Iraq's clandestine nuclear weapon program even though some of Iraq's's activities had been pursued at inspected facilities in buildings adjacent to ones being inspected by the IAEA. Although there were aspects of the implementation of safeguards where the IAEA needed to improve, the primary limitations were considered to be part of the safeguards system itself. That system was based on the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty of 1970, to which Iraq was a party, and implemented on the basis of a model NPT safeguards agreement, published by the IAEA 1972 as INFCIRC/153 (corrected). The agreement calls for states to accept and for the IAEA to apply safeguards to all nuclear material in the state. Iraq was a party to such an agreement, but it violated the agreement by concealing nuclear material and other nuclear activities from the IAEA. Although the IAEA was inspecting in Iraq, it was hindered by aspects of the agreement that essentially limited its access to points in declared facilities and provided the IAEA with little information about nuclear activities anywhere else in Iraq. As a result, a major review of the NPT safeguards system was initiated by its Director General and Member States with the objective of finding the best means to enable the IAEA to detect both diversions from declared stocks and any undeclared nuclear material or activities in the state. Significant improvements that could be made within existing legal authority were taken quickly, most importantly a change in 1992 in how and when and what design information would be reported to the IAEA. During 1991-1996, the IAEA pursued intensive study, legal and technical analysis, and field trials and held numerous consultations with Member States. The Board of Governors discussed the issue of