WorldWideScience

Sample records for international fiscal competition

  1. Restoring international competitiveness in Croatia: The role of fiscal and monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has joined the European Union as a country with several substantial structural problems, of which the most important is weak competitiveness. Although competitiveness can be viewed from the ‘institutional’ perspective, which includes World Development Indicators (WDI and Doing Business reports, in this paper the authors focus on the more standard view of competitiveness based on unit labour costs (ULC and real effective exchange rate (REER. As a small, open and highly dollarized/euroised economy that has to coordinate its economic policy with the EU policy framework, Croatia has limited space for increasing international competitiveness using monetary policy measures aimed at (nominal devaluation of the national currency. Therefore economic policy stakeholders should focus on decreasing unit labour costs and real effective exchange rate mainly through the process of internal devaluation, which is based on adequate fiscal policy measures. In this paper the authors analyse the role of monetary and fiscal policy in the deteriorating real effective exchange rate and unit labour costs since 2000, and their current capabilities and restrictions in restoring international competitiveness. The Structural VAR model (SVAR is used to estimate the effects of foreign (banking capital, credit growth, and current public expenditure on REER and ULC. The preliminary hypothesis of the paper is that monetary policy should continue to support bank lending activities and the role of fiscal policy is to achieve an internal devaluation, which will increase the competitiveness of the Croatian economy. Restoring international competitiveness is necessary due to its impact on net exports and consequently the economic recovery of the national economy, which has faced recession conditions for five years in a row. Also, restoring competitiveness is one of the most important preconditions for the success of a small country joining the single European market.

  2. Fiscal competition and regional differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Justman, Moshe; Thisse, Jacques-François; Van Ypersele, Tanguy

    2001-01-01

    Regions can benefit by offering infrastructure services that are differentiated. Competition between regions over potential investors is then less direct, allowing them to realize greater benefits from external investors. The two polar cases of full and incomplete information about investors' needs are studied. In both cases, there is regional differentiation. However, fiscal competition is efficient in the former case but not in the latter. Finally, it is shown that free entry in the loc...

  3. The Impact of Fiscal Competition about International Double Taxation in a Nash Equilibrium Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir Adina

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines international tax rules, with respect to both corporate income tax rates and tax rules for double taxation. This article assumes that governments set non-discriminatory tax rates on domesticand foreign-sourced corporate income and can choose no tax allowance as the tax rule. Consequently, the Nash equilibrium outcomes contradict the intuition underlying previous studies: no tax allowance is chosen as the tax rule where world economic welfare can be maximized. The purpose o...

  4. FISCAL COMPETITION AND DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENTS: ROMANIA VERSUS POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Paula

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Economic Community treaty defines indirect taxation common rules taking into consideration their impact upon free merchandise’s circulation and upon international commercial exchanges. Once the Roma treaty has been signed (1957 the established scope was creating a common market. But, how is it possible to create a common market without any monetary and fiscal instruments? Thus, these instruments have had to be created in order to achieve such an objective. If from the monetary point of view introducing euro as a common currency was a big step ahead, from the fiscal point of view things haven’t evolved in such an easy manner. Fiscal objectives are achieved only if the national market is running normally and correctly. Indirect taxation is harmonized base upon article 113 from the European Union Treaty, while regarding direct taxation legal recommendations and regulations approval we can’t talk about harmonization but about fiscal competition. We are stating this because there are 27 states in the European Union and each one is sustaining its own direct taxation system. Furthermore, the taxation system (fiscal system is influencing member states economical performances through economies, investments and human capital formation by affecting the revenue’s distribution, research and development expenses level and type and by fiscal competition – an effect more and more profound. In this context we aim at analyzing the way fiscal competition had had a positive impact upon attracting foreign direct investments in Romania and Poland. We also aim at underlining positive and negative points for fiscal competition taking into consideration that not only a decrease in micro or macro-economic fiscal burden will have a positive impact upon investments in-flows and there are other factors to be taken into consideration, like: infrastructure, labor expenses

  5. International network competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerås, Thomas P.; Tåg, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    We analyse network competition in a market with international calls. National regulatory agencies (NRAs) have incentives to set regulated termination rates above marginal cost to extract rent from international call termination. International network ownership and deregulation are alternatives to combat the incentives of NRAs to distort termination rates. We provide conditions under which each of these policies increase efficiency and aggregate welfare. Our findings provide theoretical suppor...

  6. Cyberinfrastructure for international competitiveness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Happy M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available to international science projects such as the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN. Benefits are being realised through efficient connectivity and decrease in the cost of bandwidth. In this presentation, Sithole will provide...

  7. Pollution taxes and international competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout the industrialized world policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the potential gains in economic efficiency and environmental quality to be reaped in certain areas of pollution control by switching from direct regulation to market-oriented policy instruments such as pollution taxes. However, concern about the impact on the international competitiveness of domestic producers seems to make governments in many countries hesitant to introduce pollution taxes. As a result, several observers have called for international agreements on harmonized pollution taxes among larger groups of countries such as the member states of the European Community. This paper argues that policy makers should be less concerned about the effects of pollution taxes on international competitiveness and more conscious about their effects on economic efficiency and equity. If pollution taxes improve the allocation of resources, it would be possible to compensate those citizens who might lose from their introduction and still leave the rest of society better off. The openness of the economy only means that a given improvement of environmental quality can be achieved through a lower level of pollution tax rates than would be necessary in a closed economy, because a given pollution tax rate will cause a greater contraction of output in polluting industries, the more these industries are exposed to foreign competition. (EG)

  8. Comparative analysis of fiscal terms for Alberta oil sands and international heavy and conventional oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    There are considerable differences between international heavy oil and Alberta oil sands projects, notably the high viscosity of the bitumen in the oil sands reservoirs. The oil sands bitumen do not flow to wells without heating the bitumen, thereby adding to the already high cost of Alberta oil sand operations. This report provided an economic comparison of Alberta oil sands and international heavy oil projects. It also included a brief scoping review to compare with conventional oil regimes. Full exploration costs including the costs of dry holes were allocated to conventional oil operations in order to obtain a proper comparison. This investigation included the costs of dry holes. The report was a follow up to an earlier study released on April 12, 2007 on the preliminary fiscal evaluation of Alberta oil sand terms. The report provided an economic framework and described project selection. It then provided a discussion of production, costs and price data. Four adjusted projects were presented and compared with Alberta. The Venezuelan royalty formula was also discussed. Last, the report provided a detailed fiscal analysis. Comparisons were offered with Cold Lake and Athabasca Mine. A review of some other fiscal systems applicable to conventional oil were also outlined. It was concluded that Alberta oil sands developments are very competitive. It would be possible to modestly increase government revenues, without affecting the international competitive position of Alberta with respect to conventional oil. There is also some possibility to increase the base royalty on the Alberta oil sands without losing competitiveness. tabs., figs

  9. The advantage of international fiscal cooperation under alternative monetary regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    We consider the strategic interplay between international monetary and fiscal cooperation in a world of interdependent economies. Motivated by the ongoing discussion of monetary unification of Europe, focus is on monetary cooperation, and in particular how its performance is altered by the introd......We consider the strategic interplay between international monetary and fiscal cooperation in a world of interdependent economies. Motivated by the ongoing discussion of monetary unification of Europe, focus is on monetary cooperation, and in particular how its performance is altered...

  10. Competitiveness on the International Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper comes to present and analyse the features of tourism in the main countries in Central and Western Europe, as well as the different strategies these countries adopt in order to maintain the competitiveness of the field.In the beginning, we have defined competitiveness, as the prerequisite of market success, we have analysed its components and the main factors that determine it, as well as the competitivenesscompetitive advantage relation.During the last years, competitiveness has turned into one of the common concepts used in order to approach and describe the sustainable development of the tourism and travel industry. Expert literature has defined concepts such as tourism and travel competitiveness or touristic destinations competitiveness, suggesting not only the significance of the concept but also the emphasis that touristic organizations should lay on this aspect.The competitiveness of touristic destinations and, generally speaking, the global competitiveness of the tourism industry became vital for the survival and growth of the touristic organizations on the international market, provided by the growth of spare time and the growth of the level of income that is available for spending the time.

  11. Socio-Cultural Factors and International Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara Apsalone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural factors – shared values, norms and attitudes are significant, but less acknowledged sources of international competitiveness. Previous studies have found socio-cultural factors positively affecting various aspects of international competitiveness – entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and international cooperation. These factors are more sustainable and less affected by external environment changes in comparison with the traditional factors. Socio-cultural factors provide an opportunity to develop competitiveness strategies based on unique advantages. This research aims to explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on international competiveness in small, open economies. Analysing relationship between 400 socio-cultural indicators and competitiveness indicators such as productivity, economic development, business and government efficiency, innovation capacity and infrastructure in 37 countries, six socio-cultural factors have emerged: Collectivism and Hierarchy; Future, Cooperation and Performance Orientation, Self-expression, Monochronism and Rationality, Economic Orientation and Social structure. The first factor – Collectivism and Hierarchy – tends to reduce the international competitiveness; the other five affect it positively.

  12. International petroleum licensing, exploration activity and fiscal terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgshon, S.

    1994-01-01

    Although there is no decline in current international petroleum licensing activity, attention is drawn to the fact that it is concentrated in certain countries, many of them amongst the less geologically prospective. Among the factors other then geological prospectivity which promote a successful licensing and exploration environment, the most important is the fiscal terms offered. While countries which are highly prospective geologically may stiffen terms and still attract exploration companies because they feel they can make major discoveries, any decline in prospectivity needs to be accompanied by a matching change in fiscal terms to maintain interest. Less prospective countries which, hitherto, have created favourable investment conditions may however find that further declines cannot be reversed by attractive fiscal terms. (7 figures, 3 tables). (UK)

  13. TAX COMPONENT OF FISCAL POLICY OF INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF NATIONAL ECONOMICS

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    A. Danilov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of using fiscal levers to regulate the national economy competitiveness. What kind of tax levers should be used in order to increase the competitiveness of the national economy is justified. Taxes are the main source of fiscal revenue of the country, which depends on the inherent principles of optimizing the tax system, determined Ukraine's withdrawal from the crisis and raising the country's competitiveness. It is proposed differentiation in income tax rates, depending on whether the company is engaged in innovation and investment activity or not. Changing the rate of value added tax in a downward will reduce the revenue of the country. For enterprises that are not exporting products to decrease the amount of working capital for a certain period Fiscal policy that promotes the removal of the country's financial and economic crisis and the increasing competitiveness of the state, should be challenging. In order to implement incentive effects of taxes set forth in the tax code, we propose a linear programming model of the budget (revenue and expenditure . Building the economic and mathematical optimization model with possible actions challenging the tax factors of individual taxes and the possibilities of using the proceeds of certain taxes on certain items of expenditure budget.

  14. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...

  15. Tax policy: The fiscal revenue effects of international tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Beznoska, Martin; Hentze, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In the course of the 'Panama Papers' discussion, questions arise concerning the fiscal effects of international profit shifting and tax avoidance. A recent OECD study estimates the worldwide corporate tax losses to lie between 4 and 10 percent of the revenues. Applied to Germany, this would reflect between 3 and 7 billion Euro or maximum 1 percent of total tax revenues. However, the estimation underlies questionable assumptions and therefore severe uncertainties.

  16. Monopolistic competition and international trade theory

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    2000-01-01

    Almost twenty-five years after the appearance of Dixit and Stiglitz’s paper on monopolistic competition and optimum product diversity, I try to take stock of the progres which has been made in applying their approach to international trade theory. I review the principal applications to trade theory and present a new one: by embedding DS preferences in a specific-factors framework, I sketch a model which shows how multinational corporations can emerge even between countries with similar factor...

  17. Factors Affecting Competitive Strategies in International Construction Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğçe ERCAN; Almula KÖKSAL

    2013-01-01

    Due to rising competition in the international construction market, competitive strategies are becoming ever more important. This study aims to identify the level of importance of a variety of competitive strategies in construction companies to create a theoretical framework for competitive strategies in international construction business. In the questionnaire titled: ‘Identifying the Parameters of Strategic Performance Comparison Tool in International Construction Companies’, professionals ...

  18. Effects of different international fiscal systems on reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of international fiscal systems on oil and gas reserves evaluation and reporting, was reviewed. The movement in reserves estimates with changing technical, political and economic conditions, was described. Difficulties associated with the evaluation and booking of reserves is largely due to the confusing duplication of terms. For example, explorationists refer to reserves as an undrilled prospect, while engineers refer to them as producing property. The financial analyst refers to reserves of a company, while governments refer to the reserves of the country. The importance of defining reserves with full knowledge of the specific regulations that govern the reporting of reserves externally, and the internal reporting requirements for business planning purposes, was stressed. 2 refs

  19. Deployment summary: Fiscal years 1995-2000 [USDOE Office of International Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication summarizes the progress made by the Office of International Programs (IP) in deploying innovative technologies for the environmental remediation of the DOE complex and for sites of its international collaborators for fiscal years 1995 through 2000

  20. Deployment summary: Fiscal years 1995-2000 [USDOE Office of International Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    This publication summarizes the progress made by the Office of International Programs (IP) in deploying innovative technologies for the environmental remediation of the DOE complex and for sites of its international collaborators for fiscal years 1995 through 2000.

  1. INNOVATION AND INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS OF A COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Georgeta Bugnar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of economies or firms has been explained in the recent decades by the degree of innovation they have. Companies innovate to conquer markets through new products and services, to reduce production costs, to have an effective management system. It has been statistically demonstrated that there is a direct link between performances, profit level and degree of innovation. The ranking of countries by their degree of innovation prompted the reassessment of how innovation is quantified. The pillars that measure the degree of innovation do no longer refer strictly to research and development costs or number of patents and inventions. There are institutions, human and research capital, infrastructure, market environment, business environment, knowledge and technology outputs as well as creative outputs when we speak about the assessment of the degree of innovation of companies / countries. More and more indicators measuring innovation are focused on items that are not necessarily related to the number of patents or inventions obtained. The developed countries of the world have understood that their success on the international market is related to the degree of novelty and innovation their economy has. Due to globalization, companies and emerging countries are under pressure to engage continuously in innovation: R & D, software, design, engineering, human resources, marketing, etc. - all play an increasingly important role in what we call international competitiveness. We can also state that innovation has evolved along with the development of the human society, from a simple concept of invention or technological novelty to a very complex concept that takes all forms and sectors of economy. Innovation has become a fundamental factor in the whole value chain. Social changes, both in the developed and in the emerging countries, have recognized lately the importance of innovation, and therefore tried to introduce development policies that bring

  2. International competitiveness : Empirical findings from SME service firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coviello, NE; Ghauri, PN; Martin, KAM

    1998-01-01

    This article extends Buckley, Pass, and Prescott (1988, 1990, 1992) by using case research to examine factors contributing to international competitiveness, in the context of SME software developers and engineering consultants. The results indicate that universal prescriptions of international

  3. Factors Affecting Competitive Strategies in International Construction Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe ERCAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to rising competition in the international construction market, competitive strategies are becoming ever more important. This study aims to identify the level of importance of a variety of competitive strategies in construction companies to create a theoretical framework for competitive strategies in international construction business. In the questionnaire titled: ‘Identifying the Parameters of Strategic Performance Comparison Tool in International Construction Companies’, professionals were asked the level of importance of parameters in acquiring a competitive edge in international markets for construction companies. 82 people who currently work for international construction companies responded the questionnaire. The Relative Importance Index (RII of competitive strategies in construction companies was calculated using the survey results. The construct was redesigned through the Pearson Correlation and principal components analysis (PCA. The results of the PCA denoted that the construct of competitive strategies in construction companies can be explained by three main factors in sync with Porter’s three generic competitive strategy types: F1 Cost Leadership in Construction, F2 Specialization and Focus and F3 Differentiation in Construction and Company Resources. The analysis results show that the competitive strategies related to “Differentiation in Construction and Company Resources” have a greater importance level, while the diversification strategies have a lower importance level. Which means specialization in some type of construction activity and focus on a specific group of customers is more effective than diversification strategies in gaining a competitive advantage in the market.

  4. Disciplinary competitiveness analysis in international stomatology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ping; Hong, Xiao; Zhu, Lu; Zhang, Linglin; Gu, Xuekui; Gao, Zhihua; Chen, Qianming

    2013-11-01

    With economic and cultural globalization, the trend of globalization of higher education becomes inevitable. Using the concept of competitiveness, the authors established a principal component analysis (PCA) model to examine disciplinary competitiveness in stomatology of various higher education institutions worldwide. A total of forty-four universities entered the final list according to these calculations. Possible reasons for their selection were explored and explained at macro and micro levels. The authors further accessed various sources of data and summarized several suggestions for enhancing disciplinary competitiveness for other universities in pursuit of promoting their position in the global spectrum.

  5. COMPETITIVENESS OF INDONESIAN TEA IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET

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    Jauhar Samudera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Indonesian tea has experienced a lot of problems such as land use change of plantation, lower selling prices, and low productivity. The objectives of this study are to analyze the competitiveness of tea in Indonesia and formulate priority improvements that can support the increasing competitiveness of Indonesian tea. The methods used to analyze the competitiveness were the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA and the Export Product Dynamics (EPD, and to formulate strategies to increase competitiveness, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA was applied. Based on RCA, the types of Indonesian tea which have strong competitiveness are HS 090 210 and HS 090240. The EPD analysis showed that only tea of HS 090210 is in the rising star position, while the HS 090220, HS 090230 and HS090240 tea types are on the retreat position. Based on IPA, sub-determinants which are priority to improve are in quadrant A (under act consisting of five sub-factors, namely the availability of human resources with the capbility of production management, marketing and possess an entrepreneurial spirit; availability and ease of access to capital; strengthening of the structure of Indonesian tea agribusiness; the government policies in improving domestic demand conditions and in encouraging the development of tea processing industry.Keywords: competitiveness, tea, RCA, EPD, IPA

  6. Competitive Grant Projects (2008) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... This 2008 study distills some of IDRC's corporate learning on competitive grants processes. ... The study raises some of the main options and issues that IDRC staff face when ... Related articles. Gender Evaluation Methodology (GEM). The Association for Progressive Communications Women's Networking ...

  7. Student Intern Lands Top Prize in National Science Competition | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Student intern Sam Pritt’s interest in improving geolocation led him to develop a project that won a top regional prize at the Siemens Competition in Math, Science, and Technology in November. Pritt was awarded a $3,000 college scholarship, and he competed in the national competition in early December.

  8. Modeling the international competitiveness of Botswana's coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichani, Khaulani

    Botswana has vast proven deposits of steam coal, which for a long time it has wanted to develop but without much success. The main objectives of this study are: (1) to analyze the time schedule of coal exports likely to be forthcoming from Botswana and the land routes for these exports; (2) to determine the competitiveness of Botswana's coal in the world steam coal markets and (3) to make recommendations on the appropriate policy for the exploitation of this coal. To accomplish these objectives, we construct a model of the seaborne steam coal trade consisting of exporters and importers with a substantial share in this trade. We econometrically estimate the long run marginal cost functions for net exporters and employ these to construct a spatial and dynamic model of the world steam coal trade with elastic supply and inelastic demand. This model is applied to simulate Botswana's competitiveness in this trade over the period 1995 to 2010 from a 1990 base year with a decision criterion that minimizes the sum of discounted capital costs of mine development, variable supply costs, rail and maritime transportation costs. Finally, we employ the model to forecast the likely optimal size of mine, timing of production capacity and choice of export port for Botswana's coal for the years 2005 and 2010. The base year for the forecast is 2000. The simulation results indicate that Botswana's coal would have been competitive in the steam coal markets of Western Europe and Asia. The forecast results indicate that Botswana's coal would also be competitive in these markets in the future. These results are least sensitive to changes in rail transportation and variable supply costs but are sensitive to capital costs for mine development.

  9. First International Diagnosis Competition - DXC'09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, tolga; Narasimhan, Sriram; Poll, Scott; Garcia, David; Kuhn, Lukas; deKleer, Johan; vanGemund, Arjan; Feldman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    A framework to compare and evaluate diagnosis algorithms (DAs) has been created jointly by NASA Ames Research Center and PARC. In this paper, we present the first concrete implementation of this framework as a competition called DXC 09. The goal of this competition was to evaluate and compare DAs in a common platform and to determine a winner based on diagnosis results. 12 DAs (model-based and otherwise) competed in this first year of the competition in 3 tracks that included industrial and synthetic systems. Specifically, the participants provided algorithms that communicated with the run-time architecture to receive scenario data and return diagnostic results. These algorithms were run on extended scenario data sets (different from sample set) to compute a set of pre-defined metrics. A ranking scheme based on weighted metrics was used to declare winners. This paper presents the systems used in DXC 09, description of faults and data sets, a listing of participating DAs, the metrics and results computed from running the DAs, and a superficial analysis of the results.

  10. International Trade Logistic Services Competitiveness in the Pacific Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América Ivonne Zamora Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficient logistics plays a crucial role in national trade competitiveness. The present study aims to determine Mexico´s foreign trade logistics competitiveness with respect to the largest economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation in 2012. The study considers three key variables: customs, international transport and logistics services. It uses a principal components analysis to compute a foreign trade logistics competitiveness index. The results indicate that the three variables have a direct and significant impact on international trade logistics competitiveness. According to the analyzed variables, the most competitive countries are, in descending order, Panama, China, Singapore, Korea and Thailand. The study identifies improvement opportunities for Mexico on the logistics and customs factors.

  11. Competitive advantage for differentiation of Pereira International Free Trade Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Echeverri Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The best way to know if a company is at the heart of success is by determining its competitive advantage. For Pereira International Free Trade Zone, foreign trade platform and recent project implementation, it is important to identify its competitive advantage, so it can develop strategies for entering and staying in the market. In this research, an analysis of the five forces industry free zones was performed, the value chain of the Pereira International Free Trade Zone was defined, finally the factors that influence their competitive advantage was determined.

  12. Exchange Rate Effects on International Commercial Trade Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant to be an evaluation sustained by theoretical and empirical considerations of the exchange rate impact on international commercial trade competitiveness. In this respect, the study aims to find how the exchange rate influences Romanian competitiveness through assessing the effects generated on exports and imports. The main purpose of the study is to assess the complex action of the exchange rate on international commercial trade competitiveness in contemporaneity and the connections between these variables. The empirical part contains a regression analysis where exports and imports are dependent variables influenced by a series of determinants.

  13. Trade Liberalization and the Degree of Competition in International Duopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashournia, Damoun; Hansen, Per Svejstrup; Hansen, Jonas Worm

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes how a reduction in trade costs influences the possibility for firms to engage in international cartels, and hence how trade liberalization affects the degree of competition. We consider a particular intra-industry trade model amended to allow for firms producing differentiated...... products. Our main finding is that trade liberalization may have an anti-competitive effect. We find that there is no unique relation between a reduction in trade costs and the degree of competition. When products are differentiated, a lowering of trade costs is pro-competitive if trade costs are initially...... high, but anti-competitive if trade costs initially are low. Hence, trade policy is not necessarily a substitute for competition policy...

  14. "A strong competition" | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Each scholar has been guided by at least one Chinese and one international mentor, who work closely with them as they produce a paper of original scholarship, written in English for international audiences. In all cases, the young scholars either address new research questions or take a fresh approach to familiar topics ...

  15. Advanced manufacturing: Technology and international competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-02-01

    Dramatic changes in the competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing have been most evident since 1988. All three countries are now facing similar challenges, and these challenges are clearly observed in human capital issues. Our comparison of human capital issues in German, Japanese, and US manufacturing leads us to the following key judgments: Manufacturing workforces are undergoing significant changes due to advanced manufacturing technologies. As companies are forced to develop and apply these technologies, the constituency of the manufacturing workforce (especially educational requirements, contingent labor, job content, and continuing knowledge development) is being dramatically and irreversibly altered. The new workforce requirements which result due to advanced manufacturing require a higher level of worker sophistication and responsibility.

  16. International Education Hubs: Collaboration for Competitiveness and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of education hubs, a recent phenomenon in international higher education. Three models of hubs are examined in relation to the forces, risks, and opportunities of globalization and how local and international collaborations are essential for both global competitiveness and sustainability.

  17. Unit labour costs, productivity and international competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ark, Bart van; Stuivenwold, Edwin; Ypma, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides international comparisons of relative levels of unit labour costs (ULC) for several OECD countries relative to the United States. The estimates are based on the Total Economy Database and the 60-Industry Database of the Groningen Growth and Development Centre (GGDC), and are also

  18. On the Intensity of International Subsidy Competition for FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš HAVRÁNEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to empirically assess the recently introduced models of subsidy competition based on the classical oligopoly theories. Three crucial scenarios (coordination, weak competition, and fierce competition are tested employing iteratively re-weighted least squares, fixed effects, and dynamic Blundell-Bond estimator on the data from the World Competitiveness Yearbook. The results suggest that none of the scenarios can be strongly supported – although there is some weak support for cooperation –, and thus that empirical evidence is not in accordance with the tested models. There is no evidence for a significant international competition for FDI. It seems that, however, by means of FDI incentives, governments try to compensate foreign investors for high wages and low productivity of their countries’ labor force.

  19. Irrelevance of competitive advantage for the benefits of international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Siggel, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    International competitiveness is often regarded as crucial for the attainment of gains from trade, which may lead policy makers to subsidize exports. This view is based on confusion between the concepts of competitive and comparative advantage. The paper argues that when comparative advantage is defined and measured appropriately, not limiting it to the Ricardian and Heckscher-Ohlin models, it becomes a necessary condition for the attainment of gains from trade and it applies to all forms of ...

  20. Fiscal Performance and U.S. International Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    to “burn readiness.” See U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), News Briefing by Under Secretary of Defense Hale and Lt. General Ramsay on the Fiscal Year... Gordon Brown called efforts to control government debt “prudence with a purpose,” the purpose being to have sufficient ammunition to fight crises or...phenomenon even has a catchy name: the G-zero world, a phrase coined by Ian Bremmer and David Gordon .15 This is a play on the G-8 or G-20, groups of

  1. Evolution of strategies and competition in the international airline industry: a practical analysis using porter's competitive forces model

    OpenAIRE

    Zannoni, Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis describes the evolution of the competition and strategies in the international airline industry. It studies the industry before and after deregulation, using the competitive forces model.

  2. Labor market flexibility, international competitiveness and patterns of trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzagalieva, Ainura; Cukrowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2006), s. 225-246 ISSN 0012-981X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market regulations * competitiveness * international trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  3. Standards: The Keys to Domestic and International Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of standards for the competitiveness of U.S. companies and for international trade. The value of standards in research and development, marketing, design, purchasing, manufacturing, installation, and service is explained. Examples of specific standards and their application to the computer industry are included. (10…

  4. International Timetabling Competition 2011: An Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Matias; Kristiansen, Simon; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm based on Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) for solving the generalized High School Timetabling problem in XHSTT-format (Post et al (2012a)) is presented. This algorithm was among the nalists of round 2 of the International Timetabling Competition 2011 (ITC2011). For problem...

  5. Globalization, Competitiveness, International Trade, Industrial Policy and Employement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Novella

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is presented as a variable key in the present context of a worldwide economy and extends its influence over the international trade tendencies, industrial policies and employment.The variations which trade relations at international level have undergone throughout the second half of the twentieth century have been accompanied by successive theoretical contributions, which have evolved from the traditional theories of the nineteenth century concerning comparative advantages and which introduce more complex factors.The product cycle model expounded by Vernon offers an explanation for the continual flow of sectors at international level as well as the characteristics of the most adequate industrial policy and the commercial patterns of each State revealing the importance of technology, human capital and international marketing as key factors for international competitiveness.This article explains the appearance of news procedures of international competitiveness based on product diferentiation, quality and brand image which, nowadays, coexist with traditional models such as costs and prices reductions.At every stage of a country’s development, a sectorial production structure together with some specific demand characteristics, salary and productivity levels correspond to it. All these latter aspects are interelated and should be analysed all together. With globalization, the speed with which a product passes from one phase to another has accelerated as well as the time it travels from the central countries to those intermediate ones and from there successively to those in the South, in such a way that these sectorialswings in international trade should be considered as a normal effect of it. Competition via salary reductions and social security benefits is not the only nor the most recommendable solution given that, in the long term, it affects the quality of production and social stability degrading as it does the standard of

  6. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  7. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIEKHOVA L. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the presented research is to explore the potential of international energy management standards to increase competitiveness of industrial enterprises under conditions of Ukrainian transitional economy. The study had the following objectives: to trace the evolution of fundamental energy efficiency standards; to discuss experience in their use in various countries; to identify factors that are key to achieving competitive advantage under the implementation ISO 50001. Methodology. This article presents a historical overview of the standardisation of principles and approaches for the purpose of the energy-efficient management. The research was carried out by studying the international documents, voluntary standards and national practices in the field of energy efficiency. Conclusions. The study examines the experiences of different countries in the field of energy management systems. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the ISO 50001 with the other basic standards for the organisation of management. The system approach enables to identify the main factors and their impact on capacity to achieve competitive advantages, which are possible to obtain after certification to ISO 50001. Originality. The study reviewed and analysed the energy management penetration within its dynamics at time and country level. After analysing the statistical data and the results of the interviews, the authors identified 20 key factors affecting the competitiveness of enterprises that are certified to ISO 50001. All of these factors were divided into four groups, two groups represent external environment – opportunities and threats, and two groups – internal capacity – strengths and weaknesses of enterprises. Practical value. The proposed system of factors may be useful for the planning of actions towards strengthening the capacity of energy management systems in the context of the formation competitive advantages on the industrial

  8. Financing unemployment benefits by goods market competition: fiscal policy and deregulation with market imperfections

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Scial…; Riccardo Tilli

    2007-01-01

    We consider a model in which the labor market is characterized by search frictions and there is monopolistic competition in the goods market. We introduce proportional income taxation and unemployment benefits with Government balanced budget constraint. Then, we evaluate the effects of both more competition in the goods market and higher unemployment benefits on labor market equilibrium and equilibrium tax rate. We show that more competition has a positive effect on equilibrium unemployment a...

  9. Institutional Structure and International Competitiveness Relationship in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Yıldırım

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of institutional structure on the international competitiveness of developed countries econometrically by employing a “Panel Data Analysis” with a sample of 21 developed countries and 23 institutional variables for the period 2000-2011. The results of the analysis indicate that while judicial independence, protection of intellectual property rights, integrity of the juridical system, marginal tax, political freedoms, black market exchange rate, restrictions on foreign investment, private sector’s share in the banking system, hiring-minimum wage, and hiring-dismissal have a positive effect; the nature of legal arrangements, government spending, transfers and subsidies, civil liberties, tariffs, regulations regarding trade barriers, collective bargaining, and military tutelage have a negative effect on the international competitiveness of developed countries.

  10. Unemployment and welfare consequences of international outsourcing under monopolistic competition

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A. Brecher; Zhiqi Chen

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional academic view that international outsourcing is just another form of gainful trade. Contrary to that view, we show that labourservice outsourcing can reduce the highwage country's welfare even when productmarket trade is beneficial, within a model that combines involuntary unemployment and monopolistic competition. Outsourcing's impact on welfare is worsened by a definite loss of jobs and a possible contraction in the range of varieties produced worldwid...

  11. International Competition and Small-Firm Exit in US Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M Feinberg

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes both the determinants of small firm exit rates in US manufacturing over the 1989–2004 period, especially the reaction of domestic firms to the nature of foreign competition as measured by industry-specific real exchange rate movements (interacted with import penetration by industry). These international pressures seem to lead to increased rates of smallest-firm exit in manufacturing, though the magnitudes of these effects are smaller than sometimes discussed. However, high...

  12. International Comparison of the Export Competitiveness of Chinese Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lunjiao

    2009-01-01

    Honey production and trade in the world are introduced. Total output of honey shows an increasing trend while the output of Chinese honey always ranks the first in the world. China, Argentina, Mexico are the major exporters of honey. In the year 2006, honey exports of China, Argentina and Mexico occupy 49.9% of the world's total export volume. International competitiveness of the three honey export countries are calculated, compared and analyzed by adopting the indices such as export price, i...

  13. Factors influencing food choice of athletes at international competition events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona E; Burkhart, Sarah J; Dunn, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Although the nutrient requirements and dietary intake of athletes have been thoroughly investigated, little is known about the influences on their food choice, particularly prior to and during competition. This study sought to investigate factors that influence food selection of athletes at two similar international competition events: the Melbourne 2006 and Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. A secondary aim was to explore differences in these factors between at each event given the culturally diverse locations. A survey developed for this study was distributed to athletes in the village dining hall at both events. Athletes scored a selection of factors influencing food choice on a scale of 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). A total of 769 individuals completed the questionnaire in total, with 351 (46%) from Delhi and 418 (54%) from Melbourne. Overall, athletes rated nutrient composition (M = 4.22), stage of competition (M = 4.09), time of day (M = 4.02) and familiarity of the food (M = 4.07) higher than sensory properties (smell M = 3.88; visual appearance M = 3.22) when making a food selection. Visual appearance (p = 0.01), stage of competition (p food (p motives for food section of athletes from a range of sports and cultures is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural policy in the context of international competition aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bodrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article researches the essence and peculiarities of the structural policy, performs classification of its models and determines possibilities of their use in the context of increasing international competition. It discovers the main components of the economic structure and trends of the state policy regarding their modernization. Measures on improvement of state regulation instruments are offered, factors of influence upon improvement of the Ukrainian economy structure are analyzed and priority goals are systematized which require urgent implementation in the terms of competitive struggle aggravation at the global markets. The article also researches the matter of importance of performing a complex of state functional and selective measures in the form of matrix policy for the purpose of protecting national interests of the country in the context of global challenges

  15. International Petroleum Fiscal Regimes: Trends in Tax-Royalty Worldwide and in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA PAPATULICĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Resource nationalism” is a cyclical phenomenon whereby governments assert varying degrees of control over natural resources located within their territories, in an attempt to maximise revenue generation from their national resources. Resource nationalism often depends on the price of hydrocarbons and the ability of national governments to extract them. International oil companies are attractive partners for the development of concessions as they have advanced extractive technology, superior project management skills, flexible logistical chains and access to capital from global financial markets. However, these advantages will erode as National Oil Companies (NOCs improve their expertise over the mid- to long-term and new forms of resource nationalism may restrict their room for manoeuvre.The recent trends in most of oil producing countries’ policies are focusing on highly increasing the fiscal levies imposed to resources exploited under the concession agreements and also on imposing minimum labor taxes. At the end of 2014, The Romanian Government will have to reappraise the fiscal systems for the companies operating in the national oil and gas upstream sector, because the 10-year "freezing" of royalties on oil and gas, at a very low level compared with other producing countries will come to an end. This article tries to present the trends in the international petroleum fiscal regimes worldwide, to make a comparative analysis between Romania and other countries from this point of view and finally to make some recommendations as regards the main guidelines that the negociators could follow in order to obtain better conditions for the new fiscal regime and implicitly a better turning into account of our natural resources to the benefit of the consumers.

  16. Does Agency Competition Improve the Quality of Policy Analysis? Evidence from OMB and CBO Fiscal Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, George A.; Douglas, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Public management scholars often claim that agency competition provides an effective institutional check on monopoly authority, and hence, leads to improvement of administrative performance in public sector agencies. This logic was central for creating the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) in 1975 to challenge the policy information provided by…

  17. Fiscal policy multipliers : The role of monopolistic competition, scale economies, and intertemporal substitution in labour supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, BJ

    A dynamic macroeconomic model of monopolistic competition is developed for the closed economy. Forward looking consumers demand differentiated goods, supply labour, and save part of their income in the form of shares. Producers manufacture the differentiated goods by using labour and capital. We

  18. International Alliance of Green Hotels to Reach Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hufei Ge

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Under increasing environmental pressure, hotel firms need to improve their ability to access international alliances while maintaining good performance for sustainable development. This paper uses survey data from 784 hotels running at different levels of service in China to test the hypothesis in an integrated analytical model, and the findings show that the impact of international alliances varies with different levels of green hotels. Despite operating in the same sector, hotels running at different levels of service vary their respective tactics to gain sustainable competitive advantage and achieve significantly different results. This study intends to inform hotel managers in obtaining specific performance goals by developing absorptive capacity, and by choosing the most suitable alliance for their level of operation.

  19. A competitive carbon emissions scheme with hybrid fiscal incentives: The evidence from a taxi industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Han, Liyan; Yin, Ziqiao; Luo, Kongyi

    2017-01-01

    As two major approaches to reduce carbon emissions, command-and-control instruments and market-based carbon trading systems have their own weaknesses. Our paper first proposes a type of endogenous equilibrium methodology to dynamically derive the industrial carbon emissions standards. At the equilibrium, the sum of all carbon assets and liabilities is zero in the considered industry. Moreover, the standards fall over time with low-carbon technological advance. Most importantly, combining Pigou's and Coase's ideas, we construct a fiscal instrument accounting for both carbon taxes and allowances based on the dynamically improved emissions standards and carbon trading prices. This “No revenue for government” method implements a self-operated ecology for carbon trading market. Finally, considering the “Waterloo” recession of carbon prices, we introduce an adjustment factor into the model, which generates a negative-feedback mechanism with carbon prices. To support our idea, we present the application to Beijing taxi industry in detail and raise relative policy implications based on the evidence. - Highlights: • Dynamic endogenous equilibrium standards for carbon emissions. • A public policy oriented market mechanism combining command-and-control instruments and carbon trading. • Hybrid incentives to emission reduction combining carbon taxes and allowances. • The adjustment coefficient generating a negative feedback mechanism with carbon prices.

  20. Competition in electricity spot markets. Economic theory and international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Nils-Henrik von der; Harbord, David

    1998-09-01

    This publication gives a survey of economic theory and international experience connected to electricity spot markets. The main purpose is to consider the attempts that have been made to apply economic theory and empirical methods to the analysis of electricity markets, and to evaluate them in light of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence. The publication describes in simple terms the basic pool pricing mechanism, and experience with pools in a number of countries. It is worth emphasizing that it is not the purpose to treat in extensive detail the structure of electricity pools around the world. Key factors of the markets in England and Wales, Norway and Australia are described in order to allow for a comparison of design issues and evaluation of competitive performance. 80 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. LESSONS LEARNED Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition (Summer 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Christine F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henry, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corley, Courtney D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of the lessons learned document for the BEOWulf Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition is to capture the project’s lessons learned in a formal document for use by other project managers on similar future projects. This document may be used as part of new project planning for similar projects in order to determine what problems occurred and how those problems were handled and may be avoided in the future. Additionally, this document details what went well with the project and why, so that other project managers may capitalize on these actions. Project managers may also use this document to determine who the project team members were in order to solicit feedback for planning their projects in the future. This document will be formally communicated with the organization and will become a part of the organizational assets and archives.

  2. Fiscal 2000 comprehensive survey. Project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development for creation of international standards had been under way for three years since fiscal 1998 for the sustenance and securement of Japan's technical advantage and for the enhancement of the international competitiveness of its industries. In the ultimate fiscal year for the project, studies were made for establishing standards relative to 13 subjects, involving the management of color reproduction, assurance of interoperability of optical disk systems, digital image processing for home-use digital electronic appliances, securement of connection between information devices for home-use electric appliances, production process system, method for testing and evaluating fine ceramics for communication equipment, method for evaluating high-temperature properties of new glass, method for testing and evaluating corrosion resistance of surface treated steel sheets, method for testing and evaluating pure titanium, method for testing and evaluating plastic optical fiber, method for evaluating properties of high-strength large-diameter steel pipe for ultrahigh-pressure natural gas pipeline, method for measuring fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicles, method for calculating the recycling rate of automotive products, or the like. The fruits of 77% of the efforts have already been proposed as international standards or have arrived at a stage where they may be proposed as such. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 2000 comprehensive survey. Project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development for creation of international standards had been under way for three years since fiscal 1998 for the sustenance and securement of Japan's technical advantage and for the enhancement of the international competitiveness of its industries. In the ultimate fiscal year for the project, studies were made for establishing standards relative to 13 subjects, involving the management of color reproduction, assurance of interoperability of optical disk systems, digital image processing for home-use digital electronic appliances, securement of connection between information devices for home-use electric appliances, production process system, method for testing and evaluating fine ceramics for communication equipment, method for evaluating high-temperature properties of new glass, method for testing and evaluating corrosion resistance of surface treated steel sheets, method for testing and evaluating pure titanium, method for testing and evaluating plastic optical fiber, method for evaluating properties of high-strength large-diameter steel pipe for ultrahigh-pressure natural gas pipeline, method for measuring fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicles, method for calculating the recycling rate of automotive products, or the like. The fruits of 77% of the efforts have already been proposed as international standards or have arrived at a stage where they may be proposed as such. (NEDO)

  4. The Effect of Competitive Rivalry on Internal Communication in Private Healthcare Organizations: Evidence from Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gültekin Altuntas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Both competitive rivalry and internal communication play a crucial role for a business to position itself in a favourable manner in order to succeed particularly in a hostile environment. While numerous studies present the importance of competitive rivalry and of communication, even internal communication separately, little is known about the specific linkage of how competitive rivalry affects communication in the literature. Within the framework of internal communication, this study focuses on the notion that competitive rivalry is related to the path and style of communication as well as to the usage of internal communication tools but not to quality of communication. Thus, our research presents the linkage and the interaction between competitive rivalry and internal communication, of which the results indicate that, overall, competitive rivalry has a significant direct positive influence on internal communication dimensions in terms of path, style and quality of communication, as well as usage of communication tools in healthcare organizations.

  5. Competitiveness and tourism: scientific study of international production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Celina Carmona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness and tourism are becoming increasingly an emerging theme, occupying more space in the international arena, due to the growing importance of tourism as an economic sector, with several challenges and possibilities. This study aimed to identify and analyze the state of the art of the theme through the verification of the profile of international and national scientific articles published in academic journals, considering authorship, co-authorships, citations and co-citations, and social networks. In total, in the database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI Web of Science (WoS, 200 articles were identified, published from 1994 to 2012. Using bibliometric and sociometric techniques, it was observed that the theme gained prominence since 2008, having been published especially in tourism journals, and with the six most significant being responsible for almost 40% of the publications. Most articles are anchored in the large field of social and applied sciences and are mainly from Spain and the United States. Only five papers featured prominently in the references used by the authors, indicating the incipient nature of research in this area and the potential for development of new research.

  6. International competitivity, productive flexibility and social integration in the South of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, Margareth de Castro Afeche

    2007-01-01

    Until the middle of the 80’s, Brazil, through an import replacement process, contrived to develop a modern and diversified industrial park. After the 90’s, the Brazilian State starts to play a significant role in the submission of the national economy to designs of international financial capital, by adopting fiscal, exchange and credit policies that resulted in the fragilization of the productive sector. The indiscriminate opening of the internal market to imported products and loss of entre...

  7. THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR IN DEVELOPING AND SUPPORTING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-01-01

    In the actual context of economic globalization, the competitiveness has a crucial importance for all the countries. But due to which factors and to what extent takes place the creation and improvement of it? This paper traces the role of the private sector in creating and sustaining international competitiveness, it summarizes three determinants of international competitiveness (productivity, innovation and clusters) and traces their impact on it. The main argument of this paper is that thes...

  8. Competitive and rivalry behaviors in international business exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medlin, C. J.; Ellegaard, Chris

    In this paper we explore competition as a process between firms; rather than as a background economic variable. We consider past competitor research on structured contexts and socially constructed competition, and develop a research model based on the priority of firm’s line of action: whether pr...

  9. Can harmful tax competition be curbed at the international level?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjersti, Per O. [Finans- og Tolldepartementet, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    This presentation discusses the following issues: (1) Good vs harmful tax competition?, (2) How to identify harmful competition?, (3) What is the economic and social impact of harmful tax competition?, (4) What can be done about harmful tax competition? There are three levels, the EU level, the OECD level and the global level. Existing measures to counteract harmful tax practices are insufficient because action by one country merely shifts activity to another country and puts its tax payers at a competitive disadvantage and because coordination action eases political pressure. The EU code of good conduct and the OECD guidelines for dealing with harmful preferential tax regimes are compared, with respect to general features, with respect to key factors to identify harmful measures, and with respect to general scope.

  10. EMPLOYEES COMPETITIVENESS ASSESSMENT ON INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL LABOUR MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ismailova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of foreign and domestic research to the approaches of employees assessment in terms of their competitiveness. Based on the experience of large industrial enterprises the dominant elements that form employee competitiveness were determined. A different methodology that takes into account the impact of economic globalization was given. Its validity is based on mathematical calculations and use of software.

  11. Contemporary large-scale international design competitions1 in China. A case study of Baietan, Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of contemporary design competitions has been increasingly recognized in fast-growing China in the course of World Trade Organization (WTO integration and globalization. However, scientific and systematic analysis is rare on how international design competitions are introduced, and how they interact and transplant in the Chinese context. The well-known Chinese-Western culture gap and complicated social and political background make this topic more challenging. Herein, the authors focus on how the international design competitions were “translated” into both international and local perspectives with a compara­tive analysis on development of international design competitions between the Chinese and the Finnish model. To fully exemplify the design-completion procedure and the different roles of Chinese stakeholders and their perspectives on design competitions, the authors study the Baietan case, which was chosen due to its specific relationship with the city’s strategic plan, its representativeness in using international design competitions in connection to large-scale urban projects in China and its public access to the relevant documentation. The preliminary findings suggest that Chinese-style design competitions, acting as ‘designed trading zones’, with less-defined competition rules compared to the Finnish model, may foster the settings of local transformation in adopting international urban planning and design knowledge. However, an integrated approach is required to address subsequent implementation.

  12. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN CREATING AND SUSTAINING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the global economy, one can easily notice that states that record economic growth are competitive, and that the competitive ones collect revenues of billions of dollars from trade, outsourcing and meeting the needs of their citizens. The role of private sector in creating and sustaining competitiveness it is well known. But what actions are undertaken by the international organizations and the public sector in this direction? The scope of this article is to offer a brief descript...

  13. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988: Annual report of the metals initiative for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This annual report has been prepared for the President and Congress describing the activities carried out under the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988, commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative. The Act has the following purposes: (1) increase energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of the American steel, aluminum, and copper industries; and (2) continue research and development efforts begun under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. These activities are detailed in a subsequent section. Other sections describe the appropriation history, the distribution of funds through fiscal year 1996, and the estimated funds necessary to continue projects through fiscal year 1997. The Metals Initiative supported four research and development projects with the U.S. Steel industry: (1) steel plant waste oxide recycling and resource recovery by smelting, (2) electrochemical dezincing of steel scrap, (3) rapid analysis of molten metals using laser-produced plasmas, and (4) advanced process control. There are three Metals Initiative projects with the aluminum industry: (1) evaluation of TiB2-G cathode components, (2) energy efficient pressure calciner, and (3) spray forming of aluminum. 1 tab.

  14. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988: Annual report of the metals initiative for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This annual report has been prepared for the President and Congress describing the activities carried out under the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988, commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative. The Act has the following purposes: (1) increase energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of the American steel, aluminum, and copper industries; and (2) continue research and development efforts begun under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. These activities are detailed in a subsequent section. Other sections describe the appropriation history, the distribution of funds through fiscal year 1996, and the estimated funds necessary to continue projects through fiscal year 1997. The Metals Initiative supported four research and development projects with the U.S. Steel industry: (1) steel plant waste oxide recycling and resource recovery by smelting, (2) electrochemical dezincing of steel scrap, (3) rapid analysis of molten metals using laser-produced plasmas, and (4) advanced process control. There are three Metals Initiative projects with the aluminum industry: (1) evaluation of TiB2-G cathode components, (2) energy efficient pressure calciner, and (3) spray forming of aluminum. 1 tab

  15. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Vodosek, M.; Den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political

  16. Observations on the U.S. Agency for International Development's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Report and Fiscal Years 2000 and 2001 Performance Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    As you requested, we have reviewed the 24 Chief Financial Officers (CFO) Act agencies' fiscal year 1999 performance reports and fiscal year 2001 performance plans required by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA...

  17. Competition and Regulation in West Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) is an international research, advocacy and networking organization based in India, with resource centres in Kenya, Viet Nam, the United Kingdom and Zambia. Through these centres, CUTS International engages with local civil society on issues of international trade, ...

  18. The tobacco international competitiveness of the South Brazil :1997-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Candéa Sá Barreto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses the international competitiveness of the southern tobacco in international trade. We used data analysis system of the Foreign Trade Information Internet (ALICE-Web, the Foreign Trade Secretariat (SECEX of the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade (MDIC in the years 1997-2014. Additionally, advantages index were constructed for and competitiveness revealed to observe the state of the production behavior in international trade. The results show that the southern region has a high relative advantage in tobacco exports over the years considered. The revealed competitiveness was positive, however, advantage of greater magnitude since 2005.

  19. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN CREATING AND SUSTAINING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the global economy, one can easily notice that states that record economic growth are competitive, and that the competitive ones collect revenues of billions of dollars from trade, outsourcing and meeting the needs of their citizens. The role of private sector in creating and sustaining competitiveness it is well known. But what actions are undertaken by the international organizations and the public sector in this direction? The scope of this article is to offer a brief description of the role played by these actors taking into account that they must create the fundamental condition for competitiveness: macroeconomic stability.

  20. Supplementary Report on Audit of Internal Control Systems Related to the Office of the Secretary of Transportation's Financial Statements for Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-24

    The internal controlrelated objectives for our audits of the Office of the Secretary of Transportation's (OST) Financial Statements for Fiscal Years (FY) 1994 and 1995 were to determine whether OST and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) (i) had...

  1. An exploratory study of international marketing in India: Indian firms, multinationals and their competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Oburai, Prathap

    2004-01-01

    Indian firms are more international than ever before. Internationalisation drives and export orientation are prominent in the organisational strategies of a number of leading Indian firms and multinationals located in India. This is a significant indicator of the growing competitiveness of firms, industries and the nation. This paper examines the sources of competitive advantages in a few chosen sectors, selected firms, and explores the internationalisation possibilities and potential. Intern...

  2. Non-competitive market behaviour in the international coking coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, P.; Thorpe, S.; Hogan, L.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a primal dual programming model of international coking coal trade is constructed to test for non-competitive market behaviour. World trade in 1996 is simulated under perfect competition and various non-competitive market structures. Statistical tests are used to compare simulated trade flows with actual data. Assuming Cournot-Nash behaviour, an all consumer oligopsony market structure is preferred to alternative models. Under an all consumer oligopsony world coking coal prices and trade are lower than under perfect competition. Under an oligopsonistic structure welfare gains from productivity increases in Australian coal mines might largely accrue to coal buyers

  3. Financial constraints and international trade with endogenous mode of competition:

    OpenAIRE

    Bouët, Antoine; Vaubourg, Anne-Gaël

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine how financial constraints affect firms’ decisions to export when the mode of intra-sectoral competition is endogenous. We propose an extension of Neary and Tharakan’s (2012) model, in which firms resort to external funders to finance fixed export costs and investments in production capacities. We assume that sectors differ in financial constraint and that the cost of capital increases with the level of financial constraint. We first show that less financia...

  4. Fiscal 1994 achievement report. International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Research and development was made for the WE-NET (World Energy Network) project which aims to carry out hydrogen production, transportation, and supply to consumers, by the use of renewable energy. In this fiscal year, surveys were conducted of the status of research and development in each of the fields, and research was started on element technologies in some of the fields. Under subtask 1, surveys and studies were started for pilot plant phase 2. Under subtask 2, an international symposium was held for the enhancement of technical information exchange. Under subtask 3, a liquid hydrogen system conceptual design was prepared for the estimation of facility cost, etc. Under subtask 4, small experimental cells were fabricated for evaluating electrode bonding methods. Under subtask 5, studies were made about the processes of the helium Brayton cycle and hydrogen Claude cycle for the development of a large-scale hydrogen liquefaction plant. Under subtasks 6-9, furthermore, surveys and studies were conducted about low-temperature substance technology, hydrogen energy, hydrogen combustion turbines, and so forth. (NEDO)

  5. First International Public Health Film Competition 2016-reflections on the development and use of competition judging criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, U; Luna, P; Russell, P; Bergonzi-King, L; Ashton, J; McCarthy, C; Donovan, H; Inman, P; Seminog, O; Botchway, S

    2018-03-01

    Film competitions can be a helpful method to understand issues of quality in health films. In this paper, we describe the development and use of explicit quality criteria to identify the 'best' films for the first ever international public health film competition. A film selection committee encompassing a range of stakeholders was compiled. The committee drew up 10 explicit quality criteria to judge films drawing upon other film festival's selection criteria. These criteria were then applied to a broad range of health-related films entered into a film competition to select the 'best' film to screen. Eighty-four films from 20 different countries were submitted to the public health film competition. The originality of the subject covered by the film, the public health importance of the issue and story-telling approach in the film were found to be the most discriminatory criteria to select films. Selection of health films for festivals can be undertaken using explicit quality criteria. There are a number of advantages to such an approach; however, explicit selection involves a large commitment of resources from film festival organizers and there is further research required to test the validity of the quality criteria applied to health-related films.

  6. International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) Competition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sparrow, RW

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available . At this meeting it was requested that the CSIR act as the administrative co-ordinating arm of the team. Following from this meeting a brochure was produced advertising the iGEM competition inside Wits and for Honours student nominations to be team members.... The academic year in South Africa commences in February. By late February 2010 student nominations had been received from which the supervisors selected the team members. The first team meeting was held on 5th March 2010. After which the team...

  7. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: The Case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish economy has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products this country exports to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of this country may...... therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  8. Corporate governance, competition, the new international financial architecture and large corporations in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Singh; Bruce Weisse; Alaka Singh

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines from the developing countries perspective important analytical and policy issues arising from: a) the current international discussions about corporate governance in relation to the New International Financial Architecture; b) changes in the international competitive environment being caused by the enormous international merger movement in advanced countries. The background to a) above is the emergence of corporate governance as a key issue in the current G7 proposals...

  9. International Alliance of Green Hotels to Reach Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Hufei Ge; Silu Chen; Yujie Chen

    2018-01-01

    Under increasing environmental pressure, hotel firms need to improve their ability to access international alliances while maintaining good performance for sustainable development. This paper uses survey data from 784 hotels running at different levels of service in China to test the hypothesis in an integrated analytical model, and the findings show that the impact of international alliances varies with different levels of green hotels. Despite operating in the same sector, hotels running at...

  10. General Principles of the WTO and European Community Laws in Building International Competition Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Mo Chung

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Organization (WTO established a Working Group on the interaction between trade and competition policy in 1996. By the Doha Ministerial Declaration, it recognized the case for international competition policy framework and agreed that the relevant negotiations take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The Working Group is meant to focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness among others in the period until the Fifth Session. This article attempts to clarify the implications of the core (WTO principles to the would-be international competition laws and practices. It further tries to get lessons from competition law and practices of the European Community. Protection of fundamental rights, proportionality, non-discrimination, transparency, supremacy, subsidiarity and direct effect are the general principles of the European Community law to be discussed in relation to the competition law and policy. It concludes that the general principles of the WTO and EC laws provide guiding principles for the future international competition norms, and makes some preliminary assessment of the present Korean competition law and policy in the light of those principles.

  11. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  12. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  13. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  14. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  15. International cooperation and competition in space - A current perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    International cooperative efforts undertaken by NASA are evaluated and consideration is given to the proposed space station. The Shuttle RMS and Spacelab were constructed through efforts of Canadian and European companies and the ESA. Landsat, with its widely dispersed technology and data, has encouraged international access to its capabilities and start-up of follow-on programs in other countries. Space station planning is proceeding with a view to worldwide utilization of space and to the commitment and resources other nations are willing to place in the station. It is conceded that administrative difficulties will arise if the space station is a completely international effort guided by NASA. Additionally, concern will be present for technology leaks, national security implications on the space station, and reasonably fulfilling the benefits expected by those who become partners in the construction and operation of the station.

  16. Environmental regulation and competitiveness. A meta-analysis of international trade studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Master-point and Tinbergen Institute, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Withagen, C.A.A.M. [Department of Economics and CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena such as ecological dumping, ecological capital flight, and regulatory 'chill' in environmental standards. A different view is that strict environmental regulation triggers industry's innovation potential, and subsequently increases its competitiveness. The impact of environmental regulation on competitiveness has been analyzed in terms of international capital movements, new firm formation, and international trade. This paper focuses on a statistically rigorous analysis of international trade studies, using a technique that is known as meta-analysis. The paper presents a statistically supported evaluation of the literature, in order to assess what the main conclusions regarding the relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness are when it comes to studies on international trade flows. The synthesis of the literature is subsequently used to present guidelines for future primary research in this area.

  17. Environmental regulation and competitiveness. A meta-analysis of international trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena such as ecological dumping, ecological capital flight, and regulatory 'chill' in environmental standards. A different view is that strict environmental regulation triggers industry's innovation potential, and subsequently increases its competitiveness. The impact of environmental regulation on competitiveness has been analyzed in terms of international capital movements, new firm formation, and international trade. This paper focuses on a statistically rigorous analysis of international trade studies, using a technique that is known as meta-analysis. The paper presents a statistically supported evaluation of the literature, in order to assess what the main conclusions regarding the relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness are when it comes to studies on international trade flows. The synthesis of the literature is subsequently used to present guidelines for future primary research in this area

  18. ADVANCING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS AS A FACTOR OF DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yarosh-Dmytrenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of advancing the international competitiveness of industry has been highlighted in the context of the impact on getting out the crises in the country and forming preconditions for economic growth. The study is based on an empirical basis of metallurgical industries of Ukraine, which has traditionally focused largely on international markets. The advancing international competitiveness of these enterprises is particularly topical and important for getting over the crisis and forming a trajectory of economic development of the country. The system of the factors has been represented and analysed, the priorities for advancing the international competitiveness of metallurgical industryJSC "Zaporizhstar.Recommendations to improve the competitiveness of the analysed enterprise have been formulated and common priorities for improving the international competitiveness of steel companies determining the possibility of positive impact on getting over the crisis and economic development at the level of companies, as well as at the level of Ukraine’s economy have been identified.

  19. Long-term oil strategy - creating an appropriate fiscal regime in OPEC countries to keep the upstream sector competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olorunfemi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to examine the factors that governed the upstream activities in OPEC countries during three distinct periods, namely: 1950 to 1973, 1974 to 1985 and 1986 to the present. Particular emphasis will be placed on the fiscal and legal instruments adopted by a number of OPEC countries in attracting oil companies to their respective countries, so as to maintain the momentum of oil exploration and production which is commensurate with their huge hydrocarbon reserves and also be in consonance with their pace of economic development while continuing to exercise their sovereign rights. The first part of the paper reviews the concepts governing the strategic behaviour of oil companies and oil-producing countries. Part two is devoted to the evolution of fiscal regimes in OPEC countries showing how the behaviour of OPEC Member Countries and oil companies illustrates the concepts in part one. How the dynamics of the oil market influence the upstream planning in OPEC Member Countries is examined in part three of the paper. Part four looks at the new cooperation and strategic alliances that are evolving between some OPEC countries and a number of oil companies to ensure that OPEC retains a leadership position which is commensurate with its Members' hydrocarbon resources. Conclusions are drawn in part five. (author)

  20. ANALYSING ROMANIAN INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVENESS REGARDING THE RECENT DYNAMICS OF THE INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIAL TRADE BALANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Felea Adrian Ioan

    2015-01-01

    The industry remains the most important sector of the national economy, although in the other member states the services have a more important share of GDP. In this context, the level of industrial competitiveness is essential for the national competitiveness. This is a characteristic feature for Romania, where the industry has an important share in the GDP, in comparison with the other member states. The international trade balance is an important indicator for measuring the economic competi...

  1. Exploratory studies into strategies to enhance innovation-driven international competitiveness in a port context : Toward ambidextrous ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.A. Hollen (Rick)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractResearch has highlighted that firms competing in dynamic environments have to balance exploitative (efficiency-directed) activities with explorative (innovation-directed) ones in order to remain internationally competitive. In economically advanced countries, whose competitiveness is

  2. International Competition and Inequality: A Generalized Ricardian Model

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    Why does the gap in real wage rates persist between the First World and the Third World after so many years of increasing globalization? The standard neoclassical trade model predicts that real wage rates will be equalized with international trade, whereas the standard Ricardian trade model does not. Facts are thus consistent with the Ricardian model. However, this model leaves undetermined income distribution. The objective of this paper is to fill this gap by developing a generalized Ricard...

  3. Will Australia's low cost uranium be internationally competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.

    1978-01-01

    Australian uranium deposits are of a high grade, and direct mining costs should be low. However, other factors may play the determining role in the price of Australia's uranium. Some are peculiarly Australian such as the geographical isolation of the deposits, aboriginals' land rights, and the final marketing arrangements. Other factors stem from the position of uranium in the international marketplace, and are both political and economic in nature. (author)

  4. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    We use unique panel data on the evolution of transparent budget procedures in the American states over the past three decades to explore the political and economic determinants of fiscal transparency. Our case studies and quantitative analysis suggest that both politics and fiscal policy outcomes...... influence the level of transparency. More equal political competition and power sharing are associated with both greater levels of fiscal transparency and increases in fiscal transparency during the sample period. Political polarization and past fiscal conditions, in particular state government debt...... and budget imbalance, also appear to affect the level of transparency...

  5. International outsourcing under monopolistic competition: winners and losers

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Viet; van Long, Ngo

    2007-01-01

    We show that, even with flexible domestic wages, international outsourcing may worsen the welfare of the home country and reduce the profits of all firms. If wages are rigid, outsourcing is welfare-improving if and only if the sum of the "trade creation" effect and the "exploitation effect" exceeds the "trade diversion" effect. A wage subsidy may improve welfare. We also extend the model to a two-period framework. Delaying outsourcing can be gainful because the fixed cost of outsourcing may f...

  6. Systematization of the Methods for Evaluating the International Competitiveness of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtal Tetyana V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying methods for evaluating competitiveness, identifying their practical relevance to domestic enterprises on example of the ОАО «Zavod «Yuzhkabel». A system of methods for evaluating international competitiveness of enterprises has been analyzed, the most frequently encountered in the economic literature methodologies for estimation have been considered. As a result, weaknesses of the individual elements of the system have been identified. Practical significance of the study has been disclosed, the most effective methods for evaluating the international competitiveness of enterprises have been identified. Using methods such as the method of rating estimation, the «4Р» matrix, the «McKinsey» matrix, the HirfindahlHirschman index and the polygon of competitiveness model, international competitiveness of the ОАО «Zavod «Yuzhkabel» has been evaluated. Conclusion about the extent of enterprise's presence at the international market has been made.

  7. Survey report for fiscal 1999 on internationalization of technologies for effective use of energy resources. Survey of international trend of technology management (Survey of necessity of creating a strategic research organization for researches on technology, management, innovation, etc., for international competitiveness enhancement); 1999 nendo energy shigen yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kokusaika chosa kokusai gijutsu keiei doko chosa hokokusho. Kokusai kyoryoku kyoka wo mokuteki to suru 'gijutsu' 'keiei' 'innovation' nado no senryakuteki kenkyu kiko sosetsu no hitsuyosei ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Innovation plays an important role for Japan to flexibly utilize its achievements for the purpose of properly responding to new business environments and to secure competitiveness in the market. Japan lacks experts equipped with knowledge and ability as regards technology development and management which are necessary for the planning and creation of technologies, and is also short of institutes for raising experts. In America, technology management won an important position in the 1980s in the effort at industrial renovation, and the industry, government, and academia in a body endeavored to elevate the level steadily, continuously, and deliberately, to eventually provide a source of great propulsion and international competitiveness toward today's economic success. Investigations were conducted, and a proposition is made for the establishment of an international technology management research center. Such a center will study technology management and innovation through international exchange based mainly on the industrial circle and through the organic coordination of the industry, government, and academia for widely observing changes in international society for economic frontier cultivation. A practical training and intelligent network will be organized on the global scale, which will serve as an information transmitter. A skeleton of the plan is shown. (NEDO)

  8. Coordination in International Manufacturing: The Role of Competitive Priorities and the Focus of Globally Dispersed Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sayem

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this era of globalization, network integration has received great attention, as it certainly has implications for the competitiveness in international manufacturing. A key issue in integration is to coordinate activities of dispersed facilities in a way to align the target of locating abroad and the priorities to be competitive. This study explores and clarifies the effect of competitive priority and focus of dispersed facilities on coordinating the activities in intra-firm network manufacturing. Based on a multiple case study involving four different companies manufacturing in globally dispersed facilities, the results confirm that both competitive priorities and specific focus of global manufacturing are important for selecting mechanisms to coordinate overseas facilities, with the competitive priorities ‘quality’ and ‘flexibility’ being the more important. Furthermore, the findings reveal that companies place emphasis on informal mechanisms to coordinate the low-cost focused facilities. In turn, the importance of formal mechanisms seems equal for coordinating both low-cost focused facilities and those focused on capturing a local market. Finally, the findings of this paper suggest that elements of competitive priority, as well as the focus of dispersed facilities, should be considered towards making the choice for mechanisms of coordination. The findings bear important implications for the effective coordination of activities in international manufacturing.

  9. Parametric Cost Estimates for an International Competitive Edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, L.T.; Hickey, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress to date by CH2M HILL and the UKAEA in development of a parametric modelling capability for estimating the costs of large nuclear decommissioning projects in the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe. The ability to successfully apply parametric cost estimating techniques will be a key factor to commercial success in the UK and European multi-billion dollar waste management, decommissioning and environmental restoration markets. The most useful parametric models will be those that incorporate individual components representing major elements of work: reactor decommissioning, fuel cycle facility decommissioning, waste management facility decommissioning and environmental restoration. Models must be sufficiently robust to estimate indirect costs and overheads, permit pricing analysis and adjustment, and accommodate the intricacies of international monetary exchange, currency fluctuations and contingency. The development of a parametric cost estimating capability is also a key component in building a forward estimating strategy. The forward estimating strategy will enable the preparation of accurate and cost-effective out-year estimates, even when work scope is poorly defined or as yet indeterminate. Preparation of cost estimates for work outside the organizations current sites, for which detailed measurement is not possible and historical cost data does not exist, will also be facilitated. (authors)

  10. A review of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) as a competitive South-East Asia hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardai, A. M.; Er, A. Z.; Johari, M. K.; Noor, A. A. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper is aimed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL) against its competitors in Southeast Asia countries. Due to the geographical and market relevance issues, several airport hubs around KUL are chosen for comparison: Changi International Airport (SIN), Suvarnabhumi International Airport (BKK) and Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is used to evaluate the comparative situation between the airports in relation to changing industry and market environment. The study discovers some competitive edges for KUL. Nonetheless, the airport still has to be improved to face future challenges and it is under imminent threat of new aircraft technology.

  11. Shaping the Fiscal Policy Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    the international experiences with large-scale fiscal consolidations, including evidence on the expansionary fiscal contraction hypothesis with particular focus on the Danish experience in the early 1980s. Second, given the widespread perception that supranational fiscal rules have failed in Europe, we study...

  12. Reflections between CSR and international human rights in EU initiatives for a competitive inclusive society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    : The paper aims to contribute to our understanding of whether a shift is taking place in societal attitudes towards a perception that corporations have duties based on international law. This is assessed on the basis of EU initiatives on inclusiveness and responsible competitiveness, particularly...... the EU Multistakeholder Forum and the Lisbon Strategy, with a particular focus on goals or views related to the human rights of non-discrimination and rights to work, education and vocational training, and network governance in (soft) law creation. It is found that despite obvious links, international...... law does not serve as a clear source of inclusiveness or responsible competitiveness. It is also found that the initiatives assessed do not indicate a shift at EU institutional level towards a perception that business holds duties under international law. International law seems at the most to be seen...

  13. Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of salivary hormones and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and anxiety in winners and losers during an international judo competition. Twenty-three trained, male, national-level judo athletes provided three saliva samples during a competition day: morning, in anticipation of competition after an overnight fast, mid-competition, and post-competition within 15 min post-fight for determination of salivary cortisol, salivary testosterone, salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio, SIgA absolute concentrations, SIgA secretion rate and saliva flow rate. The competitive state anxiety inventory questionnaire was completed by the athletes (n = 12) after the first saliva collection for determination of somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self-confidence. Winners were considered 1-3 ranking place (n = 12) and losers (n = 11) below third place in each weight category. Winners presented higher anticipatory salivary cortisol concentrations (p = 0.03) and a lower mid-competition salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.003) compared with losers with no differences for salivary testosterone. Winners tended to have higher SIgA secretion rates (p = 0.07) and higher saliva flow rates (p = 0.009) at mid-competition. Higher levels of cognitive anxiety (p = 0.02) were observed in the winners, without differences according to the outcome in somatic anxiety and self-confidence. The results suggest that winners experienced higher levels of physiological arousal and better psychological preparedness in the morning, and as the competition progressed, the winners were able to control their stress response better.

  14. Competitive Internal Logistics Systems through Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Granlund, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The growing demand for products and services puts great pressure on logistics performance and enhances the role that logistics plays in determining a company’s competitiveness. This research focuses on internal logistics systems, which includes all logistics activities and processes within the physical limits of an isolated company. Internal logistics is vital for the overall function of many companies. However, despite its importance, this part of logistics has traditionally not been viewed ...

  15. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity - a Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...

  16. International Perspectives on Work-Family Policies: Lessons from the World's Most Competitive Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Mokomane, Zitha; Heymann, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The United States does not guarantee families a wide range of supportive workplace policies such as paid maternity and paternity leave or paid leave to care for sick children. Proposals to provide such benefits are invariably met with the complaint that the costs would reduce employment and undermine the international competitiveness of American…

  17. 78 FR 24158 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for NATO International Competitive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for NATO International Competitive Bidding AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is the executive agency responsible for certifying U.S...

  18. Analysis of actual state on enterprise competitive intelligence at internal and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nansheng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the actual state of the enterprise competitive intelligence at internal and abroad and on the point of view of practice and theory, it sets forth the character of ci and the influence on the enterprise, analyzes objectivity the questions and the challenges in using CI in our country, brings up the methods and channels in setting up the CIS. (author)

  19. International Double Taxation Avoidance (Domestic Legal Regulations and Fiscal Conventions Concluded by Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia LEFTER; Simona CHIRICĂ

    2010-01-01

    The avoidance of double taxation has been firstly introduced in the Romanian legislation in 1973. Due to the permanent development of the economic, legal, social, etc. and global environment, Romania adapted accordingly her legal tax provisions in tax law area. One of the most relevant moments is the accession of Romanian into European Union. During pre- and after accession phase Romania has adopted the mandatory European fiscal legislation. Beeing member of EU, Romania has indirectly amended...

  20. Competition in electricity markets: international experience and the case of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Giulietti, M.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of European Directives 96/92 and 2003/54 on the liberalisation of the internal market for electricity, the Italian electricity sector has been subject to extensive institutional changes which have affected the competitive nature of the market. In this paper we attempt to assess the likely effect of these institutional changes on the Italian electricity industry, and focus particularly on the impact of the introduction of a centralised wholesale market. The assessment of the likely impact of these institutional changes is based on the comparison with the international experience of countries where extensive liberalisation measures have been implemented (such as the US, UK and the Scandinavian region). On the basis of this international comparison, we draw some lessons about how to promote effective competition in the Italian market and in other electricity markets which have not been fully liberalised. (Author)

  1. A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam's garment and textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thanh; Pham, Lam Cat

    2016-01-01

    Garment and textile (G&T) industry has been playing as a driving force for the socio-economic development of Vietnam. With the international integration process and rising challenges from the global market, there is a need to examine international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry to find out what Vietnam should focus on to enhance its position in the global market place. This paper, by using the Generalized Double Diamond Model (GDDM), analyzed international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry and compared it with China. The results showed that Vietnam was less competitive than China in all four attributes of the GDDM. The lowest competitiveness of Vietnam in comparison with China was Related and Supporting industries, followed by Factor Conditions. Therefore, the paper argued that although Vietnam should improve all of the four attributes in the long term, Vietnam must put a high priority on developing Related and Supporting Industries and then enhance Factor Conditions while maintaining its strengths over China in terms of G&T export growths and favorable business context.

  2. The International Closed Competition for the “Smart School” Complex in Irkutsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inessa Brazhnikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the International Closed Competition for an educational institution in a new format – the “Smart School” Complex in Irkutsk. The winner of the competition, CEBRA Company (Denmark, proposed an architectural concept for a ‘School Park’, which would unite architecture and landscape, while creating a unique space and inspiring students to respect the past, the present and the future. The key points of CEBRA’s architectural concept are given in the article.

  3. International competitiveness of the Polish wood industry from the mesoeconomic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wanat, Leszek; Wojciech, Lis

    2012-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Polish forest and wood industry, in particular the wood market itself, is determined by many factors which are shaping – to a various extent – its basic measure, i.e. a share of the industry or each of its sectors in the open international market. Due to a significant share of the wood industry in the generation of Poland's GDP, constant measurement and verification of this sector's competitiveness, both ex-ante and ex-post, seem to be of extreme importance. Next to...

  4. The Formation of a Positive International Image of Country as a Means of Enhancing Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova Ludmyla V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the essence of the concept of «image of the state» and substantiating the conceptual model of forming a positive international image of country as a means of enhancing competitiveness in the international market. The essence of the concept of «image of the State» has been defined. The factors influencing the formation of the international image of country have been distributed and systematized. The principles on which the process of formation of country image of modern format, receiving public recognition and adequate international estimation, have been allocated. A conceptual model of formation of positive international image of country, based on the hypothesis of influence of positive image on creation of significant competitive advantages in the international market of goods and services, has been proposed. The key features of the model are defined as: clear distribution of the roles of the stakeholders of national image – subjects of the global economic system, level of their involvement in the process of formation and integration of the State economy into the system of international institutions.

  5. The Competitive status of the U.S. civil aviation manufacturing industry: a study of the influences of technology in determining international industrial competitive advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seitz, Frederick; Steele, Lowell W

    1985-01-01

    ... A Study of the Influences of Technology in Determining International Industrial Competitive Advantage Prepared by the U.S. Civil Aviation Manufacturing Industry Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering and the Commission on Engineering and Techni...

  6. The Competitive status of the U.S. auto industry: a study of the influences of technology in determining international industrial competitive advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Automobile Panel of the Committee on Technology; National Research Council Staff

    ... International Industrial Competitive Advantage Prepared by the Automobile Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering and the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council William J. Abernathy, Chairman Kim Clar...

  7. International Double Taxation Avoidance (Domestic Legal Regulations and Fiscal Conventions Concluded by Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LEFTER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The avoidance of double taxation has been firstly introduced in the Romanian legislation in 1973. Due to the permanent development of the economic, legal, social, etc. and global environment, Romania adapted accordingly her legal tax provisions in tax law area. One of the most relevant moments is the accession of Romanian into European Union. During pre- and after accession phase Romania has adopted the mandatory European fiscal legislation. Beeing member of EU, Romania has indirectly amended many of its double tax treaties sparing the long process of legislative amendments, including individual renegotiation and amendment with each of the contracting EU member states.

  8. The Conceptual Foundations for Ensuring the International Competitiveness of Tourism Company in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarha Oleksandra O.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the conceptual-strategic principles of ensuring the international competitiveness of tourism enterprise. As result of research the essence and value of management of competitiveness of tourism enterprise in the conditions of globalization were considered. Factors of formation of competitive advantages, and also the reasons determining competitiveness of a tourism product have been determined. The main aspects of formation of quality of services provision have been identified. On the basis of the carried out research, the concept of integrated marketing communications has been formed, which is a combination of traditional ways of communication activity with the only synchronized communication, oriented towards establishing the multichannel relationships with different target audiences, with choosing an own marketing model for each audience. Application of the given concept would allow to optimally choose means of communication and to provide more effective realization of a tourism product at the international market of tourism services that will promote companies’ overgrowing their local status and gaining their self-importance on a global scale.

  9. Discussion on Industry Chain Financing Promoting International Competitiveness of China’s Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuo; LI; Tingting; CHANG

    2015-01-01

    Industry chain financing,also known as supply chain financing,is a kind of financial innovation in production and transaction emerging from the 1990 s. Recent years,industry chain financing has gradually permeated in agriculture. As one of the major agricultural countries in the world,China should still make great endeavor in satisfying domestic requirement of agricultural products and improving international competitiveness. Based on the empirical and feasible analysis of agricultural industry chain financing,this article emphasizes on the new mode of industry chain financing and puts forward some related policy suggestions to discuss how to quicken agricultural development with financial support as well as promote international competitiveness of China’s agriculture.

  10. Are stricter investment rules contagious? Host country competition for foreign direct investment through international agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Roy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the trend toward international investment agreements (IIAs) with stricter investment rules is driven by competitive diffusion, namely defensive moves of developing countries concerned about foreign direct investment (FDI) diversion in favor of competing host countries. Accounting for spatial dependence in the formation of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and preferential trade agreements (PTAs) that contain investment provisions, we find that the increase in agreements with ...

  11. International perspectives on work-family policies: lessons from the world's most competitive economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Mokomane, Zitha; Heymann, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The United States does not guarantee families a wide range of supportive workplace policies such as paid maternity and paternity leave or paid leave to care for sick children. Proposals to provide such benefits are invariably met with the complaint that the costs would reduce employment and undermine the international competitiveness of American businesses. In this article, Alison Earle, Zitha Mokomane, and Jody Heymann explore whether paid leave and other work-family policies that support children's development exist in countries that are economically competitive and have low unemployment rates. Their data show that the answer is yes. Using indicators of competitiveness gathered by the World Economic Forum, the authors identify fifteen countries, including the United States, that have been among the top twenty countries in competitiveness rankings for at least eight of ten years. To this group they add China and India, both rising competitors in the global economy. They find that every one of these countries, except the United States, guarantees some form of paid leave for new mothers as well as annual leave. And all but Switzerland and the United States guarantee paid leave for new fathers. The authors perform a similar exercise to identify thirteen advanced countries with consistently low unemployment rates, again including the United States. The majority of these countries provide paid leave for new mothers, paid leave for new fathers, paid leave to care for children's health care needs, breast-feeding breaks, paid vacation leave, and a weekly day of rest. Of these, the United States guarantees only breast-feeding breaks (part of the recently passed health care legislation). The authors' global examination of the most competitive economies as well as the economies with low unemployment rates makes clear that ensuring that all parents are available to care for their children's healthy development does not preclude a country from being highly competitive

  12. Qualitative Event-Based Diagnosis: Case Study on the Second International Diagnostic Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2010-01-01

    We describe a diagnosis algorithm entered into the Second International Diagnostic Competition. We focus on the first diagnostic problem of the industrial track of the competition in which a diagnosis algorithm must detect, isolate, and identify faults in an electrical power distribution testbed and provide corresponding recovery recommendations. The diagnosis algorithm embodies a model-based approach, centered around qualitative event-based fault isolation. Faults produce deviations in measured values from model-predicted values. The sequence of these deviations is matched to those predicted by the model in order to isolate faults. We augment this approach with model-based fault identification, which determines fault parameters and helps to further isolate faults. We describe the diagnosis approach, provide diagnosis results from running the algorithm on provided example scenarios, and discuss the issues faced, and lessons learned, from implementing the approach

  13. Gathering International Competitive Intelligence via Online Data Retrieval in the International Marketing Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fred

    A unit on online data retrieval techniques designed for a college course in international marketing is described. The unit is intended to teach students how to compile information on overseas markets and competitors. Online retrieval is seen as a relatively inexpensive means of gathering important data from otherwise inaccessible international…

  14. Fiscal Federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2013-01-01

    China's central–local relations have been marked by perpetual changes amidst economic restructuring. Fiscal decentralization on the expenditure side has been paralleled by centralization on the revenue side, accompanied by political centralization. Hence, our understanding of China's fiscal...... relations is not without controversy. This paper aims to make a theoretical contribution to the ongoing debate on ‘fiscal federalism’ by addressing crucial questions regarding China's central–local fiscal relations: first, to what extent do Chinese central–local fiscal relations conform to fiscal federalism...

  15. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  16. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF HIGHER EDUCATION OF UKRAINE ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Tsarenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is evaluation of competitiveness of higher education of Ukraine in comparison with the foreign countries and under the influence of the globalization of market environment. The evaluation of the level of competitiveness of higher education in Ukraine on the modern stage under the influence of the globalization transformation and in the light of international comparisons is investigated insufficiently, which makes up for the purpose and objectives of this research. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of the data, which are set out in the international reports about the competitiveness of countries in the world, in particular about the higher education. The analysis of the degree of researching the problem of competitiveness of higher education in the works of scientists is made in advance. Results of the research showed that the main components of pillar «High education and training» of the Global Competitiveness Index, namely: secondary education enrollment, tertiary education enrollment, quality of the education system, quality of math and science education, quality of management schools, internet access in schools, availability of research and training services and extent of staff training. The analysis of the dynamics of the indicator “Higher education and training” of Global Competitiveness Index is made for Ukraine and the other countries, which is showed the following: in the last five years the highest index of higher education and training belongs to Finland, the score of which, in the dynamics, significantly increases, concerning Ukraine, it among 132 countries takes 40th place, that is top 50 countries with the highest ranking of the competitiveness of higher education and training, this position for Ukraine is stable, with the exception of 2011, when the position was reduced to 51 in the rankings. Furthermore, in 2014 Ukraine’s rating has increased in comparison with other years. Then in

  17. Fiscal considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, C.

    1992-01-01

    Most fiscal systems do not have provisions which adequately address the problems arising from the global nature of international oil and product trading. It is also difficult for the various tax authorities to keep abreast of the ever evolving hedging instruments. It is quite possible for an international trader or integrated oil company to find itself with losses which cannot match against profits either because of local tax rules or because the loss arises in one jurisdiction and profits in another. The corporate structuring and legal relationships of parties both within an organisation and outside can be key to mitigating effective double taxation and in assisting the production of reports to shareholders which show a fair picture of the group's activities. (author)

  18. THE MECHANISM OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION IN INNOVATION COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia S. Leontieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout article authors give algorithm of organizational culture diagnostic testing of the Hyundai Glovis Russia company, features and difficulties of her cross-cultural environment. Within research the corporate culture and history of the Hyundai Glovis Russia company is analysed. Besides, systems of norms, values and behavior models of the Korean and Russian personnel, and also set of forms of interaction between them are compared. The structural model of transformation of cultural distinctions in competitive advantages of the international enterprise structures is developed.

  19. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  20. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  1. Duplex recombinase polymerase amplification assays incorporating competitive internal controls for bacterial meningitis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Owen; Clancy, Eoin; Forrest, Matthew S; Piepenburg, Olaf; Cormican, Martin; Boo, Teck Wee; O'Sullivan, Nicola; McGuinness, Claire; Cafferty, Deirdre; Cunney, Robert; Smith, Terry J

    2018-04-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology that provides rapid and robust infectious disease pathogen detection, ideal for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics in disease-prevalent low-resource countries. We have developed and evaluated three duplex RPA assays incorporating competitive internal controls for the detection of leading bacterial meningitis pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae singleplex RPA assays were initially developed and evaluated, demonstrating 100% specificity with limits of detection of 4.1, 8.5 and 3.9 genome copies per reaction, respectively. Each assay was further developed into internally controlled duplex RPA assays via the incorporation of internal amplification control templates. Clinical performance of each internally controlled duplex RPA assay was evaluated by testing 64 archived PCR-positive clinical samples. Compared to real-time PCR, all duplex RPA assays demonstrated 100% diagnostic specificity, with diagnostic sensitivities of 100%, 86.3% and 100% for the S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae assays, respectively. This study details the first report of internally controlled duplex RPA assays for the detection of bacterial meningitis pathogens: S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae. We have successfully demonstrated the clinical diagnostic utility of each duplex RPA assay, introducing effective diagnostic technology for POC bacterial meningitis identification in disease-prevalent developing countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PRICE VS QUALITY COMPETITION AND THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF AVERAGE PRICES IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattoscio Nicola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the relationship between the average export prices and the distance between the origin and the destination market in international trade. Distance between trading partners obviously stands at the core of I international trade literature and is strictly related with the issue of how countries and firms compete on export markets when transport costs become increasingly stiff. Heterogeneous-Firm Trade (HFT models predict that only most competitive firms are able to export on distant markets, where it is more difficult to recover from freight costs. However, this simple concept does not lead to unambiguous predictions on the spatial pattern of average export f.o.b. prices. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

  3. THE CAPACITY AND COMPETITIVENESS OF THE FIRMS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS – FOUR MODELS OF MARKET APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina NEAMTU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Firma and companies wish the extension on the international market, but not always are able to serve in anefficient manner, an extended market as a result of the capacity restrictions that these companies register. Inrapport with the capacity restrictions, the firm would take into account another dimension of the Internationalmarket that might posses. The study takes into consideration the adaptation of the firm at one of the four levels ofmarket development, having as result two major approaches, each approach offering two action modalities at thelevel of international business. There results four modalities (ways of assignment of the resources and activities,depending on the capacity of the company, in rapport with the one of the market and competition.

  4. Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Skill Performance During an International Female Rugby Sevens Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Javier; Del Coso, Juan; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2017-12-01

    Portillo, J, Del Coso, J, and Abián-Vicén, J. Effects of caffeine ingestion on skill performance during an international female rugby sevens competition. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3351-3357, 2017-The aim of this study was to establish the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on skills and technical performance during a match in female elite rugby sevens players. On 2 nonconsecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish national rugby sevens team (mean age = 23 ± 2 years) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink). After 60 minutes for caffeine absorption, participants played 3 rugby sevens matches against another national team. Body impacts during the matches were assessed by triaxial accelerometers. The matches were videotaped, and each individual technical action was notated afterward by 2 experienced observers. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the rate of body impacts in zone 1 (16.1 ± 4.9 vs. 20.8 ± 9.9 impacts/min, p rugby-specific technical actions during the games. In conclusion, the ingestion of 3 mg·kg of caffeine in the form of an energy drink increased the number of body impacts during a rugby sevens international competition which suggests a higher engagement of the players during the game. However, the caffeine ingestion did not influence the quality of the technical actions performed during the competition.

  5. Creating competitive advantage in international marketing: strategic alliances at exportation logistics – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Mazzali

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the creation process of a competitive advantage in the international business, starting on the concept of the supply chain management. First, the aim of this study is to show that the dimension of the success in the international negotiations depends on the formation of strategic alliances. Second, that the formation of the alliances demands the adaptation of cultures and strategies of all the involved parties. It was opted for a qualitative research, with descriptive character, associated to the experience of an executives group of the Cia Cacique de Café Solúvel and its partners, on the constitution of a logistic alliance. It is clearly shown, on one hand, that the alliance between the main company and its partners consolidates the necessity of strategic interdependence in the interior of the supply chain. On the other hand, the success of it is based on the identification and selection of the partners, the effective alignment of interests and strategies, the construction of the confidence, the equal treatment and transparence in the negotiation. Key-words: export logistics; strategic alliances; competitive advantage

  6. Relationships between triathlon performance and pacing strategy during the run in an international competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Meur, Yann; Bernard, Thierry; Dorel, Sylvain; Abbiss, Chris R; Honnorat, Gérard; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between athlete's pacing strategies and running performance during an international triathlon competition. Running split times for each of the 107 finishers of the 2009 European Triathlon Championships (42 females and 65 males) were determined with the use of a digital synchronized video analysis system. Five cameras were placed at various positions of the running circuit (4 laps of 2.42 km). Running speed and an index of running speed variability (IRSVrace) were subsequently calculated over each section or running split. Mean running speed over the first 1272 m of lap 1 was 0.76 km·h-1 (+4.4%) and 1.00 km·h-1 (+5.6%) faster than the mean running speed over the same section during the three last laps, for females and males, respectively (P international competitions, even if high levels of motivation and direct opponents lead them to adopt an aggressive strategy.

  7. Output-based allocation as a form of protection for internationally competitive industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, Erik

    2003-12-01

    Policies adopted by Annex B Parties to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to increase costs for industries vulnerable to international competition in domestic or export markets. Domestic emissions trading, by enabling the aggregate emissions target to be met at least cost, helps to reduce the adverse impacts on these industries. An output-based allocation of allowances reduces the output decline due to imposition of the emissions trading program relative to a lump-sum (historic) allocation and so helps reduce the adverse impacts on these industries. The effectiveness of an output-based allocation in maintaining production must be assessed empirically because it depends on the characteristics of all of the firms covered by the trading program as well as other factors. Modeling results for a possible emissions trading program for Alberta confirm the expected impacts of an output-based allocation and indicate that the effectiveness varies across industries. While encouraging greater production, an output-based allocation lowers profits relative to a lump-sum allocation and leads to a different distribution of costs. Other policy options for reducing the output decline in industries vulnerable to international competition include lump-sum allocations or auctioned allowances combined with assistance programs for emission reduction actions or a requirement to meet 'world best' emission performance standard. These policy options should be compared with an output-based allocation in terms of effectiveness, total cost and other impacts, before a policy is adopted

  8. El control interno contable y fiscal como medida para contribuir a la maximizacion de los resultados financieros de los negocios (The accounting and fiscal internal control as a measure to contribute to the increasing of the business financial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main purpose of this article is to show the importance of accounting and fiscal internal controls to contribute to the compliance of outlined objectives in the private and public organizations, through an efficient and effective management of resources with which organizations count. In addition, this article will address the difficulties of the implementation derived from of its incipient requirement, also of its ignorance of usefulness but above all for the general idea of the possible costs that usually should spend in its implementation. To accomplish the above, it analyze the relevant aspects of the control as a part of the administrative process, from there address its classification as an internal control: accounting and fiscal. Also it address certain innovative methodologies that are useful as a tools of implementation of internal controls such as SWOT analysis, the methodology of 5 Whys, the correlation index and the Pareto diagram, which have been useful in other fields like Engineering and we can use them with success in the Accountant field. Resumen. El propósito principal de este artículo es evidenciar la importancia de los controles internos contables y fiscales para efectos de contribuir al cumplimiento de los objetivos trazados en las organizaciones pertenecientes tanto al sector público como al sector privado, mediante manejo eficiente y eficaz de los recursos con los que se cuenta. En adición a lo anterior, se aborda la problemática de la implementación derivada de su incipiente obligatoriedad, del desconocimiento de su utilidad y, sobre todo, por la idea generalizada del posible costo en el que se suele incurrir en su implementación. Para llevar a cabo lo anterior, se analizan los aspectos relevantes del control como parte del proceso administrativo, para de ahí abordar su clasificación como control interno: contable y fiscal. Asimismo se abordan ciertas metodologías innovadoras que sirven como

  9. Potentials and structure of fiscal devaluation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal devaluation is a set of synhronized policy measures with the aim to stimulate economic growth and improve economy competitiveness by simultaneous decrease of gross labor costs and increase of tax burden on consumption. The precondition for successful fiscal devaluation is to comply with principle of fiscal neutrality. Fiscal devaluation could enhance competitiveness of the economy and contribute to improved trade balance. Implementation of fiscal devaluation might be beneficial to both, countries which belong to a currency union and countries with a high level of public debt denominated in foreign currency. Comparative analysis provided potential short and long term effects of fiscal devaluations and enabled assessment of structure of fiscal devaluation in Serbia. This article provides a framework for forthcoming debates on applicability of fiscal devaluation in Serbia and includes the potential structure of fiscal devaluation.

  10. Energy fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This report gives a general presentation of energy fiscality in France: taxes on energy, mechanisms of stabilization of government's fiscal incomes in case of significant oil prices change, some particularities of energy taxes, the fiscality according to the energy content and according to the carbon content. The fiscality of petroleum products (automotive fuels and other products), natural gas and electricity in France is presented in appendixes together with a comparison of the fiscality in use in the rest of Europe (automotive fuels, domestic fuels, natural gas and electricity for domestic use and for industrial use). (J.S.)

  11. Competitive strategies and strategic positioning of oil companies in the international oil business: theory and practice in perspective; Strategies competitives et positionnement strategique des compagnies petrolieres dans le commerce petrolier international. Theorie et pratique en perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dos Santos, E.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Electrotecnica e Energia-IEE; Teixeira Carneiro, J.M. [Pontifical Catholic University (Brazil). Managirial Science Dept.; Ferreira Deschamps Cvalcanti, M.A. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Strategic Planning for the Downstream

    1999-05-01

    This is the first work of a series of four articles aiming to analyse the concepts of competitive strategy and strategic positioning of firms in the international oil industry. The authors present the essence of their analytical model, which are based on the theoretical framework of competitive strategy developed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard. The second article is published hereunder, the third and fourth ones will appear in the next issue. (authors)

  12. Country of origin image attributes as a source of competitive advantage: study in international brazilian fashion industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bassi Sutter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to understand which attributes of the country of origin image are source of international competitive advantage in the context of Brazilian fashion. From the theoretical framework related to competitive advantage, country of origin image, Brazilianness and their attributes in fashion, we conducted exploratory research with a qualitative approach. The results suggest that the image of Brazil is understood by the international fashion market in accordance with the attributes of the literature. However (i in fashion, market still does not have a steady concept on the image of Brazil, (ii Brazilianness attributes in fashion can be a source of competitive advantage in international trades if they are communicated, promoted and understood by the international market; finally, (iii among the eight Brazilianness trendy attributes identified in the literature, four were highlighted as differentiators: shape and volumes, colors, prints and lifestyle.

  13. Dietary Intake of Athletes Seeking Nutrition Advice at a Major International Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Burkhart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete’s competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia. Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384–18,009 kJ, with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0–9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg (median = 3.8 and contributing to 50% total energy (TE (range 14%–79%. Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3–4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7 to 10–138 g (median = 67 g, and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%–48% and 24% TE (range 8%–44%, respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15 in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes.

  14. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research and development was performed for the WE-NET (World Energy Network) project which aims to carry out hydrogen production, transportation, and supply to consumers, by the use of renewable energy. Under subtask 1, besides investigation of a pilot plant of phase 2, the WE-NET image as a whole was studied. Under subtask 2, technical information was exchanged at an international symposium and a long-term vision of the international network was discussed. Under subtask 3, for the evaluation of the effect of hydrogen energy introduction on the global level, national level, and city level, simulation models were discussed and improved. Under subtask 4, tests and studies were made concerning electrode bonding methods. Under subtask 5, the Neon Brayton cycle process was surveyed and studied as a hydrogen liquefaction cycle. Under subtasks 6-9, furthermore, surveys and studies were made about techniques relating to low-temperature substances, hydrogen energy, hydrogen combustion turbines, and so forth. (NEDO)

  15. Internal-external stimulus competition in a system of interacting moving particles: Persuasion versus propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, N. C.; Revelli, J. A.; Sibona, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a general nonlinear analytical framework to study the effect of an external stimulus in the internal state of a population of moving particles. This novel scheme allows us to study a broad range of excitation transport phenomena. In particular, considering social systems, it gives insight of the spatial dynamics influence in the competition between propaganda (mass media) and convincement. By extending the framework presented by Terranova et al. [Europhys. Lett. 105, 30007 (2014), 10.1209/0295-5075/105/30007], we now allow changes in individual's opinions due to a reflection induced by mass media. The equations of the model could be solved numerically, and, for some special cases, it is possible to derive analytical solutions for the steady states. We implement computational simulations for different social and dynamical systems to check the accuracy of our scheme and to study a broader variety of scenarios. In particular, we compare the numerical outcome with the analytical results for two possible real cases, finding a good agreement. From the results, we observe that mass media dominates the opinion state in slow dynamics communities; whereas, for higher agent active speeds, the rate of interactions increases and the opinion state is determined by a competition between propaganda and persuasion. This difference suggests that kinetics can not be neglected in the study of transport of any excitation over a particle system.

  16. Behind the scenes at FameLab, the international competition for young scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    FameLab is an international science communication competition for young researchers and science teachers aged 18 to 35. At CERN, preparations are under way to recruit participants, advertise the event to the public and organise the regional semi-finals for Suisse Romande, which will take place on Saturday, 4 February 2012 in the Globe of Science and Innovation. The Bulletin looks ahead to the forthcoming event…   As you might have read in the 5 December 2011 issue of the Bulletin, Switzerland is one of the 20 countries participating in the FameLab 2012 competition, and the regional finals for French-speaking Switzerland will take place at CERN in the Globe of Science and Innovation on Saturday, 4 February 2012. “At the moment we’re still recruiting participants through various channels (registration is open till 31 January) and organising the one-day programme of events in the Globe,” says project coordinator Paola Catapano of the CERN Communication ...

  17. Local economic development and globalisation : the international competitiveness of certain South African municipalities / Vincent Monti Malebo Mongake

    OpenAIRE

    Mongake, Monti Malebo Vincent

    2004-01-01

    In today's global competitive environment, a city or a town more than ever needs a strategy that articulates how its international competitiveness is to be improved. Since 1994, following its first democratic elections, South Africa started processes of significant local government reform, as well as fast integration into the global economy. These processes will place significant challenges in the way of South Africa's local government (municipalities) since they now not only h...

  18. Competitive strategies and strategic positioning of oil companies in the international oil business: theory and practice in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, E.M.; Teixeira Carneiro, J.M.; Ferreira Deschamps Cvalcanti, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This is the first work of a series of four articles aiming to analyse the concepts of competitive strategy and strategic positioning of firms in the international oil industry. The authors present the essence of their analytical model, which are based on the theoretical framework of competitive strategy developed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard. The second article is published hereunder, the third and fourth ones will appear in the next issue. (authors)

  19. Choosing a standard reactor: International competition and domestic politics in Chinese nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, M.V.; Saikawa, Eri

    2011-01-01

    China has ambitious plans to expand its nuclear power capacity. One of the policy goals that high-level policymakers have desired is to base the nuclear program on a standardized reactor design. However, this has not materialized so far. By examining its nuclear reactor choices for individual projects, we argue that China’s policymaking process has been greatly influenced by international competition and domestic politics. Multiple international nuclear vendors are intent upon maintaining their respective niches in the expanding Chinese reactor market, and they have used various forms of economic and political pressure to achieve their objectives. On the other hand, China’s policymaking process is fragmented and the shifting power balances among powerful domestic actors do not allow a fixed path to be followed. Further, because of the high costs and potential profits involved, nuclear reactor choices in China have been driven not just by technical considerations but also by foreign and trade policy objectives. All of these make it unlikely that China will standardize the reactor type it constructs in the near future. -- Highlights: ► China’s nuclear power policymaking has been fragmented and without central control. ► Multiple domestic actors have pursued independent agendas. ► International nuclear vendors have intensely competed for Chinese reactor contracts. ► Economic, political and foreign policy goals have driven reactor contract decisions. ► China is unlikely to construct only a standardized reactor design.

  20. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity - a Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...... varieties obsolescent in a process of creative destruction. For given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. It is shown that several patterns of exports may arise depending primarily on the size of fixed trade costs. At a given point in time firms therefore...... differ due to different age, although all firms are symmetric in a life cycle perspective. The paper thus offers an alternative view on firm heterogeneity compared with other recent papers, where productivity differences appear as an outcome of a stochastic process....

  1. International design competition. Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb. Formula Student Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    Within the International Design Competition 2011 at the Hockenheimring (Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions were presented: (1) Formula Student Germany - Experience the Future (Tim Hannig); (2) Live at the Hockenheimring 2011; (3) Cutaway Model of the FSC Winning Car - The GFR11c by the Global Formula Racing Team of the DHBW Ravensburg; (4) Formula Student Racecar with Selective Cylinder Deactivation (Alexander Titz); (5) Construction of a crankshaft for the RS11 (Stefan Buhl); (6) The Wheel Design of the ARG 11 (Megan Rotondo); (7) Cutaway Model of the FSE Winning Car - The DUT11 by the DUT Racing Team of the Delft University of Technology; (8) Formula Student Electric - E-Scrutineering (Ann-Christin Bartoelke); (9) Development of an E-motor for Formular Student Electric (Urs Leuthold); (10) The Battery Management System of the FHWT04e (Andreas Hagemeyer); (11) Overall Results 2011 at a Glance; (12) Show your Colours; (13) Formula Student Germany visiting China (Alia Pierce).

  2. Feasibility survey on international cooperation for high efficiency energy conversion technology in fiscal 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Following cooperative researches on fuel cell jointly conducted by NEDO and EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand), the survey on international cooperation relating to high efficiency energy conversion technology was carried out for the ASEAN countries. The paper summed up the results of the survey. The study of the international cooperation is made for the following three items: a program for periodical exchange of information with EGAT, a project for cooperative research on phosphoric acid fuel cell in Indonesia, and a project for cooperative research with EGAT on electric power storage by advanced battery. In Malaysia, which is small in scale of state, part of the Ministry of Energy, Telecommunication and Posts is only in charge of the energy issue. Therefore, the situation is that they cannot answer well to many items of research/development cooperation brought in from Japan. The item of medium- and long-term developmental research in the Philippines is about the problems which are seen subsequently in the Manila metropolitan area where the problem of outage is being settled. Accordingly, it is essential to promote the cooperative research, well confirming policies and systems of the Ministry of Energy and the national electricity corporation.

  3. International University Research Ventures: Implications for U.S. Economic Competitiveness National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-31

    NTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY RESEARCH VENTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR US ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY The views, opinions and/or findings...UNIVERSITY RESEARCH VENTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR US ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY Report Term: 0-Other Email: mzak@gatech.edu...expected to inform political and economic theories about technology transfer, innovation, economic competitiveness, and democratization/civil

  4. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  5. Summative report of the public competition research and development on nuclear science and technology in the fiscal year 1998 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute started the public competition research and development on nuclear science and technology in 1998, and closed it in 2003. This report describes the system of the competition research and development, application situations, R and D subjects adopted, evaluation findings, outputs produced, achievements and problems, as a summative report of practice of the system for six years. (author)

  6. Summative report of the public competition research and development on software for computational science and engineering in the fiscal year 1997 through 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute started the public competition research and development on software for computational science and engineering in 1997, and closed it in 2002. This report describes the system of the competition research and development, application situations, R and D subjects adopted, evaluation findings, outputs produced, achievements and problems, as a summative report of practice of the system for six years. (author)

  7. Moving to global fiscal consolidation? The OECD BEPS report and the ever-changing world of international taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, B.

    2013-01-01

    The aftermath of the financial crisis has brought the discussion about global fiscal consolidation to unprecedented terms. This concern has reached political level and it has become a very important topic both in the EU and OECD agendas. Therefore it is far from surprising that several initiatives

  8. The international competitive position of the Dutch top sectors; De internationale concurrentiepositie van de topsectoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspe, O.; Weterings, A.; Thissen, M.

    2012-03-15

    Creating an excellent investment climate for the Dutch top sectors; that is the strategy of the Dutch government to improve the economic competitiveness of the Netherlands. In this endeavour, the Dutch cabinet is advised by ten top teams. With this study, the Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) aims to supplement the action agendas of the top teams, which mainly involve generic and sector-specific measures. Based on empirical know-how and quantitative analysis of the competitive position of the top sectors within Europe, PBL shows that characteristics of the regional business climate are particularly important for the international competitiveness of the top sectors. A benchmark of 250 European regions shows how the Dutch regions score as compared to their most important competitors in Europe. This benchmark shows that drawing up the investment agenda for the Dutch top sectors is tailored work. For example, for the top sector energy in South Holland, it is important to invest in a strong private knowledge base (research and development by businesses). For the top sector logistics in North Holland, on the other hand, a better connectivity by road is important. For the high-tech businesses in Noord-Brabant, strengthening the high-tech cluster in this region would be beneficial. Therefore, PBL recommends a spatial-economic vision on the competitive powers of the top sectors. This vision should focus on priority areas North Holland and South Holland, and on crucial connections such as Schiphol and the highways 'Triple A', A2, A4 and A12. [Dutch] Een excellent vestigingsklimaat creëren voor de topsectoren. Dat is de strategie van het kabinet-Rutte om de economische concurrentiekracht van Nederland te verbeteren. Het kabinet laat zich daarbij adviseren door tien topteams. Met deze studie wil het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) een aanvulling bieden op de actieagenda's van de topteams, die vooral generieke en sectorspecifieke maatregelen betreffen

  9. Potash Taxation: How Canada’s Regime is Neither Efficient nor Competitive from an International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Saskatchewan — and by extension, Canada — is the largest producer of potash in the world, accounting for over 30 per cent of global production. Perhaps the good fortune of having an abundance of such a valuable natural resource has engendered an approach whereby tax policy has not been considered a top priority. That would at least be one explanation for the alarmingly inefficient and uncompetitive potash regime that currently exists in Saskatchewan. New Brunswick’s potash-taxation regime is at least somewhat better designed than Saskatchewan’s, although it hardly stands as a model of efficiency. In both cases, poorly designed policies are hindering the provinces’ economic potential and, in turn, Canada’s. Put bluntly, when compared against its international peers, Saskatchewan’s potash-tax regime is not only the most complex and inefficient, it can also be the least competitive since its tax incentives conditioned on dated production levels and investment sizes cannot be used in perpetuity. Whereas its international peers tend to tax all potash investment projects equally, the marginal effective tax and royalty rates (METRR on potash investment projects in Saskatchewan, either itemized or aggregated, are so widely varied that it is possible to calculate a METRR gap between two different projects as much as 48 percentage points. The convoluted nature of Saskatchewan’s regime benefits no one — not producers, investors, or the provincial government, which is left without any revenue certainty from its most significant natural resource. In fact, in recent years, where potash production and sales value rebounded substantially in Saskatchewan from 2009 levels, excessive tax allowances resulted in the province incurring three years of tax revenue losses from its potash production tax. New Brunswick’s potash-taxation regime is less complex than Saskatchewan’s, but it is not efficient. The province recently introduced a price

  10. COMPETITIVENESS OF METAL PRODUCTION OF RUP ‘BMZ» ON THE INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kuzmich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the received integral indices of competitiveness testify to the fact that production is on the high level of competitiveness on world markets of sales and is approximately on one position with the best goods-analogues.

  11. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on international cooperation for technology transfer; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) is a framework for use by developed countries in international cooperation and voluntary promotion of the development and diffusion of technologies contributory to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CTI's activity goal is to accelerate the transfer and diffusion of technologies for climate change control. As the first step toward personnel development programs relating to energy efficiency, CTI organized its workshop on that theme. The results of the workshop have been examined, and its achievements were reported at COP4 meeting, while responses by participatory countries were studied to evaluate the potential of international cooperation with regard to personnel development for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In fiscal 1998, the CTI workshop 'Energy Efficiency' was held. The participants from developing countries understood the necessity and importance of energy saving enough through discussions in the workshop, and announced their message toward the world at COP4 meeting. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on international cooperation for technology transfer; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) is a framework for use by developed countries in international cooperation and voluntary promotion of the development and diffusion of technologies contributory to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CTI's activity goal is to accelerate the transfer and diffusion of technologies for climate change control. As the first step toward personnel development programs relating to energy efficiency, CTI organized its workshop on that theme. The results of the workshop have been examined, and its achievements were reported at COP4 meeting, while responses by participatory countries were studied to evaluate the potential of international cooperation with regard to personnel development for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In fiscal 1998, the CTI workshop 'Energy Efficiency' was held. The participants from developing countries understood the necessity and importance of energy saving enough through discussions in the workshop, and announced their message toward the world at COP4 meeting. (NEDO)

  13. A Different Kind of Physics Competition-the 12th International Young Physicists Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Hugh

    1999-11-01

    This May, five seniors from the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics and their adult leaders, Hugh Haskell and Chuck Britton, were the first US team to compete in the International Young Physicists Tournament (IYPT), which took place in Vienna, Austria. They challenged and were challenged by eighteen similar teams from sixteen other countries. The IYPT differs from the Physics Olympiad, which is an examination, whereas the Tournament is a debate on the solution of seventeen open-ended problems published in October, on the IYPT website . The five students, Adriane Boyd, Dahl Clark, Mark Blevins, Zach Keane, and Adam Simpkins spent from mid-January until our departure on May 20, preparing their responses to the questions. In Vienna, the team was joined by Ron Edge, of the University of South Carolina, who served as jurist for the tournament. Each team pays for transportation, but once there, the host country bears all other costs. For each event, called a "physics fight," three teams are assigned their roles-reporter, opponent and reviewer. First, the opposing team selects a question. The reporters have twelve minutes to present a report. The opposing team then has five minutes to critique the report. After a rebuttal by the reporter, the reviewers discuss effectiveness of both presentations . Finally, the jurors ask questions and score each team. This year's overall winner was Germany. Taking second was the team from the Republic of Georgia. The US team did not make the semifinal round, but did well enough for a first-time competitor. Will there be another United States Team? This is an open question. Efforts are being made to find a school that can send a team to next year's competition which is scheduled for Budapest, Hungary.

  14. The difference in the position of Mexico, Japan and China as recipients of international tourism and their position in Competitiveness Index Travel and Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Magaña Carrillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexico, as a tourist destination that is recipient of tourists, ranks among the top ten in terms of international arrivals. Nevertheless, in terms of competitiveness, according to the index of Travel and Tourism Competitiveness, its ranking is very low. This research project looks to understand and explain the differences in tourist competitiveness between Mexico and other countries within the Asia-Pacific Basin. This article is preoccupied with the question posed by Mexico’s evident contradicting position as that of being on the one hand, leader in terms of international arrivals, and on the other, having a low competitive performance, according to the index of international tourist competitiveness. Comparing Mexico to Japan and China, helps to understand what aspects, among those considered in the index pillars, should be contemplated in order to strengthen Mexico’s levels of competitiveness, as suggested in the Tourist Sectorial Plan 2007-2012.

  15. International competition in vertically differentiated markets with innovation and imitation: trade policy versus free trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováč, Eugen; Žigić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 323 (2014), s. 491-521 ISSN 0013-0427 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : model of price competition * trade policy * free trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.045, year: 2014

  16. Are Competitive Materialism and Female Employment Related to International Homicide Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Don Soo

    2017-04-01

    The institutional anomie theory is a proposal that states competitive materialism, an intense cultural pressure for economic success at any costs, and increased female employment may be related to a high homicide rate. The current work tested this proposition by utilizing homicide data collected from 45 developed and developing countries. Regression results did not support the proposition. Competitive materialism and female employment were not significantly related to the cross-national variation of homicide rates.

  17. ‘Make-or-Buy’ in International Oligopoly and the Role of Competitive Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Dermot, Leahy; Catia, Montagna

    2007-01-01

    We study how competitive pressure influences the make-or-buy decision that oligopolistic firms face between producing an intermediate component in-house or purchasing it from a domestic supplier. We model outsourcing as a bilateral relationship in which the supplier undertakes relationship specific investments. A home and foreign firm compete in the home market. Firms’ mode of operation decision depends on cost and strategic considerations. Competitive pressure increases firms’ incentive to...

  18. Competition, liquidity and stability: international evidence at the bank and systemic levels

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Ngoc My

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of market power on bank liquidity; the association between competition and systemic liquidity; and whether the associations between liquidity and stability at both bank- and systemic- levels are affected by competition. The first research question is explored in the context of 101 countries over 1996-2013 while the second and the third, which require listed banks, use a smaller sample of 32 nations during 2001-2013. The Panel Least Squares and the system Ge...

  19. Construction of Electronics Database for East Asian Countries and Empirical Analysis of International Competitiveness of Japanese Companies (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    The international competitiveness of Japanese electronics firms is fading as firms in East Asian countries such as China, Korea, and Taiwan catch up. In this paper, we have constructed an electronics industry database from 1996 to 2005 for China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States. It covers industrial statistics in these countries including trade and overseas production statistics, which makes it possible to control for global production activities of electronics firms. We have also...

  20. Analyzing the international competitiveness of the industry in Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain using revealed comparative advantages (RCA) indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Oelgemöller, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the export structure of the four European countries Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain, the so called PIGS countries. These countries were all hit by the economic downturn in the course of the financial crisis and have been struggling with the national debt crisis and recession. One way to identify sectoral international competitiveness is provided by the revealed comparative advantage index developed by Balassa (RCA 1). This indicator evolved through several studie...

  1. Internal resources as applied to differential competitive adaptation process in strategic business sector hotels in Curitiba: comparative study of cases

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Antônio João Hocayen da; Teixeira, Rivanda Meira

    2010-01-01

    Curitiba’s hotel sector has become very attractive to both national and international hotel chains due to the settling of several car-makers in the late 90’s, once accomodation was widely on demand. Therefore organizations part of the hotel industry were inserted in a highly competitive environment in which small, medium and large traditional companies in the hotel business as well as national and international hotel chains have settled in Curitiba for the past few years are all part of. Thus...

  2. Forum Spanish leading brands, experience of international competitiveness; El foro de marcas renombras espanolas, una experiencia para la competitividad internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonet Feffer, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    In 1999, the Leading Brands of Spain Forum was created as an institution with a mixed nature, public and private, whose main mission is the defence and promotion of the Spanish renowned and well-known brands strongly internationalized, as basic elements for the international competitiveness of our country. Since then, its activity has focused on the strategic importance of these intangible assets of the companies and the country, its leading brands, on which the international positioning of the Spain Brand will strongly rely on. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Fiscal Policy Problems Under Conditions Of Financial Liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Urazayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article under the title deals with the difficulties in pursuing national fiscal policy in conditions of international financial liberalization. The author analyzes the nature of liberalization of international capital flows and its positive and negative consequences for the economies of the countries which participate in global capital movement. The author especially highlights the fact that international financial liberalization often leads to economic crises and what is even more important to their rapid spread between countries due to their growing financial interdependence. The author distinguishes two groups of fiscal policy problems in conditions of international financial liberalization. The first group includes problems arising due to quick spread of the crises due to eliminating restrictions on crossborder capital flows. These are reduction in taxes and at the same time increase in budget spending, which often happens unexpectedly and substantially impedes fiscal policy. To illustrate these points the author refers to the statistics on Spain, the USA and the OECD as a whole. Moreover countries face another range of problems regardless of the business cycle phase. In the short term it is the necessity of large scale structural economic reforms to achieve the required level of financial liberalization, which often is a heavy burden on the state budget. In the long term the attention is paid to the problem of tax competition between countries, which affects the instruments of fiscal policy. The author notes that the negative consequences of global financial liberalization are relevant not only for recipient countries but for donor countries as well and emphasizes such a burning issue as "capital flight".

  4. FISCAL POLICY PROBLEMS UNDER CONDITIONS OF FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Urazayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article under the title deals with the difficulties in pursuing national fiscal policy in conditions of international financial liberalization. The author analyzes the nature of liberalization of international capital flows and its positive and negative consequences for the economies of the countries which participate in global capital movement. The author especially highlights the fact that international financial liberalization often leads to economic crises and what is even more important to their rapid spread between countries due to their growing financial interdependence. The author distinguishes two groups of fiscal policy problems in conditions of international financial liberalization. The first group includes problems arising due to quick spread of the crises due to eliminating restrictions on crossborder capital flows. These are reduction in taxes and at the same time increase in budget spending, which often happens unexpectedly and substantially impedes fiscal policy. To illustrate these points the author refers to the statistics on Spain, the USA and the OECD as a whole. Moreover countries face another range of problems regardless of the business cycle phase. In the short term it is the necessity of large scale structural economic reforms to achieve the required level of financial liberalization, which often is a heavy burden on the state budget. In the long term the attention is paid to the problem of tax competition between countries, which affects the instruments of fiscal policy. The author notes that the negative consequences of global financial liberalization are relevant not only for recipient countries but for donor countries as well and emphasizes such a burning issue as "capital flight".

  5. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  6. International design competition - Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb - Formula Student Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van; Siebenpfeiffer, W. (eds.)

    2007-11-15

    Following its great success last year, Formula Student Germany made an even more impressive impact at the second competition held at the Hockenheimring in 2007. This time, 1400 students from 14 nations came together to present the results of their development work to 5000 visitors and sponsors. At the end, the competition was won by the team from the University of Stuttgart - and ATZ/MTZ would like to congratulate them on their victory. The special character of Formula Student, however, means that everyone has something to celebrate. The enthusiasm and commitment of the teams not only resulted in exciting racing cars and innovative overall designs but also in a fantastic atmosphere. (orig.)

  7. Preliminary reports on fiscal 2000 results of project for subsidizing international joint research; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu josei jigyo seika hokoku kai yokoshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary reports on fiscal 2000 results of project for subsidizing international joint research sponsored by NEDO. For international joint research teams doing excellent studies, their research expenses are subsidized, thereby promoting international research exchange, enhancing international level of industrial technology and contributing to the formation of basis for innovative industrial technology. The projects relating to the global environmental field are implemented jointly with RITE. The contents of the report to be published are, in the global environmental field (practicability study), development of oil substitute resources, reproducible resources, and technologies for producing polymeric and plastic materials benign to the earth by microorganism using carbon dioxide. In the substance/material field, the contents of the report are innovative production and device application of tunable photonic crystals using electronic penetration network; development of new synthesis process of innovative nitride, creation and theoretical calculation of electromagnetic function; studies on quantum transportation in superconductor and semiconductor bonding structures; and studies on quantum liquid and solid, and application to materials science and technology. (NEDO)

  8. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  9. ACADEMIC PARTNERSHIP AND GENERATION OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: THE CASE OF THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF RESEARCHERS ON COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the objective to demonstrate the contributions achieved by the International Network of Researchers in Competitiveness (INRCO in academic collaboration and scientific knowledge generation. Part of the assumption sustaining that economic globalization processes, information and communication technologies revolution lead to the increasing environmental complexity and uncertainty of a knowledge society. One answer is the study and analysis of competitiveness considered as the strategy to achieve higher levels of economic growth and socio-cultural development in all micro, meso and macro levels. The method used is the analytic-deductive based on the evidence of related data with the activity and results in publications of the International Network of Researchers in Competitiveness. Consequently, it has been adapted certain speculative notions in a theoretical analysis exploring the social dynamics of the scientific activities. It is concluded that the management of the researchers’ dynamic network is capable to generate, apply and recycle the critical knowledge and the assets of academic and scientific talent through a dynamic combination of resources that have a position inside the formal e informal borders and between these borders of participant academics and institutions.

  10. Mass Customization as Innovation Driver of International Competitiveness in Peripheral Regional SME Subcontractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taps, Stig B.; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    practices that can be exploited as competitive capabilities. This paper suggests that an open network structure demands a transformation of peripheral-located SME subcontractor from traditional customized producer to mass customized producer. Mass customization as an instrument for the transformation...

  11. Competitive drivers and international plant configuration strategies: A product level test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.; Sleuwaegen, L.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of the decision to invest abroad and the choice of spatial configurations of overseas plants for 120 Japanese firms active in 36 well-defined electronic product markets. We find that key competitive drivers at the firm and industry levels have a critical impact on the

  12. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector : International comparison base year 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this report the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI), an independent research institute of Wageningen UR (University and Research) in the Netherlands, presents the results of a study on the competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector. The production costs for poultry meat are

  13. Competitiveness of the EU egg industry. International comparison base year 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this report the impact of reducing or removing import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2013 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder,

  14. International competition in vertically differentiated markets with innovation and imitation: trade policy versus free trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováč, E.; Žigić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 323 (2014), s. 491-521 ISSN 0013-0427 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : model of price competition * trade policy * free trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.045, year: 2014

  15. International competitiveness and leakage: A case study of the European steel industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, O.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study develops and applies an analytical framework for examining the determinants of carbon leakage and competitiveness. The study has a long-term perspective and focuses on the European steel industry. For the case study, a CGE model is used to develop feasible scenarios of the evolution of

  16. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebchen, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [de

  17. Japan's Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ihori, Toshihiro; Nakamoto, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy and the fiscal reconstruction movement in Japan. We first summarize Japan's fiscal policy in recent years and discuss advantages and disadvantages of government deficits. Next, we investigate the macroeconomic effects of Japanese fiscal policy and evaluate the plausibility of non-Keynesian effects. We also analyze the possibility of the crowding-in effect of fiscal policy and investigate the spillover effects of deregulation. ...

  18. The Impacts of Climate Change Negotiation on Domestic Industrial Structure and International Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Yoon Young [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    environmental impacts on South Korea. On the whole, the Kyoto Protocol has the potential to cause profound economic changes in individual countries and the wider global economy. From an economic perspective the setting of greenhouse gas emission targets in the Kyoto Protocol was the key decision taken at Kyoto because of the significant implications on economic and trade competitiveness they hold. Now that individual Annex I country targets have been set, the international debate has shifted toward the question of cost effective and environmentally credible implementation of the Protocol and the way of participation of developing countries including South Korea to contribute to the global efforts for greenhouse gas emission reduction. It is believed that the ongoing climate change negotiation could create the structural changes of industries in South Korea. This new situation will bring South Korea to an unfamiliar economic and social environment. (author). 76 refs., 41 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL AMORTIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA GURAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the international trend, Romanian accounting had experienced various changes, especially as regards of progress on disconnection between accounting and fiscality. In the present, fiscal rules should not have any role in accounting decisions, because accounting rules are applied to produce accounting information that is useful in making decisions and to provide a "true and fair view" upon financial reality of the entity. However, the barrier in the habit of accounting to thinking for fiscal point of view all economic transactions remains insurmountable, yet. Starting from this perspective on disconnection between accounting and fiscality would mean that amortization recorded in the accounting, as a result of management policy, to be different from fiscality amortization, to calculate income tax. Although formally accepted, disconnect between accounting and fiscality continues to meet many difficulties. In this sense, it is usual in practice to use the same method of amortization for accounting purposes and for fiscal purposes to prevent complications of double track amortization and prevent wandering in the rules in this field. Accounting rule is deliberately eluded in favor of the fiscal rules. This is the reason we proposed to make in this paper a comparative study between norms and rules on accounting and fiscal amortization, paper in which we intend to show the benefits of applying accounting and fiscal rules separately.

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. FS surveys to excavate international joint research seeds; 1999 nendo kokusai kyodo kenky seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The FS surveys to excavate international joint research seeds are intended to promote international joint researches, whereas surveys have been carried out in fiscal 1999 on eight themes covering as wide scope as new energies, resource conservation, energy conservation, environment preservation, functional materials, information communication technologies, and bio-technologies. The eight themes are: researches on energy conservation in petroleum and petrochemical industries by using advanced distillation processes (to develop an internal heat exchange type distillation column, and realize energy conservation exceeding the minimum reflux status being the limitation of conventional energy saving means), researches on treatment of hard-to-decompose chemical substances by utilizing surface reformation by means of discharge, a new process monitoring technology (process tomography), establishment of human immortalization cells due to co-manifestation of mortalin and telomerase and elucidation of their structure, a remote maintenance technology using integrated type sensors, application of new heat resistant plastics to photo and electronic materials, preparation processes of petroleum catalysts utilizing in situ XAFS, elucidation and design of the structure of the ultra-micro metal activation point in the reaction process, and surveys on necessity of developing a continuous and massive separation system of high-level energy and resource saving type using liquid-liquid distribution. (NEDO)

  1. The Effect of the Internal Side of Social Responsibility on Firm Competitive Success in the Business Services Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Sánchez-Hernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the internal side of social responsibility of organizations in a regional context. Through a survey of 590 managers in classical business services (human-capital intensive and representative of the productive economy of the Region of Extremadura (Spain, an empirical analysis is conducted. First, a factor analysis is conducted to explore the main dimensions of the internal face of Social Responsibility and second, a structural equations model is developed to look for a relationship with business competitiveness. Business performance and innovation are also considered in the model. The main contribution of the article is the establishment of a set of indicators that will help to build an ongoing and meaningful dialogue with employees improving their quality of life at work that will also serve as important guidance for the increasing of the firm’s competitiveness through responsible human resources practices. Some suggestions for a research agenda emerge from this first attempt to approach the internal side of responsibility in business.

  2. Proceedings of the international conference on nuclear power competitiveness in the next two decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this conference is to analyse the different elements that can have an influence on the cost of generating nucleo- electricity. Besides the usual predominant factors as fuel supply, personnel and maintenance that enter in the costs of any electricity generating method, nuclear power generation suffers the extra burden of severe regulatory demands, high decommissioning and insurance costs and an adverse public opinion that can effect competitiveness. Countries that can keep the nuclear option open during this difficult period will be the leaders in the future, those that cannot survive will become hopelessly energy dependent. Almost one hundred contributions gathered in these volume, as a result of presentations at the conference from participants from 22 countries, will contribute to increase competitiveness of nuclear power generation and, if possible, develop new ideas to help solve the present crisis in the nuclear sector. refs., ills

  3. Proceedings of the international conference on nuclear power competitiveness in the next two decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to analyse the different elements that can have an influence on the cost of generating nucleo- electricity. Besides the usual predominant factors as fuel supply, personnel and maintenance that enter in the costs of any electricity generating method, nuclear power generation suffers the extra burden of severe regulatory demands, high decommissioning and insurance costs and an adverse public opinion that can effect competitiveness. Countries that can keep the nuclear option open during this difficult period will be the leaders in the future, those that cannot survive will become hopelessly energy dependent. Almost one hundred contributions gathered in these volume, as a result of presentations at the conference from participants from 22 countries, will contribute to increase competitiveness of nuclear power generation and, if possible, develop new ideas to help solve the present crisis in the nuclear sector. refs., ills.

  4. Smart City as Framework for Creating Competitive Advantages in International Business Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sofronijević

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the essence of the Smart City concept and opportunities for the creation of competitive advantages arising in the framework generated by this concept. Various elements of a Smart City are analysed and related to different options for economic growth and business innovation improvement. Possibilities arising from networking and clustering in Creative Cities are listed along with some details of advantages provided by a symbiosis of information and communication technologies and creativity to companies operating in such environments. Managerial aspects of the Internet of Things are presented and identified as a basis for the Smart City outlook, but also as a major prospect to develop certain business opportunities leading to competitive advantages for companies operating out of smart cities.

  5. Smart City as Framework for Creating Competitive Advantages in International Business Management

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Sofronijević; Vesna Milićević; Bojan Ilić

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the essence of the Smart City concept and opportunities for the creation of competitive advantages arising in the framework generated by this concept. Various elements of a Smart City are analysed and related to different options for economic growth and business innovation improvement. Possibilities arising from networking and clustering in Creative Cities are listed along with some details of advantages provided by a symbiosis of information and communication technologies ...

  6. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves sprint performance during an international rugby sevens competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Muñoz, Gloria; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on physical performance during a rugby sevens competition. A second purpose was to investigate the post-competition urinary caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. On two non-consecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish National rugby sevens Team (mean age and body mass = 23 ± 2 years and 66 ± 7 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure(®), ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a 6 × 30 m sprint test, and then played three rugby sevens games against another national team. Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the games were assessed using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Urine samples were obtained pre and post-competition. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the energy drink increased muscle power output during the jump series (23.5 ± 10.1 vs. 25.6 ± 11.8 kW, P = 0.05), running pace during the games (87.5 ± 8.3 vs. 95.4 ± 12.7 m/min, P caffeine concentration than the placebo (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL; P caffeine in the form of a commercially available energy drink considerably enhanced physical performance during a women's rugby sevens competition.

  7. New fiscal crisis Nueva crisis fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Giraldo César

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal deficit in Latin America is currently caused by the external and internal debt, and the fact that economic authorities have lost the ability to manage an important part of macroeconomic policy as a result of the process of decentralization. Along with less macroeconomic control, destabilizing factors increase due to the greater mobility of international financial markets, where any changein signals provokes abrupt and massive movements of capital in favor of or against a country. This problem is aggravated by the dismantling of the principal regulations, especially those relating to exchange controls, foreign investment, and international trade. Fiscal policyends up defending the stability of the main economic variables, in anuncertain and unpredictable context determined by an autonomous finance capital. It defends the stability of three key prices: inflation, currency, and interest rateo An abrupt change in any of these may depreciate the real value of financial assets, with which financial wealth would disappear like foam.El déficit fiscal en América Latina se origina actualmente en las deuda externa e interna, y en que la autoridad económica ha perdido el manejo de una parte importante de la política macroeconómica como resultado del proceso de descentralización. A la par del menor control macroeconómico, los factores desestabilizadores aumentan por la mayor movilidad de mercados financieros internacionales, donde cualquier cambio en las señales suscita movimientos de capital abruptos y masivos en favor o en contra de un país. Este problema se agrava con el desmonte de las principales regulaciones, en especial a las referidas al control cambiario, la inversión extrnajera y el comercio internacional. La política fiscal termina defendiendo la estabilidad de las principales variables macroeconómicas, en un contexto incierto e impredecible determinado por un capital financiero autónomo. Defiende la estabilidad de tres

  8. Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Malagoni

    Full Text Available The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention.For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000 and post (2001-2007 the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015, were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase.The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

  9. Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagoni, Anna Maria; Lamberti, Nicola; Carrabre, James E; Litmanen, Hannu; Jeannier, Pierre; Zhukovskaja, Larisa; Dal Follo, Donatella; Zambon, Christel; Resch, Nicole; Manfredini, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention. For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance) were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget. The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase. The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

  10. International trade in services developments in light of dynamic developments in competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olefir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses theoretical grounds for determining «services», key peculiarities of international trade in services and its discrepancies from trade in goods, and determines the modern trends of development of this form of international trade according to the main types of services.

  11. Importance of pharmaceutical laboratory compliance with international standard requirements in respect of raising their competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božanić Vojislav N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP being a legal regulation in developed countries will become a legal regulation in Republic of Serbia starting with March 2010. In this paper comparative analysis between requirements of standard ISO/IEC 17025 and requirements of cEU GMP is shown. Considering the fact that in Republic of Serbia no pharmaceutical industry laboratory has been accredited according to requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, while keeping in mind that more than 90% of these laboratories have not fulfilled cEU GMP requirements, this paper aimed at pointing to the possibility of fulfilling both of mentioned requirements at the same time, which would open the way to different types of interlaboratory cooperation for pharmaceutical quality control laboratories and contribute to improving competitiveness of pharmaceutical companies. Accreditation, especially in the case of pharmaceutical quality control laboratories, is important because it guaranties the level of organizational and technical competency. It could easily be said that accreditation is becoming a must in quality control of products in order for the organization to be able to gain a leading role in the global market. Both accreditation and cGMP show the organization's commitment to having products of highest quality level. Considering the above mentioned facts, it is of greatest advantage for pharmaceutical quality control laboratories to fulfill both requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and cGMP and reach total compliance. The aim of doing this lies in an easier acceptance of pharmaceutical products in different markets, overcoming technical barriers and affirmation of quality as key factor in reaching competitiveness, while keeping in mind the importance of strategic and competitive positioning in the global market.

  12. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies. What do trade figures tell us? The case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish economy has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products this country exports to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of this country may...... therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  13. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of feasibility of international cooperation in the transfer of technology; 1999 nendo gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Among the activity goals of CTI (climate technology initiative), which is a framework designed to encourage international cooperation of leading nations in the voluntary development and diffusion of technologies supposed to contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, there is the promotion of the transfer and diffusion of climate change preventing technologies. To achieve the goal, energy efficiency oriented workshops will be held as part of the training for the raising of people skilled in energy saving, the results will be examined, the achievements attained at such events will be introduced at COP5 (Conference of the Parties at Bonn), and the responses of the respective countries will be reviewed, all these for the investigation of the feasibility of international cooperation for raising people dedicated to the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. In this fiscal year, aiming to make clear the possibility of contribution to the transfer of software-related technologies through cooperation of multiple nations, lecturers from leading countries and participants from developing nations met, held a workshop over energy efficiency technologies, and the results were compiled. (NEDO)

  14. Globalization, Inequality, Say’s Law, and Fiscal Globalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos T. Soldatos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief note maintaining that financial globalization has been faster than the integration of the remaining sectors of the world economy, thus encouraging wealth inequality, under-production, and under-consumption in line with Say’s Law. Financial investment has become more profitable than real investment, discouraging production ventures, and weakening labor’s relative income position and purchasing power. Moreover, this article works out a model of international government indirect tax competition as a policy means against increasing inequality. The mentality under which this tax policy paradigm is put forward is that the competition of nation states in a fiscal globalism fashion crystallizes the optimal level of centralization under globalism; optimal, that is, from the viewpoint of safeguarding against the manipulation of world markets by financiers.

  15. Does more international transmission capacity increase competition in the Belgian electricity market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, G.; Delarue, E.; Delvaux, B.; Meeus, L.; Bekaert, D.; Willems, Bert; Proost, S.; D'haeseleer, W.; Deketelaere, K.; Belmans, R.

    2009-01-01

    From a national market perspective, taking transmission capacity into account reduces current concentration measures, although they remain fairly high even after substantial capacity increases. From an international perspective, a more efficient use of current transmission capacity by coupling

  16. Responsabilidad fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alberto Restrepo-Medina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Una de las características distintivas del sistema constitucional adoptado en 1991 es el desarrollo de mecanismos de control al ejercicio de la autoridad, uno de los cuales es el control fiscal, que bajo un tratamiento normativo diferente del vigente hasta entonces, se orienta a la preservación de los recursos públicos y a su aplicación a los fines esenciales del Estado. Dentro del nuevo esquema constitucional del control fiscal, su objeto de vigilancia lo constituye la gestión fiscal, cuyo ejercicio inadecuado, lesivo del erario, da lugar a la deducción de la consecuente responsabilidad patrimonial por parte de las contralorías. Ante la ausencia de desarrollo legal dada la precariedad de la regulación procesal contenida en la Ley 42 de 1993, la evolución conceptual al respecto fue asumida por las altas cortes hasta la expedición de la Ley 610 de 2000. Sin embargo, la demora en la expedición del estatuto legal que desarrollara integralmente el ejercicio de esta atribución de las contralorías, impide efectuar un juicio sobre las bondades o las fallas de la existencia y aplicación de esta institución jurídica de estirpe constitucional.

  17. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Dae O

    2008-01-01

    ...) through competitiveness analysis is required. Thus, it is necessary to develop appropriate models for analyzing the Korean NDI and to conduct competitiveness analysis by using the developed model...

  18. Student Intern Ben Freed Competes as Finalist in Intel STS Competition, Three Other Interns Named Semifinalists | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Werner H. Kirstin (WHK) student intern Ben Freed was one of 40 finalists to compete in the Intel Science Talent Search (STS) in Washington, DC, in March. “It was seven intense days of interacting with amazing judges and incredibly smart and interesting students. We met President Obama, and then the MIT astronomy lab named minor planets after each

  19. FameLab: A Communication Skills-Building Program Disguised as an International Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalice, D.

    2015-12-01

    One of the key pieces of training missing from most graduate studies in science is skills-building in communication. Beyond the responsibility to share their work with the public, good communication skills enhance a scientist's career path, facilitating comprehension of their work by stakeholders and funders, as well as increasing the ability to collaborate interdisciplinarily. FameLab, an American Idol-style communication competition for early career scientists, helps fill this void, and provides an opportunity to pratice communication skills, with the coaching of professionals, in a safe space. The focus is on training and networking with like-minded scientists. NASA's Astrobiology Program has been implementing FameLab in the US since 2011, but over 25 countries take part globally. Come learn about this innovative program, what impact it's had on participants, and how you can get involved.

  20. Daring to Be Different: How Differentiation Strategies Help Determine the Educational Success and Fiscal Health of International Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James

    2007-01-01

    The differences among international schools have important educational and economic implications for international education. From a foundation of theory developed for the business world, this article examines ways in which school leaders can consciously differentiate their schools to improve the quality of education and better assure the fiscal…

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL ORGANISATION OF RAPIDLY GROWING COMPANIES FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of a company’s legal form for the process of internationalisation using a sample of 1577 Slovenian companies. We refer to previous studies and on the basis of additional statistical data evaluate whether the choice of corporate legal structure influences a company’s ability to compete internationally. In the domestic market, most companies operate as limited liability companies; this is also the most frequent legal form in which companies enter foreign markets. We conclude that the form by itself does not influence the decision to go international.

  2. On the relationship between competitive flow and FFT analysis of the flow waves in the left internal mammary artery graft in the process of CABG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Boyan; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Zhou; Zhao, Xi; Li, Lanlan; Zhang, Huixia; Liu, Youjun

    2016-12-28

    During coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the ratio of powers of the fundamental frequency and its first harmonic (F0/H1) in fast Fourier transformation (FFT) analysis of the graft's flow waves has been used in the field of evaluation of the patency in anastomosis. But there is no report about using the FFT method to evaluate the magnitude of competitive flow. This study is aiming at exploring the relationship between competitive flow and FFT analysis of the flow waves in left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft, and finding a new method to evaluate the magnitude of competitive flow. At first, establishing the CABG multiscale models of different stenosis in left anterior descending artery (LAD) to get different magnitude of competitive flows. Then, calculating the models by ANSYS-CFX and getting the flow waves in LIMA. Finally, analyzing the flow waves by FFT method and comparing the FFT results with the magnitude of competitive flow. There is no relationship between competitive flow and F0/H1. As for F0/H2 and F0/H3, they both increase with the reduction of the stenosis in LAD. But the increase of F0/H3 is not obviously enough and it can't identify the significant competitive flow clearly, so it can't be used as the evaluation index. It is found that F0/H2 increases obviously with the increase of the competitive flow and can identify the significant competitive flow. The FFT method can be used in the evaluation of competitive flow and the F0/H2 is the ideal index. High F0/H2 refers to the significant competitive flow. This method can be used during CABG to avoid the risk of competitive flow.

  3. Transnational Mobility and International Academic Employment: Gatekeeping in an Academic Competition Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon concepts developed in recent empirical and theoretical work on high skilled and academic mobility and migration including accidental mobility, forced mobility and negotiated mobility. These concepts inform a situated, qualitative study of mobility among international postdoctoral researchers in life sciences and engineering…

  4. Competitive Universities? The Impact of International and European Trends on Academic Institutions in the "New Europe"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakowska, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    This contribution examines the domestic reinterpretations of international and European recommendations in Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs). It asks under what conditions these institutional recommendations, but also global processes such as the university rankings, affect domestic public policies. The countries of Central and…

  5. Global Cultural Capital and Global Positional Competition: International Graduate Students' Transnational Occupational Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongyoung

    2016-01-01

    International graduate students' occupational trajectories have rarely been studied, although many studies exist on their learning experiences in foreign universities. Based on 80 qualitative interviews, this article aims to understand how, where, and why these students obtain jobs in academe and corporations. I focus particularly on Korean…

  6. EURO AREA FISCAL STRUCTURES. A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HURDUZEU Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European framework for fiscal policies is constructed mainly on the objective of monitoring budget balances and public debt, allowing national governments to decide on the specific fiscal policy that is more suitable to their internal context and public needs. However, for Euro Area member states this autonomy is restricted by the conditions imposed through the Stability and Growth Pact. As the recent macroeconomic dynamics underlined the necesity of improving the fiscal outcomes, the fiscal framework was updated and modified by the provisions of the new European economic governance meant to avoid unsound and unsustainable fiscal policies that could affect the stability of other Euro Area member states. The Six-Pack, the Fiscal Compact and the other conditions imposed by the reform of the fiscal governance framework are meant to ensure more discipline in drafting and executing national budgets. Even so, national authorities maintain their fiscal sovereignty and the decision regarding fiscal structures remains at their disposal, as long as the drafts are approved and the outcomes are maintained in the limits imposed through the supranational fiscal framework. Regardless of the numerous differences between member states, similar trends regarding tax mixes can be noticed in time. The objectives of this paper is to analyze fiscal structures of Euro Area member states and to determine, if any, groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and the similarities that characterize Euro Area in this respect. In order to have a clear overview of fiscal structures within Euro Area, we analyzed data for 17 member states, for year 2012, taking into consideration total general government revenue, indirect taxation, direct taxation and social contributions. As one of the aims of this paper is to determine whether in Euro Area the main contributors are corporations or individuals, we also analyzed the structure of direct taxation, dividing it into

  7. International technology-determined competitiveness and research and technology policy. A comparative study. Internationale technologiebestimmte Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit und Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik. Eine komparative Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, R

    1987-01-01

    The study answers the following questions: What is international technological competition. How are the framework requirements, regarding innovation of chosen countries in Europe, Japan and the USA made available. To what extent and with which instruments are the countries under investigation prepared to engage in technological competition. Point of departure was the supposition that the international competitiveness of a country depends increasingly on the innovation capacity of its industries. Technological innovations then become a specific means of competition. It was ascertained that the technical complexity of the systems and products, the cost accumulation and the availability of qualified personnel are amongst the greatest problems of the industry of a country and, at the same time, offer starting points for a state-run research and technology policies. (orig./HSCH).

  8. International Competitiveness of the Maquiladoras in the Context of NAFTA-Functioning: Experience for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygorova-Berenda Larysa I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the emergence of the maquiladoras in Mexico, their evolution, characteristics and stages of development. The theoretical background of the maquiladoras is considered from the position of the product life cycle theory. As one of the preconditions for the emergence of the socalled «golden age» of the maquiladoras served a powerful devaluation of the Mexican peso in the mid 1990's. Along with this, a number of authors have noted the non-obviousness of economic successes in the whole economy of Mexico. The current stage is characterized by the transition of the maquiladoras from assembling and simple productions towards the producing innovative products and marketing their own brands. It is noted that among the investors in the maquiladoras, in contrary to the American TNCs, the number of companies from Southeast Asia and Europe is still growing. The author concludes that in the middle of the 1990's the maquiladoras were transformed from the special economic cross-border trade along with investments with the United States, which had a local character, into a classical free trade zone. The article contains an attempt to extrapolate the experience of the maquiladoras on interaction in the creation of a free trade zone with the US-market, against the background of the growing competition from Southeast Asian countries at the US-market, considering the current trade relations of Ukraine with the EU.

  9. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of international cooperation over energy use rationalization techniques; 1999 nendo energy shiyo gorika shuho kokusai kyoryoku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the past, studies have been conducted involving the possibility of development of information offering techniques for the realization of sustainable society, for which LCA (life cycle assessment) as a tool for reducing energy consumption and environmental impact is investigated and case studies are conducted in this connection. In this fiscal year, for the purpose of deliberating how to utilize the LCA results, a survey is conducted of how LCA is being used as a tool for constructing an environmental management system set forth in the ISO14000 series, by holding conferences with LCA researchers representing the respective countries involved. Investigations are conducted into the actualities of the environmental management system, environmental performance assessment, and environmental labelling whose standardization has been under way in compliance with the ISO14000 series, into the actualities of matters relating to assessment techniques and decision making such as environmentally-friendly designing, supply chain management, reports on environments, etc., which are becoming established in enterprises, and into the actualities of access to and disclosure of information. International cooperative researches are conducted, participated in by five leading organizations of Sweden, Germany, Denmark, and Canada, and Japan's National Institute for Resources and Development, where actual states of LCA utilization are introduced and improvement on LCA techniques are discussed. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of international cooperation over energy use rationalization techniques; 1999 nendo energy shiyo gorika shuho kokusai kyoryoku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the past, studies have been conducted involving the possibility of development of information offering techniques for the realization of sustainable society, for which LCA (life cycle assessment) as a tool for reducing energy consumption and environmental impact is investigated and case studies are conducted in this connection. In this fiscal year, for the purpose of deliberating how to utilize the LCA results, a survey is conducted of how LCA is being used as a tool for constructing an environmental management system set forth in the ISO14000 series, by holding conferences with LCA researchers representing the respective countries involved. Investigations are conducted into the actualities of the environmental management system, environmental performance assessment, and environmental labelling whose standardization has been under way in compliance with the ISO14000 series, into the actualities of matters relating to assessment techniques and decision making such as environmentally-friendly designing, supply chain management, reports on environments, etc., which are becoming established in enterprises, and into the actualities of access to and disclosure of information. International cooperative researches are conducted, participated in by five leading organizations of Sweden, Germany, Denmark, and Canada, and Japan's National Institute for Resources and Development, where actual states of LCA utilization are introduced and improvement on LCA techniques are discussed. (NEDO)

  11. [Competitiveness in science. Today, tomorrow, and forever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bold, A J

    2000-01-01

    Paternalistic governments and highly bureaucratized administrations produce mediocre science policy decisions that often allow for the co-existence of potentially competitive scientists alongside with those that are not. This invariably results in failure to produce significant research. It seems apparent therefore, that policy change aiming at improving science and technology must begin with intensification of the level of individual competitiveness. Nations that have internationally competitive levels of technical and scientific activity such as Japan, USA and Canada, share in common certain features that foster individual competitiveness despite the fact that their socioeconomic basis are vastly different. These common features include administrative continuity, very high academic standards and a highly educated work force. The scientist's emotional cost in competitive environments is high but there seems to be no alternative given the sophistication of the topics that are dealt with in formerly purely descriptive sciences such as biomedicine, and given the enormous speed of electronic communications. The role of governments in fostering science and technology should be mainly concerned with conducting a sound fiscal policy in order to provide for the needs of education and scientific activity. Governments can also play a key role in insuring that science remains competitive through the delineation of rules that increase individual competitiveness rather than with policy schemes that fail to directly address the responsibility of the individual. Policies to increase individuals' performance may prove costly to politicians given that these adjustments imply unpopular decisions regarding an increase in academic performance expectation beginning in high school and the re-assignment of functions of individuals or institutions that do not meet international productivity criteria.

  12. THE LINK BETWEEN ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lăzărescu (Marinescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, controversies have arisen concerning the link between accounting and fiscal evasion, which are the object of debates among specialists from different specialized organizations from many countries. Under the term of “creative accounting”, the American and European tax systems have made up an ensemble of accounting mechanisms and also of fiscal manipulation which increased the interest and involvement of the states in the mitigation of such fraud risks and fiscal subterfuges whose percentage in the countries’ GDP varies from 8 to 80%. Starting from the SWOT analysis of tax evasion in the real and underground economy, the specialists of the liberal trades are called to join the fight against fiscal fraud and share their professionalism in creating a real competitive environment characterized by fair play.

  13. China’s steel industry as a driving force for economic growth and international competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Gh. H.; Nica, E.; Nicolăescu, E.; Lăzăroiu, G.

    2016-01-01

    The theory that we shall seek to elaborate here puts considerable emphasis on technological features of China’s steel production, its emergence as the world’s most significant steel producer and main manufacturing base, and the transitory decline in steel demand related to the international financial crisis. The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the global incorporation of China’s steel enterprises, its portion of worldwide steel consumption, and its industrial poli...

  14. Fiscal Transparency and Procyclical Fiscal Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    This paper examines why fiscal policy is procyclical in developing as well as developed countries. We introduce the concept of fiscal transparency into a model of retrospective voting, in which a political agency problem between voters and politicians generates a procyclical bias in government...... spending. The introduction of fiscal transparency generates two new predictions: 1) the procyclical bias in fiscal policy arises only in good times; and 2) a higher degree of fiscal transparency reduces the bias in good times. We find solid empirical support for both predictions using data on both OECD...

  15. Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability : Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The changing manufacturing environment requires more responsive and adaptable manufacturing systems. The theme of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production (CARV2011) is “Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability”. Leading edge research and best implementation practices and experiences, which address these important issues and challenges, are presented. The proceedings include advances in manufacturing systems design, planning, evaluation, control and evolving paradigms such as mass customization, personalization, changeability, re-configurability and flexibility. New and important concepts such as the dynamic product families and platforms, co-evolution of products and systems, and methods for enhancing manufacturing systems’ economic sustainability and prolonging their life to produce more than one product generation are treated. Enablers of change in manufacturing systems, production volume and capability scalability and man...

  16. The International Competition for the Reclamation of the Hiriya Landfill: A National Israeli Symbol in the ‘Global’ Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Alon-Mozes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent international competition for the reclamation of the Hiriya landfill (2004, located in the centre of Israel’s metropolitan area, was the climax of a fiveyear project, in which the fifty-year-old landfill (1948–1998, Israel’s largest, became the focus of international artistic, planning and design activities.This paper discusses the Hiriya project in order to explore the reciprocity between local activity within the field of landscape architecture and the global arena of landscape architecture practice, focusing specifically on the reclamation of marginal landscapes.For many years, Hiriya served as a symbol of Zionists’ environmental neglect. Therefore, unsurprisingly, the reclamation of the site and the design of the metropolitan park surrounding it became a national symbol of regeneration, involving world-renowned experts. By examining the planning process, and particularly the recent design competition, this paper explores the relationship between the local and the global, and significantly, the difficulty of bridging these opposing stands visà- vis landscape reclamation. The design process proved that, to be part of the global arena, it is not enough to bring in foreign designers and let them play according to local rules. It requires frankness toward greater  global cultural changes that are beyond the sole activity of design. The design proposals exemplify complex and rich interpretations of local and global ideas by both local and foreign designers, but ultimately proving that at times, outsiders are more successful in grasping the site’s genius loci than locals. 

  17. THE MECHANISM OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION ININNOVATION COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESSSTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia S. Leontieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents mechanisms of organizational culture formation and development in the conditions of cross-cultural interaction on the example of the international enterprise structures - Hyundai Motor Corporation group of companies and its affiliated structures are considered: «Hyundai Glovis» and Russian company «Hyundai Glovis Russia». The Russian and Korean cultural aspects of business and daily communication feature of mentality of two cultures, the priority directions of development of organizational culture based on cross-cultural interaction are analyzed for this purpose.

  18. Competition between Bending and Internal Pressure Governs the Mechanics of Fluid Nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorselen, Daan; MacKintosh, Fred C; Roos, Wouter H; Wuite, Gijs J L

    2017-03-28

    Nanovesicles (∼100 nm) are ubiquitous in cell biology and an important vector for drug delivery. Mechanical properties of vesicles are known to influence cellular uptake, but the mechanism by which deformation dynamics affect internalization is poorly understood. This is partly due to the fact that experimental studies of the mechanics of such vesicles remain challenging, particularly at the nanometer scale where appropriate theoretical models have also been lacking. Here, we probe the mechanical properties of nanoscale liposomes using atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation. The mechanical response of the nanovesicles shows initial linear behavior and subsequent flattening corresponding to inward tether formation. We derive a quantitative model, including the competing effects of internal pressure and membrane bending, that corresponds well to these experimental observations. Our results are consistent with a bending modulus of the lipid bilayer of ∼14k b T. Surprisingly, we find that vesicle stiffness is pressure dominated for adherent vesicles under physiological conditions. Our experimental method and quantitative theory represents a robust approach to study the mechanics of nanoscale vesicles, which are abundant in biology, as well as being of interest for the rational design of liposomal vectors for drug delivery.

  19. Internal Branding and the Competitive Performance of Private Universities in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amegbe Hayford

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is in three fold. First, to examine the inter-relationship between internal branding and performance of private universities. Second, to examine customer-based brand equity (CBBE antecedents in predicting the performance of private universities. Third, to examine the effect of internal branding on the performance of private universities when brand loyalty levels are high among students. The sample comprises 213 male and 234 female students studying at various private universities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. In order to have fair representation of students from all levels of classification from all the private universities in Accra, convenience sampling was purposefully used to collect data from undergraduate students in the private universities sampled. The result of the study indicated that the dimensions of brand equity and private universities’ performance are positively related. The regression analyses indicate that there is a positively related predictive power of private universities performance by brand association and brand loyalty. However, the study did not find brand awareness and perceived quality to be positively related. The conclusion of the study is that the performance of private universities’ and brand equity depends on the high loyalty among students.

  20. Environmental regulation and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena

  1. Emission trading and international competition: The impact of labor market rigidity on technology adoption and output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparrós, Alejandro; Péreau, Jean-Christophe; Tazdaït, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Emission trading systems have been proposed in different regions to reduce polluting emissions and are in use in the European Union for carbon dioxide emissions. One of the objectives of these systems is to encourage firms to adopt advanced abatement technologies. However, permits also create an incentive to reduce output, which may be seen as negative by policy makers. We analyze the impact of a rigid labour market on these two outcomes, showing the conditions necessary to avoid reductions in production while keeping the incentives to improve abatement technologies. The analysis is done for oligopolistic firms engaged in international rivalry. - Highlights: ► Emission trading reduces production and improves abatement technologies. ► Policy makers see the first outcome as negative and the second as positive. ► This paper studies the impact of market rigidity on these two outcomes. ► It shows conditions to avoid the first outcome and maintain or enhance the second

  2. Ambush marketing vs. official sponsorship: is the international I.P. an unfair competition regime a good referee?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pardo Amézquita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambush marketing is a practice that will usually occurs in large-scale events, is not a sponsor seeks to gain benefits of brand exposure and awareness in a context that it would otherwise be available only to official sponsors. This paper addresses why and to what extend ambush marketing be contrasted, provided that it is a practice that current intellectual property and competition law has been unable to deter as well as an alternative measures are difficult to adopt at an international level. This difficulty jeopardizes official sponsoring’s interest on major events and the events themselves. As a result, this paper will (i briefly examine the intersection between intellectual property rights and sport business in order to (ii encase ambush marketing as a controversial –yet not necessarily illegal- business practice that exploits another’s commercial effort and deflects attention from official sponsorship of major events. It will then present (iii the traditional and extraordinary legal responses to these practices, and the issues that they raise, to finally conclude that (iv there is an urgent need to harmonize, at an international level, the legality –or not- of the matter, regardless of (v the inherent ambush marketing paradoxes.

  3. The Role of Culture, Competitiveness and Economic Performance in Explaining Academic Performance: A Global Market Analysis for International Student Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Chris; Hamin

    2011-01-01

    A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…

  4. The Role of Government in Restoring International Competitiveness: the Case of Crisis Management in the Baltic States Economies versus Poland Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matysek-Jędrych

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between the government actions, global economic crisis, and competitiveness on a national and regional dimension. The Baltic States (i.e., Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have experienced one of the biggest Gross Domestic Product (GDP contractions during the Global Crisis so far. Meanwhile, Poland was the only country with a positive GDP growth in the European Union during the Global Crisis. Hence, identifying and assessing changes in the relative competitiveness, as a consequence of the economic downturn in both Baltic States and Poland, has sparked many interests.The main channel through which the crisis undermined competitiveness has been the macroeconomic situation. That is why employing single macroeconomic variables as proxies of competitiveness suggests a much stronger influence of the crisis on competitiveness in comparison to overall measures (e.g. Global Competitiveness Index. It may be generally concluded that a short-term crisis, even if severe, does not have a negative influence on international competitiveness as long as a proper anti-crisis policy is implemented and the country is small enough to react fast and adapt to new conditions in the global environment.

  5. FEATURES TO ENSURE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF REINSURANCE OPERATIONS OF THE CEDENT AND THE REINSURER IN THE DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Veretnov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of reinsurance operations significantly affect the competitiveness of the cedent and the reinsurer. At the same time, ensuring the competitiveness of reinsurance operations does not always lead to the economic efficiency of the cedent and the reinsurer. We give the definition of the concept of competitiveness of reinsurance operations. The features ensuring the competitiveness of reinsurance operations of the cedent and the reinsurer in the domestic and international insurance market. The use of these features allows you to not only improve the quality of reinsurance protection, which has a beneficial effect on the financial stability of the cedent, but provides such necessary, confidential professional and personal relationship of the cedent and the reinsurer.

  6. Current fundamental science challenges in low temperature plasma science that impact energy security and international competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebner, Greg

    2010-11-01

    Products and consumer goods that utilize low temperature plasmas at some point in their creation touch and enrich our lives on almost a continuous basis. Examples are many but include the tremendous advances in microelectronics and the pervasive nature of the internet, advanced material coatings that increase the strength and reliability of products from turbine engines to potato chip bags, and the recent national emphasis on energy efficient lighting and compact fluorescent bulbs. Each of these products owes their contributions to energy security and international competiveness to fundamental research investments. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the great commercial success of these products implies a robust understanding of the complicated interactions inherent in plasma systems. Rather, current development of the next generation of low temperature plasma enabled products and processes is clearly exposing a new set of exciting scientific challenges that require leaps in fundamental understanding and interdisciplinary research teams. Emerging applications such as liquid-plasma systems to improve water quality and remediate hazardous chemicals, plasma-assisted combustion to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions, and medical applications promise to improve our lives and the environment only if difficult science questions are solved. This talk will take a brief look back at the role of low temperature plasma science in enabling entirely new markets and then survey the next generation of emerging plasma applications. The emphasis will be on describing the key science questions and the opportunities for scientific cross cutting collaborations that underscore the need for increased outreach on the part of the plasma science community to improve visibility at the federal program level. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science for Fusion Energy Sciences, and Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated

  7. Analysis of Running and Technical Performance in Substitute Players in International Male Rugby Union Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Carling, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the patterns and performance of substitutions in 18 international 15-a-side men's rugby union matches. A semiautomatic computerized time-motion system compiled 750 performance observations for 375 players (422 forwards, 328 backs). Running and technical-performance measures included total distance run, high-intensity running (>18.0 km/h), number of individual ball possessions and passes, percentage of passes completed, and number of attempted and percentage of successful tackles. A total of 184 substitutions (85.2%) were attributed to tactical and 32 (14.8%) to injury purposes respectively. The mean period for non-injury-purpose substitutions in backs (17.7%) occurred between 70 and 75 min, while forward substitutions peaked equally between 50-55 and 60-65 min (16.4%). Substitutes generally demonstrated improved running performance compared with both starter players who completed games and players whom they replaced (small differences, ES -0.2 to 0.5) in both forwards and backs over their entire time played. There was also a trend for better running performance in forward and back substitutes over their first 10 min of play compared with the final 10 min for replaced players (small to moderate differences, ES 0.3-0.6). Finally, running performance in both forward and back substitutes was generally lower (ES -0.1 to 0.3, unclear or small differences) over their entire 2nd-half time played compared with their first 10 min of play. The impact of substitutes on technical performance was generally considered unclear. This information provides practitioners with practical data relating to the physical and technical contributions of substitutions that subsequently could enable optimization of their impact on match play.

  8. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. International study exchange project; 1999 nendo kokusai kenkyu koryru jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Exchange with overseas researchers and research organizations has important significance in promoting research and development toward creating new research areas and structuring new technological systems intended for solving global environment problems. In cooperation with RITE and RITE researchers and relevant learned societies, researchers were invited or dispatched to international conferences and international symposiums with regard to global environment related technologies. In addition to interaction with major overseas research institutions and universities, medium and long-term dispatch and invitation have been performed that are considered to play an important role in future research exchange activities based on the achievements of short-term invitations and dispatches and examinations with potential research exchanges. As a result, domestic and overseas interactions on the latest researches were performed, while basic and applied researches related to global environment technologies are being proceeded also in various areas of studies outside the country. It was identified that these exchange activities have close relationship with research and development of industrial technologies serving for global environment preservation, which are being promoted by RITE. (NEDO)

  9. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  10. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  11. International Competitiveness in Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This assessment continues the Office of Technology Assessment's (OTA) exploration of the meaning of industrial policy in the United States context, while also examining the industrial policies of several U.S. economic rivals. The major focus is on electronics, an area which virtually defines "high technology" of the 1980's. The…

  12. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, offshoring has become an established business practice. Yet it is still more common to offshore less advanced tasks compared with offshoring more advanced tasks, i.e., tasks closer to the core activities of the firm. The latter is a new phenomenon which raises many new iss...

  13. Fiscal sustainability and fiscal policy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    Analyses of fiscal sustainability have become integral parts of fiscal policy planning due to high debt levels and projected demographic changes. A popular metric by which to evaluate sustainability gaps is the so-called S2 metric given as the permanent change in the primary budget balance...... indicator can be given a normative interpretation, and this issue is extensively discussed. The paper ends by discussing the formulation of fiscal policy targets to ensure fiscal sustainability....... (relative to GDP) needed to meet the intertemporal budget constraint. While a very useful metric it also suffers from some problems, and the paper discusses some of the problems with this metric as a way to assess fiscal sustainability problems. A particular important issue is the extent to which the S2...

  14. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  15. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  16. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a

  17. An Internationally Competitive Economy: a Comparison of Poland and the Visegrad Group Countries in the Post‑Accession Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molendowski Edward

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an analysis comparing the competitive position of Poland and other countries of the Visegrad Group (V4 in the post‑accession period (2004-2015. The assumption is that among the V4 countries, Poland has joined those countries where the diverse effects of EU membership are clearly visible. In the study, analysis was applied to secondary data pertaining to pillars of economic competitiveness, as determined by the ‘Global Competitiveness Reports’ prepared by the World Economic Forum. The article ends with a list of vital conclusions based on the presented analysis.

  18. On the Logic of Separating the Fiscal Policy from the Fiscal Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Leonida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems yet to be solved in a satisfactorily manner in Romania is the decentralisation of the public administration. In general, by decentralisation we understand the separation of the central decision from the local (or regional decision based on the principle of subsidiarity. In our opinion, The National Agency for Fiscal Administration should function, in a decentralised manner, meaning outside of the Ministry of Public Finances. In support of this statement we will present two modules or arguments: a wewill first debate on the matter of public administration decentralisation; b second, we will debate in favour ofthe institutional separation of ANAF from the Ministry of Public Finances. Objectives: Implementation of concrete desire for decentralization of public administration; Identification of conceptual distinctions, structural and functional development of tax policy and administration of fiscal policy. Prior work: Assessment of net tax burden; Phillips curve assessment for Romania; Automatic fiscal stabilizers; Sustainability of fiscal policy. Approach: Logical analysis of the concepts involved in the study; Highlighting the distinctions of semantic and pragmatic nature of the concepts involved in the study. Results: decisive arguments concerning the desirability of the structural separation of the fiscal policy from the fiscal administration. Implications: providing arguments for a separation of fiscal policy decision to tax administration; a collection efficiency of budgetary obligations. Potential beneficiaries : The Ministry of Finance; the National Agency for Fiscal Administration; the Government of Romania; the Ministry ofInternal Affairs and Administration. Value: Contributions from conceptual nature: semantic separation of fiscal policy from tax administration; from methodological nature: demonstrating scientific research force of un application logic analysis method; from empirical nature: demonstrating the need

  19. Manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through international cooperation in fiscal 1995; Kan`i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Informatization using mainly computers is more and more important contributing to the upgrading in society, economy and a variety of fields. As to informatization in developing countries, however, there has still been few to be seen. Accordingly, gaps are getting larger between developing countries and developed countries where informatization is acceleratedly advanced. In the light of such actual state, Center of the International Cooperation for Computerization (CICC) contracted with NEDO and promoted a project `Manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through international cooperation.` This is a project to study jointly with five Asian countries with which NEDO made a basic contract, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Working group is set up for each theme such as automobiles/parts, electric home appliances/parts, and fiber/apparel, to study the construction of a model house and the design of a system. In fiscal 1994, the field survey was conducted, and in fiscal 1995 the system design was started. 16 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  1. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  2. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  3. Various clinical scenarios leading to development of the string sign of the internal thoracic artery after coronary bypass surgery: the role of competitive flow, a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolozsvari Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The left internal mammary artery (LIMA is the choice for grafting of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. One possible mechanism of the rare graft failure involve the presence of competitive flow. Method 105 patients who had undergone coronary bypass grafting between 1998 and 2000 were included in this observational study. The recatheterizations were performed 28 months after the operations. The rate of patency the LIMA grafts was determined, and the cases with graft failure were analyzed. Results The LIMA graft was patent in 99 patients (94%. Six patients (6% exhibited diffuse involution of the graft (string sign. The string sign was always associated with competitive flow as the basis of the LIMA graft involution. In one case quantitative re-evaluation of the preoperative coronary angiography revealed merely less than 50% diameter stenosis on the LAD with a nonligated side-branch of the LIMA. At recatheterization in two patients the pressure wire measurements demonstrated only a non-significant decrease of the fractional flow reserve (0.83 and 0.89, despite the 53% and 57% diameter stenosis in the angiogram. Another patient displayeda significant regression of the LAD lesion between the pre- and postoperative coronary angiography (from 76% to 44% as the cause of the development of the competitive flow. In one instance, a radial artery graft on the LAD during a redo bypass operation resulted in competitive flow in the radial graft due to the greater diameter than that of the LIMA. In a further patient, competitive flow developed from a short sequential part of the LIMA graft between the nonsignificantly stenosed diagonal branch and the LAD, with involution of the main part of the graft to the diagonal branch. Conclusions The most common cause of the development of the string sign of a LIMA graft due to competitive flow is overassessment of the lesion of the LAD. Regression of a previous lesion or some other

  4. Fiscal crime in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulić, Mirko; Milošević, Goran; Milašinović, Srđan

    2011-01-01

    There are various forms of attacks against the fiscal interests of the state, which, according to the current legislation, are gaining the character of criminal offences. In some states, there is a tendency of increase in number of fiscal criminal offences, which is the result of multiplication of illegal activities aiming at avoidance of payment of fiscal revenues. Changes in the development of state finances lead also to changes in the field of incriminations - over time some of them disapp...

  5. Petroleum fiscality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)

  6. A national competitiveness-based portfolio approach for international strategic management: illustrated with the case of the TATA industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Harms, Rainer; Banerjee, Shrestho

    2014-01-01

    International firms with multiple business units are dealing with the question of how to balance the international dimension of their business portfolio. Which business units should go international and where should they contract or expand their international activities? Previous research lacks

  7. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  8. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization for securement of interconnection between intelligent home electric appliances; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Johokadenkiki kan no sogo setsuzokusei kakuho no tameno hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development had been under way since fiscal 1998 for working out propositions relating to the international standardization of connection interface systems for digital AV (audio-visual) equipment. This report outlines the result of the project in its fiscal last year. The link working group (WG) actually built a transceiver at 5 mm pitch in its second trial, measured and evaluated its behavior under high-temperature and high-humidity circumstances, and acquired numerical data for interface specifications. The connection interface WG in its second trial fabricated a tiny optical connector for POF (plastic optical fiber) and evaluated its resistance to environment. As the result, sufficient resistance to environment was detected in the connector, and then a proposition was presented to IEC/TC86 that the connector be standardized as an optical connector for intelligent home electric appliances. The POF optimization WG performed an environment resistant test for POF, similar to those for transceivers and connectors, and then recognized that POF of the GI type was low in transmission loss and that it stably retained its wide-band feature. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal reform of fuel regulation in Brazil: recent developments and environmental implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, Miriam; Sauer, Ildo Luis; Guerra, Sinclair M.-G.

    2005-11-15

    Internationally the fossil fuel-based energy sector now faces increasing uncertainties due to changes in its fiscal regulation, prompted by pressure for environmental regulation. These changes typically eliminate some taxes at the beginning of the oil production chain, but compensate for these by increasing taxation on consumption. In Brazil, fiscal reform proposals focus not on environmental arguments but on the elimination of excess levies and red tape and on increasing equity across income classes. However, liberalization process of oil and gas industries in Brazil has led to modifications in fuels taxation. This article discusses current Brazilian fiscal policy as related to fossil fuels, explaining the nature of recently introduced contribution for economic regulation (Contribuicao de Intervencao ao Dominio Economico, CIDE) and the impacts on price formation. It also shows how those modifications tend to include external costs from activities in the fuel sector; through revenues from a levy earmarked for two purposes: i) funding investments in projects deemed to be environmentally beneficial, and, ii) improvements in road infrastructure aimed at reducing emissions from transportation. Some ideas on how to improve use of the levy to perk up fuel alcohol competitiveness are also discussed. (Author)

  10. The Competitiveness-Crisis Nexus in the EU Politics of Internal Devaluation. A Critical Political Economy Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigger, A.

    2017-01-01

    In response to Chancellor Merkel’s call for a ‘Competitiveness Compact’ at the World Economic Forum in Davos in January 2013, the European Commission has launched a package of new economic policies that are argued to be key for realising a "Genuine Monetary and Economic Union". Part and parcel of

  11. Competitiveness, Diversification and the International Higher Education Cash Flow: The EU's Higher Education Discourse amidst the Challenges of Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the EU discourse on Higher Education and analyses this discourse within the context of globalisation. Importance is attached to the issues of lifelong learning, competitiveness, diversification, entrepreneurship, access, knowledge society, modernisation, quality assurance, innovation and creativity, governance and business-HE…

  12. The Role of Subsidiaries in Emerging Markets in Generating Competitive Advantages for Foreign Multinationals: the case of the Brazilian subsidiary of Clarks International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo André Machado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between a multinational and its subsidiaries abroad, according to many studies, is crucial for generating competitive advantages. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the relationship between a shoe company, Clarks International, and its Brazilian subsidiary with an emphasis on generating advantages to the multinational headquarters. Through a single case study, the subsidiary’s capacity for knowledge generation and diffusion was identified, as well as its level of autonomy in relation to the English headquarters. Data analysis indicated that the Brazilian subsidiary generated specific competitive advantages for the foreign multinational due to its close relationship with local suppliers in Brazil and due to its staff’s expertise in developing high quality shoes. It was perceived that the growth of subsidiary autonomy was related to the growth of specific advantages generated for the multinational.

  13. Comparison of Fiscal and Regulatory Policies to Prevent Non ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India is facing a rising burden of cardiovascular disease and obesity-related diabetes ... As a result, fiscal and regulatory strategies such as food taxes have been ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  14. International competitiveness of brazilian and paraná state`s coffe complex / Competitividade internacional do complexo cafeeiro brasileiro e paranaense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vasques Cintra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the determinants aspects of the competitiveness of the exportations of the coffee complex in Paraná State between 1990 and 2003 . The study intends to systematize: the recent literature on the subject, focusing the competitiveness of the main products of the brazilian guideline of exportations. A critical review of literature was made about the theories of international trade and competitiveness. It was characterized the dynamics of the complex of Brazilian coffee. The article identifies the competitive advantages of the Paraná coffee (green, roasted, soluble and special in relation to the competing countries; discusses the barriers to imports imposed to the brazilian coffee by the importing countries, and ends with the possible public and private policies favorable to the competitiveness of the coffee exportations.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os determinantes da competitividade das exportações do complexo cafeeiro paranaense entre 1990 e 2003. O estudo pretende sistematizar: a literatura recente sobre o tema, enfocando a competitividade de um dos principais produtos da pauta de exportações brasileira e do Paraná. Realizou-se a revisão crítica da literatura das teorias do comércio internacional e da competitividade e em seguida, caracterizou-se a dinâmica do complexo cafeeiro do brasileiro e paranaense. O artigo identifica as vantagens competitivas do café paranaense (verde, torrado, solúvel e especial em relação aos países concorrentes; discute as barreiras às importações impostas ao café brasileiro pelos países importadores; e finaliza com as possíveis políticas públicas e privadas favoráveis à competitividade das exportações de café.

  15. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  16. Essays on fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudheusden, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with selected topics in fiscal policy. The first part examines the relationship between fiscal decentralization and certain outcomes, one being the amount of trust citizens have in their government, the other being economic efficiency. The second part looks into the challenge of

  17. The State Fiscal Policy: Determinants and Optimization of Financial Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitash Tetiana D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the determinants of the state fiscal policy at the present stage of global transformations. Using the principles of financial science it is determined that regulation of financial flows within the fiscal sphere, namely centralization and redistribution of the GDP, which results in the regulation of the financial capacity of economic agents, is of importance. It is emphasized that the urgent measure for improving the tax model is re-considering the provision of fiscal incentives, which are used to stimulate the accumulation of capital, investment activity, innovation, increase of the competitiveness of national products, expansion of exports, increase of the level of the population employment. The necessity of applying the instruments of fiscal regulation of financial flows, which should take place on the basis of institutional economics emphasizing the analysis of institutional changes, the evolution of institutions and their impact on the behavior of participants of economic relations. At the same time it is determined that the maximum effect of fiscal regulation of financial flows is ensured when application of fiscal instruments is aimed not only at achieving the target values of parameters of financial flows but at overcoming institutional deformations as well. It is determined that the optimal movement of financial flows enables creating favorable conditions for development and maintenance of financial balance in the society and achievement of the necessary level of competitiveness of the national economy.

  18. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...

  19. Background and perspective on rapid progress and deepening of international development of nuclear industry-composition of international nuclear energy business 'cooperation and competition'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Tokio; Kanda, Keji; Ishizuka, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    Based on the recognition that international development of nuclear industry was important by a viewpoint of international cooperation to neighboring Asian area and also it was the trump that defeated a feeling of domestic confinement, the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) founded Nuclear energy international development gathering' in November 2004. On that occasion our magazine (March, 2005 issue) featured 'prospects and problem of the international development of nuclear energy use'. Slightly for half a year afterwards this nuclear energy international development has been rapidly deepened and become a close-up as a policy of an important strategy of the field of nuclear energy that the government and the private sector were united to make. Therefore the nuclear energy international development was secondly featured from multidirectional points of view such as a background of nuclear energy international development, composition of international nuclear energy business, a main strategy of three makers, approach of finance / a business firm. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Promotional operation for developing industrial technologies for global environment in fiscal 1998. International research exchange operation; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective of creating a new scope of study intended of solving global environment problems and structuring a new technical system, exchanges with overseas researchers and research institutions have been carried out subsequent to those in last year. In fiscal 1998, six researchers from different countries were invited to implement joint researches, and two overseas researchers were invited to an international conference on industrial technologies for global environment. In addition, in order to identify trends of research and development in overseas countries, two researchers were sent to universities in Germany and the U.S.A., and three researchers to international conferences and symposiums on the industrial technologies for global environment. It was intended to exchange technological information between overseas researchers and Japanese researchers who are performing the advanced researches on the industrial technologies for global environment, and to proliferate the latest items of technological information. Therefore, seven international seminars have been held, including the '98 Japan-China Global Environment Protection Symposium, 'substance migration and carbon circulation in coral reefs', 'plant bio-technologies in the 21st century', and the Fourth International Forum for Environmental Catalysts. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1999 technical achievement report. Development project on international standards for developing new industry (Comprehensive research); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development of 13 individual subjects whose achievements are expected to come into use on the international scale was started in fiscal 1998, to be completed in three years. Progress is reviewed for each of the subjects, and the findings are mentioned below. Research and development is progressing smoothly, specifications to be internationalized have been narrowed down, and it is now foreseen that the main points of the specifications to be presented will be successfully prepared. There are some subjects, however, about which it is difficult to specify to which technical committees they are to be submitted. Assistance, for instance supply of information, by technical committees involved is indispensable. The attitude toward international standardization taken by European and American business corporations visited for study by Japanese researchers is to be disseminated to Japanese business corporations since the information thus collected will help them. Although 75% of the 13 subjects have reached a level where they may be presented as specifications for international standardization, yet they need active support by organizations concerned and research of trends of internationalization-related institutions before they are actually accepted as international standards. (NEDO)

  2. Promotional operation for developing industrial technologies for global environment in fiscal 1998. International research exchange operation; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective of creating a new scope of study intended of solving global environment problems and structuring a new technical system, exchanges with overseas researchers and research institutions have been carried out subsequent to those in last year. In fiscal 1998, six researchers from different countries were invited to implement joint researches, and two overseas researchers were invited to an international conference on industrial technologies for global environment. In addition, in order to identify trends of research and development in overseas countries, two researchers were sent to universities in Germany and the U.S.A., and three researchers to international conferences and symposiums on the industrial technologies for global environment. It was intended to exchange technological information between overseas researchers and Japanese researchers who are performing the advanced researches on the industrial technologies for global environment, and to proliferate the latest items of technological information. Therefore, seven international seminars have been held, including the '98 Japan-China Global Environment Protection Symposium, 'substance migration and carbon circulation in coral reefs', 'plant bio-technologies in the 21st century', and the Fourth International Forum for Environmental Catalysts. (NEDO)

  3. Budget estimates: Fiscal years, 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The budget estimates for the NRC for fiscal year 1990 provide for obligations of $475,000,000, to be funded in total by two new appropriations---one is NRC's Salaries and Expenses appropriation for $472,100,000 and the other is NRC's Office of the Inspector General appropriation of $2,900,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $23,195,000 shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund. The sum appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during fiscal year 1990 from licensing fees, inspection services, other services and collections, and from the Nuclear Waste Fund, excluding those moneys received for the cooperative nuclear safety research program, services rendered to foreign governments and international organizations, and the material and information access authorization programs, so as to result in a final fiscal year 1990 appropriation estimated at not more than $292,155,000

  4. Fiscal 2000 report on result of project for promoting exchange of international environmental technology information; 2000 nendo kankyo gijutsu kokusai joho koryu sokushin jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of sharing environmental technology information of the APEC countries, the homepage structuring was commenced linking and systematizing the home pages owned by governments, institutions, enterprises, etc., as the APEC Virtual Center (APEC-VC) project, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In creating the homepage contents, in order to disseminate more useful information for the developing countries, 'Environmental Technology Cooperation for Developing Countries' as the original contents was prepared. In building a search engine, for the purpose of improving convenience for website users of the Virtual Center, APEC VC Japan created a retrieval system on the site. In overseas investigation, the researchers visited local plants to grasp problems and the needs by enterprises and organizations on water-pollution, waste treatment and the like, with the purpose of reflecting the investigation result in the website. In addition, the researchers visited APEC VC coordinators and/or contact points to exchange opinions with the view of expanding the network. (NEDO)

  5. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    , the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected......Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999...

  6. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  7. Fiscal Challenge: An Experiential Exercise in Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Mike; Soques, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a pedagogical innovation that is designed to enhance students' understanding of fiscal policy in general, and the national debt and deficit in particular. The innovation leverages the educational advantages offered through a competitive environment by pitting teams of students against one another with the…

  8. Systemic Competitiveness of SMEs in Mexico City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Saavedra García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply the model of systemic competitiveness, SMEs in Mexico City. Developing four levels of competitiveness: macro level (economic environment, meso level (regional environment, Level Goal (Environment Socioeconomic and micro Level (internal factors. Data collection was done through fieldwork and archival research. The main findings are among the major strengths of the economic environment: high level of gross domestic product, high labor productivity and fiscal autonomy, the main weaknesses: the unions and the unemployment rate; meanwhile stand between foreign investment opportunities between threats and insecurity, corruption and difficulty in business transactions. In the regional setting a positive and 1 perfect relationship between the number of economic units and per capita GDP was found. With regard to socio-cultural factors, presents lower levels of poverty and unemployment to the rest of the country. Finally, at the micro level, the competitiveness of SMEs is in direct relation to the size of the company and the industry sector shows higher competitiveness trade and services sectors.

  9. New Sunshine Program for Fiscal 2000. International cooperative project for developing photovoltaic power system practicalization technology (General edition); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijustu kaihatsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (Sogoban)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Fiscal 2000 international cooperation for the research, development, and popularization of photovoltaic power systems is compiled. In carrying out international cooperation relating to the photovoltaic power generation program of IEA (International Energy Agency), etc., officers were sent to the 15th and 16th executive committee meetings, where they deliberated on plan formulation and budget making. They also participated in the activities of Task 1: Exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, Task 2: Operational performance and design of photovoltaic power systems and subsystems, Task 3: Use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, Task 5: Design and grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic systems, Task 7: Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, Task 8: Study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation systems in deserts and other unexploited regions, and Task 9: Technical co-operation for photovoltaic market deployment. A discussion was made on the holding of a 4th IEA photovoltaic power system executive conference. In addition, Japan-Australia and Japan-Oman bilateral cooperative projects were implemented. (NEDO)

  10. WHY DO SOME NATIONS SUCCEED AND OTHERS FAIL IN INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION? FACTOR ANALYSIS AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As stated by Michael Porter (1998: 57, 'this is perhaps the most frequently asked economic question of our times.' However, a widely accepted answer is still missing. The aim of this paper is not to provide the BIG answer for such a BIG question, but rather to provide a different perspective on the competitiveness at the national level. In this respect, we followed a two step procedure, called “tandem analysis”. (OECD, 2008. First we employed a Factor Analysis in order to reveal the underlying factors of the initial dataset followed by a Cluster Analysis which aims classifying the 35 countries according to the main characteristics of competitiveness resulting from Factor Analysis. The findings revealed that clustering the 35 states after the first two factors: Smart Growth and Market Development, which recovers almost 76% of common variability of the twelve original variables, are highlighted four clusters as well as a series of useful information in order to analyze the characteristics of the four clusters and discussions on them.

  11. Concept analysis of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychkovskii Andrei Yurevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to determine the competitiveness of enterprises. The techniques of estimating the probability of bankruptcy as the lowest level of competitiveness of the organization. Asked to assess the competitiveness on the basis of the analysis of internal and external factors of the company. External factors are asked to provide a financial and economic, political, industrial, technological, social, environmental. Internal factors proposed to explore, using the model of "the golden rule of business economics" in conjunction with approaches for assessing the ability of the enterprise to create value.

  12. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  13. Fiscal Multipliers in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Pritha Mitra; Tigran Poghosyan

    2015-01-01

    Amid renewed crisis, falling tax revenues, and rising debt, Ukraine faces serious fiscal consolidation needs. Durable fiscal adjustment can support economic confidence and rebuild buffers but what is its overall impact on growth? How effective are revenue versus spending instruments? Does current or capital spending have a larger impact? Applying a structural vector autoregressive model, this paper finds that Ukraine’s near-term revenue and spending multipliers are well below one. In the medi...

  14. Fiscal councils as a mechanism for establishing fiscal discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of the global economic crisis, the contemporary budget systems have been subject to extensive reforms. There is a growing number of scholars advocating the establishment of fully independent fiscal institutions which would be in charge of administering a sustainable fiscal policy. The bodies available in hitherto practice are fiscal councils, parliament committees on budgetary control or fiscal 'watchdogs'. The institutionalization of fiscal councils should provide for improving the quality of the public debate on fiscal policy and make the governments more fiscally accountable. The existing fiscal councils generally have an advisory role and they are expected to contribute to strengthening the role of national parliaments in scrutinizing the national budget. In fact, the establishment of fiscal councils ensues only after introducing the fiscal rules which serve as statutory limitations on the activities of the executive branch in the budget-related matters. The current economic crisis has substantially hindered the efficient application of these fiscal restrictions. Some states see the solution in establishing independent fiscal institutions which would control the compliance with these rules. As one of the participants in the budgetary process, fiscal councils are in a position to provide better information to the voters on the current state of affairs in public finances and (thus increase the political costs of the government's fiscal unaccountability. In practice, there are several models for the organization of fiscal councils which primarily focus on ex ante or ex post review and assessment concerning whether the relevant institutions have observed the fiscal rules and accomplished the fiscal goals. Considering that their role is to eliminate the asymmetry of information in relations between the legislative and executive breach of government, fiscal councils should contribute to reinforcing the legitimacy of the budgetary

  15. Culture, industrial policy and international competitiveness of Colombian Pyme’s (SME’s Cultura, política industrial y competitividad internacional de las pyme en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernanado Bustamante Zapata

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available So far the analysis related to the PyME production has focused on its components:organization, policies and technology. All these elements are considered as support for thePyMEs’ economic, productive and social management (Cardona, Cano, Ramírez, & Gutiérrez,2006. Thus, they help to determine the Colombian PyMEs’ relative competitiveness in theglobalized environment. This article pursues the establishment of cultural variables thataffect the production in the international business context through the analytic-syntheticmethod, in order to unravel the possible impact in terms of competitiveness as an industrialpolicy element.Hasta el momento, el análisis acerca de los mundos de producción de las pyme ha girado en torno a sus componentes, organización, políticas y tecnología, considerados soportes de la gestión económica, productiva y social de dichas empresas. Por ende, vistas así las pyme, se facilita la determinación de su relativa competitividad en el entorno globalizado. El propósito de este artículo es establecer cuáles variables culturales afectan los mundos de producción en el contexto de los negocios internacionales de las compañías colombianas. El estudio se realizó a partir del método analítico–sintético con el objetivo de desentrañar el posible impacto en términos de competitividad desde el elemento política industrial.   ABSTRACT So far the analysis related to the PyME production has focused on its components: organization, policies and technology. All these elements are considered as support for the PyMEs’ economic, productive and social management (Cardona, Cano, Ramírez, & Gutiérrez, 2006. Thus, they help to determine the Colombian PyMEs’ relative competitiveness in the globalized environment. This article pursues the establishment of cultural variables that affect the production in the international business context through the analytic-synthetic method, in order to unravel the possible impact

  16. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAvinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz revolutionized the modelling of imperfectly competitive markets and launched "the second monopolistic competition revolution". Experts in the areas of macroeconomics, international trade theory, economic geography, and international growth theory examine

  17. Report for fiscal 1981 of committee on industrial solar system practical application technologies development; 1981 nendo sangyoyo solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) has been engaged in the development of technologies for the practical application of industrial solar systems since fiscal 1980, and has a committee established to ensure smooth progress of the endeavor. Outlined in this report are mainly the agendas of the fiscal 1981 committee and working group activities. Taken up at the 1st committee meeting convened on September 18, 1981, were the outline of the results of research conducted in fiscal 1980, plans for fiscal 1981 and their progress, plans for fiscal 1982, presentation at the International Solar Energy Society congress, and the course for system development efforts to follow. The 2nd meeting covered investigations of the actualities of dyeing plants, execution plans for fiscal 1982, and the prospects. The 3rd meeting involved a study of system flow. The cascading heat process working group at its 1st meeting discussed the achievements of fiscal 1980, plans for fiscal 1981 and their progress, plans for fiscal 1982, and presentation at the International Solar Energy Society congress. The 2nd meeting covered execution plans for fiscal 1982, the prospects, and system flow. The fixed heat process working group at its 1st meeting discussed the achievements of fiscal 1980, plans for fiscal 1981 and their progress, plans for fiscal 1982, and the International Solar Energy Society congress. The 2nd meeting took up execution plans for fiscal 1982, the prospects, and system flow. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal reaction under endogenous structural changes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Simonassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the importance of fiscal policy in smoothing the impact of shocks such as the international financial and economic crises, the paper analyzes the sustainability of the Brazilian fiscal policy by taking into consideration the possibility of multiple endogenous structural breaks on the coefficients of government reaction function. From monthly data in the period 1991–2008, tests on the reliable estimates dictate the occurrence of structural change in May 1994, and another in February 2003. There has been a situation of fiscal solvency in Brazil, but only from May 1994 the hitherto innocuous actions of government to formulate policies on public debt turn out to be significant, as it rose twofold after February 2003. This reinforces the existence of a more flexible alternative to implement strategic policy in Brazil, if an eventual alternative for increasing public spending is a way of hindering the effects of international financial crises without compromising the fiscal targets.

  19. Competitiveness of shallow water hydrocarbon development projects in Mexico after 2015 actualization of fiscal reforms: Economic benchmark of new production sharing agreement versus typical U.S. federal lease terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud; Zhai, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Development of Mexican hydrocarbon reservoirs by foreign operators has become possible under Mexico's new Hydrocarbon Law, effective as per January 2015. Our study compares the economic returns of shallow water fields in the Gulf of Mexico applying the royalty and taxes due under the fiscal regimes of the U.S. and Mexico. The net present value (NPV) of the base case scenario is US$1.4 billion, assuming standard development and production cost (opex, capex), 10% discount rate accounting for the cost of capital and revenues computed using a reference oil price of $75/bbl. The impact on NPV of oil price volatility is accounted for in a sensitivity analysis. The split of the NPV of shallow water hydrocarbon assets between the two contractual parties, contractor and government, in Mexico and the U.S. is hugely different. Our base case shows that for similar field assets, Mexico's production sharing agreement allocates about $1,150 million to the government and $191 million to the contractor, while under U.S. license conditions the government take is about $700 million and contractor take is $553 million. The current production sharing agreement leaves some marginal shallow water fields in Mexico undeveloped for reasons detailed and quantified in our study. - Highlights: •Mexico's Energy Reform opens up the country to foreign petroleum companies. •Contractor and government takes are compared under each jurisdiction. •Contract terms for Mexico are much less favorable than those offered by the U.S.

  20. The Global Trends in the Alternative Energetics and Improvement of the State Policy in the Sphere of Fiscal Security: in Search for Equilibrium and Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnedina Kateryna V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative energetics is an important component of the competitiveness and security of the national economy. Its rapid development over the past 10 years is caused by both the attempts of individual countries to maintain and strengthen their competitive advantage in the world markets and the efforts of international organizations (UN, IRENA, IEA to consolidate different stakeholders to achieve energy and fiscal security, protection of environment and improvement of climate conditions. The article is aimed at generalizing global trends in alternative energetics in the context of development of the State policy in the sphere of fiscal security. A brief overview of the latest trends in the alternative energetics development, most of which focus on identifying the basic sectoral trends, has been provided. However, the issues of fiscal security in the energy sector remain poorly researched, especially in terms of formation of the State policy, consolidating interests of different groups of stakeholders. It has been determined that in the developed countries a significant growth of alternative energetics is caused by the consistent State policy on creation of conditions for formation of effective branch markets and the solving of so-called energy trilemma.

  1. Fiscal 2000 report on result of project for promoting exchange of international environmental technology information; 2000 nendo kankyo gijutsu kokusai joho koryu sokushin jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of sharing environmental technology information of the APEC countries, the homepage structuring was commenced linking and systematizing the home pages owned by governments, institutions, enterprises, etc., as the APEC Virtual Center (APEC-VC) project, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In creating the homepage contents, in order to disseminate more useful information for the developing countries, 'Environmental Technology Cooperation for Developing Countries' as the original contents was prepared. In building a search engine, for the purpose of improving convenience for website users of the Virtual Center, APEC VC Japan created a retrieval system on the site. In overseas investigation, the researchers visited local plants to grasp problems and the needs by enterprises and organizations on water-pollution, waste treatment and the like, with the purpose of reflecting the investigation result in the website. In addition, the researchers visited APEC VC coordinators and/or contact points to exchange opinions with the view of expanding the network. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 2000 report of investigation. International cooperative investigation on method for rationalizing use of energy; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika shuho kokusai kyoryoku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigative research was conducted for the purpose of building a database for LCA (life cycle assessment) that will be commonly used in Asian countries and developing an applicable environmental assessment methodology, with the fiscal 2000 results compiled. This year, joint researches and investigations were carried out with four countries, namely, Konkuk University (Korea), Taiwan Environmental Management Association (Taiwan), Universiti Putra Malaysia (Malaysia), and Thailand Environmental Institute (Thailand). The investigation covered the status how LCA problems were dealt with and how LCA infrastructures were built in the four countries. In the construction of the database for LCA, methods of preparing the LCA inventory database and their results were investigated concerning electrical power systems and production of basic materials (steel products), which were most important in implementing LCA in particular. In Thailand and Malaysia, lack of data for LCA was presumed; hence, necessary data sources were examined. Further, investigated also were the state of importing subterranean resources such as coal, oil, natural gas and iron ore, and the resource material flow or the like in each country. (NEDO)

  3. Conceptual Approach to Formation of Competitiveness of the Leading International Airports under Conditions of the World Trajectory of the Airline Market Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydorenko Kateryna V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential of competitiveness of the airport, as any other enterprise of the service sphere, is determined by the corporate power of the producer of these values. The issue of development of the infrastructure development strategy of leading international airports, which sets the goal of solution of the problem of complete, timely, uninterrupted and high quality satisfaction of the fast growing demand of services consumers with minimal costs, becomes extremely urgent under conditions of dynamic development of the world aviation. However, the airport infrastructure is rather wasteful and requires permanent investments into renovation of the infrastructure objects and technological systems. The airport infrastructure is a set of objects, which are divided, by their functional purpose, into objects that directly service the technological process of air conveyance (sphere of aviation activity and objects that create additional services. Increase of competitiveness of the airport in the world economic environment envisages timely modernisation and harmonious development of its objects in accordance with requirements of the airport services market on the basis of rational resource provision and efficient management of the property complex at all stages of functioning and development. The author studies aspects of formation of the competitive strategy of the airport, identifies strategic priorities of development of the airport infrastructure, including through the mechanism of state-private partnership, use of transit potential, strengthening of the logistical component, increase of quality of servicing, and diversification of activity by means of strengthening its non-aviation component with consideration of goals of efficient integration in the national and global environment.

  4. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 2 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study for the promotion of international cooperation); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 (kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no choa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was aimed at developing the WE-NET as a joint project worldwide by taking concrete measures such PR activities to obtain international understanding and cooperation of WE-NET based on the survey/grasp of researches of research institutes in each country and the developmental trend of hydrogen energy in each of the main countries. Implementing a `long-term vision for the WE-NET international cooperation,` the following measures were taken in fiscal 1997. PR activities were positively developed which coped with the worldwide increasing interest in WE-NET such as delivery to overseas institutions of the fiscal 1996 survey report in English summarized by NEDO and information exchanges, and participation in international conferences and presentation of the research results. From a standpoint of positively proceeding with the international technical information exchange, the following were conducted following fiscal 1996: 1) the evaluation study jointly made with Stanford University of effects of reducing air pollution by introducing hydrogen cars, 2) survey on the U.S. hydrogen project, and 3) preparation for opening of the WE-NET internet home pages. 17 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Hospital competition, GP fundholders and waiting times in the UK internal market: the case of elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Ana

    2003-03-01

    In this paper I model the demand for and supply of elective surgery using a modified Hotelling framework in which time, money, and distance are determinants of the demand for hospital care. Hospitals compete with each other in terms of the waiting time and consequently treat a certain number of patients. The basic model of hospital competition is then extended to incorporate the general practitioner (GP) fundholding scheme whereby the GPs are allocated a budget with which to buy care for their patients. Waiting time increases when production of care becomes more expensive, when the benefit obtained from treatment increases, when the unit cost of distance decreases, and when the importance given to time as a performance indicator decreases. The higher the money price the lower the waiting time. Finally, the money price paid by the GP fundholders is greater than that paid by the Health Authorities and greater than the hospitals marginal cost of production. As a consequence, fundholding patients pay a zero time price while non-fundholding patients experiment a positive waiting time.

  6. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  7. Investor Valuations of Japan's Adoption of a Territorial Tax Regime: Quantifying the Direct and Competitive Effects of International Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Estelle P. Dauchy; Sebastien Bradley; Makoto Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Despite an extensive literature on the normative implications of different international tax regimes and an empirical literature addressing individual specific predictions, there exists little evidence encompassing the broad range of effects of taxing corporations' foreign-source income on a worldwide or territorial basis. This paper takes a more comprehensive quantitative approach by examining stock market reactions surrounding three events over the course of which Japan's 2009 adoption of a...

  8. FISCAL POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE FISCAL CONTROL AND ENTITY BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpiu GHERMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an actual theme, determined by achievements of tax control in Moldova and its impact on the behaviour of the entity as important elements of fiscal policy. There are examined different methods for differentiating the problem, supplemented by deduction, induction, synthesis, analysis of defining phenomena of fiscal policy and its elements. The methodology used in this study is based on assessments of the theory, studies and interpretations of specialized literature and analyzes the practical activities specific for taxation at national, European and international levels, depending on which some opinions, conclusions and proposals were founded and formulated, to minimize the impact of tax evasion and fraud.

  9. THE ESSENCE OF FISCAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Comaniciu

    2008-01-01

    The existence of fiscal management determine the identification of the essential coordinates of it: the main objective; the sphere of action; essential characteristics; fundamental values; the main function; principles and legities. The essence of fiscal management represent its functions and on the basis of conceiving and exercising management from fiscality field resides an aggregate of principles. In this paper we will try to define the fiscal management, to identify the fundamental and sp...

  10. Czech Republic; Report on Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency Module-Update

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    The Czech government has made further progress in improving fiscal transparency that was already high by international standards. The measures implemented to broaden the coverage of general government data have been commended. Improved reporting on fiscal risks, including those arising from contingent liabilities, has been welcomed. However, greater effort is needed to improve the public availability of fiscal data and to maintain regular tax expenditure reports. Ensuring appropriate standard...

  11. International production versus global competition. Bosch`s business area `water heating systems` meets the press; International im globalen Wettbewerb. Bosch Geschaeftsbereich Thermotechnik stellt sich der Fachpresse vor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The business area `water heating systems` has developed into an internationally operating enterprise of the Bosch group. Its factories are distributed over seven countries: Junkers at Wernau (Germany), Worcester at Worcester (Great Britain), Radson at Houthalen (Belgium), Vulcano at Aveiro (Portugal), e.I.m. leblanc at Drancy and Brest (France) and at Lecong (PR China).- The article reports impressions gathered at a meeting of representatives of the technical press, organized by Bosch Thermotechnik at Aveiro, Portugal. This colloquy in a European site of production enabled representatives of the press to inform themselves on the spot on the internationality of the enterprise. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Geschaeftsbereich Thermotechnik hat sich zu einem international operierenden Unternehmen der Bosch-Gruppe entwickelt. In sieben Laendern hat er Fertigungsstaetten, Junkers in Wernau (D), Worcester in Worcester (GB), Radson in Houthalen (B), Vulcano in Aveiro (P), e.l.m. Leblanc in Drancy und Brest (F) und in Lecong (VR China). Im folgenden wird ueber Eindruecke aus einem Fachpresse-Kolloquium berichtet, zu dem Bosch Thermotechnik Fachpressevertreter nach Aveiro in Portugal eingeladen hatte. Es fand also an einem der europaeischen Standorte statt, so dass sich die Pressevertreter vor Ort ein konkretes Bild zum Thema `Internationalitaet` verschaffen konnten. (orig.)

  12. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  13. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  14. SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE MANIFESTATION OF FISCAL FRAUD IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Serju

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we shall try to present two mechanisms of fiscal fraud used by economical agents and also found in the control actions performed by the fiscal organs at different commercial societies from Romania. The presented mechanisms refer to the fiscal fraud resulted from fictitious acquisitions of goods and services done by Romanian firms which have as beneficiaries other commercial societies which are fiscally registered in Romania. Being empirically examined, the fiscal fraud will be presented through the use of some figures which will describe the detailed operations step by step.For the cases we have chosen to present we will describe the real circuit of goods and money according to the documents. We will also refer to the possibility of identifying the risk of fiscal fraud that results from the reports provided by the economic agents for different state institutions. We will also consider the information provide by the books of prime entry and bookkeeping, documents which have to be written by the commercial societies according to the Law accountancy nr. 82/199, with further modifications and completions. The mechanisms of fiscal fraud in use can be identical with the ones presented in this paper or they can be different as „new elements” can appear; these „new elements” depend on the type of activity performed, the modifications the legislative framework, the performers’ creativity or other external or internal factors which are not identified by the fiscal organs. By identifying the fiscal fraud mechanisms and the way in which they function, the fiscal organs will be given the opportunity to take the necessary measures so that the fiscal resources of the state consolidated budget should not be affected by such operations. It is will known that we can speak of fiscal fraud and shadow economy in any country but ,according to the reports and statistics published by different international institutions, Romania’s shadow

  15. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 3. Survey and research on international cooperation - 1 (Promotion of international cooperation); 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - 1 (kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    International research cooperation was promoted and technical information was internationally exchanged for the development of the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) Project into a truly international cooperation project. In the promotion of international research cooperation, a collection of summarized achievement reports for fiscal 1999 translated into English, based on achievement reports on the respective tasks, was disseminated to 157 related organizations overseas. Activities related to the WE-NET Project were actively presented at international conferences. For research cooperation at IEA (International Energy Agency), engineers were dispatched to its committees and annexes specializing in hydrogen related implementation agreements. In the international exchange of technical information, overseas surveys were conducted for fulfilling the purposes of the respective WE-NET tasks. Investigations were conducted into the latest fuel cell development status across the world, not to mention the automotive fuel cell now attracting earnest attention. Moreover, surveys were conducted of hydrogen energy related research institutes abroad, and a Japanese booth was installed at Hyforum 2000 (The International Hydrogen Energy Forum 2000). (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  18. ECO – FISCAL POLICY IN ROMANIA: MITH OR REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuta Mariana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal ecology has become in recent years a very interesting subject in Romania and in the recent European context specialists are filling their agendas with points about the environmental policy and the environmental fiscal policy are top priorities. But is there the Romanian stat able to use environmental fiscal instruments in order to regulate economical agents behavior or is the state just using them as fiscal instruments with no environmental purpose? In a world that is constantly moving and is facing different problems, states are trying to find new ways to create budgetary resources in a crisis situation. What is Romania’s position? Environmental Romanian fiscal policy has to be though in the general economic context, being included in the general social and economical problems. Thus, the fiscal policy should aim at integrating into costs consumption and production externalities but his causes several effects hard to dimension. The Romanian fiscal system needs hard coercion measures and a total rethinking of the imposing system in order to become efficient. Therefore, only after 2000 we can state that Romania had real environmental taxes but how are often modified both as way of determination and imposing base, things that have generated lack of trust and even panic among the economic agents. In this context, the paper aims to underline the environmental fiscal policy characteristics applied in the European Union states and especially Romania, in order to surprise the role of the environmental taxes by comparison with other direct taxes, underlining at the same time the national fiscal policy modifications. Analyzed data has been coming from different sources. Thus, for international comparisons the European Union site has been used, the Eurostat, the Romanian Finance Ministry site. The research is mainly based upon a synthesis of the reached area in the special literature. The study continues a fundamental research using

  19. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of evaluation method for gene inspection system; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kensa system no hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Discussions and deliberations were given by the comprehensive survey committee on standardization of a total gene inspection system from specimen adjustment necessary for the gene inspection system to data processing. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In standardization related to the specimen procedure and the inspection technique, the specimen storing method and the report statement contents were established. In addition, verification was made on the heat-resistant enzyme reagent and such measuring devices as the electric migration device and the photographing device. Discussions were given on standard substances used in the gene inspection. Regarding the K562 cell strain, cross-checking was performed in three institutions, wherein discussions were given on interchangeability of the inspection results, and the usefulness of the K562 cell as a standard substance. As a result, all the three institutions have come to an agreement on the Southern method, the FISH method and the RT-PCR method, but not on the real-time PT-PCR method, leaving the subject as the future assignment. In the survey for Europe and America, visits were made to AFNOR, CEN, DIN, FDA and CAP for the attempt of collecting information and establishing international exchange. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of methods for testing and evaluating pure titanium; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Jun titan no shiken hyoka hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of submitting propositions to ISO (International Organization for Standardization)/TC79 (Light metals and their alloys) and ISO/TC135 (Non-destructive testing), studies were made relating to the standardization of methods for chemical ingredient analysis and non-destructive testing of industrial pure titanium. In the development of an ingredient analysis method for pure titanium, performance standards and analytical allowance were determined for an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrochemical analyzer for vanadium, niobium, cobalt, and boron, which were short of completion in the preceding fiscal year. As for spark discharge emission spectrochemical analysis, analysis methods were newly established for oxygen and hydrogen. In the development of optical flaw detection for pure titanium boards, the quality of test pieces were determined by use of a reference test piece, and studies were made about the kinds of artificially produced flaws and a method for sensitivity calibration. In the development of ultrasonic flaw detection for pure titanium boards, studies were made about the effects of board thickness, kinds of flaws, and of board size. Using the findings, a draft standard was prepared in Japanese for a JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) proposition and another in English for an ISO proposition. (NEDO)

  1. Manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through international cooperation in fiscal 1994; Kan`i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Among NEDO`s international research cooperation projects, the paper described Japan`s cooperation with Asian countries in development of an easy-operated electronic design/production supporting system. The project aims to realize information realtime technology by which data for design/manufacturing of machine/electronics/fiber/apparel can mutually be used among countries. For it, design data standard and electronic information exchange standard are developed. A production information integrated database system is developed for sharing processing data. Parts data are put into a library. Graphic user interface and multi-media technology are developed so as to comply with the environment of different usages. In fiscal 1994, emphasis of activities was placed on survey of the status quo of the institution of the party country, fermentation of mutual understanding, and study of a cooperative project plan. Memorandums on research cooperation were concluded with Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. In addition, understanding of this project by the party country was able to be enhanced

  2. International exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998. Overseas workshop; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The international exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998, the 'Overseas workshop' has performed exchange in technologies with Australian coal mine engineers. The project refers to the Australian technological levels and needs in coal production, safety control and environment, as well as transfer of the Japanese coal mine technologies. This report summarizes the result of a survey on the engineer exchange project in the coal mine technology area and the possibility of joint researches. The 'overseas workshop' was held in November 1998 for two days in Brisbane City in QLD Province as the 'Japan-Australia coal technology workshop'. The 'Japan-Australia coal technology workshop' gave lectures in five sessions (the basic lecture, Japan-Australia high-speed excavation project, coal mine gas control project, exploration and resources, and development and experience of Japan). It also discussed two themes (mine safety management and rules, and greenhouse effect gases and coal mining). Two coal mines were visited thereafter to deepen the exchange with the Australian coal mine engineers. (NEDO)

  3. Report for fiscal 1997 on simple operation type CAD/CAM system development through international cooperation. Research achievements; 1997 nendo 'kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho. Kenkyu seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 1995 in the research and development project for an electronics design and production aid system of simple operation type (MATIC). The project is intended to support works of Asian countries on the information society, and enhance levels of the manufacturing industries and supportive industries by utilizing the information technologies. The working group (WG)I, related to automobiles and components thereof, improved functions of the primary system and continued demonstration tests. The group launched for the secondary system a system development that makes timely information transmission and receipt possible among research and development enterprises, local assembly enterprises and facility and parts suppliers. The WGII (household appliances and their parts) designed and developed an electronic catalog system based on pre-prototypes developed independently by different countries, and performed demonstration tests. The WGIII (textiles and apparels) carried out with China demonstration tests on the international EDI system, translation system and CAD/CAM system. It also developed a sewing technology standards system. It installed equipment and devices in Indonesia for preparation of the demonstration tests. (NEDO)

  4. International research cooperation in fiscal 1997. Report on the results of researches for the development of tribo-materials; 1997 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Tribo material no kaihatsu chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Researches were conducted for the development of tribo-materials for the improvement of energy efficiency for equipment with slide members usable for example aboard automobiles, and the result is reported for fiscal 1997. In the research for the creation of substrate materials, some metals different in hardness, iron-base materials, titanium-base materials, etc., were selected, and experiments were conducted to disclose the effect of the substrate hardness/surface roughness on the critical load under which gas phase coatings fracture. In the research about surface treatment, the arc ion plating method is employed to produce TiN coatings on substrates of SKD11 and Ti-6Al-4V, and the critical loads were evaluated using a heavy duty, acoustic detection type adhesion evaluator and a sliding wear tester. Furthermore, the substrate/coating interface is subjected to observation under high-resolution transmission electron microscope. As for the evaluation of coating characteristics, the effects of the hardness of the coating itself, Young`s modulus, and toughness on the fracture of the coating were investigated. During the international joint researches, information was exchanged with National Institute for Standards and Technology, U.S. 11 refs., 64 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1998 engineer interexchange project (coal mine technology field). Preliminary survey on the international interexchange project in America; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Beikoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the fiscal 1998 international interexchange project in a coal mine technology field, the survey was made in America. Geological engineering problem has large effect on the protection and productivity of underground coal mines. Promotion of long wall mining has contributed to reduction of disasters, however, recently deaths due to roof collapse and wall collapse are on the increase. A roof evaluation technique was developed for adequate selection of mining methods and support design, and its standardization and diffusion are in promotion. Integration and improvement advanced in facility technology because of worldwide integration by acquisition of coal mine facility manufacturers. Introduction of high-power high-capacity facilities is increasing with introduction of large long wall working faces, and development of rear transport system technology and labor saving by remote control are also in promotion according to such trend. As automation and labor saving technology of mining facilities, the automated direction detection and control system by laser and gyroscope is under development. (NEDO)

  6. International exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998. Overseas workshop; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The international exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998, the 'Overseas workshop' has performed exchange in technologies with Australian coal mine engineers. The project refers to the Australian technological levels and needs in coal production, safety control and environment, as well as transfer of the Japanese coal mine technologies. This report summarizes the result of a survey on the engineer exchange project in the coal mine technology area and the possibility of joint researches. The 'overseas workshop' was held in November 1998 for two days in Brisbane City in QLD Province as the 'Japan-Australia coal technology workshop'. The 'Japan-Australia coal technology workshop' gave lectures in five sessions (the basic lecture, Japan-Australia high-speed excavation project, coal mine gas control project, exploration and resources, and development and experience of Japan). It also discussed two themes (mine safety management and rules, and greenhouse effect gases and coal mining). Two coal mines were visited thereafter to deepen the exchange with the Australian coal mine engineers. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1993 U.S. Science Budget request released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan; Simarski, Lynn Teo; DeVito, M. Catherine

    1992-02-01

    DOE's proposed budget for fiscal 1993 is $19.4 billion, almost level with fiscal 1992's $19 billion. Of that, $5.5 billion is targeted for environmental cleanup at DOE facilities, an increase of $1.16 billion. DOE's portion of research and development related to the National Energy Strategy is $725 million, up 16% from 1992. Funding for defense activities is down 9% to $7.5 billion from $8.3 billion.According to DOE Secretary James D. Watkins, “Congressional enactment of a comprehensive and balanced legislative package is needed to implement fully the president's National Energy Strategy.” As such, there are provisions in the fiscal 1993 DOE budget for advanced energy technology R&D to reduce energy consumption, increase fuel flexibility, and improve U.S. competitiveness in world markets.

  8. Monetary and fiscal policy aspects of indirect tax changes in a monetary union

    OpenAIRE

    von Thadden, Leopold; Lipińska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a number of European countries have shifted their tax structure more strongly towards indirect taxes, motivated, inter alia, by the intention to foster competitiveness. Against this background, this paper develops a tractable two-country model of a monetary union, characterised by national fiscal and supranational monetary policy, with price-setting firms and endogenously determined terms of trade. The paper discusses a number of monetary and fiscal policy questions which emer...

  9. US fiscal regimes and optimal monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavromatis, K.

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy in the US has been documented to have been the leading authority in the ‘60s and the ‘70s (active fiscal policy), while committing to make the necessary fiscal adjustments following Volcker’s appointment (passive fiscal policy). Moreover, while passive, US fiscal policy has at times

  10. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  11. De fiscale fishing expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, E.

    2016-01-01

    In de fiscale literatuur en/of mediaberichten duikt met enige regelmaat de term ‘fishing expedition’ op. De term wordt in rechterlijke uitspraken en in beleid genoemd, in nationale en internationale context. Het valt op dat voor die term kennelijk slechts indirecte definities bestaan, althans ik heb

  12. Consultatie bij fiscale wetgeving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreveld, Netty Margriet Amelien van

    2016-01-01

    The key objective of this research is to design a consultation model for the legislative process in fiscal matters. When tax laws are being drafted, such a model can be used as a tool to select the best possible consultation variant and the suitable stakeholders. I have analyzed six consultation

  13. Trade spillovers of fiscal policy in the european union: A panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the international spillovers from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP with

  14. Trade spillovers of fiscal policy in the European Union: a panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the international spillovers from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP with

  15. Trade spill-overs of fiscal policy in the European Union: a panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the international spill-overs from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP

  16. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for calculating recycling rate of automotive products; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Jidosha seihin no recycle ritsu no santei hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With international standardization as a target, research has been performed for three years since fiscal 1998 on a method for calculating the recycling rate of automotive products. This paper summarizes the achievements thereof. In fiscal 1998, studies were conducted on major automobile materials, state of recycling in Japan and Europe, and trial monitoring on recycling execution rate in the dismantling and shredding stages. Despite uncertainties that remain in recycling, the importance of standardization has been affirmed. Beginning in fiscal 1999, discussions have been given on requirements for establishing the recycling possibility by means of dismantling automobiles. In the requirements for establishing thermal recycling, discussions were given, taking into account the state of legal regulations in Germany and the trial execution of the container and packaging recycling law in Japan. As a result, the standard draft for the method for calculating the recycling rate was established for automotive products, including the method for calculating the recycling possibility rate, and the requirements for establishing thermal recycling. For international standardization of the method for calculating the recycling possibility rate, discussions have begun at ISO/TC22/WG10. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 2000 report. Feasibility study on international cooperation concerning technology transfer; 2000 nendo gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A workshop was held concerning technology transfer in the software of environmental technologies, for the purpose of contributing to CTI (Climate Technology Initiative), an international framework for dealing with technological problems in preventing climate change, with the results of the workshop compiled. The workshop was held for a period from September 10 to September 23, 2000; the contents were, for example, an outline on energy conservation, introduction to cleaner production, lectures on related technologies, seminars on actual cases including case studies, factory tours, etc., and discussion session by all participants; and, in general, the workshop was conducted so as to promote understanding on cleaner production and energy conservation. Four lecturers were invited to this workshop from an international organization, U.S. and Japan. In addition, two staff members and two technical consultants from ICETT (the International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer) gave lectures and advice as technology advisers. Three environmental specialists were invited from each of the five countries, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, and Vietnam. (NEDO)

  18. Implications of Electronic Commerce for Fiscal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsbee, Austan

    In this chapter, I will consider both sides of the relationship between electronic commerce and fiscal policy. For the impact of electronic commerce on fiscal policy, I will pay particular attention to the potential sales-tax revenue losses. The data suggest that the potential losses are actually modest over the next several years. I will also consider the reverse relationship - how fiscal policy affects Internet commerce. Here the evidence suggests that taxes have a sizable effect. I point out, though, that this only supports special treatment if there is some positive externality. Without one, the tax system will lead to excessive online buying to avoid taxes. I will then deal the neglected issue of taxes and Internet access, which can create large deadweight costs both because demand may be price-sensitive and because taxes can slow the spread of new technologies. Finally, I offer some discussion of the international context of taxes and the Internet and the international temptations to raise rates on E-commerce.

  19. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  20. International distortions of competition under emissions trading due to differences in national permit allocation. Theory and empirical analysis of the EU-energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockhagen, D.

    2004-03-01

    The first part develops a theory of distortions of competition among competing firms, induced by differences in the method and/or stringency of national allocation of greenhouse gas emission permits in an international emissions trading system. By applying neoclassical theory on output optimisation, price setting and other factors such as R and D expenditures, five potentially distorting effects are identified for perfect and imperfect markets,. The second part develops economic indicators and a two tier approach, which can be applied empirically, in order to test whether an industry is vulnerable to the potential effects found before. The third part applies the two tier approach empirically to four sectors of the energy intensive industry in the EU: steel making, cement, oil refining and electricity generation. The steel industry is the most vulnerable industry, followed by oil refining, whereas cement and electricity are not vulnerable. At a permit price of 20 euros/ton CO 2 , and with national allocations that differ more than 40% in terms of allowed emissions per ton product output, this thesis predicts that some steel makers would be forced out of the market. (author)

  1. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  2. Budgetary Structure as a Determinant in Measuring Fiscal Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Furtado Mota

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available National and International research studies often relate fiscal transparency to political, socio-economic and fiscal variables. Therefore, this study seeks to analyze how budget execution (revenues and expenses influence active fiscal transparency in municipalities in the state of Paraiba. Thus, Focco-PB (Forum on Fighting Corruption Paraíba reports were analyzed, with a view to identifying the  Active Fiscal Transparency Index in Paraíba’s municipalities in relation to this study’s dependent variable. Subsequently, independent variables were collected (intergovernmental transfer revenue, individual per capita revenue, spending on human resources, education and health in the TCE / PB database. Initially, a Pearson correlation test was performed and later an analysis of panel data  with a fixed effect. Furthermore, descriptive analyses of the dependent variables in relation to data for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 were conducted. The results suggest that Income from Transfers and Health Expenditure  reflected a negative relation with respect to the Active Fiscal Transparency Index whilst (ITFA Individual Income Per Capita and Spending on Human Resources indicate a positive relation.   As proposed in this study, it can be concluded that most of the variables studied and which make up budgetary structure impact on the Active Fiscal Transparency Index in Paraíba’s municipalities.

  3. Fiscal Federalism in Monetary Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; A. Schmid, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Net fiscal transfers are commonly seen as a possible means to ensure the wellfunctioning of a currency area. We show that U.S. net fiscal transfers, measured as the difference between gross federal revenues and federal expenditures per state, are enormous. Moreover, we run panel regressions...... a system of fiscal federalism which raises the question whether it should be established in the medium- and long-run. If so, which should be the magnitude of net fiscal transfers? We calculate these transfers hypothetically for 1999-2010, using a relative volume comparable to the one in the USA....

  4. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the US NRC's accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement

  5. The Competitive Potential of the Belorussian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Migranyan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article is an attempt to study the factors of the competitive capacity of Belorussian economy. There are two groups of factors of competitive potential and competitive advantages' formation: internal (changes in resource allocation) and external factors (adaptation to external shocks). The study found that the main source of the increase of competitive capacity of the Belorussian economy were foreign. The competitive potential of Belarus was formed on the basis of the increased exports. H...

  6. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  7. Automation, Performance and International Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Sørensen, Anders

    This paper presents new evidence on trade‐induced automation in manufacturing firms using unique data combining a retrospective survey that we have assembled with register data for 2005‐2010. In particular, we establish a causal effect where firms that have specialized in product types for which...... the Chinese exports to the world market has risen sharply invest more in automated capital compared to firms that have specialized in other product types. We also study the relationship between automation and firm performance and find that firms with high increases in scale and scope of automation have faster...... productivity growth than other firms. Moreover, automation improves the efficiency of all stages of the production process by reducing setup time, run time, and inspection time and increasing uptime and quantity produced per worker. The efficiency improvement varies by type of automation....

  8. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  9. Environmental fiscal reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Chaturvedi; Manjeet S. Saluja; Abhijit Banerjee; Rachna Arora

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR) and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of imp...

  10. Fiscal 1999 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Phase 2 R and D (Task 3) -research/study concerning international cooperation (Volume 1. research/study for promoting international cooperation); 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 3. Kokusai kyoryoku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (1. kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Various measures were implemented with the aim of realizing the 'longterm vision for international cooperation' in connection with hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET) formulated in fiscal 1996. The English version of the 1998 annual summary report on results was distributed to approximately 170 pertinent organizations overseas. To develop understanding of the WE-NET project, presentations were given in numerous international conferences. In addition, as research cooperation in IEA (International Energy Agency), specialists were dispatched to the hydrogen implementation committee, the corresponding committee to hydrogen implementation agreement, and to each annex. In international exchange of technical information, each WE-NET task exchanged information with organizations abroad through overseas survey and conducted research on European hydrogen project, for example. With the purpose of developing understanding of WE-NET project activities, a preparatory work was done for participation in HYFORUM2000 (Germany) and World Hydrogen Energy Conference (Beijing) which will be held in 2000. (NEDO)

  11. Competition in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Warren

    1995-01-01

    With changes occurring within both the gas and electricity industries and both sectors undergoing simultaneous reforms at the State and national levels it is timely to look at some major aspects of the energy-reform processes in Australia and to attempt to offer some perspectives from the viewpoint of an industry user of energy. From an industry user's viewpoint there is quantifiable evidence that competition in the energy sector will deliver major economic benefits to industry and the nation. The reform process currently in train will increase Australia's international competitiveness. Commonwealth-State collaboration is useful on economic issues which require a national consistent approach. Many significant and complex arrangement apply to the gas and electricity sectors which add to the complexity of the respective reform processes. More competitive arrangements are therefore required more quickly at several stages of the gas-sector reform process, such as in the commercialization of government utilities, resolving the issue of third-party transmission pricing, and the removal of State governments' impediments to competitive trading. The Hilmer Report on National Competition Policy will help deal with some difficult structural and transitional issues, e.g. third-party access, competitive structures, regulatory regimes, and a consistent national approach.(author). 1 fig., 1 photo

  12. Fiscal federalism approach for controlling global environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, M.N.

    1996-01-01

    It is found that optimal international carbon taxes are country specific and we can decompose a tax on a domestically produced carbon-intensive commodity into a revenue tax, a tax to control local atmospheric pollution and an international carbon tax. It shows that an institutional arrangement for the world economy similar to the fiscal federalism in the federal countries can be useful to internalize the global externalities of atmospheric pollution. 18 refs

  13. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Robot control system; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Robot seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    R and D of the robot control system was conducted in the following items: 1) integrated open control system, 2) remote control robot manipulation language, 3) human factor robot use built-in LAN system, 4) built-in actuator driver. In 1), there were some problems to be pointed out around the system, but the effectiveness was confirmed as system architecture of each verification item. In 2), development/design were made of RCML(R-Cube Manipulation Language) as a remote robot manipulation language, telecommunication protocol, and the experimental system, and the international standardization was targeted. In 3), the R and D was conducted of the realtime telecommunication protocol which clears the standards for the distributed control required for construction of human factor robot and the advanced realtime micro-controller, ULSI, which is the one that the protocol was made IC. In 4), an intelligent connector for built-in actuator was developed which enables saving of wiring in robot system and plug-in connection. 13 refs., 186 figs., 53 tabs.

  14. Report for fiscal 1998 on the international joint research project of medical welfare equipment; Iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In connection with the international joint research project of medical welfare, a report was made on the results of the investigation conducted in 1998 concerning the technology of overseas medical welfare equipment. In the investigation of china, observation was made on the actual state of the representative medial institutions, with opinions exchanged. Obsolete equipment and old technology are the present state in China, which is strongly desirous of exchanging information with Japan. In Taiwan, being full of venture spirit, an ultrasonic thermal treatment apparatus and an ultrasonic echo device have been produced for example. In Europe, an observation tour was conducted on a German manipulator and process robot while an investigative visit and exchange of opinions were made on the living environment and facilities in Italian training center for physically handicapped persons. Japan's self-supporting and assisting system for excretion attracted many questions and comments. In the investigation in the U.S., views were exchanged concerning '{sup 13}C-MRS device for non-invasion brain metabolic measurement' in research institutions such as universities. A machine developed in Japan received a high evaluation in that {sup 13}C spectrum was obtained from a substantial depth. (NEDO)

  15. Investigational report on international joint research in medical/walfare appliances in fiscal 1993; 1993 nendo iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The field of concrete cooperation, method of R and D, and business, environment to support the project, and system to promote the project were studied for the research under international cooperation through investigating the trend and organization of R and D of the medical/welfare appliances at home and abroad. Projects were then proposed. In the project for collecting/analyzing the trace quantity of blood, the anomaly is inspected at a molecular level from the collected trace quantity of blood to make the biochemical inspection painless for the patients suffering from infectious symptom or disease of adults. In the project for the high-accuracy and high-function measurement without invading the diseased part of living body, the configuration and metabolic function are measured by nuclear magnetic resonance to early detect the symptom of Alzheimer and other different obstinate diseases. In the operation support system project with three-dimensional images of living body, the three-dimensional information is obtained, by X-ray CT or MRI, about the diseased part of living tissue. Upon the exact determination of its location, the disease is cured. Besides, the monitoring systemproject was proposed for the old people`s safety against dementia. The human care robot project was also done. 56 refs., 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Report on an international joint research project for global environment technology in fiscal 1998; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo gijutsu kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to serve for measures against global problems taken by Japan, joint research was carried out with overseas research organizations. The research project selected ten themes considering urgency, internationality and economic proliferation effect in areas to serve for solution of global environment problems. These themes include removal or emission control of greenhouse effect gases, measures against atmospheric environment problems such as acid rains and ozone layer destruction, prevention of ocean contamination, development and effective utilization of energies and resources. When the feedback of these themes to the NEDO projects is considered, the research achievements in relation with development of the acid rain monitoring system in particular support indirectly development of carbon dioxide fixation technologies. The research achievements in developing an environmentally friendly biomass energy manufacturing process and environmental effect evaluation thereon contribute as an effective process to carbon dioxide reduction using biomass as raw materials. The achievements in research of nonlinear interfacial properties and mixed phase turbulence of low-purity carbon dioxide bubbles contribute to a project related to storage of carbon dioxide in oceans. (NEDO)

  17. CAPITALIZATION OF FISCAL AND ACCOUNTING INTERFERENCES FOR FISCAL OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ CHILAREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As economic entities in Romania are still in a relationship of interdependence between the accounting interest and the fiscal one, it makes the application of one or another accounting treatment under different circumstances on the transactions specific to the activity have a certain influence on the information released by the financial statements, but also on the tax bases and hence on the fiscal cost. This article argues that the sustainability and performance of a business requires, in addition to the effective management of the economic and financial resources in order to maximise performance and to ensure the cash flows, that the management must take into account both the good informing of the information users through the financial statements, and proper management of the fiscal implications in order to record a fiscal cost as low as possible while respecting the legal framework so that the fiscal risk is avoided or reduced as much as possible.

  18. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  19. The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Poverty in Ethiopia: A Computable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    study investigates the economy-wide impacts of these fiscal policy changes on poverty. ... of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in the 1990s and ..... factors of production (labor, land, livestock and capital), 7 institutions (an.

  20. Competitive strategy for providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, M C

    1996-01-01

    National Health Service (NHS) Trusts are struggling to determine a long-term strategic direction for their organizations in response to the competitive pressures generated by the NHS reforms. The development of long-term strategic direction and the methods to implement this are presenting real challenges to the Trusts which have inherited service configurations based on bureaucratic planning frameworks rather than service configurations suited to a more competitive environment. Examines the strategic choices available to these organizations; explores the importance of identifying positive strategic choices; and discusses the advantages and disadvantages in the context of the NHS internal market.

  1. Fiscal councils and economic volatility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Geršl, A.; Jašová, M.; Zápal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2014), s. 190-212 ISSN 0015-1920 Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : dynamic inconsistency * fiscal and monetary policy interaction * independent fiscal council Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.420, year: 2014 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1298_jasova.pdf

  2. Deepening Representative Democracy through Fiscal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ideas behind composite budgeting for effective fiscal decentralisation are noble, but the implementation is constrained by organisational, coordination, structural and technical factors. The key unanswered question is whether the failure to deliver the goods of fiscal decentralisation is fettered by misnomer ...

  3. the fiscality, tool of an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This report studies how the fiscality can be an adapted tool for the implementing of the french energy policy. The term fiscality designates here the fiscality of the energy production, consumption and use in the industrial fabrication processes. An evaluation of the french fiscality and the analysis of this accounting are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Fiscal Restructuring in Nigeria: A Historical Review | Elekwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... order to allay the growing internal contentions. This paper using the documentary method has tried to review the various commissions to identify whether their effort has responded to the demand for fairness and justice in revenue sharing formula in Nigeria. Keywords: Federalism, Fiscal Relation, Principle, Commissions.

  5. 22 CFR 231.07 - Fiscal Agent obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiscal Agent obligations. 231.07 Section 231.07 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...

  6. Fiscal Policy and Local Government Administration in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    system of financial regulations put in place to curtail the degree of corruption at ..... state governors feel the impact of fiscal centralism. ... Treasurer to the Local Government and the Head of Internal Audit. ... and issuing of false certificate of job completion by an accounting .... Lagos: Federal Ministry of Information. p.19; 118.

  7. Fiscal Adjustment in IMF-Supported Adjustment Programmes: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiscal adjustment is an essential element of macro-economic stability and economic growth. Given that economic growth is the most powerful weapon in the fight for higher living standards, poor growth performance in African countries, has been a challenge to economists, policy makers and international development ...

  8. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of methods for testing and evaluating plastic optical fiber; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Plastic hikari fiber no shiken hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studies were made about methods for testing and evaluating plastic optical fiber (POF) for the purpose of submitting a proposition to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) for the methods to be internationally standardized. In this fiscal year, tests and analyses were conducted relative to the effects of the light source emission area size, wavelength, and axial displacement. Next, underfilled launch was studied from a practical viewpoint, and a method using a mode filter was proposed. Finally, round robin tests were conducted for each of the companies using overfilled launch and underfilled launch, and the reproducibility of measured values was grasped. In this fiscal year, a new study added, which involved a method for measuring structural parameters. Though POF was below standard as an object of IEC's gray scale method, yet it was found, thanks to the recently developed CCD (charge coupled device) cameras, that the method might also be applicable to POF. A groundwork plan was drafted on band test methods including the overfilled launch method toward international standardization. (NEDO)

  9. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 Negotiated Service Agreement, December 14, 2012... history. The Commission added International Business Reply Service Contract 1 to the competitive product...

  10. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 negotiated service agreement... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, February 11, 2013.... 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service...

  11. Fiscal decentralisation and the size of government: a review of the empirical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Golem

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the public choice framework, it has been argued that decentralised authority over the provision and financing of certain public goods and services induces competitive pressure among different governmental units and consequently reduces the size of government. However, in many countries, fiscal decentralisation seems to have occurred almost exclusively through devolution of expenditure activities, without the accompanying devolution of the tax authority. We address this issue in detail, and discuss the epercussions of the resulting vertical fiscal imbalance on the total size of government. We also discuss alternative, demand-side channels of the influence of fiscal decentralisation on the size of government. In the empirical literature that we review, little consensus on the relationship between fiscal decentralisation and the size of government is reached.

  12. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  13. Budget estimates fiscal year 1989: Appropriation, Salaries and expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The budget estimates for Salaries and Expenses for FY 1989 provide for obligations of $450,000,000 to be funded in total by a new appropriation. The sum appropriated shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during fiscal year 1989 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, excluding those monies received for the cooperative nuclear safety research program, services rendered to foreign governments and international organizations, and the material and information access authorization programs, so as to result in a final fiscal year 1989 appropriation estimated at not more than $247,500,000

  14. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  15. Fiscal policy and the global financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

     The financial crisis raises demands for fiscal policy interventions. While a fall in aggregate demand is an important consequence of the crisis, it also reflects more underlying structural problems and changes. Hence, appropriate policy designs have to take account of the nature of the crisis......-run objectives are discussed. Past experience shows that deep recessions become persistent due to marginalization of unemployed, and therefore labour market policies have to be considered as an integral part of policy packages. Finally the question of international policy coordination is addressed....

  16. MACROECONOMIC ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Hooke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of globalization of world economic processes, the role of individual national economies increases, comparative advantages of the development of a country are formed, and their competitiveness is ensured. That is why it is worth emphasizing the importance of increasing the competitiveness of each individual country, based on its internal capacity. In a broad aspect, the competitiveness of the national economy is perceived as the ability of the country to ensure the balance of its external proportions and to avoid those constraints imposed by the foreign economic sphere, to self-organizing the improvement of their world economic ties. The competitiveness of the economy at the macro level is associated with the duration of the cycle of reproduction of the main productive assets and, accordingly, the jobs, productive forces of society and determined by the overall economic efficiency of investment. The criteria of competitiveness of the national economy are the growth of social productivity of labor, increase of social and economic efficiency of production and standard of living of the population. The competitiveness of the national economy determines sustainable socio-economic development of the country, as well as sustainable development predetermines the competitiveness of not only the country, but also all its levels. Scientific results are obtained using special methods of research of economic objects and phenomena, that is, based on the correlation and regressive, comparative analysis (establishing the relationship between the indicator factor, as well as economic modeling. Findings. Generalizing analysis and the importance of the macroeconomic aspect of competitiveness were used in the research paper, which will allow to better respond to the economic situation, in accordance with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy; which in turn will solve important problems of the development and implementation of its

  17. Fiscal rules, powerful levers for controlling the health budget? Evidence from 32 OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schakel, Herman Christiaan; Wu, Erilia Hao; Jeurissen, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Publicly funded healthcare forms an intricate part of government spending in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because of its reliance on entitlements and dedicated revenue streams. The impact of budgetary rules and procedures on publicly funded health care might thus be different from other spending categories. In this study we focus on the potential of fiscal rules to contain these costs and their design features. We assess the relationship between fiscal rules and the level of public health care expenditure of 32 (OECD) countries between 1985 and 2014. Our dataset consists of health care expenditure data of the OECD and data on fiscal rules of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for that same period. Through a multivariate regression analysis, we estimate the association between fiscal rules and its subcategories and inflation adjusted public health care expenditure. We control for population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), debt and whether countries received an IMF bailout for the specific period. In all our regressions we include country and year fixed effects. The presence of a fiscal rule on average is associated with a 3 % reduction of public health care expenditure. Supranational balanced budget rules are associated with some 8 % lower expenditure. Health service provision-oriented countries with more passive purchasing structures seem less capable of containing costs through fiscal rules. Fiscal rules demonstrate lagged effectiveness; the potential for expenditure reduction increases after one and two years of fiscal rule implementation. Finally, we find evidence that fiscal frameworks that incorporate multi-year expenditure ceilings show additional potential for cost control. Our study shows that there seems a clear relationship between the potential of fiscal rules and budgeting health expenses. Using fiscal rules to contain the level of health care expenditure can thus be a necessary precondition for

  18. Fiscal 1999 technical research report. Development project on prompt-effect international standards for developing new industry (Comprehensive survey and research concerning promotion of international standardization); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For encouraging the promotion of international standardization involving the six subjects of advanced technology taken up under the above-named project, wide-range investigations are conducted into measures for international standardization, the activities of international standardizing agencies and organizations, and the approaches of European and American business corporations to this issue. Technical literature and material are studied in Japan, and interviews are held overseas with responsible persons at organizations and corporations engaged in this task. At Standards Development Organization (SDO) of America, verification tests are under way for early development into international standards of technical standards it has so far developed independently. For the strategical utilization of intellectual property incorporated into its technical standards, SDO accepts that the best policy is to win approvals from patent proprietors at the early stage of standardization process by presenting them with conditions about patent implementation. In Europe and America, for the enhancement of their competitive power in the international theater, governments and civil sectors cooperate with each other for the establishment of international standards and, in business corporations, the management takes the initiative in coping with the issue with an understanding that there are business opportunities in international standardization. (NEDO)

  19. Towards Establishing Fiscal Legitimacy Through Settled Fiscal Principles in Global Health Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Attiya; Latif, Laila Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Scholarship on international health law is currently pushing the boundaries while taking stock of achievements made over the past few decades. However despite the forward thinking approach of scholars working in the field of global health one area remains a stumbling block in the path to achieving the right to health universally: the financing of heath. This paper uses the book Global Health Law by Larry Gostin to reflect and take stock of the fiscal support provided to the right to health from both a global and an African perspective. It then sets out the key fiscal challenges facing global and African health and proposes an innovative solution for consideration: use of the domestic principles of tax to design the global health financing system.

  20. Competitiveness and linking of emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausotter, Tobias; Steuwer, Sibyl; Taenzler, Dennis [adelphi, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The establishment of emission trading systems raises concerns among industries regarding international competitive disadvantages for the industries under an emissions cap. This study aims to assess competitiveness exposure of industrial sectors and presents policy measures to address these concerns. Moreover, the study provides a comparison of different existing approaches to competitiveness concerns proposed by regional emission trading systems. (orig.)

  1. Fiscal Liability of State Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Fajardo-Peña

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The State contract is one of the most important tools for public management. The formation, execution and liquidation of State contracts are also a potential cause of State patrimonial damages. Perhaps for this reason, many State contractors are prosecuted as if they were public spending managers. The question, however, is not as simple. The fiscal liability process has a qualified recipient: the fiscal manager. In this article, through a conceptual exposition and a case study, we identify the criterion for determining in which cases a State contractor acquires the function of controlling public funds and when he/she can be subjected to a fiscal liability.

  2. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  3. Competitive Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Spiegler

    2014-01-01

    I present a simple framework for modeling two-firm market competition when consumer choice is "frame-dependent", and firms use costless "marketing messages" to influence the consumer's frame. This framework embeds several recent models in the "behavioral industrial organization" literature. I identify a property that consumer choice may satisfy, which extends the concept of Weighted Regularity due to Piccione and Spiegler (2012), and provide a characterization of Nash equilibria under this pr...

  4. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for evaluating characteristics measurement for micromachine materials; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Micro machine yo zairyo no tokusei keisoku hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Targeting the international standardization of the method for evaluating properties measurement for micro-machine materials, R and D has been performed on measurement and evaluation of mechanical properties of different thin film materials with a thickness of about 10 {mu}m or less and a width of 100 {mu}m or less. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed tensile tests of thin film materials for micro-machines, and surveys on technological trends related to the standardization thereof inside and outside the country. A working process was developed to manufacture test pieces of the thin film materials including mono-crystalline silicon for the purpose of executing the round robin test. Prototype test pieces were fabricated. The round robin test was performed by using these test pieces, wherein improvements were given on the test pieces, structure of the testing machine, the distortion measuring method, and the test piece mounting method. Furthermore, discussions were given on the film forming conditions and the heat treatment conditions with regard to mainly the thin titanium film made by using the sputtering process and thin nickel film made by using the plating process. The IEC/TC47/WG4 committee has announced to propose this evaluation technology as the future international standard. (NEDO)

  5. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of communication interface for open robots in production system; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seisan system nado ni okeru open robot yo tsushin interface no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to realize the open use between robot controllers and personal computers on the communication level, R and D has been performed on the standard API required for structuring the applications to use robot information on the personal computers. A draft of the international standard was prepared. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed improvements on the standard API software, as well as the demonstration tests. The following achievements were obtained: problems in practical use based on the demonstration tests of RAO ver. 0.5 were extracted and rectified; the standard API (Ver0.9) given additional functions including file transfer was developed; the specifications for the standard API (Ver1.0) were compiled based on the result of discussions on the major application functions; as a result of the demonstration test on reliability of the standard API (Ver0.9), performances were verified when the API is connected under different structural and using conditions; and a resolution was made at the ISO/TC184/SC2 international conference that 'continuation is encouraged on the present R and D expected as a proposal for the new work items'. (NEDO)

  6. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. International cooperation projects (Collection of information on IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Items of information were collected on development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use, the international cooperation projects, and the IEA photovoltaic power generation program. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the activities of IEA/REWP/PVPS in the current fiscal year, the 13th and 14th Executive Committee meetings, and the 3rd Executive Conference were held. The Task 1 has performed such activities as ISR, NSR, Newsletters, and opening the Internet homepage. The Task 2 activities included structuring about 260 databases for the operation characteristics of photovoltaic power generation systems, and completing the internal material handbooks on measurement and monitoring. A new work plan was prepared for the Task 3 regarding an independent photovoltaic power generation plant for use in an island. For the building integrated photovoltaic power generation system in the Task 7, survey activities were executed by utilizing expertise conferences on building designs, system technologies, and non-technical impediments. In the feasibility survey and research on large-scale photovoltaic power generation utilizing unused land such as desert for the Task 8, the programs were established. (NEDO)

  7. CAPITALIZATION OF FISCAL AND ACCOUNTING INTERFERENCES FOR FISCAL OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Dănuţ CHILAREZ; George Sebastian ENE

    2014-01-01

    As economic entities in Romania are still in a relationship of interdependence between the accounting interest and the fiscal one, it makes the application of one or another accounting treatment under different circumstances on the transactions specific to the activity have a certain influence on the information released by the financial statements, but also on the tax bases and hence on the fiscal cost. This article argues that the sustainability and performance of a business requi...

  8. New Sunshine Program for Fiscal 2000. International cooperative project for developing photovoltaic power system practicalization technology (International Energy Agency (IEA)/Cooperative Program on Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) implementing agreement - Task 1); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijustu kaihatsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden system kenkyu kyoryoku program jisshi kyotei task 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Fiscal 2000 participation in the above-named program is reported. At the Task 1 meeting of experts, electric power application in the participating countries was taken up and information was exchanged concerning the technical, economical, and environmental facets of photovoltaic power generation, efforts were made to disseminate the technology to non-participating countries, and coordination was established between the Tasks. For the preparation and publication of the ISR (International Survey Report), Japan would prepare and submit its NSR (National Survey Report) on Japan's photovoltaics-related policies, amounts of introduction and production, etc. The ISR was to be compiled by technical writers based on the NSRs submitted by the countries involved, to be bound into a book by September after supervision by the Task 1 staff and the executive committee. As for Market Implementation, it would be compiled under the leadership of Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Japan. An added-value workshop was held at Glasgow, the United Kingdom, in May 2000 with the participation of 53 representing 14 countries. (NEDO)

  9. New Sunshine Program for Fiscal 2000. International cooperative project for developing photovoltaic power system practicalization technology (International Energy Agency (IEA)/Cooperative Program on Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) implementing agreement - Task 1); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijustu kaihatsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden system kenkyu kyoryoku program jisshi kyotei task 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Fiscal 2000 participation in the above-named program is reported. At the Task 1 meeting of experts, electric power application in the participating countries was taken up and information was exchanged concerning the technical, economical, and environmental facets of photovoltaic power generation, efforts were made to disseminate the technology to non-participating countries, and coordination was established between the Tasks. For the preparation and publication of the ISR (International Survey Report), Japan would prepare and submit its NSR (National Survey Report) on Japan's photovoltaics-related policies, amounts of introduction and production, etc. The ISR was to be compiled by technical writers based on the NSRs submitted by the countries involved, to be bound into a book by September after supervision by the Task 1 staff and the executive committee. As for Market Implementation, it would be compiled under the leadership of Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Japan. An added-value workshop was held at Glasgow, the United Kingdom, in May 2000 with the participation of 53 representing 14 countries. (NEDO)

  10. CURRENT TRENDS IN TAX HARMONIZATION AND COMPETITION WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherman Adela-Teodora

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article treats on the fiscal harmonization process within the European Union being indispensable for assuring loyalty in the competition on its single market, given the fact that different system of taxation had direct and powerful impact on the prices level and on chosing the location for production and distribution activities. Both direct and indirect taxation distort the four fundamental freedoms of the single market. Most of the European Unions regulations regarding fiscal harmonization resemble to the Directive regarding especially the indirect taxes: VAT, Excises. The fiscal reforms from the member states have to be conceived in such a manner that they take into account the necessity of fiscal harmonization on EU level, creating a reasonable compromise between each country's sovereignty and the desideratum of removing fiscal barriers from the normal functioning of the single market.

  11. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  12. Spending Disclosure - Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of this Spending Disclosure Fiscal Year 12 dataset is to allow the public to search and view summary information on payments made to recipients (referred...

  13. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. International standards for computers/manikins; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Computer manikin ni kansuru kokusai hyojun kikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Through the development of computer manikins (CM) which assess human adaptability to products and environments, a draft for international standardization was worked out to propose to ISO. A draft for the international standardization was presented to ISO through a development of `a structure model` changing based on human attributes, a study of `a motion model` enabling changes in posture and movement, a study of `an evaluation model` evaluating attainment ranges and ecodynamic loads, and a development of `computer functions` realizing the above-mentioned functions. The development of CM having the following characteristics: a function to reproduce `the structure model` based on the ISO7250 human body dimensional measuring values which were regulated in items for the human body dimensional measuring, a function to change posture/movement based on the joint movable range data, a function to evaluate geometrical human adaptability such as attainment ranges. As a plug-in to Autodesk Mechanical Desktop 2.0, the above-mentioned functions were realized, and the modular structure platform was constructed which enables the wide-range cross-industry option and functional expansion by the advance of CM. 7 refs., 41 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. The Practice of Fiscal Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria da Costa Porto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The citizen is not always aware of his tax rights and obligations, lacking awareness of the exercise of fiscal and tax citizenship. This article presents an analysis of the importance of the citizen to be informed about the embedded taxes when purchasing goods and providing services, as well as the way tax expenditures are made, so that he acquires an active and participatory citizenship for the purpose of achieving fiscal citizenship.

  15. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad N.; Arby, Muhammad Farooq

    2003-01-01

    Macroeconomic policies are meant to achieve non-inflationary, stable growth. There are two major groups of policy instruments to achieve the purpose; one is related to monetary conditions and the other to fiscal conditions. Monetary instruments are employed by the central bank and fiscal instruments are employed by ministry of finance. The objectives and implications of policy measures taken by the two institutions often conflict with each other and thus call for policy coordination for effec...

  16. Atomic energy policy in fiscal year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Michio

    1985-01-01

    The international demand and supply of petroleum advance in relaxed condition at present, but tend to get stringent in long term. Nuclear power is the most promising substitute energy for petroleum, and in Japan, 28 nuclear power plants with 20.56 million kW output are in operation, generating 20.4% of the total generated power in 1983. According to the perspective of long term power supply, the installed capacity of nuclear power plants will reach 62 million kW and 27% of the total installed capacity by 2000. It is important to positively deal with the industrialization of nuclear fuel cycle, the upgrading of nuclear power generation, the development of the reactors of new types and so on, preparing for the age that nuclear power generation will become the center of power supply. The atomic energy policy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in fiscal year 1985 is reflected to the budget, financial investment and funding and other measures based on the above viewpoint. The outline of the budget and financial investment and funding for fiscal year 1985 is explained. The points are the promotion of industrialization of nuclear fuel cycle, the promotion of nuclear power generation and the promotion of understanding and cooperation of nation on the location of electric power sources. (Kako, I.)

  17. Fiscal 1999 international cooperation project report. Development of high-precision quantitative analysis technology for catalyst surfaces by electron spectroscopy; 1999 nendo denshi bunkoho ni yoru shokubai hyomen koseido teiryo bunseki bijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project targets to make analysis of surface chemical phenomena of solid catalysts possible, and establish the basis of intelligent design for catalytic materials, through development of an advanced electron spectroscopy for surface analysis. In fiscal 1999, the research was promoted by using the diffraction grating and driving mechanism introduced in fiscal 1998, and by developing the measurement result on silicon oxide films by radiation beam photoelectron spectroscopy. The measurement technique was established by the optimized measurement process which can treat variable parameters as constant. The analysis result of measurement data in fiscal 1999 showed the dependence of an electron damping length in silicon oxide films on radiation photon energy. The energy dependence well agreed with a theoretically obtained inelastic mean free path of electrons qualitatively, while was smaller by nearly 30% than the latter quantitatively. Measurement was made on the damping length in oxidation-active Gd and Nd oxide films. In both cases of Si and Si oxide film substrates, oxidation of substrates or formation of silicate was observed. (NEDO)

  18. Preliminary survey report for fiscal 1999 on engineer exchange project (field of coal mining technology), international exchange project. Europe; 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo jizen chosa. Oshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In Europe, international division is in progress as the result of market internationalization, and the coal market is experiencing an increasingly intensive competition in the storm of deregulation. The coal industry of Britain is away from a crisis for the time being, thanks to a new 5-year contract concluded with the electric utilities who are the primary purchasers, but it has to compete with imported coal and natural gas. The industry is also hit by the control imposed on the development of new opencast coal mines. Production is on the decline in the German coal market, which is one the largest in Western Europe, due to reduced subsidies, unfavorable geological conditions, lowered price, etc. The German coal industry is positively striving to exploit coal mines overseas and to export coal mining technologies. In Spain and France, the coal industry is forced to shrink and, in France, there is a plan to terminate coal mining completely in 2005. In Poland, the introduction of market economy has resulted in the influx of low-price coal from Russia etc., and all the Polish mines are now in the red. Its joining the European Union in the near future will further increase the pressure from other nations. It is learned that in Britain, Germany, etc., coal businesses are accelerating their transfer of technology to developing countries and are positively strengthening their presence abroad. (NEDO)

  19. FIRST 2002, 2003, 2004 Robotics Competition(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2002, 2003, and 2004 FIRST Robotics Competitions. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  20. All projects related to chile | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... demands economic, social and environmental data from a wide range of sources. ... WATERWAYS, INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS, CONFLICT RESOLUTION ... Fiscal Schemes for Inclusive Development (FSID) : Evaluating Tax and ...

  1. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization for enhanced interoperability between optical disk systems; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Hikari disk system no sogo un'yosei kakuho no tame no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was carried out for the enhancement of logical format-based interoperability between optical disk systems for the purpose of presenting propositions for international standards. That is, UDF (universal disk format) defined by OSTA (Optical Storage Technology Association) was taken up against the volume/file structure defined by ISO/IEC13346, and efforts were exerted to substantiate environments for its compatibility test and to develop specifications to achieve such enhanced interoperability. In this fiscal year, specifications were drafted for application program interfaces for the UDF-based file system and UDF security augmentation. These would be presented to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) and OSTA, respectively. Their Japanese versions were submitted to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan, for publication as standard-related information. Maintenance of UAF (universal accessible file) system-compliance test tools were accomplished in response to user requirements and to the updating of UDF-compliance test disk specification. (NEDO)

  2. WAREHOUSE TRANSFERS AND FISCAL FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu Dorica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fraud and fiscal evasion phenomenon generate indisputable negative effects, which are felt directly on the level of fiscal receipts earnings, determining major distortions in the market’s functioning mechanism. If in the European Union, the contribution of the three large tax categories (direct tax, indirect and social contributions in forming revenue are relatively close, in Romania, fiscal and budget revenue are directly dependent on the indirect tax and duties, especially on VAT and various sales taxes. If there is reductions in the fiscal evasion as to what these taxes are concerned, the premises for creating budget resource needed to fund the economic growth are created. In judicial literature, tax evasion is considered as being the logic result of all defects and inadvertencies of an imperfect legislation, of broken application methods, as well as a lack of foreseeing and lack of skill on the law-maker’s side, with their excessive tax system is as guilty as those who contribute in creating it. Regardless of how this phenomenon is defined, fiscal evasion represents the lack of fulfillment by the taxpayer of his fiscal obligation. The field in which tax evasion acts is as widespread as the different taxes, manifesting especially in the direct and indirect taxes, influencing their efficiency.

  3. Fiscal 1998 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study report on excavation of international joint research seeds; 1998 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility study (FS) was made on excavation of international joint research seeds for developed countries. As FS themes, 6 themes were selected among applied 11 ones. China was interested in the joint research on improvement of a cetane number by ring-opening of LCO from fluid catalytic crackers through hydrogenation for Arabian crude oil, although China has an experience for domestic one. Since France and the USA are in the early developmental stage of practical atmospheric temperature and pressure conversion technology of lower hydrocarbon after the basic research stage, study was made on the possibility of a joint research. The other themes are as follows: Oil resource and energy conservation technology by recycling general plastics and industrial synthetic resins, advanced solid catalyst regulating technology by physicochemical technique and its application to next-generation oil refining processes, structure analysis of asphaltene and reaction mechanism analysis of heavy oil by computer simulation, and production technology of ultra-precisely controlled catalytic materials. (NEDO)

  4. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  5. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Comprehensive surveys and researches in relation with promotion of international standardization; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of promoting the international standardization efficiently and strategically, surveys were performed on trends of international standardization in Europe and America, and researches on means for the international standardization. The standards strategy in the U.S. is to increase the U.S. competitive power in overseas countries, support strongly the domestic markets, and at the same time, deal with problems such as those of the environment. It attempts to structure a framework that can be utilized by any concerned parties, including business entities, the government, and consumers, whereas the National Standards Strategy (NSS) has proposed the initiative. In Europe, targeting to establish international standards originated from Europe, works are becoming more active for new technologies such as information communicating technologies from the R and D phase to the test and evaluation methods, taking the standardization into consideration. These works are being carried out within the scope of the common EU R and D, represented by the 'Framework program' and the 'EUREKA program'. In the survey and research on means to complete the international standardization, analyses and surveys were performed on the latest information, such as TC/SC, which are scheduled of proposition. Advices were given on giving the directionality and establishing the strategy. (NEDO)

  6. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Comprehensive surveys and researches in relation with promotion of international standardization; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of promoting the international standardization efficiently and strategically, surveys were performed on trends of international standardization in Europe and America, and researches on means for the international standardization. The standards strategy in the U.S. is to increase the U.S. competitive power in overseas countries, support strongly the domestic markets, and at the same time, deal with problems such as those of the environment. It attempts to structure a framework that can be utilized by any concerned parties, including business entities, the government, and consumers, whereas the National Standards Strategy (NSS) has proposed the initiative. In Europe, targeting to establish international standards originated from Europe, works are becoming more active for new technologies such as information communicating technologies from the R and D phase to the test and evaluation methods, taking the standardization into consideration. These works are being carried out within the scope of the common EU R and D, represented by the 'Framework program' and the 'EUREKA program'. In the survey and research on means to complete the international standardization, analyses and surveys were performed on the latest information, such as TC/SC, which are scheduled of proposition. Advices were given on giving the directionality and establishing the strategy. (NEDO)

  7. Consequences of lower oil prices and stranded assets for Russia's sustainable fiscal stance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malova, Aleksandra; Ploeg, Frederick van der

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial oil and gas revenue Russia's fiscal stance is unsustainable. Under our benchmark assumptions the permanent-income rule requires a permanent tightening of the fiscal stance by 4.6%-points of GDP. Delaying it by a decade implies that the fiscal stance needs to be tightened by a further 0.9%-point. This benchmark optimal policy ensures that depletion of oil and gas wealth is matched by an equal increase in above-ground financial wealth. Its merits are highlighted by comparing it with the tougher alternative of the bird-in-hand rule and with projecting the current fiscal stance. If oil and gas revenue rises by a half due to higher prices or more discoveries, the fiscal stance needs to be tightened by only 3.2%-points of GDP. However, if a large chunk of oil and gas has to be kept in the soil to meet international agreements to keep global warming below 2 °C, the permanent transfer drops to 2.0% of GDP and the fiscal stance needs to be tightened by 5.5%-points of GDP. - Highlights: • Sustained lower oil prices mean that Russia has to tighten its fiscal stance by 4.6%-points of GDP. • If oil & gas revenue rise by half, the fiscal stance only needs to be tightened by 3.2%-points of GDP. • Delaying by a decade means that the fiscal stance has to be tightened by a further 0.9%-points of GDP. • If Russia commits to Paris COP21, a large chunk of reserves cannot be burnt. • The fiscal stance then needs to be tightened by 5.5%-points of GDP.

  8. Challenging issues in the study of fiscally-induced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, S L

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews Shaw's book, INTERMETROPOLITAN MIGRATION IN CANADA, which provides new evidence concerning the link between fiscal structure and internal migration. Shaw bases his work on a valuable new migration series he has put together from census data: intermetropolitan flows from 1956-1981. The existence of censua data at 5-year intervals permits Shaw enough data to estimate migration equations separately for the periods before and after 1971. A comparison of the role of fiscal variables before and after 1971 is interesting because unemployment insurance, equalization payments, and provincial natural resource revenues probably became more important in determining regional differences in incomes after 1971 than in the 20 years prior to that. Shaw suspects that migration behavior has become less sensitive to traditional market variables such as wage differentials and more sensitive to other factors, including quality of life indicators since 1950. The author thinks that Shaw's conclusion cannot rest comfortably on estimating equations that omit fiscal variables. The overall role of wage differentials in determining observed migration patterns is the product of the coefficient on wage variables and the actual evolution of wages over the estimation period. Another problem with the methodology used to contrast pre- and post-1971 migration equations is the apparent neglect of statistical testing for shifts in coefficients on the traditional economic variables and for shifts in the coefficients on the fiscal variables. The strongest of the useful results from the study concern the role of unemployment insurance. The evidence that these have an influence on internal migration is now compelling. Shaw's book adds substantial weight to the view that variation in fiscal structure plays a significant role in determining internal migration patterns.

  9. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND IN PROMOTING GLOBAL ECONOMIC STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role that the International Monetary Fund performs in promoting global economic stability. Global economic and financial stability plays a key role in the financial system and the economy as a whole. The increase in the importance of the concept of financial stability by supervisors at both European and global level was concretized by defining a framework for the operationalization of macroprudential policy, together with the establishment of coordination bodies in this field, thus recognizing its role in the mix of established economic policies such as monetary, fiscal or competitive policy.

  10. Energy's role in industrial competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    At a conference on the role of energy in industrial competitiveness, papers were presented on the energy consumer's perspective on energy issues in the mineral and food industries, global perspectives on the role of energy in industrial competitiveness, a supplier's perspective on energy issues in the oil/gas and electric industries, perspectives on environmental issues including climate change, and international partnerships for industrial competitiveness, notably in the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 15 papers from this conference

  11. Evoluția fenomenului fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available This paperwork is trying to present the evolution of the revenue system beginning with ancient times and is focusing on Romanian Internal Revenue System before and after 1989. Lately, the main characteristic of the Romanian Internal Revenue System is the shift in terms of indirect taxes growth versus direct taxation. Subsequently, this shift came out as the incidence of several factors, such as: the general immaturity of the system, an incoherent fiscal policy, as well as due to the personnel shortcomings and lack of adjustment to the best practices in the field. Thus, we may conclude that the revenue phenomenon in countries passing through a transition period is similar to the beginnings of the system when the state power made its way to various abuses. The fact that countries in transition persisted in making the same mistakes as other developed states prolonged this negative phenomenon.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE ROMANIAN FISCAL LEGISLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Muntean; Doina Pacurari

    2008-01-01

    Fiscal policy constitutes – within the state's economic policy – a system by means of which the taxes and duties owed to the country's consolidated budget are established and collected. Taking into account the role fiscal policy has been playing since Romania's admission in the European Union, one of the goals ceaselessly looked for is its adapting to the international community's acquis through the implementation of the European directives in our context. The EU directives make reference to ...

  13. Fiscal aspects of the European monetary integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Srđan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the introduction of the euro as a single currency, importance of respecting the fiscal aspects which determine longevity of the monetary arrangement is recognized. For this reason, although underdeveloped, the EU fiscal system provides mechanisms to ensure fiscal discipline among member states. In addition to the fulfillment of the convergence criteria which is a precondition for joining the monetary union, they include no bailout clause and monetary financing prohibition. Sovereign debt that escalated in 2010 showed all the imperfections of these arrangements and pointed to the need for introduction of new and more effective fiscal rules. With fiscal system of the European Union as a starting point, the paper analyzes instruments defined by the fiscal system of the Union, which purpose is to ensure fiscal discipline of the European Monetary Union member states. Last part of the paper analyze new fiscal rules introduced as a response to the debt crisis in the Eurozone.

  14. Budget estimates, fiscal years 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal years 1994 and 1995

  15. Financial fragility and the fiscal multiplier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.; van der Kwaak, C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of `Keynesian' fiscal stimuli when government deficits and debt rollovers are (possibly partially) financed by balance sheet constrained financial intermediaries. Because financial intermediaries operate under a leverage constraint, deficit financing of fiscal

  16. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for evaluating thermal properties test on polymeric materials; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kobunshi zairyo no netsutokusei shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Targeting at proposing to ISO as an international standard, R and D has been performed on a method of the alternating current heating of the non-constant method, with regard to a method to evaluate the thermal properties test on polymeric materials in molten condition reflecting thin film polymeric materials, and the forming and processing technology. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed surveys on literatures related to thermal properties, development and commercialization of a measuring device, establishment of the measurement procedure, and putting some of the materials into database. The database was prepared mainly for heat diffusion rate and heat conductivity, wherein about 1000 items of information were collected. The temperature range of the measuring device revealed that stabilized data can be obtained from as low temperature as liquid nitrogen temperature to as high as 200 degrees C. The commercially available measuring device has no restrictions if the test sample thickness is from 1 mm to 100 mm, if the temperature range is from room temperature to 350 degrees C, if the temperature rising rate is from 0.01 to 5 K/min, and if the test sample form is film. Measurement at temperatures including those in the melting zone in the forming stage of each polymer has achieved as close result as having been called for in the initial objective. (NEDO)

  17. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for evaluating mechanical stress of composite structures for aerospace use; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Koku uchuyo sentan fukugozai no kyodo hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D has been performed on methods to repair composite structures used in aerospace application, and on stress evaluation on repaired portions, targeting at establishment of international standardization. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed surveys on repair methods, selection of the repair methods, evaluation on the repairing processes, and compression strength evaluation on test samples given repairs. The method for repairing the sandwich-structure composite members was selected as a result surveys and discussions on published literatures. For the evaluation test on the repairing processes, specific repairing processes were established with reference to the result of surveys on the repair methods, which were applied to test samples having been given damages. In addition, discussions were given also on non-destructive inspection methods for sandwich panels. Regarding the strength test for repaired portions, a compression strength test was performed on test samples repaired by using adhesive after having been given damages, wherein data related to compression strength were obtained. Furthermore, a system was developed to analyze the scarf-like adhesive-repaired potions by using the two-dimensional finite element method model. (NEDO)

  18. Power industry and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, H.

    1988-01-01

    A task group on antritrust law has been set in by the Federal Ministry of Economics in order to again investigate the position of the utilities within the framework of the law against restraints on competition, (GWB). The task group's report states that from the power industry's perspective, there is no reason to modify the existing system created by sections 103, 103a of the GWB. The EC internal market to come, and enhanced use of coal for power generation to be continued beyond the year 1995 are topics that will keep politicians, utilities, and lawmakers in this field busy enough. In such a situation, the legislator cannot afford a discovery trip into unexplored, theoretical impacts of enhanced competition on the power industry. (orig./DG) [de

  19. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  20. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  1. A Company's Internal Potential to Implement a Strategy to Acquire a Competitive Advantage: Action-Research Within a Mexican CompanyHttp://Dx.Doi.Org/10.5585/Riae.V9i2.1657

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Gabriel Sánchez Trejo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The small business in Mexico made an important contribution to the economic and social development of the country. Nevertheless, they present constant difficulties to reach a global and durable performance due to its specific characteristics. The generation of an internal development constitutes an alternative to compete with enterprises of the same size and with big companies in an external environment increasingly competitively and unstably. This article presents an intervention-research in a medium company where the socioeconomic theory was applied and developed dynamical strategic capacities having a direct impact in the organizational and social performance of the company.

  2. SUSTAINABILITY OF FISCAL POLICY. CASE OF ROMANIA*

    OpenAIRE

    Ionuţ-Cătălin Croitoru

    2012-01-01

    The Sustainability of fiscal policy is one of the key concerns of each state, especially in periods of macroeconomic imbalance. This study aims to explore the concept of sustainability of Romanian’s fiscal policy. The analysis starts from the definition of sustainability of fiscal policy and its assessment methods. The work is based on the idea that a sustainable fiscal policy ensure sufficient financial resources for long-term to reduce public debt to GDP weighting and provide permits for gr...

  3. Can Fiscal Policy Stimulus Boost Economic Recovery?

    OpenAIRE

    Agnello, L.; Sousa, R.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the role played by fiscal policy in explaining the dynamics of asset markets. Using a panel of ten industrialized countries, we show that a positive fiscal shock has a negative impact in both stock and housing prices. However, while stock prices immediately adjust to the shock and the effect of fiscal policy is temporary, housing prices gradually and persistently fall. Consequently, the attempts of fiscal policy to mitigate stock price developments (e.g. via taxes on capital gains) ...

  4. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of...

  5. Comparative fiscal illusion: A fiscal illusion index for the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Anno, Roberto; Dollery, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of fiscal illusion by estimating an index of fiscal illusion for 28 European countries over the period 1995–2008 employing a structural equation approach. Using MIMIC models, the paper investigates the main indicators of fiscal illusion and develops an index of fiscal illusion. It concludes that the chief deterninants for the deployment of fiscal illusion strategies are the share of self-employment on total employment, the educational level of citizen...

  6. Internal Evaluation, Historically Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzes the growth and nature of internal evaluation from the 1960s to the present and suggests that internal evaluation has been on the increase because of its perceived importance. Although the 1960s were characterized by a rich intellectual development of evaluation theory and practice, the fiscal conservatism of the 1980s ushered…

  7. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Medical equipment (Development of fine sampling/analysis system for blood / Development of high-precision 3-D image diagnosis system / Development of low-invasion operation support system / Total development of artificial internal organ technologies); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Iryo kiki (ketsuekinado biryo saishu, biryo bunseki system kaihatsu/koseido sanjigen eizo shindan system kaihatsu/teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu/jinko zoki gijutsu sogo kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For efficient medical care supply systems, the R and D of advanced medical care technology and equipment largely contribute to productivity improvement for medical care services. Among them, a progress of medical care technology is becoming important for preparation of efficient and fair supply systems. MITI thus established 'Medical care and welfare equipment development project' in 1994, and has promoted the strategic long-term R and D project of medical care and welfare equipment as joint R and D project of NEDO and private enterprises. In fiscal 1998, on the development of the fine sampling/analysis system for blood, the high- precision 3-D image diagnosis system, the low-invasion operation support system, and the artificial internal organ technologies since fiscal 1996, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. (NEDO)

  8. 45 CFR 402.21 - Fiscal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal control. 402.21 Section 402.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN... Administration of Grants § 402.21 Fiscal control. (a) Fiscal control and accounting procedures must be sufficient...

  9. 34 CFR 303.125 - Fiscal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal control. 303.125 Section 303.125 Education... DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Statement of Assurances § 303.125 Fiscal control. The statement must provide assurance satisfactory to the Secretary that such fiscal control and fund accounting procedures...

  10. Fiscal 1999 research report on long-term energy technology strategy. Basic research on industrial technology strategy (Individual technology strategy (Textile technology field)); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa (bun'yabetsu gijutsu senryaku (sen'i gijutsu bun'ya))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 basic research result on industrial technology strategy of a textile technology field. Social demand and constraint in the 21st century restrict human life and industrial activity, however, include huge business chances. This technology strategy aims at construction of textile business contributing to the society, and improvement of the international competitiveness of Japanese textile industry. Analysis was made on the current international competitiveness of the textile industry in comparison between Japanese and American productivity. As factors hindering technological innovation, the following were pointed out: poor cooperation among industry, academia and government, poor cooperation among different kinds of industries, poor preparation of basic technology, knowledge base and creation base, and poor deregulation. As the future target and strategy, 7 technology targets, 2 creation targets, and every target year were showed. 4 proposals were also showed as follows: preparation of a technology base, creation base, talent education and knowledge base, and protection of intellectual property rights. (NEDO)

  11. TOWARDS A LAW OF SUSTAINABLE FISCAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our approach aims to raise the benchmarks intended, we believe, to print efficiency rules for public financial law which, by definition, governs the issue of budgetary resources. Knowing the mechanism of legal and tax and the use of this type of resource, given the current context, we introduce some approaches to the position of financial law located in the best connection with economics, and we consider key issues of this - crisis/ growth, sustainable development, strategies/ policies, state intervention tools etc. aiming to easier to put out various budgetary implications caused by certain processes/ phenomena in the real economy. Also, we bring some elements of analysis, comments and views coming to justify the importance of rights (set of rules and principles of major influence the financial and fiscal consolidation based in the extent possible, the development lasting nature. It is expected thus that such a law (fiscal consolidation based on sustainability can drive more speedily to create a stable tax system capable of generating sufficient budgetary resources in terms of efficiency and efficacy, ensuring cost reductions with unit budget and compliance taxpayers being, while flexible, simple, transparent and adaptable to national/ international changes.

  12. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goddard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by “competition in healthcare” and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is “good” or “bad,” per se.

  13. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  14. Fiscal system analysis - contractual systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Production sharing contracts are one of the most popular forms of contractual system used in petroleum agreements around the world, but the manner in which the fiscal terms and contract parameters impact system measures is complicated and not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of private and market uncertainty in contractual fiscal systems. A meta-modelling approach is employed that couples the results of a simulation model with regression analysis to construct numerical functionals that quantify the fiscal regime. Relationships are derived that specify how the present value, rate of return, and take statistics vary as a function of the system parameters. The deepwater Girassol field development in Angola is taken as a case study. (author)

  15. Production and competition in the European electric sector. 4. report from the research project 'renewable energy in the community's internal market'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjersgaard, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim is to elucidate the dynamic interactive pricing, competition and market mechanisms that are valid for the European electric power market. The perspective in the report is to analyse the vertical flow of substance and values of energy, the interaction of the actors, and the economic relations. The first link in the vertical chain is the energy raw materials supplies: the reserves and production of fossil and nuclear fuels and the relation to globalization of electricity production. The next link is the production of electricity: the production technologies used and their positioning, the importance of large trans-national utilities in relation to technological changes. The third link is the market and the changes of the market between production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electricity, and the consequences of these changes. Two horizontal regulating sectional views are analysed: The European Union regulations of the electric power sector and the Danish regulations of power supplies. Finally, production and competition of electric power from renewable energy sources, i.e. wind power, in a future European energy market is put into perspective. (LN) 134 refs

  16. Impact of technology diffusion on economic growth and international competitiveness. Empirical evidence for four East Asian countries; Gijutsu hakyu no koka to Asia keizai no seichoryoku, yushutsu kyosoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Y.; Sakurai, N.

    1999-06-01

    Asian economies hit by the currency crisis in 1997 are still in struggle to recover their growth and to boost again their exports. Although several short-term policy measures to stimulate the demand- side of the economy is certainly necessary, in a longer-term perspective, the key to real recovery would exist in their ability to absorb foreign technologies through trade and/or FDI, as stressed by recent new theories of growth and trade. This paper examines empirically the role of technology diffusion from advanced countries to total factor productivity (TFP) and export competitiveness in four major East-Asian countries: Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, three of which were seriously damaged by the currency crisis. Our major findings are summarized as follows. First, we found that technology acquisition from abroad is quite important for TFP growth of most industries in Asia, in particular for two ASEAN countries (Malaysia and Indonesia), while such productivity impact from foreign technology was relatively small for Korea and Singapore. Second, the impact of technology diffusion was much larger in that through trade than in that through foreign direct investment. Some FDI practices to preclude technology access for developing countries might explain such weaker role of FDI on TFP. Third, the nexus between TFP and export competitiveness was surely positive, in particular for industries of high export performance. However, the magnitude of impact was relatively small in Korea, in spite of its overwhelming productivity performance. (author)

  17. The effects of recent volatility in international petroleum markets on Canadian wholesale and retail gasoline prices : a report prepared for the Competition Bureau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseman, F.

    2005-03-01

    This report addresses concern over high retail prices of gasoline and the low margins earned on gasoline sales in the Greater Toronto Area and in Ottawa, Ontario. The focus of this report was to understand reasons behind fluctuating prices, and to ascertain whether or not escalations in price were in fact anti-competitive acts that the Competition Bureau would have authority to take action over. Information requests were made by the author to all principal petroleum companies and to importers and marketers of gasoline. Detailed information on pricing was provided. Issues of supply and demand were responsible for spikes in prices. Information on petroleum refining and retailing of gasoline was reviewed, as well as information provided from dialogue and shareholder reports. Average refinery and retail margins in Ontario were discussed. It was concluded that fluctuating prices are the result of the petroleum industry's struggle to meet high demand. Any unscheduled maintenance or unanticipated increases in demand resulted in temporary shortfalls in supply, which led to higher prices. Exports were not a factor in increases in retail prices. In addition, domestic supply and the high cost of meeting environmental regulations with regard to sulphur levels in gasoline and diesel may have also played a role. It was also suggested that prices in Canada reflect overall pricing trends in the United States. tabs., figs

  18. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, H. van; Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels. (author)

  19. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, Harro van; Biermann, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels

  20. Fiscal 1998 research report. International measures project for rational energy use (Survey project of the analysis tool of Asian energy consumption efficiency); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo (Asia energy shohi koritsuka bunseki tool chosa jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This project aims to prepare the inter-industry relations table and analysis model for energy analysis for every Asian country, and analyze the relation between energy consumption and industrial structure or final demand structure. The 1985 and 1990 inter-industry relations tables of each country were prepared in cooperation with the governmental organizations of China, Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and India. However, the 1987 and 1990 tables were prepared for China. In fiscal 1998, the project invited the representatives of each concerned organization, and held the international workshop together with Japanese specialists to discuss various issues related to not only table preparation but also data analysis. The following items were analyzed for every country: a change in final energy consumption, a dependence on coal in primary energy consumption, transfer of energy consumption to other energy resources, and an energy consumption rate in the whole industry. (NEDO)

  1. ABOUT THE FISCAL CULTURE CONSOLIDATION IN ROMANIA DURING THE COMMUNIST AND POST- COMMUNIST PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel LEONIDA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes of tax systems, frequent changes, intensification of the globalization process, fiscal competition to attract capital and increase of tax revenues, and some conflicting states between different divergent tax systems generate a certain culture of taxation. Frequency and dynamics of such changes, as well as the change of the Tax Code or Tax Procedure Code, without assessing that they are included in the national fiscal culture can generate low levels of collection and a tendency towards non-compliance from the part of taxpayers, who will not feel morally obliged to fulfill their part of the institutional contract with the state, due to difficulties of understanding, adaptation and rapid application of new changes. Such dynamic elements, as a whole, outline the fiscal culture specific to each state. On that basis, we intend to conduct an assessment of cultural accumulation generated by taxation.

  2. Power market competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Unites States the prospect of greater competition in wholesale power market was immediately eclipsed by talk of retail competition. Attempts to move to retail competition have been costly and complex. Prudent public policy and economic analyses suggest that retail competition not be implemented until it can first be demonstrated that effective competition exists in wholesale power markets [it

  3. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  4. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  5. Competitiveness of Halal Industry in Maghreb Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rizki Moi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To ensure that the countries produce halal products in order to remain in the international market, then they must make sure that they remain competitive in the market. Therefore, this study was to measure the competitiveness of the halal industry in the Maghreb countries which consist of five countries, namely Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The methodology of this study was using halal market share in the country and revealed comparative advantage (RCA. The study found that Mauritania is the most competitive country for halal industry because of it has the highest RCA value and followed by Morocco and Tunisia. While the countries that have lower competitiveness are Algeria and Libya. Therefore, the government and industry should plays a role to improve the competitiveness of their national halal industry and to ensure they remain competitive in the international halal market.

  6. Changing Patterns in the Export of Goods Versus International Competitiveness. A Comparative Analysis for Central-East European Countries in the Period 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lechman Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available W artykule analizie poddano zmieniające się ścieżki eksportu dóbr w podziale na gałęzie o różnej intensywności technologicznej. Analizę przeprowadzono dla lat 2000- 2011 dla 9 wybranych krajów Europy Centralnej i Wschodniej, tj: Bułgarii, Republiki Czeskiej, Estonii, Litwy, Łotwy, Polski, Rumunii oraz Słowacji. Dodatkowo postawiono hipotezę o zachodzącej pozytywnej relacji między rosnącym - w stosunku do całej wartości eksportu kraju-udziale sektorów technologicznie-chłonnych oraz międzynarodową konkurencyjnością, która jest aproksymowana za pomocą Global Competitiveness Index (GCI.

  7. Fiscal Year 2015 Site Sustainability Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Monica Rene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is taking action to operate as a living laboratory for sustainable solutions in buildings, climate, energy, purchasing, transportation, waste, and water. LANL prepared the fiscal year (FY) 2015 Site Sustainability Plan (SSP) to describe progress towards the goals established in the SSPP. In addition, per the requirements of DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses its International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001:2004 certified Environmental Management System (EMS) to establish objectives to improve compliance, reduce environmental impacts, increase operational capacity, and meet long-term sustainability goals. The goals of the 2015 SSP are fully integrated into LANL’s institutional environmental objectives under the EMS and its Long-Term Strategy for Environmental Stewardship & Sustainability (LTSESS).

  8. An Analysis of Fiscal Years 2014 to 2016 Navy Fourth Quarter Spending: Trends and Characteristics of Q4 O and M Contractual Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...spending in the Navy Operations and Maintenance accounts between fiscal years 2014 and 2016 to help ensure the government is getting the best value for the...Competition. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Department of the Navy, appropriations, spending, contracts, operations and maintenance , fiscal, Anti-Deficiency Act

  9. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 2 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study for the promotion of international cooperation; survey/study on the standardization for hydrogen energy technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In relation to the basic study of the standardization for hydrogen energy technology and ISO/TC197, the results of the fiscal 1997 survey were summarized. From fiscal 1994 through 1996, in the wide-range field related to hydrogen energy technology, the survey of the present situation of the related standards/laws was made and the needs/subjects of standardization to be studied in the future were extracted. At the present stage, however, it is still early to enter into the stage of discussing the standardization. Therefore, in this fiscal year, only in the field of the storage/transportation/handling of liquid hydrogen, standards/laws abroad and in Japan were comparatively investigated for the basic study toward the standardization. Further, concerning ISO/TC197, studies were proceeded with of the liquid hydrogen land vehicle fueling system interface/fuel tanks/transportation containers/hydrogen fuel product specifications/airport hydrogen fueling facilities. Some are at the stage of drafting the international standard. Three drafts for the new standard were added such as gaseous hydrogen/hydrogen blend vehicular fuel systems, gaseous hydrogen fuel tanks, and basic requirements for safety of hydrogen systems. The standardization is indispensable to introducing the developed technology to the commercialization. 9 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviews and contrasts the theories pertaining to these two schools of ... Key words: Porter, Diamond Framework, international competition, competitiveness of ... level has changed over the last decade because of the changing patterns of world.

  11. Fiscal ethics, policies, and theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Blanco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The connections between ethics, policies and economic theories regarding fiscal matters need a more thorough analysis than the one carried out so far. On one hand, even though there are some ethical proposals on taxation, in general such proposals have not been grounded on explanatory theories of the economy. On the other hand, schools of thought about economy usually fail to ethically justify their political proposals. However, such distinctions cannot be sustained rationally: any ethical proposal concerning fiscal matters involves an explanation of economy, and conversely any proposal related to fiscal policies does not only involve a theory but also an ethical understanding. This article will review such connections, and general conclusions will be applied to two specific cases: first, Rawls’s proposal concerning taxation will be reviewed, having previously studied its descriptive assumptions, and then the lack of an ethical connection between the post Keynesian theory on the monetary circuit and its fiscal proposal will be examined. Finally, a possible “taxation compliance ethic” of tax-payers will be likewise analysed.

  12. 75 FR 22689 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services..., 2010. Sandra Paylor-Sanders, Acting Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division. [FR Doc. 2010... Bonding Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION...

  13. 77 FR 32178 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division. [FR Doc. 2012-13044 Filed 5-30-12; 8:45 am...: Alterra Reinsurance USA, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the...

  14. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out...

  15. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 3. Prediction evaluation on a national scale; 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 3. Ikkoku kibo deno yosoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japanese long-term energy demand and various energy use styles were simulated from the viewpoint of a profitability and environmental preservation, and hydrogen consumption was studied. In the research in fiscal 1998, the data on available primary energy was modified based on the upper limit of CO{sub 2} emission by COP3, and the long-term energy supply and demand outlook of Advisory Committee for Energy in June, 1998. The result of scenario analysis is as follows: (1) The reference scenario showed that reduction of a hydrogen price is indispensable to use imported hydrogen, (2) The carbon externality scenario showed that market penetration of hydrogen can be large if the carbon externality amounts to $300/t-C, (3) The high fossil fuel price scenario showed that a fossil fuel price (in particular, price of hydrocarbon) highly affects market penetration of hydrogen, and (4) The low nuclear capacity scenario suggested that a competitiveness of hydrogen is considerably improved as an energy supply-demand-balance is tight. (NEDO)

  16. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  17. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Model project for international energy consumption efficiency improvement (Model project for improvement of boiler and turbine efficiency); 2000 nendo seika hokoku. Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka tou model jigyo (Boira tabin koritsu kojo model jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    A project was implemented for Japan to transfer its energy conservation technologies for helping Indonesia conserve energy and reduce CO2 emissions, which occurred at Muara Karang Thermal Power Plant of an Indonesian power company named PT PJB. Items to be introduced are condenser tubes (material change from cupro-nickel to titanium), ball cleaning equipment, turbine gland seal improvement, air preheater improvement, thermal efficiency management system, and so forth. In this fiscal year, turbine gland seals and air preheater elements were manufactured, and the thermal efficiency management system was designed. As an dissemination activity, 10 engineers were invited to Japan from the Indonesian Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, PT PLN, and PT PJB. They attended a training program lasting approximately two weeks, which included study tours to the factories actually building the equipment to be introduced and field/classroom training/education on thermal efficiency management and others. The engineers actively performed their boiler improvement work back in Indonesia. (NEDO)

  18. Putting competition into perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L. III.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the current level of competition in the electric industry in the context of the history of the industry and the development of electric markets in other counties. The topics of the paper include competition in the history of the American electric industry, the current state of competition, the competitive situation in Texas, competition in other electric markets, and competitive changes in the US market

  19. Fiscal 1998 research report. Survey on the evaluation and factor of the competitive power of industrial technologies in various fields including an electronic field; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho.Denshi kanren nado wo hajime to suru sangyo gijutsu kyosoryoku no hyoka to yoin ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Survey was made to evaluate the Japanese competitive power of industrial technologies, and analyze inhibitors from its development by extracting some issues for improvement. Questionnaire survey was made for learned persons based on the framework on evaluation of the Japanese technical level. The current Japanese level of each technology was evaluated generally comparing it with that of overseas countries to acquire its strong and weak points. Based on the hearing for learned persons, the industrial competitive power was evaluated freely from technology, and issues of every industry were also extracted. Problems existed in not only a technical level but also an undertaking process, and based on these problems, the competitive powers of every industry were classified. Previous proposals on the competitive power were analyzed based on literature survey to arrange some policies to approach. Possible inhibitors were arranged showing the policy reinforcing the industrial competitive power. Problems on educational system, business management, social infrastructure, and technology diffusion system were extracted. (NEDO)

  20. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  1. COMPETITIVE SOCIAL POSITION OF THE COUNTRY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chornodid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the country's competitive position, a comparative analysis according to international indexes and indicators is provided. Also the competitive social benefits of the country are described. The real situation of the competitive social benefits is considered on international standards and assessments. The estimation of the position of Ukraine is given in terms of freedom, network readiness index, the index of competitiveness of travel and tourism.

  2. Use of spontaneously mutated human DNA as competitive internal standard for nucleic acid quantification by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicka, L.; Diaz, A.; Varga, J.; Jimenez, S.A.; Christiano, A.; Uitto, J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantification of gene expression is of increasing interest in many medical sciences. Methods based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) are timesaving and require only very small amounts of RNA. A limiting factor, however, is the significant fluctuation in the efficacy of reverse transcription as well in the polymerase chain reactions. Various external and internal standards have been suggested for correcting these fluctuations. We describe a novel way of creating an internal standard for assessing the expression of type VII collagen in human cells. The total RNA of a patient with hereditary 'epidermilysis bulosa dystrophica' associated with a homozygous T to A point mutation in type VII collagen gene was reverse transcribed and a 382bp fragment of type VII collagen cDNA containing the mutation was amplified. The mutated cDNA, unlike normal type VII collagen cDNA could be cleaved by 'Ear I' endonuclease into 244bp and 138bp fragments. Semiquantitative PCR was performed with the mutated cDNA as internal standard and the studied cDNA sample in the same tube in the presence of α 32 P-labelled dCTP. The reaction was followed by 'Ear I' digestion, electrophoresis on a polyacrylamide gel and exposure to a X-ray film. In conclusion, we describe a timesaving method for creating internal standards for semiquantitative RT-PCR. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  3. Development of monoclonal antibodies bearing the internal image of the gizzerosine epitope and application in a competitive ELISA for fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosalva, Headdy; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2004-02-01

    Gizzerosine (GZ), a derivative of histamine, is a biogenic amine found in fish meal, and one of the causative agents of black vomit, a poultry disease. We describe here the preparation of anti-idiotype antibodies to the anti-GZ monoclonal antibody (anti-GZ 3H4) and their possible application to an immunoassay. BALB-c mice were immunized with anti-GZ 3H4 antibody coupled to hemocyanin from Concholepas concholepas. Using somatic cell fusion between NSO/2 cells and splenic lymphocytes from the immunized mice, we obtained 34 potential anti-idiotype antibodies. They were characterized by passive agglutination with supernatants from hybridoma cultures and latex particles conjugated to the idiotype. Anti-idiotype antibodies were analyzed by a competitive RIA, to determine their ability to dissociate the interaction between (125)I-GZ and the anti-GZ 3H4-idiotype antibody. They were also characterized by GZ inhibition of latex passive agglutination assay. Three anti-idiotypes named 2D11, 2H6, and 3A12, all of the IgG isotype, were obtained. They were evaluated by a competitive ELISA, in which GZ competes with the tracer (HRP-idiotype). All presented sensitivity in the range of 0.1-10 microg/mL of GZ; and the 3A12 anti-idiotype antibody showed the best performance. An ELISA was developed using the idiotype bound to the solid phase and the anti-idiotype 3A12-HRP as the tracer. The assay showed a similar sensitivity and cross-reactivity with histamine was only observed at concentrations over 10 microg/mL. Lysine and histidine did not interfere with the assay up to 500 microg/mL. An experiment was conducted with fish meal contaminated with synthetic GZ. The results are promising, and showed that no other compounds of the fish meal interfere with the ELISA system; however the extraction procedure of the sample needs to be improved. From the results presented here, we conclude that the idiotype anti-idiotype ELISA would be an appropriate method to determine GZ in fish meal.

  4. Fiscal 1999 research report on long-term energy technology strategy. Basic research on industrial technology strategy (Individual technology strategy). Human life, medical care and welfare field (Medical health care technology field); 1999 nendo choki energy gijujtsu senryaku ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa (bun'yabetsu gijutsu senryaku) ningen seikatsu iryo fukushi bun'ya (medidal health care gijutsu bun'ya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on Japanese technology competitiveness, future trend, technology innovation and policy needs in a medical health care field. Future international growth of a medical health care equipment industry is promising because of an expected progress of medical care technology, change in medical care needs and creation of the new global market. The current highlighted technical trend is fusion of medical technology with network, system, biotechnology and micro-machine technologies, and such fusion is expected to contribute to daily use, less/no invasion and improvement of medical treatment. Industry-government cooperative measures for upgrading an international competitiveness are as follows: an approach as national policy by preparing Japanese BECOM, preparation of a system supporting venture businesses for developing medical health care equipment, and systematic establishment of a medical-engineering cooperative system. Preparation of a complementary relation with overseas countries is also desirable. (NEDO)

  5. Strategic Policy Competition with Public Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.; Tang, P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Governments try to attract firms and jobs by investing in international infrastructure. We analyse this type of strategic policy competition in a three-country model of monopolistic competition. What governments compete for, is to obtain a so called ‘hub’ position. A hub is a relatively well

  6. 22 CFR 226.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 226.43 Section 226.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.43 Competition. All procurement transactions...

  7. Fiscality - A Relevant Factor Influencing Regional Development in Romania and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine taxation in the EU in correlation with regional development measures implemented. We started with the EU vision on regional development. If during the 2007-2013 period, were pursued three major objectives (convergence, regional competitiveness and territorial cooperation, in the current 2014-2020 funding period, money is allocated differently between countries that are deemed to be more developed, in transition and less developed. These categories are set according to GDP per capita. Next we exposed the fiscal changes made in the EU in 2010-2011 period and then we corelate them with the strategy for regional development for five member states: Romania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic , Hungary and Poland. We used data reported by Eurostat regarding the evolution of unemployment rate and for the foreign direct investments in 2007-2012 period. We also brought up and changes required by the new Romanian Fiscal Code. According to it, measures such as reduction of income tax for new micro enterprises or extending the VAT reverse charge mechanism in many sectors of activity, are meant to encourage foreign capital inflows and also to increase the level of regional development. As a general conclusion, we found that there is a direct link between fiscal policy and regional development; fiscal measures implemented influence the level of unemployment, economic growth, and competitiveness in the private sector.

  8. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  9. Fiscal Deficits, Monetary Reform and Inflation Stabilization in Romania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Budina, N.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the consistency between inflation, monetary reform and fiscal policy in Romania. Offers a framework for the assessment of the fiscal and monetary interactions of Romanian economy; Shows impact of inflation on fiscal inconsistency measure; Considers importance of consolidating public

  10. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition.......Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...

  11. Outline of electric power facility plan in fiscal year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As to the electric power facility plan in fiscal year 1988, 15 designated electric power enterprises made the notification to the Minister of International Trade and Industry in March, 1988. This outline of the facility plan summarized the plans of 66 enterprises in total, including the plans of municipally operated, joint thermal power and other enterprises in addition to the above 15. In order to ensure the stable supply of electric power, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry considers that it is indispensable to purposefully develop electric power sources and the facilities for distribution along this facility plan. The forecast for fiscal year 1997 is : total electric power demand 778.2 billion kWh, maximum power demand 151.21 million kW, and yearly load factor 56.9 %. This is equivalent to the yearly growth of 2.4 %. In fiscal year 1988, it is planned to present 29 plants of 2760 MW to the Power Source Development Coordination Council. The breakdown is : hydroelectricity 140 MW, thermal power 2010 MW, and nuclear power 610 MW. The Ministry guides electric power enterprises so as to realize the diversification of electric power sources. Also the increase of transmission and transformation facilities, the plan of equipment investment and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... JURISDICTION OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement... eliminate unfair competitive advantage, contractors that develop or draft specifications, requirements...

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON FISCAL-ADMINISTRATIVE SOLICITOR'S OFFICE AND FISCAL SOLICITOR'S OFFICE

    OpenAIRE

    OCTAVIA MARIA CILIBIU

    2012-01-01

    The fiscal-administrative solicitor's office represents the activity of solving litigations between tax payers and the fiscal administration, litigations whose purpose is to cancel totally or partially a fiscal administrative document, document considered by the tax payer harmful for his legitimate right or interest recognized by law. The fiscal solicitor's office represents the activity of solving litigations whose purpose is to cancel or correction of acts of enforcement of tax claims. Rese...

  14. Summary of the electric power supply program for fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Minoru

    1981-01-01

    The plans of electric power supply for fiscal 1981 (from April, 1981, to March, 1982) by the power companies were formulated and submitted to the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Along with the current up trend of economic activities, the demands of electric power will be on the increase. A summer peak of power consumption may rise all the more due to the increase in room-cooling units. On the other hand, the problem of petroleum is unsettled. Under the situation, the principal considerations behind the formulation of the plans are the effective utilization of other energy resources than oil and the suppression of oil-burning power generation, the economical usage of all power generation facilities and stabilized demand and supply, and the promotion of wide-area operation. The situation in fiscal 1981, power demands, power source facilities demand and supply balance, and the interchange of power among power companies are described. (J.P.N.)

  15. Estimation of nuclear power-related expenditures in fiscal 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In fiscal 1982 (April to March, 1983), the research and development on nuclear power should be promoted actively and extensively by taking the appropriate measures. In view of the importance, the budgetary expenditures are to be estimated duly for the purpose, considering also the stringent financial situation. The budgetary expenditures for nuclear power estimated for the fiscal year 1982 are about 292,800 Million in total and the obligation act limit is about 139,900 Million. The following matters are described: nuclear power-related measures for securing nuclear power safety, promotion of nuclear power generation, establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle, development of power reactors, research on nuclear fusion, strengthening of the foundation in nuclear power research, development and utilization, promotion of international cooperation, etc.; estimated budgetary expenditures; tables of budgetary demands in various categories. (J.P.N.)

  16. A Discussion on the European Debt Crisis by Fiscal Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jen Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is that discuss thereasons of European debt crisis. Every European country adopts austeritypolicy, which cannot solve government debt problems and further lead toeconomic exacerbation and continuous recession, based on the neoclassicaleconomic theory. In order to realize the root of European debt crisis, thisarticle adopts the reaseach method of fiscal sociology. In this study, wethink that the government debt problem is the result of economic profitsconflict based on the Fiscal Sociology. The economic profits conflict ofinvestment, consumption, international business and labor market will haveinfluence on the government’s revenue and expenditure. Furthermore, the root ofthe European debt crisis is the uneven income distribution by financializationand neoliberalism.

  17. Annual report 1998, activities in fiscal 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    NUPEC was founded in March, 1976 under the initiative of scholars and private corporations including electric power companies, electric machinery and general construction companies. Ever since, NUPEC has been proceeding with its operations to meet the needs of the times with the support and cooperation of the government and academic circles. The specific activities so far include solving problems in the initial stage of light water reactors(LWRs) operation, engineering tests for improvement and standardization programs to develop domestic LWRs, seismic technology development and testing, assistance with accident analysis during safety examinations by government agency, human factor research, safety analysis of nuclear facilities, research of safety-related information, countermeasures for aging of LWRs and public acceptance activities. For such purposes, NUPEC has engineering laboratories in Tadotsu, Takasago, Isogo and Katsuta as well as a high performance parallel computer system for safety analysis at its headquarters. Among these facilities, the large-scale high-performance shaking table at Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory is attracting international attention for its capability for seismic testing. NUPEC is actively promoting international cooperation with international organizations and partners in the U.S., France, Germany, Russia and Asian countries through joint projects, information exchange, etc. NUPEC's testing and analysis have contributed to improvement of safety and credibility of Nuclear power generation and to establishment and improvement of Japanese-originated LWR technology. A summary of our achievements in fiscal 1997 is presented in this annual report. (J.P.N.)

  18. Competition and the Location of Overseas Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Swenson

    2006-01-01

    How does international competition affect overseas outsourcing? While it is commonly believed that international competition enables firms to desert high cost countries in favor of low wage locations, the frequency of such responses may be reduced if the movement of outsourcing activities involves sunk costs. To put these factors in perspective, I study the production decisions of participants in the U.S. overseas assembly program (OAP). A number of interesting regularities emerge. First, the...

  19. The Fiscal Framework in a Currency Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws out lessons from the euro area (EA) that are transferable to the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) and other Caribbean economies with fixed exchange rates. Based on observations from both the EA and the ECCU, we present a new policy framework which is capable of imposing...... fiscal discipline, with the aim of avoiding the risk of unsustainable fiscal policies reappearing and of preventing monetary policy from being undermined by undisciplined national governments. In the ECCU case, we find that fiscal deficits are more a result of financial and trade imbalances than fiscal...

  20. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  1. Fiscal aspects of European monetary integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hutchison, Michael; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    of fiscal policy in EMU. The contributors are experienced analysts in the field. Topics covered include the need for and consequences of fiscal co-ordination, constraints on national deficits and debt levels (the Stability Pact), and the role of fiscal federalism and insurance. The importance of co......-ordinating fiscal and monetary policies is also considered in depth. As long as these strategic and institutional aspects remain imperfectly understood, EMU will not be able to function to its full advantage and may suffer periods of instability or weakness. Contains 11 papers and three review essays, which analyze...

  2. Fiscal options for America's best hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, T P; Pearl, G M

    2001-06-01

    A review of America's "best" teaching hospitals shows a huge disparity in their fiscal positions. Among the 15 hospitals studied, roughly half experience some fiscal distress. However, a somewhat similar fiscal analysis of the nation's largest investor-owned hospital chains, HMOs, and physician practice management corporations shows an even more serious weakness in operating margins and debt-equity ratios. Aside from raising possible ethical, quality, and cost issues, this financial analysis suggests that conversion from nonprofit to for-profit ownership of America's top teaching hospitals might not guarantee an improvement in their long-term fiscal outlook.

  3. National Transportation Safety Board : weak internal control impaired financial accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-28

    The U. S. General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to review the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) internal controls over selected types of fiscal year expenditures. They were asked to determine whether internal control weaknesses were a...

  4. Concorrência fiscal prejudicial

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Narciso Manuel Marques

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Fiscalidade A crescente mobilidade de pessoas e capitais, e o desenvolvimento e utilização das novas tecnologias conduziram ao fenómeno da globalização da economia, do qual resultou um forte aumento da concorrência fiscal entre países. O fenómeno da concorrência fiscal deve, por si só, ser considerado como positivo, uma vez que beneficia os cidadãos e impõe uma pressão no sentido da redução das despesas públicas ao Estado. Contudo, uma concorrência ilimitada poderá tornar os si...

  5. Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, Jenifer [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: Summary of each site Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location Actions and Resolutions for each site. Six disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. One has achieved final stabilization. The remaining five sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

  6. Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Ten disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Six have achieved final stabilization. The remaining four sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

  7. MERCOSUL x Brasil: análise da soberania fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Kiyosen Nakayama

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as objective to analyze the concept of sovereignty, the existence or not of the sovereignty tax in Brazil and its implications on the federative pact and abilities taxes on MERCOSUR. It stands out the concern of one of the freedoms of the block, the free circulation of goods and services. The sovereignty of the State lodges the fiscal sovereignty or tax. In international scope, the fiscal sovereignty or tax is reflected as full capacity of a State ahead of excessively in the international scene. The State has fiscal sovereignty when it edits its laws, when its will is the last one to prevail how much to managed it's, and the fiscal sovereignty exceeds the territory of the State, when its ability tax reaches its contributors where it wants that they are. The applicability of the constant norms in International Treatys elapses the postulate of sovereignty, as concern the juridical power, which its concept discloses a supremacy character, distinguishing itself from the sovereignty of the State directed to all of its territory and in the reciprocal relations between the States. After that, treaty and the tax treaty are analysed more deeply. Such implications reflect in Brazil’s Reformation Tax and the adjustments assumed by MERCOSUR’s members.O presente estudo tem o objetivo de analisar o conceito de soberania, da existência ou não da soberania tributária no Brasil e suas implicações com o pacto federativo e competências tributárias face ao MERCOSUL. Ressalta a preocupação de uma das liberdades do bloco, a livre circulação de bens e de serviços. A soberania do Estado alberga a soberania fiscal ou tributária. Em âmbito internacional, a soberania fiscal ou tributária reflete-se como capacidade plena de um Estado diante dos demais no cenário internacional. O Estado tem soberania fiscal quando edita suas leis, quando a sua vontade é a última a prevalecer quanto aos seus administrados, e a soberania fiscal

  8. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  9. National Competitiveness in Global Economy: Evolution of Approaches and Methods of Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Teng Delux

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic concept of national competitiveness and the analytic potential model for the estimation of countries' competitiveness, such as diamond model of competitive advantages of national economies by M. Porter, the generalized double diamond model of international competitiveness by C. Moon, 9-factors model by S. Cho, Global Competitiveness Index (GCI and Knowledge Economy Index (KEI are considered.

  10. Fiscal shocks and the real exchange rate: evidence from an outpost of textbook open-economy macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    David Fielding

    2014-01-01

    Recent empirical research into the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy shocks has generated a ‘puzzle’. Both Keynesian and Real Business Cycle models predict that a fiscal expansion will lead to a real exchange rate appreciation. However, in almost all the individual countries that have been studied, positive shocks to government spending cause the real exchange rate to depreciate. Recent theoretical work suggests that this unexpected result might reflect incomplete international financial...

  11. Institutional Competitiveness in Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink

    a social science / leadership perspective - not from the perspective of a journalist or from the ideologically critical perspective of the license payer. Thirdly, we consider competition in the media market as an institutional phenomenon that is not solely conditioned by economic considerations. We aim...... emerged from a tradition based upon ideals of freedom of expression, democracy and the enlightenment of the general public. At the same time we stress the fact that the media worldwide is Big Business - and that this reality has an increasing effect on Danish competitiveness and business development......This inaugural address is a welcome opportunity to call your attention to a new area of research that the International Center for Business and Politics has chosen as one of five areas of special interest. By referring to this area of focus as'institutional competition in the media market' we also...

  12. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of methods for evaluating high-temperature physical properties of new glass; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. New garasu koonbussei no hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development is under way about methods for evaluating the physical properties of high-temperature glass melt for the development of the methods into international standards. In this fiscal year, a technique of measuring high-temperature physical properties of amino silicate glass melt was developed, and the techniques of measuring high-temperature physical properties of molten soda lime glass and borate-silicate glass were improved. As the result, evaluation techniques compatible with international standards were developed for high-temperature glass melt physical properties such as viscosity, density, coefficient of volume expansion, surface tension, specific heat, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, oxidation/reduction potentials, and the structure of molten glass. Techniques of evaluating gas solubility and the coefficient of gas diffusion, however, need further basic research and development. The author took part in a round robin test relating to the measurement of glass melt density and heat conductivity at CG/TC18, and measured the said two properties. The result of the round robin test was discussed at TC18 held in Amsterdam in May this year. (NEDO)

  13. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  14. Fiscal 1997 international cooperation project. Report on the results of the research on environmental harmony type combustion technology; 1997 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo chowagata nensho gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Out of the R and D on the environmental harmony type combustion technology, the results of the project carried out in fiscal 1997 were summed up. In the site survey, etc., visits were paid to France, Spain, Greek, Germany, the U.K. and the U.S. to have discussions and examine the trend of research on the NOx removal catalyst and catalyst combustion. In the actual R and D, the R and D were conducted on zeolite base NOx removal catalyst, oxide composite base NOx removal catalyst, alumina base NOx removal catalyst, direct decomposition type NOx removal catalyst, catalyst combustion, etc. In the R and D of the catalyst combustion, durability under high gas flow flux was examined of PdO-Pt/Ba-Al203 catalyst developed for low temperature use, which indicated that durability and low temperature activity were heightened. As high temperature use catalyst, high temperature durability was examined of the developed Pd0-La/Gd-ZrO2 catalyst, which showed that the durability was favorable. 322 refs., 261 figs., 55 tabs.

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on international research cooperation project. Research on technologies to decompose heavy hydrocarbon resources; 2000 nendo jushitsu tanka suiso shigen no bunkai gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been made on structuring a hydrocracking process for vacuum distillation residue of Marlim crude oil produced in Brazil (Marlim-VR) being one of the heavy hydrocarbon resources. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In discussing the hydrocracking conditions, discussions were given on the effects of different iron-based catalysts, reaction pressures, reaction temperatures, effects of solvent addition, and the catalyst made of natural limonite produced in Brazil. As a result, the bottom yield was reduced successfully to 5.5% VR, and conversely oil yield was enhanced up to 84.8% VR by using the limonite produced in Brazil as a catalyst, and by performing bottom recycles under the conditions of 450 degrees C and 10 MPa. In discussing the up-grading of hydrocracking produced oil, a result of 99% by weight or higher was obtained in both of denitration and desulfurization rates. In the fuel evaluation test, a product exceeding 45 being the JIS standard for light oil was derived, which was found a clean product having lower sulfur concentration than the existing heavy oil. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1999 international energy conservation model project. Report on result of demonstrative research concerning cement clinker cooling system; 1999 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado model jigyo seika hokokusho. Cement clinker reikyaku sochi ni kakawaru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing energy consumption and CO2 discharge in a cement plant in Indonesia, R and D was conducted on new clinker cooling system, high performance kiln combustion system, and technology for steady kiln operation and control, with the fiscal 1999 results reported. In the research on the optimum clinker cooling system, a new type clinker cooling system (CCS) was developed in which air beams are applied only to stationary grate rows, in an air beam type clinker cooling system where cooling air is fed to each block, with grate plates used as the air duct. This year, in an actual machine testing equipment (capacity 2,500 t/d), the whole heat recuperation area was modified for the CCS, with the operation started since February, 1999, aiming at the optimal clinker cooling effect and high heat recovery efficiency. The heat quantity for the entire system showed a decrease of 60 kcal/kg in the heat consumption rate through CCS modification, kiln burner adjustment, etc. So long as the demonstration plant is concerned, design of a new type burner and study/design for the kiln stabilization were nearly completed. (NEDO)

  17. New Sunshine Project for fiscal 1997 on the international cooperation project. Cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other countries; 1997 nendo new sunshine keikaku kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Nichigo nado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the state of progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country, the memorandum concluded for the new project, and the activity report on the NEDO/MUERI project. The progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country is divided into that of the new project and that of the continued project. The former relates to the start of the long-term endurance test project for photovoltaic solar modules in Oman. The location of the endurance test is the Sultan Qaboos University in the suburb of Muscat. Modules subjected to the endurance test consist of ten modules of five types. The test will be performed on air temperature, humidity, wind directions, insolation on horizontal surface, insolation on slanted surface, ultraviolet ray intensity, module temperatures, and electric characteristics of the modules. The continued project is an outdoor endurance test for the photovoltaic solar modules begun in fiscal 1996, which is executed by the Murdock University Energy Research Institute (MUERI). The endurance test locations were selected at Darwin, Alice Springs and Perth. This paper reports the photovoltaic solar module endurance test and investigation, as well as the periodical consultations as the activity report of the NEDO/MUERI project. (NEDO)

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on specified international cooperative research project. Research on anthropometry using computer mannequin; 1999 nendo computer mannequin ni kansuru jintai model no keitai suitei gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Studies are conducted about anthropometry using a computer mannequin for assessing the compatibility of virtual commodities and environments, fabricated by CAD (computer-aided design) or the like, with human beings, and the fiscal 1999 achievements are compiled. In the study of multidimensional equations of correlation for shape estimation, calculation of basic human model dimensions using 43 measurements has become feasible. For the construction of a human model using a computer mannequin, joint positions and distances between joints have to be determined using data which are measurements that cover human model surfaces. Such necessitates a study of shape estimating algorithm, and a basic physique calculation module and a shape estimation module have been developed. Verification is conducted using a computer mannequin, and it is found that much information is quantitatively determined prior to the manufacture of real goods, the said information involving the mechanism of a chair and the behavior of a human being in it, and the relations of the human behavior with peripheral equipment. (NEDO)

  19. Specified international joint research. Report for fiscal 1997 on the result of `Development of Machining Supporting System`; Kokusai tokutei kyodo kenkyu. `Kikai kako shien system no kaihatsu` 1997 nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    On the basis of information obtained from actually performed designing of machines with the aid of computers, researches are conducted for the development of a system that automatically designs required machine tools, machining procedures, machining conditions, and tool paths. The research and development efforts made in fiscal 1997 are enumerated below. In the development of man-machine interfaces, one that integrates a machining procedure designing system, machining condition designing system, and a tool path designing system, all of which are subsystems belonging in a machining supporting system, is developed. In a system evaluation performed through actual machining, an interface between CAD (Computer-Aided Design) technology and a machining supporting system is evaluated, when machining is actually performed for experimentation in an environment in which a machining procedure designing system, machining condition designing system, tool path designing system, and CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) technology collaborate as integrated. As the result, the performance expected to be achieved at the beginning is realized. Two scientists of Russian Academy of Sciences are invited, and researches are conducted concerning knowledge processing technology. 20 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. The internal control of tax

    OpenAIRE

    E. B. Shuvalova; L. A. Butenko; Ju. A. Rudenko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research is to study the theoretical and practical issues of internal fiscal control. Internal tax control system requires the development of methodological tools, its scientific basis and practical recommendations for the application. This difficult task is now solved only in organizations, which are the largest taxpayers. For small and medium-sized businesses in the organization of internal fiscal control may improve the quality of the accounting organization of the company. ...