Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene; Craig, Cheryl J.
This article features an international inquiry of two high-poverty urban schools, one Canadian and one American. The article examines poverty in terms of "small stories" that educators and students live and tell, often on the edges, unheard and unaccounted for in grand narratives. It also expands the story constellations approach to…
Walton, P.J.; Langley, J.P.; Simons, C.R.; Hart, J.D.
During selected reactor maintenance periods it will be necessary to conduct examinations of reactor internal components to gain assurance of their continuing integrity throughout the design life. Equipment for remote examination is being developed that will measure the distortions of the graphite moderator bricks and extract samples from them for analysis. Other remotely operated equipment will allow closed circuit TV viewing inside the reactors: the equipment provides both wide field and detailed inspection facilities within a single compact unit. Manipulators are being developed to ring the viewing units to the best vantage points. Reeling and handling gear will be operated from outside the vessels and these provide full containment at all times. (author)
Redelman, Carly V.; Hawkins, Misty A. W.; Drumwright, Franklin R.; Ransdell, Beverly; Marrs, Kathleen; Anderson, Gregory G.
Inquiry-based instruction in the sciences has been demonstrated as a successful educational strategy to use for both high school and college science classrooms. As participants in the NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) Program, we were tasked with creating novel inquiry-based activities for high school classrooms. As a way to…
Full Text Available Using inquiry has become a universal factor in science education, but teachers often face challenges in implementing inquiry-based learning (IBL because of, for instance, teachers’ low confidence in conducting inquiry or insufficient school resources. Much research has been conducted to identify the barriers that impede inquiry practice. However, most studies have employed small-scale qualitative methods from a single-country sample, and, thus, the effects of each factor on conducting inquiry in different educational systems have yet to be measured in one statistical model. Accordingly, this research was aimed to explore the extent to which various teacher- and school-factors have respectively affected teachers’ implementation of inquiry-based learning at lower secondary schools. To examine this issue, samples of 496 Finnish teachers in 135 lower secondary schools and 184 Korean teachers in 147 lower secondary schools were selected from the TIMSS 2011 science data set. The findings reveal that teachers’ confidence in teaching science and their collaboration to improve science teaching were strongly associated with facilitating inquiry in both countries, and these two factors’ positive effects on the implementation were partially derived from inquiry-related professional development in the Finnish sample. In addition, class size and school resources were also significantly related to inquiry practice in Finland, and the teachers’ education levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of inquiry practice in Korea. However, in both countries, the teachers’ emphasis on exams was indicated as a non-significant factor in predicting inquiry frequency. The results have implications in respect of the roles of professional development and school environment in increasing IBL practice in school science.
Farmer, P.R.; Dunnicliffe, C.J.
Issues on PWR safety transient analysis that were discussed at the Sizewell B Public Inquiry are presented. The Public Inquiry was set up by the UK Government under an Inspector, Sir Frank Layfield, to examine all aspects of the construction, safety and operation of a 1200 MW(e) PWR on the Sizewell site. The terms of reference were broad ranging, and the constitution of the Inquiry was to make a recommendation under three Acts of Parliament which apply to the construction and operation of nuclear electrical plant. The Inquiry also covered local planning aspects, which are the responsibility of the Local Authority - in this case the Suffolk County Council. The Inspector examined and made recommendations on the safety of the Station, but consideration by Public Inquiry is outside the formal safety and licensing process, which is the business of the Utility (the CEGB) and the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (the NII). The paper therefore takes a broader look at the question of safety, dealing with the licensing process, the requirements of the safety case and the forward strategies adopted by the CEGB in terms of research and development. This is considered for transient analysis, and the aim is to set the discussions and conclusions of the Public Inquiry into their proper context with regard to nuclear safety in the UK. The Inquiry went into some depth on the topic of LOCA, as an example of safety analysis. In the summary of the evidence and cross-examination the Inspector accepted the adequacy of the LOCA safety case without major reservations, and was satisfied further work in progress would resolve any residual criticisms. In particular support was given for the CEGB commitment to the development and use of more physically realistic calculational methods
The problem was that Hispanic English Second Language (ESL) students enrolled in the ESL program had consistently failed the California High School Exit Examination (CASHEE) in greater numbers than their cohorts. The purpose of this qualitative narrative inquiry was to explore the life stories of Hispanic ESL students in identifying the factors…
George Mwangi, Chrystal A.
Scholarship on international higher education partnerships is often framed by strategic management and organization theories. These approaches are useful, but can minimize how power dynamics and positioning of partners impact engagement and outcomes. This study uses qualitative inquiry to examine 60 international higher education partnerships…
Chowdhary, Bhawna; Liu, Xiufeng; Yerrick, Randy; Smith, Erica; Grant, Brooke
The current literature relates to how teachers develop knowledge and practice of science inquiry, but little has been reported on how teachers develop interdisciplinary science inquiry (ISI) knowledge and practice. This study examines the effect of university research experiences, ongoing professional development, and in-school support on teachers' development of ISI pedagogical knowledge and practices. It centers on documenting diverse teachers' journeys of experiencing ISI as well as developing knowledge of ISI. It was found that there was variation in ISI understanding and practice among the teachers as a result of the combination of teachers' experiences, beliefs, and participation. Thus, in order to help teachers develop ISI knowledge and pedagogy, barriers to ISI knowledge development and implementation must also be addressed. Professional developers must articulate clear program goals to all stakeholders including an explicit definition of ISI and the ability to recognize ISI attributes during research experiences as well as during classroom implementation. Teachers must also be held accountable for participation and reflection in all aspects of professional development. Program developers must also take into consideration teachers' needs, attitudes, and beliefs toward their students when expecting changes in teachers' cognition and behavior to teach inquiry-rich challenging science.
Kollar, Ingo; Fischer, Frank; Slotta, James D.
We investigated how differently structured external scripts interact with learners' internal scripts with respect to individual knowledge acquisition in a Web-based collaborative inquiry learning environment. Ninety students from two secondary schools participated. Two versions of an external collaboration script (high vs. low structured)…
Day, Heather L.; Matthews, Dorothy M.
The "Living Environment Regents Examination" is meant to provide a measure of the quality of New York State students' knowledge and understanding of biological content and science inquiry ability, as it is defined in the "MST Standards" and the "Living Environment Core Curriculum". This article examines the degree to…
Banks, David; O'Mahoney, Joseph
Jackson’s book, The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations, is most likely to be assigned or recommended in graduate classes addressing the philosophy of science, qualitative methodology, and research design. It might then be useful to ask two graduate students whether this is a good idea. How helpful is yet another book on the meta-theoretical status of International Relations? Our answer to this question has four parts. First, we ask whether and how Jackson’s ordering scheme clarifie...
Park, Do-Yong; Park, Mira
The purpose of this study was to investigate the inquiry features demonstrated in the inquiry tasks of a high school Earth Science curriculum. One of the most widely used curricula, Holt Earth Science, was chosen for this case study to examine how Earth Science logical reasoning and authentic scientific inquiry were related to one another and how…
Moores, Lisa; Popadiuk, Natalee
Despite the considerable growth of the international student population, positive aspects of their experience have received little attention. The current study combines a Critical Incident Technique methodology and a positive psychology lens to explore the cross-cultural transition of seven international students, focusing on facilitative factors,…
Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark
This study with 79 students in Montreal, Quebec, compared the educational use of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) global climate model (GCM) to climate education technologies developed for classroom use that included simpler interfaces and processes. The goal was to show how differing climate education technologies succeed and fail at getting students to evolve in their understanding of anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC). Many available climate education technologies aim to convey key AGCC concepts or Earth systems processes; the educational GCM used here aims to teach students the methods and processes of global climate modeling. We hypothesized that challenges to learning about AGCC make authentic technology-enabled inquiry important in developing accurate understandings of not just the issue but how scientists research it. The goal was to determine if student learning trajectories differed between the comparison and treatment groups based on whether each climate education technology allowed authentic scientific research. We trace learning trajectories using pre/post exams, practice quizzes, and written student reflections. To examine the reasons for differing learning trajectories, we discuss student pre/post questionnaires, student exit interviews, and 535 min of recorded classroom video. Students who worked with a GCM demonstrated learning trajectories with larger gains, higher levels of engagement, and a better idea of how climate scientists conduct research. Students who worked with simpler climate education technologies scored lower in the course because of lower levels of engagement with inquiry processes that were perceived to not actually resemble the work of climate scientists.
This paper describes the requirements for the nondestructive examination of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessel internals in accordance with the requirements of the EPRI Material Reliability Program (MRP) inspection standard for PWR internals (MRP-228) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Section XI In-service Inspection. The MRP vessel internals examinations have been performed at nuclear plants in the USA since 2009. The objective of the inspection standard is to provide the requirements for the nondestructive examination (NDE) methods implemented to support the inspection and evaluation of the internals. The inspection standard contains requirements specific to the inspection methodologies involved as well as requirements for qualification of the NDE procedures, equipment and personnel used to perform the vessel internals inspections. The qualification requirements for the NDE systems will be summarized. Six PWR plants in the USA have completed inspections of their internals using the Inspection and Evaluation Guideline (MRP-227) and the Inspection Standard (MRP-228). Examination results show few instances of service-induced degradation flaws, as expected. The few instances of degradation have mostly occurred in bolting
Book reviews in this journal usually proceed by considering the value of the book in question for Dewey scholarship. In this case I would rather say that this book is of interest to Dewey Scholars. Jackson's general project is heavily informed by Dewey's pluralistic brand of pragmatism. As Jackson notes “Dewey's Logic... stand[s] firmly in the tradition leading to this book” (216). Dewey scholars will greet Jackson's extension of this approach to the study of international relations warmly.
McIntosh, Paul; Freeth, Della; Berridge, Emma Jane
This paper examines the use of appreciative inquiry (AI) to guide development of web-based learning resources for medical educators who facilitate simulation-based learning experiences for doctors-in-training. AI can be viewed as a positive form of action research, which seeks to avoid deficit-based analyses and solutions, and commonly associated…
Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; Park, Soonhye
Argumentation, and the production of scientific arguments are critical elements of inquiry that are necessary for helping students become scientifically literate through engaging them in constructing and critiquing ideas. This case study employed a mixed methods research design to examine the development in 5th grade students' practices of oral and written argumentation from one unit to another over 16 weeks utilizing the science writing heuristic approach. Data sources included five rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments that occurred over eleven class periods; students' group writings; interviews with six target students and the teacher; and the researcher's field notes. The results revealed five salient trends in students' development of oral and written argumentative practices over time: (1) Students came to use more critique components as they participated in more rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments; (2) by challenging each other's arguments, students came to focus on the coherence of the argument and the quality of evidence; (3) students came to use evidence to defend, support, and reject arguments; (4) the quality of students' writing continuously improved over time; and (5) students connected oral argument skills to written argument skills as they had opportunities to revise their writing after debating and developed awareness of the usefulness of critique from peers. Given the development in oral argumentative practices and the quality of written arguments over time, this study indicates that students' development of oral and written argumentative practices is positively related to each other. This study suggests that argumentative practices should be framed through both a social and epistemic understanding of argument-utilizing talk and writing as vehicles to create norms of these complex practices.
This document makes a brief overview of the international petroleum context, and then presents the results of the last inquiry allowing to precise the situation of the French para-petroleum industry in 2003 and to propose some estimations for 2004 according to the data supplied by companies. Content: 1 - international context: exploration-production (investments, investments evolution since 25 years, geophysics sector, drilling sector, sector of construction of offshore production equipments, regional analysis in the exploration-production domain, conclusions), refining and petrochemistry (economic context, refining industry, petrochemical industry, conclusions); 2 - the French para-petroleum industry: evolution of the global turnover, turnover share by sector of activity, offshore activity, foreign activity, manpower, conclusions. (J.S.)
Sivia, Awneet; MacMath, Sheryl
This paper focuses on the divide between the university as a site of teacher education and the profession of practicing teachers. We employed a theoretical inquiry methodology on a singular case study which included formulating questions about the phenomena of the university-profession divide (UPD), analysing constituents of the UPD, and…
Bensaid, B.; Sagary, C.; Saniere, A.
Oil companies rarely carry out themselves the important works planned in the framework of their investments or of the exploitation of their facilities. In most cases, they act as prime contractor and generate a huge market of equipments, services and engineering needs in which many companies of various size are involved and make the overall para-petroleum industry. The French position on this market was asserted very early thanks to the continuation of ambitious R and D programs, very often carried out in the framework of the CEP and M and of the COPREP, which have permitted to build and maintain a solid technological knowledge. In this context, the lack of regular statistical data about the French para-petroleum industry has led, since 1978, the group of para-petroleum and para-gas companies, the CEP and M and the former COPREP (now the Committee of petroleum and marine studies - CEP and M), and the French institute of petroleum (IFP), to launch an annual inquiry at the national scale. This document makes a brief overview of the international context of the petroleum industry and then presents the last results of the 2004 inquiry about the French para-petroleum industry. Some data are foreseen for 2005, based on the estimations supplied by the companies themselves. (J.S.)
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand for international... Provisions International Preliminary Examination § 1.480 Demand for international preliminary examination. (a) On the filing of a proper Demand in an application for which the United States International...
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The nuclear debate, far from being concluded by the Windscale decision, was in fact opened up and its scope widened to take into account the political, international, environmental and social issues involved. This debate continues and the selection of literature presented here aims to illustrate all aspects of the Inquiry and its implications. The material is presented in two main sections. Section A is concerned with the Inquiry itself: the proceedings, the report and the government's decision. Section B presents a selection of the literature and debate that resulted. (author)
Dematteo, Dale; Reeves, Scott
Appreciative inquiry (AI) is a relatively new approach to initiating or managing organizational change that is associated with the 'positiveness' movement in psychology and its offshoot positive organizational scholarship. Rather than dwelling upon problems related to change, AI encourages individuals to adopt a positive, constructive approach to managing change. In recent years, AI has been used to initiate change across a broad range of public and private sector organizations. In this article, we report findings from a subset of 50 interviews gathered in a wider study of interprofessional education (IPE) in which AI was employed as a change agent for implementing IPE in a number of health care institutions in a North American setting. A multiple case study approach. (Yin, 2002) was employed in the wider study and semi-structured interviews were undertaken with participants both before their IPE programs and directly afterwards to obtain a detailed understanding of their expectations and experiences of IPE. Interviews were analyzed in an inductive thematic manner in order to produce key emergent themes from each of the IPE programs. A process of re-analysis provided a set of themes which offered an understanding of the role of AI within this IPE initiative. Our findings identify a strong resonance and fit for AI both among the health and social care professionals who participated in this initiative. Numerous individuals commented on the enthusiasm and energy AI engendered, while praising its ability to enhance their working lives and interprofessional relationships. Yet a number of difficulties were also reported. These focused on problems with the translation of the AI process into achievable structural level (e.g. professional, cultural) changes. Based on these findings, the article goes on to argue that the use of AI can overlook a number of structural factors, which will ultimately limit its ability to actually secure meaningful and lasting change within
Perez, Jose A., Jr.; Greer, Sharon
The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical…
Gomes, Teresa Dias Pedro; Goei, Sui Lin; Van Joolingen, Wouter; Cai, Yiyu
Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is moving towards a more inquiry-based, and creativity stimulating pedagogy. Part of a curriculum based on such pedagogies should be challenging learning activities that engage students in investigation. At the same time, it is
The authors examine six Canadian inquiries to determine their values as scientific assessments, their ability to combine scientific data with policy considerations, and their effectiveness in extending public debate on scientific issues. Among the inquiries examined are the environmental assessment hearings into the Point Lepreau nuclear generating station, the Bayda inquiry into the Cluff Lake uranium mine, and the Porter commission on electric power planning in Ontario
Based upon the results of a quantitative analysis of tuition revenues generated by international schools, it is argued that international schools can be examined in terms of a global multi-billion dollar industry and that business theory can be, and is being, applied in international schools today. This article proposes that international schools…
Kim, Minkee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmae, Miia
In inquiry-based science education, there have been gradual shifts in research interests: the nature of scientific method, the debates on the effects of inquiry learning, and, recently, inquiry teaching. However, many in-service programs for inquiry teaching have reported inconsistent results due to the static view of classroom inquiries and due…
Donna, Joel D.; Miller, Brant G.
Technology plays a crucial role in facilitating collaboration within the scientific community. Cloud-computing applications, such as Google Drive, can be used to model such collaboration and support inquiry within the secondary science classroom. Little is known about pre-service teachers' beliefs related to the envisioned use of collaborative,…
This collection of dialogues is the only textbook of its kind. Internet Inquiry: Conversations About Method takes students into the minds of top internet researchers as they discuss how they have worked through critical challenges as they research online social environments. Editors Annette N....... Markham and Nancy K. Baym illustrate that good research choices are not random but are deliberate, studied, and internally consistent. Rather than providing single "how to" answers, this book presents distinctive and divergent viewpoints on how to think about and conduct qualitative internet studies....
This thesis is concerned with the Windscale Inquiry of 1977 and its effect on the public inquiry system. It focusses both on the major influences of the Windscale Inquiry process, and on the participants, their aims, motivations, expectations and achievements. It provides the most detailed examination of the Inquiry to date and, as a result, uncovers aspects of the process while have not been explored previously. The central questions of the thesis are: Was the outcome of the Windscale Inquiry inevitable or could it have reached different conclusions? and did the Windscale Inquiry demonstrate that the public inquiry system could be used by a government to reach a decision which it favoured? The thesis argues that the outcome of the Windscale Inquiry was almost inevitable. In fact it was found that the Inspector had made up his mind in favour of oxide reprocessing before the Inquiry opened. However, this finding does not express fully the Inquiry's impact, because, as the thesis shows, the Inquiry became a mechanism which forced the nuclear industry and the government to explain, and substantially alter, some parts of their policies. The process of bringing the government and industry to account, did not alter the THORP decision, but it demonstrated that any subsequent inquiries could subject nuclear developments to searching criticism and investigation. Indeed it is suggested that the Windscale Inquiry made it impossible for subsequent Governments to proceed with nuclear expansion without subjecting them to the public inquiry process. Part I of the thesis examines the history and structure of the public Inquiry system and the relevant aspects of planning law. Part II describes the history of reprocessing and the themes which led to the public inquiry being established. Part III forms the most detailed part of the thesis and examines the Windscale Inquiry process focussing on the participants and the issues involved. (author)
Recent developments in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, particularly the ongoing projects of liquefaction and regasification and the increasing number of LNG-carriers to be delivered in forthcoming years, have led some specialists to argue that LNG is today a crossroads between regionalisation and globalisation. Other specialists think that, by LNG's share of the total international trade of natural gas will be predominant, compared to that of pipelines. All these assumptions are based on an examination of the duration and ongoing international gas projects. The objective of our article is to examine the historical patterns of the international natural gas and discuss the conditions for the globalisation of LNG trade. Using some evidence on the international trade of natural gas from 1970 to 1997, we show the A strong correlation exists between the international trade of gas by pipeline and LNG becomes predominant, we need a delinking of these two means of trading gas. Globalisation of the LNG trade is not only linked to an increase in the relative share trade; it is also and primarily linked to an increase in the inter-area trade of LNG. There is a negligible change in the pattern of inter-area and intra-area trade of even during the late 1990s; this is due to the contracted nature of the LNG international that resulted in a stickiness of LNG routes. The emergence of a global LNG market requires the satisfaction of four conditions: economic, technical and institutional conditions - therefore, it will certainly take more years to make ING a global commodity. (author)
Pannenborg, Charles Olke
A 'New International Health Order' (NIHO) is a new notion. In order to value the function of a NIHO, the present international health order and the socioeconomic order between the rich and poor countries will have to be taken into account. The factual and normatived evelopment of a new international
Perez, Jose A; Greer, Sharon
The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to make decisions in recruitment of potential applicants. This study was done to determine a correlation of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 results with ITE scores in each level of Internal Medicine training. A retrospective review of all residents graduating from an Internal Medicine program from 1999 to 2006 was done. Subjects included had data for all USMLE Steps and ITE during all years of training. Thirty-one subjects were included in the study. Correlations of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 were done with ITE scores (percent correct) in each year of training. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was determined for each pairing and a t test to determine statistical significance of the correlation was done. Statistical significance was defined as P value ITE percent correct in PGY I, II and III were 0.46, 0.55 and 0.51 respectively. Corresponding r values for USMLE Step 2 and ITE percent correct were 0.79, 0.70 and 0.72; for USMLE Step 3 these values were 0.51, 0.37 and 0.51 respectively for each training year. USMLE scores are correlated with ITE scores. This correlation was strongest for USMLE Step 2.
Full Text Available The present research is the product of a collection of primary information in the context of the formulation of the International Cooperation strategy of the Municipality of Pasto, for the purpose of determining the path of construction of this process, its impact and challenges and, above all, the learning achieved through the participatory formulation of the International Cooperation strategy. The methodology of the research is of a qualitative interpretative study, which allowed to rebuild from the sight of actors the participatory formulation of the strategy of International Cooperation, rescuing the importance of participation in all levels, recognizing the team working and the generation of partnerships, trust and commitment in the pursuit of strengthening and sustainability of the process of internationalization of the Municipality. Finally, the research concluded with a series of reflections concerning the formulation of strategies for International Cooperation.
Canada's international response to HIV may be under threat given CIDA's new aid priorities that appear to exclude health. Drivers of this recent priority shift have been the influence of global aid trends among public sector donors and changes within the global HIV milieu itself. However, this is not the first time Canada has shifted in response to these two global trends. The era from 2000-2004 also witnessed dramatic changes in both the HIV field and in global thinking around international aid. As such, this article presents an evaluation of the Government of Canada's international response to HIV during the first era of transition (2000-2004) in order to derive lessons for decision-making around HIV in the current climate of change. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 key informants with expertise regarding Canada's international response to HIV over time. Analysis involved multiple readings of transcripts to identify descriptive codes and establish intimacy with the data. Descriptive codes were then collapsed into thematic categories using a process of inductive reasoning. Canada's international response to HIV was perceived to be exemplary at times (e.g. seminal funding to WHO's "3-by-5" strategy), but also inconsistent (e.g., underutilized technical assistance capacity) and non-strategic (e.g., contradiction between investing in training health providers while poaching professionals to bolster Canada's workforce). Lessons from the 2000-2004 era of transition focus on strategic investments, the inextricable connection between HIV and development and strategy coherence. These results highlight that it is more constructive to ensure that Canadian development responses in all areas engage with both the upstream drivers of HIV as well as the impacts of the epidemic itself in order to achieve the greatest results from international investment and the most effective contributions to the lives of the people that these endeavours seek to
In 1924 the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace published a volume investigating the teaching of school history in former belligerent states in Europe. The project sought to reconcile former enemies through mutual understanding and educational exchange and reflected a widely held belief that although the military conflict had finished, its…
O'Riordan, T.; Kemp, R.; Purdue, M.
The Economic and Social Research Council has studied four major environmental public inquiries, including Sizewell-B. This report summarizes some of the observations of the Sizewell Inquiry Review Project which has been analyzing the context, content and conduct of the Sizewell-B Inquiry. Although public inquiries in Britain have an important function in building public trust in planning decisions where opinions are divided and independent advice is needed, one outcome of the Sizewell-B Inquiry may be a streamlining of the inquiry process, eg by prior examination of policy matters, leaving the Inquiry to consider specifically site-related matters only. (UK)
‘Faith in public debate’ forms an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law.
..., underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals. 71.50-3 Section 71.50-3 Shipping COAST GUARD...-3 Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam... wooden hulls must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any five year...
Phillips, Donna; Pean, Christian A; Allen, Kathleen; Zuckerman, Joseph; Egol, Kenneth
Patient care is 1 of the 6 core competencies defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The physical examination (PE) is a fundamental skill to evaluate patients and make an accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate 3 different methods to teach PE skills and to assess the ability to do a complete PE in a simulated patient encounter. Prospective, uncontrolled, observational. Northeastern academic medical center. A total of 32 orthopedic surgery residents participated and were divided into 3 didactic groups: Group 1 (n = 12) live interactive lectures, demonstration on standardized patients, and textbook reading; Group 2 (n = 11) video recordings of the lectures given to Group 1 and textbook reading alone; Group 3 (n = 9): 90-minute modules taught by residents to interns in near-peer format and textbook reading. The overall score for objective structured clinical examinations from the combined groups was 66%. There was a trend toward more complete PEs in Group 1 taught via live lectures and demonstrations compared to Group 2 that relied on video recording. Near-peer taught residents from Group 3 significantly outperformed Group 2 residents overall (p = 0.02), and trended toward significantly outperforming Group 1 residents as well, with significantly higher scores in the ankle (p = 0.02) and shoulder (p = 0.02) PE cases. This study found that orthopedic interns taught musculoskeletal PE skills by near-peers outperformed other groups overall. An overall score of 66% for the combined didactic groups suggests a baseline deficit in first-year resident musculoskeletal PE skills. The PE should continue to be taught and objectively assessed throughout residency to confirm that budding surgeons have mastered these fundamental skills before going into practice. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Young, Tamera; Turner, Jean; Denny, George; Young, Michael
Objectives: To identify antecedents of teen pregnancy. Methods: Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. This data set allowed us to identify eighth-grade antecedents of teen pregnancy/childbearing. Results: The variables that were found to be most predictive of later pregnancy were reflective of internal poverty (locus…
Williams, Gwendolyn M.
From a constructivist point of view teacher identity evolves as the teacher interacts and negotiates with others. However, before negotiation can occur, instructors must establish their own teacher identity as a starting position. This narrative study analyzes how international teaching assistants negotiated with their American undergraduate…
Ahmad, Syed Zamberi; Buchanan, F. Robert; Ahmad, Norita
Purpose: Motivations for study abroad in tourism and hospitality were examined as to the influence of a variety of personal criteria in the individual decision process of adult learners to select a host country and host institution of study. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach: Push-pull factors (Mazzarol and Soutar,…
Wynne, B [Lancaster Univ. (UK)
The recently published report entitled 'The Big Public Inquiry' from the Council for Science and Society and the Outer Circle Policy Unit is considered, with especial reference to any future enquiry which may take place into the first commercial fast breeder reactor. Proposals embodied in the report include stronger rights for objectors and an attempt is made to tackle the problem that participation in a public inquiry is far too late to be objective. It is felt by the author that the CSS/OCPU report is a constructive contribution to the debate about big technology inquiries but that it fails to understand the deeper currents in the economic and political structure of technology which so influence the consequences of whatever formal procedures are evolved.
Zion, Michal; Sadeh, Irit
In examining open inquiry projects among high-school biology students, we found dynamic inquiry performances expressed in two criteria: "changes occurring during inquiry" and "procedural understanding". Characterizing performances in a dynamic open inquiry project can shed light on both the procedural and epistemological…
This article provides an overview and critical analysis of inquiries into historical institutional child abuse and examines their multiple functions and complex effects. The article takes a broadly international view but focuses primarily on Australia, the UK and Ireland, jurisdictions in which there have been major national inquiries. Drawing on sociological and other social science literature, it begins by considering the forms, functions, and purposes of inquiries. An overview of emergent concerns with institutional abuse in the 1980s and 1990s is then provided, followed by an examination of the response of many governments since that time in establishing inquiries. Key findings and recommendations are considered. The final sections of the article explore the evaluation of inquiries, both during their operation and in their aftermath. Policy change and legislative reform are discussed but the focus is on aspects often underplayed or overlooked, including an inquiry's credibility, its role in processes of knowledge production, and the part it plays in producing social and cultural shifts. In the context of growing numbers of inquiries across Western democracies, including the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, it is argued that grasping the complexity of the inquiry mechanism, with its inherent tensions and its multiple effects, is crucial to evaluating inquiry outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Today, the International School of Geneva is known as the world's oldest and largest private international school, having opened in 1924 under the name "International School". Many schools have attempted to foster an international environment in a general sense; this school is the first to claim an "inter-national" identity…
Nichols, Sue; Cormack, Phil
How does practitioner inquiry impact education? Examining the experiences of practitioners who have participated in inquiry projects, the authors present ways in which this work has enabled educators to be positive change agents. They reveal the difference that practitioner inquiry has made in their professional practice, their understanding of…
Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer
At designe i en fortællemæssig ramme giver brugere og designere mulighed for i fællesskab at udforske fremtidens it-anvendelser. Metoden hedder Fictional Inquiry, og den motiverer brugerne til at tænke ud over dagligdagens begrænsninger og sætte ord på ting i hverdagen, som ellers er svære...
Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal
In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant…
McDonald, Furman S; Zeger, Scott L; Kolars, Joseph C
Little is known about the associations of previous standardized examination scores with scores on subsequent standardized examinations used to assess medical knowledge in internal medicine residencies. To examine associations of previous standardized test scores on subsequent standardized test scores. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred ninety-five internal medicine residents. Bivariate associations of United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Steps and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores were determined. Random effects analysis adjusting for repeated administrations of the IM-ITE and other variables known or hypothesized to affect IM-ITE score allowed for discrimination of associations of individual USMLE Step scores on IM-ITE scores. In bivariate associations, USMLE scores explained 17% to 27% of the variance in IME-ITE scores, and previous IM-ITE scores explained 66% of the variance in subsequent IM-ITE scores. Regression coefficients (95% CI) for adjusted associations of each USMLE Step with IM-ITE scores were USMLE-1 0.19 (0.12, 0.27), USMLE-2 0.23 (0.17, 0.30), and USMLE-3 0.19 (0.09, 0.29). No single USMLE Step is more strongly associated with IM-ITE scores than the others. Because previous IM-ITE scores are strongly associated with subsequent IM-ITE scores, appropriate modeling, such as random effects methods, should be used to account for previous IM-ITE administrations in studies for which IM-ITE score is an outcome.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preemployment inquiries. 217.14 Section 217.14 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN... inquiries. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a recipient may not conduct a...
..., and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF... International Searching Authority, or (3) If applicant fails to restrict the claims or pay additional fees... common inventive concept. In such a case the International Preliminary Examining Authority may raise the...
Dalal, Medha; Archambault, Leanna; Shelton, Catharyn
This mixed-methods study explored the impacts of a semester-long technology professional development for secondary school international teachers from developing nations around the world. We used (a) a survey approach to examine international teachers' perceived technology integration abilities using the technological pedagogical content knowledge…
Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel
The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…
Bensaid, B.; Sagary, C.; Saniere, A
Oil companies rarely carry out themselves the important works planned in the framework of their investments or of the exploitation of their facilities. In most cases, they act as prime contractor and generate a huge market of equipments, services and engineering needs in which many companies of various size are involved and make the overall para-petroleum industry. The French position on this market was asserted very early thanks to the continuation of ambitious R and D programs, very often carried out in the framework of the CEP and M and of the COPREP, which have permitted to build and maintain a solid technological knowledge. In this context, the lack of regular statistical data about the French para-petroleum industry has led, since 1978, the group of para-petroleum and para-gas companies, the CEP and M and the former COPREP (now the Committee of petroleum and marine studies - CEP and M), and the French institute of petroleum (IFP), to launch an annual inquiry at the national scale. This document makes a brief overview of the international context of the petroleum industry and then presents the last results of the 2004 inquiry about the French para-petroleum industry. Some data are foreseen for 2005, based on the estimations supplied by the companies themselves. (J.S.)
of self‐reflexivity and self-questioning in the Greek polis gave also rise to the genuine interest in the institutions of the cultural ‘other’. Impartiality in the study of the others’ institutions started in Greece and it was closely associated with the signification that physis (nature) should......The paper explores the origins of comparative studies, which as it argues are located in Ancient Greece. Greece is not only the place where the school was born, but it is also there where the interest in and inquiry of the institutions of other societies, including education, emerged. The rise...... to know better their own society through comparison. Cross-cultural examination in this regard informed further the Greeks’ self-reflexivity. By going through a set of historical sources and contemporary literature, the paper will elaborate on the emergence of cross-cultural and comparative inquiry...
Sisson, Stephen D; Bertram, Amanda; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh
A core objective of residency education is to facilitate learning, and programs need more curricula and assessment tools with demonstrated validity evidence. We sought to demonstrate concurrent validity between performance on a widely shared, ambulatory curriculum (the Johns Hopkins Internal Medicine Curriculum), the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE), and the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination (ABIM-CE). A cohort study of 443 postgraduate year (PGY)-3 residents at 22 academic and community hospital internal medicine residency programs using the curriculum through the Johns Hopkins Internet Learning Center (ILC). Total and percentile rank scores on ILC didactic modules were compared with total and percentile rank scores on the IM-ITE and total scores on the ABIM-CE. The average score on didactic modules was 80.1%; the percentile rank was 53.8. The average IM-ITE score was 64.1% with a percentile rank of 54.8. The average score on the ABIM-CE was 464. Scores on the didactic modules, IM-ITE, and ABIM-CE correlated with each other (P ITE total and percentile rank scores (P ITE percentile rank. Performance on a widely shared ambulatory curriculum is associated with performance on the IM-ITE and the ABIM-CE.
W. James Jacob
Full Text Available This article examines the teacher preparation experiences of preservice teachers in six international contexts: China, Fiji, Kiribati, Mexico, Samoa, and Tonga. More specifically, it looks at the value-added components in an international teacher education program, with an emphasis on effective teaching and employability. Theoretically the study is based on Straus and Corbin’s (1998a substantive grounded theory and Patton’s (1997 Theory of Action Framework. Verbal and non-verbal forms of feedback were identified as essential aspects of the international preservice training experience. Cultural diversity, teaching English as a second language, collaboration, and exposure to a different educational system were identified among several components as advantages to individuals who conduct their preservice teacher training in international settings.
Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi
. However, we have also witnessed an emerging trend of external acquisition of technology by EMFs firms in both international and domestic markets. Why some EMFs are active in sourcing both domestic and international technologies instead of being significantly in favour of foreign technologies from...... framework. Based on a unique sample of 389 Chinese firms on their inward technology licensing activities through an observation period from 2000 to 2005, it is found that (1) firms’ international market orientation; (2) firm’s technological capability; (3) regional innovation capability; and (4......External technology sourcing from developed countries has been one of the most important vehicles by which emerging market firms (EMFs) sustain competiveness. Foreign advanced technologies offer EMFs opportunities to gain access to state-of-the-art technologies and upgrade their competitiveness...
Background Many practicing physicians lack skills in physical examination. It is not known whether physical examination skills already show deficiencies after an early phase of clinical training. At the end of the internal medicine clerkship students are expected to be able to perform a general physical examination in every new patient encounter. In a previous study, the basic physical examination items that should standardly be performed were set by consensus. The aim of the current observational study was to assess whether medical students were able to correctly perform a general physical examination regarding completeness as well as technique at the end of the clerkship internal medicine. Methods One hundred students who had just finished their clerkship internal medicine were asked to perform a general physical examination on a standardized patient as they had learned during the clerkship. They were recorded on camera. Frequency of performance of each component of the physical examination was counted. Adequacy of performance was determined as either correct or incorrect or not assessable using a checklist of short descriptions of each physical examination component. A reliability analysis was performed by calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient for total scores of five physical examinations rated by three trained physicians and for their agreement on performance of all items. Results Approximately 40% of the agreed standard physical examination items were not performed by the students. Students put the most emphasis on examination of general parameters, heart, lungs and abdomen. Many components of the physical examination were not performed as was taught during precourses. Intra-class correlation was high for total scores of the physical examinations 0.91 (p internal medicine clerkship. Possible causes and suggestions for improvement are discussed. PMID:24712683
McKinley, Danette W; Hess, Brian J; Boulet, John R; Lipner, Rebecca S
Changes in certification requirements and examinee characteristics are likely to influence the validity of the evidence associated with interpretations made based on test data. We examined whether changes in Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) certification requirements over time were associated with changes in internal medicine (IM) residency program director ratings and certification examination scores. Comparisons were made between physicians who were ECFMG-certified before and after the Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) requirement. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to examine the differences in program director ratings based on CSA cohort and whether the examinees emigrated for undergraduate medical education (national vs. international students). A univariate analysis of covariance was conducted to examine differences in scores from the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Internal Medicine Certification Examination. For both analyses, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 scores were used as covariates. Results indicate that, of those certified by ECFMG between 1993 and 1997, 17 % (n = 1,775) left their country of citizenship for undergraduate medical education. In contrast, 38 % (n = 1,874) of those certified between 1999 and 2003 were international students. After adjustment by covariates, the main effect of cohort membership on the program director ratings was statistically significant (Wilks' λ = 0.99, F 5, 15391 = 19.9, P migration status was statistically significant and weak (Wilks' λ = 0.98, F 5,15391 = 45.3, P Internal Medicine Certification Examination scores based on whether or not CSA were required was statistically significant, although the magnitude of the association between these variables was very small. The findings suggest that the implementation of an additional evaluation of skills (e.g., history-taking, physical examination) as a
Falcone, John L; Gonzalo, Jed D
To determine Internal Medicine residency program compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 80% pass-rate standard and the correlation between residency program size and performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination. Using a cross-sectional study design from 2010-2012 American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination data of all Internal Medicine residency pro-grams, comparisons were made between program pass rates to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard. To assess the correlation between program size and performance, a Spearman's rho was calculated. To evaluate program size and its relationship to the pass-rate standard, receiver operative characteristic curves were calculated. Of 372 Internal Medicine residency programs, 276 programs (74%) achieved a pass rate of =80%, surpassing the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education minimum standard. A weak correlation was found between residency program size and pass rate for the three-year period (p=0.19, pInternal Medicine residency programs complied with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standards, a quarter of the programs failed to meet this requirement. Program size is positively but weakly associated with American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination performance, suggesting other unidentified variables significantly contribute to program performance.
Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Tasker, Tammy; White, Barbara
This article examines the pedagogical practices of two science inquiry teachers and their students using a Web-based system called Web of Inquiry (WOI). There is a need to build a collective repertoire of pedagogical practices that can assist elementary and middle school teachers as they support students to develop a complex model of inquiry based…
An evaluation inquiry has been noted to have a significant influence on whether the evaluation outcomes are used or not. However, only limited studies have examined evaluation inquiry and its implication on the use of evaluation in Ghana. This study therefore seeks to contribute to knowledge on evaluation inquiry and the ...
Pedaste, Margus; Mäeots, Mario; Siiman, Leo A.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; van Riesen, Siswa; Kamp, E.T.; Kamp, E.T.; Manoli, Constantinos C.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Tsourlidaki, Eleftheria
Inquiry-based learning is gaining popularity in science curricula, international research and development projects as well as teaching. One of the underlying reasons is that its success can be significantly improved due to the recent technical developments that allow the inquiry process to be
Lotter, Christine R.; Thompson, Stephen; Dickenson, Tammiee S.; Smiley, Whitney F.; Blue, Genine; Rea, Mary
This study examined changes in middle school teachers' beliefs about inquiry, implementation of inquiry practices, and self-efficacy to teach science through inquiry after participating in a year-long professional development program. The professional development model design was based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory of learning and…
Haring, Catharina M; van der Meer, Jos W M; Postma, Cornelis T
Performance of a focused physical examination will induce a high cognitive load for medical students in the early phase of the clinical clerkships. To come to a workable and clinically applicable standard physical examination for medical students to be used in every new patient in the daily clinical practice of internal medicine. A questionnaire held among physicians that supervise students during the clerkship of internal medicine in one Dutch training region. Of the complete list of physical examination 55 items were considered to be an integral part of the standard general physical examination for medical students. Most emphasized were elements of the physical examination aimed at general parameters, thorax and abdomen, vascular status, lymph nodes, spinal column, skin and some parts of the neurological examination. The standard physical examinations performed by supervisors themselves contain fewer items than they expected from the students. The expectations a supervisor has towards the student correlates with the frequency with which they apply the various components in their own physical examination. This study provides us with a 'core' physical examination for medical students that can be applied in the early phase of the clinical clerkships.
Full Text Available Background : Although the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM certification is valued as a reflection of physicians’ experience, education, and expertise, limited methods exist to predict performance in the examination. Purpose : The objective of this study was to develop and validate a predictive tool based on variables common to all residency programs, regarding the probability of an internal medicine graduate passing the ABIM certification examination. Methods : The development cohort was obtained from the files of the Cleveland Clinic internal medicine residents who began training between 2004 and 2008. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to predict the ABIM passing rate. The model was represented as a nomogram, which was internally validated with bootstrap resamples. The external validation was done retrospectively on a cohort of residents who graduated from two other independent internal medicine residency programs between 2007 and 2011. Results : Of the 194 Cleveland Clinic graduates used for the nomogram development, 175 (90.2% successfully passed the ABIM certification examination. The final nomogram included four predictors: In-Training Examination (ITE scores in postgraduate year (PGY 1, 2, and 3, and the number of months of overnight calls in the last 6 months of residency. The nomogram achieved a concordance index (CI of 0.98 after correcting for over-fitting bias and allowed for the determination of an estimated probability of passing the ABIM exam. Of the 126 graduates from two other residency programs used for external validation, 116 (92.1% passed the ABIM examination. The nomogram CI in the external validation cohort was 0.94, suggesting outstanding discrimination. Conclusions : A simple user-friendly predictive tool, based on readily available data, was developed to predict the probability of passing the ABIM exam for internal medicine residents. This may guide program directors’ decision
Stone, Brian Andrew
Scientific inquiry is widely used but pervasively misunderstood in elementary classrooms. The use of inquiry is often attached to direct instruction models of teaching, or is even passed as textbook readings or worksheets. Previous literature on scientific inquiry suggests a range or continuum beginning with teacher-directed inquiry on one extreme, which involves a question, process, and outcome that are predetermined by the teacher. On the other end of the continuum is an element of inquiry that is extremely personal and derived from innate curiosity without external constraints. This authentic inquiry is defined by the study as primal inquiry. If inquiry instruction is used in the elementary classroom, it is often manifested as teacher-directed inquiry, but previous research suggests the most interesting, motivating, and lasting content is owned by the individual and exists within the individual's own curiosity, questioning and processes. Therefore, the study examined the impact of teacher-directed inquiry in two elementary fourth grade classrooms on climate-related factors including interest, motivation, engagement, and student-generated inquiry involvement. The study took place at two elementary classrooms in Arizona. Both were observed for ten weeks during science instruction over the course of one semester. Field notes were written with regard for the inquiry process and ownership, along with climate indicators. Student journals were examined for evidence of primal inquiry, and twenty-two students were interviewed between the two classrooms for evidence of low climate-related factors and low inquiry involvement. Data from the three sources were triangulated. The results of this qualitative study include evidence for three propositions, which were derived from previous literature. Strong evidence was provided in support of all three propositions, which suggest an overall negative impact on climate-related factors of interest, motivation, and engagement for
Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J.; Brewer, Gene A.
Retrieval dynamics in context-dependent recall were explored via manipulations of external and internal context in two experiments. Participants were tested in either the same or different context as the material was learned in and correct recalls, errors, and recall latency measures were examined. In both experiments changes in context resulted…
The primary purpose of this study is to examine the connection between parent involvement and autonomy support, as well as the combined construct of autonomy supportive parent involvement, with internalized mental health symptoms. A secondary purpose of this study is to determine how certain parent demographics relate to attitudes and behaviors…
This qualitative study examines U. S. international branch campus (IBC) administrative leadership structures and the interconnections they have to their respective host countries. While several factors concerning the sustainability of IBCs have been cited, this study introduces "leadership networks" to the discourse on IBC…
Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.
Sampson, Deborah A; Caldwell, Dennis; Taylor, Andre D; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y
In this paper, we examine the implementation and difficulties when conducting genetics research in a rural, traditional West African culture within the frame of the United States' grounded research ethics. Research challenges are highlighted by Western researchers following U.S. Institutional Review Board (IRB) guidelines and practices in a non-Western country. IRB concepts are culture bound in Western ideals that may not have synchronicity and compatibility with non-Western cultures. Differences in sociocultural norms, traditions, language, and geography were influencing factors that can affect application of IRB principles. Suggestions for change are offered, which will potentially aid researchers considering application of IRB requirements when conducting research in non-Westernized, non-industrialized countries.
Kuhlman, Kate R; Olson, Sheryl L; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L
In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child's HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.
Department of Homeland Security — All non-media public inquiries and complaints and responses to inquiries received by telephone, e-mail and fax, and handles contacts in English and Spanish. The data...
Kay, Cynthia; Jackson, Jeffrey L; Frank, Michael
To explore the relationship between United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 scores, yearly in-service training exam (ITE) scores, and passing the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying examination (ABIM-CE). The authors conducted a retrospective database review of internal medicine residents from the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2004 through 2012. Residents' USMLE Step 1, ITE, and ABIM-CE scores were extracted. Pearson rho, chi-square, and logistic regression were used to determine whether relationships existed between the scores and if Step 1 and ITE scores correlate with passing the ABIM-CE. There were 241 residents, who participated in 728 annual ITEs. There were Step 1 scores for 195 (81%) residents and ABIM-CE scores for 183 (76%). Step 1 and ABIM-CE scores had a modest correlation (rho: 0.59), as did ITE and ABIM-CE scores (rho: 0.48-0.67). Failing Step 1 or being in the bottom ITE quartile during any year of testing markedly increased likelihood of failing the boards (Step 1: relative risk [RR]: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.0-5.9; first-year residents' RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0-1.6; second-year residents' RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.5; third-year residents' RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.5). USMLE Step 1 and ITE scores have a modest correlation with board scores. Failing Step 1 or scoring in the bottom quartile of the ITE increased the risk of failing the boards. What effective intervention, if any, program directors may use with at-risk residents is a question deserving further research.
Jang, Jeong-yoon; Hand, Brian
This study investigated the value of using a scaffolded critique framework to promote two different types of writing—argumentative writing and explanatory writing—with different purposes within an argument-based inquiry approach known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach. A quasi-experimental design with sixth and seventh grade students taught by two teachers was used. A total of 170 students participated in the study, with 87 in the control group (four classes) and 83 in the treatment group (four classes). All students used the SWH templates as an argumentative writing to guide their written work and completed these templates during the SWH investigations of each unit. After completing the SWH investigations, both groups of students were asked to complete the summary writing task as an explanatory writing at the end of each unit. All students' writing samples were scored using analytical frameworks developed for the study. The results indicated that the treatment group performed significantly better on the explanatory writing task than the control group. In addition, the results of the partial correlation suggested that there is a very strong significantly positive relationship between the argumentative writing and the explanatory writing.
Elder, Andrew T; McManus, I Chris; Patrick, Alan; Nair, Kichu; Vaughan, Louella; Dacre, Jane
A structured online survey was used to establish the views of 2,684 practising clinicians of all ages in multiple countries about the value of the physical examination in the contemporary practice of internal medicine. 70% felt that physical examination was 'almost always valuable' in acute general medical referrals. 66% of trainees felt that they were never observed by a consultant when undertaking physical examination and 31% that consultants never demonstrated their use of the physical examination to them. Auscultation for pulmonary wheezes and crackles were the two signs most likely to be rated as frequently used and useful, with the character of the jugular venous waveform most likely to be rated as -infrequently used and not useful. Physicians in contemporary hospital general medical practice continue to value the contribution of the physical examination to assessment of outpatients and inpatients, but, in the opinion of trainees, teaching and demonstration could be improved. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.
Wilcox, Jesse; Kruse, Jerrid W.; Clough, Michael P.
Science education efforts have long emphasized inquiry, and inquiry and scientific practices are prominent in contemporary science education reform documents (NRC 1996; NGSS Lead States 2013). However, inquiry has not become commonplace in science teaching, in part because of misunderstandings regarding what it means and entails (Demir and Abell…
Suarez, Angel; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus
The Personal Inquiry Manager (PIM) is an integration approach based on a mobile application, based on Android, to support the IBL process and gives users mobile access to their inquiries. Moreover it facilitates a more self-directed approach as it enables to set up their own personal inquiries. The
Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.; Luxford, Karen M.; Luxford, Cynthia J.
Inquiry-based instruction requires a deep, conceptual understanding of the process of science combined with a sophisticated knowledge of teaching and learning. This study examines the changes in classroom instructional practices and corresponding changes to knowledge and beliefs about inquiry instruction for eight high school chemistry teachers.…
Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal
In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant differences between the two groups: Open inquiry students were more satisfied and felt they gained benefits from implementing the project to a greater extent than guided inquiry students. On the other hand, regarding documentation throughout the project, guided inquiry students believed that they conducted more documentation, as compared to their open inquiry peers. No significant differences were found regarding `the investment of time', but significant differences were found in the time invested and difficulties which arose concerning the different stages of the inquiry process: Open inquiry students believed they spent more time in the first stages of the project, while guided inquiry students believed they spent more time in writing the final paper. In addition, other differences were found: Open inquiry students felt more involved in their project, and felt a greater sense of cooperation with others, in comparison to guided inquiry students. These findings may help teachers who hesitate to teach open inquiry to implement this method of inquiry; or at least provide their students with the opportunity to be more involved in inquiry projects, and ultimately provide their students with more autonomy, high-order thinking, and a deeper understanding in performing science.
Opposition to nuclear energy facilities has increased considerably in Scotland and Germany within the past two decades. The statutory institutions which exist in each country to consider formal objections to such developments have important differences, as do the licensing or planning processes of which they form an integral part. In Britain, the initiation of judicial review following public inquiries is very rare, due to the limited grounds within which this would be possible. By contrast, there has been a very high referral of nuclear power station decisions to the administrative courts in Germany, but the number is now declining as cases are invariably found in favour of the developers. The comparative examination of case studies reveals that objectors' interests may best be served, in terms of achieving policy influence, by acting outside the restrictions of the statutory planning and legal systems. The Scottish public inquiry is revealed as the more flexible institution and one which allows a much greater degree of public participation. (author)
Kennedy, Nadia Stoyanova
This paper discusses a teaching model called community of mathematical inquiry (CMI), characterized by dialogical and inquiry-driven communication and a dynamic structure of intertwined cognitive processes including distributed thinking, mathematical argumentation, integrated reasoning, conceptual transformation, internalization of critical…
Dulohery, Megan M; Stoven, Samantha; Kurklinsky, Andrew K; Kurklinksy, Andrew; Halvorsen, Andrew; McDonald, Furman S; Bhagra, Anjali
With the advent of compact ultrasound (US) devices, it is easier for physicians to enhance their physical examinations through the use of US. However, although this new tool is widely available, few internal medicine physicians have US training. This study sought to understand physicians' baseline knowledge and skill, provide education in US principles, and demonstrate that proper use of compact US devices is a skill that can be quickly learned. Training was performed at the Mayo Clinic in June 2010 and June 2011. The participants consisted of internal medicine residents. The workshop included didactics and hands-on US experiences with human and cadaver models in a simulation center. Pretests and posttests of residents' knowledge, attitudes, and skills with US were completed. We reassessed the 2010 group in the spring of 2012 with a long-term retention survey for knowledge and confidence in viewing images. A total of 136 interns completed the workshop. Thirty-nine residents completed the long-term retention survey. Posttest assessments showed a statistically significant improvement in the knowledge of US imaging, confidence in identifying structures, image identification, and image acquisition (P internal medicine training and practice. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Cairns, Dean; Areepattamannil, Shaljan
This study, drawing on data from the third cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing three-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) as an analytic strategy, examined the relations of inquiry-based science teaching to science achievement and dispositions toward science among 170,474 15-year-old students from 4780 schools in 54 countries across the globe. The results of the HLM analyses, after accounting for student-, school-, and country-level demographic characteristics and students' dispositions toward science, revealed that inquiry-based science teaching was significantly negatively related to science achievement. In contrast, inquiry-based science teaching was significantly positively associated with dispositions toward science, such as interest in and enjoyment of science learning, instrumental and future-oriented science motivation, and science self-concept and self-efficacy. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed.
Hutchinson, Nora; Baird, Grayson L; Garg, Megha
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that health materials be written at a grade 6-7 reading level, which has generally not been achieved in online reading materials. Up to the present time, there have not been any assessments focused on the reading level of online educational materials across the most popular consumer Web sites for common internal medicine diagnoses. In this study, we examined the readability of open-access online health information for 9 common internal medicine diagnoses. Nine of the most frequently encountered inpatient and ambulatory internal medicine diagnoses were selected for analysis. In November and December 2014, these diagnoses were used as search terms in Google, and the top 5 Web sites across all diagnoses and a diagnosis-specific site were analyzed across 5 validated reading indices. On average, the lowest reading grade-level content was provided by the NIH (10.7), followed by WebMD (10.9), Mayo Clinic (11.3), and diagnosis-specific Web sites (11.5). Conversely, Wikipedia provided content that required the highest grade-level readability (14.6). The diagnoses with the lowest reading grade levels were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (10.8), followed by diabetes (10.9), congestive heart failure (11.7), osteoporosis (11.7) and hypertension (11.7). Depression had the highest grade-level readability (13.8). Despite recommendations for patient health information to be written at a grade 6-7 reading level, our examination of online educational materials pertaining to 9 common internal medicine diagnoses revealed reading levels significantly above the NIH recommendation. This was seen across both diagnosis-specific and general Web sites. There is a need to improve the readability of online educational materials made available to patients. These improvements have the potential to greatly enhance patient awareness, engagement, and physician-patient communication. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ouyang, Wenli; Cuddy, Monica M; Swanson, David B
Prior to graduation, US medical students are required to complete clinical clerkship rotations, most commonly in the specialty areas of family medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology (ob/gyn), pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery. Within a school, the sequence in which students complete these clerkships varies. In addition, the length of these rotations varies, both within a school for different clerkships and between schools for the same clerkship. The present study investigated the effects of clerkship sequence and length on performance on the National Board of Medical Examiner's subject examination in internal medicine. The study sample included 16,091 students from 67 US Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME)-accredited medical schools who graduated in 2012 or 2013. Student-level measures included first-attempt internal medicine subject examination scores, first-attempt USMLE Step 1 scores, and five dichotomous variables capturing whether or not students completed rotations in family medicine, ob/gyn, pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery prior to taking the internal medicine rotation. School-level measures included clerkship length and average Step 1 score. Multilevel models with students nested in schools were estimated with internal medicine subject examination scores as the dependent measure. Step 1 scores and the five dichotomous variables were treated as student-level predictors. Internal medicine clerkship length and average Step 1 score were used to predict school-to-school variation in average internal medicine subject examination scores. Completion of rotations in surgery, pediatrics and family medicine prior to taking the internal medicine examination significantly improved scores, with the largest benefit observed for surgery (coefficient = 1.58 points; p value internal medicine subject examination performance. At the school level, longer internal medicine clerkships were associated with higher scores on the internal medicine
Perera, D P; Andrades, Marie; Wass, Val
The International Membership Examination (MRCGP[INT]) of the Royal College of General Practitioners UK is a unique collaboration between four South Asian countries with diverse cultures, epidemiology, clinical facilities and resources. In this setting good quality assurance is imperative to achieve acceptable standards of inter rater reliability. This study aims to explore the process of peer feedback for examiner quality assurance with regard to factors affecting the implementation and acceptance of the method. A sequential mixed methods approach was used based on focus group discussions with examiners (n = 12) and clinical examination convenors who acted as peer reviewers (n = 4). A questionnaire based on emerging themes and literature review was then completed by 20 examiners at the subsequent OSCE exam. Qualitative data were analysed using an iterative reflexive process. Quantitative data were integrated by interpretive analysis looking for convergence, complementarity or dissonance. The qualitative data helped understand the issues and informed the process of developing the questionnaire. The quantitative data allowed for further refining of issues, wider sampling of examiners and giving voice to different perspectives. Examiners stated specifically that peer feedback gave an opportunity for discussion, standardisation of judgments and improved discriminatory abilities. Interpersonal dynamics, hierarchy and perception of validity of feedback were major factors influencing acceptance of feedback. Examiners desired increased transparency, accountability and the opportunity for equal partnership within the process. The process was stressful for examiners and reviewers; however acceptance increased with increasing exposure to receiving feedback. The process could be refined to improve acceptability through scrupulous attention to training and selection of those giving feedback to improve the perceived validity of feedback and improved reviewer feedback
Full Text Available After more than two decades of deterioration in the Israeli TIMSS results in mathematics, Israel scored number 7 among all countries participating in the world. As the probability of such a sudden, huge improvement seems negligible, this article sheds a new light on the Israel “achievements”. It shows that the students participating were not a sample according to statistical definitions and in additions – two sub-populations with the lowest Israeli achievements did not participate in this international examination.
Full Text Available The Saudi Commission for Health Specialties first implemented the Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE as part of the final year Internal Medicine clerkship exam during the 2007–2008 academic year. This study evaluated Internal Medicine residents׳ overall perceptions of the OSCE as a formative assessment tool. It focused on residents׳ perceptions of the OSCE stations׳ attributes, determined the acceptability of the process, and provided feedback to enhance further development of the assessment tool. The main objective was to assess Internal Medicine resident test-takers׳ perceptions and acceptance of the OSCE, and to identify its strengths and weaknesses through their feedback. Sixty six residents were involved in the studied administered on November 8th 2012 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Overall, resident׳s evaluation of the OSCE was favorable and encouraging. To this end, we recommend that formative assessment opportunities using the OSCE for providing feedback to students should be included in the curriculum, and continuing refinement and localized adaptation of OSCEs in use should be pursued by course directors and assessment personnel.
Toth, Alexander G; Mitchell, Ojmarrh
The purpose of this study is to utilize unique qualitative data to determine the effects of sporadic international drug interdictions on drug trafficking, and to assess whether the responses of drug traffickers align with rational choice theory. Qualitative data obtained from 23 high-level United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) informants, who are embedded in international drug trafficking groups, are examined to identify common responses to drug interdiction operations. The findings indicate that sporadic counter-drug interdictions do not a have permanent deterrent effect on transnational drug smuggling operations. However, these types of law enforcement operations produce temporary alterations in drug trafficking, as traffickers adopted a variety of methods to thwart the efforts of law enforcement-often by relying on information acquired from corrupt local law enforcement. The results also indicate that while interdiction operations displaced trafficking activities (temporally, spatially, and methodological), there is little evidence that drug traffickers responded to such operations by moving into new areas (i.e., malign spatial displacement). Sporadic international drug interdiction programs do little to deter drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) from engaging in their illicit trade. Instead, DTOs adjust in a calculating manner to these operations to ensure that their illegal products reach consumer marketplaces, which is congruent with the rational choice theoretical perspective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wood, Louise; Smith, Michael; Miller, Christopher B; O'Carroll, Ronan E
Vaccinations are important preventative health behaviors. The recently developed Vaccination Attitudes Examination (VAX) Scale aims to measure the reasons behind refusal/hesitancy regarding vaccinations. The aim of this replication study is to conduct an independent test of the newly developed VAX Scale in the UK. We tested (a) internal consistency (Cronbach's α); (b) convergent validity by assessing its relationships with beliefs about medication, medical mistrust, and perceived sensitivity to medicines; and (c) construct validity by testing how well the VAX Scale discriminated between vaccinators and nonvaccinators. A sample of 243 UK adults completed the VAX Scale, the Beliefs About Medicines Questionnaire, the Perceived Sensitivity to Medicines Scale, and the Medical Mistrust Index, in addition to demographics of age, gender, education levels, and social deprivation. Participants were asked (a) whether they received an influenza vaccination in the past year and (b) if they had a young child, whether they had vaccinated the young child against influenza in the past year. The VAX (a) demonstrated high internal consistency (α = .92); (b) was positively correlated with medical mistrust and beliefs about medicines, and less strongly correlated with perceived sensitivity to medicines; and (c) successfully differentiated parental influenza vaccinators from nonvaccinators. The VAX demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity, and construct validity in an independent UK sample. It appears to be a useful measure to help us understand the health beliefs that promote or deter vaccination behavior.
Full Text Available The growing attention placed on experiences can be regarded as a mega-trend, and has given currency to the proposition that experiences are important for consumer’s self-perception and satisfaction with a specific visit. In order to assess this assumption, this study empirically examines the applicability of Pine and Gilmore’s ‘experience economy’ concept and examines the impact of its four dimensions i.e., education, escapism, esthetics, and entertainment on delegates’ satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Based on convenience sampling, 210 questionnaires are distributed to the delegates of 2 international academic conferences out of which 188 were deemed fit for further analysis 89% response rate. The results indicate that Pine and Gilmore’s model can further our understanding of the experience market. However, the findings in contrast with previous studies show that different experiential dimensions influence the delegates’ overall satisfaction in different contexts. For instance, the dimension of education has a relatively higher significant effect on the delegates’ overall satisfaction and behavioural intentions in the context of international academic conferences. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are also discussed.
Mehmet Fatih Yüksel
Full Text Available This research was conducted to examine the simple visual and auditory reaction times of badminton players of the national teams and to examine the possible effects of reaction-time average values of badminton players under the age of 15 who participated in the fifth International Rumi Child Sport Games. In total, 48 players (male = 24; female = 24 from six countries (Turkey, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia, Georgia participated in the study. Stature, bodyweight, BMI, dominant and non-dominant hand visual and auditory reaction time values of the participants were detected. At the end of the study, it was determined that there were statistically significant differences between the countries in terms of male dominant and non-dominant hand visual reaction values, and male dominant hand auditory reaction values. It was also determined that there were statistically significant differences between the countries in terms of female bodyweight, BMI, dominant and non-dominant hand visual reaction values, and female non-dominant hand auditory reaction values. There was statistically significant difference between female and male players with regards to dominant and non-dominant hand visual, and non-dominant hand auditory reaction values. In conclusion, it was determined that the reaction times of the top ranking countries in the fifth International Rumi Child Sport Games under-15 were at a better level, and it can be concluded that this factor played an important role for success alongside with technique and tactic features.
Ryskina, Kira L; Korenstein, Deborah; Weissman, Arlene; Masters, Philip; Alguire, Patrick; Smith, Cynthia D
Although high-value care (HVC) that balances benefits of tests or treatments against potential harms and costs has been a recently emphasized competency for internal medicine (IM) residents, few tools to assess residents' knowledge of HVC are available. To describe the development and initial results of an HVC subscore of the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE). The HVC concepts were introduced to IM-ITE authors during question development. Three physicians independently reviewed each examination question for selection in the HVC subscore according to 6 HVC principles. The final subscore was determined by consensus. Data from the IM-ITE administered in October 2012 were analyzed at the program level. U.S. IM residency programs. 362 U.S. IM residency programs with IM-ITE data for at least 10 residents. Program-level performance on the HVC subscore was compared with performance on the overall IM-ITE, the Dartmouth Atlas hospital care intensity (HCI) index of the program's primary training hospital, and residents' attitudes about HVC assessed with a voluntary survey. The HVC subscore comprised 38 questions, including 21 (55%) on managing conservatively when appropriate and 14 (37%) on identifying low-value care. Of the 362 U.S. IM programs in the sample, 41% were in a different quartile when ranked based on the HVC subscore compared with overall IM-ITE performance. Rankings by HVC subscore and HCI index were modestly inversely associated, with 30% of programs ranked in the same quartile based on both measures. Knowledge of HVC assessed from examination vignettes may not reflect practice of HVC. Although the HVC subscore has face validity and can contribute to evaluation of residents' HVC knowledge, additional tools are needed to accurately measure residents' proficiency in HVC. None.
Variano, Evan; Taylor, Karen
Inquiry can be implemented in various ways, ranging from simple classroom discussions to longterm research projects. In this article, the authors developed a project in which high school students were introduced to the nature and process of scientific discovery through a two-week guided inquiry unit on "limnology"--the study of fresh water, which…
Littleton, Karen, Ed.; Scanlon, Eileen, Ed.; Sharples, Mike, Ed.
There is currently a rapidly growing interest in inquiry learning and an emerging consensus among researchers that, particularly when supported by technology, it can be a significant vehicle for developing higher order thinking skills. Inquiry learning methods also offer learners meaningful and productive approaches to the development of their…
Dash, Nihar Ranjan; Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan; Hussein, Amal
Several medical schools around the world are moving away from isolated, locally developed in-house assessments to the introduction of external examinations into their curriculum. Although the objective varies, it is typically done to evaluate, audit, and compare students' performance to international standards. Similarly, the International Foundations of Medicine-Clinical Sciences Examination (IFOM-CSE) was introduced in the College of Medicine at the University of Sharjah as an external assessment criterion in addition to the existing in-house assessments. The aim of this study was to compare the student performance in this newly introduced IFOM-CSE examination and the existing in-house final examination in the college. The scores of three consecutive final-year undergraduate medical student batches (2013-2015) who took both the IFOM-CSE and the existing in-house final examination were analyzed. Pearson correlation and one-way analysis of variance test were conducted using SPSS 22. The students' scores in the IFOM-CSE and in the final examination prepared locally were highly correlated with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.787 for batch 2013, 0.827 for batch 2014, and 0.830 for batch 2015 (P correlated with their scores in the IFOM-CSE over all the three batches. Thus, introduction of external examination can be an important evaluation tool to a comprehensive internal assessment system providing evidence of external validity.
Hollenbeck, John R; Moon, Henry; Ellis, Aleksander P J; West, Bradley J; Ilgen, Daniel R; Sheppard, Lori; Porter, Christopher O L H; Wagner, John A
This article develops and tests a structurally based, integrated theory of person-team fit. The theory developed is an extension of structural contingency theory and considers issues of external fit simultaneously with its examination of internal fit at the team level. Results from 80 teams working on an interdependent team task indicate that divisional structures demand high levels of cognitive ability on the part of teammembers. However, the advantages of high cognitive ability in divisional structures are neutralized when there is poor external fit between the structure and the environment. Instead, emotional stability becomes a critical factor among teammembers when a divisional structure is out of alignment with its environment. Individual differences seem to play little or no role in functional structures, regardless of the degree of external fit.
Jacob, Melissa; Cox, Steven R
For many transgender individuals, medical intervention is necessary to live as their desired gender. However, little is known about Contextual Factors (i.e., Environmental and Personal) that may act as facilitators and barriers in the health of transgender individuals. Therefore, this paper sought to examine Contextual Factors of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health that may facilitate or negatively impact the physical, psychological, and social functioning of transgender individuals. A literature review was conducted to identify Environmental and Personal Factors that may influence transgender individuals' physical, psychological, and social functioning. Seven electronic databases were searched. In total, 154 records were reviewed, and 41 articles and other records met inclusion criteria. Three general themes emerged for Environmental Factors: family and social networks, education, and health care. Three general themes also emerged for Personal Factors: socioeconomic status, race, and age. Transgender individuals benefit from gender-affirming services, improved family and social support systems, and competent provider care. Educational training programs, including medical curricula or workshops, might provide the greatest benefit in improving transgender health by increasing the knowledge and cultural competency of health professionals working with this population. Given the diversity of gender expression, differences in lived experiences, and potential for enduring persistent "double discrimination" due to the intersectional relationships between socioeconomic status, race, and/or age, health professionals must approach transgender health using a holistic lens such as the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.
Bensaid, B.; Fraysse, S.; Saniere, A.
This article is the 2. part of the presentation of the inquiry about the 2002 economic results of the world para-petroleum industry: 1 - exploration-production: investments, geophysical activity (number of seismic survey teams, geophysical services market), drilling activity, construction of offshore production facilities (platforms construction, production equipments engineering), regional analysis (North America, North Sea, Latin America, Africa, Commonwealth of Independent States, Middle-East, Asia-Pacific). 2 - Refining and petrochemistry: economic context, refining industry expenses, fusions and results of refining companies, world petrochemical expenses, fusion and results of petrochemical companies. (J.S.)
Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to introduce activity systems as a methodological tool in narrative inquiry to gain a holistic understanding of socially shared experiences from an examination of documents. The research question was how can qualitative researchers use activity systems as a tool for engaging in narrative inquiry of socially shared experiences to uncover new meanings by constructing a story? In this article, we share a sample analysis of our experience relying on documents and media as a form of narrative to begin to understand the socially shared human activity associated with net neutrality and its potential impact on U.S. residents. We end this article with reflections of lessons learned from our activity systems guided story construction process.
Shanmugam Victoria K
Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Board of Internal Medicine Certification Examination (ABIM-CE is one of several methods used to assess medical knowledge, an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME core competency for graduating internal medicine residents. With recent changes in graduate medical education program directors and internal medicine residents are seeking evidence to guide decisions regarding residency elective choices. Prior studies have shown that formalized elective curricula improve subspecialty ABIM-CE scores. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the number of subspecialty elective exposures or the specific subspecialties which residents complete electives in impact ABIM-CE scores. Methods ABIM-CE scores, elective exposures and demographic characteristics were collected for MedStar Georgetown University Hospital internal medicine residents who were first-time takers of the ABIM-CE in 2006–2010 (n=152. Elective exposures were defined as a two-week period assigned to the respective subspecialty. ABIM-CE score was analyzed using the difference between the ABIM-CE score and the standardized passing score (delta-SPS. Subspecialty scores were analyzed using percentage of correct responses. Data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00 for Windows. Results Paired elective exposure and ABIM-CE scores were available in 131 residents. There was no linear correlation between ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS and the total number of electives or the number of unique elective exposures. Residents with ≤14 elective exposures had higher ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS than those with ≥15 elective exposures (143.4 compared to 129.7, p=0.051. Repeated electives in individual subspecialties were not associated with significant difference in mean ABIM-CE delta-SPS. Conclusions This study did not demonstrate significant positive associations between individual subspecialty elective exposures and ABIM-CE mean delta
Grossmann, P A; Wolf, S A; Hopkins, J W; Paradise, N F
The ability of physicians to identify a patent processus vaginalis by laparoscopic examination of the internal ring is now well established, but the efficacy on patient outcome is not. The authors reviewed their experience to determine the effect of diagnostic laparoscopy of the internal ring on the management of children with inguinal hernias. The records of 150 children who underwent inguinal surgery were reviewed--75 before (group 1) and 75 after (group 2) pediatric laparoscopy was introduced into the authors' practice. The children in group 1 were selected for unilateral or bilateral surgery based on history, age, sex, side of presentation, and parental preference. For group 2, laparoscopy was an additional option offered to appropriate patients. Laparoscopy was performed in 43 group 2 patients, using an infraumbilical site. The minimum follow-up period was 2 years for group 1 and 1 year for group 2. The mean ages for groups 1 and 2 were 41.2 and 39.7 months, respectively. There were 61 boys and 14 girls in each group. The percentages of right (R), left (L), and bilateral (B) findings, based on clinical observation, were 56.0 (R), 29.3 (L), and 14.7 (B) for group 1, and 58.7 (R), 26.6 (L), and 14.7 (B) for group 2. The incidence of bilateral surgical exploration was similar for the two groups (group 1, 58.6%; group 2, 61.3%). The addition of laparoscopy significantly lowered the incidence of negative explorations (group 1, 16.0%; group 2, 2.6%; P < .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
This paper examines how mathematical understandings might be facilitated through student-centred inquiry. Data is drawn from a research project on student-centred inquiry learning that situated mathematics within authentic problem-solving contexts and involved students in a collaboratively constructed curriculum. A contemporary interpretive frame…
Duvander, Mille Themsen
I blogindlægget gives en lille indblik i hvordan Appreciative Inquiry kan anvendes i undervisningen af pædagogstuderende på en Professionshøjskole i Danmark......I blogindlægget gives en lille indblik i hvordan Appreciative Inquiry kan anvendes i undervisningen af pædagogstuderende på en Professionshøjskole i Danmark...
Lee, Carole K.; Shea, Marilyn
This study examines how pre-service elementary teachers (PSETs) view inquiry-based science learning and teaching, and how the science methods course builds their confidence to teach inquiry science. Most PSETs think that inquiry is asking students questions rather than a formal set of pedagogical tools. In the present study, three groups of PSETs…
Roehrig, Gillian H.; Luft, Julie A.
The call for implementation of inquiry-based teaching in secondary classrooms has taken on a new sense of urgency, hence several instructions models are developed to assists teachers in implementing inquiry in their classrooms. The role of knowledge and beliefs in inquiry teaching are examined.
This study investigated preservice teachers' beliefs toward cultural diversity by employing an inquiry through literature approach. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an inquiry through literature instructional format, such as book clubs, and whole class and individual inquiry, on preservice teachers' beliefs regarding cultural…
International student enrollment in U.S. higher education has increased and diversified over the past decade. The unique needs and challenges international students face in pursuing higher education in the U.S. need a systematic investigation. Previous research literature has identified cultural diversity as one main challenge against…
Cowley, Paul; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis
This study explores the initial higher education experiences of first-year international students in the United Kingdom. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were carried out with 20 new international students undertaking a business degree at a U.K. university. The students described the key motivating factors for studying abroad and the…
... STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions General Information § 1.416 The United States International Preliminary... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States...
Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.
Full Text Available Abstract Background From January to May, 2009, a population of 300,000 in the Vanni, northern Sri Lanka underwent multiple displacements, deaths, injuries, deprivation of water, food, medical care and other basic needs caught between the shelling and bombings of the state forces and the LTTE which forcefully recruited men, women and children to fight on the frontlines and held the rest hostage. This study explores the long term psychosocial and mental health consequences of exposure to massive, existential trauma. Methods This paper is a qualitative inquiry into the psychosocial situation of the Vanni displaced and their ethnography using narratives and observations obtained through participant observation; in depth interviews; key informant, family and extended family interviews; and focus groups using a prescribed, semi structured open ended questionnaire. Results The narratives, drawings, letters and poems as well as data from observations, key informant interviews, extended family and focus group discussions show considerable impact at the family and community. The family and community relationships, networks, processes and structures are destroyed. There develops collective symptoms of despair, passivity, silence, loss of values and ethical mores, amotivation, dependency on external assistance, but also resilience and post-traumatic growth. Conclusions Considering the severity of family and community level adverse effects and implication for resettlement, rehabilitation, and development programmes; interventions for healing of memories, psychosocial regeneration of the family and community structures and processes are essential.
McDonald, Furman S; Duhigg, Lauren M; Arnold, Gerald K; Hafer, Ruth M; Lipner, Rebecca S
Some have questioned whether successful performance in the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program is meaningful. The association of the ABIM Internal Medicine (IM) MOC examination with state medical board disciplinary actions is unknown. To assess risk of disciplinary actions among general internists who did and did not pass the MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification. Historical population cohort study. The population of internists certified in internal medicine, but not a subspecialty, from 1990 through 2003 (n = 47,971). ABIM IM MOC examination. General internal medicine in the USA. The primary outcome measure was time to disciplinary action assessed in association with whether the physician passed the ABIM IM MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification, adjusted for training, certification, demographic, and regulatory variables including state medical board Continuing Medical Education (CME) requirements. The risk for discipline among physicians who did not pass the IM MOC examination within the 10 year requirement window was more than double than that of those who did pass the examination (adjusted HR 2.09; 95% CI, 1.83 to 2.39). Disciplinary actions did not vary by state CME requirements (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.16), but declined with increasing MOC examination scores (Kendall's tau-b coefficient = - 0.98 for trend, p actions were less severe among those passing the IM MOC examination within the 10-year requirement window than among those who did not pass the examination. Passing a periodic assessment of medical knowledge is associated with decreased state medical board disciplinary actions, an important quality outcome of relevance to patients and the profession.
This article investigates the place of trust in learning relations in the classroom, not only between teacher and student, but also between student and student. To do this, it will first examine a pedagogy called community of inquiry, espoused by John Dewey and used in most Philosophy for Children courses in Australia. It will then consider what…
Seeley, Karen M.
This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…
’Don’t block the road of inquiry” was the motto of Peirce and also Dewey situated inquiry in its ideal version in a democratic and cooperative community. Abduction became the key concept for the pragmatic and creative research process where the lonely engineer is substituted with intelligent...... collaborations of the many. Thus, inquiry is from a pragmatic understanding rather a social than a purely cognitive task. The paper will firstly give a sketch of this understanding of inquiry and creativity on the background of the theories of Peirce and Dewey and will draw some parallels to recent...... of Thevenot’s critical pragmatism this understanding might be naïve – not because this is an idealistic rather than a real-life scenario but because the idea of collaborative creativity and self-realization has actually become the driving force in a marked dominated organization of science and production...
Our choice of energy sources has important consequences for the economy and the environment. Nuclear energy is a controversial energy source, subject to much public debate. Most individuals find it difficult to decide between conflicting claims and allegations in a variety of technical subjects. Under these circumstances, knowledge of various relevant inquiries can be helpful. This publication summarizes the composition and major findings of more than thirty nuclear energy inquiries. Most of the these are Canadian, but others are included where they have relevance. The survey shows that, contrary to some claims, virtually every aspect of nuclear energy has been subject to detailed scrutiny. The inquiries' reports include many recommendations on how nuclear energy can be exploited safely, but none rejects it as an acceptable energy source when needed. (Author) 38 refs
Pappas, Marjorie L.
In this article, the author discusses inquiry learning and primary sources. Inquiry learning puts students in the active role of investigators. Questioning, authentic and active learning, and interactivity are a few of the characteristics of inquiry learning that put the teacher and library media specialist in the role of coaches while students…
Weger, Heather D.
The present study reports on the motivations of adult, international learners of English, studying English 20 hours a week in a US-based Intensive English Program (IEP). Though often used as participants in language acquisition studies, there are few studies of these learners' motivational profiles. In the current study, a questionnaire designed…
Educating students to relate harmoniously with people from different backgrounds has become an important agenda for student affairs professional because of the increasingly diverse nature of the American society. The purpose of this study was to assess how American and international college students develop mature interpersonal relationship…
Asal, Victor; Kratoville, Jayson
Simulations are being used more and more in political science generally and in international relations specifically. While there is a growing body of literature describing different simulations and a small amount of literature that empirically tests the impact of simulations, scholars have written very little linking the pedagogic theory behind…
David, Michael C; Eley, Diann S; Schafer, Jennifer; Davies, Leo
The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of cumulative grade point average (GPA) for performance in the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM) Clinical Science Examination (CSE). A secondary aim was to develop a strategy for identifying students at risk of performing poorly in the IFOM CSE as determined by the National Board of Medical Examiners' International Standard of Competence. Final year medical students from an Australian university medical school took the IFOM CSE as a formative assessment. Measures included overall IFOM CSE score as the dependent variable, cumulative GPA as the predictor, and the factors age, gender, year of enrollment, international or domestic status of student, and language spoken at home as covariates. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure predictor and covariate effects. Optimal thresholds of risk assessment were based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Cumulative GPA (nonstandardized regression coefficient [B]: 81.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.13 to 95.53) and international status (B: -37.40; 95% CI: -57.85 to -16.96) from 427 students were found to be statistically associated with increased IFOM CSE performance. Cumulative GPAs of 5.30 (area under ROC [AROC]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.82) and 4.90 (AROC: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.78) were identified as being thresholds of significant risk for domestic and international students, respectively. Using cumulative GPA as a predictor of IFOM CSE performance and accommodating for differences in international status, it is possible to identify students who are at risk of failing to satisfy the National Board of Medical Examiners' International Standard of Competence.
Using cloud-computing applications to support collaborative scientific inquiry: Examining pre-service teachers’ perceived barriers towards integration / Utilisation d'applications infonuagiques pour appuyer la recherche scientifique collaborative
Joel Donna; Brant G Miller
Technology plays a crucial role in facilitating collaboration within the scientific community. Cloud-computing applications can be used to model such collaboration and support inquiry within the secondary science classroom. Little is known about pre-service teachers’ beliefs related to the envisioned use of this technology in their teaching. These beliefs may influence future integration. This study finds several first-order barriers, such as perceptions that these tools would take too much t...
... including fuel tanks, and may require the vessel to be drydocked or taken out of service to assess the extent of the damage, and to effect permanent repairs. The OCMI may also decrease the drydock examination...
Dongwook Cho; Taryn Price
A primary objective of United States’ higher education institutions is the production of well-balanced citizens. Aside from awarded degrees, other primary offerings include leisure opportunities, from campus recreation programs. Campus recreation through intramural sport programs offers students an opportunity to participate in sport and physical fitness activities on campus with and against other collegiate students. Recognizing the continuous increase in collegiate enrollment of internation...
İPCİ, Duygu; KARABULUT, Halit
In this study the combined dynamic and thermodynamic analysis of a two-stroke internal combustion engine was carried out. The variation of the heat, given to the working fluid during the heating process of the thermodynamic cycle, was modeled with the Gaussian function. The dynamic model of the piston driving mechanism was established by means of nine equations, five of them are motion equations and four of them are kinematic relations. Equations are solved by using a numerical method based o...
Aidan G.C. Wright
Full Text Available Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101 of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders. Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days we found support for a two-factor Internalizing-Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Impulsivity structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic.
Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination given in July to intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training examination scores, a predictor of performance?
Full Text Available Introduction: There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM administers the in-training examination (ITE. In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE, an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-ACE to interns at the start of residency may provide an earlier opportunity to assess the new EM residents’ knowledge base. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the NBME EM-ACE, given early in residency, with the EM ITE. Secondary objectives included determination of the correlation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE Step 1 or 2 scores with early intern EM-ACE and ITE scores and the effect, if any, of clinical EM experience on examination correlation. Methods: This was a multi-institutional, observational study. Entering EM interns at six residencies took the EM-ACE in July 2013 and the ABEM ITE in February 2014. We collected scores for the EMACE and ITE, age, gender, weeks of clinical EM experience in residency prior to the ITE, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Pearson’s correlation and linear regression were performed. Results: Sixty-two interns took the EM-ACE and the ITE. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the ITE and the EM-ACE was 0.62. R-squared was 0.5 (adjusted 0.4. The coefficient of determination was 0.41 (95% CI [0.3-0.8]. For every increase of one in the scaled EM-ACE score, we observed a 0.4% increase in the EM in-training score. In a linear regression model using all available variables (EM-ACE, gender, age, clinical exposure to EM, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores, only the EM-ACE score was significantly associated with the ITE (p<0.05. We observed significant colinearity
For several years now, the debate on the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been dominated by individuals and countries that violate rules of good behaviour - as sellers or acquirers of clandestine nuclear technology. As a result, the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) has been declared to be 'inadequate' by some, 'full of loopholes' by others. Two basic approaches have been put forward to tighten up the NPT; both seek to ensure that the nuclear non-proliferation regime maintains its authority and credibility in the face of these very real challenges. One calls for non-nuclear weapon States to accept a partial denial of technology through a reinterpretation of the NPT's provisions governing the rights of access to nuclear technologies. The unwillingness of most non-nuclear-weapon States to accept additional restrictions under the NPT makes this approach difficult. The other approach would apply multinational alternatives to the national operation of uranium-enrichment and plutonium-separation technologies, and to the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this perspective, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei proposed in 2003 to revisit the concept of multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA) that was intensively discussed several decades ago. Several such approaches were adopted at that time in Europe, which became the true homeland of MNAs. Nonetheless, MNAs have failed so far to materialise outside Europe due to different political and economic perceptions. In June 2004, the Director General appointed an international group of experts to consider possible multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. The overall purpose was to assess MNAs in the framework of a double objective: strengthening the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and making the peaceful uses of nuclear energy more economical and attractive. In the report submitted to the Director General in February 2005, the Group identified a number of options - options
Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
The resource-based view of the firm suggests that intangible assets have a positive impact on firm performance. This study examined the relation between intangible assets and technical efficiency of textile and clothing firms. A double bootstrap data envelopment analysis approach was used to measure
This chapter examines the underlying motivations behind why institutions and organizations decide to apply particular policies and practices. By applying a lens of five diffusion models--learning, imitation, competition, normative, and coercion--to understand these motivations, decision makers and implementers will make better choices for…
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Beltz, Adriene M.; Gates, Kathleen M.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Simms, Leonard J.
Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days) of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101) of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders (PDs). Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days) we found support for a two-factor Internalizing–Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals) we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Disinhibition structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic. PMID:26732546
He, Amy S; Phillips, Jon D; Lizano, Erica L; Rienks, Shauna; Leake, Robin
Given intense job demands, it is not surprising that job burnout is a consistent threat to the well-being and retention of the child welfare workforce. Guided by central postulates of the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model which suggests that job burnout develops because of experiences of high work demands coupled with low resources in the workplace, we applied a conceptual model of job burnout (client and work related) that accounts for both internal and external resources available to child welfare workers. Findings among child welfare caseworkers from three states (N = 1917) indicate that job demands (stress and time pressure) were positively related to client- and work-related burnout. Additionally, both internal and external resources moderated the relationships between job demands and client- and work-related burnout. Study findings have workforce management implications in the child welfare sector, including the role resources might play in mitigating the negative impact of job demands on burnout in the child welfare workforce. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination Given in July to Intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training Examination Scores: A Predictor of Performance?
Hiller, Katherine; Franzen, Doug; Heitz, Corey; Emery, Matthew; Poznanski, Stacy
There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM) interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM) administers the in-training examination (ITE). In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE), an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-ACE to interns at the start of residency may provide an earlier opportunity to assess the new EM residents' knowledge base. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the NBME EM-ACE, given early in residency, with the EM ITE. Secondary objectives included determination of the correlation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 or 2 scores with early intern EM-ACE and ITE scores and the effect, if any, of clinical EM experience on examination correlation. This was a multi-institutional, observational study. Entering EM interns at six residencies took the EM-ACE in July 2013 and the ABEM ITE in February 2014. We collected scores for the EM-ACE and ITE, age, gender, weeks of clinical EM experience in residency prior to the ITE, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Pearson's correlation and linear regression were performed. Sixty-two interns took the EM-ACE and the ITE. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between the ITE and the EM-ACE was 0.62. R-squared was 0.5 (adjusted 0.4). The coefficient of determination was 0.41 (95% CI [0.3-0.8]). For every increase of one in the scaled EM-ACE score, we observed a 0.4% increase in the EM in-training score. In a linear regression model using all available variables (EM-ACE, gender, age, clinical exposure to EM, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores), only the EM-ACE score was significantly associated with the ITE (pcorrelation with ITE. Clinical EM experience prior to the in-training exam did not affect the
Hornskov, Søren; Bjerg, Helle; Kelley, Carolyn
nations (Lingard et al., 2016). The similarities in policy content include an increased focus on accountability for school teachers and leaders, augmented testing programs for students, and changes to the working or professional culture for teachers, leaders and other professions often achieved through...... are having on their respective contexts. In Denmark, the Ministry of Education introduced a major school reform in Fall 2014. The reform was the latest initiative in more than a decade of national educational policy marked by the increased focus on accountability, international ranking systems...... the policies that the Ministry of Education has recently issued, and promoting the necessary changes in their school. This policy-driven focus on school leadership aims to realize a scenario in which school principals are expected not only to work closely within the team of formally designated leaders...
G Emmanuel Guindon
Full Text Available Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC addresses a wide range of issues including protection from exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The FCTC represents a minimum set of tobacco control policies, although the treaty explicitly encourages countries to go above and beyond these measures. Despite its lack of mandatory provisions. FCTC ratification and its timing may be good proxy for a country's commitment to tobacco control. Our first objective is to assess the impact of the FCTC on global youth tobacco use. Our second objective is to explore two areas that are amenable to policy change: secondhand smoke and advertising. Methods We used pooled repeated-cross-sectional data from youth surveys conducted between 1999 and 2015 in more than 150 low- and middle-income countries and multilevel analyses to account for the nesting of students in schools and schools in countries. First, we examined the association between three outcome variables (smoking susceptibility, defined as the absence of a firm decision not to smoke, current smoking defined as 30-day smoking prevalence and a five-point scale of smoking uptake and various indicators of the FCTC implementation. Second, we examined the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising and indicators of the FCTC implementation. Results We found considerable heterogeneity in the association between different measures of youth smoking and indicators of the FCTC implementation. On the whole, we found clearer associations between exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising and indicators of the FCTC implementation. Conclusions A number of studies have examined changes in the implementation of tobacco control measures since the ratification of the FCTC but few studies have examined the effect of the FCTC on tobacco use; fewer still have used pre- and post-FCTC data. More research that use such data is needed.
Spielmans, Glen I
Media reports have discussed how olanzapine was marketed off-label for dementia and subsyndromal bipolar disorder. Much of this marketing occurred in primary care settings. However, these reports have provided few details. In legal proceedings, Lilly disclosed internal documents that detail the strategies utilized to market olanzapine. The current paper addresses the marketing of olanzapine in detail based upon a review of these documents. All 358 documents released by Lilly are publicly available online. Documents were utilized for this review if they were relevant to the marketing of olanzapine in primary care settings in the United States. It was found that olanzapine was marketed off-label in primary care settings for relatively mild symptoms that were framed as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. A key strategy in this campaign was the use of hypothetical patient profiles in detailing visits, most of which clearly failed to meet diagnostic criteria for any recognized mental disorder. Evidence emerged that olanzapine was also marketed off-label as a treatment for dementia.
Lazonder, Adrianus W.; Kamp, Ellen
This study examined whether and why assigning children to a segmented inquiry task makes their investigations more productive. Sixty-one upper elementary-school pupils engaged in a simulation-based inquiry assignment either received a multivariable inquiry task (n = 21), a segmented version of this
Herodotou, Christothea; Sharples, Mike; Scanlon, Eileen
The term ‘citizen inquiry’ was coined to describe ways that members of the public can learn by initiating or joining shared inquiry-led scientific investigations (Sharples et al., 2013). It merges learning through scientific investigation with mass collaborative participation exemplified in citizen science activities, altering the relationship most people have with research from being passive recipients to becoming actively engaged, and the relationship between scholarship and public understa...
Tasker, Tammy Q.; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert
This article examines a 7th grade teacher's pedagogical practices to support her students to provide peer feedback to one another using technology during scientific inquiry. This research is part of a larger study in which teachers in California and Washington and their classes engaged in inquiry projects using a Web-based system called Web of Inquiry. Videotapes of classroom lessons and artifacts such as student work were collected as part of the corpus of data. In the case examined, Ms. E supports her students to collectively define "meaningful feedback," thereby improving the quality of feedback that was provided in the future. This is especially timely, given the attention in Next Generation Science Standards to cross-cutting concepts and practices that require students discuss and debate ideas with each other in order to improve their understanding and their written inquiry reports (NGSS, 2013).
Von Moltke, K
Policy decisions on the development and installation of nuclear facilities often strain both the time and human resources of a country, some countries having taken steps to involve the national government in specific siting decisions and shifting the constitutional balance in response to popular dissent. Challenges to nuclear facilities could be met by limiting the scope of intervenors and the use of judicial review. The 100-day Windscale Inquiry in the United Kingdom represents the most costly review any country has had of a specific nuclear policy and has international implications. A chronology of the inquiry illustrates how the debate evolved into a vote on whether nuclear energy should be developed at all and effectively cut off other avenues of recourse. The traditional procedures for planning are shown to be inadequate for setting nuclear energy policy without the intervention of Parliament. 18 references.
Moran, Jennifer; Colbert, Colleen Y; Song, Juhee; Hull, Joshua; Rajan, Sabitha; Varghees, Sunita; Arroliga, Alejandro C; Reddy, Santosh P
In recent years, there has been increased interest in stemming the tide of hospital readmissions in an attempt to improve quality of care. This study presents the Phase I results of a resident-led quality improvement initiative to determine the percentage of and risk factors for same-cause readmissions (SCRs; defined as hospital readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge for treatment of the same condition) to the internal medicine service of a multispecialty teaching hospital in central Texas. Results indicate that patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma or anemia may be at increased risk for SCRs. Those patients who are insured by Medicaid and those who require assistance from social services also demonstrated an increased risk for SCRs. This study appears to be the first resident-led initiative in the field to examine 30-day SCRs to an internal medicine service for demographic and clinical risk factors.
The Industry Commission has carried out Australia's largest inquiry into charities. It was, from the point of view of charities, an unsatisfactory operation, all the more so since it was not clear why the task had been given to the commission. This article examines the commission's work in three ways: the overall relationship between government and charities; the commission's proposed major reforms; and the minor reforms.
Huhn, D; Resch, F; Duelli, R; Möltner, A; Huber, J; Karimian Jazi, K; Amr, A; Eckart, W; Herzog, W; Nikendei, C
Medical students with a migration background face several specific problems during their studies. International surveys show first indications that this group of students performs worse in written, oral or practical exams. However, so far, nothing is known about the performance of international students in written pre-clinical tests as well as in pre-clinical State Examinations for German-speaking countries. A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the exam performances of medical students in the pre-clinical part of their studies was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Heidelberg in for the year 2012. Performance in written tests of the final exams in the second (N=276), third (N=292) and fourth semester (N=285) were compared between German students, students from EU countries and students from non-EU countries. Same comparison was drawn for the performance in the oral exam of the First State Examination in the period from 2009 - 2012 (N=1137). German students performed significantly better than students with a non-EU migration background both in all written exams and in the oral State Examination (all pstudents with an EU migration background was significantly better than that of students with a non-EU background in the written exam at the end of the third and fourth semester (pstudents completed the oral exam of the First State Examination significantly earlier than students with a non-EU migration background (students with a country of origin outside of the European Union has to be seen as a high-risk group among students with a migration background. For this group, there is an urgent need for early support to prepare for written and oral examinations.
Huhn, D.; Resch, F.; Duelli, R.; Möltner, A.; Huber, J.; Karimian Jazi, K.; Amr, A.; Eckart, W.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.
Introduction: Medical students with a migration background face several specific problems during their studies. International surveys show first indications that this group of students performs worse in written, oral or practical exams. However, so far, nothing is known about the performance of international students in written pre-clinical tests as well as in pre-clinical State Examinations for German-speaking countries. Method: A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the exam performances of medical students in the pre-clinical part of their studies was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Heidelberg in for the year 2012. Performance in written tests of the final exams in the second (N=276), third (N=292) and fourth semester (N=285) were compared between German students, students from EU countries and students from non-EU countries. Same comparison was drawn for the performance in the oral exam of the First State Examination in the period from 2009 - 2012 (N=1137). Results: German students performed significantly better than students with a non-EU migration background both in all written exams and in the oral State Examination (all pstudents with an EU migration background was significantly better than that of students with a non-EU background in the written exam at the end of the third and fourth semester (pstudents completed the oral exam of the First State Examination significantly earlier than students with a non-EU migration background (students with a country of origin outside of the European Union has to be seen as a high-risk group among students with a migration background. For this group, there is an urgent need for early support to prepare for written and oral examinations. PMID:25228931
Predictive value of grade point average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores on Medical Council of Canada qualifying examination part I (MCCQE-1) scores.
Roy, Banibrata; Ripstein, Ira; Perry, Kyle; Cohen, Barry
To determine whether the pre-medical Grade Point Average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), Internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores are correlated with and predict the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQE-1) scores. Data from 392 admitted students in the graduating classes of 2010-2013 at University of Manitoba (UofM), College of Medicine was considered. Pearson's correlation to assess the strength of the relationship, multiple linear regression to estimate MCCQE-1 score and stepwise linear regression to investigate the amount of variance were employed. Complete data from 367 (94%) students were studied. The MCCQE-1 had a moderate-to-large positive correlation with NBME scores and Block scores but a low correlation with GPA and MCAT scores. The multiple linear regression model gives a good estimate of the MCCQE-1 (R2 =0.604). Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that 59.2% of the variation in the MCCQE-1 was accounted for by the NBME, but only 1.9% by the Block exams, and negligible variation came from the GPA and the MCAT. Amongst all the examinations used at UofM, the NBME is most closely correlated with MCCQE-1.
Full Text Available Michael C David,1 Diann S Eley,2 Jennifer Schafer,2 Leo Davies,3 1School of Public Health, 2School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, 3Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of cumulative grade point average (GPA for performance in the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM Clinical Science Examination (CSE. A secondary aim was to develop a strategy for identifying students at risk of performing poorly in the IFOM CSE as determined by the National Board of Medical Examiners’ International Standard of Competence. Methods: Final year medical students from an Australian university medical school took the IFOM CSE as a formative assessment. Measures included overall IFOM CSE score as the dependent variable, cumulative GPA as the predictor, and the factors age, gender, year of enrollment, international or domestic status of student, and language spoken at home as covariates. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure predictor and covariate effects. Optimal thresholds of risk assessment were based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results: Cumulative GPA (nonstandardized regression coefficient [B]: 81.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.13 to 95.53 and international status (B: –37.40; 95% CI: –57.85 to –16.96 from 427 students were found to be statistically associated with increased IFOM CSE performance. Cumulative GPAs of 5.30 (area under ROC [AROC]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.82 and 4.90 (AROC: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.78 were identified as being thresholds of significant risk for domestic and international students, respectively. Conclusion: Using cumulative GPA as a predictor of IFOM CSE performance and accommodating for differences in international status, it is possible to identify students who are at risk of failing to satisfy the National Board of Medical Examiners’ International
Inquiry-based pedagogies have a strong presence in proof-based undergraduate mathematics courses, but can be difficult to implement in courses that are large, procedural, or highly computational. An introductory course in statistics would thus seem an unlikely candidate for an inquiry-based approach, as these courses typically steer well clear of…
Pappas, Marjorie L.
"Inquiry is an investigative process that engages students in answering questions, solving real world problems, confronting issues, or exploring personal interests" (Pappas and Tepe 2002, 27). Students who engage in inquiry learning need tools and resources that enable them to independently gather and use information. Scaffolding is important for…
Wang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Jen-De; Wang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Jong-Yi; Tai, Chih-Jaan; Hsieh, Tsu-Yi; Chen, Der-Yuan
Medical education faces challenges concerning job burnout and emotional labor among junior physicians, which poses a potential threat to the quality of medical care. Although studies have investigated job burnout and emotional labor among physicians, empirical research on the association between job burnout, emotional labor, and clinical performance is lacking. This study investigated the effects of job burnout and emotional labor on clinical performance by using the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) scores of interns and residents. Specifically, this cross-sectional study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Emotional Labor Questionnaire as measurement instruments. A total of 225 interns and residents in central Taiwan answered structured questionnaires before beginning their OSCE. The major statistical analysis method employed was logistic regression. After adjustment for covariates, first-year residents were less likely than other residents to obtain high OSCE scores. The odds of high OSCE performance among interns and residents with high interaction component scores in emotional labor were significantly higher than those with low interaction scores. A high score in the interaction dimension of emotional labor was associated with strong clinical performance. The findings suggest that interventions which motivate positive attitudes and increase interpersonal interaction skills among physicians should receive higher priority.
Young, S; Erdem, S A
It has been stated that one of the major challenges for the international marketer is the design of an efficient strategy for marketing services to international markets. This paper reviews some of the issues associated with services marketing in global markets along with the basic variables of service industries. An exploratory assessment of the health care services industry results in a list composed of several inquiry areas which should be examined by multinational companies. It is hoped that the review of the issues raised in this paper provides a basis for decision making and further research.
Luedtke, K; Boissonnault, W; Caspersen, N; Castien, R; Chaibi, A; Falla, D; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C; Hall, T; Hirsvang, J R; Horre, T; Hurley, D; Jull, G; Krøll, L S; Madsen, B K; Mallwitz, J; Miller, C; Schäfer, B; Schöttker-Königer, T; Starke, W; von Piekartz, H; Watson, D; Westerhuis, P; May, A
A wide range of physical tests have been published for use in the assessment of musculoskeletal dysfunction in patients with headache. Which tests are used depends on a physiotherapist's clinical and scientific background as there is little guidance on the most clinically useful tests. To identify which physical examination tests international experts in physiotherapy consider the most clinically useful for the assessment of patients with headache. Delphi survey with pre-specified procedures based on a systematic search of the literature for physical examination tests proposed for the assessment of musculoskeletal dysfunction in patients with headache. Seventeen experts completed all three rounds of the survey. Fifteen tests were included in round one with eleven additional tests suggested by the experts. Finally eleven physical examination tests were considered clinically useful: manual joint palpation, the cranio-cervical flexion test, the cervical flexion-rotation test, active range of cervical movement, head forward position, trigger point palpation, muscle tests of the shoulder girdle, passive physiological intervertebral movements, reproduction and resolution of headache symptoms, screening of the thoracic spine, and combined movement tests. Eleven tests are suggested as a minimum standard for the physical examination of musculoskeletal dysfunctions in patients with headache. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The public inquiry into the Central Electricity Generating Board's application to build the first PWR reactor in the United Kingdom (at Sizewell) ranged beyond that particular issue to a more general investigation of the desirability of promoting nuclear power generally. The CEGB's case is presented briefly. The four main arguments are security of electricity supply, diversity of supply, the benefits of PWRs as opposed to AGRs and cost savings. This latter was important to justify not only the need case, but the economic case for Sizewell-B. The economic case included five computed scenarios over a range of the proposed station's capital, fuel and related operating costs, set against three 'no-nuclear', 'medium nuclear' or 'high nuclear' backgrounds. The CEGB figures are compared with those from objectors. The main arguments are outlined. Other political and technical arguments were not examined in depth by the Inquiry. (UK)
Pastoushin, V.V.; Novikov, A.Yu.; Bibilashvili, Yu.K.
The developed thermophysical method and technical instruments for non-destructive leak-tightness and gas pressure inspection inside irradiated power reactor fuel rods and FAs under poolside and hot cell conditions are described. The method of gas pressure measuring based on the examination of parameters of thermal convection that aroused in gas volume of rod plenum by special technical instruments. The developed method and technique allows accurate value determination of not only one of the main critical rod parameters, namely total internal gas pressure, that forms rod mean life in the reactor core, but also the partial pressure of every main constituent of gaseous mixture inside irradiated fuel rod, that provides the feasibility of authentic and reliable leak-tightness detection. The described techniques were experimentally checked during the examination of all types power reactor fuel rods existing in Russia (WWER, BN, RBMK) and could form the basis for new technique development for non-destructive examination of PWR (and other) type rods and FAs having gas plenum filled with spring or another elements of design. (author)
Dixon, Kathleen A
The aim of this study was to uncover and critically examine hidden assumptions that underpin the findings of nurses' unethical conduct arising from inquiries conducted by the Nurses Tribunal in New South Wales. This was a qualitative study located within a post-structural theoretical framework. Transcripts of five inquiries conducted between 1998 and 2003 were analysed using critical discourse analysis. The findings revealed two dominant discourses that were drawn upon in the inquiries to construct nurses' conduct as unethical. These were discourses of trust and accountability. The way the nurses were spoken about during the inquiries was shaped by normalising judgements that were used to discursively position the nurse through narrative.
A sample of 15-year-olds in India took part in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2010. The PISA reading, mathematics, and science literacy scores of Indian adolescents were considerably lower than their counterparts in most PISA participating countries. In order to explore potential reasons for this, the present study, therefore, drawing on data from the fourth cycle of PISA and employing multilevel modeling, examined the relations of student- and school-level factors to reading, mathematics, and science literacy among 4826 15-year-old students from 213 schools in India. Gender, metacognitive learning strategies, students' positive attitudes toward school, and students' positive perceptions of classroom climate were found to be significantly associated with Indian adolescents' performance on the PISA assessment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sara Ashencaen Crabtree
Full Text Available This paper discusses research findings into a study of UK student learning on international social work placements in Malaysia in collaboration with two Malaysian universities: Universiti Sains Malaysia and Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. The discussion focuses on those placements taking place in children’s services: residential care and community-based support programmes. The aim of the study was to explore how social work students adapt to unfamiliar learning situations in new cultural contexts with the goal of increasing cultural competence. Data were drawn from formal but anonymised student learning exercises as a non-assessed requirement of this particular placement. Findings indicated a wide range of responses towards social work practice with vulnerable children in the Malaysian context in terms of student constructions of care and abuse. Subject to an analytical schema, the collision or adaptation of otherwise normative professional and personal values are examined in detail.
Beyer, Angelika; Dreier, Adina; Kirschner, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Wolfgang
Background: In response to demographic trends in Germany nursing competencies are currently reevaluated. Since these have to be taught and trained in nursing education programs, efficient verification of the success is necessary. OSCEs are internationally well-recognized as a comprehensive tool for that. Aim: In this analysis we identified competencies worldwide, which are tested by OSCEs in undergraduate nursing education programs. Method: An international literature research was conducted. The selection criterion for an article was the specification of at least one verifiable competency. Afterwards the competencies were categorized into knowledge, skills and attitudes according to the German “Fachqualifikationsrahmen Pflege für die hochschulische Bildung”. Results: A total of 36 publications fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Relevant studies were predominantly initiated in the UK, Canada and Australia. Within all categories a total of n = 166 different competencies are mentioned. OSCEs are developed and performed in a broad range of methods. Most frequently skills were verified. The most common topic was sure handling of medication. Other important themes were communicative competencies in relation to patients and the ability of self-evaluation. Discussion/Conclusions: A variation in examination methods is appropriate as different competencies are acquired in preparation of the test. Evaluation took place on an individual or institutional level. Further research is needed.
Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Christina Hee; Novak, Martin
involved in collaborative knowledge production across difference (including age, professional position, life situation, nation). We tell about our experiences with how collaboration can lead toward re-invention of our research practices and methods, as well as our own subjectivities, through involvement......In our presentation we strive to disturb and unravel the romantic discourses of collaboration, dialogue and empowerment in relation to qualitative inquiry. For more than two years we (five Danish and Czech researchers) have been exploring the complex obstructions, difficulties and potentials...... in the not-yet-known. Over the years, we have shared and analyzed personal stories about our collaborative experiences in an on-going reflective learning process. We draw on writing methodologies, including memory-work (Haug, Davies) and collaborative writing such as by Wyatt, Gale, Gannon & Davies. Our...
In this inquiry-based activity, students catalog external and internal characteristics of four different classes of animals during dissection exercises. On the basis of their accumulated data, students compare and contrast the animals, devise a phylogenetic tree, and provide reasonable characteristics for extinct transitional organisms. (Contains…
Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike
As with other online communities, it is important to design elements of citizen inquiry projects that will attract and engage members. This chapter describes the process of designing an online community for citizen inquiry. It builds on design principles of inquiry learning, citizen inquiry and other online communities. The ‘Weather-it’ citizen inquiry community is intended to engage and support people in initiating and joining sustainable citizen-led investigations. The findings indicate som...
Manatrakul, N.; Bunsoong, T.; Krisanachinda, A.; Suwanpradit, P.; Rungruengthanakit, P.; Kanchart, S.; Chaiwong, Rajikorn; Tsapakig, V.A.
Purpose: To investigate image quality and patient dose for commonly radiographic examinations in Thailand, to establish national reference or guidance levels (GL) and compare with international standards, as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project on Radiation Protection of Patients and Medical Exposure Control (RAS/9/034 and RAS/9/047). Materials and Methods: Film reject rate analysis, image quality and patient dose assessment before and after Quality Control (QC) implementation were investigated in 8 X-ray machines in 4 hospitals. Air kerma (in mGy) at 1 meter focus-detector-distance for different kVp settings for each X-ray machines were measured using an ionization chamber under standardized condition. The entrance skin air kerma (ESAK) for Chest PA, Lumbar spine AP, Lumbar spine LAT, Pelvis AP, Abdomen AP, Skull AP and Skull LAT were calculated for at least 10 adult patients of average body mass (60 to 80 kg) for each projection. The obtained values were compared with international standards. Results: The highest film rejection rate reduction recorded after corrective actions from 9.15% to 6.8%. Mean ESAK values were less than international standards both before and after QC implementation in all projections but Chest PA projection. Maximum ESAK in Chest PA projection before corrective action was 0.55 mGy which was higher than the IAEA GL of 0.2 mGy. However, it was reduced to 0.25 mGy after QC tests on X- ray machine and using high kilovoltage (kV) technique. Conclusion: Proposed national GL of Thailand were obtained by estimating the 3rd quartile of the whole sample: Chest PA: 0.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine AP: 2.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine LAT: 6.3 mGy, Pelvis AP: 1.8 mGy, Abdomen: 1.5 mGy, Skull PA: 1.3 mGy and Skull LAT: 0.9 mGy. (author)
Broom, Frances A.
This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.
Enugu, Ramya; Hokayem, Hayat
This study examined the challenges that pre-service teachers faced when implementing inquiry and their perspective on how to overcome them. The data sample was 55 pre-service teachers (PSTs) enrolled into two sections of a science methods course in a private university in North Texas. The data sources consisted of inquiry-based lesson plans, PST…
Ryker, Katherine; McConnell, David
This study examines the implementation of teaching strategies by graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in inquiry-based introductory geology labs at a large research university. We assess the degree of inquiry present in each Physical Geology lab and compare and contrast the instructional practices of new and experienced GTAs teaching these labs. We…
Wu, Hui-Ling; Weng, Hsiao-Lan; She, Hsiao-Ching
This study examined how background knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, and various scaffolding forms influenced students' science knowledge and scientific inquiry achievements. The students participated in an online scientific inquiry program involving such activities as generating scientific questions and drawing evidence-based conclusions,…
Chen, Chun-Ting; She, Hsiao-Ching
This study examines the difference in effectiveness between two scientific inquiry programs-one with an emphasis on scientific reasoning and one without a scientific reasoning component-on students' scientific concepts, scientific concept-dependent reasoning, and scientific inquiry. A mixed-method approach was used in which 115 grade 5…
Tang, Xiaowei; Coffey, Janet E.; Elby, Andy; Levin, Daniel M.
Typically, the scientific method in science classrooms takes the form of discrete, ordered steps meant to guide students' inquiry. In this paper, we examine how focusing on the scientific method as discrete steps affects students' inquiry and teachers' perceptions thereof. To do so, we study a ninth-grade environmental science class in which…
Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark
This paper reviews university-level efforts to improve understanding of anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC) through curricula that enable student scientific inquiry. We examined 152 refereed publications and proceedings from academic conferences and selected 26 cases of inquiry learning that overcome specific challenges to AGCC teaching.…
Aydeniz, Mehmet; Cihak, David F.; Graham, Shannon C.; Retinger, Larryn
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of inquiry-based science instruction for five elementary students with learning disabilities (LD). Students participated in a series of inquiry-based activities targeting conceptual and application-based understanding of simple electric circuits, conductors and insulators, parallel circuits, and…
Camenga, Kristin A.
Inquiry is promoted as a way to engage students so that they learn more deeply; inquiry is also an end in itself, introducing students to the research process and the behaviors of a mathematician. This article reflects on an individual exploratory project used in a sophomore-level number theory course, examining how it supported student inquiry…
So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheng, Nga-Yee Irene; Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Zhan, Ying
This study aims to examine the impacts of the inquiry learning strategies employed in a "Plastic Education Project" on primary students' knowledge, beliefs and intended behaviour in Hong Kong. Student questionnaires and a test on plastic types were adopted for data collection. Results reveal that the inquiry learning strategies…
Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Uyanik, Gülden Kaya
The aim of this study is to examine validity and reliability of Community of Inquiry Scale commonly used in online learning by the means of Item Response Theory. For this purpose, Community of Inquiry Scale version 14 is applied on 1,499 students of a distance education center's online learning programs at a Turkish state university via internet.…
Magee, Paula A.; Flessner, Ryan
This study examines the effect of promoting inquiry-based teaching (IBT) through collaboration between a science methods course and mathematics methods course in an elementary teacher education program. During the collaboration, preservice elementary teacher (PST) candidates experienced 3 different types of inquiry as a way to foster increased…
Ferrés Gurt, Concepció; Marbà Tallada, Anna
This case study describes a classroom-based questionnaire that was carried out with a group of 36 high school students (17-18 years old) in Catalonia. The aim was to examine the usefulness of questionnaires focused on scientific inquiry, both to evaluate students' inquiry abilities and for their potential as tools to improve the understanding of…
Appreciative inquiry is a strategy which takes a positive approach to organizational development. It aims to identify good practice, design effective development plans, and ensure implementation. This article examines the potentials and limitations of using the appreciative inquiry in a mixed methods research design for developing school…
Heins, Paul J.; Mackenzie, Richard S.
An adaptation of the inquiry method of teaching, which develops skills of information retrieval and reasoning through systematic questioning by the teacher, is proposed for instruction in clinical periodontics. (MSE)
Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber
Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced
There has been growing interest in the business of international education. It is often assumed that universities seek international students as a means of generating revenue. The broad purpose of this study was to understand the effects of increased international student enrollment on net tuition revenue. Informed by resource dependency and…
Quinn, Diane M.; Williams, Michelle K.; Quintana, Francisco; Gaskins, Jennifer L.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Pishori, Alefiyah; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Perez, Giselle; Chaudoir, Stephenie R.
Understanding how stigmatized identities contribute to increased rates of depression and anxiety is critical to stigma reduction and mental health treatment. There has been little research testing multiple aspects of stigmatized identities simultaneously. In the current study, we collected data from a diverse, urban, adult community sample of people with a concealed stigmatized identity (CSI). We targeted 5 specific CSIs – mental illness, substance abuse, experience of domestic violence, experience of sexual assault, and experience of childhood abuse – that have been shown to put people at risk for increased psychological distress. We collected measures of the anticipation of being devalued by others if the identity became known (anticipated stigma), the level of defining oneself by the stigmatized identity (centrality), the frequency of thinking about the identity (salience), the extent of agreement with negative stereotypes about the identity (internalized stigma), and extent to which other people currently know about the identity (outness). Results showed that greater anticipated stigma, greater identity salience, and lower levels of outness each uniquely and significantly predicted variance in increased psychological distress (a composite of depression and anxiety). In examining communalities and differences across the five identities, we found that mean levels of the stigma variables differed across the identities, with people with substance abuse and mental illness reporting greater anticipated and internalized stigma. However, the prediction pattern of the variables for psychological distress was similar across the substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and childhood abuse identities (but not sexual assault). Understanding which components of stigmatized identities predict distress can lead to more effective treatment for people experiencing psychological distress. PMID:24817189
Diane M Quinn
Full Text Available Understanding how stigmatized identities contribute to increased rates of depression and anxiety is critical to stigma reduction and mental health treatment. There has been little research testing multiple aspects of stigmatized identities simultaneously. In the current study, we collected data from a diverse, urban, adult community sample of people with a concealed stigmatized identity (CSI. We targeted 5 specific CSIs--mental illness, substance abuse, experience of domestic violence, experience of sexual assault, and experience of childhood abuse--that have been shown to put people at risk for increased psychological distress. We collected measures of the anticipation of being devalued by others if the identity became known (anticipated stigma, the level of defining oneself by the stigmatized identity (centrality, the frequency of thinking about the identity (salience, the extent of agreement with negative stereotypes about the identity (internalized stigma, and extent to which other people currently know about the identity (outness. Results showed that greater anticipated stigma, greater identity salience, and lower levels of outness each uniquely and significantly predicted variance in increased psychological distress (a composite of depression and anxiety. In examining communalities and differences across the five identities, we found that mean levels of the stigma variables differed across the identities, with people with substance abuse and mental illness reporting greater anticipated and internalized stigma. However, the prediction pattern of the variables for psychological distress was similar across the substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and childhood abuse identities (but not sexual assault. Understanding which components of stigmatized identities predict distress can lead to more effective treatment for people experiencing psychological distress.
Dong Gi Seo
Full Text Available Purpose The dimensionality of examinations provides empirical evidence of the internal test structure underlying the responses to a set of items. In turn, the internal structure is an important piece of evidence of the validity of an examination. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the DETECT program and to use it to examine the internal structure of the Korean nursing licensing examination. Methods Non-parametric methods of dimensional testing, such as the DETECT program, have been proposed as ways of overcoming the limitations of traditional parametric methods. A non-parametric method (the DETECT program was investigated using simulation data under several conditions and applied to the Korean nursing licensing examination. Results The DETECT program performed well in terms of determining the number of underlying dimensions under several different conditions in the simulated data. Further, the DETECT program correctly revealed the internal structure of the Korean nursing licensing examination, meaning that it detected the proper number of dimensions and appropriately clustered the items within each dimension. Conclusion The DETECT program performed well in detecting the number of dimensions and in assigning items for each dimension. This result implies that the DETECT method can be useful for examining the internal structure of assessments, such as licensing examinations, that possess relatively many domains and content areas.
Hilario, Carla T; Browne, Annette J; McFadden, Alysha
Neoliberal ideology and exclusionary policies based on racialized identities characterize the current contexts in North America and Western Europe. Nursing knowledge cannot be abstracted from social, political and historical contexts; the task of examining the influence of race and racial ideologies on disciplinary knowledge and inquiry therefore remains an important task. Contemporary analyses of the role and responsibility of the discipline in addressing race-based health and social inequities as a focus of nursing inquiry remain underdeveloped. In this article, we examine nursing's engagement with ideas about race and racism and explore the ways in which nursing knowledge and inquiry have been influenced by race-based ideological discourses. Drawing on Henry and Tator's framework of democratic racism, we consider how strategic discursive responses-the discourses of individualism, multiculturalism, colour-blindness, political correctness and denial-have been deployed within nursing knowledge and inquiry to reinforce the belief in an essentially fair and just society while avoiding the need to acknowledge the persistence of racist discourses and ideologies. Greater theoretical, conceptual and methodological clarity regarding race, racialization and related concepts in nursing inquiry is needed to address health and social inequities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Using cloud-computing applications to support collaborative scientific inquiry: Examining pre-service teachers’ perceived barriers towards integration / Utilisation d'applications infonuagiques pour appuyer la recherche scientifique collaborative
Full Text Available Technology plays a crucial role in facilitating collaboration within the scientific community. Cloud-computing applications can be used to model such collaboration and support inquiry within the secondary science classroom. Little is known about pre-service teachers’ beliefs related to the envisioned use of this technology in their teaching. These beliefs may influence future integration. This study finds several first-order barriers, such as perceptions that these tools would take too much time to use. Second-order barriers include perceptions that this technology would not promote face-to-face collaboration skills, would create social loafing situations, and beliefs that the technology does not help students understand the nature of science. Suggestions for mitigating these barriers within pre-service education technology courses are discussed. La technologie joue un rôle essentiel pour faciliter la collaboration au sein de la communauté scientifique. Les applications infonuagiques telles que Google Drive peuvent être utilisées pour donner forme à ce type de collaboration et pour appuyer le questionnement dans les cours de sciences du secondaire. On connaît pourtant peu les opinions que se font les futurs enseignants d’une telle utilisation des technologies collaboratives infonuagiques. Or, ces opinions pourraient influencer l’intégration future de ces technologies en salle de classe. Cette étude révèle plusieurs obstacles de premier plan, comme l’idée que l’utilisation de ces outils informatiques prend trop de temps. Parmi les obstacles de second plan, on note les perceptions selon lesquelles cette technologie ne promeut pas les compétences collaboratives de personne à personne, pose des problèmes de gestion de classe et n'aide pas les étudiants à comprendre la nature de la science. Des suggestions sont proposées pour atténuer ces obstacles dans les cours de technologie des programmes d’éducation.
Gooding, Julia Terese Chembars
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the perception of scientific inquiry between experts and practitioners, and, if a difference was shown to exist, to analyze those perceptions in order to better understand the extent of that difference or gap. A disconnect was found between how experts and practitioners perceived scientific inquiry. The practitioners differed from both the experts and the literature in three key areas. First, although the teachers indicated that students would be manipulating materials, there was no direct reference to this manipulation actually being performed for the purpose of investigating. Second, the practitioners implied active physical engagement with materials, but they did not tie this to active mental engagement or direct involvement in their own learning. Third, teachers omitted their role in laying the foundation for inquiry. Though classroom teachers lacked a complete understanding of true inquiry and its place in the K-12 classroom, most of them actually believed they were practicing the art of teaching via inquiry. Additionally, two other points of interest arose. First, an examination of the national standards for a number of curricular areas established that the process skills of scientific inquiry are mirrored in those standards, implying that inquiry is not limited to the sciences. Second, a definition of inquiry was formulated based upon interviews with experts in the field. Although the literature and the experts were in unison in their definition, there was a disparity between the accepted definition and that provided by the teachers. The struggle for a comprehensive understanding of inquiry continues to this day. It might very well be that the concept still remains elusive partly because the teacher behaviors associated with it run counter to more traditional methods of instruction...methods that most teachers have experienced throughout their own educational careers. The most pervasive
Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A; Karr, Justin E; Trujillo-Orrego, Natalia; Trujillo-Orrego, Sandra; Pineda, David A
The Republic of Colombia has a long-standing history of internal armed conflict, further complicated by the ideological assumptions underlying their war. In recent years, its government designed the Program for Reincorporation to Civilian Life (Programa para la Reincorporación a la Vida Civil, PRVC), aiming demobilization of thousands of insurgents who were involved in guerilla and paramilitary forces. One PRVC goal involves the psychological characterization of its reincorporated members, aiming the informed design of effective and efficacious interventions to improve their adjustment. We are interested in the examination of empathy in this population. Empathy refers to the ability to predict, understand, and experience other's feelings. Empathy appears to have an effect on level of aggressive behavior. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980, 1983) is a well-established 28-item self-report tool for the assessment of empathy, including 4 scales: Perspective Taking, Fantasy, Empathic Concern, and Personal Distress. Versions in Spanish were validated in Spain and Chile, but no norms for Colombians exist. We examined the factorial structure of the IRI in a sample of 548 (83.4% males) members of the PRVC. Ten items with low factor loadings were eliminated following a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). The final 4-factor model (Model 2) reached an acceptable fit (e.g., CFI = .898). A second-order CFA demonstrated that empathic concern correlated too high with a common "empathy" latent factor. With these results at hand, our 18-item IRI version in Spanish achieved a factorial structure comparable to that previously validated for Spanish speakers from other countries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
The association of veterans of nuclear tests(A.V.E.N.) has been created on the 9. june 2001. It concerns the military personnel, the Cea personnel and the contractors personnel that took part in nuclear tests in the Algerian Sahara and French Polynesia. A.V.E.N. has for objective information on the consequences of nuclear tests, the entitlement to have access to their medical file and the right to compensation for loss sustained by the victims. The inquiry bearing on 271 veterans brings to light that 93.4% of them have one or several diseases, 28.4% of them have or had one or several cancers. 77% of cancers happened before sixty years old and 36% before fifty years old. 45.4% died before sixty years old. The non cancerous digestive, osteo-muscular and cardiovascular pathologies are the most frequent. The children and grand children present inborn malformations (9.4% and 4.8%) and various diseases (24.3% and 5.5%). Despite that the critics that can be formulated, the results, compared to the British ones incite to go on. This preliminary inquiry must be completed by a greater number of answers. These results are an important argument to ask for an epidemiology inquiry on the whole of military and civil personnel that have participated to the nuclear tests in order to establish in a definite way the effects on health of nuclear tests and to draw consequences of it. (N.C.)
Report on the inquiry into sale price fluctuations of gasoline and diesel fuel in the regions of Abitibi-Temiscamingue, Saguenay-Lac Saint Jean and the Upper Mauricie, October 1998 to 31 December 1999
Lambert, L.; Dumais, M. A.
An inquiry was initiated by the President of the Quebec Energy Board (Regie de l'energie) on October 7, 1999 to review the reasons for the wide fluctuations in the retail sale prices of gasoline and diesel fuel in the regions of Abitibi-Temiscamingue, Saguenay/Lac-Saint-Jean and the Upper Mauricie, although the Board has no jurisdiction over the prices charged for petroleum products or anti-competitive practices. Consequently, the inquiry confined itself to an analysis of the information pertaining to the structure and forces driving the petroleum products market, and an examination of price mechanisms and consumer reactions in these regions. The inquiry reviewed the relevant legislation and regulation, the social, economic and energy situations in the affected regions, and the structure and functioning of the market for gasoline and diesel fuel. The inquiry came to the conclusion that the price fluctuations during the period under review reflected the wholesale prices recorded at Montreal and Quebec, which are determined by national and international market forces over which Quebec has no significant control. Furthermore, the inquiry concluded that although market forces are present and functioning in the regions, there are relatively few outlets affiliated with major oil companies, and a large number of independent retail outlets with relatively small volumes of annual sales. They essentially set their own prices at a level that reflect their cost of operation. Appendices contain the Inquiry's mandate, a list of those who testified before the Inquiry, a map showing the geographic profile of the regions surveyed and a list of figures and tables. 18 tabs., 31 figs
Atalmis, Erkan H.; Avgin, Sakine S.; Demir, Papatya; Yildirim, Bilal
The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of demographic characteristics of students in Turkey upon their performance in TIMSS, an international assessment exam and Secondary Education Transition Examination which is a national exam (OGS). One of the fields of sciences, biology is taken into account as student performance. As a result…
Zahedi, Keivan; Shamsaee, Saeedeh
The aim of the present research is to examine the viability of the construct validity of the speaking modules of two internationally recognized language proficiency examinations, namely IELTS and TOEFL iBT. High-stake standardized tests play a crucial and decisive role in determining the future academic life of many people. Overall obtained scores…
Brown, Patrick L.; Abell, Sandra K.; Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Francis J.
The purposes of this study were to (a) gain an understanding of the views of inquiry held by faculty members involved in undergraduate science teaching and (b) describe the challenges, constraints, and opportunities that they perceived in designing and teaching inquiry-based laboratories. Participants included 19 college professors, representing both life and physical science disciplines, from (a) 2-year community college, (b) small, private nonprofit liberal arts college, (c) public master's granting university, and (d) public doctoral/research extensive university. We collected data through semistructured interviews and applied an iterative data analysis process. College science faculty members held a full and open inquiry view, seeing classroom inquiry as time consuming, unstructured, and student directed. They believed that inquiry was more appropriate for upper level science majors than for introductory or nonscience majors. Although faculty members valued inquiry, they perceived limitations of time, class size, student motivation, and student ability. These limitations, coupled with their view of inquiry, constrained them from implementing inquiry-based laboratories. Our proposed inquiry continuum represents a broader view of inquiry that recognizes the interaction between two dimensions of inquiry: (a) the degree of inquiry and (b) the level of student directedness, and provides for a range of inquiry-based classroom activities.
Clark-Thomas, Beth Anne
Elementary school students' understanding of both science content and processes are enhanced by the higher level thinking associated with inquiry-based science investigations. Informal science setting personnel, elementary school teachers, and curriculum specialists charged with designing inquiry-based investigations would be well served by an understanding of the varying influence of certain present factors upon the students' willingness and ability to delve into such higher level inquiries. This study examined young children's use of inquiry-based materials and factors which may influence the level of inquiry they engaged in during informal science activities. An informal science setting was selected as the context for the examination of student inquiry behaviors because of the rich inquiry-based environment present at the site and the benefits previously noted in the research regarding the impact of informal science settings upon the construction of knowledge in science. The study revealed several patterns of behavior among children when they are engaged in inquiry-based activities at informal science exhibits. These repeated behaviors varied in the children's apparent purposeful use of the materials at the exhibits. These levels of inquiry behavior were taxonomically defined as high/medium/low within this study utilizing a researcher-developed tool. Furthermore, in this study adult interventions, questions, or prompting were found to impact the level of inquiry engaged in by the children. This study revealed that higher levels of inquiry were preceded by task directed and physical feature prompts. Moreover, the levels of inquiry behaviors were haltered, even lowered, when preceded by a prompt that focused on a science content or concept question. Results of this study have implications for the enhancement of inquiry-based science activities in elementary schools as well as in informal science settings. These findings have significance for all science educators
Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.
Crane, Rebecca S; Stanley, Steven; Rooney, Michael; Bartley, Trish; Cooper, Lucinda; Mardula, Jody
Evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is rapidly growing as interest in this field expands. By contrast, there are few empirical analyses of the pedagogy of MBSR and MBCT. Development of the evidence base concerning the teaching of MBCT or MBSR would support the integrity of the approach in the context of rapid expansion. This paper describes an applied conversation analysis (CA) of the characteristics of inquiry in the MBSR and MBCT teaching process. Audio-recordings of three 8-week MBCT and MBSR classes, with 24, 12, and 6 participants, were transcribed and systematically examined. The study focused on the teacher-led interactive inquiry which takes place in each session after a guided meditation practice. The study describes and analyzes three practices within the inquiry process that can be identified in sequences of talk: turn-taking talk involving questions and reformulations; the development of participant skills in a particular way of describing experience; and talk that constructs intersubjective connection and affiliation within the group. CA enables fine-grained analysis of the interactional work of mindfulness-based inquiry. Inquiry is a process of disciplined improvisation which is both highly specific to the conditions of the moment it took place in and uses repeated and recognizable patterns of interaction.
Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Østergaard, Lars Domino; Johnson, Per
-based learning has to offer. In this presentation we examine the cases of two year 8 classes (14 year old students) who engaged in science inquiry in their science and English lessons and collaborated with a New Zealand class to explore the topic of astronomy. To gain insight into the students’ developing ideas...... in astronomy we adopted a multilevel– multifaceted approach. Evidence of learning was collected at three different levels: immediate, close and proximal. We will highlight the insights we gained into students’ developing science inquiry skills and knowledge and explain how the different proximities...
Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.
Stemler, Steven Edward
This study explored school effectiveness in mathematics and science at the fourth grade using data from IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Fourteen of the 26 countries participating in TIMSS at the fourth grade possessed sufficient between-school variability in mathematics achievement to justify the creation of explanatory models of school effectiveness while 13 countries possessed sufficient between-school variability in science achievement. Exploratory models were developed using variables drawn from student, teacher, and school questionnaires. The variables were chosen to represent the domains of student involvement, instructional methods, classroom organization, school climate, and school structure. Six explanatory models for each subject were analyzed using two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and were compared to models using only school mean SES as an explanatory variable. The amount of variability in student achievement in mathematics attributable to differences between schools ranged from 16% in Cyprus to 56% in Latvia, while the amount of between-school variance in science achievement ranged from 12% in Korea to 59% in Latvia. In general, about one-quarter of the variability in mathematics and science achievement was found to lie between schools. The research findings revealed that after adjusting for differences in student backgrounds across schools, the most effective schools in mathematics and science had students who reported seeing a positive relationship between hard work, belief in their own abilities, and achievement. In addition, more effective schools had students who reported less frequent use of computers and calculators in the classroom. These relationships were found to be stable across explanatory models, cultural contexts, and subject areas. This study has contributed a unique element to the literature by examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade across two subject areas and across 14
Jin, Hui; Wei, Xin; Duan, Peiran; Guo, Yuying; Wang, Wenxia
We investigated how Chinese physics teachers structured classroom discourse to support the cognitive and social aspects of inquiry-based science learning. Regarding the cognitive aspect, we examined to what extent the cognitive processes underlying the scientific skills and the disciplinary reasoning behind the content knowledge were taught.…
Ching, Cheryl D.
This study examined how participation in an inquiry-based workshop on assessing course syllabi for equity-mindedness and cultural inclusivity fostered community college math faculty learning about racial/ethnic equity and equity-mindedness. Findings show that the workshop prompted reflection on what equity means and how participants' teaching…
Lakkala, Minna; Muukkonen, Hanni; Hakkarainen, Kai
There is wide agreement on the importance of scaffolding for student learning. Yet, models of individual and face-to-face scaffolding are not necessarily applicable to educational settings in which a group of learners is pursuing a process of inquiry mediated by technology. The scaffolding needed for such a process may be examined from three…
Richardson, Michael J.; Slife, Brent D.
We explore the possibility that a priori philosophical commitments continue to result in a narrowing of inquiry in moral psychology and education where theistic worldviews are concerned. Drawing from the theories of Edward L. Thorndike and John Dewey, we examine naturalistic philosophical commitments that influenced the study of moral psychology…
Preddy, Leslie B.
Discusses the appropriate use of inquiry among students, teachers, and library media specialists. Topics include planning for an inquiry research project; collaboration between the library media specialist and classroom teacher; national goals, standards, and best practices; teacher roles for inquiry; and evaluating inquiry research. (LRW)
Teilmann, Grete; Petersen, Jørgen H; Gormsen, Magdalena
Retrospective studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Hypothetically, this could be due to selection bias. The aim of this study was to determine age at reaching pubertal milestones in healthy internationally adopted girls...
Cothern, Rebecca L.
Science education is a key to economic success for a country in terms of promoting advances in national industry and technology and maximizing competitive advantage in a global marketplace. The December 2010 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranked the United States 23rd of 65 countries in science. That dismal standing in science proficiency impedes the ability of American school graduates to compete in the global market place. Furthermore, the implementation of high stakes testing in science mandated by the 2007 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has created an additional need for educators to find effective science pedagogy. Research has shown that inquiry-based science instruction is one of the predominant science instructional methods. Inquiry-based instruction is a multifaceted teaching method with its theoretical foundation in constructivism. A correlational survey research design was used to determine the relationship between levels of inquiry-based science instruction and student performance on a standardized state science test. A self-report survey, using a Likert-type scale, was completed by 26 fifth grade teachers. Participants' responses were analyzed and grouped as high, medium, or low level inquiry instruction. The unit of analysis for the achievement variable was the student scale score average from the state science test. Spearman's Rho correlation data showed a positive relationship between the level of inquiry-based instruction and student achievement on the state assessment. The findings can assist teachers and administrators by providing additional research on the benefits of the inquiry-based instructional method. Implications for positive social change include increases in student proficiency and decision-making skills related to science policy issues which can help make them more competitive in the global marketplace.
Agar, Charles; Humphries, Charlotte A.; Naquin, Millie; Hebert, Edward; Wood, Ralph
Recently, researchers have concluded that motor skill performance is enhanced when learners adopt an external attentional focus, compared to adopting an internal focus. We extended the line of inquiry to children and examined if skill learning in children was differentially affected by providing instructions and feedback that direct attentional…
Østergaard, Lars Domino; Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Hagelskjær, Jens
Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret naturfagsundervisnings......Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret...
Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Boz, Umit; Broadwell, George A.; Sadler, Troy D.
Background: Science educators have sought to structure collaborative inquiry learning through the assignment of static group roles. This structural approach to student grouping oversimplifies the complexities of peer collaboration and overlooks the highly dynamic nature of group activity. Purpose: This study addresses this issue of oversimplification of group dynamics by examining the social leadership structures that emerge in small student groups during science inquiry. Sample: Two small student groups investigating the burning of a candle under a jar participated in this study. Design and method: We used a mixed-method research approach that combined computational discourse analysis (computational quantification of social aspects of small group discussions) with microethnography (qualitative, in-depth examination of group discussions). Results: While in one group social leadership was decentralized (i.e., students shared control over topics and tasks), the second group was dominated by a male student (centralized social leadership). Further, decentralized social leadership was found to be paralleled by higher levels of student cognitive engagement. Conclusions: It is argued that computational discourse analysis can provide science educators with a powerful means of developing pedagogical models of collaborative science learning that take into account the emergent nature of group structures and highly fluid nature of student collaboration.
Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.
"Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…
This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…
Kastens, Kim A.; Rivet, Ann
To help teachers enrich their students' understanding of inquiry in Earth science, this article describes six modes of inquiry used by practicing geoscientists (Earth scientists). Each mode of inquiry is illustrated by using examples of seminal or pioneering research and provides pointers to investigations that enable students to experience these…
Hackling, Mark; Smith, Pru; Murcia, Karen
A key principle of inquiry-based science education is that the process of inquiry must include opportunities for the exploration of questions and ideas, as well as reasoning with ideas and evidence. Teaching and learning Science therefore involves teachers managing a discourse that supports inquiry and students engaging in talk that facilitates…
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public inquiries. 1022.6 Section 1022.6 Energy DEPARTMENT... REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.6 Public inquiries. Inquiries regarding DOE's floodplain and wetland environmental... at 1-800-472-2756, toll free. ...
Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Caleon, Imelda Santos
The current vision of science education in myriad educational contexts encourages students to learn through the process of science inquiry. Science inquiry has been used to promote conceptual learning and engage learners in an active process of meaning-making and investigation to understand the world around them. The science inquiry process…
Haefner, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla
This study examined prospective elementary teachers' learning about scientific inquiry in the context of an innovative life science course. Research questions included: (1) What do prospective elementary teachers learn about scientific inquiry within the context of the course? and (2) In what ways do their experiences engaging in science investigations and teaching inquiry-oriented science influence prospective elementary teachers' understanding of science and science learning and teaching? Eleven prospective elementary teachers participated in this qualitative, multi-participant case study. Constant comparative analysis strategies attempted to build abstractions and explanations across participants around the constructs of the study. Findings suggest that engaging in scientific inquiry supported the development more appropriate understandings of science and scientific inquiry, and that prospective teachers became more accepting of approaches to teaching science that encourage children's questions about science phenomena. Implications include careful consideration of learning experiences crafted for prospective elementary teachers to support the development of robust subject matter knowledge.
Since the publication of the National Science Education Standards in 1996, learning science through inquiry has been regarded as the heart of science education. However, the TIMSS 1999 Video Study showed that inquiry-based teaching has been taking place less in the United States than in Japan. This study examined similarities and differences in how Japanese and American middle-school science teachers think and feel about inquiry-based teaching. Teachers' attitudes toward the use of inquiry in science teaching were measured through a survey instrument (N=191). Teachers' understanding of inquiry-based teaching was examined through interviews and classroom observations in the United States (N=9) and Japan (N=15). The results show that in spite of the variations in teachers' definitions of inquiry-based teaching, teachers in both countries strongly agree with the idea of inquiry-based teaching. However, little inquiry-based teaching was observed in either of the countries for different reasons. The data indicate that Japanese teachers did not generally help students construct their own understanding of scientific concepts in spite of well-planned lesson structures and activity set-ups. On the other hand, the observational data indicate that American teachers often lacked meaningful science content in spite of their high level of pedagogical knowledge. The need for addressing the importance of scientific concepts in teacher preparation programs in higher education institutions in the US is advocated. To the Japanese science education community, the need for teachers' acquisition of instructional strategies for inquiry-based teaching is strongly addressed.
H. Hazar; S. Sap
In this experimental study; internal and external parts of an exhaust pipe were coated with a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) material having a thickness of 100 micron by using the plasma spray method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. Thus, the results of continuing chemical reaction in coated and uncoated exhaust pipes were investigated. Internally and externally coated exhaust pipe was compared with the standard exhaust system. External heat transfer occurring as a result of coating th...
McMackin, Mary C.
By blending elements of inquiry with the components of portfolios, learning and thinking in teacher preparation courses can be extended and possible tensions between "covering content" and allowing "open-ended investigation" can be mitigated. Over the years, the author mused about how she might nudge graduate students in her…
Carruthers, Cheryl; Lampe, Karen
Over the last year, "School Library Monthly" ("SLM") has challenged school librarians to "nudge toward inquiry" through the "SLM" blog-driven submissions compiled by Kristin Fontichiaro. Iowa took up the challenge! This article describes how teacher librarians across Iowa teamed with classroom teachers to…
This thesis presents the results of the conducted research and development of applications to support collaborative inquiry-based learning, with a special focus on leveraging learners’ agency. The reported results are structured into three parts: the theoretical foundations, the design and
Stage, Frances K.; Wells, Ryan S.
This chapter briefly traces the development of the concept of critical quantitative inquiry, provides an expanded conceptualization of the tasks of critical quantitative research, offers theoretical explanation and justification for critical research using quantitative methods, and previews the work of quantitative criticalists presented in this…
System interrogates and maintains user-definable data files from remote terminals, using English-like, free-form query language easily learned by persons not proficient in computer programming. System operates in asynchronous mode, allowing any number of inquiries within limitation of available core to be active concurrently.
History educators find themselves in the peculiar situation of wishing to introduce students to the history discipline while lacking a clear conception of the features intrinsic to historical inquiry across its various specialisations and subject matters. In affirming that no one methodological charter hangs in the corridors of academic history…
Full Text Available The issues of conducting short inquiry from the position of prosecutor’s procedural status are considered. Low rate of applying short inquiry is caused by ignorance about this procedural form among the participants in criminal procedure. The initiators of conducting short inquiry were not suspects (accused, but their lawyers who followed by their own ambitions, not by the interests of defendants. The insufficiency of total time of short inquiry is noted. The author proposes to minimize prosecutors’ paperwork, notably to concentrate their attention on collecting crime data by conducting secret investigation operations, receiving explanations and other documentation. Obtained data should be processed according to police regulations. Confession of guilt, recognition of damage and consent with legal assessment of criminal act allow to collect only the evidence, indicating crime event and complicacy of a person (expertise should be established on court’s initiative. The favourable conditions of adequacy of collected evidence for establishing crime event, character and amount of damage, as well as guilt of committing crime are confirmed. The right of investigators not to examine evidences if they were not contradicted by suspect, victim or his/her representative (predetermined strength of evidence is criticized. There is no short effective procedure of trying criminal cases with rational division of powers among the authorities, conducting criminal proceeding. The author proves the necessity of reasonable approach to prosecutor’s supervision of conducting short inquiry. Main tendency of further improvement of short inquiry procedure is redivision of powers among agencies in charge of preliminary investigation and prosecutor’s office.
Ireland, Joseph; Watters, James J.; Lunn Brownlee, J.; Lupton, Mandy
Learning science through the process of inquiry is advocated in curriculum documents across many jurisdictions. However, a number of studies suggest that teachers struggle to help students engage in inquiry practices. This is not surprising as many teachers of science have not engaged in scientific inquiry and possibly hold naïve ideas about what constitutes scientific inquiry. This study investigates teachers' self-reported approaches to teaching science through inquiry. Phenomenographic interviews undertaken with 20 elementary teachers revealed teachers identified six approaches to teaching for inquiry, clustered within three categories. These approaches were categorized as Free and Illustrated Inquiries as part of an Experience-centered category, Solution and Method Inquiries as part of a Problem-centered category, and Topic and Chaperoned Inquiries as part of a Question-centered category. This study contributes to our theoretical understanding of how teachers approach Inquiry Teaching and suggests fertile areas of future research into this valued and influential phenomenon broadly known as 'Inquiry Teaching'.
Pedersen, Christina Hee; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Novak, Martin
As an international group of five researchers we have been exploring possibilities of collaborative inquiry for more than four years. We discuss epistemological and ethical consequences of producing knowledge collaboratively through dialogue. We draw mainly on Bakhtinian conception of dialogism a...... space for general discussion on becoming in the context of knowledge production.......As an international group of five researchers we have been exploring possibilities of collaborative inquiry for more than four years. We discuss epistemological and ethical consequences of producing knowledge collaboratively through dialogue. We draw mainly on Bakhtinian conception of dialogism...... and poststructuralist thinking. Our dialogue began on the occasion of a cultural studies conference in Macedonia. At that time we prepared a panel consisting of four brief presentations, based on short papers written in advance, and four dialogical spaces in which we reacted to each other in a circular choreography...
Application of inquiry in teacher education is gaining momentum. Inquiry is used to build connections with the local community (Nicholas, Baker-Sennett, McClanahan, & Harwood, 2012), student-centered inquiry is used as a curricular model (Oliver et al., 2015), inquiry is used to accentuate......’-module is a 6 week full-time study including a 2 weeks stay at a youth folk high school, where the teacher students are to focus on a self-determined element of the praxis. The students are to study this focus through narrative inquiry based on the North-American tradition within narrative inquiry (Clandinin....... Aarhus; Kbh.: Klim; i samarbejde med Folkehøjskolernes Forening. Salerno, A. S., & Kibler, A. K. (2015). Questions they ask: Considering teacher-inquiry questions posed by pre-service english teachers. Educational Action Research, 23(3), 399-415....
Inquiry has been one of the most prominent terms of the contemporary science education reform movement (Buck, Latta, & Leslie-Pelecky, 2007; Colburn, 2006; Settlage, 2007). Practicing classroom inquiry has maintained its central position in science education for several decades because science education reform documents promote classroom inquiry as the potential savior of science education from its current problems. Likewise, having the capabilities of teaching science through inquiry has been considered by National Board for Professional Teaching Standards [NBPTS] as one of the essential elements of being an accomplished science teacher. Successful completion of National Board Certification [NBC] assessment process involves presenting a clear evidence of enacting inquiry with students. Despite the high-profile of the word inquiry in the reform documents, the same is not true in schools (Crawford, 2007). Most of the science teachers do not embrace this type of approach in their everyday teaching practices of science (Johnson, 2006; Luera, Moyer, & Everett, 2005; Smolleck, Zembal-Saul, & Yoder, 2006; Trumbull, Scarano, & Bonney, 2006). And the specific meanings attributed to inquiry by science teachers do not necessarily match with the original intentions of science education reform documents (Matson & Parsons, 2006; Wheeler, 2000; Windschitl, 2003). Unveiling the various meanings held by science teachers is important in developing better strategies for the future success of science education reform efforts (Jones & Eick, 2007; Keys & Bryan, 2001). Due to the potential influences of National Board Certified Science Teachers [NBCSTs] on inexperienced science teachers as their mentors, examining inquiry conceptions of NBCSTs is called for. How do these accomplished practitioners understand and enact inquiry? The purpose of this dissertation research study was twofold. First, it investigated the role of NBC performance assessment process on the professional development
Shope, R. E.; Alcantara Valverde, L.
A recent National Academy of Sciences report recommends that science educators focus strategically on teaching the practice of science. To accomplish this, we have devised and implemented the Science Performance Laboratory, a collaborative research, education, and workforce model that brings scientists and science educators together to conduct scientific inquiry. In this session, we demonstrate how to form active inquiry teams around Arctica Science Research content areas related to the International Polar Year. We use the term "Arctica Science Research" to refer to the entire scope of exploration and discovery relating to: polar science and its global connections; Arctic and Antarctic research and climate sciences; ice and cryospheric studies on Earth; polar regions of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury; icy worlds throughout the Solar System, such as Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Pluto and the Comets; cryovolcanism; ice in interstellar space, and beyond. We apply the notion of teaching the practice science by enacting three effective strategies: 1) The Inquiry Wheel Game, in which we develop an expanded understanding of what has been traditionally taught as "the scientific method"; 2) Acting Out the Science Story, in which we develop a physicalized expression of our conceptual understanding; and 3) Selecting Success Criteria for Inquiry Coaching, in which we reframe how we evaluate science learning as we teach the practice of science.
Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia
The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect…
Mezei, Jessica M.
The implementation of inquiry learning in American science classrooms remains a challenge. Teachers' perceptions of inquiry learning are predicated on their past educational experiences, which means outdated methods of learning may influence teachers' instructional approaches. In order to enhance their understanding and ultimately their implementation of inquiry learning, teachers need new and more relevant models. This study takes a preliminary step exploring the potential of game play as a valuable experience for science teachers. It has been proposed that game play and inquiry experiences can embody constructivist processes of learning, however there has been little work done with science teachers to systematically explore the relationship between the two. Game play may be an effective new model for teacher education and it is important to understand if and how teachers relate game playing experience and knowledge to inquiry. This study examined science teachers' game playing experiences and their perceptions of inquiry experiences and evaluated teacher's recognition of learning in both contexts. Data was collected through an online survey (N=246) and a series of follow-up interviews (N=29). Research questions guiding the study were: (1) What is the nature of the relationship between science teachers' game experience and their perceptions of inquiry? (2) How do teachers describe learning in and from game playing as compared with inquiry science learning? and (3) What is the range of similarities and differences teachers articulate between game play and inquiry experiences?. Results showed weak quantitative links between science teachers' game experiences and their perceptions of inquiry, but identified promising game variables such as belief in games as learning tools, game experiences, and playing a diverse set of games for future study. The qualitative data suggests that teachers made broad linkages in terms of parallels of both teaching and learning. Teachers
Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John
The journal "Education in Rural Australia" (now the "Australian and International Journal of Rural Education") has been in existence since 1991. During the Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) period, the journal maintained a B ranking, indicating that it was a quality journal within a specialised field. With the abolishment…
Dodo, Mahamat K
Climate Change like many global problems nowadays is recognized as a threat to the international security and cooperation. In theoretical terms, it is being securitized and included in the traditional security studies. Climate change and its accompanying environmental degradation are perceived to be a threat that can have incalculable consequences on the international community. The consequences are said to have more effects in small island developing nations and Africa where many States are fragile and overwhelmed with mounting challenges. In recent years, the security implications of the climate change are being addressed from national, regional and multilateral level. Against this backdrop, this paper intends to contribute to the debate on climate change and international security and present a broader perspective on the discussion. The paper will draw from the EU-Africa partnership on climate change and is structured as follows: the first part introduces the background of the international climate change policy and its securitization, the second part covers the EU-Africa relations and EU-Africa partnership on climate change, and the third part discusses the Congo Basin Forest Partnership as a concrete example of EU-Africa Partnership on Climate Change. Lastly, the paper concludes by drawing some conclusions and offers some policy perspectives and recommendations. Q54; 055; 052; 01;
Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Soenens, Bart; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Parental psychological control has been linked to symptoms of psychopathology in adolescence, yet less is known about its correlates in childhood. The current study is among the first to address whether psychological control is related to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood. A community sample of 298 children aged 7.04…
Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth DeVane; Hegde, Archana Vasudeva; Craft, Katelyn; Oberlin, Amber Louise
The purpose of this study was to investigate an interdisciplinary international service learning program and its impact on student sense of cultural awareness and competence using the Campinha-Bacote's (2002) framework of cultural competency model. Seven undergraduate and one graduate student from Human Development and Nutrition Science…
Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aulls, Mark W.; Shore, Bruce M.
Sociocognitive theory [Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175-1184. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.44.9.1175; Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248-287. doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90022-L] accords high importance to the mechanisms of human agency and how they are exercised through self-efficacy. In this paper, we developed and validated the McGill Self-Efficacy For Inquiry Engagement (McSELFIE) instrument with undergraduate students in natural science disciplines. We defined inquiry engagement as carrying out the practices of science (POS) that are supported by students' personality characteristics (SPCs) and that result in achieving inquiry-learning outcomes (ILOs). Based on these theoretical perspectives, the McSELFIE is a 60-item, learner-focused survey that addresses three components that are theoretically important for engaging in scientific inquiry: (a) SPCs, (b) ILOs, and (c) POS. Evidence for construct and content validity were obtained by using experts' judgments and confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 110 undergraduate students enrolled in science disciplines. Internal consistency of the factors and instrument was also examined. The McSELFIE instrument is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring science undergraduate students' self-efficacy for inquiry engagement. Matched pairs analyses were conducted among the instruments' factors. Students reported the highest self-efficacy for openness, applying knowledge, and carrying out investigations. Students reported the lowest self-efficacy for extraversion, understanding metacognitive knowledge, and planning investigations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Tone, Erin B.; Tully, Erin C.
Learning to respond to others’ distress with well-regulated empathy is an important developmental task linked to positive health outcomes and moral achievements. However, this important interpersonal skill set may also, paradoxically, confer risk for depression and anxiety when present at extreme levels and in combination with certain individual characteristics or within particular contexts. The purpose of this review is to describe an empirically-grounded theoretical rationale for the hypothesis that empathic tendencies can be “risky strengths”. We propose a model in which typical development of affective and cognitive empathy can be influenced by complex interplay among intraindividual and interindividual moderators that increase risk for empathic personal distress and excessive interpersonal guilt. These intermediate states, in turn, precipitate internalizing problems that map onto empirically-derived fear/arousal and anhedonia/misery subfactors of internalizing disorders. The intraindividual moderators include a genetically-influenced propensity toward physiological hyperarousal, which is proposed to interact with genetic propensity to empathic sensitivity to contribute to neurobiological processes that underlie personal distress responses others’ pain or unhappiness. This empathic personal distress then increases risk for internalizing problems, particularly fear/arousal symptoms. Similarly, interactions between genetic propensities toward negative thinking processes and empathic sensitivity are hypothesized to contribute to excess interpersonal guilt in response to others’ distress. In turn, this interpersonal guilt increases risk for internalizing problems, especially anhedonia/misery symptoms. Interindividual moderators, such as maladaptive parenting or chronic exposure to parents’ negative affect, further interact with these genetic liabilities to amplify risk for personal distress and interpersonal guilt, as well as for consequent
Hutchins, Kristen L.; Friedrichsen, Patricia J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how science faculty members' belief systems about inquiry-based teaching changed through their experience in a professional development program. The program was designed to support early career science faculty in learning about inquiry and incorporating an inquiry-based approach to teaching laboratories. Data sources for this qualitative study included three semi-structured interviews, observations during the program and during faculty members' implementation in their courses, and a researcher's journal. In the first phase of data analysis, we created profiles for each of the four participants. Next, we developed assertions, and tested for confirming and disconfirming evidence across the profiles. The assertions indicated that, through the professional development program, participants' knowledge and beliefs about inquiry-based teaching shifted, placing more value on student-directed learning and classroom inquiry. Participants who were internally motivated to participate and held incoming positive attitudes toward the mini-journal inquiry-based approach were more likely to incorporate the approach in their future practice. Students' responses played a critical role in participants' belief systems and their decision to continue using the inquiry-based format. The findings from this study have implications for professional development design.
Lulu Tunjung Biru
Full Text Available The aim of this study is examining the learning of Integrated Sciences through PCK based guided inquiry on prospective science teacher students. This research method was descriptive qualitative involving 33 science teacher students who taking Integrated Science 1 Subject in academic year 2016/2017. The research instrument used was the observation sheet to know the implementation PCK based guided inquiry. The results showed that the implementation of the activities of lecturer and science teacher students during the learning process using PCK based guided inquiry was very good conducted.
Yagishita, A.; Shiga, I.; Kanzaki, H. (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)
A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors.
Yagishita, Akira; Shiga, Itsuo; Kanzaki, Hitoshi
A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors. (author)
Yagishita, A; Shiga, I; Kanzaki, H [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine
A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors.
Aoki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Shinichi; Shimizu, Sadato
A Ni-base alloy weld, including cracks due to stress corrosion cracking found in the reactor internal of the oldest BWR in Japan, Tsuruga unit 1, in 1999, was examined by three (3) types of UT method. After this examination, a depth of each crack was confirmed by carrying out a little excavation with a grinder and PT examination by turns until each crack disappeared. Then, the depth measured by the former method was compared with the one measured by the latter method. In this fashion, performances of the UT methods were verified. As a result, a combination of the three types of UT method was found to meet the acceptance criteria given by ASME Sec.XI Appendix VIII, Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Systems-Supplement 6. In this paper, the results of the UT examination described above and their evaluation are discussed. (author)
Pahwa, Avita K; Siegelman, Evan S; Arya, Lily A
Pelvic organ prolapse, a herniation of pelvic organs through the vagina, is a common condition in older women. Pelvic organ prolapse distorts vaginal anatomy making pelvic examination difficult. A clinician must accurately identify anatomic landmarks both in women presenting with symptoms of prolapse and in women noted to have coincidental prolapse during routine gynecologic examination. We present a systematic approach to the female pelvic examination including anatomic landmarks of the external genitalia, vagina, and uterus in women with normal support as well as changes that occur with pelvic organ prolapse. Knowledge and awareness of normal anatomic landmarks will improve a clinician's ability to identify defects in pelvic support and allow for better diagnosis and treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ford, Danielle J.; Fifield, Steve; Madsen, John; Qian, Xiaoyu
We describe the Science Semester, a semester-long course block that integrates three science courses and a science education methods course for elementary teacher education majors, and examine prospective elementary teachers’ developing conceptions about inquiry, science teaching efficacy, and reflections on learning through inquiry. The Science Semester was designed to provide inquiry-oriented and problem-based learning experiences, opportunities to examine socially relevant issues through cross-disciplinary perspectives, and align with content found in elementary curricula and standards. By the end of the semester, prospective elementary teachers moved from naïve to intermediate understandings of inquiry and significantly increased self-efficacy for science teaching as measured on one subscore of the STEBI-B. Reflecting on the semester, prospective teachers understood and appreciated the goals of the course and the PBL format, but struggled with the open-ended and student-directed elements of the course.
Castle, Margaret Ann
A number of reports have raised a concern that the U.S. is not meeting the demands of 21st century skill preparation of students, teachers, and practitioners in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). In 2005 and 2006 five reports were released indicating a need for improvement in science and mathematics education in the U.S. The reports were: Keeping America Competitive: Five Strategies To Improve Mathematics and Science Education (Coble & Allen, 2005); National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative: Meeting America's Economic and Security Challenges in the 21st Century (The Association of American Universities, 2006); Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (National Academies Press, 2007); Tapping America's Potential: The Education for Innovation Initiative (Business Roundtable Taskforce , 2005); and Waiting for Sputnik: Basic Research and Strategic Competition (Lewis, 2005). Consensus of data in these reports indicates that the U.S., as compared to other industrialized nations, does not fare very well in science achievement and STEM degree attainment. For example, on the 2003 Program for International Assessment (PISA), 15-year-old students in the U.S. ranked 28th in math and 24th in science literacy (Kuenzi, Matthews, & Mangon, 2006). Furthermore, the U.S. ranked 20th among all nations in the proportion of 24-year-olds who earned degrees in natural sciences or engineering (Kuenzi, 2008). As a result, if the U.S. is to remain scientifically and technologically competitive in the world, it is necessary to increase our efforts to incorporate scientific practices associated with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into the science classroom. Middle school is a critical point in students' science education and it is in middle school that they begin to dislike science. Research indicates that when students learn science through inquiry their interest in and
In this paper the brief summary of selected procedural aspects of the Sizewell Inquiry indicates that the way in which major and controversial planning proposals are subject to public debate is in need of urgent review. The Sizewell Inquiry fell short of public expectation, and indeed of Government promises, on two major counts; it did not provide a forum for the debate of certain questions which are clearly of utmost importance and concern to the nuclear issue, while its semi-judicial format and unbalanced funding effectively discouraged and often prevented the level of participation which many objecting parties sought. The Government's assurance of a 'full and fair' debate proved to be hollow and in some quarters this has served to increase scepticism of the stated desire for public involvement in nuclear decision-making. Of the major controversies which have been in the subject of public inquiries in recent years, nuclear power is clearly one of the most challenging. It brings together an extremely varied band of objectors which, in the light of recent radioactive leakages from Windscale, future plans for waste storage facilities and the proposed plutonium reprocessing plant at Dounreay, promises only to grow
Komiyama, Reiko; McMorris, Alessandra
Motivation is thought to contribute to better text comprehension (Grabe, 2009), but L2 reading motivation of adult ESL students in the US is an underexplored area of research. The current study adopted self-determination theory--the concepts of intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and controlled motivation, in particular--to examine IEP…
Quinn, Kieran L; Crystal, Eugene; Lashevsky, Ilan; Arouny, Banafsheh; Baranchuk, Adrian
We have previously developed a novel digital tool capable of automatically recognizing correct electrocardiography (ECG) diagnoses in an online exam and demonstrated a significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy when utilizing an inductive-deductive reasoning strategy over a pattern recognition strategy. In this study, we sought to validate these findings from participants at the International Winter Arrhythmia School meeting, one of the foremost electrophysiology events in Canada. Preregistration to the event was sent by e-mail. The exam was administered on day 1 of the conference. Results and analysis were presented the following morning to participants. Twenty-five attendees completed the exam, providing a total of 500 responses to be marked. The online tool accurately identified 195 of a total of 395 (49%) correct responses (49%). In total, 305 responses required secondary manual review, of which 200 were added to the correct responses pool. The overall accuracy of correct ECG diagnosis for all participants was 69% and 84% when using pattern recognition or inductive-deductive strategies, respectively. Utilization of a novel digital tool to evaluate ECG competency can be set up as a workshop at international meetings or educational events. Results can be presented during the sessions to ensure immediate feedback. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
In order for science-based inquiry instruction to happen on a large scale in elementary classrooms across the country, evidence must be provided that implementing this reform can be realistic and practical, despite the challenges and obstacles teachers may face. This study sought to examine elementary teachers' knowledge and understanding of, attitudes toward, and overall perceptions of inquiry-based science instruction, and how these beliefs influenced their inquiry practice in the classroom. It offered a description and analysis of the approaches elementary science teachers in Islamic schools reported using to promote inquiry within the context of their science classrooms, and addressed the challenges the participating teachers faced when implementing scientific inquiry strategies in their instruction. The research followed a mixed method approach, best described as a sequential two-strand design (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2006). Sequential mixed designs develop two methodological strands that occur chronologically, and in the case of this research, QUAN→QUAL. Findings from the study supported the notion that the school and/or classroom environment could be a contextual factor that influenced some teachers' classroom beliefs about the feasibility of implementing science inquiry. Moreover, although teacher beliefs are influential, they are malleable and adaptable and influenced primarily by their own personal direct experiences with inquiry instruction or lack of.
Lin Ching Chen
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of four-year integrated information literacy instruction via a framework of inquiry-based learning on elementary students’ memory and comprehension. Moderating factors of students’ academic achievement was another focus of this study. The subjects were 72 students who have participated in this study since they entered an elementary school in Chiayi district. This elementary school adopted the integrated information literacy instruction, designed by the researchers and elementary school teachers, and integrated it into various subject matters via a framework of inquiry-based learning, such as Super 3 and Big6 models. A series of inquiry-based integrated information literacy instruction has been implemented since the second semester of the subjects’ first grade. A total of seven inquiry learning projects has been implemented from grade one through grade four. Fourteen instruments were used as pretests and posttests to assess students’ factual recall and conceptual understanding of subject contents in different projects. The results showed that inquiry-based integrated information literacy instruction couldhelp students memorize facts and comprehend concepts of subject contents. Regardless ofacademic achievements, if students would like to devote their efforts to inquiry processes, their memory and comprehension of subject contents improvedeffectively. However, students of low-academic achievement might need more time to be familiar with the inquiry-based learning strategy.
Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie
Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.
Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto
This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...
Rees, Charlotte E; Wearn, Andy M; Vnuk, Anna K; Sato, Toshio J
Although studies have begun to shed light on medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination (PPE), they have been conducted at single sites, and have generally not examined changes in medical students' attitudes over time. Employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, the current study examines medical students' attitudes towards PPE at schools from different geographical and cultural regions and assess changes in their attitudes over their first year of medical study. Students at six schools (Peninsula, UK; Durham, UK; Auckland, New Zealand; Flinders, Australia; Sapporo, Japan and Li Ka Shing, Hong Kong) completed the Examining Fellow Students (EFS) questionnaire near the start of their academic year (T1), and students at four schools (Peninsula, Durham, Auckland and Flinders) completed the EFS for a second time, around the end of their academic year (T2). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a high level of acceptance for PPE of non-intimate body regions amongst medical students from all schools (greater than 83%, hips, at T1 and 94.5%, hips and upper body, at T2). At T1 and T2, students' willingness to engage in PPE was associated with their gender, ethnicity, religiosity and school. Typically, students least comfortable with PPE at T1 and T2 were female, non-white, religious and studying at Auckland. Although students' attitudes towards PPE were reasonably stable over their first year of study, and after exposure to PPE, we did find some statistically significant differences in attitudes between T1 and T2. Interestingly, attitude changes were consistently predicted by gender, even when controlling for school. While male students' attitudes towards PPE were relatively stable over time, females' attitudes were changeable. In this paper, we discuss our findings in light of existing research and theory, and discuss their implications for educational practice and further research.
Li, Winnie Sim Siew; Arshad, Mohammad Yusof
Purpose: Inquiry teaching has been suggested as one of the important approaches in teaching chemistry. This study investigates the inquiry practices among chemistry teachers. Method: A combination of quantitative and qualitative study was applied in this study to provide detailed information about inquiry teaching practices. Questionnaires,…
van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte; van Hest, Erna G.W.C.M.; Poortman, Cindy Louise
This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group design to investigate whether participation in a large-scale inquiry project would improve primary teachers’ attitudes towards teaching science and towards conducting inquiry. The inquiry project positively affected several elements of
van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; Walma van der Molen, Juliette H.; van Hest, Erna G. W. C. M.; Poortman, Cindy
This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group design to investigate whether participation in a large-scale inquiry project would improve primary teachers' attitudes towards teaching science and towards conducting inquiry. The inquiry project positively affected several elements of teachers' attitudes. Teachers felt less anxious…
DiPasquale, Dana M.; Mason, Cheryl L.; Kolkhorst, Fred W.
Describes an inquiry-based teaching method implemented in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory course. Indicates students' strong, positive feelings about the inquiry-based teaching method and shows that inquiry-based learning results in a higher order of learning not typically observed in traditional style classes. This teaching method…
P John Williams
Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of a teacher’s experience in implementing an inquiry approach to his teaching over a period of two years with two different classes. His focus was on using a range of information technologies to support student inquiry learning. The study demonstrates the need to consider the characteristics of students when implementing an inquiry approach, and also the influence of the teachers level of understanding and related confidence in such an approach. The case also indicated that a range of technologies can be effective in supporting student inquiry learning.
Privitera, Mary Beth
Contextual Inquiry for Medical Device Design helps users understand the everyday use of medical devices and the way their usage supports the development of better products and increased market acceptance. The text explains the concept of contextual inquiry using real-life examples to illustrate its application. Case studies provide a frame of reference on how contextual inquiry is successfully used during product design, ultimately producing safer, improved medical devices. Presents the ways contextual inquiry can be used to inform the evaluation and business case of technologyHelps users
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Dunbar, Terry Frank
The use of the scientific inquiry method of teaching science was investigated in one district's elementary schools. The study generated data directly from Albuquerque Public Schools fourth- and fifth-grade teachers through a mail-out survey and through observation. Two forms of an inquiry evaluation research instrument (Elementary Science Inquiry Survey - ESIS) were created. The ESIS-A is a classroom observation tool. The ESIS-B is a survey questionnaire designed to collect information from teachers. The study was designed first to establish reliability and validity for both forms of the instrument. The study made use of multiple regression and exploratory factor analysis. Sources used to establish the instruments' reliability and validity included: (1) Input from an international panel (qualitative analysis of comments sent by raters and quantitative analysis of numerical ratings sent by raters); (2) Cronbach's alpha; (3) Results of factor analysis; (4) Survey respondents' comments (qualitative analysis); (5) Teacher observation data. Cronbach's alpha for the data set was .8955. Inquiry practices were reported to occur between twice per week and three times per week. Teachers' comments regarding inquiry were reported. The ESIS was used to collect inquiry self-report data and teacher background data. The teacher background data included teacher science knowledge and information about their standards awareness and implementation. The following teacher knowledge factors were positively correlated with inquiry use: semesters of college science, science workshops taken, conducted scientific research, and SIMSE (NSF institute) participation. The following standards awareness and implementation factors were positively correlated with inquiry use: familiarity with the National Science Education Standards, familiarity with New Mexico science standards, state or national standards as a curriculum selection factor, student interest as a curriculum selection factor, and "no
Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J; Lynam, M Judith; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather
Knowledge translation has been widely taken up as an innovative process to facilitate the uptake of research-derived knowledge into health care services. Drawing on a recent research project, we engage in a philosophic examination of how knowledge translation might serve as vehicle for the transfer of critically oriented knowledge regarding social justice, health inequities, and cultural safety into clinical practice. Through an explication of what might be considered disparate traditions (those of critical inquiry and knowledge translation), we identify compatibilities and discrepancies both within the critical tradition, and between critical inquiry and knowledge translation. The ontological and epistemological origins of the knowledge to be translated carry implications for the synthesis and translation phases of knowledge translation. In our case, the studies we synthesized were informed by various critical perspectives and hence we needed to reconcile differences that exist within the critical tradition. A review of the history of critical inquiry served to articulate the nature of these differences while identifying common purposes around which to strategically coalesce. Other challenges arise when knowledge translation and critical inquiry are brought together. Critique is one of the hallmark methods of critical inquiry and, yet, the engagement required for knowledge translation between researchers and health care administrators, practitioners, and other stakeholders makes an antagonistic stance of critique problematic. While knowledge translation offers expanded views of evidence and the complex processes of knowledge exchange, we have been alerted to the continual pull toward epistemologies and methods reminiscent of the positivist paradigm by their instrumental views of knowledge and assumptions of objectivity and political neutrality. These types of tensions have been productive for us as a research team in prompting a critical reconceptualization of
Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J.; Lynam, M. Judith; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather
Knowledge translation has been widely taken up as an innovative process to facilitate the uptake of research-derived knowledge into health care services. Drawing on a recent research project, we engage in a philosophic examination of how knowledge translation might serve as vehicle for the transfer of critically oriented knowledge regarding social justice, health inequities, and cultural safety into clinical practice. Through an explication of what might be considered disparate traditions (those of critical inquiry and knowledge translation), we identify compatibilities and discrepancies both within the critical tradition, and between critical inquiry and knowledge translation. The ontological and epistemological origins of the knowledge to be translated carry implications for the synthesis and translation phases of knowledge translation. In our case, the studies we synthesized were informed by various critical perspectives and hence we needed to reconcile differences that exist within the critical tradition. A review of the history of critical inquiry served to articulate the nature of these differences while identifying common purposes around which to strategically coalesce. Other challenges arise when knowledge translation and critical inquiry are brought together. Critique is one of the hallmark methods of critical inquiry and, yet, the engagement required for knowledge translation between researchers and health care administrators, practitioners, and other stakeholders makes an antagonistic stance of critique problematic. While knowledge translation offers expanded views of evidence and the complex processes of knowledge exchange, we have been alerted to the continual pull toward epistemologies and methods reminiscent of the positivist paradigm by their instrumental views of knowledge and assumptions of objectivity and political neutrality. These types of tensions have been productive for us as a research team in prompting a critical reconceptualization of
making timely and effective use of the community's knowledge base, towards producing solutions to sophisticated, ill defined problems in the domain of physics. Video analysis examined whether S3 supported teacher orchestration, freeing him to focus less on classroom management and more on students' inquiry. Three important outcomes of this research are a set of design principles for DTEL environments, a specific technology infrastructure (S3), and a DTEL research framework.
Slack, Amy B.
The purpose of this study was to examine preservice science teachers' experiences with repeated scientific inquiry (SI) activities. The National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) stress students should understand and possess the abilities to do SI. For students to meet these standards, science teachers must understand and be able to perform SI; however, previous research demonstrated that many teachers have naive understandings in this area. Teacher preparation programs provide an opportunity to facilitate the development of inquiry understandings and abilities. In this study, preservice science teachers had experiences with two inquiry activities that were repeated three times each. The research questions for this study were (a) How do preservice science teachers' describe their experiences with repeated, guided inquiry activities? (b) What are preservice science teachers' understandings and abilities of SI? This study was conducted at a large, urban university in the southeastern United States. The 5 participants had bachelor's degrees in science and were enrolled in a graduate science education methods course. The researcher was one of the course instructors but did not lead the activities. Case study methodology was used. Data was collected from a demographic survey, an open-ended questionnaire with follow-up interviews, the researcher's observations, participants' lab notes, personal interviews, and participants' journals. Data were coded and analyzed through chronological data matrices to identify patterns in participants' experiences. The five domains identified in this study were understandings of SI, abilities to conduct SI, personal feelings about the experience, science content knowledge, and classroom implications. Through analysis of themes identified within each domain, the four conclusions made about these preservice teachers' experiences with SI were that the experience increased their abilities to conduct inquiry
den Exter, André
In July 2009, the European Commission (DG Competition) published a Communication on the pharmaceutical sector. This inquiry was launched because there were some indications that competition in the pharmaceutical market in the European Union might not be working well. The report examines the reasons for the observed delay. This article analyses the outcomes from a critical standpoint, arguing in favour of enhanced 'soft law' accountability mechanisms in the pharmaceutical sector, defending conditional patenting and the introduction of a Community patent.
Full Text Available Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick, reliable method to classify U.S. from foreign cottons so that the appropriate tariffs can be levied for non-American cottons. In addition, there is some interest in avoiding cotton identity theft. Thus, an accurate and precise instrumental method would be of interest to correctly identify the country of origin of cotton. This study provides an analytical method to identify domestic and foreign cotton fibers using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA. Samples from American cottons were evaluated along with a representative amount of international samples. The results provide a proof of concept that indicates that PCA analysis can be used to separate the respective domestic and foreign cotton groups.
Gray, Bradley; Vandergrift, Jonathan; Lipner, Rebecca S; Green, Marianne M
Success on the internal medicine (IM) examination is a central requirement of the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM's) Maintenance of Certification program (MOC). Therefore, it is important to understand the degree to which this examination reflects conditions seen in practice, one dimension of content validity, which focuses on the match between content in the discipline and the topics on the examination questions. To assess whether the frequency of questions on IM-MOC examinations were concordant with the frequency of conditions seen in practice. The 2010-2013 IM-MOC examinations were used to calculate the percentage of questions for 186 medical condition categories from the examination blueprint, which balances examination content by considering importance and frequency of conditions seen in practice. Nationally representative estimates of conditions seen in practice by general internists were estimated from the primary diagnosis for 13 832 office visits (2010-2013 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys) and 108 472 hospital stays (2010 National Hospital Discharge Survey). Prevalence of conditions included on the IM-MOC examination questions. The outcome measure was the concordance between the percentages of IM-MOC examination questions and the percentages of conditions seen in practice during either office visits or hospital stays for each of 186 condition categories (eg, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, liver disease). The concordance thresholds were 0.5 SD of the weighted mean percentages of the applicable 186 conditions seen in practice (0.74% for office visits; 0.51% for hospital stays). If the absolute differences between the percentages of examination questions and the percentages of office visit conditions or hospital stay conditions seen were less than the applicable concordance threshold, then the condition category was judged to be concordant. During the 2010-2013 IM-MOC examination periods, 3600 questions (180 questions per
Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the social and economic changes, the human is already the main resource which determines the successfulness of corporations. The expertise in managing the human resources is a key factor of competitiveness therefore it has become a strategic question. Primary aim of the treatise is to outline the most important principles, targets and peculiarities of performance management system, which is a central element of human resource management, as well as its interconnectedness with the individual performance evaluation and human resource development through the mirror of one of today’s biggest Hungarian economic corporations. We aimed to explore, by means of document analysis as well as methods of case study and interview, how the targets of performance management are used for increasing the economic productivity, preserving the competitiveness, retaining and enhancing the satisfaction of workers. It can be stated that the PM system was continuously improved in case of the organization examined because the corporate goals and the expected performances were adjusted to the changing market demands over time but, at the same time the goal of differentiation has remained unchanged. Each worker evaluates his/her performance individually, the base of which is the extent of contribution to the corporate results. Based on the results, it can overall be stated that such a well-functioning performance management system is applied in the operating unit of the corporation examined which is strongly supported by the organizational culture and which contributes to the joint fulfilment of personal as well as organizational goals.
Correlations Between Ratings on the Resident Annual Evaluation Summary and the Internal Medicine Milestones and Association With ABIM Certification Examination Scores Among US Internal Medicine Residents, 2013-2014.
Hauer, Karen E; Vandergrift, Jonathan; Hess, Brian; Lipner, Rebecca S; Holmboe, Eric S; Hood, Sarah; Iobst, William; Hamstra, Stanley J; McDonald, Furman S
US internal medicine residency programs are now required to rate residents using milestones. Evidence of validity of milestone ratings is needed. To compare ratings of internal medicine residents using the pre-2015 resident annual evaluation summary (RAES), a nondevelopmental rating scale, with developmental milestone ratings. Cross-sectional study of US internal medicine residency programs in the 2013-2014 academic year, including 21 284 internal medicine residents (7048 postgraduate-year 1 [PGY-1], 7233 PGY-2, and 7003 PGY-3). Program director ratings on the RAES and milestone ratings. Correlations of RAES and milestone ratings by training year; correlations of medical knowledge ratings with American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification examination scores; rating of unprofessional behavior using the 2 systems. Corresponding RAES ratings and milestone ratings showed progressively higher correlations across training years, ranging among competencies from 0.31 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.33) to 0.35 (95% CI, 0.33 to 0.37) for PGY-1 residents to 0.43 (95% CI, 0.41 to 0.45) to 0.52 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.54) for PGY-3 residents (all P values internal medicine residents in the 2013-2014 academic year, milestone-based ratings correlated with RAES ratings but with a greater difference across training years. Both rating systems for medical knowledge correlated with ABIM certification examination scores. Milestone ratings may better detect problems with professionalism. These preliminary findings may inform establishment of the validity of milestone-based assessment.
This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)
Schomer, Scott D.
"Essential Features and Variations of Inquiry" table, were helpful for planning and assessing inquiry-based experiences. Examination of findings revealed how the process of purposefully collaborating on the development of inquiry-based lessons fostered a more student-centered approach to teaching and learning by the protege. Therefore, having new teachers continue to collaborate with reform-minded mentors beyond their first year of teaching may help new teachers develop inquiry-based pedagogies.
Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick
Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…
Scott, Ruth Lois; And Others
A study to assess the impact of an inquiry-oriented curriculum in a dental hygiene program is described. Two instruments, designed to measure student perception of personal and faculty inquiry and disinquiry behavior, were administered. The implications of the findings are discussed. (Author/MLW)
Wang, Haohao; Posey, Lisa
Linear algebra is a standard undergraduate mathematics course. This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an inquiry-based teaching material for the linear algebra course which emphasizes discovery learning, analytical thinking and individual creativity. The inquiry-based teaching material is designed to fit the needs of a…
Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki
Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…
Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey
Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…
Seher, Rachel; Traugh, Cecelia; Cheng, Alan
This article shows how City-As-School, a progressive public school in New York City, used descriptive inquiry to deepen shared decision making, which is a central value of the school and part of a democratic way of life. Descriptive inquiry is a democratic knowledge-making process that was developed at the Prospect School in North Bennington,…
Dreyøe, Jonas; Larsen, Dorte Moeskær; Hjelmborg, Mette Dreier
From a grading list of 28 of the highest ranked mathematics education journals, the six highest ranked journals were chosen, and a systematic search for inquiry-based mathematics education and related keywords was conducted. This led to five important theme/issues for inquiry-based learning...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor inquiries. 32.909 Section 32.909 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 32.909 Contractor inquiries. (a) Direct questions...
So, Winnie Wing-mui
Science as inquiry and mathematics as problem solving are conjoined fraternal twins attached by their similarities but with distinct differences. Inquiry and problem solving are promoted in contemporary science and mathematics education reforms as a critical attribute of the nature of disciplines, teaching methods, and learning outcomes involving…
Kovanovic, Vitomir; Gaševic, Dragan; Hatala, Marek
This paper describes doctoral research that focuses on the development of a learning analytics framework for inquiry-based digital learning. Building on the Community of Inquiry model (CoI)--a foundation commonly used in the research and practice of digital learning and teaching--this research builds on the existing body of knowledge in two…
Le Fevre, Deidre M.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.; Sinnema, Claire E. L.
The concept of inquiry is central to contemporary discussions of teacher and leader professional learning and problem solving in interpersonal contexts. However, while few would debate its value, there has been little discussion of the significant challenges inherent in engaging in genuine inquiry. In this article, we distinguish between genuine…
Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.
Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.
Trajkovski, Suza; Schmied, Virginia; Vickers, Margaret; Jackson, Debra
To examine and critique how the phases of the 4D cycle (Discovery, Dream, Design, and Destiny) of appreciative inquiry are implemented in a healthcare context. Appreciative inquiry is a theoretical research perspective, an emerging research methodology and a world view that builds on action research, organizational learning, and organizational change. Increasing numbers of articles published provide insights and learning into its theoretical and philosophical underpinnings. Many articles describe appreciative inquiry and the outcomes of their studies; however, there is a gap in the literature examining the approaches commonly used to implement the 4D cycle in a healthcare context. A methodological review following systematic principles. A methodological review was conducted including articles from the inception of appreciative inquiry in 1986 to the time of writing this review in November, 2011. Key database searches included CINAHL, Emerald, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus. A methodological review following systematic principles was undertaken. Studies were included if they described in detail the methods used to implement the 4D cycle of appreciative inquiry in a healthcare context. Nine qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Results highlighted that appreciative inquiry application is unique and varied between studies. The 4D phases were not rigid steps and were adapted to the setting and participants. Overall, participant enthusiasm and commitment were highlighted suggesting appreciative inquiry was mostly positively perceived by participants. Appreciative inquiry provides a positive way forward shifting from problems to solutions offering a new way of practicing in health care and health research. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available In this article, the author explains how and why one particular qualitative research approach, the naturalistic inquiry paradigm, was implemented in an e-learning research study that investigated the use of the World Wide Web technology in higher education. A framework is presented that situates the research study within the qualitative research literature. The author then justifies how the study was compliant with naturalistic inquiry and concludes by presenting a model for judging the quality of such research. The purpose of this article is to provide an example of how naturalistic inquiry can be implemented in e-learning research that can serve as a guide for researchers undertaking this form of qualitative inquiry. As such, the focus of the article is to illustrate how methodological issues pertaining to naturalistic inquiry were addressed and justified to represent a rigorous research approach rather than presenting the results of the research study.
Brewer, Robert A.
This manuscript examines the practical differences between quantitative and qualitative inquiry by comparing the differences between one article from each paradigm. Quantitative research differs greatly from qualitative inquiry in purpose, assumptions, methodology, and representation. While quantitative research has been the dominant paradigm for…
Martinez, J. E.; Golden, J. L.
The starboard SARJ mechanism on the ISS suffered a premature lubrication failure, resulting in widespread loss of the nitride case layer on its 10.3 meter circumference, 15-5PH steel race ring [1, 2]. To restore functionality, vacuum-stable grease was applied on-orbit, first to the port SARJ mechanism to save it from the damage suffered by the starboard mechanism. After 3 years of greased operation, telemetry indicated that the port mechanism required relubrication, so part of that process included sampling each of the three race ring surfaces to evaluate any wear debris recovered and the state of the originally applied grease. Extensive microscopic examination was conducted, which directed subsequent microanalysis of particulate. Since the SARJ mechanism operates in the vacuum of space, a sampling method and tool had to be developed for use by astronauts while working in the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). The sampling tool developed was a cotton terry-cloth mitt for the EMU glove, with samples taken by swiping each of the three port SARJ race-ring surfaces. The sample mitts for each surface were folded inward after sampling to preserve sample integrity, for return and ground analysis. The sample mitt for what is termed the outer canted surface of the SARJ race-ring is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 also demonstrates how increasing levels of magnification were used to survey the contamination removed in sampling, specifically looking for signs of wear debris or other features which could be further evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. The most surprising overall result at this point in the analysis was the relatively small amounts of grease recovered during sampling. It is clear that the mechanism was not operating with surplus lubricant. Obviously, evidence of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a major component in the grease applied, was prevalent in the analysis conducted. But a small amount of mechanism wear debris was observed. Figure 2
An inquiry was made by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to Nuclear Safety Commission on the addition of Unit 2 in Shimane Nuclear Power Station of The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., concerning the technical capability of Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., and the plant safety. The NSC requested the Committee on Examination of Reactor Safety to make a deliberation on this subject. Both the technical capability and the safety of Unit 1 were already confirmed by MITI. Unit 2 to be newly added in the Shimane Nuclear Power Station is a BWR power plant with electric output of 820 MW. The examination made by MITI is described: the technical capability of Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., the safety of Unit 2 about its siting, reactor proper, reactor cooling system, radioactive waste management, etc. (J.P.N.)
Rhazi, J.; Ballivy, G.; Rivest, M.
A new process in civil engineering that can be used to examine the internal condition of a concrete structure using non-intrusive data acquisition techniques was discussed. The process described combines elements of computerized tomography with scientific visualization techniques to obtain representation of the structure showing the spatial distribution of stress wave velocity within the structure. An overview of the theory, details of the experimental procedure, and treatment of the data obtained are provided. Application of the technique to an existing structure is described. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.
Alrø, Helle; Johnsen-Høines, Marit
in inquiring questions, and what other ways of communicating may have an inquiring function in learning conversations? The intention is to develop and frame the concept of ’inquiry’ in learning conversations, and this is the focus of analysis of an authentic classroom situation, where teacher and pupils...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination procedures. 92.60 Section 92.60... and Letters Rogatory § 92.60 Examination procedures. (a) Explaining interrogatory to witness. If the... examination of a witness propound such inquiries as may be necessary to satisfy himself whether the witness is...
Wicker, Rosemary Knight
The South Carolina Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative established a school-based science coaching model that was effective in improving instruction by increasing the level of inquiry-based instruction in elementary science classrooms. Classroom learning environment data from both teacher groups indicated considerable differences in the quality of inquiry instruction for those classrooms of teachers supported by a science coach. All essential features of inquiry were demonstrated more frequently and at a higher level of open-ended inquiry in classrooms with the support of a science coach than were demonstrated in classrooms without a science coach. However, from teacher observations and interviews, it was determined that elementary schoolteacher practice of having students evaluate conclusions and connect them to current scientific knowledge was often neglected. Teachers with support of a science coach reported changes in inquiry-based instruction that were statistically significant. This mixed ethnographic study also suggested that the Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative Theory of Action for Instructional Improvement was an effective model when examining the work of science coaches. All components of effective school infrastructure were positively impacted by a variety of science coaching strategies intended to promote inquiry. Professional development for competent teachers, implementation of researched-based curriculum, and instructional materials support were areas highly impacted by the work of science coaches.
The purpose of this research was to explore pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry within the context of their elementary science teaching and learning. More specifically, the study examined 24 pre-service elementary teachers' emerging understanding of (1) the nature of science and scientific inquiry; (2) the "place" of scientific inquiry in school science; and (3) the roles and responsibilities of teachers and students within an inquiry-based learning environment. Data sources consisted primarily of student-generated artifacts collected throughout the semester, including pre/post-philosophy statements and text-based materials collected from electronic dialogue journals. Individual data sources were open-coded to identify concepts and categories expressed by students. Cross-comparisons were conducted and patterns were identified. Assertions were formed with these patterns. Findings are hopeful in that they suggest pre-service teachers can develop a more contemporary view of scientific inquiry when immersed in a context that promotes this perspective. Not surprisingly, however, the prospective teachers encountered a number of barriers when attempting to translate their emerging ideas into practice. More research is needed to determine which teacher preparation experiences are most powerful in supporting pre-service teachers as they construct a framework for science teaching and learning that includes scientific inquiry as a central component.
Bell, Thorsten; Urhahne, Detlef; Schanze, Sascha; Ploetzner, Rolf
Collaborative inquiry learning is one of the most challenging and exciting ventures for today's schools. It aims at bringing a new and promising culture of teaching and learning into the classroom where students in groups engage in self-regulated learning activities supported by the teacher. It is expected that this way of learning fosters students' motivation and interest in science, that they learn to perform steps of inquiry similar to scientists and that they gain knowledge on scientific processes. Starting from general pedagogical reflections and science standards, the article reviews some prominent models of inquiry learning. This comparison results in a set of inquiry processes being the basis for cooperation in the scientific network NetCoIL. Inquiry learning is conceived in several ways with emphasis on different processes. For an illustration of the spectrum, some main conceptions of inquiry and their focuses are described. In the next step, the article describes exemplary computer tools and environments from within and outside the NetCoIL network that were designed to support processes of collaborative inquiry learning. These tools are analysed by describing their functionalities as well as effects on student learning known from the literature. The article closes with challenges for further developments elaborated by the NetCoIL network.
Zrinka Ristić Dedić
Full Text Available The study examines two components of metacognitive knowledge in the context of inquiry learning: metatask and metastrategic. Existing work on the topic has shown that adolescents often lacked metacognitive understanding necessary for optimal inquiry learning (Keselman & Kuhn, 2002; Kuhn, 2002a; Kuhn, Black, Keselman, & Kaplan, 2000, but demonstrated that engagement with inquiry tasks may improve it (Keselman, 2003; Kuhn & Pearsall, 1998.The aim of the study is to investigate the gains in metacognitive knowledge that occur as a result of repeated engagement with an inquiry learning task, and to examine the relationship between metacognitive knowledge and performance on the task.The participants were 34 eighth grade pupils, who participated in a self-directed experimentation task using the FILE programme (Hulshof, Wilhelm, Beishuizen, & van Rijn, 2005. The task required pupils to design and conduct experiments and to make inferences regarding the causal structure of a multivariable system. Pupils participated in four learning sessions over the course of one month. Metacognitive knowledge was assessed by the questionnaire before and after working in FILE.The results indicate that pupils improved in metacognitive knowledge following engagement with the task. However, many pupils showed insufficient metacognitive knowledge in the post-test and failed to apply newly achieved knowledge to the transfer task. Pupils who attained a higher level of metacognitive knowledge were more successful on the task than pupils who did not improve on metacognitive knowledge. A particular level of metacognitive understanding is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for successful performance on the task.
Grabow, Aleksandria Perez; Khurana, Atika; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Harold, Gordon T.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.
Maternal trauma is a complex risk factor that has been linked to adverse child outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study, which included adoptive and biological families, examined the heritable and environmental mechanisms by which maternal trauma and associated depressive symptoms are linked to child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Path analyses were used to analyze data from 541 adoptive mother–adopted child (AM–AC) dyads and 126 biological mother–biological child (BM–BC) dyads; the two family types were linked through the same biological mother. Rearing mother’s trauma was associated with child internalizing and externalizing behaviors in AM–AC and BM–BC dyads, and this association was mediated by rearing mothers’ depressive symptoms, with the exception of biological child externalizing behavior, for which biological mother trauma had a direct influence only. Significant associations between maternal trauma and child behavior in dyads that share only environment (i.e., AM–AC dyads) suggest an environmental mechanism of influence for maternal trauma. Significant associations were also observed between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing behavior in dyads that were only genetically related, with no shared environment (i.e., BM–AC dyads), suggesting a heritable pathway of influence via maternal depressive symptoms. PMID:29162177
Mathis, Bradley R; Warm, Eric J; Schauer, Daniel P; Holmboe, Eric; Rouan, Gregory W
The Internal Medicine In-Training Exam (IM-ITE) assesses the content knowledge of internal medicine trainees. Many programs use the IM-ITE to counsel residents, to create individual remediation plans, and to make fundamental programmatic and curricular modifications. To assess the association between a multiple-choice testing program administered during 12 consecutive months of ambulatory and inpatient elective experience and IM-ITE percentile scores in third post-graduate year (PGY-3) categorical residents. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred and four categorical internal medicine residents. Forty-five residents in the 2008 and 2009 classes participated in the study group, and the 59 residents in the three classes that preceded the use of the testing program, 2005-2007, served as controls. A comprehensive, elective rotation specific, multiple-choice testing program and a separate board review program, both administered during a continuous long-block elective experience during the twelve months between the second post-graduate year (PGY-2) and PGY-3 in-training examinations. We analyzed the change in median individual percent correct and percentile scores between the PGY-1 and PGY-2 IM-ITE and between the PGY-2 and PGY-3 IM-ITE in both control and study cohorts. For our main outcome measure, we compared the change in median individual percentile rank between the control and study cohorts between the PGY-2 and the PGY-3 IM-ITE testing opportunities. After experiencing the educational intervention, the study group demonstrated a significant increase in median individual IM-ITE percentile score between PGY-2 and PGY-3 examinations of 8.5 percentile points (p ITE performance.
Full Text Available Narrative journalism is a method to craft stories worth reading about real people. In this article, we explore the ability of that communicative power to produce insights complementary to those obtainable through traditional qualitative and quantitative research methods. With examples from a study of journalistic narrative as patient involvement in professional rehabilitation, interview data transcribed as stories are analyzed for qualities of heterogeneity, sensibility, transparency, and reflexivity. Building on sociological theories of thinking with stories, writing as inquiry, and public journalism as ethnography, we suggest that narrative journalism as a common practice might unfold dimensions of subjective otherness of the self. Aspiring to unite writing in both transparently confrontational and empathetically dialogic ways, the narrative journalistic method holds a potential to expose dynamics of power within the interview.
This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... larger social issues. As living human beings in cultural worlds, we are constantly surrounded by 'data' that call for analysis, and as we cope with the different situations and episodes of our lives, we are engaged in understanding and interpreting the world as a form of qualitative inquiry. The book...... helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials....
Barney G. Glaser
Full Text Available The world of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA methodology became quite taken with LINCOLN and GUBA's book "Naturalist Inquiry" (1985. I have no issue with it with respect to its application to QDA; it helped clarify and advance so many QDA issues. However, its application to Grounded Theory (GT has been a major block on GT, as originated, by its cooptation and corruption hence remodeling of GT by default. LINCOLN and GUBA have simply assumed GT is just another QDA method, which it is not. In "The Grounded Theory Perspective II" (GLASER 2002a, Chapter 9 on credibility, I have discussed "Naturalist Inquiry" (NI thought regarding how LINCOLN and GUBA's notion of "trustworthy" data (or worrisome data orientation and how their view of constant comparison can and has remodeled and eroded GT. In this paper I will consider other aspects of NI that remodel GT. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040170
Blomhøj, Morten; Artigue, Michéle
of inquiry as a pedagogical concept in the work of Dewey (e.g. 1916, 1938) to analyse and discuss its migration to science and mathematics education. For conceptualizing inquiry-based mathematics education (IBME) it is important to analyse how this concept resonates with already well-established theoretical...... frameworks in mathematics education. Six such frameworks are analysed from the perspective of inquiry: the problem-solving tradition, the Theory of Didactical Situations, the Realistic Mathematics Education programme, the mathematical modelling perspective, the Anthropological Theory of Didactics...
inquiry or critical thinking. Discussion: The value of this study is that it might enable educational developers to give junior faculty better guidance on teaching and specific feedback on their teaching portfolio in particular in regards to the design of learning activities that might use scientific...... in terms of a more systematic approach to higher-level thinking. Thus although participants cited one or more constructivist educational theorists, they did not express a well-articulated notion of inquiry and they provided limited concrete examples on how to design a conducive learning environment around...... inquiry as means and end in higher education....
Mr. Charles Haddon-Cave presented learning from the inquiry into the loss of the Nimrod aircraft and its crew of 13 in 2006. Mr. Haddon-Cave is the author of The Nimrod Review - an independent review into the broader issues surrounding the loss of an RAF Nimrod aircraft in Afghanistan in 2006. The full report can be accessed at: http://www.officialdocuments. gov.uk/document/hc0809/hc10/1025/1025.pdf. Mr. Haddon-Cave opened the presentation with general remarks on the responsibilities of the regulator, and the environment within which they operate. He emphasised the need for regulators to exercise personal responsibility, accountability, integrity, and to maintain a balanced approach to regulation. The following organisational and cultural issues leading to the Nimrod accident were summarised: - Organisational complexity within the Ministry of Defence. - Management by committee and consensus. - Dilution of accountability and responsibility. - Lack of challenge, which provides a barrier to wrong decision-making. - Migration of responsibility from operators to government departments. - 'Triumph' of generalists over technical specialists. - Weak signals overlooked (small voices drowned out). - Distraction due to large numbers of organisational changes and initiatives. - Longstanding acceptance of problems. 'Can do will do' became 'Make do and muddle through'. The Nimrod inquiry identified 12 parallels between the organisational causes of the Nimrod and the Columbia accident, reinforcing the message from the first plenary presentation on common underlying themes. Mr. Haddon-Cave delivered a number of key messages for regulatory managers and leaders such as the importance of: - Recognising and reinforcing the pivotal role of the operating organisation in ensuring safety. - Questioning and challenging assumptions. - Ensuring that roles and responsibilities are clearly defined. - Exercising caution when out-sourcing to avoid 'out-sourcing your thinking'. - Focusing on
Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Herman, Benjamin C.
Given the abundance of literature describing the strong relationship between inquiry-based teaching and student achievement, more should be known about the factors impacting science teachers' classroom inquiry implementation. This study utilises the theory of planned behaviour to propose and validate a causal model of inquiry-based teaching through analysing data relating to high-performing countries retrieved from the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study assessments. Data analysis was completed through structural equation modelling using a polychoric correlation matrix for data input and diagonally weighted least squares estimation. Adequate fit of the full model to the empirical data was realised. The model demonstrates that the extent the teachers participated in academic collaborations was positively related to their occupational satisfaction, confidence in teaching inquiry, and classroom inquiry practices. Furthermore, the teachers' confidence with implementing inquiry was positively related to their classroom inquiry implementation and occupational satisfaction. However, perceived student-generated constraints demonstrated a negative relationship with the teachers' confidence with implementing inquiry and occupational satisfaction. Implications from this study include supporting teachers through promoting collaborative opportunities that facilitate inquiry-based practices and occupational satisfaction.
Alake-Tuenter, E.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Tobi, H.; Mulder, M.
Earlier, extracted inquiry-based science teaching competency elements and domains from the international literature were compared to the United States' National Science Teaching Standards. The present Delphi study aimed to validate the findings for the Netherlands, where such standards are lacking.
Early adolescents may lack the cognitive and metacognitive skills necessary for effective inquiry learning. In particular, they are likely to have a nonnormative mental model of multivariable causality in which effects of individual variables are neither additive nor consistent. Described here is a software-based intervention designed to facilitate students' metalevel and performance-level inquiry skills by enhancing their understanding of multivariable causality. Relative to an exploration-only group, sixth graders who practiced predicting an outcome (earthquake risk) based on multiple factors demonstrated increased attention to evidence, improved metalevel appreciation of effective strategies, and a trend toward consistent use of a controlled comparison strategy. Sixth graders who also received explicit instruction in making predictions based on multiple factors showed additional improvement in their ability to compare multiple instances as a basis for inferences and constructed the most accurate knowledge of the system. Gains were maintained in transfer tasks. The cognitive skills and metalevel understanding examined here are essential to inquiry learning.
Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike
Citizen Inquiry forms a new method of informal science learning and aims to enable the engagement of citizens in online scientific investigations. Citizen Inquiry combines aspects from Citizen Science and Inquiry-based learning and is implemented through a community of practice where people having a shared interest interact and exchange knowledge and methods supported and guided by online systems and tools within a web-based inquiry environment. To explore the potential of Citizen Inquiry, a ...
Gluyas, Heather; Alliex, Selma; Morrison, Paul
This paper reports the first part of a case study investigation to examine the changes at King Edward Memorial Hospital (KEMH) following an inquiry established to review the quality of obstetric and gynaecological services. Common findings from a range of health inquiries in recent times include that there have been inadequate adverse event reporting systems, the absence of transparent systems for staff and patients to report concerns about quality of patient care, and an ineffective medical credentialing and performance review system. The similarity of findings from many health inquiries raises the question of whether an inquiry does lead to changes to improve patient care and safety. There has been very little reported in the literature about this. Using a case study strategy the areas of medical credentialing, performance review and involvement of consumers in care were chosen as the KEMH clinical governance processes to be examined for changes post inquiry. Documents, archives and interviews were used as data sources for this case study. Documents were examined using a normative analytic approach and the Miles and Huberman framework was used for data analysis of the interviews. There were significant changes in the area of credentialing and performance review evident in analysis of all sources of data. There were some improvements in the processes of involving consumers in care, but deficits were identified in regard to the provision of training and upskilling for clinicians to improve their communication skills and interactions with patients and families.
Krämer, Philipp; Nessler, Stefan H.; Schlüter, Kirsten
Background: Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) is suitable to teach scientific contents as well as to foster scientific skills. Similar conclusions are drawn by studies with respect to scientific literacy, motivational aspects, vocabulary knowledge, conceptual understandings, critical thinking, and attitudes toward science. Nevertheless, IBSE is rarely adopted in schools. Often barriers for teachers account for this lack, with the result that even good teachers struggle to teach science as inquiry. More importantly, studies indicate that several barriers and constraints could be ascribed to problems teacher students have at the university stage. Purpose: The purpose of this explorative investigation is to examine the problems teacher students have when teaching science through inquiry. In order to draw a holistic picture of these problems, we identified problems from three different points of view leading to the research question: What problems regarding IBSE do teacher students have from an objective, a subjective, and a self-reflective perspective? Design & method: Using video analysis and observation tools as well as qualitative content analysis and open questionnaires we identified problems from each perspective. Results: The objectively stated problems comprise the lack of essential features of IBSE especially concerning 'Supporting pupils' own investigations' and 'Guiding analysis and conclusions.' The subjectively perceived problems comprise concerns about 'Teachers' abilities' and 'Pupils' abilities,' 'Differentiated instruction' and institutional frame 'Conditions' while the self-reflectively noticed problems mainly comprise concerns about 'Allowing inquiry,' 'Instructional Aspects,' and 'Pupils' behavior.' Conclusions: Each of the three different perspectives provides plenty of problems, partially overlapping, partially complementing one another, and partially revealing completely new problems. Consequently, teacher educators have to consider these
Kusnadi, K.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Redjeki, S.; Aryantha, I. N. P.
The implementation of the inquiry laboratory based project to enhance scientific inquiry literacy of prospective biology teachers in Microbiology course has been done. The inquiry lab based project was designed by three stages were debriefing of basic microbiology lab skills, guided inquiry and free inquiry respectively. The Study was quasi experimental with control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects were prospective biology teachers consists of 80 students. The scientific inquiry literacy instrument refers to ScInqLiT by Wenning. The results showed that there was significant difference of scientific inquiry literacy posttest scores between experiment and control (α 0,05) and was obtained N-gain score was 0.49 (medium) to experiment and 0.24 (low) to control. Based on formative assessment showed that development of student’s scientific attitude, research and microbiology lab skills during conducting project were increased. Student’s research skills especially in identification of variables, constructing a hypothesis, communicating and concluding were increased. During implementation of inquiry project also showed that they carried out mind and hands-on and so collaborative group investigation lab activities. Our findings may aid in reforming higher-education, particularly in microbiology laboratory activities to better promote scientific inquiry literacy, scientific attitude, research and laboratory skills.
Herrington, Deborah G.; Bancroft, Senetta F.; Edwards, Molly M.; Schairer, Caroline J.
This qualitative study examined how and why research experiences for teachers (RETs) influenced middle and high school science teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and values about teaching science as inquiry. Changes teachers reported after participating in the RET ranged from modifying a few lessons (belief change) to a comprehensive revision of what…
Healey, Mick; Jenkins, Alan
The focus of this article is on the role of academic developers in supporting and influencing undergraduate research and inquiry, a high-impact activity. We examine the levels at which academic developers can influence undergraduate research and inquiry practices by distinguishing between staff and student practices; disciplinary and departmental…
Cantalini-Williams, Maria; Curtis, Debra; Eden-DeGasperis, Kimberley; Esposto, Lauren; Guibert, Jenny; Papp, Heather; Roque, Carlos
This study examined a collaborative inquiry process, facilitated by university faculty in an elementary school, intended to develop a research community, foster knowledge mobilization, and enhance student engagement. The Collaborative Inquiry Team in Education (CITE) initiative consisted of five school-based sessions that included videos,…
Ecker, David W.
The teaching model in the visual arts will be derived less from the painter and more from the art critic as art education moves into aesthetic inquiry. There are implications for other arts as well. (Editor)
Artful Inquiry as a Leadership Skill Lotte Darsø Abstract for 8th AMO 2016: Open Stream How do leaders develop their own leadership? How do leaders get inspiration and energy for leading and how do they make decisions in complex situations with scarce information? In this paper I will argue...... that artful inquiry is an important leadership skill, both in relation for leaders to rekindle themselves and their employees. I’ll define Artful Inquiry as the skill of inquiring into something of importance through body, mind, heart and spirit. Artful Inquiry taps into the leader’s tacit knowledge...... of materials such as paper, clay, LEGO pieces, photos, cloth, materials from nature, or a combinations of these); embodying (e.g. exploring positions, developing empathy, or focused sensing into what the body knows); listening (e.g. to different music pieces or live music); or presencing (e.g. through...
Schachtel, Paula L.; Messina, D. L.; McDermott, L. C.
As a science coach in the Seattle School District, I am responsible for helping other elementary teachers teach science. For several years, I have been participating in a program that consists of intensive NSF Summer Institutes and an ongoing academic-year Continuation Course. Teachers in this program work through modules in Physics by Inquiry, a research-based curriculum developed by the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington.1 I will discuss how this type of professional development has deepened my understanding of topics in physical science, helped me to teach science by inquiry to my own students, and enabled me to assist my colleagues in implementing inquiry science in their K-5 classrooms. Sponsored by Lillian C. McDermott. 1. A research-based curriculum developed by L.C. McDermott and the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington, Physics by Inquiry, New York, NY, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1996.)
Full Text Available This study shares the findings of a school-based Action Research project to explore how inquiry-based science practical lessons designed using the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS classroom pedagogical model influence the way students learn scientific knowledge and also students' development of 21st century competencies, in particular, in the area of Knowledge Construction. Taking on a broader definition of the flipped classroom pedagogical model, the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework adopts a structure that inverted the traditional science learning experience. Scientific knowledge is constructed through discussions with their peers, making use of their prior knowledge and their experiences while engaging in hands-on activities. Through the study, it is found that with the use of the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework, learning experiences that are better aligned to the epistemology of science while developing 21st century competencies in students are created.
Stoustrup, Peter; Twilt, Marinka; Spiegel, Lynn; Kristensen, Kasper Dahl; Koos, Bernd; Pedersen, Thomas Klit; Küseler, Annelise; Cron, Randy Q; Abramowicz, Shelly; Verna, Carlalberta; Peltomäki, Timo; Alstergren, Per; Petty, Ross; Ringold, Sarah; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Saurenmann, Rotraud K; Herlin, Troels
To develop international consensus-based recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), for use in clinical practice and research. Using a sequential phased approach, a multidisciplinary task force developed and evaluated a set of recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA. Phase 1: A Delphi survey was conducted among 40 expert physicians and dentists with the aim of identifying and ranking the importance of items for inclusion. Phase 2: The task force developed consensus about the domains and items to be included in the recommendations. Phase 3: A systematic literature review was performed to assess the evidence supporting the consensus-based recommendations. Phase 4: An independent group of orofacial and JIA experts were invited to assess the content validity of the task force's recommendations. Five recommendations were developed to assess the following 5 domains: medical history, orofacial symptoms, muscle and temporomandibular joint function, orofacial function, and dentofacial growth. After application of data search criteria, 56 articles were included in the systematic review. The level of evidence for the 5 recommendations was derived primarily from descriptive studies, such as cross-sectional and case-control studies. Five recommendations are proposed for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA to improve the clinical practice and aid standardized data collection for future studies. The task force has formulated a future research program based on the proposed recommendations.
Lambert, C M [comp.
The nuclear debate, far from being concluded by the Windscale decision, was in fact opened up and its scope widened to take into account the political, international, environmental and social issues involved. This debate continues and the selection of literature presented here aims to illustrate all aspects of the Inquiry and its implications. The material is presented in two main sections. Section A is concerned with the Inquiry itself: the proceedings, the report and the government's decision. Section B presents a selection of the literature and debate that resulted.
Puckett, Jae A; Newcomb, Michael E; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian
Internalized homophobia (IH) is the internalization of homophobic attitudes by sexual minorities due to social bias. IH has been inconsistently related to substance use and condomless sex for young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We examined negative urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative emotional experiences), positive urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to positive emotional experiences), and sensation seeking as independent moderators of the association of IH with binge drinking, drug use, and condomless anal sex. Data were collected from 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) over the course of 18 months (baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up). Hierarchical generalized linear modeling revealed that there was a significant moderation for binge drinking and receptive condomless anal sex, with the association between IH and these risk behaviors increased for those with higher levels of negative urgency and positive urgency. IH is important to the negative health outcomes of binge drinking and condomless anal sex for individuals high in negative and/or positive urgency, who may act impulsively to avoid subjective negative experiences or in the face of positive emotional experiences. Future research is needed to further establish additional conditions under which IH may be important to understanding risk behaviors in YMSM, which is essential to developing targeted prevention and intervention efforts.
A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The policy is to replicate the Sizewell ''B'' PWR design which was accepted as safe by an earlier enquiry. In this evidence to the Inquiry, subsequent developments are examined with a view to determining whether these would reverse the Sizewell decision. They are: the possible revision of radiation risk estimates upwards; whether cases of leukaemia occur with greater frequency around nuclear sites than elsewhere; publication of the Health and Safety Executive's consultative document ''The Tolerability of Risk from Nuclear Power Stations''. The overall conclusion is that these developments do not undermine the findings of the Sizewell ''B'' inquiry or the validity of the CEGB's safety criteria. (author)
Inquiry-based working is assumed to contribute to improving educational quality and to stimulate professional learning. It involves having an inquiry habit of mind, being data literate and creating a culture of inquiry in schools (based on Earl & Katz, 2006). The general aim of this study was to
Erlandson, Benjamin E.; Nelson, Brian C.; Savenye, Wilhelmina C.
Educational multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) have been shown to be effective platforms for situated science inquiry curricula. While researchers find MUVEs to be supportive of collaborative scientific inquiry processes, the complex mix of multi-modal messages present in MUVEs can lead to cognitive overload, with learners unable to…
Zuiker, Steven; Whitaker, J. Reid
This paper describes the 5E+I/A inquiry model and reports a case study of one curricular enactment by a US fifth-grade classroom. A literature review establishes the model's conceptual adequacy with respect to longstanding research related to both the 5E inquiry model and multiple, incremental innovations of it. As a collective line of research,…
This article addresses the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry in nuclear physics education. In the spirit of an earlier study of 57 senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students, this work focuses here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one such book. "Particles and Nuclei: an introduction to the physical…
Margus Pedaste; Leo Siiman; Bregje de Vries; Mirjam Burget; Tomi Jaakkola; Emanuele Bardone; Meelis Brikker; Mario Mäeots; Marianne Lind; Koen Veermans
Ark of Inquiry is a learning platform that uses a computer-based inquiry learning approach to raise youth awareness to Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). It is developed in the context of a large-scale European project (http://www.arkofinquiry.eu) and provides young European citizens
Broderick, Jane Tingle; Hong, Seong Bock
The Cycle of Inquiry (COI) is a tool for emergent curriculum planning and for professional development of early childhood teachers and teacher education students. The COI includes a sequence of five organizational forms connecting analysis of documentation data with intentional planning for long-term emergent inquiry inspired by the Reggio Emilia…
One way to advance inquiry in the classroom is to establish a systematic strategy for reflecting on our practice and our students' readiness to engage in increasingly complex scientific reasoning. The Matrix for Assessing and Planning Scientific Inquiry (MAPSI) is a tool that promotes this valuable reflection so that we, as teachers, are better…
Full Text Available With its capacity to unharness the power of narrative to promote meaning-making of lived experience, narrative inquiry is developing as a credible approach to research in several areas in the field of language teaching (Johnson, 2006. This article tells the story of two narrative researchers working in language teacher education who engaged in a collaborative narrative inquiry as both participants and inquirers, in order to learn more about narrative inquiry. The ‘bounded’ nature of their inquiry design provided a feasible way for them to explore their focus of research (i.e. their learning about narrative inquiry, and led them, through an iterative and reflexive process of analysing their narrative data, to formulate what they believe are essential ingredients of principled narrative inquiry work. Four narrative inquiry variables became the scaffolding which enabled them to answer their research questions, and are offered here as a heuristic for teaching practitioners, whether they be teachers, teacher educators or researchers, to guide them in narrative inquiries into their own work.
Sandars, John; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah
The practice of medicine, and also medical education, typically adopts a problem-solving approach to identify "what is going wrong" with a situation. However, an alternative is Appreciative Inquiry (AI), which adopts a positive and strengths-based approach to identify "what is going well" with a situation. The AI approach can be used for the development and enhancement of the potential of both individuals and organizations. An essential aspect of the AI approach is the generative process, in which a new situation is envisioned and both individual and collective strengths are mobilized to make changes to achieve the valued future situation. The AI approach has been widely used in the world of business and general education, but is has an exciting potential for medical education, including curriculum development, faculty development, supporting learners through academic advising and mentoring, but also for enhancing the teaching and learning of both individuals and groups. This AMEE Guide describes the core principles of AI and their practical application in medical education.
Haskell, Deborah Harris
As teachers implement the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) many have to reform the instructional methods they have used throughout their careers. This case study examines the transformation of Laurie, a 20-year teacher, during her first year of change from a "traditional" textbook/lecture style of teaching to a facilitator of an inquiry-based classroom. Implementing change requires not only pedagogical expertise, but also the belief that the modifications can be made and that the outcomes are significant. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory as a framework, changes in Laurie's self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and motivation are followed throughout the transition. During her first year of change, Laurie used worksheets, small group activities, and guided inquiry activities, all strategies in which she had high self-efficacy and experienced positive student outcomes. She rarely used class forums, authentic assessment, and formative assessment. Factors that influenced her change were experiential professional development opportunities that allowed her to practice inquiry-based techniques, a change in her teaching environment from college prep chemistry to tech prep biology, autonomy regarding classroom decisions, and reflective decision making as she learned through experience. Using a standards-based biology textbook increased her self-efficacy toward using inquiry-based practices. The textbook format of embedding text in activities rather than adding activities to the text resulted in an increase of the number and frequency of activities done. Facilitating the textbook's Guided Inquiries and Extended Inquiries helped Laurie gain experience with inquiry-based methods. She also realized that when building from the students' concrete experiences, her students were able to attain higher-level thinking skills. The study revealed six factors contributing to Laurie's change process: (a) experiential professional development, (b) motivation for change
Marks, Katherine R; Clark, Claire D
In an article published in International Journal of the Addictions in 1989, Nick Piazza and his coauthors described "telescoping," an accelerated progression through "landmark symptoms" of alcoholism, among a sample of recovering women. The aim of this critical analysis is to apply a feminist philosophy of science to examine the origins of the framework of telescoping research and its implications for contemporary scientific inquiry. A feminist philosophy of science framework is outlined and applied to key source publications of telescoping literature drawn from international and United States-based peer-reviewed journals published beginning in 1952. A feminist philosophy of science framework identifies gender bias in telescoping research in three ways. First, gender bias was present in the early conventions that laid the groundwork for telescoping research. Second, a "masculine" framework was present in the methodology guiding telescoping research. Third, gender bias was present in the interpretation of results as evidenced by biased comparative language. Telescoping research contributed to early evidence of critical sex and gender differences helping to usher in women's substance abuse research more broadly. However, it also utilized a "masculine" framework that perpetuated gender bias and limited generative, novel research that can arise from women-focused research and practice. A feminist philosophy of science identifies gender bias in telescoping research and provides an alternative, more productive approach for substance abuse researchers and clinicians.
Knafel, A; Banas, T; Nocun, A; Wiechec, M; Jach, R; Ludwin, A; Kabzinska-Turek, M; Pietrus, M; Pitynski, K
Objective: To externally validate the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) Simple Rules (SR) by examiners with different levels of sonographic experience defined by the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) and to assess the morphological ultrasound features of the adnexal tumors classified as inconclusive based on IOTA SR. Materials and Methods: In the two-year prospective study adnexal tumors were assessed preoperatively with transvaginal ultrasound by examiners with different levels of experience (level 1- IOTA SR1, level 2-IOTA SR2). Additionally, an expert (level 3) evaluated all tumors by subjective assessment (SA). If the rules could not be applied, the tumors were considered inconclusive. The final diagnosis was based on the histopathological result of the removed mass. The diagnostic performance measures for the assessed model were sensitivity, specificity, negative (LR-) and positive(LR+) likelihood ratios, accuracy (ACC) and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Results: 226 women with adnexal tumors scheduled for surgery were included in the stutdy. The prevalence of malignancy was 36.3 % in the group of all studied tumors and was 52.5 % in the inconclusive group (n = 40) (p = 0.215). Fewer tumors were classified as inconclusive by level 2 examiners compared to level 1 examiners [20 (8.8 %) vs. 40 (17.7 %); p = 0.008], resulting from the discrepancy in the evaluation of acoustic shadows and the vascularization within the tumor. For level 1 examiners a diagnostic strategy using IOTA SR1 +MA (assuming malignancy when SR inconclusive) achieved a sensitivity, specificity and DOR of 96.3 %, 81.9 %, 13.624 respectively. For level 2 examiners the diagnostic strategy for IOTA SR2 +MA achieved a sensitivity, specificity and DOR of 95.1 %, 89.6 %, 137,143, respectively. Adding SA by an expert (or level 3 examiner) when IOTA SR were not applicable improved the specificity of the test and
Jocz, Jennifer Ann; Zhai, Junqing; Tan, Aik Ling
Recent research reveals that students' interest in school science begins to decline at an early age. As this lack of interest could result in fewer individuals qualified for scientific careers and a population unprepared to engage with scientific societal issues, it is imperative to investigate ways in which interest in school science can be increased. Studies have suggested that inquiry learning is one way to increase interest in science. Inquiry learning forms the core of the primary syllabus in Singapore; as such, we examine how inquiry practices may shape students' perceptions of science and school science. This study investigates how classroom inquiry activities relate to students' interest in school science. Data were collected from 425 grade 4 students who responded to a questionnaire and 27 students who participated in follow-up focus group interviews conducted in 14 classrooms in Singapore. Results indicate that students have a high interest in science class. Additionally, self-efficacy and leisure-time science activities, but not gender, were significantly associated with an increased interest in school science. Interestingly, while hands-on activities are viewed as fun and interesting, connecting learning to real-life and discussing ideas with their peers had a greater relation to student interest in school science. These findings suggest that inquiry learning can increase Singaporean students' interest in school science; however, simply engaging students in hands-on activities is insufficient. Instead, student interest may be increased by ensuring that classroom activities emphasize the everyday applications of science and allow for peer discussion.
Piazza, Peter; McNeill, Katherine L.
Teacher learning communities are hailed by many as vehicles for reforming and elevating the professional status of teaching. While much research explores teacher community as a venue for measurable gains, our research examines the orientation of practitioner inquiry toward critical debate about effective instruction. Specifically, our study…
Martin, Jennifer L.
This study explores the impact of reading "Huckleberry Finn" through the lens of critical race theory for both teacher and students in a racially diverse urban high school environment. The teacher/researcher used narrative inquiry and creative non-fiction to examine student language usage, white privilege (including her own), and student…
Brown, Abbie; Brown, Carol; Fine, Bethann; Luterbach, Kenneth; Sugar, William; Vinciguerra, David C.
A report on the results of a year-long cooperative inquiry study in which 11 faculty members at a southeastern university examined their various uses of podcasting for instruction. Through participation in the study, members developed insights into what technologies are most commonly applied to the task of podcast production and dissemination as…
Haegele, Justin A.; Sutherland, Sue
The purpose of this article is to review published qualitative inquiries that examine the perspective of students with disabilities toward experiences in physical education. Keyword searches were used to identify articles from electronic databases published from 1995 to 2014. Thirteen articles met all inclusion criteria, and findings were…
Doering, Aaron; Henrickson, Jeni
Self-directed, inquiry-based learning opportunities focused on transdisciplinary real-world problem solving have been shown to foster creativity in learners. What tools might we provide classroom teachers to scaffold them and their students through this creative process? This study examines an online informal learning environment and the role the…
This 45 minute inquiry lesson can be used for a high school world geography or AP Human Geography course when the class discusses various issues regarding world energy resources. The lesson focuses on two particular issues: fossil fuel dependency and the growing energy demand. Students will examine the geographic distribution of current energy…
Bengochea, Alain; Justice, Laura M.; Hijlkema, Maria J.
This study serves as an initial inquiry regarding the early print knowledge of emergent bilingual preschool-age children living in an Indigenous community in Mexico. In this research, we examine various dimensions of print knowledge with Yucatec Maya-Spanish bilingual children for whom one of their languages (Yucatec Maya) is seldom seen in print…
Tanaka, Michele T. D.; Farish, Maureen; Nicholson, Diana; Tse, Vanessa; Doll, Jenn; Archer, Elizabeth
In Transformative Inquiry (TI), pre-service teachers explore issues about which they are personally passionate in order to enter into the delicate work of transformation. We examine how shared vulnerability within three mentor-mentee pairs leads to new pedagogical possibilities. Michele and Vanessa discuss poetry as a way of entering into TI and…
This study examines the instructional steps I took, based on gaps between what was happening in a graduate literacy class I taught and what I had intended to happen. This study describes the ways that I re-imagined the class and what came about when I created a pedagogical approach that featured multi-genre inquiry. I define inter-discursivity as…
WebQuest is a popular inquiry-oriented activity in which learners use Web resources. Since the creation of the innovation, almost 15 years ago, the Web has changed significantly, while the WebQuest technique has changed little. This article examines possible applications of new Web trends on WebQuest instructional strategy. Some possible…
This study examines high school students' views of mathematics as a tool for social inquiry in light of their classroom experiences using mathematics to explore social issues. A critical theoretical perspective on mathematics literacy is used to ascertain the ways in which their views challenge or affirm the dominant image of mathematics in…
Manlove, S.A.; Lazonder, Adrianus W.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.
This paper looks across three experimental studies that examined supports designed to assist high-school students (age 15–19) with cognitive regulation of their physics inquiry learning efforts in a technology-enhanced learning environment called Co-Lab. Cognitive regulation involves the recursive
Kadayifci, Hakki; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse
This study examined the effectiveness of Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) as an instructional model in a general chemistry laboratory course. The study was conducted over the course of ten experimental sessions with 125 pre-service science teachers. The participants' level of reflective thinking about the ADI activities, changes in their science…
Cabai, Katherine A.
The purpose of this study was to examine efficacious teaching-learning strategies that community college stakeholders employ that enhance surgical technology student outcomes. Knowles's adult learning theory, constructivist theory, and appreciative inquiry served as the theoretical foundation for this study. Discovering effective aspects and…
Eglinton, Kristen Ali; Gubrium, Aline; Wexler, Lisa
In this paper we examine digital storytelling as a mode of arts-inspired inquiry: in particular we consider digital storytelling as a powerful arts-inspired approach that can help researchers, practitioners, and communities understand and support indigenous and marginalized youth. Our two-fold focus is on: (1) a digital storytelling initiative…
Tarc, Paul; Mishra Tarc, Aparna
The elite international school is a rich site for sociological inquiry in global times. In this paper, we conceptualize the international school as a transnational space of agonist social class-making given the dynamic positioning of the complement of international school actors. We position international schoolteachers in the middle of these…
Pecka, Shannon L; Kotcherlakota, Suhasini; Berger, Ann M
The number of distance education courses offered by nurse anesthesia programs has increased substantially. Emerging distance learning trends must be researched to ensure high-quality education for student registered nurse anesthetists. However, research to examine distance learning has been hampered by a lack of theoretical models. This article introduces the Community of Inquiry model for use in nurse anesthesia education. This model has been used for more than a decade to guide and research distance learning in higher education. A major strength of this model learning. However, it lacks applicability to the development of higher order thinking for student registered nurse anesthetists. Thus, a new derived Community of Inquiry model was designed to improve these students' higher order thinking in distance learning. The derived model integrates Bloom's revised taxonomy into the original Community of Inquiry model and provides a means to design, evaluate, and research higher order thinking in nurse anesthesia distance education courses.
Full Text Available The objective in this research to explore the relationship between ability of the knowledge essential features inquiry science and their reasons underlying sense of scientific inquiry for physics teacher candidates on content geometrical optics. The essential features of inquiry science are components that should arise during the learning process subject matter of geometrical optics reflectance of light on a flat mirror, the reflection of light on curved mirrors and refraction of light at the lens. Five of essential features inquiry science adopted from assessment system developed by the National Research Council. Content geometrical optics developed from an analysis of a college syllabus material. Based on the study of the essential features of inquiry and content develop the multiple choice diagnostic test three tier. Data were taken from the students who are taking courses in optics and wave from one the LPTK in North Sumatra totaled 38 students. Instruments showed Cronbach alpha reliability of 0.67 to test the essential features of inquiry science and 0.61 to there as on geometrical optics science inquiry.
Gyllenpalm, Jakob; Wickman, Per-Olof; Holmgren, Sven-Olof
With a focus on the use of language related to scientific inquiry, this paper explores how 12 secondary school science teachers describe instances of students' practical work in their science classes. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the culture and traditions of secondary school science teaching related to inquiry as expressed in the use of language. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews about actual inquiry units used by the teachers. These were used to situate the discussion of their teaching in a real context. The theoretical background is socio-cultural and pragmatist views on the role of language in science learning. The analysis focuses on two concepts of scientific inquiry: hypothesis and experiment. It is shown that the teachers tend to use these terms with a pedagogical function thus conflating methods of teaching with methods of inquiry as part of an emphasis on teaching the children the correct explanation. The teachers did not prioritise an understanding of scientific inquiry as a knowledge goal. It discusses how learners' possibilities to learn about the characteristics of scientific inquiry and the nature of science are affected by an unreflective use of everyday discourse.
Østergaard, Lars Domino
The present project is a case study founded on the decreasing motivation and engagement in physical education. The project suggests inquiry based learning (IBL) as an educational methodology. This may help to turn the trend as IBL has shown to engage and motivate students at different educational...... levels and within different subjects. In this pilot research project performed at a physical education teacher education program, qualitative methods were chosen to investigate students’ motivation and engagement within an IBL-unit in physical education and to accentuate challenges, advantages...... and disadvantages within the IBL-methodology in relation to students’ motivation. Instructed in guided inquiry, 32 students of physical education in a teacher training college worked with inquiry based learning in physical education over a four week period. During the IBL-unit, qualitative data such as the students...
Colon, Erica L.
Online learning is becoming more prevalent in today's education and is changing the way students learn and instructors teach. This study proposed using an informative case study design within a multilevel conceptual framework as teacher candidates were learning to teach and use science inquiry while in an online post-baccalaureate science methods course. The purposes were to (a) explore whether the teacher candidates had a thorough understanding of scientific inquiry and how to implement higher-order thinking skills, (b) examine whether or not the teacher candidates used a variety of computer-based instructional technologies when choosing instructional objectives, and (c) identify barriers that impede teacher candidates from using science inquiry or technology singly, or the ability to incorporate technology into learning science inquiry. The findings indicate that an online approach in preparing science teachers holds great potential for using innovative technology to teach science inquiry. First, the teacher candidates did incorporate essential features of classroom inquiry, however it was limited and varied in the type of inquiry used. Second, of the 86 lesson plans submitted by the teacher candidates, less than twelve percent of the learning objectives involved higher-order skills that promoted science inquiry. Third, results supported that when using technology in their lesson planning, participants had widely varying backgrounds in reference to their familiarity with technology. However, even though each participant used some form or another, the technology used was fairly low level. Finally, when discussing implementing inquiry-based science in the lesson plans, this study identified time as a reason that participants may not be pushing for more inquiry-based lessons. The researcher also identifies that school placements were a huge factor in the amount of inquiry-based skills coded in the lesson plans. The study concludes that online teacher preparation
Whittington, A. G.; Speck, A. K.; Witzig, S. B.; Abell, S. K.
defining the problem that they will pursue, (ii) the open-ended nature of the inquiry, such that students need to recognize when they have enough information to answer their question, (iii) presentation of results in graphical and tabular formats, and (iv) a written discussion of their findings. We present both the rationale for and concept of using mini-journal homeworks, and provide specific examples we are currently employing in classes. In addition, we explore the challenges (real and perceived) and successes associated with implementing such a technique, and examine student feedback comparing mini-journal and traditional homework formats from the same classes.
as the interplay between intentions and life-story of the individual and culture and community. The theory of inquiry in the philosophy of Dewey offers an understanding of processes of learning as transformation from an indeterminate to a determinate situation. Furthermore, the normative aspect of learning......“Inquiry and the normative aspect of learning” In the paper it will be argued that the normative aspect of learning is to be found in the interplay between individual and world when the individual in an inquiring process tries to come to terms with the world. Normativity in learning is seen...
Valois, J.C. de
Dutch radiodiagnostics viewed internationally. - A quantitative description of diagnostic radiology is given in terms of radiological density (the number of radiological examinations per 1000 inhibitants), consumptions of roentgen film and contrast media. The data concerning examinations were recorded by a yearly inquiry system addressing all Dutch radiologists. The consumption of film and contrast media were derived from the data banks of the industries. In comparing these data with the data for Western Europe, Japan and the United States it is remarkable that diagnostic radiology scores lowest in regard to density, film consumption and use of contrast media. Only in the use of 35 mm cinefilm (coronary angiography) is The Netherlands number 2 on the list preceded by the United States. As a consequence radiation exposure of the population caused by diagnostic radiology is low in The Netherlands. Although the technical condition of the equipment is good due to regular and preventive service the life-span of the radiological equipment is gradually increasing beyond the limits of the normal economic depreciation. Growing arrears are found in the application of new technology: ultrasound, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The substitution of high osmolar contrast media by low osmolar media is also laggin gbehind. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tab
Goldberg, Jennifer; Welsh, Kate Muir
In this case study, we examine a teacher's journey, including reflections on teaching science, everyday classroom interaction, and their intertwined relationship. The teacher's reflections include an awareness of being "a White middle-class born and raised teacher teaching other peoples' children." This awareness was enacted in the science classroom and emerges through approaches to inquiry . Our interest in Ms. Cook's journey grew out of discussions, including both informal and semi-structured interviews, in two research projects over a three-year period. Our interest was further piqued as we analyzed videotaped classroom interaction during science lessons and discovered connections between Ms. Cook's reflections and classroom interaction. In this article, we illustrate ways that her journey emerges as a conscientization. This, at least in part, shapes classroom interaction, which then again shapes her conscientization in a recursive, dynamic relationship. We examine her reflections on her "hegemonic (cultural and socio-economic) practices" and consider how these reflections help her reconsider such practices through analysis of classroom interaction. Analyses lead us to considering the importance of inquiry within this classroom community.
Caine, Vera; Estefan, Andrew; Clandinin, D. Jean
In the 25 years since narrative inquiry emerged as a social science research methodology, it has been rapidly taken up in the social sciences. In what is sometimes called a "narrative revolution," researchers with diverse understandings have co-opted the concept of narrative inquiry and used narrative inquiry or narrative research to…
... information on selected topics relating to railroad safety. A notice of each such inquiry will be published in... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informal safety inquiries. 211.61 Section 211.61..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Miscellaneous Safety-Related Proceedings and Inquiries § 211...
Cobern, William W.; Schuster, David; Adams, Betty; Applegate, Brooks; Skjold, Brandy; Undreiu, Adriana; Loving, Cathleen C.; Gobert, Janice D.
There are continuing educational and political debates about "inquiry" versus "direct" teaching of science. Traditional science instruction has been largely direct but in the US, recent national and state science education standards advocate inquiry throughout K-12 education. While inquiry-based instruction has the advantage of modelling aspects…
Hanegan, Nikki; Bigler, Amber
A broad continuum exists to describe the structure of inquiry lessons (Hanegan, Friden, & Nelson, 2009). Most teachers have heard inquiry described from a range of simple questioning to completely student-designed scientific studies (Chinn & Malhotra, 2002). Biotechnology education often uses a variety of inquiries from cookbook laboratory…
Whitlock, Annie McMahon
The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework from the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS) features an inquiry approach to teaching K-12 social studies in which social studies standards are organized into an "inquiry arc." Inquiry in elementary economics is often underused in practice (Laney 2001). This study describes how a…
Zalles, D. R.; Montgomery, D. R.
Place-based field work has been recognized as an important component of geoscience education programs for engaging students. Field work helps students appreciate the spatial extent of data and the systems operating in a locale. Data collected in a place has a temporal aspect that can be explored through representations such as photographs and maps and also though numerical data sets that capture characteristics of place. Yet, experiencing authentic geoscience research in an educational setting requires going beyond fieldwork: students must develop data literacy skills that will enable them to connect abstract representations of spatio-temporal data with place. Educational researchers at SRI International led by Dr. Daniel Zalles, developer of inquiry-based geoscience curricula, and geoscientists at the University of Washington (UW) led by Dr. David Montgomery, Professor of Earth and Space Sciences, are building educational curriculum modules that help students make these connections. The modules concern the environmental history of the Puget Sound area in Washington State and its relevance for the American Indians living there. This collaborative project relies on environmental data collected in the Puget Sound Regional Synthesis Model (PRISM) and Puget Sound River History Project. The data sets are being applied to inquiry-based geoscience investigations at the undergraduate and high school level. The modules consist of problem-based units centered on the data sets, plus geographic and other data representations. The modules will rely on educational "design patterns" that characterize geoscientific inquiry tasks. Use of design patterns will enable other modules to be built that align to the modes of student thinking and practice articulated in the design patterns. The modules will be accompanied by performance assessments that measure student learning from their data investigations. The design principles that drive this project have already been used effectively
O' Riordan, T.; Purdue, M.; Kemp, R.
The paper is an address to the Parliamentary Group for Energy Studies, and concerns an appraisal of the Sizewell B Inquiry. The unique nature of the Inquiry is described, and an assessment of the Inquiry is given. Based on the main criticisms of the Inquiry, proposals for the reform of future major public inquiries are put forward.
De Vriendt, P; Gorus, E; Bautmans, I; Mets, T
In older patients, evaluation of the cognitive status is crucial. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used for screening of cognition, providing fairly high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Recently, a consensus emerged on the necessity of an international and transparent language, as provided by the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Most assessment tools however are not in accordance with the ICF. To reformulate the MMSE according to the ICF, both for the individual items and for the scoring system. MMSE data (scores varying from 3 to 30/30) of (1) 217 cognitively healthy elderly, (2) 60 persons with mild cognitive impairment, (3) 60 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and (4) 60 patients with moderate/severe AD were obtained from studies at a university hospital setting. Subjects were aged 65 years or more and recruited either through advertisement (group 1), from the geriatric day hospital (groups 2 and 3), or the geriatric ward (group 4). The allocation to the groups was done after multidisciplinary evaluation. The conversion of the MMSE to ICF-MMSE was done by content comparison and by subsequent translation of the scoring system using automatic algorithms. All MMSE items were converted to the corresponding ICF categories. Three ICF domains were addressed: global and specific mental functions, general tasks and demands, divided over 6 ICF categories (orientation time/place, sustaining attention, memory functions, mental functions of language, undertaking a simple task). Scores on individual items were transformed according to their relative weight on the original MMSE scale, and a total ICF-MMSE score from 0 (no problem) to 100 (complete problem) was generated. Translation was satisfying, as illustrated by a good correlation between MMSE and ICF-MMSE. The diagnostic groups were distributed over the ICF-MMSE scores as expected. For each ICF domain, ICF-MMSE subscores were higher
A philosophical inquiry was undertaken to examine the enigma of energy in an attempt to clarify and further illuminate the basic ideas of energy. Beginning with the origin of the concept-Aristotle's conceptualization of energeia-and continuing through to the present day with an overview of the historical conceptual development of energy in Western science, an analysis and interpretation of the scientific and philosophic literature was performed. Literature regarding aspects of human sentience was also examined for underlying ideas of energy. And, finally, selected medical and nursing science theoretical frameworks were analyzed with the hope of further grasping the philosophical underpinnings related to the phenomenon of human energy. Certain ideas of energy became evident. Energy can be viewed as a process and this view works well within the physical science domain. When energy is viewed as a process it falls within the mechanistic tradition: things are viewed as particulate, and cause and effect related. However, energy can also be viewed as a phenomenon, a thing. As a phenomenon, energy is continually transforming and actualizing inherent potentials in a communal process. When energy is recognized as the sole phenomenon responsible for everything in existence, it becomes evident that all is essentially one. In addition, when energy is viewed in this manner it becomes increasingly difficult to deny the purposive character underlying all nature. It is argued that the mystery ultimately leads to something far beyond what we know exists. One of the intuitive feelings of this researcher was that there were at least two different ideas of energy in the sciences of medicine and nursing, which, while different, shared some common elements as well. An examination of Hippocrates', Nightingale's, Selye's, Levine's, and Rogers' ideas, as well as the basic tenets of alternative health care, revealed two distinct worldviews regarding human energy which are congruent with the
Atar, Hakan Yavuz
Creating a scientifically literate society appears to be the major goal of recent science education reform efforts (Abd-El-Khalick, Boujaoude, Dushl, Lederman, Hofstein, Niaz, Tregust, & Tuan, 2004). Recent national reports in the U.S, such as Shaping the Future, New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology (NSF,1996), Inquiry in Science and In Classroom, Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 2001), Pursuing excellence: Comparison of international eight-grade mathematics and science achievement from a U.S. perspective (NCES, 2001), and Standards for Science Teacher Preparation (NSTA 2003) appear to agree on one thing: the vision of creating a scientifically literate society. It appears from science education literature that the two important components of being a scientifically literate individual are developing an understanding of nature of science and ability to conduct scientific inquiries. Unfortunately, even though teaching science through inquiry has been recommended in national reports since the 1950's, it has yet to find its way into many science classrooms (Blanchard, 2006; Yerrick, 2000). Science education literature identfies several factors for this including: (1) lack of content knowledge (Anderson, 2002; Lee, Hart Cuevas, & Enders, 2004; Loucks-Horsely, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, 1998; Moscovici, 1999; Smith & Naele, 1989; Smith, 1989); (2) high stake tests (Aydeniz, 2006); (3) teachers' conflicting beliefs with inquiry-based science education reform (Blanchard, 2006; Wallace & Kang, 2004); and, (4) lack of collaboration and forums for communication (Anderson, 2002; Davis, 2003; Loucks-Horsely, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, 1998; Wallace & Kang, 2004). In addition to the factors stated above this study suggest that some of the issues and problems that have impeded inquiry instruction to become the primary approach to teaching science in many science classrooms might be related to
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides data on the number of new incoming, pending, and completed inquiries by quarter. The data source is the Electronic Management of Assignments...
Staver, John R.; Bay, Mary
The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine selected units of commonly used elementary science texts, using the Project Synthesis goal clusters as a framework for part of the examination. An inquiry classification scheme was used for the remaining segment. Four questions were answered: (1) To what extent do elementary science textbooks focus on each Project Synthesis goal cluster? (2) In which part of the text is such information found? (3) To what extent are the activities and experiments merely verifications of information already introduced in the text? (4) If inquiry is present in an activity, then what is the level of such inquiry?Eleven science textbook series, which comprise approximately 90 percent of the national market, were selected for analysis. Two units, one primary (K-3) and one intermediate (4-6), were selected for analysis by first identifying units common to most series, then randomly selecting one primary and one intermediate unit for analysis.Each randomly selected unit was carefully read, using the sentence as the unit of analysis. Each declarative and interrogative sentence in the body of the text was classified as: (1) academic; (2) personal; (3) career; or (4) societal in its focus. Each illustration, except those used in evaluation items, was similarly classified. Each activity/experiment and each miscellaneous sentence in end-of-chapter segments labelled review, summary, evaluation, etc., were similarly classified. Finally, each activity/experiment, as a whole, was categorized according to a four-category inquiry scheme (confirmation, structured inquiry, guided inquiry, open inquiry).In general, results of the analysis are: (1) most text prose focuses on academic science; (2) most remaining text prose focuses on the personal goal cluster; (3) the career and societal goal clusters receive only minor attention; (4) text illustrations exhibit a pattern similar to text prose; (5) text activities/experiments are academic in orientation
Lee, Cherin A.
Describes an investigation on plant nutrition that was developed in the form of a guided inquiry learning cycle and can be implemented in a wide range of grade levels from middle school through college. Investigates the needs of plants to live. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)
von Renesse, Christine; Ecke, Volker
This paper links educational psychology research about curiosity to teacher moves that are effective in an inquiry-based mathematics classroom. Three vignettes will show explicit teacher moves (staging disagreement, intriguing anecdotes, and creating a safe space) for different audiences (math majors, mathematics for liberal arts students, and…
The small size of college composition classes encourages exciting and meaningful interaction, especially when students are divided into smaller, autonomous groups for all or part of the hour. This booklet discusses the advantages of combining the inquiry method (sometimes called the discovery method) with a group approach and describes specific…
This present paper troubles and literally ‘shakes’ the idea of methods as the founding ground of qualitative inquiry. It does so by addressing the real-time messiness of research and the retrospective character of research reports. While the paper is not as such opposed to methods, it does suggest...
... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT PAYMENT § 1315.18 Inquiries. (a..., Financial Management Service (FMS), Cash Management Policy and Planning Division, 401 14th Street, SW... Management Service (FMS) at 1-800-266-9667. This information is also available at the FMS Prompt Payment Web...
Kuiper, E.; Volman, M.L.L.; Terwel, J.
Although many children are technically skilled in using the Web, their competences to use it in a critical and meaningful way are usually less well developed. In this article, we report on a multiple case study focusing on the possibilities and limitations of collaborative inquiry activities as an
Sinclair, Dina; Vondracek, Mark
Most high school and introductory college physics classes study simple harmonic motion and various wave phenomena. With the majority of states adopting the Next Generation Science Standards and pushing students to explore the scientific process for themselves, there is a growing demand for hands-on inquiry activities that involve and develop more…
LeChasseur, Kimberly; Mayer, Anysia; Welton, Anjale; Donaldson, Morgaen
Professional learning communities (PLCs) have become a popular strategy in various forms (e.g., data teams, grade-level teams) and with various champions (e.g., district leaders, university researchers, teacher advocates). Although well-implemented PLCs have been shown to distribute leadership, the tension between democratic inquiry processes and…
Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Boz, Umit; Broadwell, George A.; Sadler, Troy D.
Background: Science educators have sought to structure collaborative inquiry learning through the assignment of static group roles. This structural approach to student grouping oversimplifies the complexities of peer collaboration and overlooks the highly dynamic nature of group activity. Purpose: This study addresses this issue of…
Haar, D. van der; Hosking, D.M.
Appreciative Inquiry (AI) has become increasingly popular as a social constructionist approach to organizational change and development. Many claims are made about its status and value but there are few published evaluation studies. We discuss these matters by setting out our own version of
Anerkendende udforskning, den danske danske betegnelse for aktionsforskningstilgangen Appreciative Inquiry, fokuserer på at udforske og forandre forhold i det organisatoriske liv, gennem understregningen af, at det er muligt at skabe og vedligeholde en organisation, på grundlag af dens styrker- d...... og Destiny - Skæbne) i en forskningscase....
I share a number of experiences of writing as a mode of educational inquiry, with particular reference to narrative experiments inspired by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's figuration of the rhizome — a process characterised as rhizosemiotic play — and demonstrate the generativity of intertextual readings of selected ...
"Art-Based Research" (McNiff, 1998a) introduced the idea of using artistic expressions by researchers as ways of knowing and methods of inquiry as distinguished from approaching art made by subjects as data which are interpreted by discursive methods, a practice that has been widely used in various disciplines studying human behaviour.…
Tan, Ai-Girl; Wong, Meng-Ee
This commentary is about reflection in the new language of creativity and the meanings of inquiry into creative life. The authors of the commentary adopt the cultural paradigm of psychology of creativity. They praise effortful creativity of the authors who submitted the articles to this special issue. Their studies employed diverse methods of…
This paper discusses the author's experiences of getting advanced undergraduate math students to engage in mathematical inquiry by using games as a vehicle for exploration. The students explored the mathematics behind SET®1, Spot it!®2, Blokus®3, and Six®4. Specifically, we present the experience of the instructor and students and how the games…
Barnato, Carolyn; Barrett, Kathy
Describes the modification of computer programs (BISON and POLLUT) to accommodate species and areas indigenous to the Pacific Coast area. Suggests that these programs, suitable for PET microcomputers, may foster a long-term, ongoing, inquiry-directed approach in biology. (DS)
Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell
This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…
Dreon, Oliver, Jr.
This phenomenological study demonstrates the influence that affective factors have on beginning teachers' ability to enact instructional practices. Through narratives shared in interviews and web log postings, two beginning science teachers' emotional engagement with their instructional practices, especially that of implementing inquiry-based instruction, and the resulting impact these emotions had on professional decision-making were evidenced. Anxiety emerged as the most significant impacting emotion on instructional decision-making with the participants. Through their stories, the two participants describe how their emotions and views of self influence whether they continue using inquiry pedagogy or alter their lesson to adopt more didactic means of instruction. These emotions arise from their feelings of being comfortable teaching the content (self-efficacy), from the unpredictability of inquiry lessons (control beliefs), from how they perceive their students as viewing them (teacher identity) and from various school constraints (agency). This research also demonstrates how intertwined these aspects are, informing each other in a complex, dialectical fashion. The participants' self-efficacy and professional identity emerge from their interactions with the community (their students and colleagues) and the perceived agency afforded by their schools' curricula and administration. By providing descriptions of teachers' experiences enacting inquiry pedagogy, this study expands our understanding of factors that influence teachers' instructional practices and provides a basis for reforming science teacher preparation.
"Whither scholarship in the work of enhancing the quality of teaching and learning?" The question reminds the author of one Shakespeare asked, "To be or not to be?" She cannot imagine teaching and learning taking place in any classroom without inquiry. Scholarship in the practice of teaching and learning is teaching and learning. She believes that…
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inquiry. 93.212 Section 93.212 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT...
The consolidation of reconceptualism as a distinctive tradition in curriculum inquiry is commonly understood to go hand-in-hand with the decline and even eclipse of an explicit political orientation in such work. This paper offers an alternative argument, focusing on a re-assessment of what has been called the representation problem, and exploring…
Appreciative inquiry (AI) is based on the heliotropic principle, which has been variously described as art and science, holistic theory and practice, and practical philosophy and change process. AI engages people and organizations in discovering what gives life to human systems when they are most effective and constructive and using that knowledge…
Kruit, P. M.; Oostdam, R. J.; van den Berg, E.; Schuitema, J. A.
In most primary science classes, students are taught science inquiry skills by way of learning by doing. Research shows that explicit instruction may be more effective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of explicit instruction on the acquisition of inquiry skills. Participants included 705 Dutch fifth and sixth graders. Students in an explicit instruction condition received an eight-week intervention of explicit instruction on inquiry skills. In the lessons of the implicit condition, all aspects of explicit instruction were absent. Students in the baseline condition followed their regular science curriculum. In a quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test design, two paper-and-pencil tests and three performance assessments were used to examine the acquisition and transfer of inquiry skills. Additionally, questionnaires were used to measure metacognitive skills. The results of a multilevel analysis controlling for pre-tests, general cognitive ability, age, gender and grade level indicated that explicit instruction facilitates the acquisition of science inquiry skills. Specifically on the performance assessment with an unfamiliar topic, students in the explicit condition outperformed students of both the implicit and baseline condition. Therefore, this study provides a strong argument for including an explicit teaching method for developing inquiry skills in primary science education.
This research investigated nine secondary science teachers' conceptions and use of inquiry teaching throughout a year-long professional development program. The professional development program consisted of a two-week summer inquiry institute and research experience in university scientists' laboratories, as well as three academic year workshops. Teachers' conceptions of inquiry teaching were established through both qualitative interviews and a quantitative instrument given before and after the summer institute and again at the end of the academic year. Videotapes of all nine teachers presenting inquiry lessons in their own classrooms were evaluated using an observation protocol that measured the teachers' degree of reform teaching. Three of the teachers were chosen for an in-depth case study of their classroom teaching practices. Data collected from each of the case study teachers included videotapes from classroom observations, responses to an inquiry survey, and transcripts from two additional qualitative interviews. Students' responses to their teachers' use of inquiry teaching were also investigated in the case study classrooms. Through their participation in the professional development experience, the teachers gained a deeper understanding of how to implement inquiry practices in their classrooms. The teachers gained confidence and practice with inquiry methods through developing and presenting their institute-developed inquiry lessons, through observing other teachers' lessons, and participating as students in the workshop inquiry activities. Data analysis revealed that the teachers' knowledge of inquiry was necessary but not sufficient for their implementation of inquiry teaching practices. The teachers' conceptions of science, their students, effective teaching practices, and the purpose of education were found to have a direct effect on the type and amount of inquiry instruction performed in the high school classrooms. The research findings suggest that
Haskins, Natoya H.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Sewell, Cheryl; Crumb, Lonika; Appling, Brandee; Trepal, Heather
Using phenomenological inquiry, this study explored the lived experiences and intersecting identities of 8 African American counselor educators who are mothers. Six themes were identified: race, professional strain, work-life balance, support, internalized success, and mothering pedagogy.
Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark
This paper reviews university-level efforts to improve understanding of anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC) through curricula that enable student scientific inquiry. We examined 152 refereed publications and proceedings from academic conferences and selected 26 cases of inquiry learning that overcome specific challenges to AGCC teaching. This review identifies both the strengths and weaknesses of each of these case studies. It is the first to go beyond examining the impact of specific inquiry instructional approaches to offer a synthesis of cases. We find that inquiry teaching can succeed by concretising scientific processes, providing access to global data and evidence, imparting critical and higher order thinking about AGCC science policy and contextualising learning with places and scientific facts. We recommend educational researchers and scientists collaborate to create and refine curricula that utilise geospatial technologies, climate models and communication technologies to bring students into contact with scientists, climate data and authentic AGCC research processes. Many available science education technologies and curricula also require further research to maximise trade-offs between implementation and training costs and their educational value.
Mathews, M; Newbury, J; Housser, E M
In 2007, the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador established the Commission of Inquiry on Hormone Receptor Testing to examine problems with estrogen and progesterone hormone receptor tests conducted in the province between 1997 and 2005. Using the Inquiry as a case study, we examine the knowledge transfer activities used by the Canadian Cancer Society - Newfoundland and Labrador Division (CCS-NL) to shape policy and improve cancer control in the province. CCS-NL established a panel to advise its legal counsel and asked academic researchers to prepare papers to submit to the Commission. CCS-NL also interviewed patients to better inform its legal arguments, used its province-wide networks to raise awareness of the Inquiry, and provided a toll-free number that people could call. It also provided basic information, resources, and contact information for people who were affected by the flawed hormone receptor tests. The effectiveness of CCS-NL's activities is reflected by the inclusion of its key messages in the Commission's recommendations, and the investment in cancer care following the Inquiry. The success of the CCS-NL knowledge transfer efforts stemmed from its reputation as an advocate for cancer patients and its long-standing relationship with researchers, especially at the local level. The case illustrates real-world application of knowledge transfer practices in the development of public policy, and describes how community-based non-government organizations can identify and draw attention to important issues that otherwise might not have been addressed.
Macrory, R.; Lafontaine, M.
The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; the enquete publique in France - a case study; the public inquiry in England - a case study; the French system - an English view; the English system - a French view; distinctive features of the two systems. Appendices cover: the methodology; the Advisory Committee; the legal and administrative background in England; the legal and administrative background in France; examination and cross-examination; the audition publique; selected bibliography and references. (U.K.)
Eighth-grade science teachers use of instructional time: Examining questions from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and comparing TIMSS and National Science Foundation questionnaires
Davidson, Anne Burgess
Did the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) ask science teachers the right questions about their use of instructional time? Part I of this 2-part study used the TIMSS database to answer the question: Do 8th grade science teachers in the U.S., Czech Republic, Hungary, Japan, and Korea differ significantly in their perceived use of instructional time? Using the instructional activities in the TIMSS teacher question "How did the lesson proceed?" the teacher-reported times were analyzed using a repeated measures multivariate analysis. Significant differences were found between teacher-reported times in the U.S. and the other 4 TIMSS countries, whose 8th grade students outperformed U.S. students on TIMSS achievement tests. Post-hoc analysis indicated that TIMSS U.S. 8th grade science teachers report spending more time on homework in class, on group activities, and on lab activities, but less time on topic development, than TIMSS teachers from some or all of the other countries. Part II of this study further examined the question "How did the lesson proceed?" by videotaping 6 classes of 8th grade science in Alabama and Virginia and comparing observer coding of the video to the teachers' recalled descriptions of the same class. The difference between observer and teacher responses using TIMSS categories was not significant; however, 43% of the total variance was explained by whether the teacher or the observer reported the times for the instructional activities. The teachers also responded to questions from the NSF Local Systemic Change Through Teacher Enhancement K--8 Teacher Questionnaire to describe the same class. The difference found between the teacher and the observer coding was not significant, but the amount of variance explained by the data source (observer or teacher) dropped to 33% when using NSF student activity categories and to 26% when using NSF teacher activity categories. The conclusion of this study was that questionnaires to
... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Inquiry; An Analysis of the European Union Repeal of the... information and comments concerning the effects on international liner shipping of the European Union's (``E.U.... The adoption by the European Union of Regulation 1419/2006 (``Repeal''), on September 25, 2006...
Sikko, S.A.; Lyngved, R.; Pepin, B.
This paper reports on mathematics and science teachers’ beliefs concerning the use of inquiry-based teaching strategies. Two different surveys were conducted: one with 24 teachers who were to become future instructional leaders; and one with 75 teachers as part of an international baseline study. We
Nicholson, Julie Marie; Kroll, Linda
Developing leadership among early childhood professionals has become increasingly important as investing in children's early years has been championed as a public and private national and international priority. Two case studies present how oral inquiry and specifically, the Prospect Center's Descriptive Review of a Professional Dilemma of…
Dean, David Worth, Jr.
Despite its support and adoption by most major scientific and educational organizations, some researchers have questioned whether inquiry learning is indeed the best method for acquiring the skills of inquiry. Klahr and colleagues have investigated the development of the control of variables strategy, or controlled comparison (CC), and claim that a brief session of direct instruction, characterized by explicit training of CC, as opposed to allowing children to discover CC through inquiry learning, is sufficient for acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of this core aspect of inquiry. Kuhn and colleagues, however, argue that direct instruction may be insufficient for development of the metastrategic level of understanding necessary to adequately maintain and transfer inquiry skills. In the present study, I attempt to identify the intervention most effective in supporting acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of these skills. Three groups of students received either a direct instruction session followed by standard classroom instruction (DI-only), an introductory session (without direct instruction) followed by practice sessions only (PR-only), or a direct instruction session followed by practice sessions (DI+PR). Practice sessions involved the use of a computer-based inquiry task requiring students to investigate the effects of five potential causal variables on an outcome. The two practice groups worked with this program during 12 sessions over nine weeks. They worked with structurally identical software programs during five weekly maintenance sessions. During this time, the DI-only group received standard classroom instruction. All groups were assessed on familiar and unfamiliar computer-based inquiry tasks at the conclusion of intervention (immediate assessment) and maintenance sessions (delayed assessment). Students in the two practice groups demonstrated improvement in an integrative measure of inquiry skill (valid intent, valid strategy, valid inference, and
Full Text Available Introduction: Critical inquiry has been adopted by various academic disciplines. However, there is a lack of consistency and transparency in the way this complex theoretical and methodological position is applied in research. For novice researchers that ambiguity can lead to blurring the conceptual distinction between critical research and the act of criticizing. Objective: The purpose of this essay is to reflect on what it means to keep a critical perspective for novice researchers. Method: The concepts are explored through a personal narrative that allows authors to examine the details of their trajectory to embrace a critical perspective, which has the power to lead to change, both personal and social. Results: We explore the methodological foundations of the critical research and observe how the emotion is taken over or suppressed in the investigation process. Conclusion: We contextualize key concepts of critical investigation, examining its recent application both in occupational science and in occupational therapy.
Eliot, Michael H.
Students with learning disabilities (SWLDs) need to attain academic rigor to graduate from high school and college, as well as achieve success in life. Constructivist theories suggest that guided inquiry may provide the impetus for their success, yet little research has been done to support this premise. This study was designed to fill that gap. This quasi-experimental study compared didactic and guided inquiry-based teaching of science concepts to secondary SWLDs in SDC science classes. The study examined 38 students in four classes at two diverse, urban high schools. Participants were taught two science concepts using both teaching methods and posttested after each using paper-and-pencil tests and performance tasks. Data were compared to determine increases in conceptual understanding by teaching method, order of teaching method, and exposure one or both teaching methods. A survey examined participants' perceived self-efficacy under each method. Also, qualitative comparison of the two test formats examined appropriate use with SWLDs. Results showed significantly higher scores after the guided inquiry method on concept of volume, suggesting that guided inquiry does improve conceptual understanding over didactic instruction in some cases. Didactic teaching followed by guided inquiry resulted in higher scores than the reverse order, indicating that SWLDs may require direct instruction in basic facts and procedures related to a topic prior to engaging in guided inquiry. Also application of both teaching methods resulted in significantly higher scores than a single method on the concept of density, suggesting that SWLDs may require more in depth instruction found using both methods. No differences in perceived self-efficacy were shown. Qualitative analysis both assessments and participants' behaviors during testing support the use of performance tasks over paper-and-pencil tests with SWLDs. Implications for education include the use of guided inquiry to increase SWLDs
Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Guyatt, Gordon H; Ashcroft, Richard E
Since the term "evidence-based medicine" (EBM) first appeared in the scientific literature in 1991, the concept has had considerable influence in many parts of the world. Most professional societies, the public,and funding agencies have accepted EBM with remarkable enthusiasm. The concept of evidence-based practice is now applied in management, education, criminology, and social work. Yet, EBM has attracted controversy: its critics allege that EBM uses a narrow concept of evidence and a naive conception of the relationships between evidence, theory, and practice. They also contend that EBM presents itself as a radical restructuring of medical knowledge that discredits more traditional ways of knowing in medicine, largely in the interests of people with a particular investment in the enterprise of large-scale clinical trials. Because EBM proposes aspecific relationship between theory, evidence, and knowledge, its theoretical basis can be understood as an epistemological system. Undertaking epistemological inquiry is important because the adoption of a particular epistemological view defines how science is conducted. In this paper, we challenge this critical view of EBM by examining how EBM fits into broad epistemological debates within the philosophy of science. We consider how EBM relates to some classical debates regarding the nature of science and knowledge. We investigate EBM from the perspective of major epistemological theories (logical-positivism/inductivism, deductivism/falsificationism/theory-ladeness of observations, explanationism/holism, instrumentalism, underdetermination theory by evidence). We first explore the relationship between evidence and knowledge and discuss philosophical support for the main way that evidence is used in medicine: (1) in the philosophical tradition that "rational thinkers respect their evidence," we show that EBM refers to making medical decisions that are consistent with evidence, (2) as a reliable sign, symptom, or mark to
Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Tai, Kai-Hsin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei
Based on the cognitive-affective theory, the present study designed a science inquiry learning model, "predict-observe-explain" (POE), and implemented it in an app called "WhyWhy" to examine the effectiveness of students' science inquiry learning practice. To understand how POE can affect the cognitive-affective learning…
Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.
The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…
Rönnebeck, Silke; Nielsen, Jan Alexis; Olley, Christopher
New competence-oriented learning goals can only be sustainably implemented if they are aligned with teaching and assessment goals. Within the fields of science, technology and mathematics education, one approach of compe-tence-oriented teaching is based on the concept of inquiry-based education....... Scien-tific inquiry in science, problem solving in mathematics, design processes in tech-nology and innovation as a cross-curricular approach to teaching and learning that is emphasised as a key element of 21st century skills allow students to engage in the thinking and working processes of scientists....... By applying these approaches, teachers can address subject-specific as well as generic competences (e.g. investi-gation in science as a subject-specific competence vs. argumentation or communi-cation as more generic competences). Since what is assessed strongly influences what is taught, changes in teaching...
the character of the socio-material relationship. The discussion will be guided by John Dewey’s and Arthur F. Bentley’s reflections on Knowing and the Known (1989/1948), as they distinguish between different levels of describing inquiry into the world we inhabit. At some levels of inquiry, we tend to construe...... of technology on human activity. In Science and Technology Studies (STS) the question has been discussed as the ‘social shaping of technology’ and various theoretical frameworks have been put forward that stress the interwoven character of the social and the material, e.g. Social Construction of Technology...... (SCOT), Actor-Network Theory (ANT), and Agential Realism. Whereas there is general agreement in STS that the social and the material is related there is no general agreement about how the socio-material relationship should be understood. Ontological, epistemological and methodological issues tend...
to support work with genuine scientific inquiry and to meet the seventh- to tenth grade curriculum objectives for science and Danish education in Danish schools. This paper comprises a presentation of the results of a long-term empirical study done of four school classes who have played the game. The chapter......This chapter concerns the enactment of competences in a particular science learning game Homicide, which is played in lower secondary schools. Homicide is a forensic investigation game in which pupils play police experts solving criminal cases in the space of one week. The game is designed......, transform and criticize visual representations as an integrated part of conducting an inquiry in the science game...
The purpose of this chapter is to point out the need for aesthetic and artful methods for reflection, learning and co-creation. The context is management education focused on developing innovation competency. The data derive from action research, observations and written reports. The main contrib...... of leadership icons as well as co-creating with tangible materials can give rise to new meaning and transformational learning.......The purpose of this chapter is to point out the need for aesthetic and artful methods for reflection, learning and co-creation. The context is management education focused on developing innovation competency. The data derive from action research, observations and written reports. The main...... contribution of this chapter is the introduction of a model for Artful Inquiry, which involves constructing powerful questions and finding appropriate artistic methods for reflecting and for co-creating with people or with artistic material. It is argued that Artful Inquiry can access deeper layers of knowing...
A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. This evidence to the Inquiry is concerned with the potential of the proposed Hinkely Point ''C'' PWR to increase the exposure of members of the public offsite to radiation. The policy is to replicate the design of the Sizewell ''B'' reactor. The evidence examined in great detail at the Sizewell ''B'' Public Inquiry where the Inspector concluded that the risk would be very small. The purpose of this evidence is to provide an explicit account of the potential off-site effects of radiation at the Hinkley Point site, so that it can be seen that there is nothing specific to this location that could lead to a different conclusion. (author)
Bumbacher, Engin; Salehi, Shima; Wieman, Carl; Blikstein, Paulo
Manipulative environments play a fundamental role in inquiry-based science learning, yet how they impact learning is not fully understood. In a series of two studies, we develop the argument that manipulative environments (MEs) influence the kind of inquiry behaviors students engage in, and that this influence realizes through the affordances of MEs, independent of whether they are physical or virtual. In particular, we examine how MEs shape college students' experimentation strategies and conceptual understanding. In study 1, students engaged in two consecutive inquiry tasks, first on mass and spring systems and then on electric circuits. They either used virtual or physical MEs. We found that the use of experimentation strategies was strongly related to conceptual understanding across tasks, but that students engaged differently in those strategies depending on what ME they used. More students engaged in productive strategies using the virtual ME for electric circuits, and vice versa using the physical ME for mass and spring systems. In study 2, we isolated the affordance of measurement uncertainty by comparing two versions of the same virtual ME for electric circuits—one with and one without noise—and found that the conditions differed in terms of productive experimentation strategies. These findings indicate that measures of inquiry processes may resolve apparent ambiguities and inconsistencies between studies on MEs that are based on learning outcomes alone.
Affhalter, Maria Geralyn
An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".
This study examined the understandings, enactments, views, and plans for scientific inquiry held by preservice special education teachers enrolled in a K--8 general science methods course. Sixteen participants from four special education concentration areas---Mild to Moderate Educational Needs, Moderate to Intense Educational Needs, Mild to Moderate Educational Needs with Language Arts and Reading Emphasis, and Early Childhood Intervention---participated in this study. Qualitative data were collected from questionnaires, interviews, teaching videos, lesson plans, planning commentaries, and reflection papers. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) and compared against the theoretical view of inquiry as conceptualized by the National Research Council (NRC, 2000). The participants held unique interpretations of inquiry that only partially matched with the theoretical insights provided by the NRC. The participants' previous science learning experiences and experiences in special education played an important role in shaping their conceptualizations of inquiry as learned in the science methods class. The impacts of such unique interpretations are discussed with reference to both science education and special education, and implications for teacher education are provided.
Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark
A gap has existed between the tools and processes of scientists working on anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC) and the technologies and curricula available to educators teaching the subject through student inquiry. Designing realistic scientific inquiry into AGCC poses a challenge because research on it relies on complex computer models, globally distributed data sets, and complex laboratory and data collection procedures. Here we examine efforts by the scientific community and educational researchers to design new curricula and technology that close this gap and impart robust AGCC and Earth Science understanding. We find technology-based teaching shows promise in promoting robust AGCC understandings if associated curricula address mitigating factors such as time constraints in incorporating technology and the need to support teachers implementing AGCC and Earth Science inquiry. We recommend the scientific community continue to collaborate with educational researchers to focus on developing those inquiry technologies and curricula that use realistic scientific processes from AGCC research and/or the methods for determining how human society should respond to global change.
In relation to nuclear power policy, two objectives of a liberal democracy are examined: the accountability of the decision-maker to the public; and the efficient and effective implementation of management policy. The places of Parliament, administrative law, planning constraints and the public enquiry are discussed, with special reference to legal aspects of the procedure at the public enquiry to ensure that it is as fair and effective as possible. (U.K.)
Lotter, Christine R.; Miller, Cory
In this paper, we explore middle school science teachers' learning of inquiry-based instructional strategies through reflection on practice teaching sessions during a summer enrichment program with middle level students. The reflection sessions were part of a larger year-long inquiry professional development program in which teachers learned science content and inquiry pedagogy. The program included a 2-week summer institute in which teachers participated in science content sessions, practice teaching to middle level students, and small group-facilitated reflection sessions on their teaching. For this study, data collection focused on teachers' recorded dialogue during the facilitator - run reflection sessions, the teachers' daily written reflections, a final written reflection, and a written reflection on a videotaped teaching session. We investigated the teachers' reflection levels and the themes teachers focused on during their reflection sessions. Teachers were found to reflect at various reflection levels, from simple description to a more sophisticated focus on how to improve student learning. Recurrent themes point to the importance of providing situated learning environments, such as the practice teaching with immediate reflection for teachers to have time to practice new instructional strategies and gain insight from peers and science educators on how to handle student learning issues.
Gordin, Douglas Norman
Scientists' external representations can help science education by providing powerful tools for students' inquiry. Scientific visualization is particularly well suited for this as it uses color patterns, rather than algebraic notation. Nonetheless, visualization must be adapted so it better fits with students' interests, goals, and abilities. I describe how visualization was adapted for students' expressive use and provide a case study where students successfully used visualization. The design process began with scientists' tools, data sets, and activities which were then adapted for students' use. I describe the design through scenarios where students create and analyze visualizations and present the software's functionality through visualization's sub-representations of data; color; scale, resolution, and projection; and examining the relationships between visualizations. I evaluate these designs through a "hot-house" study where a small group of students used visualization under near ideal circumstances for two weeks. Using videotapes of group interactions, software logs, and students' work I examine their representational and inquiry strategies. These inquiries were successful in that the group pursued their interest in world hunger by creating a visualization of daily per capita calorie consumption. Through creating the visualization the students engage in a process of meaning making where they interweave their prior experiences and beliefs with the representations they are using. This interweaving and other processes of collaborative visualization are shown when the students (a) computed values, (b) created a new color scheme, (c) cooperated to create the visualization, and (d) presented their work to other students. I also discuss problems that arose when students (a) used units without considering their meaning, (b) chose inappropriate comparisons in case-based reasoning, (c) did not participate equally during group work, (d) were confused about additive
Whittle, Rachael Jayne; Benson, Amanda Clare; Telford, Amanda
Senior secondary physical education courses for certification continue to attract increasing student enrolments amidst international concerns for the state and status of physical education in schools. Curricula analysis of senior secondary physical education has typically focussed on courses in local contexts. This review aims to contribute to the…
Hatziconstantis, Christos; Kolympari, Tania
The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme for secondary education students requires the successful completion of the Creativity, Action, Service (CAS) component (more recently renamed Creativity, Activity, Service) which is based on the philosophy of experiential learning and Academic Service Learning. In this article, the technique of…
Jones, Diane Carlson; Vigfusdottir, Thorbjorg Helga; Lee, Yoonsun
This research evaluates the contributions of three dimensions of appearance culture (appearance magazine exposure, appearance conversations with friends, and peer appearance criticism) and body mass index (BMI) to internalization of appearance ideals and body image dissatisfaction. Four hundred thirty-three girls and 347 boys in Grades 7 through…
This study investigated the effectiveness of a guided inquiry integrated with technology, in terms of female middle-school students' attitudes toward science/scientists and content knowledge regarding selective science concepts (e.g., Greenhouse Effect, Air/Water Quality, Alternative Energy, and Human Health). Thirty-five female students who were entering eighth grade attended an intensive, 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program which used a main theme, "Green Earth Enhanced with Inquiry and Technology." We used pre- and post-attitude surveys, pre- and post-science content knowledge tests, and selective interviews to collect data and measure changes in students' attitudes and content knowledge. The study results indicated that at the post-intervention measures, participants significantly improved their attitudes toward science and science-related careers and increased their content knowledge of selected science concepts ( p < .05).
The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes
Full Text Available Learning science in junior high school in general is focused on mastery of concepts and basic science has not yet developed abilities, such as the ability berinkuiri. Therefore, it is necessary to find the appropriate steps to improve the process of learning science. The purpose of the study iniuntuk improve learning outcomes by using the skill aspect of inquiry learning model level. The method used in this research is mixed method. The instrument used is the syllabus, lesson plans, and the observation sheet keterampilan.Teknik data collection using observation. Aspects of data analysis skills using data reduction method, coding and interpretation. Results of research conducted on 36 students showed the ability berinkuiri learners increased by using the model level of inquiry. Results of learners aspect of overall skill increases with the good category. The conclusion from this study that the use of models level of inquiry to improve the ability berinkuiri learners and improve learning outcomes aspects of science skills of learners. Pembelajaran IPA di SMP pada umumnya masih menekankan pada penguasaan konsep dan belum mengembangkan kemampuan dasar sains, seperti kemampuan berinkuiri.Oleh karena itu perlu ditemukan langkah yang tepat untuk memperbaiki proses pembelajaran IPA. Tujuan dari penelitian iniuntuk meningkatkan hasil belajar aspek keterampilan dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran level of inquiry. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu mixed methode. Instrumen yang digunakan yaitu Silabus, RPP dan lembar observasi keterampilan. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan observasi. Analisis data aspek keterampilan dengan menggunakan cara mereduksi data, pengkodean dan interpretasi. Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan pada 36 peserta didik menunjukkan kemampuan berinkuiri peserta didik mengalami peningkatan dengan menggunakan model level of inquiry. Hasil belajar peserta didik aspek keterampilan secara keseluruhan meningkat dengan dengan
Full Text Available This longitudinal study of six first-year teachers focused on conceptualizations of inquiry-based pedagogy, self-efficacy for inquiry-based teaching, and its actual enactment. Data included a self-report survey of self-efficacy for inquiry-based instruction, individual interviews at the beginning and end of the year, and five distributed classroom observations. At year’s end, self-efficacy for inquiry teaching declined, as did frequencies of concepts teachers used to describe inquiry enactment. Inquiry descriptions reflected a set of interrelated procedures more than inquiry as conceptual knowledge. Novice teachers were observed least enacting pedagogical actions that required enabling students to communicate findings and the most in student engagement; however, over time frequencies of student engagement declined. Consistent patterns were observed between shifts in self-efficacy and inquiry enactment and shifts between self-efficacy and conceptualizations of inquiry enactment. We found beginning steps toward links between teacher’s conceptualizations and classroom practice.
This undergraduate textbook on the physics of wave motion in optics and acoustics avoids presenting the topic abstractly in order to emphasize real-world examples. While providing the needed scientific context, Dr. Espinoza also relies on students' own experience to guide their learning. The book's exercises and labs strongly emphasize this inquiry-based approach. A strength of inquiry-based courses is that the students maintain a higher level of engagement when they are studying a topic that they have an internal motivation to know, rather than solely following the directives of a professor. "Wave Motion" takes those threads of engagement and interest and weaves them into a coherent picture of wave phenomena. It demystifies key components of life around us--in music, in technology, and indeed in everything we perceive--even for those without a strong math background, who might otherwise have trouble approaching the subject matter.
This study is a qualitative appreciative inquiry into how students of an undergraduate Ed. and Training programme are prepared for diversity. The setting for the study is the School of Education Studies at Dublin City University and the research involves a review of programmes and moudule intentions and qualitative data collected from final year students, academic staff and alumni of the programme. The study includes a literature review that examines the conceptualisation of diversity and ...
Akuma, Fru Vitalis; Callaghan, Ronel
Inquiry-based science education has been incorporated in science curricula internationally. In this regard, however, many teachers encounter challenges. The challenges have been characterised into those linked to the personal characteristics of these teachers (intrinsic challenges) and others associated with contextual factors (extrinsic challenges). However, this level of characterisation is inadequate in terms of appreciating the complexity of the challenges, tracking of their development, and discovering knowledge within specific categories. Against this background, the purpose of the research presented here was to characterise extrinsic challenges linked to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work. In order to do so, we used a conceptual framework of teaching challenges based on Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of human development. The data gathered using a multi-method case study of practical work in two South African high schools, was analysed by combining the data-driven inductive approach and the deductive a priori template of codes approach in thematic analysis. On this basis, the extrinsic challenges linked to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work that participants are confronted with, were found to consist of macrosystem challenges (such as a restrictive curriculum) and microsystem challenges. At the latter level, the challenges are material-related (e.g., lack of science education equipment and materials) or non-material-related (such as time constraints and the lack of access to interactive computer simulations). We have discussed the theory-, practice- and research-based implications of these results in relation to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work in South Africa and internationally.
The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes
Providing Transparency and Credibility: The Selection of International Students for Australian Universities. An Examination of the Relationship between Scores in the International Student Admissions Test (ISAT), Final Year Academic Programs and an Australian University's Foundation Program
Lai, Kelvin; Nankervis, Susan; Story, Margot; Hodgson, Wayne; Lewenberg, Michael; Ball, Marita MacMahon
Throughout 2003-04 five cohorts of students in their final year of school studies in various Malaysian colleges and a group of students completing an Australian university foundation year in Malaysia sat the International Student Admissions Test (ISAT). The ISAT is a multiple-choice test of general academic abilities developed for students whose…
Gastelum, Zoe Nellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sentz, Kari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swanson, Meili Claire [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rinaudo, Cristina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Recent advances in information technology have led to an expansion of crowdsourcing activities that utilize the “power of the people” harnessed via online games, communities of interest, and other platforms to collect, analyze, verify, and provide technological solutions for challenges from a multitude of domains. To related this surge in popularity, the research team developed a taxonomy of crowdsourcing activities as they relate to international nuclear safeguards, evaluated the potential legal and ethical issues surrounding the use of crowdsourcing to support safeguards, and proposed experimental designs to test the capabilities and prospect for the use of crowdsourcing to support nuclear safeguards verification.
A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...
This study aimed at modifying a teaching and learning model for a geographic inquiry to enhance both the subject-related skills of geography and so-called twenty-first century skills in middle-school students (14-15 years old). The purpose of this research is to extend our understanding of the user experiences concerning certain tools for learning…
Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.
Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic…
van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte
This paper presents the results of a theoretically informed professionalisation project that was set up to improve primary teachers’ attitudes towards science and attitude towards inquiry. A positive attitude towards science is of fundamental importance for teachers when stimulating interest in
Paul Jablon's "The Synergy of Inquiry" (2014) is well-timed. The 2014 deadline set by No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2002) for universal student proficiency has come and gone, and according to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, "proficiency rates last year were below 50 percent for nearly every racial and ethnic group, in…
This study investigated the effectiveness of a guided inquiry integrated with technology, in terms of female middle-school students' attitudes toward science/scientists and content knowledge regarding selective science concepts (e.g., Greenhouse Effect, Air/Water Quality, Alternative Energy, and Human Health). Thirty-five female students who were…
Enticott, Peter G.; Bradshaw, John L.; Iansek, Robert; Tonge, Bruce J.; Rinehart, Nicole J.
Aims: Motor dysfunction is common to both autism and Asperger syndrome, but the underlying neurophysiological impairments are unclear. Neurophysiological examinations of motor dysfunction can provide information about likely sites of functional impairment and can contribute to the debate about whether autism and Asperger syndrome are variants of…
Feinstein, Brian A.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Davila, Joanne
Objective: The current study used path analysis to examine potential mechanisms through which experiences of discrimination influence depressive and social anxiety symptoms. Method: The sample included 218 lesbians and 249 gay men (total N = 467) who participated in an online survey about minority stress and mental health. The proposed model…
Baker, Marsha Lee; Dieter, Eric; Dobbins, Zachary
This article examines Wayne C. Booth's legacy as a teacher and scholar through the concept of rhetoric as mutual inquiry that he develops from "Modern Dogma and the Rhetoric of Assent" (1974) through "The Rhetoric of Rhetoric" (2004). Booth's work connects the political and pedagogical in pragmatic and productive ways…
Wang, Jing-Ru; Wang, Yuh-Chao; Tai, Hsin-Jung; Chen, Wen-Ju
This study examined the differential impacts of an inquiry-based instruction on conceptual changes across levels of prior knowledge and reading ability. The instrument emphasized four simultaneously important components: conceptual knowledge, reading ability, attitude toward science, and learning environment. Although the learning patterns and…
Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
In this study, an augmented reality-based mobile learning system is proposed for conducting inquiry-based learning activities. An experiment has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of learning achievements and motivations. The subjects were 57 fourth graders from two classes taught by the same teacher in…
Toth, Eva Erdosne; Ludvico, Lisa R.; Morrow, Becky L.
This study examined the characteristics of virtual and hands-on inquiry environments for the development of blended learning in a popular domain of bio-nanotechnology: the separation of different-sized DNA fragments using gel-electrophoresis, also known as DNA-fingerprinting. Since the latest scientific developments in nano- and micro-scale tools…
Shea, Peter; Gozza-Cohen, Mary; Uzuner, Sedef; Mehta, Ruchi; Valtcheva, Anna Valentinova; Hayes, Suzanne; Vickers, Jason
This paper presents both a conceptual and empirical investigation of teaching and learning in online courses. Employing both the Community of Inquiry framework (CoI) and the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy, two complete online courses were examined for the quality of both collaborative learning processes and learning…
Coiro, Julie; Sekeres, Diane Carver; Castek, Jill; Guzniczak, Lizabeth
This study examined the social and cognitive interaction patterns of third, fourth, and fifth graders as they collaboratively read on the Internet and responded to an inquiry prompt. Data analysis revealed patterns of cognitive strategy use that intersected with social forms and functions of dialogue. Dyads that exhibited higher levels of…
Çalik, Muammer; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Artun, Hüseyin; Küçük, Zeynel
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of "environmental chemistry" elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and technological pedagogical content knowledge…
Sudria, Ida Bagus Nyoman; Redhana, I. Wayan; Kirna, I. Made; Aini, Diah
This study aimed to examine the effect of Kolb's learning styles on chemical learning activities and achievement of reaction rate taught by inductive guided inquiry learning. The population was eleventh grade Science students of a senior secondary school having relatively good academic input based on national testing results in Bali, Indonesia.…
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of socially relevant mathematics applications in high school mathematics classrooms and students' views of mathematics in light of their experiences with these applications. Also, the study sought to determine whether inquiries afforded by these applications incorporated features that promoted…
Tan, Eloise; Lefebvre, Haidee Smith
Through a qualitative approach of narrative inquiry, this paper examines how Quebec's distinct society identity interacted with objectives of a Multicultural Education course in Montreal. The authors, one of whom was a teaching assistant in the course and the other a student in the course, interviewed seven students and the professor. The…
Samarapungavan, Ala; Bryan, Lynn; Wills, Jamison
In this paper, we present a study of second graders' learning about the nature of matter in the context of content-rich, model-based inquiry instruction. The goal of instruction was to help students learn to use simple particle models to explain states of matter and phase changes. We examined changes in students' ideas about matter, the coherence…
Narayan, Ratna; Lamp, David
In this qualitative and interpretive study, we investigated factors that influenced elementary preservice teachers' self-efficacy in a constructivist, inquiry-based physics class. Bandura's (1977) theory of social learning was used as a basis to examine preservice teacher's self-efficacy. Participants included 70 female EC-4 preservice teachers…
Haug, Berit S.; Ødegaard, Marianne
This qualitative video study explores how two elementary school teachers taught for conceptual understanding throughout different phases of science inquiry. The teachers implemented teaching materials with a focus on learning science key concepts through the development of word knowledge. A framework for word knowledge was applied to examine the…
Dewey's theory of inquiry cannot be reduced to the pattern of inquiry common to both common-sense inquiry and scientific inquiry, which is grounded in the human life process, since such a reduction ignores Dewey's differentiation of the two forms of inquiry. The difference has to do with the focus of inquiry, with common-sense inquiry…
The Queen Charlotte Power Corporation (QCPC) has applied for a water licence to drain Takakia Lake in British Columbia's Queen Charlotte Islands. Their plan is to build a tunnel into the side of the lake and draw water from it to supplement their power generating capabilities at their Moresby Lake hydro generating station. The BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks called for a public inquiry into the application to address public concerns about the project. Through the Environmental Dispute Resolution Fund (EDRF), the North West Habitat Foundation (NWHF) was able to participate in this public inquiry which took place in June, 1999, and represent the environmental concerns of the community. Other participants included QCPC, BC Hydro, the Skidegate Band Council and the Haida Nation. One of the arguments raised was the lack of public disclosure and consultation, particularly regarding First Nations in the area. Takakia Lake area has been referred to as an ecological gem which hosts a unique ecosys tem and several rare plant species. The NWHF argued that the resulting draw-down of water from the lake would permanently damage the microclimate of the lake and would pose a major threat to the ecosystem. The Canadian Wildlife Service has also expressed concerns regarding the impacts on migratory birds. It was also noted that prior to their proposal, QCPC and BC Hydro did not fully consider the use of energy alternatives. As a result of this inquiry, QCPC has asked for more time to submit further documents regarding their proposal. In turn, the NWHF will be given a chance to respond to those materials and to submit their own additional information. 2 figs
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran IPS dengan Pendekatan Inquiry. Penelitian pengembangan ini menggunakan langkah-langkah Borg and Gall yang terdiri dari tiga tahapan utama yaitu pendahuluan, pengembangan dan validasi. Data yang diperoleh adalah hasil belajar, aktivitas diskusi dan respon peserta didik. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan uji t. Penggunaan pendekatan inquiry sebagai salah satau strategi pembelajaran IPS dapat dilakukan dengan mempersiapkan terlebih dahulu perangkat pembelajarannya. Hasil pengembangan divalidasi oleh pakar, diujicobakan pada kelas terbatas dan selanjutnya dilakukan ujicoba pada kelas eksperimen yang dibandingkan hasilnya dengan kelas kontrol. Perangkat pembelajaran tergolong efektif untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar peserta didik di kelas VII SMP Negeri 2 Jepara, terbukti dari adanya peningkatan yang nyata terbukti dari hasil uji paired sampel t-test dengan nilai signifikansi 0,000 <0,05, dan terjadi peningkatan yang tinggi (gain > 0,7, serta hasil belajar yang dicapai berbeda secara signifikan dengan kelompok kontrol. Di samping hasil belajar, pembelajaran yang dilakukan juga berdampak pada proses belajar yang membawa tingginya aktivitas peserta didik dalam memberikan gagasan, kerjasama, inisiatif, keaktifan dan kedisiplinan. The purpose of this research is creating Social Lesson Material with Inquiry Approach.This developing of the research is used of the steps of Borg and Gall. They are Introducing, developing and evaluating. Learning materials are developed and validity by expert. Datas are gooten by study result, discussion activity and students, respone. Analizing datas are used descriptive analize and t- try out. The use of inquiry approach as one of learning strategy on Social Lesson Material can be done by preparing those. The result of developing are being validity by expert, try out on limited group and experiment group ad compare with control group
Sachdev, Perminder S; Lo, Jessica W; Crawford, John D; Mellon, Lisa; Hickey, Anne; Williams, David; Bordet, Régis; Mendyk, Anne-Marie; Gelé, Patrick; Deplanque, Dominique; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lim, Jae-Sung; Brodtmann, Amy; Werden, Emilio; Cumming, Toby; Köhler, Sebastian; Verhey, Frans R J; Dong, Yan-Hong; Tan, Hui Hui; Chen, Christopher; Xin, Xu; Kalaria, Raj N; Allan, Louise M; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra; Dichgans, Martin; Wollenweber, Frank A; Zietemann, Vera; Hoffmann, Michael; Desmond, David W; Linden, Thomas; Blomstrand, Christian; Fagerberg, Björn; Skoog, Ingmar; Godefroy, Olivier; Barbay, Mélanie; Roussel, Martine; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Wardlaw, Joanna; Makin, Stephen J; Doubal, Fergus N; Chappell, Francesca M; Srikanth, Velandai K; Thrift, Amanda G; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Chander, Russell J; Lin, Xuling; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Moulin, Solene; Rossi, Costanza; Sabayan, Behnam; Stott, David J; Jukema, J Wouter; Melkas, Susanna; Jokinen, Hanna; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Mok, Vincent C T; Wong, Adrian; Lam, Bonnie Y K; Leys, Didier; Hénon, Hilde; Bombois, Stéphanie; Lipnicki, Darren M; Kochan, Nicole A
The Stroke and Cognition consortium (STROKOG) aims to facilitate a better understanding of the determinants of vascular contributions to cognitive disorders and help improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). Longitudinal studies with ≥75 participants who had suffered or were at risk of stroke or TIA and which evaluated cognitive function were invited to join STROKOG. The consortium will facilitate projects investigating rates and patterns of cognitive decline, risk factors for VCD, and biomarkers of vascular dementia. Currently, STROKOG includes 25 (21 published) studies, with 12,092 participants from five continents. The duration of follow-up ranges from 3 months to 21 years. Although data harmonization will be a key challenge, STROKOG is in a unique position to reuse and combine international cohort data and fully explore patient level characteristics and outcomes. STROKOG could potentially transform our understanding of VCD and have a worldwide impact on promoting better vascular cognitive outcomes.
The Australian Consumers' Association's Inquiry into Food Irradiation was undertaken at the request of the Commonwealth Minister of Health, Dr N Blewett. The terms of reference of the Inquiry covered the implications of food irradiation in terms of consumer health, the environment, and the cost to the consumer
Baum, Edward J.
Teaching strategies such as guided inquiry have long been reported to produce superior learning outcomes in postsecondary science education. Yet many teachers cite obstacles that prevent them from implementing the method. Students also often report negative attitudes toward guided inquiry, leading to a lack of student engagement and other…
Johnson, Brian J.; Graham, Kate J.
This paper will describe a guided inquiry activity for teaching ligand field theory. Previous research suggests the guided inquiry approach is highly effective for student learning. This activity familiarizes students with the key concepts of molecular orbital theory applied to coordination complexes. Students will learn to identify factors that…
Jan 1, 2008 ... It also provides detailed instructions on how to integrate and ground collaborative inquiry in the projects, plans, evaluations and activities of multiple stakeholders. Part 2 presents a selection of techniques for collaborative inquiry and examples of real-life applications in South Asia and Latin America.
This article introduces a practice-centred inquiry method called an "ethno-experiment". The method is built on a social constructionist understanding of practice as a social performance rather than as an individual's act. Additionally, it draws on Garfinkel's early ethnomethodological work and Marshall's self-reflective inquiry to construct a…
Asbell-Clarke, Jodi; Edwards, Teon; Rowe, Elizabeth; Larsen, Jamie; Sylvan, Elisabeth; Hewitt, Jim
This paper reports on research of a game designed for scientific inquiry in a new and publicly available massively-multiplayer online environment (MMO). Educators and game designers worked together to create a highly immersive environment, a compelling storyline, and research-grounded tools for scientific inquiry within the game. The designers…
Wix, Linney; John-Steiner, Vera
The article discusses a dialogical peer inquiry process as a practice of co-constructing knowledge in graduate coursework. The process, formerly structured as an exam, was developed by Dr. Vera John-Steiner more than 30 years ago and has been implemented in adapted forms by her students in their teaching. The dialogical peer inquiry process…
Harrington, Helen L.; Garrison, James W.
A dialogical model is proposed for connecting theory to practice in teacher education by conceiving of cases from case-based pedagogy as problems that initiate shared inquiry. Cases with genuine cognitive and axiological content can initiate self-directed, student-centered inquiry while building democratic dialogical communities. (SLD)
Tessier, Jack T.; Penniman, Clayton A.
There is a collective need to increase the use of inquiry-based instruction at the college level. This paper provides of an example of how inquiry was successfully used in the laboratory component of an undergraduate course in microbial ecology. Students were offered a collection of field and laboratory methods to choose from, and they developed a…
Bleich, Michael R; Hessler, Christine
Appreciative inquiry was developed to initiate and animate change. As implementation science gains a foothold in practice settings to bridge theory, evidence, and practice, appreciative inquiry takes on new meaning as a leadership intervention and training tool. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(5):207-209. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Ray, Katie Wood
This article begins with a "snapshot" of a fifth grade writing workshop and its study of op-ed writing to show an inquiry in action. The framework for this inquiry involves immersing students in reading multiple examples of the kind of text the teacher would like them to write, studying closely how the texts are crafted, and writing their own…
Lanphear, Jacquelyn; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen
By utilizing inquiry processes, such as observing and questioning, young children learn to investigate and use evidence to evaluate information. Through intersubjectivity, or social collaboration and mutual focus, children coconstruct an understanding of the world. Children's inquiry and intersubjectivity were observed in a range of activities in…
Kennedy, Nadia Stoyanova
The paper discusses Matthew Lipman's approach to inquiry as shaped and fashioned by John Dewey's model of scientific inquiry. Although Lipman's program adopted the major aspects of Dewey's pedagogy, at least two characteristics of that program stand out as radically different--his use of relatively free-form philosophical discussions to teach…
Hulshof, C.D.; Wilhelm, P.; Beishuizen, J.J.; Beishuizen, J.J.; van Rijn, H.
A computerized learning environment (Flexible Inquiry Learning Environment; FILE) is discussed. FILE allows researchers in inquiry learning to design, administer, and analyze learning tasks in which content domain and task complexity can be configured independently, while other factors (e.g., the
Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith
This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined during…
Fontichiaro, Kristin, Comp.
Inquiry does not replace information literacy; it encompasses it. It encourages librarians to consider instructional design beyond information search, retrieval, citation, and use. Inquiry-based learning invites school librarians to step into all aspects of instructional planning, from activating prior knowledge straight through to reflection.…
Newman, William J., Jr.; Abell, Sandra K.; Hubbard, Paula D.; McDonald, James; Otaala, Justine; Martini, Mariana
Because various definitions of inquiry exist in the science education literature and in classroom practice, elementary science methods students and instructors face dilemmas during the study of inquiry. Using field notes, instructor anecdotal notes, student products, and course artifacts, science methods course instructors created fictional…
Muukkonen, Hanni; Lakkala, Minna
The skills of knowledge-creating inquiry are explored as a challenge for higher education. The knowledge-creation approach to learning provides a theoretical tool for addressing them: In addition to the individual and social aspects in regulation of inquiry, the knowledge-creation approach focuses on aspects related to advancing shared objects of…
Schreibman, Rachel; Chilton, Gioia
This viewpoint presents aesthetic writing and reflection on the art therapy supervisor and supervisee dyad from a practice of appreciative inquiry. Through writing and exchanging poems, the authors sought to uncover the dynamics of the supervisory relationship that contributed to a positive learning experience. Poetry as inquiry provoked new…
Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.
Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond
Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 2. Examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 (kokusai kyoryoku shuishin no tame no chosa kento)
Described herein are the results of examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation, and examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, conducted in the FY 1998 continuously from the previous year, with the object to realize the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project. In the FY 1998, the English version of the 1997 annual summary report was distributed to a total of about 150 overseas organizations. The WE-NET project activities were presented to the 12th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, International Joint Power Generation Conference held in 1998 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Energy Conversion Systems and Related Technologies. For the examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, the contracting party of Japan for the Hydrogen Implementation Agreement with IEA has been shifted from the government of Japan to NEDO. NEDO has been representing Japan for various workshops on the tasks. The hydrogen projects conducted by Germany and USA were also surveyed. The WE-NET project homepage was opened in June, 1998. (NEDO)
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Hjermitslev, Thomas
The paper introduces an Ecological Inquiry as a methodological approach for designing technology with children. The inquiry is based on the ‘ecological turn’ in HCI, Ubiquitous Computing and Participatory Design that shift the emphasis of design from technological artifacts to entire use ecologies...... into which technologies are integrated. Our Ecological Inquiry extends Cooperative Inquiry in three directions: from understanding to emergence of social practices and meanings, from design of artifacts to hybrid environments, and from a focus on technology to appropriations through design and use. We...... exemplify our approach in a case study in which we designed social technologies for hybrid learning environments with children in two schools, and discuss how an Ecological Inquiry can inform existing approaches in CCI....
The North Carolina Infrastructure for Science Education (NC-ISE) is a statewide partnership for implementing standards-based inquiry science using exemplary curriculum materials in the public schools of North Carolina. North Carolina is the 11th most populous state in the USA with 8,000,000 residents, 117 school districts and a geographic area of 48,718 miles. NC-ISE partners include the state education agency, local school systems, three branches of the University of North Carolina, the state mathematics and science education network, businesses, and business groups. The partnership, based upon the Science for All Children model developed by the National Science Resources Centre, was initiated in 1997 for improvement in teaching and learning of science and mathematics. This research-based model has been successfully implemented in several American states during the past decade. Where effectively implemented, the model has led to significant improvements in student interest and student learning. It has also helped reduce the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students and among students from different economic levels. A key program element of the program is an annual Leadership Institute that helps teams of administrators and teachers develop a five-year strategic plan for their local systems. Currently 33 of the117 local school systems have joined the NC-ISE Program and are in various stages of implementation of inquiry science in grades K-8.
Full Text Available According to the philosopher C.S. Peirce the diagram is a system of interrelated parts that operates in a manner similar to another system of interrelated parts. It is a mental map of relations. It drives an open-ended inquiry on a given problem. In architectural discourse a diagram is often defined as a particular form of drawing. It is a simplified image and/or it uses a notation system. In this context, the latter is termed a digital diagram. However, an architectural medium has material properties that influence both the making and the translation of the drawing. It is both a singular artefact and a set of instructions for actions undertaken in another space than that of the medium. This article introduces the notion of an immanent diagram to discuss how the composition of a drawing is distributed. The proposition is that the architectural diagrammatic inquiry operates in the struggle between digital and analogue diagrams. I develop the argument using a traditional architectural drawing as a starting point. In the last section, I discuss a contemporary computer based design practice in which drawings and prototype modelling constitute a heterogeneous technological environment.
Gillies, Robyn M.; Nichols, Kim
Many primary teachers face challenges in teaching inquiry science, often because they believe that they do not have the content knowledge or pedagogical skills to do so. This is a concern given the emphasis attached to teaching science through inquiry where students do not simply learn about science but also do science. This study reports on the…
van Rens, L.; van der Schee, J.; Pilot, A.
The Dutch chemistry curriculum for upper secondary schools has prescribed inquiry-based student learning since 1997. For some decades inquiry tasks have been a feature of school science in various countries (1). As in other countries, some of our chemistry teachers are used to recipe-geared
Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.
This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the "open-inquiry question template." This template was created based on their experience teaching high school science and preservice university methods courses. To help teachers implement this template, they…
Hsu, Ying-Shao; Fang, Su-Chi; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsin-Kai, Wu; Wu, Pai-Hsing; Hwang, Fu-Kwun
The two-year study aimed to explore how students' development of different inquiry abilities actually benefited from the design of technology-infused learning modules. Three learning modules on the topics of seasons, environmental issues and air pollution were developed to facilitate students' inquiry abilities: questioning, planning, analyzing,…
McKeown, Tammy R; Abrams, Lisa M; Slattum, Patricia W; Kirk, Suzanne V
Inquiry-based instructional approaches are an effective means to actively engage students with science content and skills. This article examines the effects of an ongoing professional development program on middle and high school teachers' efficacy beliefs, confidence to teach research concepts and skills, and science content knowledge. Professional development activities included participation in a week long summer academy, designing and implementing inquiry-based lessons within the classroom, examining and reflecting upon practices, and documenting ways in which instruction was modified. Teacher beliefs were assessed at three time points, pre- post- and six months following the summer academy. Results indicate significant gains in reported teaching efficacy, confidence, and content knowledge from pre- to post-test. These gains were maintained at the six month follow-up. Findings across the three different time points suggest that participation in the professional development program strongly influenced participants' fundamental beliefs about their capacity to provide effective instruction in ways that are closely connected to the features of inquiry-based instruction.