WorldWideScience

Sample records for international ethics guidelines

  1. What do international ethics guidelines say in terms of the scope of medical research ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe, Rosemarie D L C; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-04-26

    In research ethics, the most basic question would always be, "which is an ethical issue, which is not?" Interestingly, depending on which ethics guideline we consult, we may have various answers to this question. Though we already have several international ethics guidelines for biomedical research involving human participants, ironically, we do not have a harmonized document which tells us what these various guidelines say and shows us the areas of consensus (or lack thereof). In this manuscript, we attempted to do just that. We extracted the imperatives from five internationally-known ethics guidelines and took note where the imperatives came from. In doing so, we gathered data on how many guidelines support a specific imperative. We found that there is no consensus on the majority of the imperatives and that in only 8.2% of the imperatives were there at least moderate consensus (i.e., consensus of at least 3 of the 5 ethics guidelines). Of the 12 clusters (Basic Principles; Research Collaboration; Social Value; Scientific Validity; Participant Selection; Favorable Benefit/Risk Ratio; Independent Review; Informed Consent; Respect for Participants; Publication and Registration; Regulatory Sanctions; and Justified Research on the Vulnerable Population), Informed Consent has the highest level of consensus and Research Collaboration and Regulatory Sanctions have the least. There was a lack of consensus in the majority of imperatives from the five internationally-known ethics guidelines. This may be partly explained by the differences among the guidelines in terms of their levels of specification as well as conceptual/ideological differences.

  2. Research ethics for a globalised world: the revised CIOMS international guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehni, Hans-Jöerg; Wiesing, Urban

    2017-01-01

    On December 6, 2016, the Council of International Organisations of Medical Sciences published a new version of its guidelines with the title "International Ethical Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans." In this article we briefly describe the revision process and the structure and content of these guidelines. We outline some of its main guidelines such as the ones on social value, post-trial access, and risk-benefit ratio. In our overall evaluation we come to the conclusion that the CIOMS guidelines manage to strike a balance between the protection of human participants in health-related research and the promotion of such research activities in an exemplary way. The guidelines combine key principles with a guide to their application based on the state of the art in research ethics. Thus they represent a timely and indispensable orientation for researchers, ethics committees, and other stakeholders in health-related research.

  3. The 2016 CIOMS guidelines and public-health research ethics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2016 CIOMS guidelines and public-health research ethics. J.R. Williams. Abstract. In November 2016, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) published its revised International Ethical Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans. In relation to earlier versions, the scope of ...

  4. Ethical guidelines in psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmchen, Hanfried

    2010-11-01

    Capacity to consent is a basic prerequisite for participation of patients as probands in research. However, mental illness often impairs this competence. Therefore, in psychiatric research, the first obligation is to assess a mentally ill patient's competence to consent. This is not a simple task. Informed consent should be viewed not only as a legal must, but also as a chance to build up a trusting patient-psychiatrist relationship. This is called for by respect for the autonomy and dignity of the patient. Specifically, competence to consent is related to the specific intervention; the validity of a consent requires that the patient understands the intervention-related medical information, comprehends its significance and consequences, and can appreciate its meaning for himself. Research with patients who lack this competence to consent validly meets a major problem: an uncovered need for research in frequent major psychiatric disorders exists, but a substantial number of patients with these illnesses cannot consent validly. Several guidelines for dealing with this problem will be discussed. Mentally ill patients who are willing to participate in needed research are a rare resource. This must be protected by the virtue of the clinical researcher who has to take great pains over the strict adherence to ethical guidelines.

  5. Introduction: international research ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millum, Joseph; Sina, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    NIH's Fogarty International Center has provided grants for the development of training programs in international research ethics for low- and middle-income (LMIC) professionals since 2000. Drawing on 12 years of research ethics training experience, a group of Fogarty grantees, trainees, and other ethics experts sought to map the current capacity and need for research ethics in LMICs, analyze the lessons learned about teaching bioethics, and chart a way forward for research ethics training in a rapidly changing health research landscape. This collection of papers is the result.

  6. What Do Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiology Say About an Ethics Review? A Qualitative Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin; Dranseika, Vilius

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research is subject to an ethics review. The aim of this qualitative review is to compare existing ethical guidelines in English for epidemiological research and public health practice in regard to the scope and matter of an ethics review. Authors systematically searched PubMed, Google Scholar and Google Search for ethical guidelines. Qualitative analysis (constant comparative method) was applied to categorize important aspects of the an ethics review process. Eight ethical gu...

  7. The challenge of developing ethical guidelines for a research infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo

    2016-04-01

    The mission of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS RI) is to enable research to understand the greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets and perturbations. The ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and GHG emissions. Technological developments and implementations, related to GHGs, will be promoted by the linking of research, education and innovation. In order to provide this data ICOS RI is a distributed research infrastructure. The backbones of ICOS RI are the national measurement stations such as ICOS atmosphere, ecosystem and ocean stations. ICOS Central Facilities are the European level ICOS RI Centres, which have the specific tasks in collecting and processing the data and samples received from the national measurement networks. During the establishment of ICOS RI ethical guidelines were developed. These guidelines describe principles of ethics in the research activities that should be applied within ICOS RI. They should be acknowledged and followed by all researchers affiliated to ICOS RI and should be supported by all participating institutions. The presentation describes (1) the general challenge to develop ethical guidelines in a complex international infrastructure and (2) gives an overview about the content that includes different kinds of conflicts of interests, data ethics and social responsibility.

  8. International Conference on Robot Ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeira, Joao; Tokhi, Mohammad; Kadar, Endre; Virk, Gurvinder

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the Proceedings of the International Conference on Robot Ethics, held in Lisbon on October 23 and 24, 2015. The conference provided a multidisciplinary forum for discussing central and evolving issues concerning safety and ethics that have arisen in various contexts where robotic technologies are being applied. The papers are intended to promote the formulation of more precise safety standards and ethical frameworks for the rapidly changing field of robotic applications. The conference was held at Pavilhão do Conhecimento/Ciência Viva in Lisbon and brought together leading researchers and industry representatives, promoting a dialogue that combines different perspectives and experiences to arrive at viable solutions for ethical problems in the context of robotics. The conference topics included but were not limited to emerging ethical, safety, legal and societal problems in the following domains: • Service/Social Robots: Robots performing tasks in human environments and involving close ...

  9. UNESCO Global Ethics Observatory: database on ethics related legislation and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, T W; ten Have, H; Solbakk, J H; Nys, H

    2008-10-01

    The Database on Ethics Related Legislation and Guidelines was launched in March 2007 as the fourth database of the UNESCO Global Ethics Observatory system of databases in ethics of science and technology. The database offers a collection of legal instruments searchable by region, country, bioethical themes, legal categories and applicability to specific articles of the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights and International Declaration on Human Genetic Data. This paper discusses the background and rationale for the database and its role as a consultative and comparative resource hub for the study of ethics related legal instruments across the world, with the purpose of informing and inspiring relevant stakeholders on the implementation of the principles contained within the UNESCO declarations on bioethics.

  10. Approaches to Ethics in International Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gopalkrishnan R.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in international business ethics (such as cultural relativism and ethical imperialism) that should be addressed when incorporating ethics in international business education. Also discusses instructional approaches, including alternative ways of thinking about morality, philosophy versus practice, the ethical agent, and…

  11. Review of national research ethics regulations and guidelines in Middle Eastern Arab countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Research ethics guidelines are essential for conducting medical research. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to establish national clinical research documents in the countries of the Middle East. This article analyzes these documents. Methods Thirteen Arab countries in the Middle East were explored for available national codes, regulations, and guidelines concerning research ethics, and 10 documents from eight countries were found. We studied these documents, considering the ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) guidelines, and the International Conference of Harmonization - Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP). Our paper comprises a complete list of protections, such as confidentiality, informed consent, ethics committees, and others. Results This study found different levels and kinds of research ethics regulations and guidelines in the countries examined. Two groups can be distinguished: the countries in the first group have one or more research ethics regulations or guidelines, while the countries in the second group have not yet established any. Most of the documents showed various degrees of deficiencies in regard to ethical protection. The majority of the documents that were examined refer to one or more international documents on biomedical research ethics. Conclusions Recently, a lot of efforts have been made in many countries in the Middle East. However, compared with international documents, most of the research ethics documents in use in this region demonstrate numerous deficiencies. As it relates to these documents, extensive differences could be observed in regard to development, structure, content, and reference to international guidelines. PMID:23234422

  12. Compassionate use programs in Italy: ethical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Ludovica; Satolli, Roberto; Costantini, Massimo

    2018-03-09

    This article proposes a retrospective analysis of a compassionate use (CU), using a case study of request for Avelumab for a patient suffering from Merkel Cell Carcinoma. The study is the result of a discussion within a Provincial Ethics Committee (EC) following the finding of a high number of requests for CU program. The primary objective of the study is to illustrate the specific ethical and clinical profiles that emerge from the compassionate use program (CUP) issue. The secondary goals are: a) to promote a moral reflection among physicians who require approval for the CUP and b) provide the basis for recommendations on how to request CUP. The instruments for carrying out the analysis of the case study and the discussion are as follows: Analysis of the audio-recording of the EC meeting regarding the selected Case study. In-depth discussion of topics that emerged during the meeting by means of administration of 5 semi-structured interviews with 2 doctors involved in the case (proposing physician and palliative physician) and with 3 components of the EC who played a major role in the EC internal discussion. In an exploration of emerging clinical and ethical issues, four primary themes arise: 1. efficacy, safety of the treatment and patient's quality of life; 2. clear, realistic, adequate communication; 3. right to hope; 4. simultaneous Palliative Care approach. The results of ethical analysis carried out concern two areas: 1) ethical profiles relating to the use of CUP; 2) the role of the EC concerning the compassionate use of drugs and the need to provide recommendations on how to request CUP. With the aim of implementing these conclusions, the provincial EC of Reggio Emilia chose to steer the request for drugs for compassionate use through recommendations for good clinical and ethical practice based on the following assumptions: 1) the "simultaneous care" approach must be preferred. Secondly, 2) the EC's assessment must be part of the decision-making process

  13. What Next? Translating AGI's 2015 Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.; Keane, C.

    2016-12-01

    In 2015, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) published a revised version of the 1999 Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct, an aspirational document outlining ethical principles that should inform the professional behavior of all geoscientists. The revised Guidelines reflect a consensus of opinion among AGI's 51 member societies and show an evolution in thinking about geoscience ethics. The Guidelines also represent a foundational document to support the expansion of ethical guidelines by individual societies and organizations. Publishing the Guidelines was a significant milestone but aspirations need to be matched by action. We examine several developments that implement aspects of the Guidelines, including the development of a consensus statement regarding access and inclusion of individuals living with disabilities in the geosciences, a Joint AGI/Geological Society of America Societies meeting on professional conduct, geoethics training initiatives, and efforts to foster international cooperation in recognizing and implementing ethical practice in the geosciences. In addition, we examine the level of success in using these Guidelines as philosophical cornerstones for a number of international projects, such as Resourcing Future Generations and the International Raw Materials Observatory, that bring geoscience directly into contact with large societal issues.

  14. Pacific Health Research Guidelines: The Cartography of an Ethical Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Schaaf, Karlo

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 the Health Research Council of New Zealand (HRC) published a set of "Guidelines on Pacific health research". The Guidelines were an attempt to articulate the features of ethical research relationships with Pacific peoples living in Aotearoa New Zealand. This article describes the process of developing these guidelines, using…

  15. What Do Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiology Say About an Ethics Review? A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin; Dranseika, Vilius

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological research is subject to an ethics review. The aim of this qualitative review is to compare existing ethical guidelines in English for epidemiological research and public health practice in regard to the scope and matter of an ethics review. Authors systematically searched PubMed, Google Scholar and Google Search for ethical guidelines. Qualitative analysis (constant comparative method) was applied to categorize important aspects of the an ethics review process. Eight ethical guidelines in English for epidemiological research were retrieved. Five main categories that are relevant to the review of epidemiological research by Institutional Review Boards/Research Ethics Committees were distinguished. Within the scope of main categories, fifty-nine subcategories were analyzed. There are important differences between the guidelines in terms of the scope and matter of an ethics review. Not all guidelines encompass all identified ethically important issues, and some do not define precisely the scope and matter of an ethics review, leaving much to the ethics of the individual researchers and the discretion of IRBs/RECs.

  16. A critical review of health research ethical guidelines regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Over the past decades there have been tremendous efforts to improve the ethical conduct of research involving humans throughout the world. As a one-size-fits-all philosophy can no longer work, most countries have developed specific legal and ethical guidelines for research, tailored to their own context.

  17. The concept of 'vulnerability' in research ethics: an in-depth analysis of policies and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Roche, Dearbhail; Bell, Emily; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Racine, Eric

    2017-02-07

    The concept of vulnerability has held a central place in research ethics guidance since its introduction in the United States Belmont Report in 1979. It signals mindfulness for researchers and research ethics boards to the possibility that some participants may be at higher risk of harm or wrong. Despite its important intended purpose and widespread use, there is considerable disagreement in the scholarly literature about the meaning and delineation of vulnerability, stemming from a perceived lack of guidance within research ethics standards. The aim of this study was to assess the concept of vulnerability as it is employed in major national and international research ethics policies and guidelines. We conducted an in-depth analysis of 11 (five national and six international) research ethics policies and guidelines, exploring their discussions of the definition, application, normative justification and implications of vulnerability. Few policies and guidelines explicitly defined vulnerability, instead relying on implicit assumptions and the delineation of vulnerable groups and sources of vulnerability. On the whole, we found considerable richness in the content on vulnerability across policies, but note that this relies heavily on the structure imposed on the data through our analysis. Our results underscore a need for policymakers to revisit the guidance on vulnerability in research ethics, and we propose that a process of stakeholder engagement would well-support this effort.

  18. Ethical principles and guidelines for the development of cognitive systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaneyfelt, Wendy

    2006-05-01

    As cognitive systems technologies emerge, so too do the ethical issues surrounding their development and use. To develop cognitive systems technologies responsibly, Sandia National Laboratories is establishing a framework to proactively address both real and potential ethical issues. This report contains the principles and guidelines developers can use to guide them as they are confronted with ethical issues related to developing cognitive systems technologies as they apply to U.S. national security. A process to apply these principles offers a practical way to transfer these principles from paper to a working strategy. Case studies are presented to reflect upon potential scenarios and to consider resolution strategies.

  19. Guidelines for an environmental code of ethics for research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardusi, Claudia; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to reflect about actions that may contribute to the creation of mechanisms to protect the environment in the development of research projects at research institutions, specifically the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN. A brief review of part of the ethical values applied to the process of scientific development during the old, medieval and modern periods is presented, showing the split of the nature ethical principles. It is also reported an overview of the creation of codes of ethics applied to research institutions. Moreover, criteria are presented to settle guidelines to protect the environment during the development of research projects. (author)

  20. The International Ethics Conference: An Eye Opener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuma, Ellemes

    2010-01-01

    In this text, Ellemes Phuma, shares her experience and the benefits she derived from the International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana (UB). As a graduate student in nursing at that university, she provides her perspective on professional responsibility, compassionate healthcare, and the ethical role that healthcare…

  1. Survey of instructions to authors in Indian and British Dental Journals with respect to ethical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, V P; Dhillon, J K; Kalra, G; Sharma, A; Mathur, R

    2013-01-01

    Publication can become a symbol of presenting how meticulously a person has followed ethical principles in research. It is the duty of the investigators or authors to carefully read the instructions to authors and generate data with honesty and genuineness. In fulfillment of the basic requisite to publish, clearly defined instructions to authors should be provided by the journal. To assess the pattern of instructions regarding the ethical requirements given to authors in Indian Dental Journals and tried to compare the same with British Dental Journals. A cross-sectional survey of 'instructions for authors,' for analysis of guidelines on ethical processes, was done. Instructions to authors of Indian and British Dental Journals indexed in PubMed were reviewed for guidelines with regard to seven key ethical issues. Descriptive statistics were used and results were expressed in percentages as well as numbers. Of the 10 Indian Dental Journals, 7 (70%) cited ethical guidelines such as International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Committee on Publication Ethics, Indian Council of Medical Research guidelines whereas out of 27 British Dental Journals, 16 (59.25%) cited these. Protection of human subjects such as approval from an institutional/independent ethics committee, obtaining informed consent and maintenance of confidentiality of patient records was covered with 8 (80%) Indian and 19 (70.3%) British Dental Journals. Four (40%) Indian and 13 (48.1%) instructed about animals welfare. Nine (90%) of the Indian and 25 (92.5%) British Dental Journals required declaration of conflicts of interest by authors. Publication issues and authorship/contributorship criteria were specified by all 10 Indian and 25 (92.5%) and 24 (88.8%) British journals respectively. 6 (60%) of Indian and 11 (40.75%) of British Journals explained about data management, in case of clinical trials. A significant proportion of Indexed Indian and British Dental Journals did not provide adequate

  2. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR LAW PRINCIPLES AS GUIDELINES TO FOSTEREMPLOYMENT RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Noemi TURI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary human resource management practices often ignore very important values of international labour law; however there is a wide floor for improvements in this area. In this sense the main guidelines are arising from the legal acts of the International organizations. The social responsibility, professional ethics and management are categories which have the intense relation with the legal system. Some historically developed degree of social responsibility and professional ethics may be considered as an important resource of values which are the starting point for building the legal system and also international regulations. The international labour law principles are significant elements in employment relations. The paper represents how the principles of the international labour law can positively influence managerial strategies through the social dialogue. Social dialogue provides a communication platform between social partners and by that it is actually creating a socio-economic and social development. Furthermore social dialogue is a key instrument in planning social development, harmonizing different interests, prevent and resolve disputes between the management and labour. International law shows many ways how to strengthen the principle of ethics in the employment relations. The values, arising from the existing international legal documents may be the significant guideline for the development of “good practices of managers”.

  3. Business Ethics: International Analysis of Codes of Ethics and Conduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josmar Andrade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Codes of ethics and code of conduct formalize an ideal of expected behavior patterns to managers and employees of organizations, providing standards and orientation that states companies interactions with the community, through products /services, sales force, marketing communications, investments, and relationships with other stakeholders, influencing company reputation and overall Marketing performance. The objective of this study is to analyze the differences in codes of ethics of the largest companies based in Brazil and in Portugal, given their cultural and linguistic similarities. Findings show that the use of codes of ethics are more common in Brazil than in Portugal and that codes of ethics are substantially more extensive and cover a larger number of categories in Brazilian companies, reflecting the organizations’ mission and perception of stakeholders concerns and priorities. We conclude that ethical issues severely impact company reputation and, in a comprehensive sense, overall Marketing performance. Marketing professionals should be systematically aware of how company core values are transmitted to different audiences, including the use of code of ethics to communicate both with internal and external publics. 0 0 1 171 966 CASA DOS ANDRADES 23 14 1123 14.0 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE  

  4. Developing an Ethical Framework for All Geoscientists: AGI Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.; Leahy, P. Patrick; Keane, Christopher M.

    2016-04-01

    In 1997, a group of geoscientists and others recognized the need for a broad-based set of ethical standards for the geosciences that would be an expression of the highest common denominator of values for the profession. The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) coordinated the development of the 1999 AGI Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct and their subsequent revision in 2015. AGI is a nonprofit federation of 51 geoscientific and professional organizations that span the geosciences and have approximately 250,000 members. AGI serves as a voice for shared interests in the geoscience community and one of its roles is to facilitate collaboration and discussion among its member societies on matters of common or overarching concern. In this capacity, AGI convened a working group to create the 1999 Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct and a further working group to revise the Guidelines in 2015 through a consensus process involving all member societies. The Guidelines are an aspirational document, setting out ideals and high levels of achievement for the profession. They have no provision for disciplinary of enforcement action and they do not supersede the ethics statements or codes of any member society. The 1999 Guidelines pay considerable attention to the professional behavior of geoscientists. The 2015 Guidelines place greater emphasis on the societal context of the geosciences and the responsibilities of geoscientists in areas such as communication, education, and the challenges of understanding complex natural systems. The 2015 Guidelines have been endorsed by 29 member societies to date. To translate the aspirations in the Guidelines into specific actions, AGI has facilitated discussions on the practical implications of aspects of the Guidelines. One outcome of these discussions has been a Consensus Statement Regarding Access and Inclusion of Individuals Living with Disabilities in the Geosciences.

  5. [Citizenship and ethics as guidelines in nurse education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellato, Roseney; Gaíva, Maria Aparecida Munhoz

    2003-01-01

    Based on our experience as Nursing Professors, we wish, by means of this reflection, to urge a discussion on nursing professional training, following guidelines as Ethics, Human Rights, and Citizenship. We understand health is a human value which elicits further values, and the challenges we face in this area are not of a moral kind, like choosing between good and evil--they are ethical dilemmas, stemming from the wide range of contradictory imperatives that are at stake within this scenario. It is paramount, therefore, to promote the professional training of competent nurses so that they can think critically about fundamental issues arising in their daily practice, and act according to ethics and citizenship values.

  6. Challenges in the research ethics review of cluster randomized trials: international survey of investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shazia H; Brehaut, Jamie C; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Weijer, Charles; Boruch, Robert; Donner, Allan; Eccles, Martin P; McRae, Andrew D; Saginur, Raphael; Skea, Zoë C; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Taljaard, Monica

    2013-04-01

    Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) complicate the interpretation of standard research ethics guidelines for several reasons. For one, the units of allocation, intervention, and observation often may differ within a single trial. In the absence of tailored and internationally accepted ethics guidelines for CRTs, researchers and research ethics committees have no common standard by which to judge ethically appropriate practices in CRTs. Moreover, lack of familiarity with and consideration of the unique features of the CRT design by research ethics committees may cause difficulties in the research ethics review process, and amplify problems such as variability in the requirements and decisions reached by different research ethics committees. We aimed to characterize research ethics review of CRTs, examine investigator experiences with the ethics review process, and assess the need for ethics guidelines for CRTs. An electronic search strategy implemented in MEDLINE was used to identify and randomly sample 300 CRTs published in English language journals from 2000 to 2008. A web-based survey with closed- and open-ended questions was administered to corresponding authors in a series of six contacts. The survey response rate was 64%. Among 182 of 285 eligible respondents, 91% indicated that they had sought research ethics approval for the identified CRT, although only 70% respondents reported research ethics approval in the published article. Nearly one-third (31%) indicated that they have had to meet with ethics committees to explain aspects of their trials, nearly half (46%) experienced variability in the ethics review process in multijurisdictional trials, and 38% experienced negative impacts of the ethics review process on their trials, including delays in trial initiation (28%), increased costs (10%), compromised ability to recruit participants (16%), and compromised methodological quality (9%). Most respondents (74%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 67%-80%) agreed or

  7. [Ethics and medical research: principles, guidelines, and regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castilho, Euclides Ayres; Kalil, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The issue of ethics in medical research grew in importance at the end of World War II, after the Nuremberg Code. In this period, some cases in the United States had demonstrated the need for the establishment of rules and procedures in medical research. In this article, the authors discuss some ethical concepts and their philosophical basis, stressing aspects related to research. Ethics in medical research is based upon three items: peer approaches, subject informed consent, and confidentiality of individual obtained data. The authors also summarize the Brazilian laws and directives to follow the precepts and to control the process of ethical issues in research with human participants. Finally, they approach practical questions of the Informed Consent Form as a consequence of their experiences analyzing more than one thousand research projects per year as members of the Internal Review Board of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil.

  8. Establishment of medical education upon internalization of virtue ethics: bridging the gap between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Mansoureh; Larijani, Bagher; Madani, Ensieh; Ghasemzadeh, Nazafarin

    2017-01-01

    During medical training, students obtain enough skills and knowledge. However, medical ethics accomplishes its goals when, together with training medical courses, it guides students behavior towards morality so that ethics-oriented medical practice is internalized. Medical ethics is a branch of applied ethics which tries to introduce ethics into physicians' practice and ethical decisions; thus, it necessitates the behavior to be ethical. Therefore, when students are being trained, they need to be supplied with those guidelines which turn ethical instructions into practice to the extent possible. The current text discusses the narrowing of the gap between ethical theory and practice, especially in the field of medical education. The current study was composed using analytical review procedures. Thus, classical ethics philosophy, psychology books, and related articles were used to select the relevant pieces of information about internalizing behavior and medical education. The aim of the present study was to propose a theory by analyzing the related articles and books. The attempt to fill the gap between medical theory and practice using external factors such as law has been faced with a great deal of limitations. Accordingly, the present article tries to investigate how and why medical training must take internalizing ethical instructions into consideration, and indicate the importance of influential internal factors. Virtue-centered education, education of moral emotions, changing and strengthening of attitudes through education, and the wise use of administrative regulations can be an effective way of teaching ethical practice in medicine.

  9. Establishment of medical education upon internalization of virtue ethics: bridging the gap between theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Mansoureh; Larijani, Bagher; Madani, Ensieh; Ghasemzadeh, Nazafarin

    2017-01-01

    During medical training, students obtain enough skills and knowledge. However, medical ethics accomplishes its goals when, together with training medical courses, it guides students behavior towards morality so that ethics-oriented medical practice is internalized. Medical ethics is a branch of applied ethics which tries to introduce ethics into physicians’ practice and ethical decisions; thus, it necessitates the behavior to be ethical. Therefore, when students are being trained, they need to be supplied with those guidelines which turn ethical instructions into practice to the extent possible. The current text discusses the narrowing of the gap between ethical theory and practice, especially in the field of medical education. The current study was composed using analytical review procedures. Thus, classical ethics philosophy, psychology books, and related articles were used to select the relevant pieces of information about internalizing behavior and medical education. The aim of the present study was to propose a theory by analyzing the related articles and books. The attempt to fill the gap between medical theory and practice using external factors such as law has been faced with a great deal of limitations. Accordingly, the present article tries to investigate how and why medical training must take internalizing ethical instructions into consideration, and indicate the importance of influential internal factors. Virtue-centered education, education of moral emotions, changing and strengthening of attitudes through education, and the wise use of administrative regulations can be an effective way of teaching ethical practice in medicine. PMID:29282423

  10. Genomic testing in international guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kern

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer was solely classified based on clinical and immunohistochemical (IHC findings in the past. A growing body of evidence suggests that these categorisations are rendered more precisely by intrinsic subtyping with the aim of an introduction of personalised medicine. Especially in breast cancer with the uncertain potential of disease spread, such as T1-2, Grade 2 and oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+ve tumours, the value of chemotherapy applied to every patient has been questioned and the need for additional information on the tumour´s specific risk of recurrence is overt. It is estimated that the average risk for recurrence is 15% at 10 years in hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. Thus, a relatively small proportion of these patients would need chemotherapy, and the main task is to stratify which patients of this cohort are at high-risk and will benefit from cytotoxic agents. Ki67, as a proliferation marker classifying high-risk tumours, has been demonstrated as a continuous marker, but not as a clear cut risk-defining instrument in recent publications. Thus, the difficulties are perceived especially at the threshold of the low to high-risk area of this marker. Reproducibility of Ki67 is to some extent uncertain considering there is inter and intra-institutional variability of up to 30% of the results. Several multi gene arrays, such as MammaPrint®, Oncotype DX®, Endopredict®, and PAM50 have demonstrated clinical utility and experienced validation. The aim of this review is the description of the implementation of genomic testing in international guidelines (North American and European, with regard to incorporation of multigene arrays into the decision-making process in different clinical settings (including tumor size and IHC status. Data cut-off was 1st October, 2013. It seems that North America and some European countries have initiated a shift towards a personalised medicine with multigene arrays based on RT-PCR or

  11. Consensus guidelines for the uniform reporting of study ethics in anatomical research within the framework of the anatomical quality assurance (AQUA) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Vikse, Jens; Pekala, Przemyslaw; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; Walocha, Jerzy A; Jones, D Gareth; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2018-05-01

    Unambiguous reporting of a study's compliance with ethical guidelines in anatomical research is imperative. As such, clear, universal, and uniform reporting guidelines for study ethics are essential. In 2016, the International Evidence-Based Anatomy Working group in collaboration with international partners established reporting guidelines for anatomical studies, the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) Checklist. In this elaboration of the AQUA Checklist, consensus guidelines for reporting study ethics in anatomical studies are provided with in the framework of the AQUA Checklist. The new guidelines are aimed to be applicable to research across the spectrum of the anatomical sciences, including studies on both living and deceased donors. The authors hope the established guidelines will improve ethical compliance and reporting in anatomical research. Clin. Anat. 31:521-524, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. School Psychology: How Universal Are Ethical Principles Approved by International Associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, Jean L.

    2004-01-01

    Globalization is a dominant issue in all aspects of business and professional activities in the 21st Century. The International School Psychology Association and the International Test Commission have adopted ethics and competency guidelines to raise the standards of practice for their members. Other international organizations are doing likewise.…

  13. Ethical challenges of researchers in qualitative studies: the necessity to develop a specific guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjari, Mahnaz; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Fomani, Fatemeh Khoshnava; Shoghi, Mahnaz; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Considering the nature of qualitative studies, the interaction between researchers and participants can be ethically challenging for the former, as they are personally involved in different stages of the study. Therefore, formulation of specific ethical guidelines in this respect seems to be essential. The present paper aimed to discuss the necessity to develop explicit guidelines for conducting qualitative studies with regard to the researchers' role. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out in domestic and international databases by related keywords. Health care providers who carry out qualitative research have an immense responsibility. As there is no statistical analysis in qualitative studies, the researcher has to both evaluate what he or she observes and to interpret it. Providing researchers with the necessary skills and applying stringent supervision can lead to better extraction of reliable information from qualitative studies. This article presents a debate in order to illustrate how researchers could cover the ethical challenges of qualitative studies and provide applicable and trustworthy outcomes. Researchers face ethical challenges in all stages of the study, from designing to reporting. These include anonymity, confidentiality, informed consent, researchers' potential impact on the participants and vice versa. It seems of paramount importance that health care providers, educators and clinicians be well informed of all the different aspects of their roles when acting as qualitative researchers. Hence, these adroit roles need to be well defined, and the use of practical guidelines and protocols in all stages of qualitative studies should be encouraged.

  14. Epistemological and Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching International Business Ethics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michel

    2015-01-01

    International business ethics courses imply four basic epistemological and pedagogical challenges: (a) understanding various perceptions of ethics and values/virtues; (b) identifying ethical maxims among religious/spiritual traditions; (c) designing international business ethics courses as dialogical experiences; and (d) deepening our personal…

  15. Consumerism in prenatal diagnosis: a challenge for ethical guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, W.

    2000-01-01

    The ethical guidelines for prenatal diagnosis proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO), as well as by national regulations, only refer to paternity and gender of the fetus as unacceptable, disease-unrelated criteria for prenatal selection, as no other such parameters are at hand so far. This perspective is too narrow because research on complex genetic systems such as cognition and ageing is about to provide clinically applicable tests for genetic constituents of potentially desirable properties such as intelligence or longevity which could be misused as parameters for prenatal diagnosis. Moreover, there is an increasing number of prenatally testable genetic traits, such as heritable deafness, which are generally regarded as pathological but desired by some prospective parents and taken into account as parameters for pro-disability selection. To protect prenatal diagnosis from ethically unacceptable genetic consumerism, guidelines must be clarified as soon as possible and updated towards a worldwide restriction of prenatal genetic testing to immediately disease-determining traits. Key Words: Genetics • prenatal diagnosis • ethics • consumerism PMID:11129845

  16. Nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia in conflict with professional ethical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkamo-Moisio, Anja; Kvist, Tarja; Kangasniemi, Mari; Laitila, Teuvo; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2017-02-01

    Despite the significant role of nurses in end-of-life care, their attitudes towards euthanasia are under-represented both in the current literature and the controversial debate that is ongoing in several countries. What are the attitudes towards euthanasia among Finnish nurses? Which characteristics are associated with those attitudes? Cross-sectional web-based survey. Participants and research context: A total of 1003 nurses recruited via the members' bulletin of the Finnish Nurses Association and social media. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval was obtained from the Committee on Research Ethics of the university to which the authors were affiliated. The majority (74.3%) of the participants would accept euthanasia as part of Finnish healthcare, and 61.8% considered that Finland would benefit from a law permitting euthanasia. Most of the nurses (89.9%) thought that a person must have the right to decide on his or her own death; 77.4% of them considered it likely that they would themselves make a request for euthanasia in certain situations. The value of self-determination and the ability to choose the moment and manner of one's death are emphasized in the nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia. A continuous dialogue about euthanasia and nurses' shared values is crucial due to the conflict between nurses' attitudes and current ethical guidelines on nursing.

  17. Realizing good care within a context of cross-cultural diversity: an ethical guideline for healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denier, Yvonne; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-09-01

    In our globalizing world, health care professionals and organizations increasingly experience cross-cultural challenges in care relationships, which give rise to ethical questions regarding "the right thing to do" in such situations. For the time being, the international literature lacks examples of elaborated ethical guidelines for cross-cultural healthcare on the organizational level. As such, the ethical responsibility of healthcare organizations in realizing cross-cultural care remains underexposed. This paper aims to fill this gap by offering a case-study that illustrates the bioethical practice on a large-scale organizational level by presenting the ethical guideline developed in the period 2007-2011 by the Ethics Committee of Zorgnet Vlaanderen, a Christian-inspired umbrella organization for over 500 social profit healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium. The guideline offers an ethical framework within which fundamental ethical values are being analyzed within the context of cross-cultural care. The case study concludes with implications for healthcare practice on four different levels: (1) the level of the healthcare organization, (2) staff, (3) care receivers, and (4) the level of care supply. The study combines content-based ethics with process-based benchmarks. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Sewage epidemiology and illicit drug research: the development of ethical research guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prichard, J; Hall, W.; de Voogt, P.; Zuccato, E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To discuss the need to develop ethical guidelines for researchers using sewage epidemiology to monitor drug use in the general population and specific precincts, including prisons, schools and workplaces. Method Describe current applications of sewage epidemiology, identify potential ethical

  19. Guidelines for dynamic international programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Matters of global concern-deforestation, global warming, biodiversity loss, sustainable development, fuelwood crises, watershed destruction, and large-scale flooding-frequently involve forests and natural resources. In the future, university students will enter a global setting that more than ever depends on a strong knowledge of international issues. USA land-grant universities are attempting to prepare students for this challenge by improving their international programs including forestry. To improve university programs, several factors will need to be addressed and are discussed, with examples, in this article: commitment of the faculty; program specialization; geographic specialization; reward systems for international contributions; international collaboration; recycled dollars within the university; active teaching programs; research; extention and outreach; language training; international faculty; travel grants; twinning relationships with sister institutions; selective in pursuit of international development assistance; and study centers. 6 refs

  20. Survey of instructions to authors in Indian and British Dental Journals with respect to ethical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Mathur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Publication can become a symbol of presenting how meticulously a person has followed ethical principles in research. It is the duty of the investigators or authors to carefully read the instructions to authors and generate data with honesty and genuineness. In fulfillment of the basic requisite to publish, clearly defined instructions to authors should be provided by the journal. Aims: To assess the pattern of instructions regarding the ethical requirements given to authors in Indian Dental Journals and tried to compare the same with British Dental Journals. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey of ′instructions for authors,′ for analysis of guidelines on ethical processes, was done. Materials and Methods: Instructions to authors of Indian and British Dental Journals indexed in PubMed were reviewed for guidelines with regard to seven key ethical issues. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were used and results were expressed in percentages as well as numbers. Results: Of the 10 Indian Dental Journals, 7 (70% cited ethical guidelines such as International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Committee on Publication Ethics, Indian Council of Medical Research guidelines whereas out of 27 British Dental Journals, 16 (59.25% cited these. Protection of human subjects such as approval from an institutional/independent ethics committee, obtaining informed consent and maintenance of confidentiality of patient records was covered with 8 (80% Indian and 19 (70.3% British Dental Journals. Four (40% Indian and 13 (48.1% instructed about animals welfare. Nine (90% of the Indian and 25 (92.5% British Dental Journals required declaration of conflicts of interest by authors. Publication issues and authorship/contributorship criteria were specified by all 10 Indian and 25 (92.5% and 24 (88.8% British journals respectively. 6 (60% of Indian and 11 (40.75% of British Journals explained about data management, in case of

  1. Genetic medicine: Polish deontological guidelines and the ethical practice of research studies with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebrój, Lesław T

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the article is: (1) to describe deontological guidelines which regulate medical research involving human subjects in Poland, and (2) to clarify the understanding of the fundamental ethical concepts presented in these documents. To do this, two main documents are analysed: (1) the Polish Medical Ethics Code, which was approved by the 7th Extraordinary National Doctors' Convention in September 2003 after a long and difficult process of revision, and (2) the Good Practice in Science, a set of rules concerning scientists, approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Polish Academy of Science in 2001. The pluralism of contemporary ethics and of medical ethics in particular, results in various interpretations of the understanding of the crucial terms used in the deontological statements of these codes. The paper suggests that clarity in the understanding of the terms may be achieved by exploring the 'intellectual' context in which the analysed documents have been appearing and in which they are presently functioning. In order to examine such a context, the following aspects are taken into account: (1) the development of bioethics as a discipline in Poland, (2) international deontological documents which are universally accepted and are in use in Poland, (3) legal regulations regarding medical research involving persons which are currently in force in Poland, and (4) the practice of Polish Institutional Review Boards (IRBs).

  2. Education, ethics, and solidarity in international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Janete Lima de; Vilar, Rosana Lucia Alves de; Germano, Raimunda Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes an experience in technical cooperation between Brazil and Andean countries in the form of the International Course in the Management of Human Resource Policies in Health. This exploratory documental study encompassed a number of Latin American countries whose institutions of higher education had partnerships with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, mediated by the Pan American Health Organization Representation in Brazil. The course experience shows that fundamental values like ethics and solidarity are determinant to the success of technical cooperation processes.

  3. National and international guidelines for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liv Bjerre Juul; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2014-01-01

    concerning the definition of rectal cancer. Ten of the 11 guidelines use the TNM staging system and there was general agreement regarding the recommendation of MRI and CT in rectal cancer. There was consensus concerning a multidisciplinary approach, preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and total mesorectal...... but not all considered the level of evidence. CONCLUSION: The intention of the study was to provide an overview of international guidelines for rectal cancer based on the underlying evidence, but despite hard evidence it was very difficult to reach general conclusions. Despite much knowledge...

  4. Informed consent in human subject research: a comparison of current international and Nigerian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadare, Joseph O; Porteri, Corinna

    2010-03-01

    Informed consent is a basic requirement for the conduct of ethical research involving human subjects. Currently, the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) are widely accepted as international codes regulating human subject research and the informed consent sections of these documents are quite important. Debates on the applicability of these guidelines in different socio-cultural settings are ongoing and many workers have advocated the need for national or regional guidelines. Nigeria, a developing country, has recently adopted its national guideline regulating human subject research: the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC) code. A content analysis of the three guidelines was done to see if the Nigerian guidelines confer any additional protection for research subjects. The concept of a Community Advisory Committee in the Nigerian guideline is a novel one that emphasizes research as a community burden and should promote a form of "research friendship" to foster the welfare of research participants. There is also the need for a regular update of the NHREC code so as to address some issues that were not considered in its current version.

  5. Teaching Ethics in International Business Courses: The Impacts of Religions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, John; Lee, Monle

    2008-01-01

    Implicit in most comparative ethical studies is the assumption that cultural and religious differences between countries are the major reasons behind the variations in ethical beliefs and business practice across nations. This article examines research on the international ethical issues and the common moral concerns that permeate differing…

  6. Ethics in International Business Education: Perspectives from Five Business Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Debbie Thorne; Clark, Robert; Ferrell, Linda; Joseph, Gilbert; Leclair, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Examines international ethics issues and perspectives from the vantage points of five disciplines in business education: economics, management, finance, accounting, and marketing. Finds an underlying theme of management awareness, accountability, and control of ethical decision-making. Suggests some ethics-related curriculum projects. (DB)

  7. Editorial policy in reporting ethical processes: A survey of ‘instructions for authors’ in International Indexed Dental Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Navaneetha, Cugati

    2011-01-01

    Background: The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors expects authors to report if their studies were carried out in accordance with the International Ethical Guidelines and Declaration of Helsinki; and inform readers regarding the same. Aims: To determine the proportion of International Indexed Dental Journals reporting on ethical clearance for human and animal research, obtaining of informed consent and / or assent, and the conduction of research in accordance with the Declarat...

  8. The Ethics of Sharing Plastic Surgery Videos on Social Media: Systematic Literature Review, Ethical Analysis, and Proposed Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Robert G; Vaca, Elbert E; Fine, Neil A; Schierle, Clark F

    2017-10-01

    Recent videos shared by plastic surgeons on social media applications such as Snapchat, Instagram, and YouTube, among others, have blurred the line between entertainment and patient care. This has left many in the plastic surgery community calling for the development of more structured oversight and guidance regarding video sharing on social media. To date, no official guidelines exist for plastic surgeons to follow. Little is known about the ethical implications of social media use by plastic surgeons, especially with regard to video sharing. A systematic review of the literature on social media use in plastic surgery was performed on October 31, 2016, with an emphasis on ethics and professionalism. An ethical analysis was conducted using the four principles of medical ethics. The initial search yielded 87 articles. Thirty-four articles were included for analyses that were found to be relevant to the use of social media in plastic surgery. No peer-reviewed articles were found that mentioned Snapchat or addressed the ethical implications of sharing live videos of plastic surgery on social media. Using the four principles of medical ethics, it was determined that significant ethical concerns exist with broadcasting these videos. This analysis fills an important gap in the plastic surgery literature by addressing the ethical issues concerning live surgery broadcasts on social media. Plastic surgeons may use the guidelines proposed here to avoid potential pitfalls.

  9. Ethical Guidelines and Practices for US Military Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    symposium has brought together the Walter Reed-Bethesda Ethics Committee and the Department of Pastoral Care to provide education and training...University of the Health Sciences;2006. 138. Walter Reed-Bethesda Ethics Committee and Department of Pastoral Care . Annual Healthcare Ethics...Association, Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs  CAPT Roosevelt Brown, Chaplain of Navy Medicine, Pastoral Care Office, Bureau of Medicine and

  10. International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sara; Fenwick, Nicole; Ryan, Erin A; Baker, Liv; Baker, Sandra E; Beausoleil, Ngaio J; Carter, Scott; Cartwright, Barbara; Costa, Federico; Draper, Chris; Griffin, John; Grogan, Adam; Howald, Gregg; Jones, Bidda; Littin, Kate E; Lombard, Amanda T; Mellor, David J; Ramp, Daniel; Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David

    2017-08-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human-wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles through a facilitated engagement process and discussion. They determined that efforts to control wildlife should begin wherever possible by altering the human practices that cause human-wildlife conflict and by developing a culture of coexistence; be justified by evidence that significant harms are being caused to people, property, livelihoods, ecosystems, and/or other animals; have measurable outcome-based objectives that are clear, achievable, monitored, and adaptive; predictably minimize animal welfare harms to the fewest number of animals; be informed by community values as well as scientific, technical, and practical information; be integrated into plans for systematic long-term management; and be based on the specifics of the situation rather than negative labels (pest, overabundant) applied to the target species. We recommend that these principles guide development of international, national, and local standards and control decisions and implementation. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Predicament and Promise: The Internal Evaluator as Ethical Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    Internal evaluators encounter risks but also significant opportunities to strengthen organizational and professional ethics. Potential contributions depend, in part, on the conjunction of ethics and evaluation in the role of the internal evaluator as the person specially commissioned to investigate value and render judgment based on evidence…

  12. International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) was established by the IAEA in 1995 and is a fundamental part of the IAEA’s efforts to assist States, upon request, to establish and maintain an effective national nuclear security regime to protect against the unauthorized removal of nuclear and other radioactive material, and against the sabotage of nuclear and other associated facilities, as well as material during transport, while recognizing that the ultimate responsibility for physical protection lies with the State. IPPAS provides peer review on implementing relevant international instruments, in particular the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), together with the 2005 Amendment, and on implementing the IAEA Nuclear Security Series of guidance publications, in particular Fundamentals and Recommendations. IPPAS missions compare (insofar as this is possible) the procedures and practices employed by a State with the obligations specified under the CPPNM and the 2005 Amendment, as well as with the existing international consensus guidelines provided in relevant IAEA Nuclear Security Series publications. Since 1996, 63 IPPAS missions have been conducted in 40 countries, including 15 follow-up missions, as well as the recent mission to the IAEA Office of Safeguards Analytical Services laboratories, in Seibersdorf. More than 140 experts from 34 Member States have participated in the conduct of IPPAS missions as IPPAS team members or team leaders. The updated IPPAS guidelines reflect a modular approach to make them more flexible and responsive to the needs of States. The modular approach is an innovation of great value, ensuring the degree of flexibility required to fit individual national contexts, practices and objectives as expressed by the requesting States. In particular, it also offers States the opportunity to expand the scope of a requested IPPAS mission to embrace its nuclear security regime for the protection of

  13. Regulation of genomic and biobanking research in Africa: a content analysis of ethics guidelines, policies and procedures from 22 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jantina; Munung, Syntia Nchangwi; Matimba, Alice; McCurdy, Sheryl; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Staunton, Ciara; Yakubu, Aminu; Tindana, Paulina

    2017-02-02

    The introduction of genomics and biobanking methodologies to the African research context has also introduced novel ways of doing science, based on values of sharing and reuse of data and samples. This shift raises ethical challenges that need to be considered when research is reviewed by ethics committees, relating for instance to broad consent, the feedback of individual genetic findings, and regulation of secondary sample access and use. Yet existing ethics guidelines and regulations in Africa do not successfully regulate research based on sharing, causing confusion about what is allowed, where and when. In order to understand better the ethics regulatory landscape around genomic research and biobanking, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of existing ethics guidelines, policies and other similar sources. We sourced 30 ethics regulatory documents from 22 African countries. We used software that assists with qualitative data analysis to conduct a thematic analysis of these documents. Surprisingly considering how contentious broad consent is in Africa, we found that most countries allow the use of this consent model, with its use banned in only three of the countries we investigated. In a likely response to fears about exploitation, the export of samples outside of the continent is strictly regulated, sometimes in conjunction with regulations around international collaboration. We also found that whilst an essential and critical component of ensuring ethical best practice in genomics research relates to the governance framework that accompanies sample and data sharing, this was most sparingly covered in the guidelines. There is a need for ethics guidelines in African countries to be adapted to the changing science policy landscape, which increasingly supports principles of openness, storage, sharing and secondary use. Current guidelines are not pertinent to the ethical challenges that such a new orientation raises, and therefore fail to provide accurate guidance

  14. Towards a postcolonial research ethics in comparative and international education

    OpenAIRE

    Tikly, Leon P; Bond, Tim N

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the relevance of postcolonial theory for understanding research ethics in Comparative and International Education (CIE). An understanding of postcolonial theory is outlined, which forms a basis for setting out a postcolonial research ethics in CIE. It is argued that postcolonial theory makes a distinctive contribution to understanding of research ethics in CIE by: providing a critique of dominant approaches; an understanding of the postcolonial condition in education as ...

  15. Why would medical publishers not incorporate core bioethical values into their Ethics Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watine, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    It is quite universally acknowledged by bioethicists, at least in the western world, that respect for the patients' autonomy, non-malevolence, beneficence, and justice (also called equity) are four core ethical values in medicine. The Ethics Guidelines of key journals in laboratory medicine are not explicit about the first three of these values, and even implicitly, they seem to miss values of justice. Health equity being one of the main objectives of public health policy across the world, we suggest that values of equity explicitly become part of the Ethics Guidelines of laboratory medicine journals. Biochemia Medica could show the way to other medical publishers by incorporating into its Ethics Guidelines these very important core bioethical values.

  16. Collaborative international research: ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to human biological materials at a South African institutional research ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Aslam; Dhai, Amaboo; van der Linde, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Human Biological Materials (HBMs) are an invaluable resource in biomedical research. To determine if researchers and a Research Ethics Committee (REC) at a South African institution addressed ethical issues pertaining to HBMs in collaborative research with developed countries. Ethically approved retrospective cross-sectional descriptive audit. Of the 1305 protocols audited, 151 (11.57%) fulfilled the study's inclusion criteria. Compared to other developed countries, a majority of sponsors (90) were from the USA (p = 0.0001). The principle investigators (PIs) in all 151 protocols informed the REC of their intent to store HBMs. Only 132 protocols informed research participants (P research participants, 116 protocols (76.8%) solicited broad consent compared to specific consent (32; 21.2%) [p research participants (67) that HBMs would be exported (p = 0.011). Export permits (EPs) and Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) were not available in 109 and 143 protocols, respectively. Researchers and the REC did not adequately address the inter-related ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to HBMs. There was a lack of congruence between the ethical guidelines of developed countries and their actions which are central to the access to HBMs in collaborative research. HBMs may be leaving South Africa without EPs and MTAs during the process of international collaborative research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Kants perspective of ethical issues internal to teaching in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examined the ethical issues internal to teaching with specific concentration to the code of ethics to teaching and education in general. The code is seen as what gives direction and guidance to teachers in teaching. It specifically talked about the believe of educators to the worth and dignity of human being which ...

  18. Ethics in international business: multinational approaches to child labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    How do multinationals address conflicting norms and expectations? This article focuses on corporate codes of ethics in the area of child labor as possible expressions of Strategic International Human Resource Management. It analyses whether fifty leading multinational adopt universal ethical norms

  19. Challenges of ethical clearance in international health policy and social sciences research : Experiences and recommendations from cross-country research programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, N.; Viehbeck, S.; Hämäläinen, R.M.; Rus, D.; Skovgaard, T.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Valente, A.; Syed, A.; Aro, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research ethics review practices vary considerably across countries and this variability poses a challenge for international research programmes. Although published guidelines exist, which describe underlying principles that should be considered and pragmatic approaches that could be

  20. The international criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the forensic pathologist: ethical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin De La Grandmaison, Geoffroy; Durigon, Michel; Moutel, Grégoire; Hervé, Christian

    2006-01-01

    War crimes in the former Yugoslavia since 1991 have been subjected to several international medico-legal investigations of mass graves within the framework of inquiries led by the ICTY. Forensic pathologists involved in the ICTY missions could be subjected to ethical tensions due to the difficulties of the missions, the emergent conflicts between forensic scientists of the teams and the original nature of the ICTY proceedings. In order to study the nature of such ethical tensions, we sent a questionnaire to 65 forensic pathologists who have been involved in the ICTY missions. The rate of answer was 38%. The majority of the forensic pathologists questioned (n=18) did not know how the medico-legal data were exploited by the ICTY. Three of them have been subjected to pressures. Three of them were aware of mass grave sites wittingly not investigated by the ICTY. Fifteen considered that the ICTY respected the elementary rules of the law and four of them questioned the impartiality of the justice led by the ICTY. Two conflicting types of ethics can be drawn from these results: a conviction ethics which is shared by most of the forensic pathologists questioned and a responsibility ethics. In the first, the forensic pathologist completely agrees with the need for an international war crime tribunal even if such justice can be challenged regarding the respect of human rights and impartiality. In the second, he or she needs to conduct himself in ways that do not infringe impartiality. As medical deontology duty requires an impartiality ethics, discursive ethics are needed to ease ethical tensions and to suggest ethical guidelines. Alternatives to international justice through a truth and reconciliation commission and by the way of humanitarian mission of victims’ identification combined with forensic investigations for historical purposes could be considered. PMID:16909642

  1. Medical tourism in plastic surgery: ethical guidelines and practice standards for perioperative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Matthew L; Verma, Kapil; Ashktorab, Samaneh; Davison, Steven P

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this review was to identify the safety and medical care issues that surround the management of patients who had previously undergone medical care through tourism medicine. Medical tourism in plastic surgery occurs via three main referral patterns: macrotourism, in which a patient receives treatments abroad; microtourism, in which a patient undergoes a procedure by a distant plastic surgeon but requires postoperative and/or long-term management by a local plastic surgeon; and specialty tourism, in which a patient receives plastic surgery from a non-plastic surgeon. The ethical practice guidelines of the American Medical Association, International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, and American Board of Plastic Surgeons were reviewed with respect to patient care and the practice of medical tourism. Safe and responsible care should start prior to surgery, with communication and postoperative planning between the treating physician and the accepting physician. Complications can arise at any time; however, it is the duty and ethical responsibility of plastic surgeons to prevent unnecessary complications following tourism medicine by adequately counseling patients, defining perioperative treatment protocols, and reporting complications to regional and specialty-specific governing bodies. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  2. Ethics Guidelines in Environmental Epidemiology: Their Development and Challenges We Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Shira; Soskolne, Colin L

    2017-06-01

    This review integrates historical developments and key events in bringing ethics into epidemiology in general and into environmental epidemiology in particular. The goal is to provide context for and discern among the various approaches and motivations that drive the need for ethical conduct in support of the public interest. The need for ethics guidelines in epidemiology is different from developments in other biomedical-related fields by virtue of its focus on populations rather than on individuals. The need for ethics guidelines in environmental epidemiology as a subspecialty of epidemiology stems from the larger scale of its mission than that of epidemiology per se. Ethics guidelines in the field of environmental epidemiology have been established. They articulate not only the profession's core values and mission, but more specifically, they address the environmental epidemiologist's obligations to the participants in research, to colleagues, and to employers. They are the product of consensus, scholarship, and diligent stewardship over several decades. The next challenge is ensuring their value and impact. The forces that support professional and institutional success, and the power of special interests, are the major threats to achieving the goals of ethical conduct and research for the public good. In environmental epidemiology, these threats have global implications.

  3. Ethical Guidelines for Structural Interventions to Small-Scale Historic Stone Masonry Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Başarır, Hacer

    2015-12-01

    Structural interventions to historic stone masonry buildings require that both structural and heritage values be considered simultaneously. The absence of one of these value systems in implementation can be regarded as an unethical professional action. The research objective of this article is to prepare a guideline for ensuring ethical structural interventions to small-scale stone historic masonry buildings in the conservation areas of Northern Cyprus. The methodology covers an analysis of internationally accepted conservation documents and national laws related to the conservation of historic buildings, an analysis of building codes, especially Turkish building codes, which have been used in Northern Cyprus, and an analysis of the structural interventions introduced to a significant historic building in a semi-intact state in the walled city of Famagusta. This guideline covers issues related to whether buildings are intact or ruined, the presence of earthquake risk, the types of structural decisions in an architectural conservation project, and the values to consider during the decision making phase.

  4. Preparing students for the ethical challenges on international health electives: A systematic review of the literature on educational interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Anika; Knights Née Jones, Felicity; Fyfe, Molly; Alagarajah, Janagan; Baraitser, Paula

    2016-09-01

    International health electives pose specific ethical challenges for students travelling from to low and middle income countries. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on interventions to prepare students to identify ethical issues addressed, educational approaches and to collate evidence on the effectiveness of different strategies. We searched nine electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature and identified grey literature through key word searches; supplemented through citation mapping and expert consultation. Articles that described ethical training conducted by universities or professional bodies were included for review. We reviewed forty-four full text articles. Ten sources of published literature and seven sources of grey literature met our inclusion criteria. We identified thirteen ethical situations that students should be prepared to manage and eight generic skills to support this process. Most interventions were delivered before the elective, used case studies or guidelines. Some suggested ethical principles or a framework for analysis of ethical issues. Only two papers evaluated the intervention described. Our paper collates a small but growing body of work on education to prepare students to manage ethical issues. Ethical training should have elements that are delivered before, during and after the elective. Interventions should include case studies covering thirteen ethical issues identified here, linked to ethical principles and a process for responding to ethical issues. We suggest that evaluations of interventions are an important area for future research.

  5. International guidelines for groin hernia management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery. An expert group of international surgeons (the HerniaSurge Group) and one anesthesiologist pain expert was formed. The group consisted of members from all continents with specific experience in hernia-related research. Care was taken to include surgeons who perform different types of repair and had preferably performed research on groin hernia surgery. During the Group's first meeting, evidence-based medicine (EBM) training occurred and 166 key questions (KQ) were formulated. EBM rules were followed in complete literature searches (including a complete search by The Dutch Cochrane database) to January 1, 2015 and to July 1, 2015 for level 1 publications. The articles were scored by teams of two or three according to Oxford, SIGN and Grade methodologies. During five 2-day meetings, results were discussed with the working group members leading to 136 statements and 88 recommendations. Recommendations were graded as "strong" (recommendations) or "weak" (suggestions) and by consensus in some cases upgraded. In the Results and summary section below, the term "should" refers to a recommendation. The AGREE II instrument was used to validate the guidelines. An external review was performed by three international experts. They recommended the guidelines with high scores. The risk factors for inguinal hernia (IH) include: family history, previous contra

  6. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for eating disorders: international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbert, Anja; Hoek, Hans W.; Schmidt, Ricarda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The current systematic review sought to compare available evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for all specific eating disorders. Recent findings Nine evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for eating disorders were located through a systematic search. The international comparison demonstrated notable commonalities and differences among these current clinical guidelines. Summary Evidence-based clinical guidelines represent an important step toward the dissemina...

  7. International Military Practice Amidst Ethical Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    essays prescribing ideal military structures, sociological and social- psychological inquiries focused on professionalism, and personal...essential to have the trust of the participants, to ensure humanistic and scientific ethical obligations, and to protect and treat people with dignity...within military academies delivering PMEE. How can Christians, Jews, humanists , Muslims, Hindus, and nontheists represented in these institutions

  8. A Systematic Review of Ebola Treatment Trials to Assess the Extent to Which They Adhere to Ethical Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas; Johnston, Andrew McDonald; Draper, Heather

    2017-01-01

    base for its effectiveness against Ebola is speculative. Some limited and appropriate deviation from standard research expectations in disaster situations is increasingly accepted. However, this is not an excuse for poor ethics oversight and international regulations are in place which should not be ignored. New guidelines are needed that better define the boundaries between using medicines for compassionate use and conducting a clinical trial. Greater support should be offered for local research ethics committees in affected areas so that they can provide robust ethical review. Further systematic reviews should be carried out in epidemics of any novel infectious diseases to assess if comparable findings arise.

  9. A Systematic Review of Ebola Treatment Trials to Assess the Extent to Which They Adhere to Ethical Guidelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richardson

    pre-trial evidence base for its effectiveness against Ebola is speculative.Some limited and appropriate deviation from standard research expectations in disaster situations is increasingly accepted. However, this is not an excuse for poor ethics oversight and international regulations are in place which should not be ignored. New guidelines are needed that better define the boundaries between using medicines for compassionate use and conducting a clinical trial. Greater support should be offered for local research ethics committees in affected areas so that they can provide robust ethical review. Further systematic reviews should be carried out in epidemics of any novel infectious diseases to assess if comparable findings arise.

  10. Contemporaneous International Asthma Guidelines Present Differing Recommendations: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several international groups develop asthma guidelines. Conflicting recommendations across guidelines have been described in several disease areas and may contribute to practice variability. Accordingly, we compared the latest Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS asthma guideline with contemporaneous international asthma guidelines to evaluate conflicting recommendations and their causes. Methods. We identified the latest CTS asthma guideline update (2012 and the following societies which also updated their guidelines in 2012: the British Thoracic Society and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Global Initiative for Asthma. We compared these three guidelines on (1 key methodological factors and (2 adult pharmacotherapy recommendations. Results. Methods used and documentation provided for literature search strategy and dates, evidence synthesis, outcomes considered, evidence appraisal, and recommendation formulation varied between guidelines. Criteria used to define suboptimal asthma control varied widely between guidelines. Inhaled corticosteroid dosing recommendations diverged, as did recommendations surrounding use of budesonide/formoterol as a reliever and controller and recommendations in the subsequent step. Conclusions. There are important differences between recommendations provided in contemporaneous asthma guidelines. Causes include differences in methods used for interpreting evidence and formulating recommendations. Adopting a common set of valid and explicit methods across international societies could harmonize recommendations and facilitate guideline implementation.

  11. Ethical Guidelines for Computer Security Researchers: "Be Reasonable"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaman, Len

    For most of its existence, the field of computer science has been lucky enough to avoid ethical dilemmas by virtue of its relatively benign nature. The subdisciplines of programming methodology research, microprocessor design, and so forth have little room for the greater questions of human harm. Other, more recently developed sub-disciplines, such as data mining, social network analysis, behavioral profiling, and general computer security, however, open the door to abuse of users by practitioners and researchers. It is therefore the duty of the men and women who chart the course of these fields to set rules for themselves regarding what sorts of actions on their part are to be considered acceptable and what should be avoided or handled with caution out of ethical concerns. This paper deals solely with the issues faced by computer security researchers, be they vulnerability analysts, privacy system designers, malware experts, or reverse engineers.

  12. Module for Interns in Medical Ethics: A Developmental Diegesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Rajiv; Goyal, Parmod Kumar; Sidhu, Tanvir Kaur; Kaur, Upinder; Kaur, Sandeep; Gupta, Vitull

    2017-01-01

    Background: Media report is rife with incidences of doctor-patients’ conflict, and this partly is due to communication gap and unethical practices being adopted by the doctors. Our regular curriculum fails to impart any training in ethical issues in patient care. Imparting training to students in these soft-skills is the need of the hour. Aim and Objectives: To develop a module for interns in medical ethics (MIME) in patient care, validate it and pilot run the module for standardization. Meth...

  13. Telemedicine a need for ethical and legal guidelines in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Telemedicine is viewed as a new way of offering medical services. It is seen as a means of overcoming the growing shortage of health practitioners in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to highlight the need for the formulation of guidelines for the ethical practice of telemedicine in South Africa.

  14. The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission for the Proptection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, Bethesda, MD.

    Recognizing the complex issues involved in the use of human subjects for research, the authors have outlined three ethical principles and guidelines, distinguished between research and practice, and discussed the application of the principles. In general, practice refers to interventions designed to enhance the well-being of clients and which can…

  15. The 2016 CIOMS guidelines and public-health research ethics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... When is REC approval required? Guidelines 10 and 23, which deal with this matter, are at best unclear and arguably inconsistent, especially with regard to public-health research. No. 23 states: 'All proposals to conduct health-related research involving humans must be submitted to a REC to determine.

  16. The Chennai floods of 2015: urgent need for ethical disaster management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariaselvam, Suresh; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2016-01-01

    India has suffered several natural disasters in recent years. The super cyclone of Orissa in 1999 and the tsunami on the southeastern coast in 2004, both led to major developments in disaster management abilities in the country. Almost a decade after the last major disaster that hit south India, the recent floods in Chennai in 2015 brought to the fore a whole set of ethical considerations. There were issues of inequity in the relief and response activities, conflicts and lack of coordination between the government and non-government relief and response, more emphasis on short-term relief activities rather than rehabilitation and reconstruction, and lack of crisis standards of care in medical services. This paper highlights these ethical issues and the need for ethical guidelines and an ethical oversight mechanism for disaster management and response.

  17. Ethically sound technology? Guidelines for interactive ethical assessment of personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Elin; Nordgren, Anders; Verweij, Marcel; Collste, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Novel care-technologies possess a transformational potential. Future care and support may be provided via monitoring technologies such as smart devices, sensors, actors (robots) and Information and Communication Technologies. Such technologies enable care provision outside traditional care institutions, for instance in the homes of patients. Health monitoring may become "personalized" i.e. tailored to the needs of individual care recipients' but may also alter relations between care providers and care recipents, shape and form the care environment and influence values central to health-care. Starting out from a social constructivist theory of technology, an interactive ethical assessment-model is offered. The suggested model supplements a traditional analysis based on normative ethical theory (top-down approach) with interviews including relevant stakeholders (a bottom-up approach). This method has been piloted by small-scale interviews encircling stakeholder perspectives on three emerging technologies: (1) Careousel, a smart medicine-management device, (2) Robot Giraff, an interactive and mobile communication-device and (3) I-Care, a care-software that combines alarm and register system. By incorporating stakeholder perspectives into the analysis, the interactive ethical assessment model provides a richer understanding of the impact of PHM-technologies on ethical values than a traditional top-down model. If the assessment is conducted before the technology has reached the market - preferably in close interaction with developers and users - ethically sound technologies may be obtained.

  18. [Algorithm for application of the "ethical guidelines for epidemiological research" and taxonomy of public health research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Etsuji

    2003-11-01

    "Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Research" took effect in July 2002, with a moral duty of all researchers to comply when conducting epidemiological studies although it is not legally binding. Public health research entails various forms of studies including not only epidemiological studies but also attention to psychological, societal and economic aspects, which are outside of the jurisdiction of the guidelines. Hence, confusion may arise among members of Japanese Society of Public Health as to whether the study they conduct falls within the definition of epidemiological research. The author discusses legal interpretations of the guidelines arising in the course of translation work as part of government-funded project, "Dissemination of the 'Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Research' via Internet (principal investigator: Toru Doi)" and argues that a case-method approach would be best suited to enhance understanding by researchers with diverse, non-legal backgrounds. The author proposes an algorithm for classification of studies as to whether the guideline applies, and applies it to all original articles published in the Japanese Journal of Public Health (JJPH) in one year (March 2002 thru February 2003). The rationale for classification is discussed from the strict legal viewpoint in each case. Sixteen out of 46 original articles published in JJPH for one year were classified as epidemiological studies to which the guidelines apply. Those classified otherwise were psychological studies (10), epidemiological studies not targeting specific diseases and are exempt form the guidelines (3), purely methodological studies (4), economics studies (3), fact-finding or opinion surveys with no hypothesis testing (2), as well as studies authorized by law (4) or using unlinkable anonymous data only (4), all of which are exempt from the guidelines. Reference to ethical considerations in the methodology section as required by the instructions for authors was generally

  19. The ethics of international animal law

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyzes international animal law, understood broadly as any international legal regulation pertaining to animals. The purpose of the thesis is to explain the moral implications of this branch of international law: how the law perceives the animal and how it believes animals ought to be treated. It attempts to do so by contrasting the law with moral philosophy pertaining to the status and treatment of animals as well as the core characteristics of the branch of animal law found in...

  20. [Ethics and esthetics in international cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aranzabal Agudo, Maite; Hermana Tezanos, María Teresa

    2011-09-01

    Although more optimistic, the new report by the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to cast horrifying statistics on inequalities, not only in life expectancy but in many areas. Many Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) related to medicine seek to address this imbalance. To cooperate does not in any way appeal to the call of sentimentality. Cooperation moves money and is accountable. It requires a strong background in both professional and human values. It requires research on vaccines and diseases foreign to our society. To cooperate means "operate with" local counterparts, according to their needs and global health project. And finally, cooperation implies the demand for change in certain aspects of the global economic order. We reflect on these questions and describe the different ethical frameworks for the population and NGOs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. International Group Work Research: Guidelines in Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers 10 guidelines for conducting international group work research. These guidelines include the importance of establishing relationships, conducting a needs assessment, co-constructing the research questions/design, determining the approach, choosing culturally relevant instruments, choosing culturally responsive group…

  2. International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics will consider empirical studies as well as theoretical propositions and case summaries on human emotions and/or feelings, family issues, battery/battering, disabilities, problem of underachievement/learning-difficulties, intellectual disabilities, behaviour ...

  3. Co-Evolution: Law and Institutions in International Ethics Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Cheng, Philip Y.K.; Choi, Chong-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of the co-evolution approach in various branches of research, such as strategy, organisation theory, complexity, population ecology, technology and innovation (Lewin et al., 1999; March, 1991), co-evolution has been relatively neglected in international business and ethics

  4. Beneficent Persuasion: Techniques and Ethical Guidelines to Improve Patients’ Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, J. S.; McGuire, Amy L.; Halpern, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    Physicians frequently encounter patients who make decisions that contravene their long-term goals. Behavioral economists have shown that irrationalities and self-thwarting tendencies pervade human decision making, and they have identified a number of specific heuristics (rules of thumb) and biases that help explain why patients sometimes make such counterproductive decisions. In this essay, we use clinical examples to describe the many ways in which these heuristics and biases influence patients’ decisions. We argue that physicians should develop their understanding of these potentially counterproductive decisional biases and, in many cases, use this knowledge to rebias their patients in ways that promote patients’ health or other values. Using knowledge of decision-making psychology to persuade patients to engage in healthy behaviors or to make treatment decisions that foster their long-term goals is ethically justified by physicians’ duties to promote their patients’ interests and will often enhance, rather than limit, their patients’ autonomy. We describe techniques that physicians may use to frame health decisions to patients in ways that are more likely to motivate patients to make choices that are less biased and more conducive to their long-term goals. Marketers have been using these methods for decades to get patients to engage in unhealthy behaviors; employers and policy makers are beginning to consider the use of similar approaches to influence healthy choices. It is time for clinicians also to make use of behavioral psychology in their interactions with patients. PMID:20458111

  5. Beneficent persuasion: techniques and ethical guidelines to improve patients' decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, J S; McGuire, Amy L; Halpern, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    Physicians frequently encounter patients who make decisions that contravene their long-term goals. Behavioral economists have shown that irrationalities and self-thwarting tendencies pervade human decision making, and they have identified a number of specific heuristics (rules of thumb) and biases that help explain why patients sometimes make such counterproductive decisions. In this essay, we use clinical examples to describe the many ways in which these heuristics and biases influence patients' decisions. We argue that physicians should develop their understanding of these potentially counterproductive decisional biases and, in many cases, use this knowledge to rebias their patients in ways that promote patients' health or other values. Using knowledge of decision-making psychology to persuade patients to engage in healthy behaviors or to make treatment decisions that foster their long-term goals is ethically justified by physicians' duties to promote their patients' interests and will often enhance, rather than limit, their patients' autonomy. We describe techniques that physicians may use to frame health decisions to patients in ways that are more likely to motivate patients to make choices that are less biased and more conducive to their long-term goals. Marketers have been using these methods for decades to get patients to engage in unhealthy behaviors; employers and policy makers are beginning to consider the use of similar approaches to influence healthy choices. It is time for clinicians also to make use of behavioral psychology in their interactions with patients.

  6. Translating international HIV treatment guidelines into local priorities in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Tromp; Prawiranegara, R. (Rozar); Siregar, A. (Adiatma); R. Wisaksana (Rudi); Pinxten, L. (Lucas); Pinxten, J. (Juul); Lesmana Putra, A. (Arry); Kurnia Sunjaya, D. (Deni); Jansen, M. (Maarten); J.A.C. Hontelez (Jan); Maurits, S. (Scott); Maharani, F. (Febrina); Bijlmakers, L. (Leon); R. Baltussen (R.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractObjective: International guidelines recommend countries to expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-infected individuals and establish local-level priorities in relation to other treatment, prevention and mitigation interventions through fair processes. However, no practical

  7. Measure Guideline: Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, J. F.; Ueno, K.; Schumacher, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for interior insulation assemblies that control interstitial condensation and durability risks; recommendations for acceptable thermal performance are also provided. An illustrated guide of high-risk exterior details (which concentrate bulk water), and recommended remediation details is provided. This is followed by a recommended methodology for risk assessment of a masonry interior insulation project: a series of steps are suggested to assess the risks associated with this retrofit, with greater certainty with added steps.

  8. Measure Guideline. Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, J. F. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. J. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for interior insulation assemblies that control interstitial condensation and durability risks; recommendations for acceptable thermal performance are also provided. An illustrated guide of high-risk exterior details (which concentrate bulk water), and recommended remediation details is provided. This is followed by a recommended methodology for risk assessment of a masonry interior insulation project: a series of steps are suggested to assess the risks associated with this retrofit, with greater certainty with added steps.

  9. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Tangwa, Godfrey; Matchaba-Hove, Reginald; Mkhize, Nhlanhla; Nwabueze, Remi; Nyika, Aceme; Westerholm, Peter

    2014-06-23

    International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address workplace hazards demand

  10. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  11. Module for Interns in Medical Ethics: A Developmental Diegesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajiv; Goyal, Parmod Kumar; Sidhu, Tanvir Kaur; Kaur, Upinder; Kaur, Sandeep; Gupta, Vitull

    2017-12-01

    Media report is rife with incidences of doctor-patients' conflict, and this partly is due to communication gap and unethical practices being adopted by the doctors. Our regular curriculum fails to impart any training in ethical issues in patient care. Imparting training to students in these soft-skills is the need of the hour. To develop a module for interns in medical ethics (MIME) in patient care, validate it and pilot run the module for standardization. After conducting faculty development workshop in curriculum designing and three rounds of Delphi with alumni, a module in medical ethics was developed and peer validated. The questionnaire for pilot run, questionnaire for future use of module delivery and pre- and post-test were also peer validated. The module was delivered to 17 interns as pilot run in the form of 4 days' workshop. After pilot run, the module was standardized to 10 broad topics and 3 days' workshop. The questionnaire for future delivery of module in regular routine was also validated during pilot run. Twenty-five faculty members participated in 1 day faculty development workshop and 59 alumni completed three rounds of Delphi. After peer review by five experts, a module of 11 broad areas was developed and was pilot run on 17 interns. Based on the feedback from pilot run, a standardized, validated 18 h teaching MIME in patient care was developed. Pilot study proves that curriculum innovation in the form of medical ethics training to interns; when as undergraduate students, they actively participate in patient care under supervision will go a long way in inculcating soft skills like ethics, compassion and communication in them.

  12. Ethical challenges in international surgical education, for visitors and hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kathryn L; Malomo, Adefolarin O; Bernstein, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Contributing to medical practice in developing countries has become increasingly prevalent. Primary care and preventative health initiatives have been most visible, although attention has recently shifted to surgical disease, which represents a large burden in resource-poor settings. Typically dominated by individual efforts, there is now a more concerted approach, with surgical care being included in the comprehensive primary health care plan set by the World Health Organization. Although ethical dilemmas in international surgery have been discussed sporadically in the context of specific missions from the visiting surgeon/team perspective, we are missing a comprehensive evaluation of these issues in the literature. Here we have chosen to systematically categorize ethical issues confronted while teaching and operating in a developing country into 2 broad categories: venue (i.e., host) and visitor related. For each category, topics within follow an ordinal sequence that one might use when designing a surgical education mission. Illustrative examples are provided, as well as a depiction of the ethical principles or theories involved. This article provides a discussion written from visiting and host surgeon perspectives on diverse ethical challenges for which there is limited literature, including location selection, unmet needs at home, role of sponsors, and personal gain. In addition to candid discussion and a solutions-focused approach, the reader is provided with an "ethical checklist" for international surgical education, akin to the World Health Organization surgical safety checklist, to serve as a framework for the design of surgical missions that avoid ethical pitfalls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Editorial policy in reporting ethical processes: A survey of 'instructions for authors' in International Indexed Dental Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneetha, Cugati

    2011-04-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors expects authors to report if their studies were carried out in accordance with the International Ethical Guidelines and Declaration of Helsinki; and inform readers regarding the same. To determine the proportion of International Indexed Dental Journals reporting on ethical clearance for human and animal research, obtaining of informed consent and / or assent, and the conduction of research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Medical Research, 2006. A cross-sectional survey of 'instructions for authors,' for analysis of editorial policy on ethical processes, was done. One hundred and twenty-six dental journals (which included 50 general and 76 specialties) were reviewed for reporting, with regard to the Ethical Committee Approval for human and animal researches, obtaining of informed consent / assent from the research participants, and research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as well as International Medical Research 2006 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics was used and results were expressed in percentages. Of the 126 dental journals, 57 (45.23%) reported having obtained approval from the Ethics Committee, 33 (26.19%) were instructed about the Animal Ethics Committee approval, and 38 (30.15%) insisted on obtaining and reporting informed consent / assent. 41 (32.53%) journals expected authors to mention the research being conducted according to Declaration of Helsinki and and 3 (2.38%) journals required researches to be conducted in accordance with International Medical Research, 2006. A significant proportion of international indexed dental journals did not provide instructions to authors to report on the ethical approval, informed consent and / assent, and research conduction according to the Declaration of Helsinki as well as the International Medical Research, 2006.

  14. Editorial policy in reporting ethical processes: A survey of ′instructions for authors′ in International Indexed Dental Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cugati Navaneetha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors expects authors to report if their studies were carried out in accordance with the International Ethical Guidelines and Declaration of Helsinki; and inform readers regarding the same. Aims: To determine the proportion of International Indexed Dental Journals reporting on ethical clearance for human and animal research, obtaining of informed consent and / or assent, and the conduction of research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Medical Research, 2006. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey of ′instructions for authors,′ for analysis of editorial policy on ethical processes, was done. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-six dental journals (which included 50 general and 76 specialties were reviewed for reporting, with regard to the Ethical Committee Approval for human and animal researches, obtaining of informed consent / assent from the research participants, and research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as well as International Medical Research 2006 were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used and results were expressed in percentages. Results: Of the 126 dental journals, 57 (45.23% reported having obtained approval from the Ethics Committee, 33 (26.19% were instructed about the Animal Ethics Committee approval, and 38 (30.15% insisted on obtaining and reporting informed consent / assent. 41 (32.53% journals expected authors to mention the research being conducted according to Declaration of Helsinki and and 3 (2.38% journals required researches to be conducted in accordance with International Medical Research, 2006. Conclusions: A significant proportion of international indexed dental journals did not provide instructions to authors to report on the ethical approval, informed consent and / assent, and research conduction according to the Declaration of Helsinki as well as the

  15. Ethical issues encountered by medical students during international health electives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elit, Laurie; Hunt, Matthew; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Ranford, Jennifer; Adelson, Naomi; Schwartz, Lisa

    2011-07-01

    Medical students increasingly wish to participate in international health electives (IHEs). The authors undertook to understand from the students' perspective the ethical challenges encountered on IHEs in low-resource settings and how students respond to these issues. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 medical students upon their return from an IHE. A purposive sampling strategy was used. Inductive data analysis using a constant comparative technique generated initial codes which were later organised into higher-order themes. Five themes relating to ethical issues were identified: (i) uncertainty about how best to help; (ii) perceptions of Western medical students as different; (iii) moving beyond one's scope of practice; (iv) navigating different cultures of medicine, and (v) unilateral capacity building. International health electives are associated with a range of ethical issues for students. Students would benefit from formal pre-departure training, which should include an evaluation of their expectations of and motivations for participating in an IHE, careful selection of the IHE from amongst the opportunities available, learning about the local context of the IHE prior to departure, and the exploration and discussion of ethical and professionalism issues. Other factors that would benefit students include having an invested onsite colleague or supervisor, maintaining an ongoing connection with the home institution, and formal debriefing on conclusion of the IHE. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  16. Acclimating international graduate students to professional engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Byron; Austin, Katherine; Lawson, William; Gorsuch, Greta; Darwin, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    This article describes the education portion of an ongoing grant-sponsored education and research project designed to help graduate students in all engineering disciplines learn about the basic ethical principles, rules, and obligations associated with engineering practice in the United States. While the curriculum developed for this project is used for both domestic and international students, the educational materials were designed to be sensitive to the specific needs of international graduate students. In recent years, engineering programs in the United States have sought to develop a larger role for professional ethics education in the curriculum. Accreditation requirements, as well as pressures from the private sector, have helped facilitate this shift in focus. Almost half of all engineering graduate students in the U.S. are international students. Further, research indicates that the majority of these students will remain in the U.S. to work post-graduation. It is therefore in the interest of the profession that these students, coming from diverse backgrounds, receive some formal exposure to the professional and ethical expectations and norms of the engineering profession in the United States to help ensure that they have the knowledge and skills--non-technical as well as technical--required in today's engineering profession. In becoming acculturated to professional norms in a host country, international students face challenges that domestic students do not encounter; such as cultural competency, language proficiency, and acculturation stress. Mitigating these challenges must be a consideration in the development of any effective education materials. The present article discusses the project rationale and describes the development of on-line instructional materials aimed at helping international engineering graduate students acclimate to professional engineering ethics standards in the United States. Finally, a brief data summary of students' perceptions

  17. OUTSOURCING ETHICAL DILEMMAS: REGULATING INTERNATIONAL SURROGACY ARRANGEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton-Glynn, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that the English legislative regime is ineffective in regulating international surrogacy, particularly with regard to commercial payments. It suggests that if English law views surrogacy as exploitative, we have a responsibility to protect women both in England and abroad, and the only way to do so effectively is to create a domestic system of regulation that caters adequately for the demand in this country. This requires a system of authorisation for surrogacy before it is undertaken; ex-post facto examinations of agreements completed in other jurisdictions, after the child is already living with the commissioning parents, cannot be seen as an acceptable compromise, as authorisation will inevitably be granted in the child's best interests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Ethical regulation or regulating ethics? The need for both internal and external governance of human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomossy, George F

    2002-10-01

    Research regulation is a timely topic for discussions in bioethics and public health policy. This response to articles in the previous special issue of the Monash Bioethics Review emphasises the importance of having both internal and external controls on human experimentation. Unless both elements are incorporated into research ethics governance frameworks, they will ultimately fail to achieve what should be their primary goal: human subject protection.

  19. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for eating disorders: international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hoek, Hans W; Schmidt, Ricarda

    2017-11-01

    The current systematic review sought to compare available evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for all specific eating disorders. Nine evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for eating disorders were located through a systematic search. The international comparison demonstrated notable commonalities and differences among these current clinical guidelines. Evidence-based clinical guidelines represent an important step toward the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatments into clinical practice. Despite advances in clinical research on eating disorders, a growing body of literature demonstrates that individuals with eating disorders often do not receive an evidence-based treatment for their disorder. Regarding the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatments, current guidelines do endorse the main empirically validated treatment approaches with considerable agreement, but additional recommendations are largely inconsistent. An increased evidence base is critical in offering clinically useful and reliable guidance for the treatment of eating disorders. Because developing and updating clinical guidelines is time-consuming and complex, an international coordination of guideline development, for example, across the European Union, would be desirable.

  20. The Ethics of International Criminal ‘Lawfare’

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, KJ; Stefan, CG

    2016-01-01

    Despite the expansive employment of the term to refer to appeals to law in ongoing conflict as a tool of war, this article demonstrates how ‘lawfare’ has taken on negative meaning without ethical justification. We argue that the co-opting of the term as a means of condemnation is unfair and potentially detrimental, and a more exacting definition and narrower use of the term are needed to avoid obfuscating potentially purposeful recourses to international law. In looking at how international c...

  1. NICE guidelines, clinical practice and antisocial personality disorder: the ethical implications of ontological uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, M D

    2009-11-01

    The British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recently (28 January 2009) released new guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the psychiatric category antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Evident in these recommendations is a broader ambiguity regarding the ontology of ASPD. Although, perhaps, a mundane feature of much of medicine, in this case, ontological uncertainty has significant ethical implications as a product of the profound consequences for an individual categorised with this disorder. This paper argues that in refraining from emphasising uncertainty, NICE risks reifying a controversial category. This is particularly problematical given that the guidelines recommend the identification of individuals "at risk" of raising antisocial children. Although this paper does not argue that NICE is "wrong" in any of its recommendations, more emphasis should have been placed on discussions of the ethical implications of diagnosis and treatment, especially given the multiple uncertainties associated with ASPD. It is proposed that these important issues be examined in more detail in revisions of existing NICE recommendations, and be included in upcoming guidance. This paper thus raises key questions regarding the place and role of ethics within the current and future remit of NICE.

  2. International guidelines for groin hernia management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Bisgaard, Thue

    2018-01-01

    a complete search by The Dutch Cochrane database) to January 1, 2015 and to July 1, 2015 for level 1 publications. The articles were scored by teams of two or three according to Oxford, SIGN and Grade methodologies. During five 2-day meetings, results were discussed with the working group members leading...... (planned resection is not suggested). It is suggested that CPIP management be performed by multi-disciplinary teams. It is also suggested that CPIP be managed by a combination of pharmacological and interventional measures and, if this is unsuccessful, followed by, in selected cases (triple) neurectomy...... and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery. METHODS: An expert group of international surgeons (the HerniaSurge Group) and one anesthesiologist pain expert was formed. The group consisted of members from all continents with specific experience in hernia-related research. Care was taken to include surgeons...

  3. Development of international guidelines for RAM shipment security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    In October of 2003 a weeklong IAEA Technical Meeting developed a set of guidelines for providing security to consignments of radioactive materials in transport. These guidelines will be published shortly in an IAEA TECDOC. The guidelines produced reflect consideration of many influences and concerns that currently revolve around the potential for terrorist use of radioactive material for malevolent ends. The influences discussed here include: public perception of hazard and concern that new requirements will further limit global shipping capability, international efforts to control sealed sources, national efforts to increment protection on selected materials, the basis for exemption of materials, concern for cost impacts of overly broad requirements, questions on how to adjust requirements for a national threat assessment, and issues relating to consistency within the international community on security needs

  4. International education: developing site visit guidelines to enhance understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFazio, Rachel; Boykova, Marina; Driever, Marie J

    2009-02-01

    International educational activities, whether organized as study tours or conferences, often include visits to various health care or educational facilities. These visits can provide a unique perspective on health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing practice. To maximize learning during such visits, a clear focus and guidelines are needed. The experience of conducting a conference in Russia is used as a basis for developing recommendations and creating guidelines for site visits that promote understanding of the nursing role and the health care system in another country. This article describes the process of developing educational objectives and guidelines for clinical and educational site visits. It is hoped the examples will be useful in planning site visits for other international educational activities.

  5. Development of international guidelines for RAM shipment security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, R.E.

    2004-07-01

    In October of 2003 a weeklong IAEA Technical Meeting developed a set of guidelines for providing security to consignments of radioactive materials in transport. These guidelines will be published shortly in an IAEA TECDOC. The guidelines produced reflect consideration of many influences and concerns that currently revolve around the potential for terrorist use of radioactive material for malevolent ends. The influences discussed here include: public perception of hazard and concern that new requirements will further limit global shipping capability, international efforts to control sealed sources, national efforts to increment protection on selected materials, the basis for exemption of materials, concern for cost impacts of overly broad requirements, questions on how to adjust requirements for a national threat assessment, and issues relating to consistency within the international community on security needs.

  6. International Continence Society supported pelvic physiotherapy education guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Els; Shelly, Beth; Esch, Fetske H; Frawley, Helena; McClurg, Doreen; Meyers, Peter

    2018-02-21

    To provide a guideline of desired knowledge, clinical skills and education levels in Pelvic Physiotherapy (PT). Physiotherapy (PT) involves "using knowledge and skills unique to physiotherapists" and, "is the service only provided by, or under the direction and supervision of a physiotherapist." 1 METHODS: The PT Committee, within the body of the International Continence Society (ICS), collected information regarding existing educational levels for pelvic floor PT. Through face to face and on on-line discussion consensus was reached which was summarized in three progressive educational levels based on knowledge and skills and brought together in a guideline. The guideline was submitted to all physiotherapists and the Educational Committee of the ICS, and after approval, submitted to the Executive Board of the ICS. The guideline lists, in a progressive way, knowledge areas and skills to be achieved by education. It is broad and allows for individual interpretation based on local situations regarding education and healthcare possibilities. It is intended to be dynamic and updated on a regular basis. The proposed Pelvic PT education guideline is a dynamic document that allows course creators to plan topics for continuing course work and to recognize educational level of a therapist in the field of Pelvic PT. This education guideline can be used to set minimum worldwide standards resulting in higher skill levels for local pelvic physiotherapists and thereby better patient care outcome. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Look What the Fax Dragged In: A Question of Ethics in an International Start-Up Company (Teaching Ethical Issues).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Joan F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study for a business communication class to help instructors in stimulating class discussions dealing with ethical issues in an international environment, particularly the paying of bribes. (SR)

  8. Progress in animal experimentation ethics: a case study from a Brazilian medical school and from the international medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalli, Edvaldo Luiz; Ho, Wanli; Alves, Mônica; Rocha, Eduardo Melani

    2012-09-01

    This study describes in Brazil and in the global biomedical community the time course of the development of animal research welfare guidelines. The database of the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto (EC/FMRP-USP), Brazil, was surveyed since its inception in 2002 as the regulations became more stringent to provide better protection of animal research welfare at this institution. Medline database was evaluated to identify the number of publications in the period between 1968 and 2008 that used research animals and were in compliance with established ethics guidelines. The EC/FMRP-USP evaluated 979 projects up until 2009. Most of the applications came from Department of Physiology and the most frequently requested species was the rat. In 2004, national research funding agencies started to request prior approval from institutional review ethics committees prior to application review and this requirement became federal law in Brazil in 2008. The analysis of international publications revealed a relative reduction in studies involving research animals (18% in 1968 to 7.5% in 2008). The present work showed that in the last four decades major changes occurred in the guidelines dictating use of research animals occurred and they are being adopted by developing countries. Moreover, animal welfare concern in the scientific community preceded the introduction of journal guidelines for this purpose. Furthermore, in Brazil it was anticipated that laws were needed to protect animal research welfare from being not upheld.

  9. Designing the Health-related Internet of Things: Ethical Principles and Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Mittelstadt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The conjunction of wireless computing, ubiquitous Internet access, and the miniaturisation of sensors have opened the door for technological applications that can monitor health and well-being outside of formal healthcare systems. The health-related Internet of Things (H-IoT increasingly plays a key role in health management by providing real-time tele-monitoring of patients, testing of treatments, actuation of medical devices, and fitness and well-being monitoring. Given its numerous applications and proposed benefits, adoption by medical and social care institutions and consumers may be rapid. However, a host of ethical concerns are also raised that must be addressed. The inherent sensitivity of health-related data being generated and latent risks of Internet-enabled devices pose serious challenges. Users, already in a vulnerable position as patients, face a seemingly impossible task to retain control over their data due to the scale, scope and complexity of systems that create, aggregate, and analyse personal health data. In response, the H-IoT must be designed to be technologically robust and scientifically reliable, while also remaining ethically responsible, trustworthy, and respectful of user rights and interests. To assist developers of the H-IoT, this paper describes nine principles and nine guidelines for ethical design of H-IoT devices and data protocols.

  10. International sore throat guidelines and international medical graduates: a mixed methods systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Karen J; Ward, Erin; Arroll, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    AIM To examine national and international guidelines on sore throat management and subsequently, to explore the phenomenon of international medical graduates working in general and rural practice in New Zealand. METHOD Two separate systematic reviews were conducted that resulted in a contingent methodology. Contingent methodologies involve syntheses of data that are derived sequentially. The initial review for this study examined international sore throat guidelines and their key points. The results of this initial review resulted in the theory that international medical graduates may be unaware of the New Zealand specific sore throat guidelines and the problem of acute rheumatic fever in this country. The subsequent review examined the phenomenon of international medical graduates working in general or rural practice in New Zealand. Data sources were Medline, Google Scholar, Trip Database, and NHS Evidence, Embase and Scopus. Electronic databases were searched for relevant data published January 2000-December 2013. Additional hand searches found key references from articles and websites. RESULTS International guidelines for the management of sore throats differ from New Zealand guidelines. Of resource rich countries, New Zealand has the second highest number of international medical graduates: they may not use New Zealand specific sore throat guidelines. DISCUSSION Acute rheumatic fever is virtually eradicated in most resource rich countries. Rheumatic fever rates of among indigenous Māori and Pacifika people in New Zealand have failed to reduce over the last three decades. Knowledge and actions of international medical graduates in relation to sore throat management needs investigating. KEYWORDS Sore throats; acute rheumatic fever; clinical guidelines; international medical graduates; mixed methods review.

  11. [Commentary note on the Italian translation of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences 2002 Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlone, Gaetano; Lolas Stepke, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The new CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines on Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects were published in August 2002. The aim of the present paper was to prepare a reasoned Italian translation of the guidelines. A preliminary version was submitted to a group of bioethicists and scientific research experts. Besides verifying the correctness and the adherence of the Italian version to the original text, a number of problematic terms were analysed. Some uncertainties emerged about the translation of expressions such as "ethical review committee" and "sponsor" and the difficulty to distinguish between "should" and "must". In the present globalisation era the need was apparent for a new approach to produce faithful translations based on a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account specific contexts and local peculiarities, but remains respectful to the original text.

  12. Simulation as an ethical imperative and epistemic responsibility for the implementation of medical guidelines in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbayo, Luciana; Stahl, James

    2017-03-01

    Guidelines orient best practices in medicine, yet, in health care, many real world constraints limit their optimal realization. Since guideline implementation problems are not systematically anticipated, they will be discovered only post facto, in a learning curve period, while the already implemented guideline is tweaked, debugged and adapted. This learning process comes with costs to human health and quality of life. Despite such predictable hazard, the study and modeling of medical guideline implementation is still seldom pursued. In this article we argue that to systematically identify, predict and prevent medical guideline implementation errors is both an epistemic responsibility and an ethical imperative in health care, in order to properly provide beneficence, minimize or avoid harm, show respect for persons, and administer justice. Furthermore, we suggest that implementation knowledge is best achieved technically by providing simulation modeling studies to anticipate the realization of medical guidelines, in multiple contexts, with system and scenario analysis, in its alignment with the emerging field of implementation science and in recognition of learning health systems. It follows from both claims that it is an ethical imperative and an epistemic responsibility to simulate medical guidelines in context to minimize (avoidable) harm in health care, before guideline implementation.

  13. Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Michal; Matz, Sandra C; Gosling, Samuel D; Popov, Vesselin; Stillwell, David

    2015-09-01

    Facebook is rapidly gaining recognition as a powerful research tool for the social sciences. It constitutes a large and diverse pool of participants, who can be selectively recruited for both online and offline studies. Additionally, it facilitates data collection by storing detailed records of its users' demographic profiles, social interactions, and behaviors. With participants' consent, these data can be recorded retrospectively in a convenient, accurate, and inexpensive way. Based on our experience in designing, implementing, and maintaining multiple Facebook-based psychological studies that attracted over 10 million participants, we demonstrate how to recruit participants using Facebook, incentivize them effectively, and maximize their engagement. We also outline the most important opportunities and challenges associated with using Facebook for research, provide several practical guidelines on how to successfully implement studies on Facebook, and finally, discuss ethical considerations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Guidelines for the ethical use of neuroimages in medical testimony: report of a multidisciplinary consensus conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, C C; Sze, G; Rommelfanger, K S; Kinlaw, K; Banja, J D; Wolpe, P R

    2014-04-01

    With rapid advances in neuroimaging technology, there is growing concern over potential misuse of neuroradiologic imaging data in legal matters. On December 7 and 8, 2012, a multidisciplinary consensus conference, Use and Abuse of Neuroimaging in the Courtroom, was held at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. Through this interactive forum, a highly select group of experts-including neuroradiologists, neurologists, forensic psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, neuroscientists, legal scholars, imaging statisticians, judges, practicing attorneys, and neuroethicists-discussed the complex issues involved in the use of neuroimaging data entered into legal evidence and for associated expert testimony. The specific contexts of criminal cases, child abuse, and head trauma were especially considered. The purpose of the conference was to inform the development of guidelines on expert testimony for the American Society of Neuroradiology and to provide principles for courts on the ethical use of neuroimaging data as evidence. This report summarizes the conference and resulting recommendations.

  15. Ethical guidelines, animal profile, various animal models used in periodontal research with alternatives and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kumar Pasupuleti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective.

  16. Integrating Ethics into International Business Teaching: Challenges and Methodologies in the Greater China Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitla, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the process of integrating ethics into the teaching of international business within the Greater China region. An example of how ethics is integrated into a required undergraduate international business course at a Hong Kong based university is presented. The contextual challenges of developing a course for use in the Greater…

  17. Keeping Kids Safe from a Design Perspective: Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Designing a Video-Based App for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…

  18. Brief Report: Stony Brook Guidelines on the Ethics of the Care of People with Autism and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Stephen G.; Pomeroy, John; Keirns, Carla C.; Cover, Virginia Isaacs; Dorn, Michael Leverett; Boroson, Louis; Boroson, Florence; Coulehan, Anne; Coulehan, Jack; Covell, Kim; Kubasek, Kim; Luchsinger, Elizabeth; Nichols, Shana; Parles, James; Schreiber, Linda; Tetenbaum, Samara P.; Walsh, Rose Ann

    2013-01-01

    The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with associated societal and clinical impacts, calls for a broad community-based dialogue on treatment related ethical and social issues. The Stony Brook Guidelines, based on a community dialogue process with affected individuals, families and professionals, identify and discuss the…

  19. Introduction: the Fogarty International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Program in historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millum, Joseph; Grady, Christine; Keusch, Gerald; Sina, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    In response to the increasing need for research ethics expertise in low and middle income countries (LMICs), the NIH's Fogarty International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Program has provided grants for the development of training programs in international research ethics for LMIC professionals since 2000. This collection of papers draws upon the combined expertise of Fogarty grantees, trainees, and other experts to assess the state of research ethics in LMICs, and the lessons learned over 12 years of international research ethics education; to assess future needs; and to chart a way forward to meet those needs. In this introductory paper we briefly sketch the evolution of research ethics as applied to LMIC research, the underpinning and evolution of the Fogarty bioethics program, and summarize key conclusions from the other papers in the collection.

  20. Research ethics in the dynamic of scientific field: challenges in the building of guidelines for social sciences and humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2015-09-01

    The development of guidelines on research ethics for social science and humanities (SSH) takes place in the scientific field, marked by disputes aimed at the establishment of hegemonic scientific standard. In Brazil, the National Health Council is responsible for approving these guidelines, which involve certain specificities. Based on the authors' experience in the SSH Working Group of the National Commission on Research Ethics (GT CHS / CONEP), this article presents the process of development of guidelines for SSH, and some its challenges: the distance between the statutory guarantee and the effective execution of guidelines; the biomedical hegemony and the marginal position of the SSH in the CEP / CONEP system; the inadequacy of the current resolution facing the research features in CHS; the use of the concept of risk in guidelines aimed at SSH in the health area. Some interfaces and tensions in the debate between scientific merit and ethical evaluation are also discussed. The analysis highlights important impasses and difficulties regarding inter-paradigmatic dialogue in health research, considered the characteristics of the different traditions, the CONEP's heavily relying on the positivist perspective and the defense of that paradigm hegemony.

  1. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R.; Yates, Esben Svitzer; Nyeng, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    multi-atlas libraries using MIM Maestro™ software. These libraries were used for auto-segmentation in two different patient groups (50 patients from the local institution and 40 patients from other institutions). Dice Similarity Coefficient, Average Hausdorff Distance, difference in volume and time were......Background and purpose To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Materials and methods Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized...

  2. A Comparison of the Effects of Ethics Training on International and US Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Logan M; Johnson, James F; Watts, Logan L; MacDougall, Alexandra E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane; Lee Williams, T H

    2016-08-01

    As scientific and engineering efforts become increasingly global in nature, the need to understand differences in perceptions of research ethics issues across countries and cultures is imperative. However, investigations into the connection between nationality and ethical decision-making in the sciences have largely generated mixed results. In Study 1 of this paper, a measure of biases and compensatory strategies that could influence ethical decisions was administered. Results from this study indicated that graduate students from the United States and international graduate students studying in the US are prone to different biases. Based on these findings, recommendations are made for developing ethics education interventions to target these decision-making biases. In Study 2, we employed an ethics training intervention based on ethical sensemaking and used a well-established measure of ethical decision-making that more fully captures the content of ethical judgment. Similar to Study 1, the results obtained in this study suggest differences do exist between graduate students from the US and international graduate students in ethical decision-making prior to taking the research ethics training. However, similar effects were observed for both groups following the completion of the ethics training intervention.

  3. International Service-Learning: Ethics in Cross-Cultural Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jones

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available All study abroad courses require the development of productive cross-cultural relationships. Working with local service providers from diverse cultural backgrounds, such as tour guides, hotel managers, and bus drivers, can be demanding work. However, these commercial relationships are reasonably well defined in terms of consumers and vendors of services. On the other hand, the collaboration and shared goals necessary for engaging in direct service abroad require the development of meaningful partnerships that extend beyond commercial interactions. Ethical partnerships are complicated by unequal power dynamics, different cultural expectations of reciprocity, and culturally specific understandings of relationship duration. The goal of this study is to identify divergent expectations amongst students providing the service, local service coordinators, and recipients of the service. An open-ended interview guide was developed for students and collaborators in three short-term international service-learning courses. Students wrote responses regarding their perceptions of the need for the project and the impact on all participants. Similar questions were asked of local service coordinators and members of the community in face-to-face interviews. This provided insight into the variety of perceptions of needs and outcomes. We argue that the process of aligning of mutual and individual goals and perceptions is integral to ascertaining informed consent for the participation of students, partner organizations, and community members in ISL programs. Furthermore, in striving for informed consent, the development of ethical, sensitive, and reciprocal ISL partnerships can be promoted. While it was not possible to obtain data from all groups in all three courses, this exploratory, qualitative investigation offered meaningful opportunities to maintain and further develop equitable relationships and to clarify expectations for future collaborations and coursework

  4. The Ethics of National and International Organ Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Sigrid Fry-Revere; Bahar Bastani

    2014-01-01

    Ethical considerations in determining whether a human organ market could exist without causing exploitation of vulnerable populations may depend on the size of the market. Some ethical and religious considerations are culture dependent; others require legal structures to protect fundamental human rights. Both these factors suggest that an ethical market in human organs may be feasible, but not necessarily in every country or across national boarders.

  5. The impact of inclusive business on ethical values & internal control quality: an accounting perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer A. El Nashar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of inclusive business on the internal ethical values and the internal control quality while conceiving the accounting perspective. I construct the hypothesis for this paper based on the potential impact on the organizations’ awareness to be directed to the inclusive business approach that will significantly impact the culture of the organizations then the ethical values and the internal control quality. I use the approach of the expected va...

  6. Translating international HIV treatment guidelines into local priorities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Noor; Prawiranegara, Rozar; Siregar, Adiatma; Wisaksana, Rudi; Pinxten, Lucas; Pinxten, Juul; Lesmana Putra, Arry; Kurnia Sunjaya, Deni; Jansen, Maarten; Hontelez, Jan; Maurits, Scott; Maharani, Febrina; Bijlmakers, Leon; Baltussen, Rob

    2018-03-01

    International guidelines recommend countries to expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-infected individuals and establish local-level priorities in relation to other treatment, prevention and mitigation interventions through fair processes. However, no practical guidance is provided for such priority-setting processes. Evidence-informed deliberative processes (EDPs) fill this gap and combine stakeholder deliberation to incorporate relevant social values with rational decision-making informed by evidence on these values. This study reports on the first-time implementation and evaluation of an EDP in HIV control, organised to support the AIDS Commission in West Java province, Indonesia, in the development of its strategic plan for 2014-2018. Under the responsibility of the provincial AIDS Commission, an EDP was implemented to select priority interventions using six steps: (i) situational analysis; (ii) formation of a multistakeholder Consultation Panel; (iii) selection of criteria; (iv) identification and assessment of interventions' performance; (v) deliberation; and (vi) selection of funding and implementing institutions. An independent researcher conducted in-depth interviews (n = 21) with panel members to evaluate the process. The Consultation Panel included 23 stakeholders. They identified 50 interventions and these were evaluated against four criteria: impact on the epidemic, stigma reduction, cost-effectiveness and universal coverage. After a deliberative discussion, the Consultation Panel prioritised a combination of several treatment, prevention and mitigation interventions. The EDP improved both stakeholder involvement and the evidence base for the strategic planning process. EDPs fill an important gap which international guidelines and current tools for strategic planning in HIV control leave unaddressed. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ethical Issues in Internet Research: International Good Practice and Irish Research Ethics Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzmann, Heike

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses the main research ethical concerns that arise in internet research and reviews existing research ethical guidance in the Irish context in relation to its application to internet research. The chapter begins with a brief outline of high profile cases in the early history of the internet that highlighted specific emerging…

  8. Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

  9. Developing and Designing Online Engineering Ethics Instruction for International Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Katherine A.; Gorsuch, Greta J.; Lawson, William D.; Newberry, Byron P.

    2011-01-01

    The present project embarked on an educational intervention, consisting of a series of online ethics learning modules, to aid international graduate students in overcoming the acculturation barriers to understanding and inculcating normative ethical obligations associated with engineering practice and research in the United States. A fundamental…

  10. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E.; Alhazzani, Waleed; Levy, Mitchell M.; Antonelli, Massimo; Ferrer, Ricard; Kumar, Anand; Sevransky, Jonathan E.; Sprung, Charles L.; Nunnally, Mark E.; Rochwerg, Bram; Rubenfeld, Gordon D.; Angus, Derek C.; Annane, Djillali; Beale, Richard J.; Bellinghan, Geoffrey J.; Bernard, Gordon R.; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Coopersmith, Craig; de Backer, Daniel P.; French, Craig J.; Fujishima, Seitaro; Gerlach, Herwig; Hidalgo, Jorge Luis; Hollenberg, Steven M.; Jones, Alan E.; Karnad, Dilip R.; Kleinpell, Ruth M.; Koh, Younsuck; Lisboa, Thiago Costa; Machado, Flavia R.; Marini, John J.; Marshall, John C.; Mazuski, John E.; McIntyre, Lauralyn A.; McLean, Anthony S.; Mehta, Sangeeta; Moreno, Rui P.; Myburgh, John; Navalesi, Paolo; Nishida, Osamu; Osborn, Tiffany M.; Perner, Anders; Plunkett, Colleen M.; Ranieri, Marco; Schorr, Christa A.; Seckel, Maureen A.; Seymour, Christopher W.; Shieh, Lisa; Shukri, Khalid A.; Simpson, Steven Q.; Singer, Mervyn; Thompson, B. Taylor; Townsend, Sean R.; van der Poll, Thomas; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Zimmerman, Janice L.; Dellinger, R. Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012!' Design: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings

  11. The use of international standards in ethics education in the Tunisian audit context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfaoui Feten

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the educational tools used in teaching ethics in the Tunisian audit context. Data collection was based observation of ethics education sessions. The findings identified a large difference between the observed teaching practices of ethics education and the requirements of international education standards. The data collected and the discussion of the findings revealed the main challenges in teaching ethics to auditors in addition to certain innovative educational tools that can be used by future professionals when confronted with difficult situations in the workplace.

  12. Impasse of the 21st century accountants: Need for ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Amaechi Egbunike

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical uprising, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body is an issue of concern that need to be uphold due to the succession of corporate scandals that took place in Nigeria and the world over, thereby undermining the image of the accountancy profession. These corporate scandals in no doubt challenged the credibility of financial statements, auditing and corporate governance practices for which accountants are directly linked with. In this paper, we examined the impasse of the 21st century accountants and the need for ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body for erring accountants. Several impasses facing the 21st century accountants were identified such as expectation gap (resulting to loss of public confidence in the profession, falsifying financial statements and engaging in ‘negative accounting’ among others. Questionnaire was administered to three (3 classes of respondents (investors, auditors and accounting regulatory bodies and the data obtained were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The study found that the impasse facing the 21st century accountants can be repealed via ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body for erring accountants. Owing to the above findings, we proposed that the accounting regulatory bodies and the government should sanction accountants and firms engaged in unscrupulous accounting practices as well as revoking the licenses of professional accountants that precipitate such actions. As a matter of fact, seminars and workshop on issues relating to ethics and accounting guidelines should be organized for professional accountants. Also, code of professional conducts should be strictly enforced on all professional accountants by the regulatory body. It is our candid believe that if these recommendations are fully implemented, it will go a long

  13. Impasse of the 21st century accountants: Need for ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Amaechi Egbunike; Edesiri Godsday Okoro

    2017-01-01

    Ethical uprising, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body is an issue of concern that need to be uphold due to the succession of corporate scandals that took place in Nigeria and the world over, thereby undermining the image of the accountancy profession. These corporate scandals in no doubt challenged the credibility of financial statements, auditing and corporate governance practices for which accountants are directly linked with. In this paper, we ...

  14. The establishment of an ethical guideline for genetic testing through citizen consensus via the Internet in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Fen; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Chung, Chun-Chih; Yang, Che-Ming

    2010-10-18

    With the rapid advance of genetics, the application of genetic testing has become increasingly popular. Test results have had a tremendous impact on individuals who receive the test and his or her family. The ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of genetic testing cannot be overlooked. The Internet is a potential tool for public engagement. This study aimed at establishing ethical guidelines for genetic testing in Taiwan through a participatory citizen consensus approach via the Internet. The research method used was a citizen consensus conference modified by an Internet application and the Delphi technique. The citizen consensus conference is one of the public participation mechanisms. The draft ethical guidelines for genetic testing were written by an expert panel of 10. The Delphi technique was applied to a citizen panel recruited via the Internet until a consensus was reached. Our research population was restricted to people who had Internet access. Included in the citizen panel were 100 individuals. A total of 3 individuals dropped out of the process. The citizen panel was exposed to the issues through Internet learning and sharing. In all, 3 rounds of anonymous questionnaires were administered before a consensus was reached in terms of importance and feasibility. The result was ethical guidelines composed of 4 categories and 25 items. The 4 categories encompassed decision making (6 items), management of tissue samples (5 items), release of results (8 items), and information flow (6 items). On a scale of 1 to 10, the average (SD) importance score for the decision-making category was 9.41 (SD 0.58); for the management of tissue samples category, the average score was 9.62 (SD 0.49); for the release of results category, the average score was 9.34 (SD= 0.59); and for the information flow category, the average score was 9.6 (SD = 0.43). Exploratory analyses indicated that participants with higher education tended to attribute more importance to these

  15. International survey on attitudes toward ethics in health technology assessment: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, L.E.; Willett, J.M.; Borry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to survey international health technology assessment (HTA) professionals to determine attitudes toward ethics in HTA. Methods: An exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study design was developed. The sample population (n = 636) was

  16. Ethics, Governance, Research and Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lategan, Laetus; Hooper, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to reflect on research ethics practices at universities and particularly on the additional considerations needed as "enterprise" becomes a key driver across the sector internationally. The outcome of the paper is to identify suitable guidelines for dealing with the management of research ethics in this changing…

  17. Adherence to International Guidelines in the Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Physicians in this hospital fairly complied with the stated guidelines, but do not appear to have recommended lifestyle modifications to their hypertensive patients. Keywords: Adherence, Guidelines, Hypertension, Management. Tropical ...

  18. Improving the quality of health care: using international collaboration to inform guideline programmes by founding the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollenschlager, G.; Marshall, C.; Qureshi, S.; Rosenbrand, K.; Burgers, J.S.; Makela, M.; Slutsky, J.

    2004-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are regarded as powerful tools to achieve effective health care. Although many countries have built up experience in the development, appraisal, and implementation of guidelines, until recently there has been no established forum for collaboration at an international

  19. Ethics of international clinical research collaboration - the experience of AlloStem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, C

    2006-02-01

    This paper examines the ethics of international clinical collaboration in stem cell research by focusing on the AlloStem project. AlloStem is an international research programme, financed by the European Union under the Sixth Framework Programme, with the aim of advancing the use of stem cells in treating leukaemia and other haematological diseases. Several areas of ethical importance are explored. Research justification and the need to consider both deontological and teleological aspects are examined. Ethical sensitivity in research and the requirement to respond to areas of ethical concern identified by the European Commission, such as the involvement of human beings, the use of human tissue, and the use of animals are also explored. Ethical issues around project structure and management, such as ethical standardization in international research, and achieving set targets are discussed. The ethical importance of dissemination of findings and teaching in clinical research is also considered. Finally, the distribution of benefits is addressed and the importance of distributive justice is emphasized.

  20. The impact of inclusive business on ethical values & internal control quality: an accounting perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A. El Nashar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of inclusive business on the internal ethical values and the internal control quality while conceiving the accounting perspective. I construct the hypothesis for this paper based on the potential impact on the organizations’ awareness to be directed to the inclusive business approach that will significantly impact the culture of the organizations then the ethical values and the internal control quality. I use the approach of the expected value and variance of random variable test in order to analyze the potential impact of inclusive business. I support the examination by discrete probability distribution and continuous probability distribution. I find a probability of 85.5% to have a significant potential impact of the inclusive business by 100% score on internal ethical values and internal control quality. And to help contribute to sustainability growth, reduce poverty and improve organizational culture and learning.

  1. Science journal editors' views on publication ethics: results of an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, E; Fiack, S; Graf, C; Robinson, A; Rowlands, I

    2009-06-01

    Breaches of publication ethics such as plagiarism, data fabrication and redundant publication are recognised as forms of research misconduct that can undermine the scientific literature. We surveyed journal editors to determine their views about a range of publication ethics issues. Questionnaire sent to 524 editors-in-chief of Wiley-Blackwell science journals asking about the severity and frequency of 16 ethical issues at their journals, their confidence in handling such issues, and their awareness and use of guidelines. Responses were obtained from 231 editors (44%), of whom 48% edited healthcare journals. The general level of concern about the 16 issues was low, with mean severity scores of 20% of the editors stated that 12 of the 16 items never occurred at their journal. However, 13%-47% did not know the frequency of the problems. Awareness and use of guidelines was generally low. Most editors were unaware of all except other journals' instructions. Most editors of science journals seem not very concerned about publication ethics and believe that misconduct occurs only rarely in their journals. Many editors are unfamiliar with available guidelines but would welcome more guidance or training.

  2. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farge, D.; Debourdeau, P.; Beckers, M.; Baglin, C.; Bauersachs, R. M.; Brenner, B.; Brilhante, D.; Falanga, A.; Gerotzafias, G. T.; Haim, N.; Kakkar, A. K.; Khorana, A. A.; Lecumberri, R.; Mandala, M.; Marty, M.; Monreal, M.; Mousa, S. A.; Noble, S.; Pabinger, I.; Prandoni, P.; Prins, M. H.; Qari, M. H.; Streiff, M. B.; Syrigos, K.; Bounameaux, H.; Büller, H. R.

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines addressing the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients are heterogeneous and their implementation has been suboptimal worldwide. To establish a common international consensus addressing practical, clinically relevant questions in this setting. An international

  3. Cultural values and international differences in business ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Dam, L.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze ethical policies of firms in industrialized countries and try to find out whether culture is a factor that plays a significant role in explaining country differences. We look into the firm's human rights policy, its governance of bribery and corruption, and the comprehensiveness,

  4. International variation in ethics committee requirements: comparisons across five Westernised nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachson Israel

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethics committees typically apply the common principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice to research proposals but with variable weighting and interpretation. This paper reports a comparison of ethical requirements in an international cross-cultural study and discusses their implications. Discussion The study was run concurrently in New Zealand, UK, Israel, Canada and USA and involved testing hypotheses about believability of testimonies regarding alleged child sexual abuse. Ethics committee requirements to conduct this study ranged from nil in Israel to considerable amendments designed to minimise participant harm in New Zealand. Assessment of minimal risk is a complex and unreliable estimation further compounded by insufficient information on probabilities of particular individuals suffering harm. Estimating potential benefits/ risks ratio and protecting participants' autonomy similarly are not straightforward exercises. Summary Safeguarding moral/humane principles should be balanced with promotion of ethical research which does not impede research posing minimal risk to participants. In ensuring that ethical standards are met and research has scientific merit, ethics committees have obligations to participants (to meet their rights and protect them from harm; to society (to ensure good quality research is conducted; and to researchers (to treat their proposals with just consideration and respect. To facilitate meeting all these obligations, the preferable focus should be promotion of ethical research, rather than the prevention of unethical research, which inevitably results in the impediment of researchers from doing their work. How the ethical principles should be applied and balanced requires further consideration.

  5. Module one: introduction to research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüklenk, Udo

    2005-03-01

    This module will introduce you to the ethical concepts underlying applied ethical decision-making in the area of research involving human participants. We will also learn what the issues are that people involved in research on research ethics are concerned with. Ethics without an understanding of historical and legal context makes arguably little sense. It is for this reason that this module will begin with a brief history of research ethics and ends with a brief overview of the relevant national and international guidelines pertaining to ethical issues in research involving human participants.

  6. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for eating disorders : International comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hoek, Hans W.; Schmidt, Ricarda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: The current systematic review sought to compare available evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for all specific eating disorders. Recent findings: Nine evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for eating disorders were located through a systematic search. The

  7. Preventing malaria in international travellers: an evaluation of published English-language guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliner, Merav; Poole, Kristina; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul

    2014-11-03

    People intending to travel may seek information on malaria prevention from a range of sources. To ensure the best protection, this information needs to be reliable, up-to-date, consistent, and useful to their decision making. This study appraises current international and national guidelines written in English for malaria prevention in travellers, and whether any recommendations conflict. We systematically identified national or international English-language guidelines on malaria prevention in travellers to July 2013 using standard and multiple searching methods. We critically appraised guidelines using the AGREE II tool, and report inconsistent recommendations within guidelines. We identified five sets of English-language guidelines on preventing malaria for travellers. Assessment against AGREE II indicate that all of the guidelines fall short of internationally accepted standards in guideline development: none include a transparent description of methods; only one describes sources of funding or potential conflicts of interest; and only one includes formal presentation of the evidence alongside transparent assessment of the quality of that evidence. There were a number of important discrepancies between guidelines, and some omit information about effectiveness, safety and adverse effects of chemoprophylaxis options. The methods used for developing guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers lags behind current internationally recognized standards. Healthcare professionals as well as travellers themselves could be better informed if guidelines were more systematic and transparent summaries of the current knowledge on drug interventions in relation to effects, safety, administration and contra-indications.

  8. Ethical concerns of nursing reviewers: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion; Dougherty, Molly C; Freda, Margaret C; Kearney, Margaret H; Baggs, Judith G

    2010-11-01

    Editors of scientific literature rely heavily on peer reviewers to evaluate the integrity of research conduct and validity of findings in manuscript submissions. The purpose of this study was to describe the ethical concerns of reviewers of nursing journals. This descriptive cross-sectional study was an anonymous online survey. The findings reported here were part of a larger investigation of experiences of reviewers. Fifty-two editors of nursing journals (six outside the USA) agreed to invite their review panels to participate. A 69-item forced-choice and open-ended survey developed by the authors based on the literature was pilot tested with 18 reviewers before being entered into SurveyMonkey(TM). A total of 1675 reviewers responded with useable surveys. Six questions elicited responses about ethical issues, such as conflict of interest, protection of human research participants, plagiarism, duplicate publication, misrepresentation of data and 'other'. The reviewers indicated whether they had experienced such a concern and notified the editor, and how satisfied they were with the outcome. They provided specific examples. Approximately 20% of the reviewers had experienced various ethical dilemmas. Although the majority reported their concerns to the editor, not all did so, and not all were satisfied with the outcomes. The most commonly reported concern perceived was inadequate protection of human participants. The least common was plagiarism, but this was most often reported to the editor and least often led to a satisfactory outcome. Qualitative responses at the end of the survey indicate this lack of satisfaction was most commonly related to feedback provided on resolution by the editor. The findings from this study suggest several areas that editors should note, including follow up with reviewers when they identify ethical concerns about a manuscript.

  9. The updating of clinical practice guidelines: insights from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Martínez García, Laura; Carrasco, José Miguel; Solà, Ivan; Qureshi, Safia; Burgers, Jako S

    2011-09-13

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have become increasingly popular, and the methodology to develop guidelines has evolved enormously. However, little attention has been given to the updating process, in contrast to the appraisal of the available literature. We conducted an international survey to identify current practices in CPG updating and explored the need to standardize and improve the methods. We developed a questionnaire (28 items) based on a review of the existing literature about guideline updating and expert comments. We carried out the survey between March and July 2009, and it was sent by email to 106 institutions: 69 members of the Guidelines International Network who declared that they developed CPGs; 30 institutions included in the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse database that published more than 20 CPGs; and 7 institutions selected by an expert committee. Forty-four institutions answered the questionnaire (42% response rate). In the final analysis, 39 completed questionnaires were included. Thirty-six institutions (92%) reported that they update their guidelines. Thirty-one institutions (86%) have a formal procedure for updating their guidelines, and 19 (53%) have a formal procedure for deciding when a guideline becomes out of date. Institutions describe the process as moderately rigorous (36%) or acknowledge that it could certainly be more rigorous (36%). Twenty-two institutions (61%) alert guideline users on their website when a guideline is older than three to five years or when there is a risk of being outdated. Twenty-five institutions (64%) support the concept of "living guidelines," which are continuously monitored and updated. Eighteen institutions (46%) have plans to design a protocol to improve their guideline-updating process, and 21 (54%) are willing to share resources with other organizations. Our study is the first to describe the process of updating CPGs among prominent guideline institutions across the world, providing a

  10. Taking stock of the ethical foundations of international health research: pragmatic lessons from the IU-Moi Academic Research Ethics Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, Eric M; Were, Edwin; Ayuku, David

    2013-09-01

    It is a sine qua non that research and health care provided in international settings raise profound ethical questions when different cultural and political values are implicated. Yet ironically, as international health research expands and as research on ethical issues in international health research broadens and deepens, we appear to have moved away from discussing the moral foundations of these activities. For international health research to thrive and lead to the kind of benefits it is capable of, it is helpful to occasionally revisit the foundational premises that justify the enterprise as a whole. We draw on the experience of the Indiana University-Moi University Academic Research Ethics Partnership, an innovative bioethics training program co-located in Indianapolis and Eldoret, Kenya to highlight the changing nature of ethical issues in international health research and the ongoing practical challenges.

  11. Proposed guidelines for international clinical education in US-based physical therapist education programs: results of a focus group and Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechak, Celia M; Black, Jill D

    2014-04-01

    Physical therapist students are increasingly engaging in international clinical education (ICE). The growth of international engagement has been accompanied by appeals to ensure that these experiences are conducted in an ethical manner. Although detailed guidelines have been developed to guide global health training in general, they do not specifically address all aspects relevant to ICE in physical therapist education. The purpose of this study was to systematically develop recommendations for the implementation of ICE in physical therapist education to promote ethical practice. An initial virtual focus group of 5 physical therapist faculty with expertise in ICE provided input to review and revise global health training guidelines previously developed by non-physical therapists. The revised guidelines were distributed to a pool of 19 physical therapist faculty with ICE experience for additional review and revision through 3 online Delphi survey rounds. The participants accepted 31 of the original guidelines with or without revisions, rejected 2 guidelines, and developed 10 new guidelines or subguidelines. Most notably, they rejected a guideline related to students pursuing training outside of a structured program, stressing that ICE should never be done outside of a formal program. The primary limitation is that the study included only faculty from sending institutions and thus lacked the voices of the host institutions, students, partner organizations, or funders. This study systematically produced guidelines for ICE in physical therapist education using a range of ICE experts from sending institutions. The recommendations may be used by educators and other decision makers to optimally design new ICE opportunities or to improve existing ones. Additional validation should be done to ensure relevance for all stakeholders.

  12. Documentation of ethical considerations in published articles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects require that research should be conducted in accordance with accepted ethical principles. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors guidelines require authors to indicate that they have obtained ethical approval and informed consent.

  13. Ethical issues in umbilical cord blood banking: a comparative analysis of documents from national and international institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2013-04-01

    The issues of collection, storage, and use of cord blood (CB) stem cells have been addressed extensively in national and international guidelines, policies, and regulations. Many of these documents are not binding, but are nonetheless accorded considerable respect on account of the authority of the issuing organizations. Most discussion has to date focused on two topics: informed consent for collection, banking, and use and the debate between those who favor public storage for altruistic purposes and those who advocate private storage for autologous use. There is generally agreement or consensus in the guidelines that public storage for allogeneic transplants is preferable and that private storage should be discouraged. Given the consensus in national and international guidance on these two issues, it is time for other ethical issues to be examined in greater detail. These include additional uses of CB samples, for example, for research or for the production of blood-derived drugs, and the economic implications arising from the extensive international network for the exchange of CB for transplantation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. [Clinical application evaluation of Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Internal Diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Jie; Liu, Meng-Yu; Lian, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Nan-Nan; Zhao, Jun

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the applicability and clinical applications of Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Internal Diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine, so as to provide the basis for the revision of the guidelines. This study was completed by the research and promotion base for traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) standard. The methods of applicability evaluation and application evaluation were used in the study. The questionnaires were filled out to evaluate applicability of the guideline, including doctor's familiarity with the guideline,the quality of the guideline, applicable conditions and clinical applications. The prospective case study analysis method was used to evaluate application of the guideline, including evaluation of clinical application compliance and application results(such as clinical effects, safety and economy). There were two parts in the guideline, which were TCM guideline and Western medicine guideline. The results of applicability evaluation showed that there were no obvious differences between TCM guideline and Western medicine guideline in doctor's familiarity with guideline(85.43%, 84.57%) and the use of the guideline(52.10%, 54.47%); the guidelines with good quality, and higher scores in the scope of application and the use of the term rationality(91.94%, 93.35%); the rationality scores of relevant contents in syndrome differentiation and treatment were more than 75%; the applicable conditions were better, and the safety score was the the highest. The comprehensive applicability evaluation showed that the proportion of the application of TCM guideline and Western medicine guideline were 77.73%, 75.46%, respectively. The results of application evaluation showed that there was high degree coincidence between the guideline with its clinical application; except for "other treatment" and "recuperation and prevention" in TCM, other items got high scores which were more than 90%; in the evaluation of application effects, safety of the guideline

  15. International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The IJEPSE will be published bi-annually in the future though presently, issues are released in June. Neither the editors nor the publisher accept responsibility for the views or statements expressed by contributors. Usually, all incoming articles arte subject to the referencing process, unless if they are not ...

  16. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. International guidelines for education in vestibular rehabilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Gottshall, Kim R; Graziano, Mariella; Malmstrom, Eva-Maj; Sharpe, Margaret H; Whitney, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    The Barany Society Ad Hoc Committee on Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy has developed guidelines for developing educational programs for continuing education. These guidelines may be useful to individual therapists who seek to learn about vestibular rehabilitation or who seek to improve their knowledge bases. These guidelines may also be useful to professional organizations or therapists who provide continuing education in vestibular rehabilitation. We recommend a thorough background in basic vestibular science as well as an understating of current objective diagnostic testing and diagnoses, understanding of common tests used by therapists to assess postural control, vertigo and ability to perform activities of daily living. We recommend that therapists be familiar with the evidence supporting efficacy of available treatments as well as with limitations in the current research.

  18. Stem cell research in the Greater Middle East: the importance of establishing policy and ethics interoperability to foster international collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jesse M; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2010-06-01

    While fossil fuel reserves have strengthened the economies of numerous countries in the Greater Middle East (GME) for decades, multiple nations within this region are now increasingly investing in internal science and engineering programs as a mechanism to develop more extensive knowledge-based economies. One of these newly pursued disciplines is stem cell research. Nations such as Saudi Arabia and Qatar have founded nascent programs while Iran, Turkey, and Israel are more established in the field. The extent to which these investments have been productive, as measured by publication quantity and impact, remains unknown. Here we assess the state of stem cell research in the GME, report on the policy and ethical considerations facing the region, and determine the impact of international research collaborations in this area. In the majority of the region, there is no legal framework regulating stem cell research. Instead, scientists often rely on religious decrees outlining acceptable practices. These guidelines do not provide the necessary structure to foster international collaborations with nations that have enacted formal laws recognized worldwide. Our results illustrate that international collaborations in the GME produce publications of greater impact despite the fact that political tensions and issues unrelated to science have the potential to dramatically hinder cross-border relationships in the region. Overall, we conclude that the national governments of countries within the GME have the unique opportunity to establish stem cell research policies which confer interoperability between nations to foster crucial international collaborations throughout the region.

  19. Internal Guidelines for interactions with communities and local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    These Guidelines provide principles for interactions with local populations. Interaction with communities and local govenments are the responsibility of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Wastes Management program's implementing offices. The Guidelines provide policy direction to these implementing offices, while preserving their ability to tailor local interactions to fit a given situation, taking into account the social and political context and the history of local involvement in the program. Project Offices conduct community and local interactions within overall program resources which must be husbanded prudently. Careful planning by implementing offices should ensure that adequate resources are available to foster effective interactions with local representatives

  20. Patient and public involvement in clinical guidelines: international experiences and future perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boivin, A.; Currie, K.; Fervers, B.; Gracia, J.; James, M.; Marshall, C.; Sakala, C.; Sanger, S.; Strid, J.; Thomas, V.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Burgers, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are important tools for improving patient care. Patient and public involvement is recognised as an essential component of CPG development and implementation. The Guideline International Network Patient and Public Involvement Working Group (G-I-N PUBLIC)

  1. Indications for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: A Comparison of the Major International Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Camilla; Linde, Cecilia; Singh, Jagmeet; Dickstein, Kenneth

    2018-04-01

    This study compares and contrasts the recommended indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) according to the most recent guidelines from international cardiology societies. CRT has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in selected patients with systolic heart failure. Cardiology societies provide guidelines regarding the indications for CRT. As evidence evolves, it is challenging for the guideline committees to review the impact of newer evidence in a timely fashion. Six of the most recent international guidelines providing recommendation concerning CRT implantation ranging from 2011 to 2017 were reviewed. These included guidelines from 2 European, 1 North American, 1 Canadian, and 1 Australian/New Zealand societies and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines, specific to the United Kingdom. Although international societies provide consistent recommendations for most CRT indications, differences are found in recommendations for several important patient populations. Specifically, divergent recommendations exist regarding QRS duration, bundle branch morphology, patients in atrial fibrillation, choice of device type (CRT pacemakers vs. CRT defibrillators), and selected patients who are likely to be dependent on right ventricular pacing. The timing of publication of specific guidelines appears to play an essential role in explaining these disparities. Despite general consistency in international guideline recommendations, there remain certain patient populations for whom there are variations in recommendations concerning eligibility for CRT and selection of the most appropriate device in the individual patient. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E.; Alhazzani, Waleed; Levy, Mitchell M.; Antonelli, Massimo; Ferrer, Ricard; Kumar, Anand; Sevransky, Jonathan E.; Sprung, Charles L.; Nunnally, Mark E.; Rochwerg, Bram; Rubenfeld, Gordon D.; Angus, Derek C.; Annane, Djillali; Beale, Richard J.; Bellinghan, Geoffrey J.; Bernard, Gordon R.; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Coopersmith, Craig; de Backer, Daniel P.; French, Craig J.; Fujishima, Seitaro; Gerlach, Herwig; Hidalgo, Jorge Luis; Hollenberg, Steven M.; Jones, Alan E.; Karnad, Dilip R.; Kleinpell, Ruth M.; Koh, Younsuk; Lisboa, Thiago Costa; Machado, Flavia R.; Marini, John J.; Marshall, John C.; Mazuski, John E.; McIntyre, Lauralyn A.; McLean, Anthony S.; Mehta, Sangeeta; Moreno, Rui P.; Myburgh, John; Navalesi, Paolo; Nishida, Osamu; Osborn, Tiffany M.; Perner, Anders; Plunkett, Colleen M.; Ranieri, Marco; Schorr, Christa A.; Seckel, Maureen A.; Seymour, Christopher W.; Shieh, Lisa; Shukri, Khalid A.; Simpson, Steven Q.; Singer, Mervyn; Thompson, B. Taylor; Townsend, Sean R.; van der Poll, Thomas; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Zimmerman, Janice L.; Dellinger, R. Phillip

    2017-01-01

    To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee

  3. Guidelines for assessment of work disability: An international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, W.E.L. de; Rijkenberg, A.M.; Donceel, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessments of long-term work disability are carried out by social insurance physicians (SIPs) and are little supported with evidence or instruments. Guidelines are hardly ever used in social insurance medicine. Developments in social insurance medicine might be slow as insurance is

  4. Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.

  5. Odors problem in the national and international environmental legislation. Prescriptions, limits and guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littarru, P.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper expounds the main Italian laws and some international laws and guidelines on the problem of environmental impact of odours, with the attempt to arrive to an odours disturbing criterion as objective and applicable as possible [it

  6. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farge, D.; Debourdeau, P.; Beckers, M.; Baglin, C.; Bauersachs, R. M.; Brenner, B.; Brilhante, D.; Falanga, A.; Gerotzafias, G. T.; Haim, N.; Kakkar, A. K.; Khorana, A. A.; Lecumberri, R.; Mandala, M.; Marty, M.; Monreal, M.; Mousa, S. A.; Noble, S.; Pabinger, I.; Prandoni, P.; Prins, M. H.; Qari, M. H.; Streiff, M. B.; Syrigos, K.; Bounameaux, H.; Buller, H. R.

    . Background: Guidelines addressing the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients are heterogeneous and their implementation has been suboptimal worldwide. Objectives: To establish a common international consensus addressing practical, clinically relevant questions in this

  7. International Ethical Dilemmas Confronting Australian Managers: Implications for the Training and Development of Employees Working Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Kerry; Marshall, Verena

    2004-01-01

    Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethical dilemmas…

  8. British Students' Perceptions of Ethical Issues in International Marketing: An Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sammy G.

    1996-01-01

    A survey investigated 122 British business students' perceptions of ethics in international marketing practices, particularly as they are affected by demographic characteristics. In response to 12 specific scenarios, students indicated relatively liberal attitudes. Implications for global marketing specialists and for business education are…

  9. Will international human rights subsume medical ethics? Intersections in the UNESCO Universal Bioethics Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, T A

    2005-03-01

    The International Bioethics Committee (IBC) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is currently drafting a Universal Bioethics Declaration ("the declaration"). The content and even the name of the declaration has yet to be finalized, but it is expected to range widely over human and non-human bioethics. It appears likely to include many articles directly related to medical ethics. The declaration may well evolve, like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, into a component of international customary law, or be the precursor to an International Convention on Bioethics. This article discusses whether this process will facilitate bioethics and, in particular, medical ethics, being subsumed by the normative system of international human rights.

  10. FIGO society survey: acceptance and use of new ethical guidelines regarding induced abortion for non-medical reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, H E; Rogo, K O; Dixon, D B

    2001-12-01

    FIGO's Ethical guidelines regarding induced abortion for non-medical reasons offer guidance concerning women's right to safe abortion services and the medical community's attendant responsibilities. Ipas surveyed FIGO constituent societies to determine their agreement with the Guidelines' recommendations and their readiness to use them to improve and expand services. Ten months after the Guidelines publication in IJGO, a ten-item questionnaire was mailed to 283 Officers of the 101 FIGO societies, with follow-up prompts to non-respondents. Officers of 59 societies responded, divided evenly between those in countries whose laws permit induced abortion on non-medical grounds and those in countries prohibiting it. In 'permitting' countries all responding societies supported the recommendations, and 85% said they should adopt them or had already done so. Two-thirds in 'prohibiting' countries supported the recommendations, but less than half believed their FIGO society, or their government, should adopt them. However, 20% in the 'prohibiting' countries had adopted or formally considered the recommendations and 23% had already brought them to the attention of their governments. The FIGO constituent societies showed overall strong support for the recommendations, but efforts need to be made to encourage those in 'prohibiting' countries to promote implementation of the recommendations.

  11. Shifts in guidelines for ethical scientific conduct: how public and private organizations create and change norms of research integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Oliver, Amalya L

    2009-02-01

    We analyze the activities and actors involved in articulating and diffusing guidelines for ethical scientific conduct from 1975 to the present. We use a theoretical framework of institutional change at the organizational-field level to examine the co-evolution of the structure of the organizational field of 'scientific research' and its institutional logic. Public agencies have long provided funding to US universities to support faculty research, expecting that implicit norms of scientific conduct would guide behavior. Growing publicity about research fraud in the late 1960s and early 1970s triggered a shift from implicit norms to explicit behavioral proscriptions, with strong administrative oversight. As private sources of research funding exert new pressures on research behavior, public-private partnerships are emerging to articulate explicit, yet voluntary prescriptive norms of research integrity. The analysis demonstrates the co-evolution and co-dependence of changes in the identity and strength of influential actors in the field of scientific research and changes in the norms of scientific conduct. We examine how the normative guidelines have been constructed over time, illustrating the persistence of earlier norms as the foundation for current guidelines. We conclude with implications for future research conduct.

  12. Congruence between international guidelines and mite specific immunotherapy prescribing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonicelli, L; Braschi, M C; Bilò, M B; Angino, A; Pala, A P; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Bonifazi, F

    2011-10-01

    Both rhinitis (ARIA) and asthma (GINA) guidelines recommend allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) tailored to the specific levels of severity of each disease. Real world studies evaluating congruence between these recommendations and prescribing practice in the single patient with comorbidity are lacking. An observational polycentric study was carried out in 518 patients recruited from 34 allergy centers throughout Italy. A questionnaire was administered to each consecutive patient over a span of four months. Taking into account guideline recommendations for both diseases, concomitant in the same patient, three subsets resulted: patients not eligible for SIT (11%); patients eligible for SIT for one disease only (60%); patients eligible for SIT for both diseases (29%). SIT was prescribed in 257 (49.6%) subjects. The level of SIT prescription was about 50% in all three groups. Consistent with the ARIA guidelines, a correlation between the prescription of SIT and the severity of rhinitis was documented (r=0.87; p=0.001). An association with asthma severity was found (p=0.02), but the trend was inconsistent with the GINA recommendations. Young age was the most important factor for SIT prescription both in the eligible for one disease and in the eligible for both diseases subset. The tendency towards worsening of symptoms was a factor for SIT in the eligible for one disease subset. In mite allergic patients with rhinitis and asthma comorbidity, the severity of rhinitis and the young age are the most important factors driving the SIT prescription. The congruence of SIT prescription was better for the ARIA than GINA guidelines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The International Consolidated Venous Ulcer Guideline Update 2015: Process Improvement, Evidence Analysis, and Future Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kara S; Corbett, Lisa; Gould, Lisa; Girolami, Susan; Bolton, Laura

    2017-05-01

    In 2015, members of the Association for the Advancement of Wound Care (AAWC), Wound Healing Society, and the Canadian Association for Enterostomal Therapy formed the International Consolidated Guidelines Taskforce to update the AAWC Venous Ulcer Guidelines to the collaborative, intersociety, endorsed International Consolidated Venous Ulcer Guideline. This "guideline of guidelines" integrates recommendations from all relevant, published evidence-based guidelines on venous ulcer care and prevention. The update process was conducted in accordance with the National Guideline Clearinghouse inclusion criteria and was informed by a systematic review of the evidence, with additional content validation of each venous ulcer management recommendation. Twenty-three (23) wound experts participated. Compared to the 2010 version of the guideline, A-level recommendations increased from 62% to 77%, 31 recommendations were removed, and new recommendations included quality of life evaluations and surgical treatment options. Gaps in the evidence and needed areas for research include surgical, topical, and pharmaceutical interventions. Collaboration among societies and stakeholders and rigorous guideline development processes may expedite the implementation of evidence-based practices, fill in research gaps, and provide a powerful unified voice to regulatory and reimbursement agencies with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes for persons with a venous ulcer.

  14. International pharmaceutical social risk regulation: An ethical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Cameron

    2011-03-01

    Pharmaceutical production and distribution constitute big business. For the companies the rewards can be substantial. Rates of return on drug company investments tend to be higher than many other manufacturing enterprises. But reward is only one side of the story. There is also the issue of social risk, the focus of this article. Social risk for pharmaceutical production is especially pronounced. An ineffective or, worse, dangerous drug, can have dire consequences for the population at large. For this reason, there is elaborate government regulation and oversight of drug safety and risk. These systems, especially in the US and Europe, will be the main focus of this paper. The two systems will be described, and then compared and contrasted in terms of their framing of social risk and actions governments take to limit it. Systems elsewhere, especially in the developing world, are increasing in relative importance and these will be briefly discussed as well. Ethical issues that have arisen in these various systems will be surfaced and analysed. The paper will close with some conclusions and suggestions for further research.

  15. Laws, regulations and guidelines of developed countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human biological material (HBM) is an invaluable resource in biomedical research. Although research ethics committees (RECs) are guided by international guidelines and frameworks, some RECs might not be fully informed about local ethical and regulatory requirements regarding the use, collection, storage, ownership, ...

  16. Global summit of national ethics committees: an essential tool for international dialogue and consensus-building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouësseau, Marie-Charlotte; Reis, Andreas; Ho, W Calvin

    2011-01-01

    July 2010, important decisions were taken to ensure the continuity Held for the first time in 1996, the Global Summit of National of activities between the Summits. This article intends to briefly Ethics Committees (NECs) is a key platform for dialogue and retrace the history and analyse the role and functioning of the fostering consensus on ethical issues at a global level. At the Global Summit. It also discusses future challenges for international Eighth Global Summit meeting, which took place in Singapore in collaboration of NECs.

  17. Group Counseling with International Students: Practical, Ethical, and Cultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakunina, Elena S.; Weigold, Ingrid K.; McCarthy, Alannah S.

    2011-01-01

    International students in higher education represent a diverse population with unique mental health needs. Foreign students commonly experience a host of adjustment issues, including acculturative stress, language difficulties, cultural misunderstandings, racial discrimination, and loss of social support. Despite their challenges, few…

  18. A model for ethical practices in clinical phonetics and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of clinical phonetics and linguistics as an area of scientific inquiry gives rise to the need for guidelines that define ethical and responsible conduct. The diverse membership of the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association (ICPLA) and the readership of this journal are uniquely suited to consider ethical issues from diverse perspectives. Accordingly, this paper introduces a multi-tiered six-factor model for ethical practices to stimulate discussion of ethical issues.

  19. International lessons in new methods for grading and integrating cost effectiveness evidence into clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antioch, Kathryn M; Drummond, Michael F; Niessen, Louis W

    2017-01-01

    and Quality (AHRQ) in the USA, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Australian political reforms. The Guidelines and Economists Network International (GENI) Board members from Australia, UK, Canada and Denmark presented the findings at the conference of the International Health Economists...

  20. Frameworks for Teaching and Learning Business Ethics within the Global Context: Background of Ethical Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Judith; Taft, Susan

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we provide a summary of several major traditional and contemporary philosophical and psychological perspectives on ethical conduct for businesses, along with five different sets of internationally accepted ethical guidelines for corporations operating anywhere in the world. We include examples of corporate codes of conduct from…

  1. ARN Training Course on Advance Methods for Internal Dose Assessment: Application of Ideas Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.; Puerta Yepes, N.; Gossio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Dose assessment in case of internal exposure involves the estimation of committed effective dose based on the interpretation of bioassay measurement, and the assumptions of hypotheses on the characteristics of the radioactive material and the time pattern and the pathway of intake. The IDEAS Guidelines provide a method to harmonize dose evaluations using criteria and flow chart procedures to be followed step by step. The EURADOS Working Group 7 'Internal Dosimetry', in collaboration with IAEA and Czech Technical University (CTU) in Prague, promoted the 'EURADOS/IAEA Regional Training Course on Advanced Methods for Internal Dose Assessment: Application of IDEAS Guidelines' to broaden and encourage the use of IDEAS Guidelines, which took place in Prague (Czech Republic) from 2-6 February 2009. The ARN identified the relevance of this training and asked for a place for participating on this activity. After that, the first training course in Argentina took place from 24-28 August for training local internal dosimetry experts. (authors)

  2. PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: RUSSIAN AND INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture considers the present trends in the strategy of pharmacotherapy for rheumatoid  arthritis (RA in the light of the guidelines by the European  League Against Rheumatism, the American College of Rheumatology and the All-Russian Public Organization  "The Association of Rheumatologists  of Russia". It emphasizes the most important  role of the treat-to-target RA treatment strategy, the key place of which is occupied by early controlled  active therapy with methotrexate (MT.  The therapeutic  place of glucocorticoids  and especially biologic agents, the rational use of which in combination  with MT allows a remission to be achieved in most patients,  is discussed.

  3. International variation in adherence to referral guidelines for suspected cancer: a secondary analysis of survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Brian D; Mant, David; Neal, Richard D; Hart, Nigel; Hamilton, Willie; Shinkins, Bethany; Rubin, Greg; Rose, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Background Variation in cancer survival persists between comparable nations and appears to be due, in part, to primary care practitioners (PCPs) having different thresholds for acting definitively in response to cancer-related symptoms. Aim To explore whether cancer guidelines, and adherence to them, differ between jurisdictions and impacts on PCPs’ propensity to take definitive action on cancer-related symptoms. Design and setting A secondary analysis of survey data from six countries (10 jurisdictions) participating in the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Method PCPs’ responses to five clinical vignettes presenting symptoms and signs of lung (n = 2), colorectal (n = 2), and ovarian cancer (n = 1) were compared with investigation and referral recommendations in cancer guidelines. Results Nine jurisdictions had guidelines covering the two colorectal vignettes. For the lung vignettes, although eight jurisdictions had guidelines for the first, the second was covered by a Swedish guideline alone. Only the UK and Denmark had an ovarian cancer guideline. Survey responses of 2795 PCPs (crude response rate: 12%) were analysed. Guideline adherence ranged from 20–82%. UK adherence was lower than other jurisdictions for the lung vignette covered by the guidance (47% versus 58%; P <0.01) but similar (45% versus 46%) or higher (67% versus 38%; P <0.01) for the two colorectal vignettes. PCPs took definitive action least often when a guideline recommended a non-definitive action or made no recommendation. UK PCPs adhered to recommendations for definitive action less than their counterparts (P <0.01). There wasno association between jurisdictional guideline adherence and 1-year survival. Conclusion Cancer guideline content is variable between similarly developed nations and poor guideline adherence does not explain differential survival. Guidelines that fail to cover high-risk presentations or that recommend non-definitive action may reduce definitive

  4. Guidelines for Teaching Cross-Cultural Clinical Ethics: Critiquing Ideology and Confronting Power in the Service of a Principles-Based Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, Fern

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a pedagogical framework for teaching cross-cultural clinical ethics. The approach, offered at the intersection of anthropology and bioethics, is innovative in that it takes on the "social sciences versus bioethics" debate that has been ongoing in North America for three decades. The argument is made that this debate is flawed on both sides and, moreover, that the application of cross-cultural thinking to clinical ethics requires using the tools of the social sciences (such as the critique of the universality of the Euro-American construct of "autonomy") within (rather than in opposition to) a principles-based framework for clinical ethics. This paper introduces the curriculum and provides guidelines for how to teach cross-cultural clinical ethics. The learning points that are introduced emphasize culture in its relation to power and underscore the importance of viewing both biomedicine and bioethics as culturally constructed.

  5. The international endorsement of US distress screening and psychosocial guidelines in oncology: a model for dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenby, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Distress Management have, since 1997, called for routine screening of distress in patients with cancer. Following the example of pain as the fifth vital sign, the case for using the concept of distress as the sixth vital sign was made by leading psycho-oncologists in 2007. Cancer care organizations in Canada and the International Psycho-Oncology Society have adopted the NCCN Guidelines for Distress Management and have named distress screening as the sixth vital sign, thereby encouraging cancer care clinicians to think of screening for distress when they screen for pain and other vital signs. Using the evidence integration triangle, this article explores the dissemination of the notion of distress as the sixth vital sign in an international context. This exploration shows that NCCN and similar organizations can adopt the evidence integration triangle in its next phase of moving toward full implementation of the NCCN Guidelines for Distress Management.

  6. General guidelines for the assessment of internal dose from monitoring data: Progress of the IDEAS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.; Andrasi, A.; Bailey, M.; Blanchardon, E.; Cruz-Suarez, R.; Berkovski, V.; Castellani, C. M.; Hurtgenv, C.; Leguen, B.; Malatova, I.; Marsh, J.; Stather, J.; Zeger, J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent major international intercomparison exercises on intake and internal dose assessments from monitoring data, the results calculated by different participants varied significantly. Based on this experience the need for harmonisation of the procedures has been formulated within an EU 5. Framework Programme research project. The aim of the project, IDEAS, is to develop general guidelines for standardising assessments of intakes and internal doses. The IDEAS project started in October 2001 and ended in June 2005. The project is closely related to some goals of the work of Committee 2 of the ICRP and since 2003 there has been close cooperation between the two groups. To ensure that the guidelines are applicable to a wide range of practical situations, the first step was to compile a database of well-documented cases of internal contamination. In parallel, an improved version of an existing software package was developed and distributed to the partners for further use. A large number of cases from the database was evaluated independently by the partners and the results reviewed. Based on these evaluations, guidelines were drafted and discussed with dosimetry professionals from around the world by means of a virtual workshop on the Internet early in 2004. The guidelines have been revised and refined on the basis of the experiences and discussions in this virtual workshop. The general philosophy of the Guidelines is presented here, focusing on the principles of harmonisation, optimisation and proportionality. Finally, the proposed Levels of Task to structure the approach of internal dose evaluation are reported. (authors)

  7. Exploring interepistemological encounters in international HE at the intersection of ideologies of neoliberalism and ethical globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadsholt, Tanja Kanne

    Within recent years, plurality and difference have been embraced in higher education both by internationalization strategies originating in a neoliberal marked-driven process as well as by counter-ideologies of ethical globalization. The neoliberal transformation has resulted in new ontologies......, Arambewela 2010) and internally on the education marked by universities becoming similar because they are playing the same game (Biesta 2011). Furthermore, it has enforced the power structures of the international field of HE defined by flows of people and capital towards the global North and flows...... authorities such as consultants, professionals and free-lance experts (Barnett 2012). However, critics of the neo-liberal university argue that the university as educator and knowledge producer should engage in a more ethical knowledge production. It is a call for an academic knowledge production...

  8. Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation: international consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Lehner, Burkhard; Willy, Christian; Lavery, Larry; Wolvos, Tom; Orgill, Dennis; Ennis, William; Lantis, John; Gabriel, Allen; Schultz, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation is increasingly utilized as an adjunct therapy for a wide variety of wounds. Despite its growing popularity, there is a paucity of evidence and lack of guidance to provide effective use of this therapy. A panel of experts was convened to provide guidance regarding the appropriate use of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation. A face-to-face meeting was held where the available evidence was discussed and individual clinical experience with this therapy was shared. Follow-up communication among the panelists continued until consensus was achieved. The final consensus recommendations were derived through more than 80 percent agreement among the panelists. Nine consensus statements were generated that address the appropriate use of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation. The question of clinical effectiveness of this therapy was not directly addressed by the consensus panel. This document serves as preliminary guidelines until more robust evidence emerges that will support or modify these consensus recommendations.

  9. The Influence of Organizational Culture over the Ethical Principles in International Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Cezar Militaru; Adriana Zanfir

    2012-01-01

    One of the most recent tendencies of modern management is that of looking at a company’s activity from the business point of view. The business culture is a very complex element reflected by the company’s organizational culture and by its components, such as the ethical approach in business, carrying the corporate social responsibility, maintaining the etiquette in business or following the good manners guide in international affairs. The necessity of adapting to the peculiarities and the cha...

  10. Guidelines for IAEA International Regulatory Review Teams (IRRTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This document is intended to be used by International regulatory review teams in reviewing the activities of a regulatory body as applicable to the regulation of nuclear power plants. The mission will, however, take note of any other activities of the regulatory body when drawing up the review report. The document does not specifically deal with the functions of a regulatory body responsible for other types of nuclear facilities or related nuclear activities, but it is intended that the concepts presented in the document could be applied where appropriate. Refs

  11. Venous thromboembolism management in Northeast Melbourne: how does it compare to international guidelines and data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Y; Chua, Chong C; Tacey, Mark; Sleeman, Matthew; Donnan, Geoffrey; Nandurkar, Harshal; Ho, Prahlad

    2017-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with significant heterogeneity in its management, both within our local practice and in international guidelines. To provide a holistic evaluation of 'real-world' Australian experience in the warfarin era, including how we compare to international guidelines. Retrospective evaluation of VTE from July 2011 to December 2012 at two major hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. These results were compared to recommendations in the international guidelines. A total of 752 episodes involving 742 patients was identified. Contrary to international guidelines, an unwarranted heritable thrombophilia screen was performed in 22.0% of patients, amounting to a cost of AU$29 000. The duration of anticoagulation was longer compared to international recommendations, although the overall recurrence (3.2/100 person-years) and clinically significant bleeding rates (2.4/100 person-years) were comparable to 'real-world' data. Unprovoked VTE (hazard ratio 2.06; P = 0.01) was a risk factor for recurrence, and there was no difference in recurrence between major VTE (proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism) and isolated distal DVT (3.02 vs 3.94/100 person-years; P = 0.25). Fourteen patients were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy, and patients with recurrent VTE had increased risk of prospective cancer diagnosis (relative risk 6.68; P international guidelines, there remains heterogeneity in the management strategies, including excessive thrombophilia screening and longer duration of anticoagulation. This audit highlights the need for national VTE guidelines, as well as prospective auditing of VTE management, in the direct oral anticoagulant era for future comparison. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Ethics as an Undergraduate Psychology Outcome: When, Where, and How to Teach It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Ana; Warchal, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) recently approved a new set of "Guidelines for the undergraduate psychology major, version 2.0" (APA, 2013a) which addressed ethics specifically. Yet the teaching of ethics receives little attention in publications, national and international institutes, and conferences. Few guidelines for…

  13. Mobile Phones in Research and Treatment: Ethical Guidelines and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jacki; Hall, Wayne; Chenery, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phones and other remote monitoring devices, collectively referred to as "mHealth," promise to transform the treatment of a range of conditions, including movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease. In this viewpoint paper, we use Parkinson’s disease as an example, although most considerations discussed below are valid for a wide variety of conditions. The ability to easily collect vast arrays of personal data over long periods will give clinicians and researchers unique insights into disease treatment and progression. These capabilities also pose new ethical challenges that health care professionals will need to manage if this promise is to be realized with minimal risk of harm. These challenges include privacy protection when anonymity is not always possible, minimization of third-party uses of mHealth data, informing patients of complex risks when obtaining consent, managing data in ways that maximize benefit while minimizing the potential for disclosure to third parties, careful communication of clinically relevant information gleaned via mHealth technologies, and rigorous evaluation and regulation of mHealth products before widespread use. Given the complex array of symptoms and differences in comfort and literacy with technology, it is likely that these solutions will need to be individualized. It is therefore critical that developers of mHealth apps engage with patients throughout the development process to ensure that the technology meets their needs. These challenges will be best met through early and ongoing engagement with patients and other relevant stakeholders. PMID:26474545

  14. Mobile Phones in Research and Treatment: Ethical Guidelines and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Adrian; Liddle, Jacki; Hall, Wayne; Chenery, Helen

    2015-10-16

    Mobile phones and other remote monitoring devices, collectively referred to as "mHealth," promise to transform the treatment of a range of conditions, including movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. In this viewpoint paper, we use Parkinson's disease as an example, although most considerations discussed below are valid for a wide variety of conditions. The ability to easily collect vast arrays of personal data over long periods will give clinicians and researchers unique insights into disease treatment and progression. These capabilities also pose new ethical challenges that health care professionals will need to manage if this promise is to be realized with minimal risk of harm. These challenges include privacy protection when anonymity is not always possible, minimization of third-party uses of mHealth data, informing patients of complex risks when obtaining consent, managing data in ways that maximize benefit while minimizing the potential for disclosure to third parties, careful communication of clinically relevant information gleaned via mHealth technologies, and rigorous evaluation and regulation of mHealth products before widespread use. Given the complex array of symptoms and differences in comfort and literacy with technology, it is likely that these solutions will need to be individualized. It is therefore critical that developers of mHealth apps engage with patients throughout the development process to ensure that the technology meets their needs. These challenges will be best met through early and ongoing engagement with patients and other relevant stakeholders.

  15. Ethical and legal points of view in parenteral nutrition - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothaermel, S; Bischoff, S C; Bockenheimer-Lucius, G; Frewer, A; Wehkamp, K H; Zuercher, G

    2009-11-18

    Adequate nutrition is a part of medical treatment and is influenced by ethical and legal considerations. Patients, who cannot be sufficiently fed via the gastrointestinal tract, have the fundamental right to receive PN (parenteral nutrition) even so patients who are unable to give their consent. General objectives in nutrition support are to supply adequate nutrition with regards to the prevention of malnutrition and its consequences (increased morbidity and mortality), and thereby promoting improved outcome and/or quality of life for the patient considering always the patient's needs and wishes. The requests of the patient to renounce PN should be respected where a signed living will is helpful. During the course of a terminal illness the nutrition has to be adapted individually according to the needs and wishes of a patient in the corresponding phase. Capability of consent should be checked in each individual case and for each measure on an individual basis. Consent should only be accepted if the patient is capable of recognizing the nature, meaning and importance of the intervention as well as the consequences of relinquishment of such an intervention, and is capable to make a self-determined decision. If the patient is not capable of consenting, the patient's living will is the most important document when determining their assumed will and legally binding. Otherwise a guardian appointed by the patient, or the representative appointed by the court (if the patient has made no provisions) can make the decision.

  16. Ethical and legal points of view in parenteral nutrition – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothaermel, S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition is a part of medical treatment and is influenced by ethical and legal considerations. Patients, who cannot be sufficiently fed via the gastrointestinal tract, have the fundamental right to receive PN (parenteral nutrition even so patients who are unable to give their consent. General objectives in nutrition support are to supply adequate nutrition with regards to the prevention of malnutrition and its consequences (increased morbidity and mortality, and thereby promoting improved outcome and/or quality of life for the patient considering always the patient’s needs and wishes. The requests of the patient to renounce PN should be respected where a signed living will is helpful. During the course of a terminal illness the nutrition has to be adapted individually according to the needs and wishes of a patient in the corresponding phase. Capability of consent should be checked in each individual case and for each measure on an individual basis. Consent should only be accepted if the patient is capable of recognizing the nature, meaning and importance of the intervention as well as the consequences of relinquishment of such an intervention, and is capable to make a self-determined decision. If the patient is not capable of consenting, the patient’s living will is the most important document when determining their assumed will and legally binding. Otherwise a guardian appointed by the patient, or the representative appointed by the court (if the patient has made no provisions can make the decision.

  17. A Scoping Study on the Ethics of Health Systems Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Rattani, Abbas; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-12-01

    Currently, health systems research (HSR) is reviewed by the same ethical standards as clinical research, which has recently been argued in the literature to be an inappropriate standard of evaluation. The issues unique to HSR warrant a different review by research ethics committees (RECs), as it does not impose the same risks to study participants as other types of clinical or public health research. However, there are limited tools and supporting documents that clarify the ethical considerations. Therefore, there is a need for additional reflection around ethical review of HSR and their consideration by RECs. The purpose of this paper is to review, understand, and synthesize the current state of literature and practice to inform these deliberations and the larger discourse on ethics review guidelines for HSR. This paper presents a review of the literature on ethics of HSR in the biomedical, public health, and implementation research to identify ethical considerations specific to HSR; and to identify examples of commonly available guidance and/or tools for the ethical review of HSR studies. Fifteen articles were identified on HSR ethics issues, and forty-two international academic institutions were contacted (of the responses (n=29), no institution had special ethical guidelines for reviewing HSR) about their HSR ethics review guidelines. There appears to be a clear gap in the current health research ethics discourse around health systems research ethics. This review serves as a first step (to better understand the current status) towards a larger dialogue on the topic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. International Expert Panel Consensus Guidelines for Structure and Delivery of Qigong Exercise for Cancer Care Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Penelope; Picard, George; Schneider, Roger; Oh, Byeongsang

    2017-01-01

    Integrative oncology, including Qigong, is a relatively new concept in modern healthcare. Evidence of benefits of Qigong in cancer survivors is emerging. As such, several cancer centers, world-wide, have introduced Qigong as part of integrative medicine within supportive cancer care programming. Qigong exercise programming content and quality varies among institutions due to lack of standard guidelines and, at present, relies solely on the instructor’s skills, knowledge, personal preferences and clinical experience. Development of consensus guidelines recommending the basic structure and delivery of Qigong programming in cancer care can potentiate quality assurance and reduce risk of harm. This applied qualitative research utilized a modified Delphi approach to formulate consensus guidelines. Guidelines were developed through discussions among an international expert panel (N = 13) with representation from Australia, Canada, Ireland, and the United States. Panel communication was predominantly conducted by email and occurred from November 2016 through February 2017. Expert panel work resulted in the generation of a work product: Qigong in Cancer Care Guidelines: A Working Paper including: (a) Consensus Guidelines for structure and delivery of Qigong exercise for Cancer care programming; (b) Consensus guidelines for instructor competence for teaching Qigong exercise for cancer care classes; (c) Screening tool for safe participation in Qigong exercise; (d) Class participant instructions for maintaining safety during Qigong exercise; and (e) Advice from the field. Generation of these resources is the first step in establishing recommendations for ‘best practice’ in the area of Qigong for cancer care programming.

  19. Compliance of disease awareness campaigns in printed Dutch media with national and international regulatory guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo Alves, Teresa; Martins de Freitas, Auramarina F; van Eijk, Martine E C; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-01-01

    The European legislation prohibits prescription-only medicines' advertising but allows pharmaceutical companies to provide information to the public on health and diseases, provided there is no direct or indirect reference to a pharmaceutical product. Various forms of promotion have become increasingly common in Europe including "disease-oriented" campaigns. To explore examples of disease awareness campaigns by pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, by assessing their compliance with the World Health Organization (WHO) Ethical Criteria for medicinal drug promotion and the Dutch guidelines for provision of information by pharmaceutical companies. Materials referring to health/disease and treatments published in the most widely circulated newspapers and magazines were collected from March to May 2012. An evaluation tool was developed based on relevant underlying principles from the WHO ethical criteria and Dutch self-regulation guidelines. Collected disease awareness advertisements were used to pilot the evaluation tool and to explore the consistency of information provided with the WHO and Dutch criteria. Eighty materials met our inclusion criteria; 71 were published in newspapers and 9 in magazines. The large majority were news items but 21 were disease awareness advertisements, of which 5 were duplicates. Fifteen out of the 16 disease awareness campaigns were non-compliant with current guidelines mainly due to lack of balance (n = 12), absence of listed author and/or sponsor (n = 8), use of misleading or incomplete information (n = 5) and use of promotional information (n = 5). None mentioned a pharmaceutical product directly. Disease Awareness Campaigns are present in Dutch printed media. Although no brand names were mentioned, the lack of compliance of disease awareness campaigns with the current regulations is alarming. There were information deficiencies and evidence of information bias. A key concern is that the context in which the information is

  20. Compliance of disease awareness campaigns in printed Dutch media with national and international regulatory guidelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Leonardo Alves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The European legislation prohibits prescription-only medicines' advertising but allows pharmaceutical companies to provide information to the public on health and diseases, provided there is no direct or indirect reference to a pharmaceutical product. Various forms of promotion have become increasingly common in Europe including "disease-oriented" campaigns. OBJECTIVES: To explore examples of disease awareness campaigns by pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, by assessing their compliance with the World Health Organization (WHO Ethical Criteria for medicinal drug promotion and the Dutch guidelines for provision of information by pharmaceutical companies. METHODS: Materials referring to health/disease and treatments published in the most widely circulated newspapers and magazines were collected from March to May 2012. An evaluation tool was developed based on relevant underlying principles from the WHO ethical criteria and Dutch self-regulation guidelines. Collected disease awareness advertisements were used to pilot the evaluation tool and to explore the consistency of information provided with the WHO and Dutch criteria. FINDINGS: Eighty materials met our inclusion criteria; 71 were published in newspapers and 9 in magazines. The large majority were news items but 21 were disease awareness advertisements, of which 5 were duplicates. Fifteen out of the 16 disease awareness campaigns were non-compliant with current guidelines mainly due to lack of balance (n = 12, absence of listed author and/or sponsor (n = 8, use of misleading or incomplete information (n = 5 and use of promotional information (n = 5. None mentioned a pharmaceutical product directly. CONCLUSION: Disease Awareness Campaigns are present in Dutch printed media. Although no brand names were mentioned, the lack of compliance of disease awareness campaigns with the current regulations is alarming. There were information deficiencies and evidence of information

  1. Systematic review of evidence and consensus on diverticulitis: an analysis of national and international guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vennix, S.; Morton, D. G.; Hahnloser, D.; Lange, J. F.; Bemelman, W. A.

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to analyse the currently available national and international guidelines for areas of consensus and contrasting recommendations in the treatment of diverticulitis and thereby to design questions for future research. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed were systematically searched for

  2. Development and validation of an international appraisal instrument for assessing the quality of clinical practice guidelines: the AGREE project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cluzeau, F.A.; Burgers, J.S.; Brouwers, M.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; et al.,

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International interest in clinical practice guidelines has never been greater but many published guidelines do not meet the basic quality requirements. There have been renewed calls for validated criteria to assess the quality of guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an

  3. Journalism Ethics in Secondary Education: Principles and Guidelines for Decision Making within a Systematic Framework of Moral Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlong, Ann

    In response to rising public criticism of the media and demand for accountability, leaders among professional journalists are calling for a renewed emphasis on codes of ethics and deliberate attention to moral action. In examining the importance and relevance of ethics to high school journalism, three principles for the teaching of ethics emerge:…

  4. The International Rare Diseases Research Consortium: Policies and Guidelines to maximize impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmüller, Hanns; Torrent I Farnell, Josep; Le Cam, Yann; Jonker, Anneliene H; Lau, Lilian Pl; Baynam, Gareth; Kaufmann, Petra; Dawkins, Hugh Js; Lasko, Paul; Austin, Christopher P; Boycott, Kym M

    2017-12-01

    The International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) has agreed on IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines, following extensive deliberations and discussions in 2012 and 2013, as a first step towards improving coordination of research efforts worldwide. The 25 funding members and 3 patient umbrella organizations (as of early 2013) of IRDiRC, a consortium of research funders that focuses on improving diagnosis and therapy for rare disease patients, agreed in Dublin, Ireland in April 2013 on the Policies and Guidelines that emphasize collaboration in rare disease research, the involvement of patients and their representatives in all relevant aspects of research, as well as the sharing of data and resources. The Policies and Guidelines provide guidance on ontologies, diagnostics, biomarkers, patient registries, biobanks, natural history, therapeutics, models, publication, intellectual property, and communication. Most IRDiRC members-currently nearly 50 strong-have since incorporated its policies in their funding calls and some have chosen to exceed the requirements laid out, for instance in relation to data sharing. The IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines are the first, detailed agreement of major public and private funding organizations worldwide to govern rare disease research, and may serve as a template for other areas of international research collaboration. While it is too early to assess their full impact on research productivity and patient benefit, the IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines have already contributed significantly to improving transparency and collaboration in rare disease research.

  5. Ethics in clinical research: the Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmukhani, J; Tripathi, C B

    2011-03-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the 'Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects' in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward.

  6. A Grassroots Community Dialogue on the Ethics of the Care of People with Autism and Their Families: The Stony Brook Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Stephen G; Pomeroy, John; Keirns, Carla; Cover, Virginia Isaacs; Dorn, Michael Leverett

    2017-06-01

    The increased recognition and reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) combined with the associated societal and clinical impact call for a broad grassroots community-based dialogue on treatment related ethical and social issues. In these Stony Brook Guidelines, which were developed during a full year of community dialogue (2010-2011) with affected individuals, families, and professionals in the field, we identify and discuss topics of paramount concern to the ASD constituency: treatment goals and happiness, distributive justice, managing the desperate hopes for a cure, sibling responsibilities, intimacy and sex, diagnostic ethics, and research ethics. The members of the dialogue core committee included doctors, ethicists, administrators, social workers, ministers, disability experts, and many family members of individuals with autism who were especially engaged in community activities on behalf of their constituency, including siblings, parents, and grandparents. Our guidelines are not based on "top-down" imposition of professional expertise, but rather on a "bottom-up" grass roots attention to the voices of affected individuals and families speaking from experience. These guidelines can inform clinical practice, but they also are meaningful for the wider social conversation emerging over the treatment of individuals with ASD.

  7. Enactment of virtue ethics: collaboration between nurse academics and international students in questionnaire design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyer, A; Cecchin, M

    2001-01-01

    Increased enrolment of international nursing students in undergraduate and postgraduate programs is predicted as Australian universities compete for students in the globalised university market. This study explored issues impacting on the ability of international nursing students to achieve their study goals at an Australian university (n=29). However, this paper principally describes the design of the instrument by two nursing lecturers and international nursing students (n=10) in a collaborative process, characterised by a pluralistic world view and the enactment of virtue ethics. The myth of the term 'ESL' is critiqued, and challenged. In designing the instrument, we argued it was essential to be cognisant of the conceptual attributes and embedded meanings of language for the unique study population, to ensure face and content validity.

  8. Recent trends in reproductive tourism and international surrogacy: ethical considerations and challenges for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonandan, Raywat

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive tourism, or "cross-border reproductive care", is the phenomenon of people crossing international borders to access reproductive technologies. One of the fastest-growing categories of cross-border reproductive care is international surrogacy, the act of infertile clients traveling internationally to engage the paid services of foreign surrogates to carry their babies to term. It is a multibillion-dollar global industry presenting unique legal, ethical, and risk-management challenges. Clients tend to be price-sensitive, middle-income individuals seeking services from surrogates who in the global market are thought to be of quite low socioeconomic status. Risks are experienced by all parties involved in the transaction, including the client's countries of origin and destination. The risks to the surrogate evolve from the potential to exploit her economic vulnerability in order to encourage both consent and unfair pricing. Opportunities for policy development are explored.

  9. A Model for Ethical Practices in Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of clinical phonetics and linguistics as an area of scientific inquiry gives rise to the need for guidelines that define ethical and responsible conduct. The diverse membership of the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association (ICPLA) and the readership of this journal are uniquely suited to consider ethical issues…

  10. Teaching corner: child family health international : the ethics of asset-based global health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.

  11. The effects of a randomised multi-centre trial and international accreditation on availability and quality of clinical guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, AB; Gluud, C; Wetterslev, J

    2005-01-01

    To examine the availability and quality of clinical guidelines on perioperative diabetes care in hospital units before and after a randomised clinical trial (RCT) and international accreditation.......To examine the availability and quality of clinical guidelines on perioperative diabetes care in hospital units before and after a randomised clinical trial (RCT) and international accreditation....

  12. A SCIENTIFIC WORLDVIEW OF ACCOUNTING ETHICS AND GOVERNANCE EDUCATION: THE RIGHT FOOTING OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION STANDARD 4, BUT...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziuddin Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a critique of the approach in which the issue of accounting ethics and governance has been tackled through education. In light of the existence of the International Education Standard (IES 4 specifically on ethics as the relevant framework developed by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC, the discussion in this paper centres on the requirement of IES 4 and the manner it is suggested for implementation. Based on the ontological and epistemological reality of the world as reflected in science which also parallels religion and Eastern belief system, we are sceptical of the degree of representation of reality of the model of ethics and governance that is currently upheld by accounting curriculum designers. A framework on ethics education that is more holistic is proposed.

  13. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Brouwers, Evelien P M; van Beurden, Karlijn M; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J L; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-05-01

    We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network Library and PubMed. Members of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), were also consulted. Guidelines recommendations were compared and reporting quality was assessed using the AGREE II instrument. Of 2126 titles retrieved, 14 guidelines were included: 1 Japanese, 2 Finnish, 2 Korean, 2 British and 7 Dutch. Four guidelines were of high-reporting quality. Best described was the Scope and Purpose, and the poorest described were competing interests (Editorial independence) and barriers and facilitators for implementation (Applicability). Key recommendations were often difficult to identify. Most guidelines recommend employing an inventory of symptoms, diagnostic classification, performance problems and workplace factors. All guidelines recommend specific return-to-work interventions, and most agreed on psychological treatment and communication between involved stakeholders. Practice guidelines to address work disability due to mental disorders and stress-related symptoms are available in various countries around the world, however, these guidelines are difficult to find. To promote sharing, national guidelines should be accessible via established international databases. The quality of the guideline's developmental process varied considerably. To increase quality and applicability, guideline developers should adopt a common structure for the development and reporting of their guidelines, for example Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) criteria. Owing to differences in social systems, developers can learn from each other through reviews of this kind. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  14. International short-term medical service trips: guidelines from the literature and perspectives from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Erica; Doocy, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The increasing interest in practising medicine overseas has outpaced research conducted to evaluate its effectiveness and the development of guidelines from evidence-based best practices. Short-term medical teams regularly travel to provide medical care, yet there is little research on the impact or practices of these missions. This study assessed current practices and challenges of short-term medical service teams, using questionnaire-based interviews of 40 participants in recent medical service trips. Study results and a review of recommendations in peer-reviewed journals were used to develop guidelines for international short-term medical trips in relation to mission, collaboration, education and capacity building, provider qualifications, appropriate donations, and cultural sensitivity and understanding. Guidelines that inform models, approaches, best practices and minimum standards for short-term medical service trips should be adopted so that improved and sustainable outcomes can be consistently achieved.

  15. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) of permanent teeth occur frequently in children and young adults. Crown fractures and luxations are the most commonly occurring of all dental injuries. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow up are important for improving a favorable outcome. Guidelines...... should assist dentists and patients in decision making and for providing the best care effectively and efficiently. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers...... goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of TDIs. In this first article, the IADT Guidelines for management of fractures and luxations of permanent teeth will be presented. The Hebrew Edition is part of the IADT global effort to provide accessibility...

  16. Do current national and international guidelines have specific recommendations for older adults with bipolar disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dols, Annemiek; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2016-01-01

    a variety of sources have become available in recent years. It is expected that at least some of this emerging information on OABD would be incorporated into treatment guidelines available to clinicians around the world. METHODS: The International Society of Bipolar Disorders OABD task force compiled......OBJECTIVE: Older adults with bipolar disorder (OABD) are a growing segment of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) for which specific guidelines are warranted. Although, OABD are frequently excluded from randomized controlled trials due to their age or somatic comorbidity, more treatment data from...... mental health workforce with geriatric expertise, it is critical that additional effort and resources be devoted to studying treatment interventions specific to OABD and that treatment guidelines reflect research findings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  17. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group...... their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care for management of primary teeth injuries. The IADT cannot and does not guarantee favorable outcomes from strict adherence to the guidelines, but believe that their application can...... maximize the chances of a positive outcome. The Hebrew Edition is part of the IADT global effort to provide a worldwide accessibility to these guidelines. This third part will discuss injuries in the primary dentition....

  18. ARN Training on Advance Methods for Internal Dose Assessment: Application of Ideas Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.; Puerta Yepes, N.; Gossio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Dose assessment in case of internal exposure involves the estimation of committed effective dose based on the interpretation of bioassay measurement, and the assumptions of hypotheses on the characteristics of the radioactive material and the time pattern and the pathway of intake. The IDEAS Guidelines provide a method to harmonize dose evaluations using criteria and flow chart procedures to be followed step by step. The EURADOS Working Group 7 'Internal Dosimetry', in collaboration with IAEA and Czech Technical University (CTU) in Prague, promoted the 'EURADOS/IAEA Regional Training Course on Advanced Methods for Internal Dose Assessment: Application of IDEAS Guidelines' to broaden and encourage the use of IDEAS Guidelines, which took place in Prague (Czech Republic) from 2-6 February 2009. The ARN identified the relevance of this training and asked for a place for participating on this activity. After that, the first training course in Argentina took place from 24-28 August for training local internal dosimetry experts. This paper resumes the main characteristics of this activity. (authors) [es

  19. Systematic review and comparison of national and international guidelines on diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetin, T; Galetin, A; Vestweber, K-H; Rink, A D

    2018-03-01

    Diverticular disease is common and of increasing medical and economical importance. Various practice guidelines on diagnostic and treatment on this disease exist. We compared current guidelines on the disease in order to identify concordant and discordant recommendations. Eleven national and international guidelines on diverticular disease published over the last 10 years have been identified by a systematic literature review on PubMed and compared in detail for 20 main and 51 subtopics. The available evidence for the most aspects was rated as moderate or low. There was concordance for the following items: Diagnosis of diverticulitis should be confirmed by imaging methods (10 of 10 guidelines). Mild forms may be treated out-patient (10/10). Abscesses are treated non-surgically (9/9). Elective surgery should be indicated by individual patient-related factors, only, and be performed laparoscopically (10/10, 9/9 respectively). Main differences were found in the questions of appropriate classification, imaging diagnostic (computed-tomography versus ultra-sound), need for antibiotics in out-patient treatment and mode of surgery for diverticular perforation. Despite growing evidence that antibiotics are not needed for treating mild diverticulitis, only 3/10 guidelines have corresponding recommendations. Hartmann's procedure has been abandoned several years ago and is now recommended for feculent peritonitis by the three most recent guidelines. In contrast, laparoscopic lavage without resection is not recommended anymore. There are dissents in the recommendations for central aspects regarding the diagnostic and treatment of diverticular disease in recently published guidelines.

  20. [Adherence between antibiotic prescriptions and guidelines in an internal medicine ward: an evaluation of professional practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peix, C; Vandenhende, M-A; Bonnet, F; Lacoste, D; Bernard, N; Youssef, J; Hessamfar, M; Pometan, J-P; Morlat, P

    2013-08-01

    This is an evaluation of professional practices (EPP) on antibiotic therapy in an internal medicine ward. A 6-month prospective review of antibiotic prescriptions and their comparisons with local and national guidelines (drug, daily dose, administration, and duration) were performed. Antibiotic therapy on 227 infectious episodes was collected. According to local guidelines, we found 56% of totally respected (lower respiratory tract infections: 38%, urinary tract infections: 88% and skin infections: 73%), 33% of partially respected and 11% of non-appropriate prescriptions. Considering national guidelines for lower respiratory tract infections as references, the results were: totally respected prescriptions 81%, partially respected prescriptions 16%, and non-appropriate prescriptions 3%. This evaluation of the prescriptions allowed setting up long-lasting actions to improve clinical practice. This approach anticipates the procedures of EPP that will be needed for hospital accreditation and highlights the importance of considering several guidelines for the interpretation of the results. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Ethics of Sports Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert J; Reider, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    This article explores the background and foundations of ethics in research. Some important documents and codes are mentioned, such as The Belmont Report and the International Conference of Harmonisation. Some influential historical events involving research ethics are recounted. The article provides a detailed discussion of the Declaration of Helsinki, which is considered the international standard for guidelines in medical research ethics. The most salient features of the Declaration are described and related to orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. Some of the most controversial aspects of the Declaration are discussed, which helps examine contentious areas of research in sports medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overview on health research ethics in Egypt and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Diaa; Abd El Aal, Wafaa; Saleh, Azza; Sleem, Hany; Khyatti, Meriem; Mazini, Loubna; Hemminki, Kari; Anwar, Wagida A

    2014-08-01

    Developing countries, including Egypt and North African countries, need to improve their quality of research by enhancing international cooperation and exchanges of scientific information, as well as competing for obtaining international funds to support research activities. Research must comply with laws and other requirements for research that involves human subjects. The purpose of this article is to overview the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, with reference to other Middle Eastern countries. The EU and North African Migrants: Health and Health Systems project (EUNAM) has supported the revision of the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, by holding meetings and discussions to collect information about research ethics committees in Egypt, and revising the structure and guidelines of the committees, as well as reviewing the literature concerning ethics activities in the concerned countries. This overview has revealed that noticeable efforts have been made to regulate research ethics in certain countries in the Middle East. This can be seen in the new regulations, which contain the majority of protections mentioned in the international guidelines related to research ethics. For most of the internationally registered research ethics committees in North African countries, the composition and functionality reflect the international guidelines. There is growing awareness of research ethics in these countries, which extends to teaching efforts to undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial Use Guidelines for Treatment of Urinary Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Weese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract disease is a common reason for use (and likely misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials in dogs and cats. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, guidelines for diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections were created by a Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. While objective data are currently limited, these guidelines provide information to assist in the diagnosis and management of upper and lower urinary tract infections in dogs and cats.

  4. Are Business Ethics Ethical? Do company ethics live up to what they claim?

    OpenAIRE

    Berge-Venter, Maud-Ellen

    2013-01-01

    The following Master's thesis is an analysis of the terms used in both the ethical guidelines and values espoused by companies, weighed up against classical philosophical texts and normative ethical theories, as well as traditional business ethics.

  5. Ethical principles in international nuclear trade and the role of international treaties and agreements in their implementation. Reflections on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalanti, C. de A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing importance of nuclear energy (on the threshold of the twenty-first century) and of its ethical uses is considered, including major political events in recent years, their social and economic consequences in the world scene. International Nuclear Law is seen as the most adequate instrument to promote the ethical uses of nuclear energy on a worldwide basis, so that mankind can benefit safely and properly and improving their living conditions in general. Problems associated with access to nuclear technology, plants, equipments and materials are addressed. Basic principles of international agreements ruling nuclear trade, ethical aspects are also covered. The different markets involved in international nuclear trade and their specific requirements are described. Certain international treaties on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are discussed such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty as are international conventions on matters related to the use of nuclear energy, such as the environment and protection of personnel. The author concludes by debating whether ethical uses of nuclear energy are a possible reality or merely utopia. Prospects on the future of international nuclear trade are considered. (author)

  6. Formação profissional ética: um compromisso a partir das diretrizes curriculares? Ethical professional education: a commitment based on the curricular guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Finkler

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexão problematiza o discurso e a prática que se estabelecem em torno do tema da formação ética dos profissionais da saúde e, mais particularmente, do cirurgião-dentista, situando o atual momento de implantação das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais no ensino superior brasileiro. Procura-se, desta forma, indicar alguns limites e possibilidades para uma formação ética condizente com o novo perfil profissional almejado.This reflection questions the discourse and practice surrounding the ethical education of health professionals and, more particularly, of dentists, situating the current state of deployment of the National Curriculum Guidelines in Brazilian Higher Education. The goal is to point to a few limits and possibilities for an ethical education in line with the new professional profile that is sought.

  7. International clinical guideline for the management of classical galactosemia: diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Lindsey; Bernstein, Laurie E; Berry, Gerard T; Burlina, Alberto B; Eyskens, François; Gautschi, Matthias; Grünewald, Stephanie; Gubbels, Cynthia S; Knerr, Ina; Labrune, Philippe; van der Lee, Johanna H; MacDonald, Anita; Murphy, Elaine; Portnoi, Pat A; Õunap, Katrin; Potter, Nancy L; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Spencer, Jessica B; Timmers, Inge; Treacy, Eileen P; Van Calcar, Sandra C; Waisbren, Susan E; Bosch, Annet M

    2017-03-01

    Classical galactosemia (CG) is an inborn error of galactose metabolism. Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and follow-up of CG are currently lacking, and treatment and follow-up have been demonstrated to vary worldwide. To provide patients around the world the same state-of-the-art in care, members of The Galactosemia Network (GalNet) developed an evidence-based and internationally applicable guideline for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of CG. The guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. A systematic review of the literature was performed, after key questions were formulated during an initial GalNet meeting. The first author and one of the working group experts conducted data-extraction. All experts were involved in data-extraction. Quality of the body of evidence was evaluated and recommendations were formulated. Whenever possible recommendations were evidence-based, if not they were based on expert opinion. Consensus was reached by multiple conference calls, consensus rounds via e-mail and a final consensus meeting. Recommendations addressing diagnosis, dietary treatment, biochemical monitoring, and follow-up of clinical complications were formulated. For all recommendations but one, full consensus was reached. A 93 % consensus was reached on the recommendation addressing age at start of bone density screening. During the development of this guideline, gaps of knowledge were identified in most fields of interest, foremost in the fields of treatment and follow-up.

  8. Application of the international guidelines for machinery breakdown prevention at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    2001-01-01

    For more than forty years as a specialized branch of the worldwide insurance industry, the nuclear insurance pools have underwritten property damage protection for nuclear facilities throughout the world. At power plants insured by the pools, an enviable record of operational safety has been attained. Nevertheless, electrical and mechanical equipment does break down occasionally. Although these failures do not necessarily compromise nuclear safety, they can cause significant damage to equipment, leading to a considerable loss of generating revenue and causing sizeable insurance losses. Since insurance companies have a large financial stake in nuclear power plants, their goal is to minimize insurance losses, including the failure of systems and equipment and ensuing consequential damages. To ensure that the insurance risk is properly underwritten, insurance companies analyze loss information, develop loss prevention guidelines and focus loss control activities on those areas where insurance risk is most significant. This paper provides a chronology of the development of the ''International Guidelines for Machinery Breakdown Prevention at Nuclear Power Plants'' and describes the results of insurance inspections conducted using these guidelines. Included is a summary of guideline content and of insurance loss experience between 1962 and 1999. (author)

  9. The multiple myeloma treatment landscape: international guideline recommendations and clinical practice in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavo, Michele; Terpos, Evangelos; Bargay, Joan; Einsele, Hermann; Cavet, Jim; Greil, Richard; de Wit, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    Guidelines provide recommendations on the management of multiple myeloma (MM), but there are no standard algorithms for the choice and sequencing of treatments. As a result, there is widespread variation in the interpretation and implementation of these guidelines. Areas covered: This review will cover: the real-world data on MM treatment patterns; the approved agents available for the treatment of MM; a comparative summary of the national and international clinical guidelines; a discussion on the impact reimbursement decisions have on treatment availability. Expert commentary: In the future, treatment choices may become even more complex as clonal heterogeneity is better understood in the context of response to treatment, and next-generation agents become available. Although information on real-world practice patterns can provide further guidance, to date, few studies have generated data on patients treated with the newer agents in real-world settings. Furthermore, the translation of guideline recommendations into clinical practice across Europe is inconsistent. Additional real-world data are therefore vital to understanding current clinical practice patterns, so that new agents can be effectively incorporated into existing treatment strategies. Such information may aid the development of better guidance, which will ultimately help to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

  10. Report on the International Society for Laboratory Hematology Survey on guidelines to support clinical hematology laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, C P M; Moffat, K A; George, T I; Proytcheva, M; Iorio, A

    2016-05-01

    Given the importance of evidence-based guidelines in health care, we surveyed the laboratory hematology community to determine their opinions on guideline development and their experience and interest in developing clinical hematology laboratory practice guidelines. The study was conducted using an online survey, distributed to members of the International Society for Laboratory Hematology (ISLH) in 2015, with analysis of collected, anonymized responses. A total of 245 individuals participated. Most worked in clinical and/or research laboratories (83%) or industry (11%). 42% felt there were gaps in current guidelines. The majority (58%) recommended that ISLH engages its membership in guideline development. Participants differed in their familiarity with, and use of, different organizations' guidelines. Participants felt it was important to follow best practice recommendations on guideline development, including engagement of experts, statement about conflict of interests and how they were managed, systematic review and grading evidence for recommendations, identifying recommendations lacking evidence or consensus, and public input and peer review of the guideline. Moreover, it was considered important to provide guidelines free of charge. Industry involvement in guidelines was considered less important. The clinical laboratory hematology community has high expectations of laboratory practice guidelines that are consistent with recent recommendations on evidence-based guideline development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. “More bang for the buck”: exploring optimal approaches for guideline implementation through interviews with international developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Anna R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population based studies show that guidelines are underused. Surveys of international guideline developers found that many do not implement their guidelines. The purpose of this research was to interview guideline developers about implementation approaches and resources. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with representatives of guideline development agencies identified in the National Guideline Clearinghouse and sampled by country, type of developer, and guideline clinical indication. Participants were asked to comment on the benefits and resource implications of three approaches for guideline implementation that varied by responsibility: developers, intermediaries, or users. Results Thirty individuals from seven countries were interviewed, representing government (n = 12 and professional (n = 18 organizations that produced guidelines for a variety of clinical indications. Organizations with an implementation mandate featured widely inconsistent funding and staffing models, variable approaches for choosing promotional strategies, and an array of dissemination activities. When asked to choose a preferred approach, most participants selected the option of including information within guidelines that would help users to implement them. Given variable mandate and resources for implementation, it was considered the most feasible approach, and therefore most likely to have impact due to potentially broad use. Conclusions While implementation approaches and strategies need not be standardized across organizations, the findings may be used by health care policy makers and managers, and guideline developers to generate strategic and operational plans that optimize implementation capacity. Further research is needed to examine how to optimize implementation capacity by guideline developers, intermediaries and users.

  12. IRS Guidelines: Joint IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on lessons learned from operating and construction experience at the international level. This information could be related to issues and events that are related to safety. The purpose of these guidelines is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the effectiveness of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants. As this system is owned by the Member States, the IRS Guidelines have been developed and approved by the IRS National Co-ordinators with the assistance of both Secretariats (IAEA/NEA).

  13. Report from AmSECT's International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion: American Society of Extracorporeal Technology Standards and Guidelines for Perfusion Practice: 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert A; Bronson, Shahna L; Dickinson, Timothy A; Fitzgerald, David C; Likosky, Donald S; Mellas, Nicholas B; Shann, Kenneth G

    2013-09-01

    One of the roles of a professional society is to develop standards and guidelines of practice as an instrument to guide safe and effective patient care. The American Society of Extracorporeal Technology (AmSECT) first published its Essentials for Perfusion Practice, Clinical Function: Conduct of Extracorporeal Circulation in 1993. The International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion (ICEBP), a committee within AmSECT, was tasked with updating this document in 2010. The aim of this report is to describe the method of development and content of AmSECT's new professional standards and guidelines. The ICEBP committee independently evaluated and provided input regarding the current "Essentials and Guidelines." Structural changes were made to the entire document, and a draft document was developed, presented, and circulated to the AmSECT Board of Directors and broader membership for comment. Informed by these reviews, a revised document was then presented to the Society for a membership vote. The final document consists of 15 areas of practice covered by 50 Standards and 38 Guidelines (see Appendix 1) with the first standard focusing on the development of institutional protocols to support their implementation and use. A majority of the membership voted to accept the document (81.2% of the voting membership accepting, 18.8% rejecting). After an audit of the balloting process by AmSECT's Ethics Committee, the results were reported to the membership and the document was officially adopted on July 24, 2013. The Standards and Guidelines will serve as a useful guide for cardiac surgical teams that wish to develop institution-specific standards and guidelines to improve the reliability, safety, and effectiveness of adult cardiopulmonary bypass. The ICEBP recognizes that the development of a Standards and Guidelines statement alone will not change care. Safe, reliable, and effective care will be best served through the development and implementation of institutional

  14. A 5-year prospective observational study of the outcomes of international treatment guidelines for Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullen, Garret

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Therapeutic strategies for patients with Crohn\\'s disease are based on American and European guidelines. High rates of corticosteroid dependency and low remission rates are identified as weaknesses of this therapy and as justification for early introduction of biologic agents (top-down treatment) in moderate\\/severe Crohn\\'s disease. We reviewed outcomes and corticosteroid-dependency rates of patients with moderate-to-severe disease who were treated according to the international guidelines. METHODS: Consecutive patients (102) newly diagnosed with Crohn\\'s disease in 2000-2002 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Severity of disease was scored using the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI). Disease was classified by Montreal classification. Five-year follow-up data were recorded. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients had moderate\\/severe disease at diagnosis (HBI >8). Fifty-four (75%) had nonstricturing, nonpenetrating disease (B1). Sixty-four (89%) received corticosteroids, and 44 (61%) received immunomodulators. Twenty-one patients (29%) received infliximab. Thirty-nine patients (54%) required resection surgery. At a median of 5 years, 66 of 72 (92%) patients with moderate\\/severe disease were in remission (median HBI, 1). Twenty-five patients (35%) required neither surgery nor biologic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: When international treatment guidelines are strictly followed, Crohn\\'s disease patients can achieve high rates of remission and low rates of morbidity at 5 years. Indiscriminate use of biologic agents therefore is not appropriate for all patients with moderate-to-severe disease.

  15. Literature review: Afghanistan women's health crisis, health service delivery, and ethical issues for international aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Helen

    2006-09-01

    The literature indicates that the health of women in Afghanistan is poor. In 1997 maternal mortality in Afghanistan was one of the worst in the world. Difficulties in establishing health services revolve around fundamentalist Islamic ideas and ongoing violence within Afghanistan. The literature holds advice on key behaviours for health professionals who may chose to work in Afghanistan. The literature also identifies the local level action that is occurring as the issue of women's health is recognised. Humanitarian assistance has been provided, with international aid agencies having to weigh the ethical responsibilities they hold and one agency tragically facing the violent loss of its own staff. Easy answers are not in the literature, merely an opportunity to understand, consider, and take action about what is facing women in Afghanistan and those who try to help.

  16. Positioning of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in national and international guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) selectively and reversibly inhibit sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2), promoting renal glucose excretion and reducing plasma glycaemia. By increasing renal glucose excretion, these drugs favour a negative energy balance, leading to weight loss. Their glucoselowering effect is independent of insulin. Although these drugs have only recently been developed, they have been included in all the main national and international guidelines since 2014. The present review summarises the most important recommendations on the use of SGLT2 in patients with DM2 contained in the most recently published guidelines and consensus statements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) of permanent teeth occur frequently in children and young adults. Crown fractures and luxations are the most commonly occurring of all dental injuries. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow up are important for improving a favorable outcome. Guidelines...... should assist dentists and patients in decision making and for providing the best care effectively and efficiently. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers...... and clinicians from various specialties were included in the group. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion of the IADT board members. The guidelines represent the best current evidence based on literature search and professional opinion. The primary...

  18. The International Liver Transplantation Society Living Donor Liver Transplant Recipient Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles M.; Quintini, Cristiano; Dhawan, Anil; Durand, Francois; Heimbach, Julie K.; Kim-Schluger, Hyung Leona; Kyrana, Eirini; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Lerut, Jan; Lo, Chung-Mau; Pomfret, Elizabeth Anne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been increasingly embraced around the world as an important strategy to address the shortage of deceased donor livers. The aim of this guideline, approved by the International Liver Transplantation Society (ILTS), is to provide a collection of expert opinions, consensus, and best practices surrounding LDLT. Recommendations were developed from an analysis of the National Library of Medicine living donor transplantation indexed literature using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. Writing was guided by the ILTS Policy on the Development and Use of Practice Guidelines (www.ilts.org). Intended for use by physicians, these recommendations support specific approaches to the diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive aspects of care of living donor liver transplant recipients. PMID:28437386

  19. Inspection, evaluation and maintenance guidelines for reactor vessel internals in JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakashita, Akihiro; Goto, Tomoya; Hirano, Shinro; Dozaki, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Inspection and Evaluation Guidelines for reactor internals has been taken into the Rules on Fitness-for–Service for Nuclear Power Plants of The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. It is a base of the maintenance plan of each Nuclear Power Plant. A plant maintenance methodology will have more importance to maintain the plant safety and stable plant operation. This paper introduces the systematization of the maintenance such as repair, replacement, preventive maintenance in these guidelines. Maintenance methodologies are classified follows. Repair: methodology to reinforce degraded parts by some methods or prevent progress of degradation of without replacement of the existing structure when the degradation of structure is actualized. Replacement: methodology to replace the existing structure with new one when the degradation of structure is actualized. Preventive maintenance : methodology to mitigate the damaged condition. When the maintenance methodologies are implemented in the actual plant, we have to consider the feedback of the inspection program and plant life management. (author)

  20. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of canine superficial bacterial folliculitis (Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillier, Andrew; Lloyd, David H.; Weese, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Superficial bacterial folliculitis (SBF) is usually caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and routinely treated with systemic antimicrobial agents. Infection is a consequence of reduced immunity associated with alterations of the skin barrier and underlying diseases that may be di...... will improve antimicrobial use and reduce selection of MRSP and other multidrug-resistant bacteria affecting animal and human health....... of an internationally available resource guiding practitioners in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SBF. DEVELOPMENT OF THE GUIDELINES: The guidelines were developed by the Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases, with consultation and advice...... on infection control. Guidance is given for topical and systemic modalities, including approaches suitable for MRSP. Systemic drugs are classified in three tiers. Tier one drugs are used when diagnosis is clear cut and risk factors for antimicrobial drug resistance are not present. Otherwise, tier two drugs...

  1. Getting around the Impasse: A Grounded Approach to Teaching Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marc T.; Lok, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Considers the dilemma of teaching ethics and social responsibility in international business courses with either an ethnocentric absolutist or an unengaged relativistic approach. Suggests a strategy that focuses on a grounded understanding of the elements, processes, and properties of capitalism that would serve as a common understanding upon…

  2. Impact of financial institution environmental guidelines on international power generation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macak, J.J. III; Schott, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Where financing is concerned, two major players for US based international power projects are The World Bank and the Export-Import Bank of the US (Ex-Im Bank). The concern for environmental protection is a global issue, yet many countries still have no enforceable environmental regulations for power generation facilities. In the past, many projects were developed with little or no environmental controls. However, designing a power generation project to meet The World Bank environmental guidelines is now generally regarded as standard practice for independent power projects in the developing world (Price et al, 1994). The World Bank standards are mandatory for projects financed by The World Bank, through the International Finance Corporation (IFC), or associated programs like the Expanded Cofinancing Program of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The Ex-Im Bank has recently established new environmental procedures and guidelines that went into effect on February 1, 1995. In order to avoid a competitive disadvantage for US exporters and still provide a means for global environmental protection, Ex-Im Bank has taken a leadership role in encouraging the adoption of common environmental procedures and standards by leading export credit agencies around the world. Until such procedures are established, Ex-Im Bank is seeking to establish common lines in specific cases with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on environmental standards for appropriate projects (Ex-Im, 1994)

  3. Safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation: review of international guidelines and new findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Suponeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a rapidly developing method of neuromodulation. The use of TMS has increased significantly in both research and clinical practice. This allows not only to better understand this method, but also assess possible risks and consequences for both healthy individuals and patients. In 1998 and 2009 safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of TMS in clinical practice and research were published. These recommendations are now the basis for safe application of the method in clinical practice and research. Safety of brain stimulation includes several aspects: the prevention and treatment of adverse effects, the strategy of patient and stimulation protocols selection, as well as safety and monitoring procedures. The most common adverse effects of TMS include headache and neck pain, syncope, transient hearing impairment. The risk of epileptic seizureis extremely low and can be minimized by careful selection of patients and the use of safe stimulation protocols. Careful selection of patients is important, taking into account a large number of factors that influence the risk of adverse effects. These factors are considered in the questionnaires to identify limitations and absolute or relative contraindications to TMS. Another important part of TMS safety is the choice of the stimulation protocol and parameters such as intensity, frequency, duration of one train of stimuli, and the interstimulus interval. Currently, the recommended limits of stimulation parameters are covered in the safety guidelines. It is also necessary to follow the procedure, including the monitoring the patient's condition during TMS and the providing qualified assistance in case of adverse effects.

  4. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O; Day, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Avulsion of permanent teeth is one of the most serious dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency management is very important for the prognosis. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature...... were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of avulsed permanent teeth....

  5. Variability of ethics education in laboratory medicine training programs: results of an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, David E; Burtis, Carl A; Gronowski, Ann M; McQueen, Matthew J; Newman, Anthony; Jonsson, Jon J

    2015-03-10

    Ethical considerations are increasingly important in medicine. We aimed to determine the mode and extent of teaching of ethics in training programs in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. We developed an on-line survey of teaching in areas of ethics relevant to laboratory medicine. Reponses were invited from directors of training programs who were recruited via email to leaders of national organizations. The survey was completed by 80 directors from 24 countries who directed 113 programs. The largest numbers of respondents directed postdoctoral training of scientists (42%) or physicians (33%), post-masters degree programs (33%), and PhD programs (29%). Most programs (82%) were 2years or longer in duration. Formal training was offered in research ethics by 39%, medical ethics by 31%, professional ethics by 24% and business ethics by 9%. The number of reported hours of formal training varied widely, e.g., from 0 to >15h/year for research ethics and from 0 to >15h for medical ethics. Ethics training was required and/or tested in 75% of programs that offered training. A majority (54%) of respondents reported plans to add or enhance training in ethics; many indicated a desire for online resources related to ethics, especially resources with self-assessment tools. Formal teaching of ethics is absent from many training programs in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, with heterogeneity in the extent and methods of ethics training among the programs that provide the training. A perceived need exists for online training tools, especially tools with self-assessment components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Do We Need Updated Guidelines on the Use of Insulin Pump Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes? A Review of National and International Practice Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ohad; Valentine, William

    2016-01-01

    Background: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is used less for type 2 than for type 1 diabetes because of inconsistencies in evidence of effectiveness. We reviewed published guidelines on intensive insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes to assess whether updating of guidance is needed with respect to evidence used and recommendations for CSII in diabetes management. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify published national and international guidelines on type 2 diabetes management. Searches were performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases, and websites of national health care agencies, reimbursement agencies, and professional associations. Searches were limited to articles published in English between 2004 and 2014 and 1666 unique hits were identified, of which 22 were reviewed following screening. Results: Only 6 of the 22 guidelines identified from North and South America, Western Europe, Greece, and Israel provided specific recommendations on intensive insulin therapy and the role of CSII, and only 1 provided information on the grade of evidence supporting recommendations. Quality appraisal based on the AGREE II tool suggested that published guidelines may have limitations in terms of search methodology and evidence grading, and findings were of mixed rigor and clarity. Only 3 guidelines described the population for whom CSII may be appropriate. Conclusions: Guidelines need to improve the evidence base, rigor, clarity, and grading of evidence associated with recommendations on intensive insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes. Future updates may benefit from considering recent evidence on the efficacy of CSII in poorly controlled patients on MDI. PMID:27621141

  7. Authorship Ethics. ERIC/AE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, Kristen L.; Rudner, Lawrence M.

    The key ethical standards for authorship of educational research are summarized, drawing on "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Adopted by more than 500 scientific and biomedical journals, these standards are effective guidelines for…

  8. An Ethical investigation of State and the Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyichukwu Micheal Abada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous displacement and wandering of men had always been propelled by the forces of nature and other anthropogenic activities. Man, as a rational being had remained strategical for their survival. The upsurge in the activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria, north east occasioned by their clientele interests had necessitated decisions by men to forcefully relocate their places of abode. However, the purpose of the study is to ethically investigate whether the ineffective curtailment of the activities of Boko Haram had implicated the increasing vulnerabilities of internally displaced persons. The study utilized qualitative method in generating its data, while the theoretical framework was adequately anchored on the Marxist theory of the post-colonial state.  The findings of the study had significantly revealed that the ineffective management of Boko Haram menace by the state had implicated the rising vulnerabilities of internally displaced persons. However, the study recommends among other things, the integration of relevant commission and prosecution of personality-cults engage in sabotaging the efforts of the state.

  9. Reporting studies on time to diagnosis: proposal of a guideline by an international panel (REST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Elise; Cohen, Jérémie F; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Buekens, Pierre; Deeks, Jonathan; Dye, Timothy; Feltbower, Richard; Ferrari, Andrea; Kramer, Michael; Leeflang, Mariska; Moher, David; Moons, Karel G; von Elm, Erik; Ravaud, Philippe; Chalumeau, Martin

    2016-09-27

    Studies on time to diagnosis are an increasing field of clinical research that may help to plan corrective actions and identify inequities in access to healthcare. Specific features of time to diagnosis studies, such as how participants were selected and how time to diagnosis was defined and measured, are poorly reported. The present study aims to derive a reporting guideline for studies on time to diagnosis. Each item of a list previously used to evaluate the completeness of reporting of studies on time to diagnosis was independently evaluated by a core panel of international experts (n = 11) for relevance and readability before an open electronic discussion allowed consensus to be reached on a refined list. The list was then submitted with an explanatory document to first, last and/or corresponding authors (n = 98) of published systematic reviews on time to diagnosis (n = 45) for relevance and readability, and finally approved by the core expert panel. The refined reporting guideline consists of a 19-item checklist: six items are about the process of participant selection (with a suggested flowchart), six about the definition and measurement of time to diagnosis, and three about optional analyses of associations between time to diagnosis and participant characteristics and health outcomes. Of 24 responding authors of systematic reviews, more than 21 (≥88 %) rated the items as relevant, and more than 17 (≥70 %) as readable; 19 of 22 (86 %) authors stated that they would potentially use the reporting guideline in the future. We propose a reporting guideline (REST) that could help authors, reviewers, and editors of time to diagnosis study reports to improve the completeness and the accuracy of their reporting.

  10. Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoppers, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

  11. Ethical considerations for field research on fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhett H. Bennett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Collection of data from animals for research purposes can negatively impact target or by-catch species if suitable animal ethics practices are not followed. This study aimed to assess the ethical requirements of peer-reviewed scientific journals that publish primary literature on fishes, and review the ethical considerations and animal care guidelines of national and international documents on the ethical treatment of animals for research, to provide an overview of the general ethical considerations for field research on fishes. A review of 250 peer-reviewed, ISI-rated journals publishing primary research on fishes revealed that nearly half (46% had no mention of ethics, treatment of animals or ethical requirements for publication in their author guidelines or publication policies. However, 18% of the journals reviewed identify a specific set of ethical guidelines to be followed before publishing research involving animals. Ethical considerations for investigators undertaking field research on fishes, common to most animal care policies, legislation and guiding documents, include adhering to relevant legislation, minimising sample sizes, reducing or mitigating pain and distress, employing the most appropriate and least invasive techniques and accurately reporting methods and findings. This information will provide potential investigators with a useful starting point for designing and conducting ethical field research. Application of ethical best practices in field sampling studies will improve the welfare of study animals and the conservation of rare and endangered species. Conservation implications: This article provides a list of ethical considerations for designing and conducting field research on fishes. By reviewing sampling techniques and processes that are frequently used in field research on fishes and by highlighting the potential negative impacts of these sampling techniques, this article is intended to assist researchers in planning

  12. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed; Levy, Mitchell M; Antonelli, Massimo; Ferrer, Ricard; Kumar, Anand; Sevransky, Jonathan E; Sprung, Charles L; Nunnally, Mark E; Rochwerg, Bram; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Angus, Derek C; Annane, Djillali; Beale, Richard J; Bellinghan, Geoffrey J; Bernard, Gordon R; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Coopersmith, Craig; De Backer, Daniel P; French, Craig J; Fujishima, Seitaro; Gerlach, Herwig; Hidalgo, Jorge Luis; Hollenberg, Steven M; Jones, Alan E; Karnad, Dilip R; Kleinpell, Ruth M; Koh, Younsuck; Lisboa, Thiago Costa; Machado, Flavia R; Marini, John J; Marshall, John C; Mazuski, John E; McIntyre, Lauralyn A; McLean, Anthony S; Mehta, Sangeeta; Moreno, Rui P; Myburgh, John; Navalesi, Paolo; Nishida, Osamu; Osborn, Tiffany M; Perner, Anders; Plunkett, Colleen M; Ranieri, Marco; Schorr, Christa A; Seckel, Maureen A; Seymour, Christopher W; Shieh, Lisa; Shukri, Khalid A; Simpson, Steven Q; Singer, Mervyn; Thompson, B Taylor; Townsend, Sean R; Van der Poll, Thomas; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Wiersinga, W Joost; Zimmerman, Janice L; Dellinger, R Phillip

    2017-03-01

    To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee served as an integral part of the development. The panel consisted of five sections: hemodynamics, infection, adjunctive therapies, metabolic, and ventilation. Population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) questions were reviewed and updated as needed, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations, and 18 were best-practice statements. No recommendation was provided for four questions. Substantial agreement exists among a large cohort of international experts regarding many strong recommendations for the best care of patients with sepsis. Although a significant number of aspects of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality.

  13. Mobile application to induce lifestyle modifications in type 2 diabetic patients: prototype based on international guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jaramillo, M.; Delgado, J. S.; León-Vargas, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a prototype app to induce lifestyle modifications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The app design is based on International Diabetes Federation guidelines and recommendations from clinical studies related to diabetes health-care. Two main approaches, lifestyle modification and self-management education are used owing to significant benefits reported. The method used is based on setting goals under medical support related to physical activity, nutritional habits and weight loss, in addition to educational messages. This is specially implemented to address the main challenges that have limited the success of similar mobile applications already validated on diabetic patients. A traffic light is used to show the overall state of the goals compliance. This state could be understood as excellent (green), there are aspects to improve (yellow), or some individual goals are not carrying out (red). An example of how works this method is presented in results. Furthermore, the app provides recommendations to the user in case the overall state was in yellow or red. The recommendations pretend to induce the user to make changes in their eating habits and physical activity. According to international guidelines and clinical studies, a prototype of mobile application to induce a lifestyle modification in order to prevent adverse risk factors related to diabetes was presented. The resulting application is apparently consistent with clinical judgments, but a formal clinical validation is required. The effectiveness of this app is currently under consideration for the Colombian population with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Ethics Requirement Score: new tool for evaluating ethics in publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lígia Gabrielle dos; Costa e Fonseca, Ana Carolina da; Bica, Claudia Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    To analyze ethical standards considered by health-related scientific journals, and to prepare the Ethics Requirement Score, a bibliometric index to be applied to scientific healthcare journals in order to evaluate criteria for ethics in scientific publication. Journals related to healthcare selected by the Journal of Citation Reports™ 2010 database were considered as experimental units. Parameters related to publication ethics were analyzed for each journal. These parameters were acquired by analyzing the author's guidelines or instructions in each journal website. The parameters considered were approval by an Internal Review Board, Declaration of Helsinki or Resolution 196/96, recommendations on plagiarism, need for application of Informed Consent Forms with the volunteers, declaration of confidentiality of patients, record in the database for clinical trials (if applicable), conflict of interest disclosure, and funding sources statement. Each item was analyzed considering their presence or absence. The foreign journals had a significantly higher Impact Factor than the Brazilian journals, however, no significant results were observed in relation to the Ethics Requirement Score. There was no correlation between the Ethics Requirement Score and the Impact Factor. Although the Impact Factor of foreigner journals was considerably higher than that of the Brazilian publications, the results showed that the Impact Factor has no correlation with the proposed score. This allows us to state that the ethical requirements for publication in biomedical journals are not related to the comprehensiveness or scope of the journal.

  15. [Ethical principles of management and planning during influenza pandemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubar', O I; Asatrian, A Zh

    2012-01-01

    The article is dedicated to an actual problem of ethical component inclusion into the system of management and planning of epidemic control measures during threat emergence and in the course of influenza pandemic (epidemic) progress. Data regarding development of international ethical guidelines during influenza including WHO recommendations are presented and analysis of normative documents in Russian Federation is given. A necessity of comprehension and accounting of ethical values in pandemic preparedness is shown, main directions of action and responsibility are revealed. Key ethical positions of planning and implementation of measures during influenza pandemic are outlined, compliance with those determines the level of public support and thus provides the effectiveness of the implemented measures.

  16. International peer reviews for radioactive waste management. General information and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The NEA has an acknowledged role in developing a global strategy for examining the sustainability of the use of nuclear power and nuclear materials. One of the objectives of the NEA is to assist member countries in developing strategies for the safe, sustainable and broadly acceptable management of all types of radioactive waste, in particular long-lived waste and spent fuel. In this context, the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) provides a forum for senior representatives from national agencies, regulatory authorities, policy making bodies, and research and development institutions with responsibilities in the management of radioactive waste and materials, as well as for other government-nominated specialists, to exchange information and experience on waste management policies and practices in NEA member countries, and to advance the state of the art on the technical and societal aspects of radioactive waste management. International peer reviews of national radioactive waste management programmes, or of specific aspects of them, have been increasingly carried out under the aegis of the RWMC over the past ten years. International peer review as a working method is closely associated with OECD practice, where it is facilitated by the homogeneous membership and the high degree of trust shared by the member countries. This document lays down the guidelines that the requesting country, the Secretariat and the international review team ought to have in mind when an international peer review is requested, organised or carried out. (author)

  17. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  18. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonta, Patrick I

    2014-05-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  19. Ethics in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

  20. First Dutch guidelines on lipedema using the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halk, Anne B; Damstra, Robert J

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Lipedema is a chronic, progressive condition that can result in considerable disability. In 2011, the Dutch Society of Dermatology and Venereology organized a task force to create guidelines on lipedema, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health of the World Health Organization. Guideline development Clinical questions on significant issues in lipedema care were proposed, involving (1) making the diagnosis of lipedema; (2) clinimetric measurements for early detection and adequate follow-up; and (3) treatment. A systematic review of literature published up to June 2013 was conducted. Based on available evidence and experience of the task force, answers were formed and recommendations were stated. The guidelines define criteria to make a medical diagnosis of lipedema, a minimum data set of (repeated) clinical measurements that should be used to ensure early detection and an individually outlined follow-up plan, pillars on which conservative treatment should be based and recommendations on surgical treatment options. Conclusions Little consistent information concerning either diagnostics or therapy can be found in the literature. It is likely that lipedema is frequently misdiagnosed or wrongly diagnosed as only an aesthetic problem and therefore under- or mis-treated. Treatment is divided into conservative and chirurgic treatment. The only available technique to correct the abnormal adipose tissue is surgery. Recommendations To ensure early detection and an individually outlined follow-up, the committee advises the use of a minimum data set of (repeated) measurements of waist circumference, circumference of involved limbs, body mass index and scoring of the level of daily practice and psychosocial distress. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle with individually adjusted weight control measures, graded activity training programs, edema reduction, and other supportive measures are pillars of conservative therapy. Tumescent

  1. The Internal Morality of Contacting: Redeeming the Contractualist Endeavor in Business Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, J.; Heugens, P.P.M.A.R.; Kaptein, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) is arguably the most promising theory of business ethics to date, but it is often criticized for its inability to produce substantive norms. Rather than abandoning the contractualist endeavor in business ethics altogether, we undertake to redeem it by

  2. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies.

  3. The impact of the 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology consensus guidelines on Gleason grading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper D; Thomsen, Frederik B; Nerstrøm, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) 2005 revision of the Gleason grading system has influenced the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP), as the new guideline implies that some prostate cancers previously graded......, clinical tumour category, PSA level, and margin status to patients undergoing RP between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2011 (post-ISUP group). Patients were followed until BCR defined as a PSA level of ≥0.2 ng/mL. Risk of BCR was analysed in a competing-risk model. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 9.......5 years in the pre-ISUP group and 4.8 years in the post-ISUP group. The 5-year cumulative incidences of BCR were 34.0% and 13.9% in the pre-ISUP and post-ISUP groups, respectively (P

  4. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    .e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists......Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i...

  5. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a systematic review of international clinical practice guidelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa E R Gillon

    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs are developed to assist health care providers in decision-making. We systematically reviewed existing CPGs on the HDPs (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy to inform clinical practice.MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Technology Assessments, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (Ovid interface, Grey Matters, Google Scholar, and personal records were searched for CPGs on the HDPs (Jan/03 to Nov/13 in English, French, Dutch, or German. Of 13 CPGs identified, three were multinational and three developed for community/midwifery use. Length varied from 3-1188 pages and three guidelines did not formulate recommendations. Eight different grading systems were identified for assessing evidence quality and recommendation strength. No guideline scored ≧80% on every domain of the AGREE II, a tool for assessing guideline methodological quality; two CPGs did so for 5/6 domains. Consistency was seen for (i definitions of hypertension, proteinuria, chronic and gestational hypertension; (ii pre-eclampsia prevention for women at increased risk: calcium when intake is low and low-dose aspirin, but not vitamins C and E or diuretics; (iii antihypertensive treatment of severe hypertension; (iv MgSO4 for eclampsia and severe pre-eclampsia; (v antenatal corticosteroids at <34 wks when delivery is probable within 7 days; (vi delivery for women with severe pre-eclampsia pre-viability or pre-eclampsia at term; and (vii active management of the third stage of labour with oxytocin. Notable inconsistencies were in: (i definitions of pre-eclampsia and severe pre-eclampsia; (ii target BP for non-severe hypertension; (iii timing of delivery for women with pre-eclampsia and severe pre-eclampsia; (iv MgSO4 for non-severe pre-eclampsia, and (v postpartum maternal monitoring.Existing international HDP CPGs have areas of consistency with which clinicians and

  6. By control of labor safety sanitation, ILO, international guidelines; Rodo anzen eisei kanri de ILO ga kokusai shishin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    It was decided that international labor organization (ILO) started the guidelines decision of the labor safety sanitation management system (OHSMS). It is the outlook adopted in the general meeting in June. The possibility that a Japanese plan was adopted with the thought that it wanted to settle on the argument of guidelines for 2000 quickly and early at first, too, in that base came out to ILO, too. As for the OHSMS field, international standardization is a subject while the diffusion of the English State standard BS8800 and so on proceeds. Though an international standardization mechanism (ISO) became a center and proceeded with the examination of the standardization, the policy that dealing in the form of the guidelines was done individually from the viewpoint of the worker`s safety securing, improvement was strengthened with ILO in such cases as prevention of worker`s accidents. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Addressing ethical dilemmas in the clinical care of adolescents: an international view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Berg-Kelly, Kristina; Macfarlane, Aidan; Renteria, Saira-Christine; Wyss, Danielle; Benaroyo, Lazare

    2009-12-01

    This chapter reviews some basic concepts underlying ethical issues in adolescence and provides a step-by-step procedure to address ethical dilemmas involving minor adolescents, based on a deliberative approach. "Deliberation" with the patient, along with involving the opinion of relevant stakeholders if possible, allows for a careful, multidisciplinary examination of all options, the medical and psychosocial consequences, and the moral values stressed by each option. Although the final decision regarding which ethical option should be chosen usually belongs to the health care providers and his or her patient, the deliberative approach provides the ingredients for sound, unbiased decision-making.

  8. International note: Prediction of mathematics work ethic and performance from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs among Qatari adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Mahasneh, Randa Ali; Khine, Myint Swe; Welch, Anita G; Melkonian, Michael; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Over half-a-million adolescents take part in each cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Yet often, researchers and policy makers across the globe tend to focus their attention primarily on the academic trajectories of adolescents hailing from highly successful education systems. Hence, a vast majority of the adolescent population who regionally and globally constitute the 'long tail of underachievement' often remain unnoticed and underrepresented in the growing literature on adolescents' academic trajectories. The present study, therefore, explored the relations of dispositions toward mathematics, subjective norms in mathematics, and perceived control of success in mathematics to mathematics work ethic as well as mathematics performance; and the mediational role of mathematics work ethic in the association between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs and mathematics performance among adolescents in one of the lowest performing education systems, Qatar. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that Qatari adolescents' dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics were significantly associated with their mathematics work ethic and mathematics performance, and mathematics work ethic significantly mediated the relationship between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics and mathematics performance. However, multi-group SEM analyses indicated that these relationships were not invariant across the gender and the SES groups. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Research Ethics: Reforming Postgraduate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Roger J.

    2005-01-01

    Research ethics is not only a matter of doing no harm, or even abiding by the guidelines of the Ethics Review Board of the institution. While these matters are important and legal requirements, there is much more at stake in discussions of research ethics. Research ethics establish the foundation upon which research rests. Taking the social…

  10. The pharmaceutical sales rep/physician relationship in Turkey: ethical issues in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Kisa, Adnan; Ekiyor, Aykut

    2004-01-01

    In many developed countries, the physician/pharmaceutical sales representative relationship has increasingly become the focus of ethical questions. Given this context, the purpose of the present study was to determine the ethical dilemmas faced by pharmaceutical sales representatives in Turkey in their relations with physicians, and to identify possible solutions. Through an investigator-designed questionnaire, the ethical problems perceived by 215 pharmaceutical sales representatives were quantitatively analyzed. Nearly all of the participants (96.7%) reported that they had faced ethical dilemmas in marketing drugs to physicians. The most commonly reported problems included paramedical requests (for free lab test kits, etc.) and the necessity of bargaining with physicians over the use of their firm's drugs by offering gifts and sponsorships. The participants in the study felt that physicians were the primary source of ethical problems in the marketing of drugs, and the participants' most highly ranked potential solution to these ethical problems was a better understanding, on the part of physicians, of the role of pharmaceutical sales representatives. At the end of this study, suggestions are given with a view to helping health policy makers understand and address the current controversies involving drug company representatives and physicians.

  11. Conceptual Reflections on Ethics for International Research Collaborations in Disaster Impacted Areas from the Experiences in Indonesia, New Zealand and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gomez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution is by no means a first attempt at considering the ethics in human activities, interactions in disaster impacted areas, but it is more the case of looking at 'international research' that present a very particular difficulty for ethics: the notion of trans-boundary, multi-dimensional idea of one group not really belonging within another, but which will perform functions inside this second group and eventually alter, modify some of the original organs. This paper explain the reflections of the ethical consideration of international research collaboration in disaster impacted areas which are emerged from the experiences in Indonesia, New Zealand and Japan.

  12. GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING THE RELATION INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY BUSINESS VERSUS HUMAN RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speriusi-Vlad Alin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, the intellectual property protection is no longer an absolute social and legal that justifies adoption of any measures necessary to protect it. Initially seen as the prerequisite for sustainable development, implementation of new technologies, and encouragement of international trade, the intellectual property, especially prior to ACTA (Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement international trial implementation, and also thereafter, was increasingly identified as a source of violation of fundamental rights and civil liberties, i.e. the right to protection of personal data, the right to privacy, freedom to send and receive information freedom of information, freedom to contract, and freedom to carry out economic activities (freedom of commerce. As far as international trade transactions have often a component of intellectual property that requires to be protected, it is necessary to identify the landmarks, the rules establishing de facto limits in order to protect the intellectual property without risk of infringement of fundamental rights and civil liberties of other persons, in particular users or potential users of goods and services incorporating intellectual property. The best guidelines in this regard may be provided by the CJEU (Court of Justice of the European Union case-law both due to its reasoning underlying the decision of the Parliament to reject ACTA ratification and the fact that the case-law of this Court, especially the most recent one, is highly complex and nuanced, not denying in any way the importance of intellectual property, and identifying certain cases where their primacy persist and whose analysis leads to laying down some general rules in the field.

  13. Constructing Ethical Principles for Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The ethical discussion over synbio naturally raises metaquestions or questions of methodology: Which ethical principles and values could or should function as orientation or guidelines in discussing these issues?......The ethical discussion over synbio naturally raises metaquestions or questions of methodology: Which ethical principles and values could or should function as orientation or guidelines in discussing these issues?...

  14. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  15. [International regulation of ethics committees on biomedical research as protection mechanisms for people: analysis of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research of the Council of Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    The article explores and analyses the content of the Council of Europe's Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research regarding the standard legal instrument in biomedical research, issued by an international organization with leadership in bioethics. This implies ethics committees are mechanisms of protection of humans in biomedical research and not mere bureaucratic agencies and that a sound inescapable international regulatory framework exists for States to regulate biomedical research. The methodology used focuses on the analysis of the background, the context in which it is made and the nature and scope of the Protocol. It also identifies and analyses the characteristics and functions of ethics committees in biomedical research and, in particular, the information that should be provided to this bodies to develop their functions previously, during and at the end of research projects. This analysis will provide guidelines, suggestions and conclusions for the awareness and training of members of these committees in order to influence the daily practice. This paper may also be of interest to legal practitioners who work in different areas of biomedical research. From this practical perspective, the article examines the legal treatment of the Protocol to meet new challenges and classic issues in research: the treatment of human biological samples, the use of placebos, avoiding double standards, human vulnerability, undue influence and conflicts of interest, among others. Also, from a critical view, this work links the legal responses to develop work procedures that are required for an effective performance of the functions assigned of ethics committees in biomedical research. An existing international legal response that lacks doctrinal standards and provides little support should, however, serve as a guide and standard to develop actions that allow ethics committees -as key bodies for States- to advance in

  16. Transplant ethics under scrutiny – responsibilities of all medical professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trey, Torsten; Caplan, Arthur L.; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In this text, we present and elaborate ethical challenges in transplant medicine related to organ procurement and organ distribution, together with measures to solve such challenges. Based on internationally acknowledged ethical standards, we looked at cases of organ procurement and distribution practices that deviated from such ethical standards. One form of organ procurement is known as commercial organ trafficking, while in China the organ procurement is mostly based on executing prisoners, including killing of detained Falun Gong practitioners for their organs. Efforts from within the medical community as well as from governments have contributed to provide solutions to uphold ethical standards in medicine. The medical profession has the responsibility to actively promote ethical guidelines in medicine to prevent a decay of ethical standards and to ensure best medical practices. PMID:23444249

  17. Publishing SNP genotypes of human embryonic stem cell lines: policy statement of the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, Bartha M; Isasi, Rosario; Benvenisty, Nissim; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lomax, Geoffrey; Morris, Clive; Murray, Thomas H; Lee, Eng Hin; Perry, Margery; Richardson, Genevra; Sipp, Douglas; Tanner, Klaus; Wahlström, Jan; de Wert, Guido; Zeng, Fanyi

    2011-09-01

    Novel methods and associated tools permitting individual identification in publicly accessible SNP databases have become a debatable issue. There is growing concern that current technical and ethical safeguards to protect the identities of donors could be insufficient. In the context of human embryonic stem cell research, there are no studies focusing on the probability that an hESC line donor could be identified by analyzing published SNP profiles and associated genotypic and phenotypic information. We present the International Stem Cell Forum (ISCF) Ethics Working Party's Policy Statement on "Publishing SNP Genotypes of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines (hESC)". The Statement prospectively addresses issues surrounding the publication of genotypic data and associated annotations of hESC lines in open access databases. It proposes a balanced approach between the goals of open science and data sharing with the respect for fundamental bioethical principles (autonomy, privacy, beneficence, justice and research merit and integrity).

  18. Data sharing in stem cell translational science: policy statement by the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenoord, Annelien L; Mostert, Menno; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-01-01

    Data and sample sharing constitute a scientific and ethical imperative but need to be conducted in a responsible manner in order to protect individual interests as well as maintain public trust. In 2014, the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) adopted a common Framework for Responsible Sharing of Genomic and Health-Related Data. The GA4GH Framework is applicable to data sharing in the stem cell field, however, interpretation is required so as to provide guidance for this specific context. In this paper, the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party discusses those principles that are specific to translational stem cell science, including engagement, data quality and safety, privacy, security and confidentiality, risk-benefit analysis and sustainability.

  19. Ethical and practical guidelines for reporting genetic research results to study participants: updated guidelines from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabsitz, Richard R; McGuire, Amy; Sharp, Richard R; Puggal, Mona; Beskow, Laura M; Biesecker, Leslie G; Bookman, Ebony; Burke, Wylie; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez; Church, George; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Eckfeldt, John H; Fernandez, Conrad V; Fisher, Rebecca; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Gabriel, Stacey; Gachupin, Francine; James, Cynthia; Jarvik, Gail P; Kittles, Rick; Leib, Jennifer R; O'Donnell, Christopher; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Schully, Sheri D; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sze, Rebecca K F; Thakuria, Joseph V; Wolf, Susan M; Burke, Gregory L

    2010-12-01

    In January 2009, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a 28-member multidisciplinary Working Group to update the recommendations of a 2004 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group focused on Guidelines to the Return of Genetic Research Results. Changes in the genetic and societal landscape over the intervening 5 years raise multiple questions and challenges. The group noted the complex issues arising from the fact that technological and bioinformatic progress has made it possible to obtain considerable information on individuals that would not have been possible a decade ago. Although unable to reach consensus on a number of issues, the working group produced 5 recommendations. The working group offers 2 recommendations addressing the criteria necessary to determine when genetic results should and may be returned to study participants, respectively. In addition, it suggests that a time limit be established to limit the duration of obligation of investigators to return genetic research results. The group recommends the creation of a central body, or bodies, to provide guidance on when genetic research results are associated with sufficient risk and have established clinical utility to justify their return to study participants. The final recommendation urges investigators to engage the broader community when dealing with identifiable communities to advise them on the return of aggregate and individual research results. Creation of an entity charged to provide guidance to institutional review boards, investigators, research institutions, and research sponsors would provide rigorous review of available data, promote standardization of study policies regarding return of genetic research results, and enable investigators and study participants to clarify and share expectations for the handling of this increasingly valuable information with appropriate respect for the rights and needs of participants.

  20. An update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine's guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of premature ejaculation (PE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 2009, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) convened a select panel of experts to develop an evidence-based set of guidelines for patients suffering from lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). That document reviewed definitions, etiology, impact on the patient and pa...

  1. An update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine's guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of premature ejaculation (PE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Serefoglu, Ege Can; Shindel, Alan W; Adaikan, P Ganesan; Becher, Edgardo; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    INTRODUCTION: In 2009, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) convened a select panel of experts to develop an evidence-based set of guidelines for patients suffering from lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). That document reviewed definitions, etiology, impact on the patient and

  2. Assessment of available evidence in the management of gallbladder and bile duct stones: a systematic review of international guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuver, P.R.; Besselink, M.G.; Laarhoven, K.J. van; Harrison, E.M.; Wigmore, S.J.; Hugh, T.J.; Boermeester, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease is a frequent disorder in the Western world with a prevalence of 10-20%. Recommendations for the assessment and management of gallstones vary internationally. The aim of this systematic review was to assess quality of guideline recommendations for treatment of

  3. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - The Establishment and Evolution of an Ethics Program at a Large Scientific Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael; Leinen, Margaret; McEntee, Christine; Townsend, Randy; Williams, Billy

    2016-04-01

    The American Geophysical Union, a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. This presentation will provide an overview of the Ethics program at AGU, highlighting the reasons for its establishment, the process of dealing ethical breaches, the number and types of cases considered, how AGU helps educate its members on Ethics issues, and the rapidly evolving efforts at AGU to address issues related to the emerging field of GeoEthics. The presentation will also cover the most recent AGU Ethics program focus on the role for AGU and other scientific societies in addressing sexual harassment, and AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  4. Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, A

    2001-08-01

    The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".(1) Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues--which are often not acknowledged by commentators--that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor).

  5. Transplant Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism. This problem seems to be the most important issue, and naturally there are ethical dilemmas related to it. A wide number of ideas have been expressed on the subject, and different solutions have been proposed. The struggle against organ trafficking and commercialism should include legislation, efforts to increase deceased-donor donations, and international cooperation. China's policy to procure organs from prisoners sentenced to death is unethical, and the international community should exert more pressure on the Chinese government to cease this practice. Each particular ethical dilemma should be taken separately and managed.

  6. Blending genetics and sociocultural historical inquiry: ethics, culture, and human subjects protection in international cross cultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Deborah A; Caldwell, Dennis; Taylor, Andre D; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the implementation and difficulties when conducting genetics research in a rural, traditional West African culture within the frame of the United States' grounded research ethics. Research challenges are highlighted by Western researchers following U.S. Institutional Review Board (IRB) guidelines and practices in a non-Western country. IRB concepts are culture bound in Western ideals that may not have synchronicity and compatibility with non-Western cultures. Differences in sociocultural norms, traditions, language, and geography were influencing factors that can affect application of IRB principles. Suggestions for change are offered, which will potentially aid researchers considering application of IRB requirements when conducting research in non-Westernized, non-industrialized countries.

  7. Do current national and international guidelines have specific recommendations for older adults with bipolar disorder? A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, Annemiek; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Rej, Soham; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Gildengers, Ariel G; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Shulman, Kenneth I; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-12-01

    Older adults with bipolar disorder (OABD) are a growing segment of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) for which specific guidelines are warranted. Although, OABD are frequently excluded from randomized controlled trials due to their age or somatic comorbidity, more treatment data from a variety of sources have become available in recent years. It is expected that at least some of this emerging information on OABD would be incorporated into treatment guidelines available to clinicians around the world. The International Society of Bipolar Disorders OABD task force compiled and compared recommendations from current national and international guidelines that specifically address geriatric or older individuals with BD (from year 2005 onwards). There were 34 guidelines, representing six continents and 19 countries. The majority of guidelines had no separate section on OABD. General principles for treating OABD with medication are recommended to be similar to those for younger adults, with special caution for side effects due to somatic comorbidity and concomitant medications. Therapeutic lithium serum levels are suggested to be lower but recommendations are very general and mostly not informed by specific research evidence. There is a lack of emphasis of OABD-specific issues in existing guidelines. Given the substantial clinical heterogeneity in BD across the life span, along with the rapidly expanding population of older individuals worldwide, and limited mental health workforce with geriatric expertise, it is critical that additional effort and resources be devoted to studying treatment interventions specific to OABD and that treatment guidelines reflect research findings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Ethical key issues and fundamental rights in paediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, Annagrazia

    2011-05-01

    This article is aimed at describing the methodology of "ethical reasoning" that finally led TEDDYNoE (Task-force in Europe for Drug Development for the Young) to propose the integration of international human rights law to develop coherent and exhaustive ethical recommendations on paediatric research at a European level. A large number of ethical guidelines and texts of varying legal force existing in the field of clinical research and in particular related to paediatrics are analysed. Differences and non-coordinated implementation are pointed out. Differences, tensions or outright contradictions among the provisions of these texts can generate confusion leading to the adoption of different ethical standards across Europe. In this context, the real challenge is to ensure that each child involved in a clinical trial in the EU territory may rely directly on the same principles and rights. Taking international human rights law as the main starting point to develop a coherent framework for paediatric research that incorporates all the relevant ethical considerations and existing guidelines is a way of achieving this objective. The implementation, at national and local level, of the "European Ethical Recommendations" (Eudralex 2008 vol. 10), based on international human rights law, seems to be the next step in facilitating a coordinated approach to the application of the Directive 2001/20/EC, as well as developing quality and ethically sound paediatric research.

  9. "Educating the educators" guidelines for education in radiation medicine: a pragmatic approach at International Atomic Energy Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Soveacha; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-05-01

    Drawing on the experience of the Division of Human Health within the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, we explore "educating the educators" guidelines for planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating education and training programs in radiation medicine for the International Atomic Energy Agency's Member States. The guidelines are based on a pragmatic approach to strengthen an internal quality-assurance framework. This article is based on the consultants' meetings and reports, participatory observations, bi monthly capacity-building sessions, and informal communication with staff members of the Division of Human Health, held between December 2009 and August 2012. This article contributes to the theoretical and practical applications of "educating the educators" philosophy as continuously cultivated in an international organization that transforms itself as a learning organization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. From Paper to Practice; Indexing Systems and Ethical Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astaneh, Behrooz; Masoumi, Sarah

    2017-04-11

    Currently one of the main goals of editors is to attain a higher visibility for their journals. On the other hand, authors strive to publish their research in journals indexed in eminent databases such as Scopus, Thompson Reuters' Web of Science (ISI), Medline, etc. Therefore, clarifying the standards of indexing is of great importance. One of the most important issues in publication is the ethical considerations, which are mainly described by organizations, such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the Committee on Publication Ethics. In this study, we examined the ethical requirements of high impact databases for indexing journals to investigate whether they mention or mandate journals to adhere to publication ethics. We found that only Scopus mandated journals to state clear ethical policies on their website as a criterion for being indexed while Medline and Directory of Open Access Journals advised journals to adhere to ethics, not mandated, and Web of Science (ISI) and PubMed Central made no mention of ethics as a required criterion for indexing. Based on this short review, there seems to be a gap between the requirements of indexing systems and international guidelines for publication ethics. Currently, most indexing systems have only partially recommended journals to consider ethical issues. In such an atmosphere, we cannot expect journals or as a result, authors to professionally, completely, and whole heartedly implement ethical guidelines as a mandatory rule in their journals and research, when the indexing systems that most editors want to be indexed in and most authors want to be cited in do not mandate such guidelines.

  11. Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid

    2013-02-19

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

  12. Development and progress of Ireland's biobank network: Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI), standardized documentation, sample and data release, and international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Blanaid; Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Garrigle, Sarah Mc; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J; McCormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Eustace, Joe; Burke, Louise; Sheikh, Asim A; Finn, Stephen; Flavin, Richard; Giles, Francis J

    2013-02-01

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents-Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups-Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

  13. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  14. Reflections on Teaching Research Ethics in Education for International Postgraduate Students in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Research ethics in education is a challenging topic to teach and to learn. As the staff and student body in UK higher education and elsewhere diversifies, the challenges increase as shared reference points diminish. My teaching reflections focus on a key tension explored in this article: how the imperative of internationalising the curriculum…

  15. Ethics and the conduct of international development aid : charity and obligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT Ethical debate around development aid has gradually grown and diversified, and a field that spans some aspects of policy, organisational and personal practice has partly emerged. After characterising this trend, the paper considers: (1) The key question of the types of

  16. Ethics and the conduct of international development aid: charity and obligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Ethical debate around development aid has gradually grown and diversified, and a field that spans some aspects of policy, organisational and personal practice has partly emerged. After characterising this trend, the paper considers: (1) The key question of the types

  17. From the ethical code to the international convention. A critical panorama of the World Tourism Organization from the cosmopolitanism perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. López-González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses a critical analysis of the nature of cosmopolitan order encouraged by the World Tourism Organization. Given the growth of tourism activity and the challenges that it poses, this specialized agency of the United Nations has formally promoted equitable, responsible and sustainable development of tourism. However, the criticism of the principles from which the organization shapes tourism has put the focus on the objectives pursued. The conversion of these principles, included in the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, adopted in 1999, into an international convention, approved in September 2017, presents a new scene that this work outlines from the cosmopolitanism perspective.

  18. Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury as developed by the ICCP Panel: clinical trial inclusion/exclusion criteria and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszynski, M H; Steeves, J D; Fawcett, J W; Lammertse, D; Kalichman, M; Rask, C; Curt, A; Ditunno, J F; Fehlings, M G; Guest, J D; Ellaway, P H; Kleitman, N; Bartlett, P F; Blight, A R; Dietz, V; Dobkin, B H; Grossman, R; Privat, A

    2007-03-01

    The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis established a panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the third of four papers. It examines inclusion and exclusion criteria that can influence the design and analysis of clinical trials in SCI, together with confounding variables and ethical considerations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria for clinical trials should consider several factors. Among these are (1) the enrollment of subjects at appropriate stages after SCI, where there is supporting data from animal models or previous human studies; (2) the severity, level, type, or size of the cord injury, which can influence spontaneous recovery rate and likelihood that an experimental treatment will clinically benefit the subject; and (3) the confounding effects of various independent variables such as pre-existing or concomitant medical conditions, other medications, surgical interventions, and rehabilitation regimens. An issue of substantial importance in the design of clinical trials for SCI is the inclusion of blinded assessments and sham surgery controls: every effort should be made to address these major issues prospectively and carefully, if clear and objective information is to be gained from a clinical trial. The highest ethical standards must be respected in the performance of clinical trials, including the adequacy and clarity of informed consent.

  19. An update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine's guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of premature ejaculation (PE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 2009, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) convened a select panel of experts to develop an evidence-based set of guidelines for patients suffering from lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). That document reviewed definitions, etiology, impact on the patient...... for the diagnosis and treatment of PE for family practice clinicians as well as sexual medicine experts. METHOD: A comprehensive literature review was performed. RESULTS: This article contains the report of the second ISSM PE Guidelines Committee. It offers a new unified definition of PE and updates the previous...... of their patients. CONCLUSION: Development of guidelines is an evolutionary process that continually reviews data and incorporates the best new research. We expect that ongoing research will lead to a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology as well as new efficacious and safe treatments for this sexual...

  20. An Update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine's Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Premature Ejaculation (PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley E. Althof, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Development of guidelines is an evolutionary process that continually reviews data and incorporates the best new research. We expect that ongoing research will lead to a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology as well as new efficacious and safe treatments for this sexual dysfunction. We again recommend that these guidelines be reevaluated and updated by the ISSM in 4 years. Althof SE, McMahon CG, Waldinger MD, Serefoglu EC, Shindel AW, Adaikan PG, Becher E, Dean J, Giuliano F, Hellstrom WJG, Giraldi A, Glina S, Incrocci L, Jannini E, McCabe M, Parish S, Rowland D, Segraves RT, Sharlip I, and Torres LO. An update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine's guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of premature ejaculation (PE. Sex Med 2014;2:60–90.

  1. The importance of the training of Ethics Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giovanna; Cannovo, Nunzia

    2009-12-01

    Research Ethics Committees (RECs) carry out the important task of humanizing clinical trials. While current Italian and international legislation dedicates considerable attention to REC composition, with consensus on several vital guidelines, no such univocal guidelines are available for REC training in Europe. In Italy, the activity of RECs is subject to moral, civil and criminal responsibility, but the issue of their preparation has been addressed only marginally. This article deals with the Italian situation, thus aims at exploring the question of REC training and trying to identify solutions. Committee members need both initial and continuing education and training in research ethics, methodology and governance.

  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Society (ISRS) Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, May N; Sahgal, Arjun; Xu, Wei; De Salles, Antonio; Hayashi, Motohiro; Levivier, Marc; Ma, Lijun; Martinez, Roberto; Régis, Jean; Ryu, Sam; Slotman, Ben J; Paddick, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to develop International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Society (ISRS) consensus guideline statements for vestibular schwannoma. A systematic review of the literature was performed up to April 2015. A total of 55 full-text articles were included in the analysis. All studies were retrospective, except for 2 prospective quality of life studies. Five-year tumour control rates with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (RS), single fraction linac RS, or fractionated (either hypofractionated or conventional fractionation) stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) were similar at 81-100%. The single fraction RS series (linac or Gamma Knife) with tumour marginal doses between 12 and 14 Gy revealed 5-year tumour control rates of 90-99%, hearing preservation rates of 41-79%, facial nerve preservation rates of 95-100% and trigeminal preservation rates of 79-99%.There were 6 non-randomized studies comparing single fraction RS versus FSRT. There was no statistically significant difference in tumour control; HR=1.66 (95% CI 0.81, 3.42), p =0.17, facial nerve function; HR = 0.67 (95% CI 0.30, 1.49), p =0.33, trigeminal nerve function; HR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.41, 1.56), p =0.51, and hearing preservation; HR = 1.10 (95% CI 0.72, 1.68), p =0.65 comparing single fraction RS with FSRT.Nine quality of life reports yielded conflicting results as to which modality (surgery, observation, or radiation) was associated with better quality of life outcomes. There are no randomized trials to help guide management of patients with vestibular schwannoma. Within the limitations of the retrospective series, a number of consensus statements were made.

  3. An international position paper on mother-infant (perinatal) mental health, with guidelines for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Ian; Butterworth, Ruth; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to set out informal, provisional and comprehensive but concise guidelines for mother-infant (perinatal) mental health (psychiatry), as an area of specialisation. It is informal in the sense that the authors are clinicians and researchers from many different nations, who share a common goal and vision, speaking on their own behalf and not with the backing of any authority or society. It is provisional in the expectation that it can be improved by criticism and new research findings. It is a comprehensive summary of the development of the specialty, its core knowledge and recommended investigations and interventions. It is concise (under 6,000 words, taking less than an hour to read) in order to increase readership and facilitate translation. No attempt has been made to parade the evidence for these suggestions, because the document would have been too long to translate, and for many to read. Instead, drafts were circulated for criticism by those included in the authorship, resulting in a consensus (finalised by the three principal authors), providing a framework to guide service provision, clinical practice and research. The full list of authors, from 33 nations, is given in the postscript. They include mother-infant (or parent-infant) and perinatal adult or child psychiatrists and those with a special interest; mother-infant, perinatal and forensic psychologists; psychiatric nurses; the founders of Postpartum Support International and the Association for Postnatal Illness; representatives of social work and obstetrics and the management of these services, and research scientists working in the field.

  4. Ethics of orthodontic clinical research based on Helsinki declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Declaration of Helsinki code of ethics on human experimentation, states that the desin and peformance of experimental procedures involving human should be clearly formulated in an experimental protocol, Todeterminewhetheraninvestigationin accordancewiththe code of conductin a researchthen letusconsider the contentofthe declarationhelsinkiasour referencein conductingaclinicalstudyusinghuman subjects. In journals, authors are expected to report if the study was carried out in accordance with international and national ethical guidelines and inform readers if approval from ethics committee was obtained and if written informed consent was taken from the participant or legal guardian.

  5. Ethics and new reproductive technologies: an international review of committee statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, LeRoy

    1987-06-01

    Walters examines the statements of advisory committees in eight countries on new practices involving human reproduction: clinical in vitro fertilization; surrogate motherhood; and human embryo research. He analyzes the positions taken by the committees on the general acceptability of the new technologies, as well as on specific issues involved in assisted human reproduction. In chronological order, the statements examined are those of the U.S. Ethics Advisory Board; the Waller committee in Victoria, Australia; a South Australian committee; the Demack committee in Queensland; Britain's Council for Science and Society; Britain's Warnock committee; a Tasmania, Australia, committee; the Ontario Law Reform Commission; Australia's Family Law Council; West Germany's Benda committee; the American Fertility Society; a Western Australia committee; the Dutch Health Council; and the National Ethics Committee of France.

  6. International guidelines for prevention and management of post-operative chronic pain following inguinal hernia surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfieri, S; Amid, P K; Campanelli, G

    2011-01-01

    To provide uniform terminology and definition of post-herniorrhaphy groin chronic pain. To give guidelines to the scientific community concerning the prevention and the treatment of chronic groin and testicular pain....

  7. Establishing moral bearings: ethics and expatriate health care professionals in humanitarian work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R

    2011-07-01

    Expatriate health care professionals frequently participate in international responses to natural disasters and humanitarian emergencies. This field of practice presents important clinical, logistical and ethical challenges for clinicians. This paper considers the ethics of health care practice in humanitarian contexts. It examines features that contribute to forming the moral landscape of humanitarian work, and discusses normative guidelines and approaches that are relevant for this work. These tools and frameworks provide important ethics resources for humanitarian settings. Finally, it elaborates a set of questions that can aid health care professionals as they analyse ethical issues that they experience in the field. The proposed process can assist clinicians as they seek to establish their moral bearings in situations of ethical complexity and uncertainty. Identifying and developing ethics resources and vocabulary for clinical practice in humanitarian work will help health care professionals provide ethically sound care to patients and communities. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  8. International guidelines for prevention and management of post-operative chronic pain following inguinal hernia surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfieri, S; Amid, P K; Campanelli, G

    2011-01-01

    To provide uniform terminology and definition of post-herniorrhaphy groin chronic pain. To give guidelines to the scientific community concerning the prevention and the treatment of chronic groin and testicular pain.......To provide uniform terminology and definition of post-herniorrhaphy groin chronic pain. To give guidelines to the scientific community concerning the prevention and the treatment of chronic groin and testicular pain....

  9. Amendment of the guideline for physical radiation protection monitoring of internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheler, R.; Dalheimer, A.; Dettmann, K.; Frasch, G.; Hartmann, M.; Koenig, K.; Nosske, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the current status of the revised version of the Guideline for Radiation Protection Surveillance. The consequences of the amended Radiation Protection Ordinance of July 20, 2001, especially the reduced dose limits and the protection of the unborn child in case of occupational radiation exposure are discussed in detail. Moreover, a general survey of the intended regulations is given and the new content of the guideline is explained. (orig.)

  10. "Official View" on Glucocorticoids in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review of International Guidelines and Consensus Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmowski, Yannick; Buttgereit, Thomas; Dejaco, Christian; Bijlsma, Johannes W; Matteson, Eric L; Voshaar, Marieke; Boers, Maarten; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-08-01

    To describe the perception of the current role of systemic glucocorticoids in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by examining their importance and the current level of evidence in recent guidelines, and to identify open questions to be addressed in future guidelines and research projects. We conducted a systematic literature review using the databases Ovid Embase, PubMed Medline, and Cochrane Library for guidelines on the pharmacologic treatment of RA. Retrieved articles were evaluated regarding their quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tool and scrutinized for all relevant information concerning the use of glucocorticoids. All guidelines agree that glucocorticoids, especially if given at low doses and for a short duration, are an appropriate option in the treatment of RA. However, many recommendations remain vague, as reliable and detailed evidence is scarce. Important aspects of glucocorticoid therapy are partially or completely neglected, and the existing nomenclature is not used uniformly. Quality evaluation revealed flaws in many articles, concerning not only glucocorticoid-specific recommendations but also guideline quality in general. Current recommendations for use of glucocorticoids in the management of RA are suboptimal. More rigorous evaluation of doses, timing, and duration of their use is needed. Existing nomenclature on glucocorticoid therapy should be used uniformly. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Guidelines for the International Observation by the Agency of Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes under the Provisions of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or Analogous Provisions in Other International Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    On 21 June 1972 the Board of Governors approved guidelines for the international observation by the Agency of nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes under the provisions of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or analogous provisions in other international agreements. These guidelines are now reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  12. Barriers and facilitators influencing ethical evaluation in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assasi, Nazila; Schwartz, Lisa; Tarride, Jean-Eric; O'Reilly, Daria; Goeree, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators influencing the integration of ethical considerations in health technology assessment (HTA). The study consisted of two complementary approaches: (a) a systematic review of the literature; and (b) an eighteen-item online survey that was distributed to fifty-six HTA agencies affiliated with the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment. The review identified twenty-six relevant articles. The most often cited barriers in the literature were: scarcity, heterogeneity and complexity of ethical analysis methods; challenges in translating ethical analysis results into knowledge that is useful for decision makers; and lack of organizational support in terms of required expertise, time and financial resources. The most frequently cited facilitators included: usage of value-based appraisal methods, stakeholder and public engagement, enhancement of practice guidelines, ethical expertise, and educational interventions. Representatives of twenty-six (46.5 percent) agencies from nineteen countries completed the survey. A median of 10 percent (interquartile range, 5 percent to 50 percent) of the HTA products produced by the agencies was reported to include an assessment of ethical aspects. The most commonly perceived barriers were: limited ethical knowledge and expertise, insufficient time and resources, and difficulties in finding ethical evidence or using ethical guidelines. Educational interventions, demand by policy makers, and involvement of ethicists in HTA were the most commonly perceived facilitators. Our results emphasize the importance of simplification of ethics methodology and development of good practice guidelines in HTA, as well as capacity building for engaging HTA practitioners in ethical analyses.

  13. On ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1996-01-01

    From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

  14. Health Information Professionals in a Global eHealth World: Ethical and legal arguments for the international certification and accreditation of health information professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2017-01-01

    care delivery, and to provide a model for a corresponding up-to-date revision of the ethical guidelines that are promulgated by IMIA's member organizations. Similar steps should be taken in the corporate sector so that the ethical rules that govern the working environment of HIPs in the eHealth setting will not pose ethical and professional problems. A possible solution in terms of accreditation and certification is outlined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Research ethics in accessing hospital staff and securing informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Paula; Rowland, Emma; Fox, Rebekah; Nicolson, Paula

    2012-12-01

    Qualitative researchers cannot rely on research ethics to be a static practice. In this article we discuss how observation of guidelines for inquiry and international agreements on the dignity of health care research are not sufficient on their own to ensure that the challenges inherent in the everyday management of a project are regulated. We focus in particular on ethics in accessing participants and the construction of informed consent. During our study, important contrasts emerged between the ideal presented for the standard ethics review process and practical ethics. As a result, we focused on building open communication with the participants through rigorous project management. We analyzed the data and wrote this article collaboratively to represent the empirical reality of a team of researchers aiming to take ethical challenges seriously while collecting data in three National Health Service Trusts in the United Kingdom.

  16. Research Ethics Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of NIH Fogarty-Funded Programs 2000–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Paul; Wassenaar, Douglas; Benatar, Solomon; Fleischer, Theodore; Kruger, Mariana; Adebamowo, Clement; Kass, Nancy; Hyder, Adnan A.; Meslin, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    The last fifteen years have witnessed a significant increase in investment in research ethics capacity development throughout the world. We examine nine research ethics training programs that are focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and supported by the US National Institutes of Health. We collected data from grants awards’ documents and annual reports supplemented by questionnaires completed by the training program directors. Together, these programs provided long-term training in research ethics to 275 African professionals, strengthened research ethics committees in 19 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and created research ethics curricula at many institutions and bioethics centers within Africa. Trainees’ leadership resulted in new national systems and policies on research ethics, human tissue storage and export, and methods of monitoring compliance with research ethics guidelines. Training programs adapted to challenges that arose due to varied trainees’ background knowledge in ethics, duration of time available for training, spoken and written English language skills, administrative obstacles, and the need to sustain post-training research ethics activities. Our report showcases the development of awareness of research ethics and building/strengthening of basic research ethics infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, the increasing amount and complexity of health research being conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa suggests the need for continued investment in research ethics capacity development in this region. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center’s International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24782070

  17. Research ethics capacity building in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of NIH Fogarty-funded programs 2000–2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Paul; Wassenaar, Douglas; Benatar, Solomon; Fleischer, Theodore; Kruger, Mariana; Adebamowo, Clement; Kass, Nancy; Hyder, Adnan A; Meslin, Eric M

    2014-04-01

    The last fifteen years have witnessed a significant increase in investment in research ethics capacity development throughout the world. We examine nine research ethics training programs that are focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and supported by the US National Institutes of Health. We collected data from grants awards' documents and annual reports supplemented by questionnaires completed by the training program directors. Together, these programs provided long-term training in research ethics to 275 African professionals, strengthened research ethics committees in 19 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and created research ethics curricula at many institutions and bioethics centers within Africa. Trainees' leadership resulted in new national systems and policies on research ethics, human tissue storage and export, and methods of monitoring compliance with research ethics guidelines. Training programs adapted to challenges that arose due to varied trainees' background knowledge in ethics, duration of time available for training, spoken and written English language skills, administrative obstacles, and the need to sustain post-training research ethics activities. Our report showcases the development of awareness of research ethics and building/strengthening of basic research ethics infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, the increasing amount and complexity of health research being conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa suggests the need for continued investment in research ethics capacity development in this region. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program.

  18. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, R P; Levy, Mitchell M; Rhodes, Andrew; Annane, Djillali; Gerlach, Herwig; Opal, Steven M; Sevransky, Jonathan E; Sprung, Charles L; Douglas, Ivor S; Jaeschke, Roman; Osborn, Tiffany M; Nunnally, Mark E; Townsend, Sean R; Reinhart, Konrad; Kleinpell, Ruth M; Angus, Derek C; Deutschman, Clifford S; Machado, Flavia R; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Webb, Steven; Beale, Richard J; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Moreno, Rui

    2013-02-01

    To provide an update to the "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock," last published in 2008. A consensus committee of 68 international experts representing 30 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict of interest policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guidelines process was conducted independent of any industry funding. A stand-alone meeting was held for all subgroup heads, co- and vice-chairs, and selected individuals. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee served as an integral part of the development. The authors were advised to follow the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to guide assessment of quality of evidence from high (A) to very low (D) and to determine the strength of recommendations as strong (1) or weak (2). The potential drawbacks of making strong recommendations in the presence of low-quality evidence were emphasized. Recommendations were classified into three groups: (1) those directly targeting severe sepsis; (2) those targeting general care of the critically ill patient and considered high priority in severe sepsis; and (3) pediatric considerations. Key recommendations and suggestions, listed by category, include: early quantitative resuscitation of the septic patient during the first 6 h after recognition (1C); blood cultures before antibiotic therapy (1C); imaging studies performed promptly to confirm a potential source of infection (UG); administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobials therapy within 1 h of the recognition of septic shock (1B) and severe sepsis without septic shock (1C) as the goal of therapy; reassessment of antimicrobial therapy daily for de-escalation, when appropriate (1B

  19. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, R Phillip; Levy, Mitchell M; Rhodes, Andrew; Annane, Djillali; Gerlach, Herwig; Opal, Steven M; Sevransky, Jonathan E; Sprung, Charles L; Douglas, Ivor S; Jaeschke, Roman; Osborn, Tiffany M; Nunnally, Mark E; Townsend, Sean R; Reinhart, Konrad; Kleinpell, Ruth M; Angus, Derek C; Deutschman, Clifford S; Machado, Flavia R; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Webb, Steven A; Beale, Richard J; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Moreno, Rui

    2013-02-01

    To provide an update to the "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock," last published in 2008. A consensus committee of 68 international experts representing 30 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict of interest policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guidelines process was conducted independent of any industry funding. A stand-alone meeting was held for all subgroup heads, co- and vice-chairs, and selected individuals. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee served as an integral part of the development. The authors were advised to follow the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to guide assessment of quality of evidence from high (A) to very low (D) and to determine the strength of recommendations as strong (1) or weak (2). The potential drawbacks of making strong recommendations in the presence of low-quality evidence were emphasized. Some recommendations were ungraded (UG). Recommendations were classified into three groups: 1) those directly targeting severe sepsis; 2) those targeting general care of the critically ill patient and considered high priority in severe sepsis; and 3) pediatric considerations. Key recommendations and suggestions, listed by category, include: early quantitative resuscitation of the septic patient during the first 6 hrs after recognition (1C); blood cultures before antibiotic therapy (1C); imaging studies performed promptly to confirm a potential source of infection (UG); administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobials therapy within 1 hr of recognition of septic shock (1B) and severe sepsis without septic shock (1C) as the goal of therapy; reassessment of antimicrobial therapy daily for de

  20. International guidelines for the in vivo assessment of skin properties in non-clinical settings: part 1. pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; du Plessis, Johan; John, Swen M; Eloff, Fritz; Agner, Tove; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Nixon, Rosemary; Steiner, Markus F C; Kudla, Irena; Holness, D Linn

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin surface pH is known to influence the dissolution and partitioning of chemicals and may influence exposures that lead to skin diseases. Non-clinical environments (e.g. workplaces) are highly variable, thereby presenting unique measurement challenges that are not typically encountered in clinical settings. Hence, guidelines are needed for consistent measurement of skin surface pH in environments that are difficult to control. Methods An expert workshop was convened at the 5th International Conference on Occupational and Environmental Exposure of Skin to Chemicals to review available data on factors that could influence the determination of skin surface pH in non-clinical settings with emphasis on the workplace as a worst case scenario. Results The key elements of the guidelines are: (i) minimize, to the extent feasible, the influences of relevant endogenous (anatomical position, skin health, time of day), exogenous (hand washing, barrier creams, soaps and detergents, occlusion), environmental (seasonality), and measurement (atmospheric conditions) factors; (ii) report pH measurements results as a difference or percent change (not absolute values) using a measure of central tendency and variability; and (iii) report notable deviations from these guidelines and other relevant factors that may influence measurements. Conclusion Guidelines on the measurement and reporting of skin surface pH in non-clinical settings should promote consistency in data reporting, facilitate inter-comparison of study results, and aid in understanding and preventing occupational skin diseases. PMID:23279097

  1. Comparison of international guidelines for regenerative medicine: Knee cartilage repair and replacement using human-derived cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kuni; Kano, Shingo

    2016-07-01

    Regenerative medicine (RM) is an emerging field using human-derived cells and tissues (HCT). Due to the complexity and diversity of HCT products, each country has its own regulations for authorization and no common method has been applied to date. Individual regulations were previously clarified at the level of statutes but no direct comparison has been reported at the level of guidelines. Here, we generated a new analytical framework that allows comparison of guidelines independent from local definitions of RM, using 2 indicators, product type and information type. The guidelines for products for repair and replacement of knee cartilage in Japan, the United States of America, and Europe were compared and differences were detected in both product type and information type by the proposed analytical framework. Those findings will be critical not only for the product developers to determine the region to initiate the clinical trials but also for the regulators to assess and build their regulations. This analytical framework is potentially expandable to other RM guidelines to identify gaps, leading to trigger discussion of global harmonization in RM regulations. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Worldwide Collaboration to Harmonize Guidelines for the Long-Term Follow-Up of Childhood and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Report From the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Mulder, Renée L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Bhatia, Smita; Landier, Wendy; Levitt, Gill; Constine, Louis S.; Wallace, W. Hamish; Caron, Huib N.; Armenian, Saro H.; Skinner, Roderick; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood and young adult cancer survivors should receive optimum care to reduce the consequences of late effects and improve quality of life. We can facilitate achieving this goal by international collaboration in guideline development. In 2010, the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer

  3. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, Anthony J; Andreasen, Jens O; Ebeleseder, Kurt A

    2012-01-01

    and clinicians from various specialties were included in the group. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion of the IADT board members. The guidelines represent the best current evidence based on literature search and professional opinion. The primary...

  4. International ERS/ATS guidelines on definition, evaluation and treatment of severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, Kian Fan; Wenzel, Sally E.; Brozek, Jan L.; Bush, Andrew; Castro, Mario; Sterk, Peter J.; Adcock, Ian M.; Bateman, Eric D.; Bel, Elisabeth H.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Brightling, Christopher; Chanez, Pascal; Dahlen, Sven-Erik; Djukanovic, Ratko; Frey, Urs; Gaga, Mina; Gibson, Peter; Hamid, Qutayba; Jajour, Nizar N.; Mauad, Thais; Sorkness, Ronald L.; Teague, W. Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Severe or therapy-resistant asthma is increasingly recognised as a major unmet need. A Task Force, supported by the European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society, reviewed the definition and provided recommendations and guidelines on the evaluation and treatment of severe asthma in

  5. 'Incorporating the OECD Guidelines in International Investment Agreements: Turning a Soft Law Obligation into Hard Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der E.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article has been written as a response to two recent developments. First, as a response to the recent update of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines on 25 May 2011, which seem to have taken a form based on human rights due diligence. Second, as a response

  6. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A

    2014-01-01

    were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of avulsed permanent teeth. The Hebrew Edition is part...

  7. Thyroid function disorders--Guidelines of the Netherlands Association of Internal Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A. F.; Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Kooy, A.; Smits, J. W. A.; Hermus, A. R. M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders are common with a female to male ratio of 4 to 1. In adult women primary hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis have a prevalence of 3.5/1000 and 0.8/1000, respectively. This guideline is aimed at secondary care providers especially internists, but also contains relevant

  8. Thyroid function disorders--Guidelines of the Netherlands Association of Internal Medicine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.F.; Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W.M.; Kooy, A.; Smits, J.W.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders are common with a female to male ratio of 4 to 1. In adult women primary hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis have a prevalence of 3.5/1000 and 0.8/1000, respectively. This guideline is aimed at secondary care providers especially internists, but also contains relevant

  9. Using research metrics to evaluate the International Atomic Energy Agency guidelines on quality assurance for R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Guidelines on Quality Assurance for R&D is to provide guidance for developing quality assurance (QA) programs for R&D work on items, services, and processes important to safety, and to support the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The standard approach to writing papers describing new quality guidelines documents is to present a descriptive overview of the contents of the document. I will depart from this approach. Instead, I will first discuss a conceptual framework of metrics for evaluating and improving basic and applied experimental science as well as the associated role that quality management should play in understanding and implementing these metrics. I will conclude by evaluating how well the IAEA document addresses the metrics from this conceptual framework and the broader principles of quality management.

  10. Improvements for international medicine donations: a review of the World Health Organization Guidelines for Medicine Donations, 3rd edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañigueral-Vila, Nuria; Chen, Jennifer C; Frenkel-Rorden, Lindsey; Laing, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Some humanitarian and development organizations respond to major natural disasters and emergencies by donating medicines. Many provide medicines on a routine basis to support health systems, particularly those run by Faith-Based Organizations. Although such donations can provide essential medicines to populations in great need, inappropriate donations also take place, with burdensome consequences. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the interagency Guidelines for Medicine Donations for use by donors and recipients in the context of emergency aid and international development assistance. Although comprehensive in nature and transferable to various emergency situations, adjustments to both content and formatting would improve this resource. Recommendations for the next version of these guidelines include: specific wording and consistent formatting; definition of who is a recipient, clear distinction between acute and long-term emergencies, and proper donation procedures pertaining to each; inclusion of visual aides such as flowcharts, checklists, and photos; and improving the citations system.

  11. Adherence to International Follow-Up Guidelines in Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Cohort Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Laurence M.; Bocquet, Valery; Vidal-Trecan, Gwenaelle; Lair, Marie-Lise; Blum-Boisgard, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Type 2 diabetes is associated with severe micro- and macro-vascular complications. Physicians’ and patients’ adherence to follow-up guidelines permits postponing or reducing these complications. The objectives were to assess the level of adherence to fundamental follow-up guidelines and determine patients’ characteristics associated with this level of adherence in the context of Luxembourg, where no guidelines were implemented. Study population The exhaustive residing population treated for type 2 diabetes in Luxembourg during the 2000-2006 period (N = 21,068). Methods Seven fundamental criteria were extracted from international guidelines (consultation with the treating physician, HbA1c tests, electrocardiogram, retinal, dental, lipid and renal check-ups). The factors associated with the level of adherence to those criteria were identified using a partial proportional odds model. Results In 2006, despite 90% of the patients consulted at least 4 times their treating physician, only 0.6% completed all criteria; 55.0% had no HbA1c test (−8.6 points since 2000) and 31.1% had a renal check-up (+21.6 points). The sex (ORmale: 0.87 [95%CI, 0.83−0.92]), the nationality (ORNonEU: 0.64 [0.52−0.78]), the type of antidiabetic treatment (ORoral: 1.48 [1.35−1.63], ORmixed: 1.35 [1.20−1.52]) and the type of treating physician (ORG-ID: 0.47 [0.42−0.53]) were the main factors associated with the level of adherence in 2006 (3 or more criteria). Conclusion A large percentage of patients were not provided with a systematic annual follow-up between 2000 and 2006. This study highlighted the necessity to promote guidelines in Luxembourg, education for physicians and to launch a national discussion on a disease management program for diabetic patients. PMID:24244637

  12. Transplant tourism: the ethics and regulation of international markets for organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2013-01-01

    "Medical Tourism" is the travel of residents of one country to another country for treatment. In this article I focus on travel abroad to purchase organs for transplant, what I will call "Transplant Tourism." With the exception of Iran, organ sale is illegal across the globe, but many destination countries have thriving black markets, either due to their willful failure to police the practice or more good faith lack of resources to detect it. I focus on the sale of kidneys, the most common subject of transplant tourism, though much of what I say could be applied to other organs as well. Part I briefly reviews some data on sellers, recipients, and brokers. Part II discusses the bioethical issues posed by the trade, and Part III focuses on potential regulation to deal with these issues. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  13. Ethical challenges for international collaborative research partnerships in the context of the Zika outbreak in the Dominican Republic: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canario Guzmán, Julio Arturo; Espinal, Roberto; Báez, Jeannette; Melgen, Ricardo Elias; Rosario, Patricia Antonia Pérez; Mendoza, Eddys Rafael

    2017-09-25

    The establishment of international collaborative research partnerships in times of infectious disease outbreaks of international importance has been considered an ethical imperative. Frail health research systems in low- and middle-income countries can be an obstacle to achieve the goal of knowledge generation and the search for health equity before, during and after infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative case study was conducted to identify the challenges and opportunities facing the Dominican Republic with regards to developing international collaborative research partnerships in the context of the Zika outbreak and its ethical implications. Researchers conducted 34 interviews (n = 30 individual; n = 4 group) with 39 participants (n = 23 males; n = 16 females) representing the government, universities, international donor agencies, non-governmental organisations, community-based organisations and medical societies, in two metropolitan cities. Five international collaborative research projects related to the Zika virus were identified. Major ethical challenges were linked to the governance of health research, training of human resources, the institutionalisation of scientific activity, access to research funds and cultural aspects. Capacity-building was not necessarily a component of some partnership agreements. With few exceptions, local researchers were merely participating in data collection and less on defining the problem. Opportunities for collaborative work included the possibility of participation in international research consortiums through calls for proposals. The Dominican government and research stakeholders can contribute to the international response to the Zika virus through active participation in international collaborative research partnerships; however, public recognition of the need to embrace health research as part of public policy efforts is warranted. A working group led by the government and formed by national and

  14. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-15

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  15. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  16. Ethics in IT Outsourcing

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Tandy

    2012-01-01

    In IT divisions and organizations, the need to execute in a competitive and complex technical environment while demonstrating personal integrity can be a significant personal and organizational challenge. Supplying concrete guidelines for those at an ethical crossroads, Ethics in IT Outsourcing explores the complex challenges of aligning IT outsourcing programs with ethical conduct and standards. This one-stop reference on the ethical structure and execution of IT outsourcing incorporates an easy-to-apply checklist of principles for outsourcing executives and managers. It examines certificatio

  17. Getting research into policy - Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) treatment and HIV infection: international guidelines formulation and the case of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, H; Parkhurst, J; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Mayaud, P

    2011-06-16

    Observational epidemiological and biological data indicate clear synergies between Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV, whereby HSV-2 enhances the potential for HIV acquisition or transmission. In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a call for research into the possibilities of disrupting this cofactor effect through the use of antiherpetic therapy. A WHO Expert Meeting was convened in 2008 to review the research results. The results of the trials were mostly inconclusive or showed no impact. However, the WHO syndromic management treatment guidelines were modified to include acyclovir as first line therapy to treat genital ulcer disease on the basis of the high prevalence of HSV-2 in most settings, impact and cost-benefit of treatment on ulcer healing and quality of life among patients. This paper examines the process through which the evidence related to HIV-HSV-2 interactions influenced policy at the international level and then the mechanism of international to national policy transfer, with Ghana as a case study. To better understand the context within which national policy change occurs, special attention was paid to the relationships between researchers and policy-makers as integral to the process of getting evidence into policy. Data from this study were then collected through interviews conducted with researchers, program managers and policy-makers working in sexual health/STI at the 2008 WHO Expert Meeting in Montreux, Switzerland, and in Accra, Ghana. The major findings of this study indicate that investigations into HSV-2 as a cofactor of HIV generated the political will necessary to reform HSV-2 treatment policy. Playing a pivotal role at both the international level and within the Ghanaian policy context were 'policy networks' formed either formally (WHO) or informally (Ghana) around an issue area. These networks of professionals serve as the primary conduit of information between researchers and policy-makers. Donor influence

  18. What Does the Right to Education Mean? A Look at an International Debate from Legal, Ethical, and Pedagogical Points of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, Gonzalo

    2001-01-01

    Explores the legal, ethical, and pedagogical aspects of the right to education. Describes a study aimed at learning what the global attitudes are toward the right to an education. Discusses globalization and its effects on education and examines the impact of international caucuses such as the Convention of the Rights of the Child. (Contains 17…

  19. Ethical Issues in Disability and Rehabilitation. Report of an International Conference of the Society for Disability Studies (2nd, Denver, Colorado, June 23-24, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Barbara, Ed.; Woods, Diane E., Ed.

    This monograph consists of five parts: (1) introductory material including a conference overview; (2) papers presented at an international symposium on the topic of ethical issues in disability and rehabilitation as a section of the Annual Conference of the Society for Disability Studies; (3) responses to the symposium, prepared by four of the…

  20. Guidelines for the use of the International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses of the International Labour Office (ILO: Substantial changes in the currrent edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Muszyńska-Graca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses is the scheme worked out by the International Labour Office in Geneva (ILO, to register radiographic chest abnormalities in a well-ordered, reproducible and comparable way. It is used for diagnosing abnormalities caused by dust exposure. Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses contain detailed information and recommendations on how to use the classification, as well as how the chest X-ray examination should be performed and recorded. To facilitate the diagnosis of observed abnormalities the classification is completed by the set of standard radiograms illustrating typical irregularities referring to lungs and pleura, included in the classification. The article presents the key information on classification and the most important amendments adopted in the 2000 and 2011 ILO guidelines revisions. These changes refer to radiographs quality assessment, the way of presenting abnormalities registered in standard radiographs (QUAD set, digital images and registration of failures not related to dust exposure. Particularly important complements result from the development of radiological imaging techniques. They are concerned about the classification of radiographic images of the chest recorded digitally. Med Pr 2016;67(6:833–837

  1. Non-therapeutic infant male circumcision. Evidence, ethics, and international law perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Elabd, Kossay

    2016-09-01

    To review the evidence of the benefits and harms of infant male circumcision, and the legal and ethical perspectives of infant male circumcision. We conducted a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library up to June 2015. We searched the medical law literature using the Westlaw and Lexis Library law literature resources up to June 2015. Male circumcision significantly reduced the risk of urinary tract infections by 87%. It also significantly reduced transmission of human immunodeficiency virus among circumcised men by 70%. Childhood and adolescent circumcision is associated with a 66% reduction in the risk of penile cancer. Circumcision was associated with 43% reduction of human papilloma virus infection, and 58% reduction in the risk of cervical cancer among women with circumcised partners compared with women with uncircumcised partners. Male infant circumcision reduced the risk of foreskin inflammation by 68%.  Infant male circumcision should continue to be allowed all over the world, as long as it is approved by both parents, and performed in facilities that can provide appropriate sterilization, wound care, and anesthesia. Under these conditions, the benefits of infant male circumcision outweigh the rare and generally minor potential harms of the procedure.

  2. Code of Ethics in a Multicultural Company and its Legal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlerová, Eva; Ďurišová, Jaroslava; Šramel, Bystrík

    2012-12-01

    The entry of foreign investors and simultaneous expansion of different national cultures, religions, rules, moral and ethical standards is bringing up problems of cooperation and coexistence of different nationalities, ethnicities and cultures. Working in an international environment therefore requires adaptation to a variety of economic, political, legal, technical, social, cultural and historical conditions. One possible solution is to define a code of ethics, guidelines which find enough common moral principles, which can become the basis for the adoption of general ethical standards, while respecting national, cultural differences and practices. In this article, the authors pay attention not only to the analysis of the common ethical rules in a multicultural company, but also to the legal aspects of codes of ethics. Each code of ethics is a set of standards, which, like the legal norms, regulate the behaviour of individuals. These standards, however, must simultaneously meet certain statutory criteria that define the boundaries of regulation of employee’s behaviour.

  3. Guidelines for stem cell science and clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sunil K

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research has released its updated guidelines for stem cell research in order to provide "assurance that stem cell research is conducted with scientific and ethical integrity and that new therapies are evidence-based." The guidelines were updated by a Guidelines Update Task Force consisting of twenty-five scientists, ethicists and experts in health care policy from nine countries. The chairpersons of this task force are Jonathan Kimmelman, George Daley and Insoo Hyun. There is no representative from India; the only person of Indian origin on it, Mahendra Rao, represents The New York Stem Cell Foundation.

  4. Evolution of different dual-use concepts in international and national law and its implications on research ethics and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Johannes; Ischi, Monique; Perkins, Dana

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the various dual-use concepts applied in national and international non-proliferation and anti-terrorism legislation, such as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, and national export control legislation and in relevant codes of conduct. While there is a vast literature covering dual-use concepts in particular with regard to life sciences, this is the first paper that incorporates into such discussion the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. In addition, recent developments such as the extension of dual-use export control legislation in the area of human rights protection are also identified and reviewed. The discussion of dual-use concepts is hereby undertaken in the context of human- and/or national-security-based approaches to security. This paper discusses four main concepts of dual use as applied today in international and national law: civilian versus military, peaceful versus non-peaceful, legitimate versus illegitimate and benevolent versus malevolent. In addition, the usage of the term to describe positive technology spin-offs between civilian and military applications is also briefly addressed. Attention is also given to the roles civil society and research ethics may play in the governance of dual-use sciences and technologies.

  5. Reporting of ethical review of clinical research submitted to the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Alexis C; Choi, Joanna Mimi; Kimball, Alexa B

    2007-02-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing focus on human subject protection and on documentation of ethical review in published clinical research. The JAAD clearly states in its instructions to authors, which adhere to the guidelines set forth by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, "studies involving live human subjects must have been approved by the author's Institutional Review Board or its equivalent." To determine what proportion of prospective studies on human subjects submitted to the clinical trials and therapeutics section lacked mention of review by an ethics board and to determine the outcome of these manuscripts. We reviewed 150 prospective studies submitted from July 1, 2004 to January 16, 2006 to a single associate editor, who receives the majority of reports requiring ethics board review. Of 150 prospective studies, 36% (n = 54) had no mention of ethics review or consent, whereas 15% (n = 22) mentioned consent but not ethics review. Forty-two papers were returned asking for ethics information, and of these, 48% were resubmitted with confirmation of ethics review, 22% were withdrawn, 12% were never resubmitted, 12% responded that ethical review was not obtained, and 7% were clarified as exempt from review. Of the 150 papers, 45% were from US authors and 55% were from international authors. Sixty-seven percent of US papers and 35% of international papers included ethics board information (P ethics review, 25% of US and 53% of international authors were able to provide documentation of ethics board review when asked. Of international authors asked for ethics information, 67% of European authors provided confirmation of ethical review, as compared with 48% of non-European authors. It is not possible to know with certainty whether each study not citing ethics review actually did not undergo review by an ethics board. Additionally, other editors may have

  6. Ergonomic guidelines for using notebook personal computers. Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction, International Ergonomics Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Piccoli, B; Smith, M J; Sotoyama, M; Sweitzer, G; Villanueva, M B; Yoshitake, R

    2000-10-01

    In the 1980's, the visual display terminal (VDT) was introduced in workplaces of many countries. Soon thereafter, an upsurge in reported cases of related health problems, such as musculoskeletal disorders and eyestrain, was seen. Recently, the flat panel display or notebook personal computer (PC) became the most remarkable feature in modern workplaces with VDTs and even in homes. A proactive approach must be taken to avert foreseeable ergonomic and occupational health problems from the use of this new technology. Because of its distinct physical and optical characteristics, the ergonomic requirements for notebook PCs in terms of machine layout, workstation design, lighting conditions, among others, should be different from the CRT-based computers. The Japan Ergonomics Society (JES) technical committee came up with a set of guidelines for notebook PC use following exploratory discussions that dwelt on its ergonomic aspects. To keep in stride with this development, the Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction under the auspices of the International Ergonomics Association worked towards the international issuance of the guidelines. This paper unveils the result of this collaborative effort.

  7. Modern Radiation Therapy for Extranodal Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Hoppe, Richard T.; Li, Ye-Xiong; Tsang, Richard; Wirth, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL, involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of histological sub-types, poses a challenge both for routine clinical care and for the conduct of prospective and retrospective studies. This has led to uncertainty and lack of consistency in RT approaches between centers and clinicians. Thus far there is a lack of guidelines for the use of RT in the management of ENL. This report presents an effort by the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) to harmonize and standardize the principles of treatment of ENL, and to address the technical challenges of simulation, volume definition and treatment planning for the most frequently involved organs. Specifically, detailed recommendations for RT volumes are provided. We have applied the same modern principles of involved site radiation therapy as previously developed and published as guidelines for Hodgkin lymphoma and nodal NHL. We have adopted RT volume definitions based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), as has been widely adopted by the field of radiation oncology for solid tumors. Organ-specific recommendations take into account histological subtype, anatomy, the treatment intent, and other treatment modalities that may be have been used before RT

  8. Beyond The Inter-National Relations Framework: An Essay In Descriptive Global Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Discussions of global ethics—about the types of normative claim made on individuals and groups, not only states, by individuals and groups around the world—have had to move beyond the categories inherited in the International Relations discipline. Many important

  9. Challenges in international medicine: ethical dilemmas, unanticipated consequences, and accepting limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Biros, Michelle H; James Holliman, C

    2012-06-01

    While personal and organizational challenges occur in every area of health care, practitioners of international medicine face unique problems and dilemmas that are rarely discussed in training programs. Health professions schools, residency and fellowship programs, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and government programs have a responsibility to make those new to international medicine aware of the special circumstances that they may face and to provide methods for understanding and dealing with these circumstances. Standard "domestic" approaches to such challenges may not work in international medicine, even though these challenges may appear to be similar to those faced in other clinical settings. How should organizations ensure that well-meaning health intervention efforts do not cause adverse unintended sequelae? How should an individual balance respect for cultural uniqueness and local mores that may profoundly differ from his or her own beliefs, with the need to remain a moral agent true to one's self? When is acceptance the appropriate response to situations in which limitations of resources seem to preclude any good solution? Using a case-based approach, the authors discuss issues related to the four major international medicine domains: clinical practice (postdisaster response, resource limitations, standards of care), medical systems and systems development (prehospital care, wartime casualties, sustainable change, cultural awareness), teaching (instruction and local resources, professional preparation), and research (questionable funded studies, clinical trials, observational studies). It is hoped that this overview may help prepare those involved with international medicine for the challenges and dilemmas they may face and help frame their responses to these situations. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  10. Radiosurgery for epilepsy: Systematic review and International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Society (ISRS) practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigal, Aileen; Sahgal, Arjun; De Salles, Antonio; Hayashi, Motohiro; Levivier, Marc; Ma, Lijun; Martinez, Roberto; Paddick, Ian; Ryu, Samuel; Slotman, Ben J; Régis, Jean

    2017-11-01

    While there are many reports of radiosurgery for treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy, a literature review is lacking. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize current literature on the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (RS) for treatment of epilepsy. Literature search was performed using various combinations of the search terms "radiosurgery", "stereotactic radiosurgery", "Gamma Knife", "epilepsy" and "seizure", from 1990 until October 2015. Level of evidence was assessed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Fifty-five articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. Level 2 evidence (prospective studies) was available for the clinical indications of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) treated by Gamma Knife (GK) RS. For remaining indications including corpus callosotomy as palliative treatment, epilepsy related to cavernous malformation and extra-temporal epilepsy, only Level 4 data was available (case report, prospective observational study, or retrospective case series). No Level 1 evidence was available. Based on level 2 evidence, RS is an efficacious treatment to control seizures in MTLE, possibly resulting in superior neuropsychological outcomes and quality of life metrics in selected subjects compared to microsurgery. RS has a better risk-benefit ratio for small hypothalamic hamartomas compared to surgical methods Delayed therapeutic effect resulting in ongoing seizures is associated with morbidity and mortality risk. Lack of level 1 evidence precludes the formation of guidelines at present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Unesco's Global Ethics Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Have, H ten; Ang, T W

    2007-01-01

    The Global Ethics Observatory, launched by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization in December 2005, is a system of databases in the ethics of science and technology. It presents data on experts in ethics, on institutions (university departments and centres, commissions, councils and review boards, and societies and associations) and on teaching programmes in ethics. It has a global coverage and will be available in six major languages. Its aim is to facilitate the establishment of ethical infrastructures and international cooperation all around the world. PMID:17209103

  12. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines : comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  13. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M.; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  14. Variability in research ethics review of cluster randomized trials: a scenario-based survey in three countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) present unique ethical challenges. In the absence of a uniform standard for their ethical design and conduct, problems such as variability in procedures and requirements by different research ethics committees will persist. We aimed to assess the need for ethics guidelines for CRTs among research ethics chairs internationally, investigate variability in procedures for research ethics review of CRTs within and among countries, and elicit research ethics chairs’ perspectives on specific ethical issues in CRTs, including the identification of research subjects. The proper identification of research subjects is a necessary requirement in the research ethics review process, to help ensure, on the one hand, that subjects are protected from harm and exploitation, and on the other, that reviews of CRTs are completed efficiently. Methods A web-based survey with closed- and open-ended questions was administered to research ethics chairs in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The survey presented three scenarios of CRTs involving cluster-level, professional-level, and individual-level interventions. For each scenario, a series of questions was posed with respect to the type of review required (full, expedited, or no review) and the identification of research subjects at cluster and individual levels. Results A total of 189 (35%) of 542 chairs responded. Overall, 144 (84%, 95% CI 79 to 90%) agreed or strongly agreed that there is a need for ethics guidelines for CRTs and 158 (92%, 95% CI 88 to 96%) agreed or strongly agreed that research ethics committees could be better informed about distinct ethical issues surrounding CRTs. There was considerable variability among research ethics chairs with respect to the type of review required, as well as the identification of research subjects. The cluster-cluster and professional-cluster scenarios produced the most disagreement. Conclusions Research ethics committees

  15. Variability in research ethics review of cluster randomized trials: a scenario-based survey in three countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljaard, Monica; Brehaut, Jamie C; Weijer, Charles; Boruch, Robert; Donner, Allan; Eccles, Martin P; McRae, Andrew D; Saginur, Raphael; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2014-02-05

    Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) present unique ethical challenges. In the absence of a uniform standard for their ethical design and conduct, problems such as variability in procedures and requirements by different research ethics committees will persist. We aimed to assess the need for ethics guidelines for CRTs among research ethics chairs internationally, investigate variability in procedures for research ethics review of CRTs within and among countries, and elicit research ethics chairs' perspectives on specific ethical issues in CRTs, including the identification of research subjects. The proper identification of research subjects is a necessary requirement in the research ethics review process, to help ensure, on the one hand, that subjects are protected from harm and exploitation, and on the other, that reviews of CRTs are completed efficiently. A web-based survey with closed- and open-ended questions was administered to research ethics chairs in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The survey presented three scenarios of CRTs involving cluster-level, professional-level, and individual-level interventions. For each scenario, a series of questions was posed with respect to the type of review required (full, expedited, or no review) and the identification of research subjects at cluster and individual levels. A total of 189 (35%) of 542 chairs responded. Overall, 144 (84%, 95% CI 79 to 90%) agreed or strongly agreed that there is a need for ethics guidelines for CRTs and 158 (92%, 95% CI 88 to 96%) agreed or strongly agreed that research ethics committees could be better informed about distinct ethical issues surrounding CRTs. There was considerable variability among research ethics chairs with respect to the type of review required, as well as the identification of research subjects. The cluster-cluster and professional-cluster scenarios produced the most disagreement. Research ethics committees identified a clear need for ethics guidelines for

  16. Ethics in forensic psychiatry publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Reena; Young, John L; Coleman, Jacquelyn T; Norko, Michael A; Griffith, Ezra E H

    2011-01-01

    Several organizations have developed guidelines to help authors and editors of medical journals negotiate ethics dilemmas in publishing, but very little is known about how these guidelines translate to the context of forensic psychiatry. In this article, we explore the important topic of ethics in forensic psychiatry publishing. First, we review the historical development of ethics principles in medical and psychiatric publishing. We then analyze eight ethics dilemmas that have arisen in the publication of The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (The Journal) from 2000 to 2009, including disputes about authorship, conflict of interest, redundant publication, bias in peer reviewers, confidentiality in case reports, and others. We identify ethics principles that were relevant to the dilemmas and discuss how they were resolved by the editors of The Journal. We conclude by using the principles identified in the practical resolution of ethics dilemmas to derive a conceptual foundation for ethics in forensic psychiatry publishing.

  17. [Comparative analysis of occupational health physician's duties based upon legislative decree 81/2008 art. 25 and upon the Ethics Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G; Mora, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Ethical behaviour consists ofindividual choices inspired by knowledge and professional experience derived from the universally acknowledged ethical principles of beneficience/nonmaleficience, autonomy and justice. However, in spite of the unanimous consent on their universal importance, such principles do not usually have the strength of a law. The recently introduced Italian law on the protection of workers' health represents a novelty because it gives the Ethics Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health legal strength. This paper aims at examining article 25 of legislative decree 81/2008 by comparing the points of the Ethics Code and the Deontology Code of the Italian medical profession. The relationships between the 12 points of paragraph 1 of article 25, the 26 points ofthe Code ofEthics and the 75 articles of the Deontology Code are described with regard to the occupational health physician's duties (i) of collaboration with other occupational health professionals, (ii) of organization and execution of health surveillance, (iii) of recording, securing, transmitting of medical files on workers' health and (iv) of employee and employer information on the importance and meaning of health surveillance.

  18. Physicians’ Professionally Responsible Power: A Core Concept of Clinical Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B.

    2016-01-01

    The gathering of power unto themselves by physicians, a process supported by evidence-based practice, clinical guidelines, licensure, organizational culture, and other social factors, makes the ethics of power—the legitimation of physicians’ power—a core concept of clinical ethics. In the absence of legitimation, the physician’s power over patients becomes problematic, even predatory. As has occurred in previous issues of the Journal, the papers in the 2016 clinical ethics issue bear on the professionally responsible deployment of power by physicians. This introduction explores themes of physicians’ power in papers from an international group of authors who address autonomy and trust, the virtues of perinatal hospice, conjoined twins in ethics and law, addiction and autonomy in clinical research on addicting substances, euthanasia of patients with dementia in Belgium, and a pragmatic approach to clinical futility. PMID:26671961

  19. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O; Flores, Marie Therese

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group...

  20. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A

    2014-01-01

    Avulsion of permanent teeth is one of the most serious dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency management is very important for the prognosis. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and gr...

  1. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group di...

  2. Electronic Records Management and Archives in International Organizations: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar, Charles M.

    This study is a review of trends in information-handling technology and significant developments which are changing or will change the general environment within which archivists and records managers in international organizations will have to work. Trends in microelectronics, electronic storage, software, data transmission, computer architecture,…

  3. Conformity to the surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines among physicians in a general intensive care unit in Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung'ayi, V; Karuga, R

    2010-08-01

    There are emerging therapies for managing septic critically-ill patients. There is little data from the developing world on their usage. To determine the conformity rate for resuscitation and management bundles for septic patients amongst physicians in a general intensive care unit. Cross sectional observational study. The general intensive care unit, Aga Khan University Hospital,Nairobi. Admitting physicians from all specialties in the general intensive care unit. The physicians had high conformity rates of 92% and 96% for the fluid resuscitation and use of va so pressors respectively for the initial resuscitation bundle. They had moderate conformity rates for blood cultures prior to administering antibiotics (57%) and administration of antibiotics within first hour of recognition of septic shock (54%). There was high conformity rate to the glucose control policy (81%), use of protective lung strategy in acute lung injury/Acute respiratory distress syndrome, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (100%) and stress ulcer prophylaxis (100%) in the management bundle. Conformity was moderate for use of sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxant policy (69%), continuous renal replacement therapies (54%) and low for steroid policy (35%), administration ofdrotrecogin alfa (0%) and selective digestive decontamination (15%). There is varying conformity to the international sepsis guidelines among physicians caring for patients in our general ICU. Since increased conformity would improve survival and reduce morbidity, there is need for sustained education and guideline based performance improvement.

  4. International Society of Gynecological Pathologists (ISGyP) Endometrial Cancer Project: Guidelines From the Special Techniques and Ancillary Studies Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kathleen R; Cooper, Kumarasen; Croce, Sabrina; Djordevic, Bojana; Herrington, Simon; Howitt, Brooke; Hui, Pei; Ip, Philip; Koebel, Martin; Lax, Sigurd; Quade, Bradley J; Shaw, Patricia; Vidal, August; Yemelyanova, Anna; Clarke, Blaise; Hedrick Ellenson, Lora; Longacre, Teri A; Shih, Ie-Ming; McCluggage, W Glenn; Malpica, Anais; Oliva, Esther; Parkash, Vinita; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this article is to propose guidelines and recommendations in problematic areas in pathologic reporting of endometrial carcinoma (EC) regarding special techniques and ancillary studies. An organizing committee designed a comprehensive survey with different questions related to pathologic features, diagnosis, and prognosis of EC that was sent to all members of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists. The special techniques/ancillary studies group received 4 different questions to be addressed. Five members of the group reviewed the literature and came up with recommendations and an accompanying text which were discussed and agreed upon by all members of the group. Twelve different recommendations are made. They address the value of immunohistochemistry, ploidy, and molecular analysis for assessing prognosis in EC, the value of steroid hormone receptor analysis to predict response to hormone therapy, and parameters regarding applying immunohistochemistry and molecular tests for assessing mismatch deficiency in EC.

  5. Towards a water ethic. Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    We continue to expand a water supply that has ecological and economical limits. Drip irrigation techniques, rainwater harvesting, and use of water=saving plumbing fixtures can help solve our water shortage problem. The core of the predicament is that society is no longer connected to water's life=giving qualities. Modern society does not respect the natural river, the complexity of a wetland, and the intricate web of life. It considers water to be a resource only to control for human consumption. Humans do not realize that they should preserve and protect water. We need guidelines to force us to act appropriately when we must make complex decisions about natural ecosystems whose workings evade us. The ultimate goal of this water ethic should be protection of water ecosystems. Adoption of this integrated, holistic ethic would call for the use of less water when possible and to share what we have. This ethic would be part of a sustainable development code which blends economic goals with ecological criteria. The water ethic would have indicators monitoring the breakdown of ecosystems, therefore allowing us to make corrections to restore ecosystems to health. We see some of this now as Florida tries to restore the Everglades damaged by unsustainable development. We should watch to see whether Botswana will continue to keep economic development from the Okavango Delta. Governments, the World Bank, and other lending institutions should make investment decisions based on ecological sustainability. The water ethic must include a social and political commitment to meet the basic needs of the poor. International relations must also consider equity and fairness when it comes to developing water-sharing terms and treaties. Individuals need to reduce their water consumption and consumption of goods whose manufacture requires water use resulting in water pollution. Population growth needs to slow down considerably to secure out water future.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and the guidelines of the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, H

    2012-04-01

    The International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) is an international tripartite cooperation programme that brings together regulatory authorities and industry representatives from the European Union, Japan and the United States, with Australia, New Zealand and Canada as observers. VICH aims to improve international coordination and cooperation to achieve greater harmonisation of the requirements for veterinary product registration in the regions concerned. VICH develops harmonised data requirements, i.e., standards for the scientific studies on quality, safety and efficacy that are required to obtain a marketing authorisation for a veterinary medicinal product. It does this by publishing guidelines that provide uniform and consistent guidance for sponsors to follow in developing data for application dossiers as well as for post-marketing safety monitoring of veterinary medicinal products. Of the 49 VICH guidelines that have been developed so far, two guidelines in particular address issues related to antimicrobial resistance.

  7. Are patients with COPD treated with NIV in accordance with national guidelines? An internal audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlestad, Ingrid L; Olsen, Fanny; Sandqvist, Hanna M; Pourbazargan, Melvin M; Fretheim, Håvard H; Lassen, Annmarie T; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) as an add-on modality to medical treatment has been recommended in national guidelines for patients acutely admitted with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) exacerbation and hypercapnic respiratory failure. To address concerns regarding whether NIV is used appropriately, we conducted an audit of COPD patients admitted to a university hospital in Denmark. Data from medical records were retrieved for two cohorts in 2010: 1) all patients admitted to the Medical Emergency Ward with the diagnosis of COPD, and 2) all patients receiving NIV regardless of their diagnosis at the Respiratory Ward. Demographic data and outcome of treatment were registered. Cohort 1 comprised 804 admissions fulfilling criteria for COPD at evaluation, and of the 804 admissions, NIV was initiated in 151 (18.7%) admissions. In 42 additional cases (5.2%), initial mild respiratory acidosis was registered at admission, fulfilling criteria for NIV treatment; and, in 36 cases, the clinical status was reported as improved or not reported at all; no deaths were observed. In cohort 2, 124 admissions were registered that comprised 110 admissions with COPD and 14 without a diagnosis of COPD (of which half had a 'not-to-intubate' order). The indication for NIV treatment was met in 92.7% of the COPD admissions. NIV was initiated in 18.8% of the COPD admissions, and in an additional 5.2%, NIV criteria were met without initiation. In 82.3% of the admissions receiving NIV, a COPD diagnosis and correct criteria for NIV treatment were met.

  8. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. Internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Trano, J.L.; Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.

    1999-01-01

    This work represent a guide for the treatment of accidental intakes of radionuclides. The different phases of radioactive contamination, the transfer and non-transfer of radioisotopes, the general principles in the treatment of internal contamination and the follow-up are determined. The in vivo monitoring and the evaluation of activity level are specified in this document. The applied treatment depends on the via of intake, that is: inhalation, ingestion, and through skin. The decontamination procedures that reduce the radionuclide transfer are specified. The different drugs, used to enhance radionuclides elimination, are enumerated in this work. Considerations about the iodine prophylaxis in radiologic als accidents are considered. (author)

  9. Reporting of ethical protection in recent oral and maxillofacial surgery research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Sader, R; Hervé, C; Dhanuthai, K; Bertrand, J-Ch; Hemprich, A

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective observational study investigated the frequency of reporting ethical approval and informed consent in recently published oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) research involving human subjects. All research involving human subjects published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery during January to June 2005-2007 were analysed for disclosure of ethical approval by a local ethical committee and obtaining informed consent from the subjects. 534 articles were identified; ethical approval was documented in 118 (22%) and individual patient consent in 135 (25%). 355 reports (67%) did not include a statement on ethical approval or informed consent and only 74 reports (14%) disclosed statements of both. Ethical documentation in retrospective and observational studies was scant; 12% of randomised controlled trials and 38% of non-random trials did not report both of ethical protections. Most recent OMS publications involving humans failed to mention ethical review or subjects' consent. Authors must adhere to the international research ethics guidelines and journal instructions, while editors should play a gatekeeper role to protect research participants, uphold scientific integrity and maintain public trust in the experimental process and OMS profession.

  10. Research in business ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in business ethics is vital for the expansion and credibility of this fairly recent academic field. This article argues that there are three factors that are crucially important for research in business ethics. They are (a the ontological assumptions that research in this field is premised upon, (b the choice of research strategies and methodologies and (c the role of theory in research practice. Each of these three factors is explored and pitfalls relating to each of them are identified. The article also suggests guidelines for dealing with each of these factors in business ethics research.

  11. Association between the Adherence to the International Guidelines for Cancer Prevention and Mammographic Density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available Mammographic density (MD is considered a strong predictor of Breast Cancer (BC. The objective of the present study is to explore the association between MD and the compliance with the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention.Data of 3584 women attending screening from a population-based multicenter cross-sectional study (DDM-Spain collected from October 7, 2007 through July 14, 2008, was used to calculate a score that measures the level of compliance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations: R1Maintain adequate body weight; R2Be physically active; 3RLimit the intake of high density foods; R4Eat mostly plant foods; R5Limit the intake of animal foods; R6Limit alcohol intake; R7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; R8Meet nutritional needs through diet. The association between the score and MD (assessed by a single radiologist using a semi-quantitative scale was evaluated using ordinal logistic models with random center-specific intercepts adjusted for the main determinants of MD. Stratified analyses by menopausal status and smoking status were also carried out.A higher compliance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with lower MD (OR1-unit increase = 0.93 95%CI:0.86;0.99. The association was stronger in postmenopausal women (OR = 0.91 95%CI:0.84;0.99 and nonsmokers (OR = 0.87;95%CI:0.80;0.96 for nonsmokers, OR = 1.01 95%CI:0.91;1.12 for smokers, P-interaction = 0.042. Among nonsmokers, maintaining adequate body weight (OR = 0.81 95%CI:0.65;1.01, practicing physical activity (OR = 0.68 95%CI:0.48;0.96 and moderating the intake of high-density foods (OR = 0.58 95%CI:0.40;0.86 and alcoholic beverages (OR = 0.76 95%CI:0.55;1.05 were the recommendations showing the strongest associations with MD.postmenopausal women and non-smokers with greater compliance with the WCRF/AICR guidelines have lower MD. These results may provide guidance to design specific

  12. A Study on an Effective Education Strategy for Enhancing the Researcher's Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung-Joo; Hwang, In-A; Choi, Sun-Yeong; Kwon, Hyuk; Lee, Dae Sung; Yoo, Jae-Bok

    2007-12-15

    Pressure on the researcher has been increased by R and D competition and outcome-oriented evaluation system in the circumstance of increased R and D investment of government and high speed of technological development. Education for research ethics and conscience is more needed for the purpose of researcher's healthy and sound research attitude in this high pressured research environment. This textbook and educational module for research ethics are produced in order to satisfy the need. The text book, 'practical research ethics', is consisted of three chapters. Chapter one, Consciousness of the Research Ethics, deals with the background, definition, and importance of the ethics. Second chapter, Communion, discusses responsible research attitudes, and verification process under research ethical guideline. Chapter 3, Practice of Research Ethics, demonstrates practical guideline. Code and Rules of Ministry of Science and Technology related with the issues and foreign cases are compiled in appendix. Educational module for the textbook includes diverse materials, examples, and video. Educational technique for the module adopts participants' discussion, case analysis, and brain-storming. Applying the textbook and education module into each R and D Institute and academy is expected with suitable modification of each situation. The process will bring up internal discussion and consensus on the research ethics. Case analysis and composing network for practical adopting process will be the next step of this study.

  13. A Study on an Effective Education Strategy for Enhancing the Researcher's Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung-Joo; Hwang, In-A; Choi, Sun-Yeong; Kwon, Hyuk; Lee, Dae Sung; Yoo, Jae-Bok

    2007-12-01

    Pressure on the researcher has been increased by R and D competition and outcome-oriented evaluation system in the circumstance of increased R and D investment of government and high speed of technological development. Education for research ethics and conscience is more needed for the purpose of researcher's healthy and sound research attitude in this high pressured research environment. This textbook and educational module for research ethics are produced in order to satisfy the need. The text book, 'practical research ethics', is consisted of three chapters. Chapter one, Consciousness of the Research Ethics, deals with the background, definition, and importance of the ethics. Second chapter, Communion, discusses responsible research attitudes, and verification process under research ethical guideline. Chapter 3, Practice of Research Ethics, demonstrates practical guideline. Code and Rules of Ministry of Science and Technology related with the issues and foreign cases are compiled in appendix. Educational module for the textbook includes diverse materials, examples, and video. Educational technique for the module adopts participants' discussion, case analysis, and brain-storming. Applying the textbook and education module into each R and D Institute and academy is expected with suitable modification of each situation. The process will bring up internal discussion and consensus on the research ethics. Case analysis and composing network for practical adopting process will be the next step of this study

  14. Evidence and Ethics (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-12-01

    EBLIP is in dealing with a submission from one of the editorial team (Koufogiannakis, 2012. Strong ethical principles have been at the heart of the EBLIP journal since its inception, but decision making is quite informal and based on the agreement of the editorial team members who meet monthly and communicate regularly by email. In keeping with our informal decision making structure the editorial team discussed how to deal with the submission by an editorial team member and decided that it should be treated in exactly the same way as any other submission (i.e., subject to double blind peer review and would need to adhere to the decision of the appropriate editor. To do this we also needed to adjust the Open Journal System, so that the submitting editor did not have access to the area where submissions and reviews are stored. In line with the COPE code (2011, we then made this procedure explicit on our web site (http://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/EBLIP/about/editorialPolicies#peerReviewProcess, as well as documenting the decision on our internal wiki. As the journal grows and develops, it is important that our decision making and principles maintain consistency and are made explicit. We also need to plan for the future and ensure that the journal is open to as wide a range of people as possible. To this end all our positions are advertised widely, and each application is reviewed by at least two members of the team. Terms of office and a policy for succession planning have also been established. The criteria and policies are stored on a wiki, which hosts a wide range of guidelines, procedures, and documents and is used by all members of the editorial team. As the team grows and similar issues are faced by new members of the editorial team, we have a reference point, policy, or guide to ensure that the decisions made are consistent. As appropriate these can be reflected in the policies which are stated on the journal website and are available to all our users

  15. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control: A Tool for Securing Women's Rights in Drug Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Rebecca; Pol, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to 'mainstream' this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women's experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women's rights in drug control policy design and implementation.

  16. [Consolidation of international guidelines for the management of canine populations in urban areas and proposal of performance indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Calderón, Néstor; Ferreira, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a generic program for the management of urban canine populations with suggestion of performance indicators. The following international guidelines on canine population management were revised and consolidated: World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Society for the Protection of Animals, International Companion Animal Management Coalition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Management programs should cover: situation diagnosis, including estimates of population size; social participation with involvement of various sectors in the planning and execution of strategies; educational actions to promote humane values, animal welfare, community health, and responsible ownership (through purchase or adoption); environmental and waste management to eliminate sources of food and shelter; registration and identification of animals; animal health care, reproductive control; prevention and control of zoonoses; control of animal commerce; management of animal behavior and adequate solutions for abandoned animals; and laws regulating responsible ownership, prevention of abandonment and zoonoses. To monitor these actions, four groups of indicators are suggested: animal population indicators, human/animal interaction indicators, public service indicators, and zoonosis indicators. The management of stray canine populations requires political, sanitary, ethologic, ecologic, and humanitarian strategies that are socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable. Such measures must also include the control of zoonoses such as rabies and leishmaniasis, considering the concept of "one health," which benefits both the animals and people in the community.

  17. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Lena, E-mail: lena.specht@regionh.dk [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Yahalom, Joachim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Illidge, Tim [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Berthelsen, Anne Kiil [Department of Radiation Oncology and PET Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Pediatrics, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Eich, Hans Theodor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Münster (Germany); Girinsky, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Hoppe, Richard T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Mauch, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mikhaeel, N. George [Department of Clinical Oncology and Radiotherapy, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and an important component of therapy for many patients. These guidelines have been developed to address the use of RT in HL in the modern era of combined modality treatment. The role of reduced volumes and doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. The previously applied extended field (EF) and original involved field (IF) techniques, which treated larger volumes based on nodal stations, have now been replaced by the use of limited volumes, based solely on detectable nodal (and extranodal extension) involvement at presentation, using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or a combination of these techniques. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented when their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control. The highly conformal involved node radiation therapy (INRT), recently introduced for patients for whom optimal imaging is available, is explained. A new concept, involved site radiation therapy (ISRT), is introduced as the standard conformal therapy for the scenario, commonly encountered, wherein optimal imaging is not available. There is increasing evidence that RT doses used in the past are higher than necessary for disease control in this era of combined modality therapy. The use of INRT and of lower doses in early-stage HL is supported by available data. Although the

  18. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis S.; Eich, Hans Theodor; Girinsky, Theodore; Hoppe, Richard T.; Mauch, Peter; Mikhaeel, N. George; Ng, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and an important component of therapy for many patients. These guidelines have been developed to address the use of RT in HL in the modern era of combined modality treatment. The role of reduced volumes and doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. The previously applied extended field (EF) and original involved field (IF) techniques, which treated larger volumes based on nodal stations, have now been replaced by the use of limited volumes, based solely on detectable nodal (and extranodal extension) involvement at presentation, using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or a combination of these techniques. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented when their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control. The highly conformal involved node radiation therapy (INRT), recently introduced for patients for whom optimal imaging is available, is explained. A new concept, involved site radiation therapy (ISRT), is introduced as the standard conformal therapy for the scenario, commonly encountered, wherein optimal imaging is not available. There is increasing evidence that RT doses used in the past are higher than necessary for disease control in this era of combined modality therapy. The use of INRT and of lower doses in early-stage HL is supported by available data. Although the

  19. Modern radiation therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma: field and dose guidelines from the international lymphoma radiation oncology group (ILROG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis S; Eich, Hans Theodor; Girinsky, Theodore; Hoppe, Richard T; Mauch, Peter; Mikhaeel, N George; Ng, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and an important component of therapy for many patients. These guidelines have been developed to address the use of RT in HL in the modern era of combined modality treatment. The role of reduced volumes and doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. The previously applied extended field (EF) and original involved field (IF) techniques, which treated larger volumes based on nodal stations, have now been replaced by the use of limited volumes, based solely on detectable nodal (and extranodal extension) involvement at presentation, using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or a combination of these techniques. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented when their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control. The highly conformal involved node radiation therapy (INRT), recently introduced for patients for whom optimal imaging is available, is explained. A new concept, involved site radiation therapy (ISRT), is introduced as the standard conformal therapy for the scenario, commonly encountered, wherein optimal imaging is not available. There is increasing evidence that RT doses used in the past are higher than necessary for disease control in this era of combined modality therapy. The use of INRT and of lower doses in early-stage HL is supported by available data. Although the

  20. People who perceive themselves as active cannot identify the intensity recommended by the international physical activity guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop NW

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neal W Prokop,1 Travis JR Hrubeniuk,1 Martin Sénéchal,2,3 Danielle R Bouchard1,4 1Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 2Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 4Health, Leisure, and Human Performance Research Institute, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Background: Many national and international organizations recommend that adults achieve at least 150 minutes of aerobic physical activity (PA weekly, at a minimum moderate intensity to optimize health benefits. It is unknown if people who consider themselves as active have the ability to identify what is considered moderate intensity. Methods: Fifty-one participants who reported achieving a minimum 150 minutes per week at a minimum of moderate intensity PA were recruited through a local fitness facility. All participants underwent a single assessment involving questionnaires, clinical measures, and a treadmill test to measure the ability to perceive moderate intensity. Following the visit, participants' PA level was evaluated by heart rate monitor, while exercising, for 7 consecutive days. Results: Eighty percent of participants overestimated moderate intensity on the treadmill test; they were at vigorous intensity compared to what is considered moderate. Only 11.8% of participants accurately identified moderate intensity; all of them were women (P=0.03, had a high level of education (P=0.04, and knew that moderate intensity was the minimum intensity recommended by health organizations (P<0.01. Only 69.2% of participants reached the aerobic component of the International Physical Activity Guidelines with no significant advantage for those correctly identifying moderate intensity. Conclusion: Most people who perceive themselves as active are exercising at vigorous intensity while believing they are

  1. Nutrition: ethics and social implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet-Loedin, Inez H; Jenie, Iumar A

    2007-01-01

    In October 2003, the general conference of UNESCO adopted the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, followed by the adoption of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights in October 2005 to ensure the respect of human dignity and the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the collection, processing, use and storage of human genetic data with the requirement of equality, justice and solidarity. Nutrigenomics studies the relationship between specific nutrients or diet and polymorphisms and gene expression; therefore, eventually diet can be tailored for each individual. The dietary intervention is based on collected human genetic data that eventually build knowledge of nutritional requirements, and the nutritional status of different human genotypes. This knowledge can be used to prevent, mitigate or cure chronic diseases. As in another branch of posthuman genome science, it is a global concern that the collected data should not be misused or create inequity. Some ethical issues raised and discussed in this paper are: (1) consent and confidentiality issues in the collection and storage of data, (2) genetic screening and how to prevent inequity, (3) regulatory oversight and in a wider context the need to improve public confidence in biotechnology-related science, (4) other social issues. The ethical issues in nutrigenomics need clear and concise guidelines developed in accordance with the universally adopted declarations and ethical concern needs to be integrated in the scientific design. Efforts to improve the public awareness, public participation and consultation need to be made at the early stage of the development of nutrigenomics.

  2. Balancing Ethics and Quality in Educational Research--The Ethical Matrix Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Reidun

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses ethical issues in educational research with a focus on the interplay between research ethics and both internal and external quality of research. Research ethics is divided into three domains: (1) ethics "within" the research community; (2) ethics concerning relationships with "individuals and groups directly…

  3. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  4. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.C.W.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Beurden-Berkers, K.M.; Terluin, B.; Ruotsalainen, J.H.; Woo, J.; Choi, K.S.; Eguchi, H.; Moriguchi, J.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; van Weeghel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  5. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needAbout 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredInvited Commentary:Brief, provocative, opinionated communicationsOn issues of current public health needMain Text: 750-1000 words excluding referencesReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredOriginal Article:Articles from Original ResearchStructured abstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 words, IMRD formatKey Words: 5 - 8References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReview Article:On subject of public health relevanceAbstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 wordsKey Words: 3 - 4References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4Short Communication / Article:Short report of a research project / outbreakMain Text : 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 10 – 15 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 01*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReport from the field

  6. IPPAS guidelines. Reference document for the IAEA International Physical Protection Advisory Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA International Physical protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) provides advice to Member States to assist them in strengthening the effectiveness of their national physical protection system whilst recognizing the ultimate responsibility for physical protection is that of the Member State. The IPPAS is available to all countries with nuclear materials and facilities. The basic concepts, purposes and functions of physical protection are provided in INFCIR/225, 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities' as amended from time to time and 'the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (INFCIR/247/Rev.1). The guidance given in INFCIR/225 recognizes that implementation of these requirements vary from country to country depending on their existing constitutional, legal and administrative systems; the assessment of the threat for the potential theft of nuclear material or sabotage of nuclear facilities; the technical skills and professional and financial resources available to the competent authority; and social customs and cultural traditions. IPPAS missions are performance oriented in that they accept different approaches to the implementation of national physical protection system

  7. Validation in Support of Internationally Harmonised OECD Test Guidelines for Assessing the Safety of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelon, Anne; Delrue, Nathalie

    Ten years elapsed since the OECD published the Guidance document on the validation and international regulatory acceptance of test methods for hazard assessment. Much experience has been gained since then in validation centres, in countries and at the OECD on a variety of test methods that were subjected to validation studies. This chapter reviews validation principles and highlights common features that appear to be important for further regulatory acceptance across studies. Existing OECD-agreed validation principles will most likely generally remain relevant and applicable to address challenges associated with the validation of future test methods. Some adaptations may be needed to take into account the level of technique introduced in test systems, but demonstration of relevance and reliability will continue to play a central role as pre-requisite for the regulatory acceptance. Demonstration of relevance will become more challenging for test methods that form part of a set of predictive tools and methods, and that do not stand alone. OECD is keen on ensuring that while these concepts evolve, countries can continue to rely on valid methods and harmonised approaches for an efficient testing and assessment of chemicals.

  8. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. International guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents a guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This generic international guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and complete grid-connected photovoltaic systems describes a set of recommended methods and tests that may be used to verify the integrity of hardware and installations, compliance with applicable standards/codes and can be used to provide a measure of the performance of components or of entire systems. The guideline is to help ensure that photovoltaic installations are both safe for equipment as well as for personnel when used according to the applicable installation standards and codes. The guideline may be used in any country using the rules stipulated by the applicable standards and codes and by applying them to the guideline's recommended tests. This document uses examples for some tests but does not specify exact test set-ups, equipment accuracy, equipment manufacturers or calibration procedures.

  9. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics: revised and extended guidelines for mitochondrial DNA typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, W; Gusmão, L; Hares, D R; Irwin, J A; Mayr, W R; Morling, N; Pokorak, E; Prinz, M; Salas, A; Schneider, P M; Parsons, T J

    2014-11-01

    The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the question of human identification. Previous recommendations published in 2000 addressed the analysis and interpretation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in forensic casework. While the foundations set forth in the earlier recommendations still apply, new approaches to the quality control, alignment and nomenclature of mitochondrial sequences, as well as the establishment of mtDNA reference population databases, have been developed. Here, we describe these developments and discuss their application to both mtDNA casework and mtDNA reference population databasing applications. While the generation of mtDNA for forensic casework has always been guided by specific standards, it is now well-established that data of the same quality are required for the mtDNA reference population data used to assess the statistical weight of the evidence. As a result, we introduce guidelines regarding sequence generation, as well as quality control measures based on the known worldwide mtDNA phylogeny, that can be applied to ensure the highest quality population data possible. For both casework and reference population databasing applications, the alignment and nomenclature of haplotypes is revised here and the phylogenetic alignment proffered as acceptable standard. In addition, the interpretation of heteroplasmy in the forensic context is updated, and the utility of alignment-free database searches for unbiased probability estimates is highlighted. Finally, we discuss statistical issues and define minimal standards for mtDNA database searches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Whistleblowing and organizational ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Susan L

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss an external whistleblowing event that occurred after all internal whistleblowing through the hierarchy of the organization had failed. It is argued that an organization that does not support those that whistle blow because of violation of professional standards is indicative of a failure of organizational ethics. Several ways to build an ethics infrastructure that could reduce the need to resort to external whistleblowing are discussed. A relational ethics approach is presented as a way to eliminate the negative consequences of whistleblowing by fostering an interdependent moral community to address ethical concerns.

  11. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  12. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

  13. Literacy Research, Ethics and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delandshere, Ginette

    2007-01-01

    In this article I examine the ethics of conducting literacy research, beyond what is typically addressed in current ethical guidelines. Using a few studies as examples, I analyse how the conception of research that underlies literacy research is grounded in ethics based on individual autonomy that allow researchers to disregard their social…

  14. Implementing international sexual counselling guidelines in hospital cardiac rehabilitation: development of the CHARMS intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Sharry, J; Murphy, P J; Byrne, M

    2016-10-10

    Decreased sexual activity and sexual problems are common among people with cardiovascular disease, negatively impacting relationship satisfaction and quality of life. International guidelines recommend routine delivery of sexual counselling to cardiac patients. The Cardiac Health and Relationship Management and Sexuality (CHARMS) baseline study in Ireland found, similar to international findings, limited implementation of sexual counselling guidelines in practice. The aim of the current study was to develop the CHARMS multi-level intervention to increase delivery of sexual counselling by healthcare professionals. We describe the methods used to develop the CHARMS intervention following the three phases of the Behaviour Change Wheel approach: understand the behaviour, identify intervention options, and identify content and implementation options. Survey (n = 60) and focus group (n = 14) data from two previous studies exploring why sexual counselling is not currently being delivered were coded by two members of the research team to understand staff's capability, opportunity, and motivation to engage in the behaviour. All potentially relevant intervention functions to change behaviour were identified and the APEASE (affordability, practicability, effectiveness, acceptability, side effects and equity) criteria were used to select the most appropriate. The APEASE criteria were then used to choose between all behaviour change techniques (BCTs) potentially relevant to the identified functions, and these BCTs were translated into intervention content. The Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist was used to specify details of the intervention including the who, what, how and where of proposed intervention delivery. Providing sexual counselling group sessions by cardiac rehabilitation staff to patients during phase III cardiac rehabilitation was identified as the target behaviour. Education, enablement, modelling, persuasion and

  15. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline - dependent automated segmentation tool for loco-regional radiation therapy of early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldesoky, A.R.; Yates, E.S.; Nyeng, T.B.; Thomsen, M.S.; Nielsen, H.M.; Poortmans, P.; Kirkove, C.; Krause, M.; Kamby, C.; Mjaaland, I.; Blix, E.S.; Jensen, I.; Berg, M; Lorenzen, E.L.; Taheri-Kadkhoda, Z.; Offersen, B.V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized

  16. The Importance and Degree of Implementation of the European Standards and Guidelines for Internal Quality Assurance in Universities: The Views of Portuguese Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatos, Maria J.; Rosa, Maria J.; Sarrico, Cláudia S.

    2015-01-01

    This research seeks to explore academics' perceptions of the importance and degree of implementation of the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG) for internal quality assurance. It uses empirical evidence from Portugal, gathered via a questionnaire given to all university academics. Results show…

  17. Evidence- and consensus-based (S3) Guidelines for the Treatment of Actinic Keratosis - International League of Dermatological Societies in cooperation with the European Dermatology Forum - Short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, R N; Stockfleth, E; Connolly, S M; Correia, O; Erdmann, R; Foley, P; Gupta, A K; Jacobs, A; Kerl, H; Lim, H W; Martin, G; Paquet, M; Pariser, D M; Rosumeck, S; Röwert-Huber, H-J; Sahota, A; Sangueza, O P; Shumack, S; Sporbeck, B; Swanson, N A; Torezan, L; Nast, A

    2015-11-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a frequent health condition attributable to chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Several treatment options are available and evidence based guidelines are missing. The goal of these evidence- and consensus-based guidelines was the development of treatment recommendations appropriate for different subgroups of patients presenting with AK. A secondary aim of these guidelines was the implementation of knowledge relating to the clinical background of AK, including consensus-based recommendations for the histopathological definition, diagnosis and the assessment of patients. The guidelines development followed a pre-defined and structured process. For the underlying systematic literature review of interventions for AK, the methodology suggested by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was adapted. All recommendations were consented during a consensus conference using a formal consensus methodology. Strength of recommendations was expressed based on the GRADE approach. If expert opinion without external evidence was incorporated into the reasoning for making a certain recommendation, the rationale was provided. The Guidelines underwent open public review and approval by the commissioning societies. Various interventions for the treatment of AK have been assessed for their efficacy. The consenting procedure led to a treatment algorithm as shown in the guidelines document. Based on expert consensus, the present guidelines present recommendations on the classification of patients, diagnosis and histopathological definition of AK. Details on the methods and results of the systematic literature review and guideline development process have been published separately. International guidelines are intended to be adapted to national or regional

  18. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  19. The Ethics of Breast Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Alyssa; VanderWalde, Lindi; Brackett, Craig; Dominici, Laura; Eisenhauer, Thomas; Johnson, Nathalie; Kong, Amanda; Ludwig, Kandice; O'Neill, Jennifer; Pugliese, Matthew; Teller, Paige; Sarantou, Terry

    2015-10-01

    Breast surgery has evolved as a subspecialty of general surgery and requires a working knowledge of benign and malignant diseases, surgical techniques, shared decision-making with patients, collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team, and a basic foundation in surgical ethics. Ethics is defined as the practice of analyzing, evaluating, and promoting best conduct based upon available standards. As new information is obtained or as cultural values change, best conduct may be re-defined. In 2014, the Ethics Committee of the ASBrS acknowledged numerous ethical issues, specific to the practice of breast surgery. This independent review of ethical concerns was created by the Ethics Committee to provide a resource for ASBrS members as well as other surgeons who perform breast surgery. In this review, the professional, clinical, research and technology considerations that breast surgeons face are reviewed with guidelines for ethical physician behavior.

  20. Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician Survey: physician knowledge and application of COPD management guidelines in 12 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis KJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kourtney J Davis,1 Sarah H Landis,2 Yeon-Mok Oh,3 David M Mannino,4 MeiLan K Han,5 Thys van der Molen,6 Zaurbek Aisanov,7 Ana M Menezes,8 Masakazu Ichinose,9 Hana Muellerova11Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Wavre, Belgium; 2Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK; 3University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 4University of Kentucky College of Public Health, Lexington, KY, USA; 5Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 6University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 7Pulmonology Research Institute, Moscow, Russia; 8Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil; 9Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanAim: Utilizing data from the Continuing to Confront COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease International Physician Survey, this study aimed to describe physicians’ knowledge and application of the GOLD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD diagnosis and treatment recommendations and compare performance between primary care physicians (PCPs and respiratory specialists.Materials and methods: Physicians from 12 countries were sampled from in-country professional databases; 1,307 physicians (PCP to respiratory specialist ratio three to one who regularly consult with COPD, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis patients were interviewed online, by telephone or face to face. Physicians were questioned about COPD risk factors, prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment, including knowledge and application of the GOLD global strategy using patient scenarios.Results: Physicians reported using spirometry routinely (PCPs 82%, respiratory specialists 100%; P<0.001 to diagnose COPD and frequently included validated patient-reported outcome measures (PCPs 67%, respiratory specialists 81%; P<0.001. Respiratory

  1. The International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--chapter 1: Key ethical requirements and progress toward the definition of an international regulatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Tallacchini, Mariachiara; Flanagan, Enda B; Pierson, Richard N; Sykes, Megan; Vanderpool, Harold Y

    2009-01-01

    The outstanding results recently obtained in islet xenotransplantation suggest that porcine islet clinical trials may soon be scientifically appropriate. Before the initiation of such clinical studies, however, it is essential that a series of key ethical and regulatory conditions are satisfied. As far as ethics is concerned, the fundamental requirements have been previously reported in a position paper of the Ethics Committee of the International Xenotransplantation Association. These include aspects related to the selection of adequately informed, appropriate recipients; animal breeding and welfare; safety issues and the need for a favorable risk/benefit assessment based on strong efficacy data in relevant xenotransplantation studies in the primate. As most diabetic patients are not at risk of short-term mortality without islet transplantation, only a small subset of patients could currently be considered for any type of islet transplant. However, there are potential advantages to xenotransplantation that could result in a favorable benefit-over-harm determination for islet xenotransplantation in this subpopulation and ultimately in a broader population of diabetic patients. With regard to regulatory aspects, the key concepts underlying the development of the regulatory models in existence in the United States, Europe and New Zealand are discussed. Each of these models provides an example of a well-defined regulatory approach to ensure the initiation of well-regulated and ethically acceptable clinical islet xenotransplantation trials. At this stage, it becomes apparent that only a well-coordinated international effort such as that initiated by the World Health Organization, aimed at harmonizing xenotransplantation procedures according to the highest ethical and regulatory standards on a global scale, will enable the initiation of clinical xenotransplantation trials under the best auspices for its success and minimize any risk of failure.

  2. Ethics in Digital Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiidenberg, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    This chapter joins the voices that consider research ethics to be a matter of situated, responsible judgment, rather than a matter of universal principles and rigid guidelines. When collecting data about or in digitally saturated contexts, we need to consciously choose between what is available, ......, as well as questions about using hacked or tainted data are also explored....

  3. Improving the Quality of Host Country Ethical Oversight of International Research: The Use of a Collaborative 'Pre-Review' Mechanism for a Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Carl H; Ardiot, Chantal; Blesson, Séverine; Bonnin, Yves; Bompart, Francois; Colonna, Pierre; Dhai, Ames; Ecuru, Julius; Edielu, Andrew; Hervé, Christian; Hirsch, François; Kouyaté, Bocar; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Maoundé, Dionko; Martinent, Eric; Ntsiba, Honoré; Pelé, Gérard; Quéva, Gilles; Reinmund, Marie-Christine; Sarr, Samba Cor; Sepou, Abdoulaye; Tarral, Antoine; Tetimian, Djetodjide; Valverde, Olaf; Van Nieuwenhove, Simon; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), an independent nonprofit organization founded by a coalition of public sector and international organizations, developed a mechanism to facilitate more effective and efficient host country ethics review for a study of the use of fexinidazole for the treatment of late stage African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). The project involved the implementation of a novel 'pre-review' process of ethical oversight, conducted by an ad hoc committee of ethics committee representatives from African and European countries, in collaboration with internationally recognized scientific experts. This article examines the process and outcomes of this collaborative process. © 2014 The Authors. Developing World Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Implementing flexible bronchoscopy in least developed countries according to international guidelines is feasible and sustainable: example from Phnom-Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veaudor, Martin; Couraud, Sébastien; Chan, Sophors; Choun, Chanraksmey; Keo, Pisethmorokoth; Avrillon, Virginie; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Ny, Chanty

    2017-01-10

    Flexible bronchoscopy is pivotal for the diagnosis of most respiratory diseases. A flexible bronchoscopy unit (FBU) was created in 2008 in the Preah Kossamak university hospital (Phnom Penh, Cambodia) through a cooperation program between a French and a Cambodian team. In 2009 we conducted an assessment of the compliance of the FBU to international standards and found that most of French and British guidelines were fully applied or adapted to local practice. The aim of the current work was to assess FBU again 6 years later, in order to determine if compliance to international guidelines was sustainable. The 2015 evaluation was conducted identically to 2009. All recommendation items from the French and the British Thoracic Societies guidelines were assessed individually. Each recommendation was assigned a status expressing the level at which it was respected in Cambodia: applied, adapted, not applied and not evaluable. An endoscope microbial sampling was performed as recommended by the French Ministry of Health. Between 2009 and 2015, the pattern of international recommendations in the Cambodian FBU did not change. Notably the rates of applied French evaluable recommendations remained stable: respectively 58% vs 57%. Main changes in French guidelines occurred in adapted items that became applied (n = 5/15) while 4 previously adapted/applied items became not applied. Furthermore, all microbial analyses showed sterile results. Our results show that implementation of a high quality FBU in a least-developed country is feasible. In addition, the performance is maintained in the long-term.

  5. Research ethics for clinical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, John D; Neuman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of the development of modern research ethics. The governance of research ethics is discussed and varies according to geographical location. However, the guidelines used for research ethics review are very similar across a wide variety of jurisdictions. The paramount importance of protecting the privacy and confidentiality of research participants is discussed at length. Particular emphasis is placed on the process of informed consent, and step-by-step practical guidelines are described. The issue of research in vulnerable populations is touched upon and guidelines are provided. Practical advice is provided for researchers to guide their interactions with research ethics boards. Issues related to scientific misconduct and research fraud are not dealt with in this paper.

  6. Beyond a code of ethics: phenomenological ethics for everyday practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Bruce; Jensen, Gail M

    2010-06-01

    Physical therapy, like all health-care professions, governs itself through a code of ethics that defines its obligations of professional behaviours. The code of ethics provides professions with a consistent and common moral language and principled guidelines for ethical actions. Yet, and as argued in this paper, professional codes of ethics have limits applied to ethical decision-making in the presence of ethical dilemmas. Part of the limitations of the codes of ethics is that there is no particular hierarchy of principles that govern in all situations. Instead, the exigencies of clinical practice, the particularities of individual patient's illness experiences and the transformative nature of chronic illnesses and disabilities often obscure the ethical concerns and issues embedded in concrete situations. Consistent with models of expert practice, and with contemporary models of patient-centred care, we advocate and describe in this paper a type of interpretative and narrative approach to moral practice and ethical decision-making based on phenomenology. The tools of phenomenology that are well defined in research are applied and examined in a case that illustrates their use in uncovering the values and ethical concerns of a patient. Based on the deconstruction of this case on a phenomenologist approach, we illustrate how such approaches for ethical understanding can help assist clinicians and educators in applying principles within the context and needs of each patient. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Relevance and Effectiveness of the WHO Global Code Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel – Ethical and Systems Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruairi Brugha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance and effectiveness of the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is being reviewed in 2015. The Code, which is a set of ethical norms and principles adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA in 2010, urges members states to train and retain the health personnel they need, thereby limiting demand for international migration, especially from the under-staffed health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Most countries failed to submit a first report in 2012 on implementation of the Code, including those source countries whose health systems are most under threat from the recruitment of their doctors and nurses, often to work in 4 major destination countries: the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Political commitment by source country Ministers of Health needs to have been achieved at the May 2015 WHA to ensure better reporting by these countries on Code implementation for it to be effective. This paper uses ethics and health systems perspectives to analyse some of the drivers of international recruitment. The balance of competing ethics principles, which are contained in the Code’s articles, reflects a tension that was evident during the drafting of the Code between 2007 and 2010. In 2007-2008, the right of health personnel to migrate was seen as a preeminent principle by US representatives on the Global Council which co-drafted the Code. Consensus on how to balance competing ethical principles – giving due recognition on the one hand to the obligations of health workers to the countries that trained them and the need for distributive justice given the global inequities of health workforce distribution in relation to need, and the right to migrate on the other hand – was only possible after President Obama took office in January 2009. It is in the interests of all countries to implement the Global Code and not just those that

  8. FY2017 Final Report: Power of the People: A technical ethical and experimental examination of the use of crowdsourcing to support international nuclear safeguards verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe Nellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sentz, Kari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swanson, Meili Claire [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rinaudo, Cristina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Recent advances in information technology have led to an expansion of crowdsourcing activities that utilize the “power of the people” harnessed via online games, communities of interest, and other platforms to collect, analyze, verify, and provide technological solutions for challenges from a multitude of domains. To related this surge in popularity, the research team developed a taxonomy of crowdsourcing activities as they relate to international nuclear safeguards, evaluated the potential legal and ethical issues surrounding the use of crowdsourcing to support safeguards, and proposed experimental designs to test the capabilities and prospect for the use of crowdsourcing to support nuclear safeguards verification.

  9. Relevance and Effectiveness of the WHO Global Code Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel--Ethical and Systems Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugha, Ruairí; Crowe, Sophie

    2015-05-20

    The relevance and effectiveness of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is being reviewed in 2015. The Code, which is a set of ethical norms and principles adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2010, urges members states to train and retain the health personnel they need, thereby limiting demand for international migration, especially from the under-staffed health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Most countries failed to submit a first report in 2012 on implementation of the Code, including those source countries whose health systems are most under threat from the recruitment of their doctors and nurses, often to work in 4 major destination countries: the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Political commitment by source country Ministers of Health needs to have been achieved at the May 2015 WHA to ensure better reporting by these countries on Code implementation for it to be effective. This paper uses ethics and health systems perspectives to analyse some of the drivers of international recruitment. The balance of competing ethics principles, which are contained in the Code's articles, reflects a tension that was evident during the drafting of the Code between 2007 and 2010. In 2007-2008, the right of health personnel to migrate was seen as a preeminent principle by US representatives on the Global Council which co-drafted the Code. Consensus on how to balance competing ethical principles--giving due recognition on the one hand to the obligations of health workers to the countries that trained them and the need for distributive justice given the global inequities of health workforce distribution in relation to need, and the right to migrate on the other hand--was only possible after President Obama took office in January 2009. It is in the interests of all countries to implement the Global Code and not just those that are losing their health

  10. Ethical and Legal Considerations of Healthcare Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ALUAŞ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet, cloud computing, social networks and mobile technology, all facilitate information transfer. Healthcare professionals, physicians and patients can use informatic devices in order to simplify their access to medical information, to streamline testing, and to understand clinical results. The use of computers and software facilitate doctor-patient interactions by optimizing communication and information flow. However, digital interfaces also increase the risks that information specialists use information without fully complying with ethical principles and laws in force. Our premise is that these information specialists should: 1 be informed of the rights, duties, and responsibilities linked to their profession and laws in force; 2 have guidelines and ethical tutoring on what they need to do in order to avoid or prevent conflict or misconduct; 3 have renewed specific training on how to interpret and translate legal frameworks into internal rules and standards of good practice. The purpose of this paper was: 1 to familiarize professionals who work in healthcare informatics with the ethical and legal issues related to their work; 2 to provide information about codes of ethics and legal regulations concerning this specific area; 3 to summarize some risks linked to wrong or inadequate use of patient information, such as medical, genetic, or personal data.

  11. Guidelines and checklists for short-term missions in global pediatric surgery: Recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics Delivery of Surgical Care Global Health Subcommittee, American Pediatric Surgical Association Global Pediatric Surgery Committee, Society for Pediatric Anesthesia Committee on International Education and Service, and American Pediatric Surgical Nurses Association, Inc. Global Health Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Marilyn; Drum, Elizabeth; Evans, Faye M; Fitzgerald, Tamara; Fraser, Jason; Holterman, Ai-Xuan; Jen, Howard; Kynes, J Matthew; Kreiss, Jenny; McClain, Craig D; Newton, Mark; Nwomeh, Benedict; O'Neill, James; Ozgediz, Doruk; Politis, George; Rice, Henry; Rothstein, David; Sanchez, Julie; Singleton, Mark; Yudkowitz, Francine S

    2017-11-15

    Pediatric surgeons, anesthesia providers, and nurses from North America and other high-income countries (HICs) are increasingly engaged in resource-limited areas, with short-term missions (STMs) as the most common form of involvement. However, consensus recommendations currently do not exist for STMs in pediatric general surgery and associated perioperative care. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Delivery of Surgical Care Subcommittee and American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) Global Pediatric Surgery Committee, with the American Pediatric Surgical Nurses Association, Inc. (APSNA) Global Health Special Interest Group, and the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) Committee on International Education and Service generated consensus recommendations for STMs based on extensive experience with STMs. Three distinct, but related areas were identified: 1) Broad goals of surgical partnerships between HICs- and low and middle-income countries (LMICs). A previous set of guidelines published by the Global Paediatric Surgery Network Collaborative (GPSN), was endorsed by all groups; 2) Guidelines for the conduct of STMs were developed, including planning, in-country perioperative patient care, post-trip follow-up, and sustainability; 3) travel and safety considerations critical to STM success were enumerated. A diverse group of stakeholders developed these guidelines for STMs in LMICs. These guidelines may be a useful tool to ensure safe, responsible, and ethical STMs given increasing engagement of HIC providers in this work. 5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donner Allan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cluster randomized trial (CRT is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek to fulfill responsibly their respective roles. Our project will provide a systematic analysis of the ethics of cluster trials. Here we have outlined a series of six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation: 1. Who is a research subject? 2. From whom, how, and when must informed consent be obtained? 3. Does clinical equipoise apply to CRTs? 4. How do we determine if the benefits outweigh the risks of CRTs? 5. How ought vulnerable groups be protected in CRTs? 6. Who are gatekeepers and what are their responsibilities? Subsequent papers in this series will address each of these areas, clarifying the ethical issues at stake and, where possible, arguing for a preferred solution. Our hope is that these papers will serve as the basis for the creation of international ethical guidelines for the design and conduct of cluster randomized trials.

  13. ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES IN PHARMACEUTICAL PROMOTION GLOBALLY: TOWARDS INTERNATIONALLY DEVELOPING PRACTICALLY-ORIENTED GUIDELINES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bahlol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Pharmaceutical industry is transnational and globally important. Many pharmaceutical companies operate their business in multinational and international forms in different countries. Diverse researches from different countries indicated and confirmed marketing promotion importance in pharmaceutical field. Therefore, marketing promotion and its effects are a very important issue that should be globally investigated in real life and evidence context. We oriented our research according to these scientific and practical values.Methodology. We reviewed pharmaceutical marketing promotion researches from more than 25 different countries, e.g., USA, Canada, Italy, France, Russia, India, Egypt and Syria where we employed our knowledge of three widely spread languages, i.e., English, Russian and Arabic. Such language variation supports us with large and variable amount of scientific knowledge, deep understanding and ability of analysis. Some studies investigated average response to pharmaceutical marketing promotion and few studies took into consideration heterogeneity in their effects with respect to advertising medium or drug characteristics.Originality. We investigated empirical evidences of pharmaceutical marketing promotion that can be directed to either consumer or healthcare professionals.Findings. We extracted, gathered and associated information of pharmaceutical promotion globally which oriented us to several evidence and practical facts with regard to employing promotion tools in different definite situations pertinent to main directions; their welfare and health enhancing effects and adverse effects. Practical Implications- Consequently, we developed practically-oriented guidelines for companies concerning pharmaceutical promotion globally ate the end of this paper.

  14. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, George Q; Hyun, Insoo; Apperley, Jane F; Barker, Roger A; Benvenisty, Nissim; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Breuer, Christopher K; Caulfield, Timothy; Cedars, Marcelle I; Frey-Vasconcells, Joyce; Heslop, Helen E; Jin, Ying; Lee, Richard T; McCabe, Christopher; Munsie, Megan; Murry, Charles E; Piantadosi, Steven; Rao, Mahendra; Rooke, Heather M; Sipp, Douglas; Studer, Lorenz; Sugarman, Jeremy; Takahashi, Masayo; Zimmerman, Mark; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2016-06-14

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016). The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008) to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Q. Daley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016. The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008 to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them.

  16. It Takes More Than Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Simpson

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent positive developments in ethical outlook are explored, initially within the Information and Communication Technology (ICT profession, and then broadened into other disciplines and the community in general. To understand why there has been a growing ethical problem in the first place, ethical attitudes of university students, ICT exponents and people in other disciplines have been observed and noted. The search for practical ethical guidelines continues by questioning why, if professionalism indicates an adherence to a code of ethics that seeks high standards, do we still have trouble with the concept of ethics? Ethics differ from one group to another. Furthermore, ethics keep changing, as is evident in the latest codes, in which 'public good' now comes before the more inward-looking 'good of the profession'. So, how could an ethical code be more than an isolated, somewhat ineffective and temporary set of guidelines? How can it be freed of boundaries, of context and of time? How effective or relevant is the education of university students in practical ethics? How effective are the professional and ethical bodies? Some answers are proposed and along the way, together with some simple but powerful notions and tools, that facilitate ethical understanding in university education and in professional practice. It is then argued that as work is a part of life, then a similar range of ethical options would be available in every context of life, be it as a private individual, a society, an employee, a small business, a corporation or in whatever discipline or role. In each situation, a similar range of lifestyle choices exist, for example, wasteful (careless, indulgent (selfish, sustainable (prudent, long-term view (responsible or a perpetual view (meaningful and truly progressive. In other words, by agreeing to adopt 'the community ethics', one has taken on a dutiful role. For it to be more meaningful and more fruitful, life further demands such

  17. Business ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Csillag,Paula

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...

  18. International guidelines for the in vivo assessment of skin properties in non-clinical settings: Part 2. transepidermal water loss and skin hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Johan; Stefaniak, Aleksandr; Eloff, Fritz; John, Swen; Agner, Tove; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Nixon, Rosemary; Steiner, Markus; Franken, Anja; Kudla, Irena; Holness, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an emerging perspective that it is not sufficient to just assess skin exposure to physical and chemical stressors in workplaces, but that it is also important to assess the condition, i.e. skin barrier function of the exposed skin at the time of exposure. The workplace environment, representing a non-clinical environment, can be highly variable and difficult to control, thereby presenting unique measurement challenges not typically encountered in clinical settings. Methods An expert working group convened a workshop as part of the 5th International Conference on Occupational and Environmental Exposure of Skin to Chemicals (OEESC) to develop basic guidelines and best practices (based on existing clinical guidelines, published data, and own experiences) for the in vivo measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration in non-clinical settings with specific reference to the workplace as a worst-case scenario. Results Key elements of these guidelines are: (i) to minimize or recognize, to the extent feasible, the influences of relevant endogenous-, exogenous-, environmental- and measurement/instrumentation-related factors; (ii) to measure TEWL with a closed-chamber type instrument; (iii) report results as a difference or percent change (rather than absolute values); and (iv) accurately report any notable deviations from this guidelines. Conclusion It is anticipated that these guidelines will promote consistent data reporting, which will facilitate inter-comparison of study results. PMID:23331328

  19. The assessment of sediment screening risk in Venice Lagoon and other coastal areas using international sediment quality guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apitz, S.A.; Barbanti, A.; Bocci, M.; Delaney, E.; Bernstein, A.G.; Montobbio, L.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies carried out in recent years have shown the presence of a wide range of contaminants in the Venice Lagoon. It is important to have a good understanding of the ecological quality of Venice Lagoon sediments, in order to: i) define and locate areas where a threat to the environment is present and therefore an intervention is needed (i.e. in situ assessment and management); and ii) define sustainable and environmentally correct ways of managing sediments which are to be dredged for navigational purposes or in relation to other interventions (i.e., ex situ management). Materials and Methods: To examine how various regional and international SQGs 'classed' screening risk in Venice Lagoon sediments, data on median contaminant levels in surface sediments in Venice Lagoon resulting from a literature review were compared to a range of local and international sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Then data on sediment contaminant levels in various areas and sub-basins of Venice Lagoon (main Lagoon, Porto Marghera and Venice City Canals) and in other regional and international transitional and coastal ecosystems with various levels of human impact (urbanization and industrialization) were evaluated based upon a selected consensus-based SQG. Finally, screening sediment quality for all of Venice Lagoon was mapped and contoured, relative to this consensus-based SQG and briefly compared with direct toxicity measurement through a battery of bioassays. Results: SQGs allow the sediment areas to be put in terms of potential, or screening, risk. Although there were some differences depending upon which specific SQGs were applied, the Venice SQGs and other international SQGs provided the same general picture of screening risk in Venice Lagoon despite geographic differences. Venice Lagoon South has the lowest screening risk levels, Venice Lagoon Central/North has the highest (and is nearest to the Porto Marghera and Venice City Canals sites). Discussion: The Venice

  20. Ethical aspects in tissue research: thematic analysis of ethical statements to the research ethics committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have been published about ethics committees and the clarifications requested about the submitted applications. In Finland, ethics committees require a separate statement on ethical aspects of the research in applications to the ethics committee. However, little is known about how researchers consider the ethical aspects of their own studies. Methods The data were collected from all the applications received by the official regional ethics committee in the Hospital District of Northern Savo during 2004–2009 (n = 688). These included a total of 56 studies involving research on tissue other than blood. The statements by the researchers about the ethics about their own research in these applications were analyzed by thematic content analysis under the following themes: recruitment, informed consent, risks and benefits, confidentiality and societal meaning. Results The researchers tended to describe recruitment and informed consent process very briefly. Usually these descriptions simply stated who the recruiter was and that written consent would be required. There was little information provided on the recruitment situation and on how the study recruiters would be informed. Although most of the studies were clinical, the possibility was hardly ever discussed that patients could fail to distinguish between care and research. Conclusion The written guidelines, available on the webpages of the ethics committee, do not seem to be enough to help researchers achieve this goal. In addition to detailed guidelines for researchers, investigators need to be taught to appreciate the ethical aspects in their own studies. PMID:22873761

  1. The ethics of information

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Luciano Floridi develops an original ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs have profoundly changed many aspects of life, including the nature of entertainment, work, communication, education, health care, industrial production and business, social relations, and conflicts. They have had a radical and widespread impact on our moral lives and on contemporary ethical debates. Privacy, ownership, freedom of speech, responsibility, technological determinism, the digital divide, and pornography online are only some of the pressing issues that characterise the ethical discourse in the information society. They are the subject of Information Ethics (IE), the new philosophical area of research that investigates the ethical impact of ICTs on human life and society. Since the seventies, IE has been a standard topic in many curricula. In recent years, there has been a flourishing of new university courses, international conferences, workshop...

  2. [General and ethical considerations for the informed consent process: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibert, Jean-Baptiste; Polomeni, Alice; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Bordessoule, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    Informed consent is not restricted to clinical research and must be applied to high-risk care such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. If standardized informed consent might improve inequalities in medical practices between different transplantation centers, it is strongly recommended that it be adapted with an honest dialogue between physicians and patients and physicians and donors. In an attempt to harmonize clinical practices among French hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers, the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) held its sixth annual workshop series in September 2015 in Lille. This event brought together practitioners from across the country. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the French law concerning patients' rights and ethical practices for an informed consent process to be applied to care or research. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Guidelines for Mentoring Internal Supervision for the Schools under Roi-Et Office of Primary Education Service Area 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natchana Sahunil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to 1 study the factors and indicators of mentoring internal supervision for schools, 2 study the current state and the desirable state of mentoring internal supervision for schools, and 3 study the guidelines on the operation of mentoring internal supervision for the schools under Roi-Et Office of Primary Education Service Area 2. The research was divided into 3 phases. In phase 1 the informants comprised 5 certified experts. In phase 2 the sample comprised 488 government teachers under Roi-Et Office of Primary Education Service Area 2, btained through multi-stage random sampling. In phase 3 the informants comprised school directors, school deputy directors and supervisor teachers under Roi-Et Office of Primary Education Service Area 2, totally 9 persons. The research instruments onsisted of 1 a questionnaire having the discrimination from 0.34 to 0.79 and the total reliability of 0.87, 2 a structured interview form, and 3 a suitability and feasibility assessment form for the guidelines on the operation of mentoring internal supervision. The analysis of data employed percentage, the mean and standard deviation. The results are as follows: 1. There are 4 factors of the guidelines on mentoring internal supervision for schools. They are: preparation of mentoring supervision, with 12 indicators ; management of mentoring supervision, with 12 indicators ; operation of mentoring supervision, with 14 indicators ; and evaluation of mentoring supervision, with 10 indicators, all of which had been evaluated by the experts as, on the whole, very suitable. 2. The current state of the mentoring internal supervision for schools, on the whole and factor by factor, was in the moderate level in every factor. Meanwhile, the desirable state of mentoring internal supervision for schools, on the whole, was in the high level. When considered factor by factor, the factor with the highest mean is management of mentoring supervision. The factor with

  4. The ethics of expediency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickel, Steven Z

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic pressures on medicine have redefined traditional relationships between physicians and patients, researchers and regulatory bodies, and consultants and device companies. Physicians are disheartened that the public perception of medicine, reinforced by the media, is often negative. Ethical lapses are frequently the focus of criticism. A recent example that received considerable attention is the inextricable link between physicians and medical device companies. Although both groups have clear codes defining the ethical interaction between them, expediency and loose adherence to those guidelines has been problematic. In a climate of skepticism, the house of medicine needs to reverse and not feed that skepticism.

  5. Qualitative research ethics on the spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Øye, Christine; Glasdam, Stinne

    2015-01-01

    , the article explores and discusses research ethical dilemmas. Objectives and ethical considerations: First, and especially, the article addresses the challenges for gatekeepers who influence the informant’s decisions to participate in research. Second, the article addresses the challenges in following...... research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Discussion and conclusion: Research...... ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop....

  6. [Thinking ethics education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Stéphanie

    2015-12-01

    Ethics emerges in the interstices of deontology, in difficult situations generating internal conflicts for the caregiver, sources of anxiety and questioning. Ethics education has always played a major in nursing programs by initiating a reflection on human values. Faced with current uncertainties in the context of care, it is now based on the appropriation of a reflexive approach to the meaning of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethics of reviewing scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitani, Federica; Petrini, Carlo; Garattini, Silvio

    2017-05-01

    The approval or rejection of scientific publications can have important consequences for scientific knowledge, so considerable responsibility lies on those who have to assess or review them. Today it seems that the peer review process, far from being considered an outdated system to be abandoned, is experiencing a new upturn. This article proposes criteria for the conduct of reviewers and of those who select them. While commenting on new emerging models, it provides practical recommendations for improving the peer-review system, like strengthening the role of guidelines and training and supporting reviewers. The process of peer review is changing, it is getting more open and collaborative, but those same ethical principles which guided it from its very origin should remain untouched and be firmly consolidated. The paper highlights how the ethics of reviewing scientific publications is needed now more than ever, in particular with regard to competence, conflict of interest, willingness to discuss decisions, complete transparency and integrity. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Outlining ethical issues in nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Antonio G; Daloiso, Viviana

    2009-09-01

    Nanotechnologies are an expression of the human ability to control and manipulate matter on a very small scale. Their use will enable an even and constant monitoring of human organisms, in a new and perhaps less invasive way. Debates at all levels--national, European and international--have pointed out the common difficulty of giving a complete, clear definition of nanotechnologies. This is primarily due to the variety of their components, to the fact that there is not just one technology but several. The most significant medical applications of nanotechnologies are in the diagnostic and the therapeutic fields, eg biosensors and molecular imaging, providing diagnosis and drug delivery with no invasive methods involved. Like any other emerging field, such technologies imply new possibilities for improving health but, on the other hand, they are still at an experimental stage and therefore should be implemented under rigorous safety testing before going on general release. For this purpose, the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of nanotechnologies have been elaborated by study groups, in order to develop solutions before the results of the tests are diffused into medical practice. The aim of this paper is to define some of the ethical issues concerning biomedical applications and to evaluate whether there is a need for new or additional guidelines and regulations.

  9. Ethical, legal and practical issues of establishing an adipose stem cell bank for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C C; Murray, I R; González, Z N; Hindle, P; Hay, D C; Stewart, K J; Péault, B

    2014-06-01

    Access to human tissue is critical to medical research, however the laws and regulations surrounding gaining ethical and legal access to tissue are often poorly understood. Recently, there has been a huge increase in the interest surrounding the therapeutic application of adipose tissue, and adipose-derived stem cells. To facilitate our own research interests and possibly assist our local colleagues and collaborators, we established a Research Tissue Bank (RTB) to collect, store and distribute human adipose tissue derived cells with all the appropriate ethical approval for subsequent downstream research. Here we examine the legal, ethical and practical issues relating to the banking of adipose tissue for research in the UK, and discuss relevant international guidelines and policies. We also share our experiences of establishing an RTB including the necessary infrastructure and the submission of an application to a Research Ethics Committee (REC). Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Medical genetic ethics, Islamic view and considerations in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Zahedi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid progress of science and technology, including genetic research and technology has been led to new hopes in the treatment of some genetic conditions and diseases. But these developments have also raised ethical and societal concerns in different communities. Certainly, medical genetics knowledge should be applied so, we have to maximize its benefits and minimize any harm. In recent decades, many attempts have been performed by scientists, ethicists, jurisprudents and lawyers for compiling international and national guidelines for regulation and legislation in this field. "nFor compilation of this article, we searched some comprehensive electronic databases and some valid English and Farsi books and journals. In this intensive review, we intend to provide a basic knowledge about genetic ethics for health care professionals in order to facilitate their decision-making in clinical practice."nThere are various ethical issues related to medical genetics that we reviewed in this paper in brief. These key issues do need attention and urgent resolution universally. We also reviewed Islamic view of points in this regards and finally we addressed the status of genetic ethics in our country, containing new national guidelines in this field.

  11. ISPOR Code of Ethics 2017 (4th Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jessica; Palumbo, Francis; Molsen-David, Elizabeth; Willke, Richard J; Binder, Louise; Drummond, Michael; Ho, Anita; Marder, William D; Parmenter, Louise; Sandhu, Gurmit; Shafie, Asrul A; Thompson, David

    2017-12-01

    As the leading health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) professional society, ISPOR has a responsibility to establish a uniform, harmonized international code for ethical conduct. ISPOR has updated its 2008 Code of Ethics to reflect the current research environment. This code addresses what is acceptable and unacceptable in research, from inception to the dissemination of its results. There are nine chapters: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Ethical Principles respect, beneficence and justice with reference to a non-exhaustive compilation of international, regional, and country-specific guidelines and standards; 3 - Scope HEOR definitions and how HEOR and the Code relate to other research fields; 4 - Research Design Considerations primary and secondary data related issues, e.g., participant recruitment, population and research setting, sample size/site selection, incentive/honorarium, administration databases, registration of retrospective observational studies and modeling studies; 5 - Data Considerations privacy and data protection, combining, verification and transparency of research data, scientific misconduct, etc.; 6 - Sponsorship and Relationships with Others (roles of researchers, sponsors, key opinion leaders and advisory board members, research participants and institutional review boards (IRBs) / independent ethics committees (IECs) approval and responsibilities); 7 - Patient Centricity and Patient Engagement new addition, with explanation and guidance; 8 - Publication and Dissemination; and 9 - Conclusion and Limitations. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethical challenges of medicine and health on the Internet: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, K A

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge and capabilities, particularly of a new technology or in a new area of study, frequently develop faster than the guidelines and principles needed for practitioners to practice ethically in the new arena; this is particularly true in medicine. The blending of medicine and healthcare with e-commerce and the Internet raises many questions involving what sort of ethical conduct should be expected by practitioners and developers of the medical Internet. Some of the early pioneers in medical and healthcare Web sites pushed the ethical boundaries with questionable, even unethical, practices. Many involved with the medical Internet are now working to reestablish patient and consumer trust by establishing guidelines to determine how the fundamentals of the medical code of ethical conduct can best be adapted for the medical/healthcare Internet. Ultimately, all those involved in the creation, maintenance, and marketing of medical and healthcare Web sites should be required to adhere to a strict code of ethical conduct, one that has been fairly determined by an impartial international organization with reasonable power to regulate the code. This code could also serve as a desirable, recognizable label-of-distinction for ethical Web sites within the medical and healthcare Internet community. One challenge for those involved with the medical and healthcare Internet will be to determine what constitutes "Medical Internet Ethics" or "Healthcare Internet Ethics," since the definition of medical ethics can vary from country to country. Therefore, the emerging field of Medical/ Healthcare Internet Ethics will require careful thought and insights from an international collection of ethicists in many contributing areas. This paper is a review of the current status of the evolving field of Medical/Healthcare Internet Ethics, including proposed definitions and identification of many diverse areas that may ultimately contribute to this multidisciplinary field. The current role

  13. Ethical Overview of Placebo Control in Psychiatric Research - Concepts and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurković, Marko; Živković, Maja; Radić, Krešimir; Vilibić, Maja; Ćelić, Ivan; Bagarić, Dario

    2015-06-01

    Permissibility of placebo controls in psychiatric research is raising everlasting controversies. The main ethical issue remains: whether, when, under what conditions, and to what extent is it justifiable to disregard subject's present (best) interest for the presumably "greater" ones. In relation to this main ethical concern, two distinct arguments arose: proponents of placebo controls trials (placebo ortxodoxy) and proponents of active controls trials (active-control orthodoxy). More recently, in new ethical guidelines, Declaration of Helsinki and International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, a "middle way" approach was formulated, acceptable to both sides of the argument, saying placebo controls can be justified under certain conditions: when and only when, they firstly present undisputed methodological reasoning, and secondly, fulfill certain ethical considerations - mainly regarding the permissibility of accompanied risks. These ethical evaluations are inevitably contextual and evoke the need for the principle of proportionality. In scope of recent findings of substantial and progressively increasing placebo response in psychiatric research, contextual factors are identified and both theoretical and practical challenges are discussed.

  14. Ethics in Psychiatric Research: Issues and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shobhit; Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric research has increased remarkably over recent decades to help in understanding the current trends and better therapeutic options for illness. On the other hand, there is also a trend toward higher rates of retraction of published papers in the recent years. Ethics is required to maintain and increase the overall quality and morality of research. Psychiatric research faces several unique ethical challenges. Ethical guidelines are very important tool of research which safeguards participants; however, there is a dearth of such guidelines in India. The present paper aims to review available ethical issues and guidelines pertaining to psychiatric research. A search was conducted on Pubmed using search terms (e.g., "ethics," "psychiatry," "research"). Relevant studies were selected for the review after manual screening of title/abstract. Additional sources were referred to using cross references and Google Scholar. Psychiatric research has several important ethical issues which are different from other medical disciplines. These issues are related to informed consent, confidentiality, conflict of interest, therapeutic misconception, placebo related, vulnerability, exploitation, operational challenges, among others. The current paper has made several recommendations to deal with ethical challenges commonly faced in psychiatric research. The ethical guidelines are utmost needed for Indian psychiatric research. Specific guidelines are lacking pertaining to psychiatric research. The issues and recommendations merit a further discussion and consideration.

  15. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  16. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  17. Values and ethical principles for practicing as magistrate/ legal advisor out of the perspective of the codes and national and international statements of principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marţian Iovan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The coordinating and regulating role of the moral values, of the Deontological Code in practicing the magistrate/ legal advisor position is analysed in this article, so that their decisions correspond the universal imperative of practical accomplishment of justice, implicitly to the audience’s expectations with regard to the efficiency and efficacy of the services delivered by the institutions in the judicial system. The subject is of obvious actuality, fact which results in the existence of a relevant number of cases of violation, deforming of the ethical principles, of the specific deontological norms for the legal advisors, especially for the magistrates, which occur in performing the act of justice. The author highlights through examples, the harmful effects of some magistrates’ side-slipping from the ethical principles (Independence, Impartiality, Integrity stipulated in the most important deontological codes, statements of principles or national and international conventions. The logical conclusion, resulting from the analyses, aims to perfection the judicial system, the moral part of the legal higher education, of the magistrates’ continuous training and assessment.

  18. Ethical Impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  19. Medical Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should ... orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

  20. Ethical leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    High-profile cases of leaders’ ethical failure in different settings and sectors have led to increased attention to ethical leadership in organizations. In this review, I discuss the rapidly developing field of ethical leadership from an organizational behavior/psychology perspective, taking a

  1. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.  http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionPAGE CONTENTSGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic-only material should be submitted and sent for peer review simultaneously with the primary manuscript.2. Reporting GuidelinesReporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy. Journals are encouraged to ask authors to follow these guidelines because

  2. Modern Radiation Therapy for Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma—Target Definition and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning...... tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles...... of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT...

  3. [Medical ethics as professional ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivo

    2012-09-25

    Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.

  4. The Ethics of Doing Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-02-01

    Ethicists have investigated ethical problems in other disciplines, but there has not been much discussion of the ethics of their own activities. Research in ethics has many ethical problems in common with other areas of research, and it also has problems of its own. The researcher's integrity is more precarious than in most other disciplines, and therefore even stronger procedural checks are needed to protect it. The promotion of some standpoints in ethical issues may be socially harmful, and even our decisions as to which issues we label as "ethical" may have unintended and potentially harmful social consequences. It can be argued that ethicists have an obligation to make positive contributions to society, but the practical implications of such an obligation are not easily identified. This article provides an overview of ethical issues that arise in research into ethics and in the application of such research. It ends with a list of ten practical proposals for how these issues should be dealt with.

  5. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  6. Ethical issues in neurogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Wendy R; Roberts, J Scott

    2018-01-01

    Many neurogenetic conditions are inherited and therefore diagnosis of a patient will have implications for the patient's relatives and can raise ethical issues. Predictive genetic testing offers asymptomatic relatives the opportunity to determine their risk status for a neurogenetic condition, and professional guidelines emphasize patients' autonomy and informed, voluntary decision making. Beneficence and nonmaleficence both need to be considered when making decisions about disclosure and nondisclosure of genetic information and test results. There can be disclosure concerns and challenges in determining whose autonomy to prioritize when a patient makes a genetic testing decision that can reveal the genetic status of a relative (e.g., testing an adult child when the at-risk parent has not been tested). Ethical issues are prominent when genetic testing for neurogenetic conditions is requested prenatally, on minors, adoptees, adult children at 25% risk, and for individuals with psychiatric issues or cognitive impairment. Neurogenetic conditions can result in cognitive decline which can affect decisional capacity and lead to ethical challenges with decision making, informed consent, and determining the patient's ability to comprehend test results. The ethical implications of genetic testing and emerging issues, including direct-to-consumer genetic testing, disclosure of secondary findings from genomic sequencing, and use of apolipoprotein E testing in clinical and research settings, are also discussed. Resources for information about genetic testing practice guidelines, insurance laws, and directories of genetics clinics are included. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing Professional Ethics for Social Educators and Early Childhood Educators in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribers, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Danish labour unions have been working continuously on developing professional ethical codes and guidelines for social educators and early childhood and youth educators in Denmark. The majority of empirical research projects studying ethical dimensions of social work...... and education in Denmark has not previously been published for an international audience. Consequently, many of the important findings and insights remain accessible only in Danish research reports, books and articles written in Danish or other Scandinavian languages. The scope of this paper is to discuss...

  8. Decommissioning funding: ethics, implementation, uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This status report on Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties also draws on the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). The report offers, in a concise form, an overview of relevant considerations on decommissioning funding mechanisms with regard to ethics, implementation and uncertainties. Underlying ethical principles found in international agreements are identified, and factors influencing the accumulation and management of funds for decommissioning nuclear facilities are discussed together with the main sources of uncertainties of funding systems. (authors)

  9. Mapping clinical journeys of Asian patients presenting to the Emergency Department with syncope: Strict adoption of international guidelines does not reduce hospitalisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojodjojo, Pipin; Boey, Elaine; Elangovan, Anita; Chen, Xianyi; Tan, Yuquan; Singh, Devinder; Yeo, Wee Tiong; Lim, Toon Wei; Seow, Swee Chong; Sim, Tiong Beng

    2016-09-01

    Limited data exists about management of syncope in Asia. The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines have defined the high-risk syncope patient. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of managing syncope in an Asian healthcare system and whether strict adherence of international guidelines would reduce hospitalizations. Patients attending the Emergency Department of a Singaporean tertiary hospital with syncope were identified. Clinical journeys of all patients were meticulously mapped by interrogation of a comprehensive electronic medical record system and linkages with national datasets. Primary endpoint was hospitalization. Secondary endpoints were recurrent syncope within 1year and all-cause mortality. Expected admission rates based on application of ACEP/ESC guidelines were calculated. 638 patients (43.8±22.4years, 49.0% male) presented with syncope. 48.9% were hospitalized for 2.9±3.2days. Yields of common investigations ranged from 0 to 11.5% and no diagnosis was reached in 51.5% of patients. Diuretics use (HR 5.1, p=0.01) and prior hospitalization for syncope (HR 6.9, psyncope. Over 2.8 SD 0.3years of follow-up, 40 deaths occurred. 24 patients who died within 12months of presentation were admitted or had a firm diagnosis upon discharge. Application of guidelines did not significantly reduce hospitalisations, with limited agreement which patients warrant admission. (Actual 376, ACEP 354, ESC 391 admissions, p=NS). Unstructured management of syncope results in nearly half of patients being admitted and substantial healthcare expenditures, yet with limited diagnostic yield. Strict adoption of ACEP or ESC guidelines does not reduce admissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Application of Standards and Recommendations to Clinical Ethics Consultation in Practice: An Evaluation at German Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochow, Maximilian; Rubeis, Giovanni; Steger, Florian

    2017-06-01

    The executive board of the Academy for Ethics in Medicine (AEM) and two AEM working groups formulated standards and recommendations for clinical ethics consultation in 2010, 2011, and 2013. These guidelines comply with the international standards like those set by the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. There is no empirical data available yet that could indicate whether these standards and recommendations have been implemented in German hospitals. This desideratum is addressed in the present study. We contacted 1.858 German hospitals between September 2013 and January 2014. A follow-up survey was conducted between October 2014 and January 2015. The data of the initial survey and the follow-up survey were merged and evaluated. The statements of the participants were compared with the standards and recommendations. The standards of the AEM concerning the tasks of clinical ethics consultation (including ethics consultation, ethics training and the establishment of policy guidelines) are employed by a majority of participants of the study. Almost all of these participants document their consultation activities by means of protocols or entries in the patient file. There are deviations from the recommendations of the AEM working groups regarding the drafting of statutes, activity reports, and financial support. The activities of clinical ethics consultation predominantly comply with the standards of the AEM and recommendations for the documentation. The recommendations for evaluation should be improved in practice. This applies particularly for activity reports in order to evaluate the activities. Internal evaluation could take place accordingly.

  11. Genomics for public health improvement: relevant international ethical and policy issues around genome-wide association studies and biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, T

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and biobanks are at the forefront of genomics research and possess unprecedented potential to improve public health. However, for public health genomics to ultimately fulfill its potential, technological and scientific advances alone are insufficient. Scientists, ethicists, policy makers, and regulators must work closely together with research participants and communities in order to craft an equitable and just ethical framework, and a sustainable environment for effective policies. Such a framework should be a 'hybrid' form which balances equity and solidarity with entrepreneurship and scientific advances. A good balance between research and policy on one hand, and privacy, protection and trust on the other is the key for public health improvement based on advances in genomics science. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The IAPG: International Association for Promoting Geoethics: a scientific platform for widening the debate on problems of ethics applied to the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowsky, Peter; Brocx, Margaret; Di Capua, Giuseppe; Errami, Ezzoura; Greco, Roberto; Kieffer, Susan W.; Daji Limaye, Shrikant; Peppoloni, Silvia; Silva, Elizabeth; Tinti, Stefano; Wang, Meng

    2013-04-01

    Geoethics consists of the research and reflection on those values upon which to base appropriate behaviours and practices regarding the Geosphere. Geoethics also deals with problems related to risk management and mitigation of geohazards. One of the most important goals of the Geoethics is to foster the proper and correct dissemination of results of scientific studies and other information on risks. Moreover, Geoethics aims to improve the relationships between the scientific community, mass media and public and aims to organize effective teaching tools to develop awareness, values and responsibility within the population. Geoethics should become part of the social knowledge and an essential point of reference for every action affecting land, water and atmosphere usage that is taken by stake-holders and decision-makers. Although Geoethics is a young discipline, it provides a forum for open discussion inside the Geosciences on the social and cultural role that Geoscientists can play in society. First, Geoethics represents an opportunity for Geoscientists to become more conscious of their responsibilities in conducting their activity, highlighting the ethical, cultural and economic repercussions that their behavioral choices may have on society. From this point of view Geoethics, at this stage of its development, is primarily an attitude of thinking: through consideration of geoethical questions, Geoscientists have the opportunity to ask questions about themselves, their skills, the quality of their work and the contribution they can provide to the healthy progress of humanity. The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.iapg.geoethics.org) is a new multidisciplinary, scientific platform for widening the debate on problems of Ethics applied to the Geosciences, through international cooperation and for encouraging the involvement of geoscientists on Geoethics themes. The IAPG was founded to increase the awareness inside the scientific

  13. Commentary on the "Evidence- and Consensus-Based (S3) Guidelines for the Treatment of Actinic Keratosis" Published by the International League of Dermatological Societies in Cooperation with the European Dermatology Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepgen, Thomas L; Kresken, Joachim; Krutmann, Jean; Merk, Hans F; Senger, Erik; Surber, Christian; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus

    2018-04-03

    In 2015, the International League of Dermatological Societies and the European Dermatology Forum published a guideline for the treatment of actinic keratosis, which is classified as an evidence- and consensus-based S3 guideline. From the point of view of the GD Task Force "Licht.Hautkrebs.Prävention," an interdisciplinary expert panel of the Society for Dermopharmacy for the prevention and treatment of skin cancer, this guideline reveals strengths and weaknesses but, in summary, does not meet the claim for an evidence- and consensus-based S3 guideline. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The role of Cochrane reviews in informing international guidelines: a case study of using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system to develop World Health Organization guidelines for the psychosocially assisted pharmacological treatment of opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoli, Marina; Amato, Laura; Clark, Nicolas; Farrell, Michael; Hickman, Matthew; Hill, Suzanne; Magrini, Nicola; Poznyak, Vladimir; Schünemann, Holger J

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), and a growing number of other organizations, have adopted the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system in order to both assess the quality of research evidence and develop clinical practice guidelines. In 2009 WHO published a guideline on psychosocially assisted pharmacological treatment of opioid dependence, based on the results of Cochrane Reviews summarized using the GRADE methodology. The main features of this system are an a priori definition of outcomes and their relevance, and distinction between the quality of evidence (also referred to as confidence in the estimate of intervention effect) and the strength of recommendations. We consider how successful this approach has been. We discuss the merits and limitations of using Cochrane Reviews and GRADE framework in developing guidelines in the field of drug addiction. In 2009 a panel of multi-disciplinary international experts identified 15 clinical questions and eight relevant outcomes. Cochrane reviews were available for each clinical question and four outcomes. The panel formulated 15 recommendations. Eight recommendations were classified as strong, two of which were based on high-quality evidence and three on very low-quality evidence. For example, the strong recommendation to use methadone in adequate doses in preference to buprenorphine was based on high-quality evidence, while the strong recommendation not to use the combination of opioid antagonists with heavy sedation in the management of opioid withdrawal was based on low-quality evidence. An explicit stepwise process of moving from evaluation of the quality of evidence to the definition of the strength of recommendations is important in providing practical and clear clinical guidance for practitioners and policy-makers in addiction. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Business ethics in ethics committees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    1990-01-01

    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.

  16. The Ethics of Social Work Supervision Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ben-Zion

    1987-01-01

    Charles Levy's classic 1973 article outlined a set of basic value-orientations for supervisors. Attempts to operationalize Levy's principles in order to develop practical guidelines for ethical practice. Discusses problem of "careerism" in social worker supervisors. Recommends supervisors examine ethical implications of their behavior.…

  17. The Ethics of Teaching and Scientific Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sidney; And Others

    A compilation of essays deals with two vital ethical issues: (1) in such matters as genetic research, human subject research, and behavior modification, the conflict between freedom in scientific research and protection of the immediate public; and (2) the question of whether ethical guidelines have to be developed for teachers, or academic…

  18. Medical ethics in peace and in the armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapowal, Andreas G; Baer, Hans-Ulrich

    2002-08-01

    Global medical ethics on the basis of the General Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations is a key subject for the 21st century. World Health Organization's new definition of health includes "spiritual health," a term that has to be defined in international consensus despite different anthropologies, cultures, and religions. Old issues in medical ethics such as assisted suicide are still waiting for global consensus among the "pro-life" and "pro-choice" parties. So far The Netherlands and Belgium are the only countries where euthanasia has been legalized, whereas the U.S. Supreme Court has denied a right of medically assisted suicide. The respect of nature is also the basis for guidelines in new issues in medical ethics such as gene therapy and human cloning, which are controversially discussed. Military medical ethics should provide regulations for morally correct decisions in armed conflicts including the war against international terrorism and in peacekeeping missions. Triage of the wounded, distribution of medical aid, and critical incident stress debriefing for soldiers and their relatives are key issues.

  19. International guidelines and standards for education and training to reduce the consequences of events that may threaten the health status of a community. A report of an Open International WADEM Meeting, Brussels, Belgium, 29-31 October, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Frank; Seynaeve, Geert

    2007-01-01

    The continued professionalization of the humanitarian workforce requires sound underpinning by appropriate educational programs. The international disaster medicine and emergency health community requested the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) develop international standards and guidelines for the education and training for disaster medicine. The Working Group of the WADEM Education Committee prepared and circulated an Issues Paper to structure input on this significant international task. Subsequently, the Working Group facilitated an Open International Meeting convened in Brussels, Belgium, 2004. The "Issues Paper" also was used as a framework to structure this International Meeting, which utilized case studies selected to represent the scope of disaster medicine, and prepared a meeting consensus on a framework for disaster health and for related educational programs. The two-day Brussels meeting attracted 51 participants from 19 countries, representing 21 disciplines. Participants reinforced the need to address the development of international standards and guidelines on education and training in this emerging discipline. Participants supported the view that the term "Disaster Health" suggested a multidisciplinary approach that is a more inclusive contemporary and appropriate term to describe this field, although there were dissenting views. The meeting formulated a consensus view in support of a framework for "Disaster Health", which included: (1) primary disciplines; (2) support disciplines; (3) community response, resilience, and communication; and (4) socio-political context. The participants considered that this model lends itself to facilitating the development of educational programs in this field and believed that standards and guidelines initially should be developed in the "Core of Disaster Health" for undergraduates in relevant professions, for practicing professionals wishing to expand their practice in this field, and in

  20. The Importance of the United Nations Guidelines for the Long-Term Sustainability of Space Activities and Other International Initiatives to Promote Space Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sustainability of space activities is an emerging issue to which actors in the global space community –including governments, agencies, and industry– are devoting increasing amounts of attention and resources. Considering the sustainability of space activities involves taking into account the present population of space debris, the size of the debris population in the most commonly-used Earth orbits in the future, and the possibility of collision events between objects in space. Addressing space debris and other threats to space sustainability involves both technological and political solutions. The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (copuos has led a major effort to define such solutions and has established a working group tasked with the development of non-binding long-term sustainability (lts guidelines. This article includes an overview of the concept of space sustainability, a discussion of the need, development, and current status of the lts guidelines, as well as an analysis of some of the guidelines themselves. It concludes with a broader discussion of space as an area without state sovereignty – one of the key aspects that have influenced the development of non-binding measures to address the space sustainability challenge. In this context, and given the governance questions that arise from the interaction between states and non-state actors in this domain, this discussion should be of interest to international relations scholars and practitioners.

  1. Survey on current status of international organizations and foreign countries for emergency preparedness and response and consider technical issues on guideline for nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masanori; Ishikawa, Jun; Homma, Toshimitsu; Sato, Sohei

    2010-06-01

    This review report describes survey results on current status of nuclear emergency preparedness and response in international organizations such as ICRP and IAEA, and consideration results of technical issues on the 'Guideline for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness' issued by the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). First, we summarized the following points. The principle of intervention for protection of the public in radiological emergency indicated by ICRP recommendations. The basic concept on nuclear emergency preparedness and response shown by IAEA Safety Standard Series. Next, we considered technical issues on the guideline, such as basic requirements for nuclear emergency preparedness and response, development of EPZ, intervention level for protective measurement, decision criteria for selecting the proper protective action measurement and concept for the support system of experts, based on these survey results. In order to respond to nuclear emergency more effectively in Japan, the guideline should show the basic concept of nuclear emergency preparedness and response for the period between the beginning of the nuclear emergency and the termination of early protective actions. Then, it is important to develop the method of the threat assessment for nuclear facilities, emergency action level (EAL) for the emergency classification, the range of precautionary action zone (PAZ) and urgent protective action planning zone (UPZ) in emergency planning phase, and the basic concept on the implement of protective measurements and operational intervention level (OIL) in emergency response phase. (author)

  2. International standards and guidelines on education and training for the multi-disciplinary health response to major events that threaten the health status of a community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seynaeve, Geert; Archer, Frank; Fisher, Judith; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Rowlands, Alison; Sellwood, Phillip; Vandevelde, Karel; Zigoura, Anastasia

    2004-01-01

    The 13th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine, convened in Melbourne, Australia in May 2003, requested the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) to lead the development of "International Standards and Guidelines on Education and Training for "Disaster Medicine". This Paper has been developed by a Working Group of the WADEM Education Committee ("the Working Group") in response to that request from the international "Disaster Medicine" and emergency health community. The main focus of the Working Group is to develop standards and guidelines for education and training in the multi-disciplinary health response to major events that threaten the health status of a community. The contemporary view is that of a multi-disciplinary health response to major events which threaten the health status of a community, including the prevention and mitigation of future events, and taking account of the broader context in which these events occur. It is the vision of the Working Group that evidence-based standards and guidelines for education and training must be developed in a broad sense, for all members of the healthcare community. Rather than purely describing isolated performance indicators, the Working Group agreed that priority be given to explaining the general approach, presenting the conceptual framework, clarifying important principles, and describing the educational needs and training requirements for situations for which there exist a major threat to the health status of a community. It is not the intent to produce an updated educational curriculum for special courses in "Disaster Medicine" by listing levels of theoretical knowledge and clinical skills required for medical doctors, nurses, and paramedics. Nor, does the Working Group think it is useful to repeat requirements and learning outcomes that are part of the normal basic education and training for the various health professionals. The purpose of this Issues Paper is to present

  3. Locating Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    , assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies...... to participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, and development anthropology. Drawing on material from ethnographic fieldwork with the NGO in Sri Lanka, Thailand, the Philippines, Taiwan and mainland China over 12 months between March 2009 and November 2010, it advances an argument that the uptake of ethics through forms such as the Ethics Review Committee...

  4. Internet Ethics Issues and Actions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    江澤, 義典

    2013-01-01

    The International Symposium on Internet Ethics 2012 was planned and organized by the Korea Internet Security Agency and was held in September 2012 at the Lotte Hotel World in Seoul. This note relates to the presentation in Japan, it outlines current Internet ethics issues and actions in Japan. Moreover, four aspects of Japanese civilization were introduced as the bases of these ethics issues.

  5. Clinical practice guidelines for the care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: proceedings from the 2016 Cincinnati International Turner Syndrome Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravholt, Claus H; Andersen, Niels H; Conway, Gerard S; Dekkers, Olaf M; Geffner, Mitchell E; Klein, Karen O; Lin, Angela E; Mauras, Nelly; Quigley, Charmian A; Rubin, Karen; Sandberg, David E; Sas, Theo C J; Silberbach, Michael; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Stochholm, Kirstine; van Alfen-van derVelden, Janielle A; Woelfle, Joachim; Backeljauw, Philippe F

    2017-09-01

    Turner syndrome affects 25-50 per 100,000 females and can involve multiple organs through all stages of life, necessitating multidisciplinary approach to care. Previous guidelines have highlighted this, but numerous important advances have been noted recently. These advances cover all specialty fields involved in the care of girls and women with TS. This paper is based on an international effort that started with exploratory meetings in 2014 in both Europe and the USA, and culminated with a Consensus Meeting held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA in July 2016. Prior to this meeting, five groups each addressed important areas in TS care: 1) diagnostic and genetic issues, 2) growth and development during childhood and adolescence, 3) congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease, 4) transition and adult care, and 5) other comorbidities and neurocognitive issues. These groups produced proposals for the present guidelines. Additionally, four pertinent questions were submitted for formal GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) evaluation with a separate systematic review of the literature. These four questions related to the efficacy and most optimal treatment of short stature, infertility, hypertension, and hormonal replacement therapy. The guidelines project was initiated by the European Society for Endocrinology and the Pediatric Endocrine Society, in collaboration with The European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, The Endocrine Society, European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, The American Heart Association, The Society for Endocrinology, and the European Society of Cardiology. The guideline has been formally endorsed by the European Society for Endocrinology, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the Endocrine Society. Advocacy groups appointed representatives who participated in pre-meeting discussions and in the

  6. [Ethics code of the Chilean Biological Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Etica, C; Valenzuela, C; Cruz-Coke, R; Ureta, T; Bull, R

    1997-01-01

    The Chilean Biological Society has approved an ethics code for researchers, elaborated by its Ethic Committee. The text, with 16 articles, undertakes the main ethical problems that researchers must solve, such as institutional, professional or societal ethics, scientific fraud, breaches in collaborative work, relationships between researchers, participation in juries and committees, ethical breaches in scientific publications, scientific responsibility and punishments. This code declares its respect and valorization of all life forms and adheres to international biomedical ethical codes. It declares that all knowledge, created or obtained by researchers is mankind's heritage.

  7. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  8. The Ethics of Deontology in Corporate Communication | Owakah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to provide guidelines on how to respond to the ethical challenges entailed in corporate communication. It argues for the need for an ethical grounding for the practitioner of corporate communication, before critically examining the two broad ethical theories - deontology and teleology - and their place in ...

  9. Medical ethics and ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyalomhe, G B S

    2009-01-01

    Ethical problems routinely arise in the hospital and outpatient practice settings and times of dilemma do occur such that practitioners and patients are at cross-roads where choice and decision making become difficult in terms of ethics. This paper attempts a synopsis of the basic principles of medical ethics, identifies some ethical dilemmas that doctors often encounter and discusses some strategies to address them as well as emphasizes the need for enhanced ethics education both for physicians and patients particularly in Nigeria. Literature and computer programmes (Medline and PsychoInfo databases) were searched for relevant information. The search showed that the fundamental principles suggested by ethicists to assist doctors to evaluate the ethics of a situation while making a decision include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Although the above principles do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, they serve as a guide to doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances. The principles sometimes conflict with each other leading to ethical dilemmas when applied to issues such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, professional misconduct, confidentiality truth telling, professional relationship with relatives, religion, traditional medicine and business concerns. Resolution of dilemmas demand the best of the doctor's knowledge of relevant laws and ethics, his training and experience, his religious conviction and moral principles as well as his readiness to benefit from ethics consultation and the advice of his colleagues. Ethics education should begin from the impressionable age in homes, continued in the medical schools and after graduation to ensure that doctors develop good ethical practices and acquire the ability to effectively handle ethical dilemmas. Also, education of patients and sanction of unethical behaviour will reduce ethical dilemmas.

  10. Mapping French terms in a Belgian guideline on heart failure to international classifications and nomenclatures: the devil is in the detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Jamoulle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction With growing sophistication of eHealth platforms, medical information is increasingly shared across patients, health care providers, institutions and across borders. This implies more stringent demands on the quality of data entry at the point-of-care. Non-native English-speaking general practitioners (GPs experience difficulties in interacting with international classification systems and nomenclatures to facilitate the secondary use of their data and to ensure semantic interoperability.Aim To identify words and phrases pertaining to the heart failure domain and to explore the difficulties in mapping to corresponding concepts in ICPC-2, ICD-10, SNOMED-CT and UMLS.Methods The medical concepts in a Belgian guideline for GPs in its French version were extracted manually and coded first in ICPC-2, then ICD-10 by a physician, an expert in classification systems. In addition, mappings were sought with SNOMED-CT and UMLS concepts, using the UMLS SNOMED-CT browser.Results We identified 143 words and phrases, of which 128 referred to a single concept (1-to-1 mapping, while 15 referred to two or more concepts (1-to-n mapping to ICPC rubrics or to the other nomenclatures. In the guideline, words or phrases were often too general for specific mapping to a code or term. Marked discrepancy between semantic tags and types was found.Conclusion This article shows the variability of the various international classifications and nomenclatures, the need for structured guidelines with more attention to precise wording and the need for classification expertise embedded in sophisticated terminological resources. End users need support to perform their clinical work in their own language, while still assuring standardised and semantic interoperable medical registration. Collaboration between computational linguists, knowledge engineers, health informaticians and domain experts is needed.

  11. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  12. The improvement of the best practice guidelines for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of cystic fibrosis: toward an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardet, Anne; Viart, Victoria; Plaza, Stéphanie; Daina, Gemma; De Rycke, Martine; Des Georges, Marie; Fiorentino, Francesco; Harton, Gary; Ishmukhametova, Aliya; Navarro, Joaquima; Raynal, Caroline; Renwick, Pamela; Saguet, Florielle; Schwarz, Martin; SenGupta, Sioban; Tzetis, Maria; Roux, Anne-Françoise; Claustres, Mireille

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common indications for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for single gene disorders, giving couples the opportunity to conceive unaffected children without having to consider termination of pregnancy. However, there are no available standardized protocols, so that each center has to develop its own diagnostic strategies and procedures. Furthermore, reproductive decisions are complicated by the diversity of disease-causing variants in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene and the complexity of correlations between genotypes and associated phenotypes, so that attitudes and practices toward the risks for future offspring can vary greatly between countries. On behalf of the EuroGentest Network, eighteen experts in PGD and/or molecular diagnosis of CF from seven countries attended a workshop held in Montpellier, France, on 14 December 2011. Building on the best practice guidelines for amplification-based PGD established by ESHRE (European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology), the goal of this meeting was to formulate specific guidelines for CF-PGD in order to contribute to a better harmonization of practices across Europe. Different topics were covered including variant nomenclature, inclusion criteria, genetic counseling, PGD strategy and reporting of results. The recommendations are summarized here, and updated information on the clinical significance of CFTR variants and associated phenotypes is presented.

  13. War Machines and Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz; Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2018-01-01

    and save military lives. However, this opens up for discussions about ethical dilemmas about machines that autonomously are able to kill humans: What is an autonomous weapons system? What laws covers the use of fully autonomous weapons systems? Should it apply to International Humanitarian Law?...

  14. Under the shelter of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichterman, Boleslav L

    2005-01-01

    Problems of ethics committees in post-communist Russia are briefly discussed. The first ethics committees were established in 1980s upon the initiative of international pharmaceutical companies involved in clinical trials. Generally, such committees exist at hospitals conducting these trials and at research institutions dealing with human experimentation. They are bureaucratic structures heavily dependent on hospital or institution administration. Publication of research results in international periodicals is the main reason for their existence. An officially recognized National Ethics Committee is non-existent although there are several competing ethics committees at a national level (at the Ministry of Health, Academy of Sciences, Academy of Medical Sciences, Russian Medical association etc.). There is no federal legislation on the structure and status of ethics committees.

  15. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s. http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols 1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic

  16. The Importance of International Law in Counter-Terrorism: The Need for New Guidelines in International Law to Assist States Responding to Terrorist Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Schlagheck, Heidi Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Terrorism, in one way or another, touches everyone's lives. Its affect could be as small as watching media stories on the nightly news and waiting longer in a security line at the airport or as significant as losing a loved one in an attack. As individuals come to grips with living with increased terrorist violence, individual nation-states and the international community have to prepare themselves to prevent, react to, and counter terrorism. This thesis examines whether international law ...

  17. Transformative Education through International Service-­Learning: Realising an Ethical Ecology of Learning. Routledge Research in International and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative learning is a compelling approach to learning that is becoming increasingly popular in a diverse range of educational settings and encounters. This book reconceptualises transformative learning through an investigation of the learning process and outcomes of International Service-Learning (ISL), a pedagogical approach that blends…

  18. Ethics in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P

    2015-09-01

    Ethics are a set of moral principles and values a civilized society follows. Doing science with principles of ethics is the bedrock of scientific activity. The society trusts that the results and the projected outcome of any scientific activity is based on an honest and conscientious attempt by the scientific community. However, during the last few decades, there has been an explosion of knowledge and the advent of digital age. We can access the publications of competitors with just a "click". The evaluation parameters have evolved a lot and are based on impact factors, h-index and citations. There is a general feeling that the scientific community is under a lot of pressure for fulfilling the criteria for upward growth and even retention of the positions held. The noble profession of scientific research and academics has been marred by the temptation to falsify and fabricate data, plagiarism and other unethical practices. Broadly speaking, the breach of ethics involves: plagiarism, falsification of data, redundant (duplicate) publication, drawing far-fetched conclusions without hard data, for early publicity, gift authorship (receiving as well as giving), not giving sufficient attention and consideration to scholars and post-docs as per the norms, self promotion at the cost of team-members, treating colleagues (overall all juniors) in a feudal way and Machiavellianism (cunningness and duplicity in general conduct and push to positions of power and pelf). Misconduct in Indian academics and science is also under a lot of focus. It is important and urgent that science, engineering, and health departments and institutions in our country have in place systems for education and training in pursuit of science with ethics by sound and professional courses in Responsible Conduct of Research. All research and academic institution must have the Office of Ethics for information, guidelines, training and professional oversight of conduct of research with the ethos and ethics

  19. Ethics: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Management: Strategy and Conflict in an Age of Globalised Risks. New York: Routledge, 2006. 214pp. (UA646 .H25 2006) Hensel, Howard M., ed. The Legitimate...Vigilant State: Globalisation and Intelligence." Review of International Studies 35, no. 4 (October 2009): 889-902. Cambridge "Between Global Violence...Omnifile Burgess, J. Peter. "The Ethical Challenges of Human Security in the Age of Globalisation ." International Social Science Journal 59, no. s1

  20. Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…

  1. Virtue ethics.

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon, Gervase

    2003-01-01

    The Handbook of Economics and Ethics portrays an understanding of economic methodology in which facts and values, though distinct, are closely interconnected in a variety of ways. From theory building to data collection, and from modelling to policy evaluation, this encyclopaedic Handbook is at the intersection of economics and ethics.

  2. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  3. BUSINESS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu BURCEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the elements that will form the basis of this scientific study. Lately, business ethics has been becoming an increasingly popular topic. Set against the global economic crisis, the companies’ credibility could become a major concern. Business ethics also becomes a challenge for training and informing employees and employers, in order to make not only economical, but also ethical decisions regarding their profits. In the study we shall also address the ethical standards required in a business world interested in fundamental values that can make the difference in 21st century business. Also, according to a study conducted by the authors, we shall address the two most important ethical values that prove to be essential to a business.

  4. Development of site-specific sediment quality guidelines for North and South Atlantic littoral zones: comparison against national and international sediment quality benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueri, R B; Cesar, A; Abessa, D M S; Torres, R J; Morais, R D; Riba, I; Pereira, C D S; Nascimento, M R L; Mozeto, A A; DelValls, T A

    2009-10-15

    We aimed to develop site-specific sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for two estuarine and port zones in Southeastern Brazil (Santos Estuarine System and Paranaguá Estuarine System) and three in Southern Spain (Ría of Huelva, Bay of Cádiz, and Bay of Algeciras), and compare these values against national and traditionally used international benchmark values. Site-specific SQGs were derived based on sediment physical-chemical, toxicological, and benthic community data integrated through multivariate analysis. This technique allowed the identification of chemicals of concern and the establishment of effects range correlatively to individual concentrations of contaminants for each site of study. The results revealed that sediments from Santos channel, as well as inner portions of the SES, are considered highly polluted (exceeding SQGs-high) by metals, PAHs and PCBs. High pollution by PAHs and some metals was found in São Vicente channel. In PES, sediments from inner portions (proximities of the Ponta do Félix port's terminal and the Port of Paranaguá) are highly polluted by metals and PAHs, including one zone inside the limits of an environmental protection area. In Gulf of Cádiz, SQGs exceedences were found in Ria of Huelva (all analysed metals and PAHs), in the surroundings of the Port of Cádiz (Bay of Cádiz) (metals), and in Bay of Algeciras (Ni and PAHs). The site-specific SQGs derived in this study are more restricted than national SQGs applied in Brazil and Spain, as well as international guidelines. This finding confirms the importance of the development of site-specific SQGs to support the characterisation of sediments and dredged material. The use of the same methodology to derive SQGs in Brazilian and Spanish port zones confirmed the applicability of this technique with an international scope and provided a harmonised methodology for site-specific SQGs derivation.

  5. Locating Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Research ethics has become integrated into what it means to conduct good science. This thesis is about the nature of that integration, which I argue is not neutral, carrying with it ideas of duty, moral obligations, organisational mechanisms, and processes of monitoring. For developing countries...... to participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies...

  6. Reporting transparency: making the ethical mandate explicit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stuart G; Langan, Sinéad M; Benchimol, Eric I; Moher, David

    2016-03-16

    Improving the transparency and quality of reporting in biomedical research is considered ethically important; yet, this is often based on practical reasons such as the facilitation of peer review. Surprisingly, there has been little explicit discussion regarding the ethical obligations that underpin reporting guidelines. In this commentary, we suggest a number of ethical drivers for the improved reporting of research. These ethical drivers relate to researcher integrity as well as to the benefits derived from improved reporting such as the fair use of resources, minimizing risk of harms, and maximizing benefits. Despite their undoubted benefit to reporting completeness, questions remain regarding the extent to which reporting guidelines can influence processes beyond publication, including researcher integrity or the uptake of scientific research findings into policy or practice. Thus, we consider investigation on the effects of reporting guidelines an important step in providing evidence of their benefits.

  7. Evidence of Reciprocity in Reports on International Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Umoren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global health opportunities in medical education has been accompanied by calls for ethical and reciprocal institutional partnerships. The Working Group on Ethics Guidelines in Global Health Training (WEIGHT guidelines were developed in 2010 and are widely accepted by the global health community. We reviewed 43 articles on international partnerships from 1970 to 2010 for eight principles of reciprocity derived from the WEIGHT guidelines. The results showed that, while few articles reflected all principles, there was a trend to increasing consideration of the international partner’s local needs, pre-departure cultural training, and collaborative authorship. However, learner supervision and consideration of local cost/benefit ratios decreased over the same time period. Partnerships with only one international partner or with institutional partners in Africa had lower reciprocity scores than those with two or more partners and institutional partners in Asia and South America. We recommend that a new focus on ethics in global health partnerships leads to the inclusion of the principles of reciprocity in model program descriptions in order to enable and encourage ethical, sustainable, and mutually beneficial institutional partnerships.

  8. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... underlying business risk factors and internal control environment. Carrying value means, with respect to an... set, the larger of zero or the market value of a transaction or portfolio of transactions within the... convert the probability distribution of market values to the probability distribution of credit risk...

  9. Buscando Orientaciones: Pautas para la Enseñanza de la Ética Profesional en Psicología en un Contexto con Impronta Postmoderna Searching for Orientation: Guidelines for Teaching Professional Ethics in Psychology in a Context with a PostModern Emphasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pasmanik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Resultados de estudios realizados en Chile sugieren que los psicólogos prefieren tomar decisiones de orden ético sobre la base de su juicio personal y su experiencia profesional, valorizando menos la utilidad del código de ética profesional (Alvear, Pasmanik, Winkler & Olivares, 2008. Partiendo de este antecedente, se recabó información para situar la enseñanza de la ética profesional en las transformaciones que actualmente experimenta la educación superior y se buscó elementos de juicio para la toma de decisiones con respecto a la enseñanza de la ética en el pregrado. En este artículo se presentan y discuten algunos acercamientos a dicha formación que se aplican en la enseñanza de la psicología y se proponen algunas orientaciones para decidir qué, cuándo y cómo enseñar ética en psicología.Previous survey's results suggest that Chilean psychologists prefer to make ethical decisions based on their personal judgment and professional experience, and place less value on the utilization of a Professional Code of Ethics (Alvear, Pasmanik, Winkler, & Olivares, 2008. With this background, information was obtained in order to position the teaching of professional ethics in the transformation that is currently being experienced in higher education, and criteria for decision making on teaching ethics at the undergraduate level were also sought. Some of the approaches to ethics education in psychology are presented and discussed, and guidelines are proposed for deciding what, when and how to teach ethics in psychology.

  10. Professional ethics in biomedical engineering practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon, Jorge E; Monzon-Wyngaard, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses some guidelines for use with the accepted fundamental canons of ethics for engineers. We present some rules of practice and professional obligations emerging from these canons. Basic recommendations for engineers dissenting on ethical grounds are also presented. Ethical issues relating to Biomedical Engineering research are illustrated. We mention some cases that could be used to further understanding the ethical implications of biomedical engineering practice.

  11. Ethics Education and Its Influences on Rehabilitation Counseling Master's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The importance of ethics in helping professions and ethics education in counselor preparation programs have been stressed and discussed greatly. In order to foster helping professionals' ethical behaviors to ensure clients' rights and welfare, professional organizations have developed codes of ethics to serve as guidelines for helping…

  12. Trading certainty for speed - how much uncertainty are decisionmakers and guideline developers willing to accept when using rapid reviews: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gernot; Nussbaumer-Streit, Barbara; Greimel, Judith; Ciapponi, Agustín; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2017-08-14

    Decisionmakers and guideline developers demand rapid syntheses of the evidence when time sensitive evidence-informed decisions are required. A potential trade-off of such rapid reviews is that their results can have less reliability than results of systematic reviews that can lead to an increased risk of making incorrect decisions or recommendations. We sought to determine how much incremental uncertainty about the correctness of an answer guideline developers and health policy decisionmakers are willing to accept in exchange for a rapid evidence-synthesis. Employing a purposive sample, we conducted an international web-based, anonymous survey of decisionmakers and guideline developers. Based on a clinical treatment, a public health, and a clinical prevention scenario, participants indicated the maximum risk of getting an incorrect answer from a rapid review that they would be willing to accept. We carefully reviewed data and performed descriptive statistical analyses. In total, 325 (58.5%) of 556 participants completed our survey and were eligible for analysis. The median acceptable incremental risk for getting an incorrect answer from a rapid review across all three scenarios was 10.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-15.0). Acceptable risks were similar for the clinical treatment (n = 313, median 10.0% [IQR 5.0-15.0]) and the public health scenarios (n = 320, median 10.0% [IQR 5.0-15.0]) and lower for the clinical prevention scenario (n = 312, median 6.5% [IQR 5.0-10.5]). Findings suggest that decisionmakers are willing to accept some trade-off in validity in exchange for a rapid review. Nevertheless, they expect the validity of rapid reviews to come close to that of systematic reviews.

  13. Major knowledge gaps and system barriers to guideline implementation among European physicians treating patients with atrial fibrillation: a European Society of Cardiology international educational needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Dagres, Nikolaos; Antz, Matthias; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lazure, Patrice; Murray, Suzanne; Carrera, Céline; Hindricks, Gerhard; Vahanian, Alec

    2018-03-12

    Guideline-adherent treatment is associated with improved prognosis in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients but is insufficiently implemented in clinical practice. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) performed a multinational educational needs assessment study among cardiologists, general practitioners/family physicians (GPs/FPs), and neurologists in order to evaluate knowledge and skills of physicians and system factors related to AF care delivery. A total of 561 physicians (294 cardiologists, 131 neurologists, and 136 GPs/FPs) from six European countries participated. This mixed-methods study included exploratory semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 30) and a quantitative survey that included two clinical cases (n = 531). We identified eight key knowledge gaps and system barriers across all domains of AF care. A majority across all specialties reported skills needing improvement to classify AF pathophysiologically, rather than based on duration of episodes, and reported lack of availability of long-term electrocardiogram recording. Skills interpreting the CHA2DS2-VASc and the HAS-BLED scores were reported as needing improvement by the majority of neurologists (52% and 60%, respectively) and GPs/FPs (65% and 74%). Cardiologists calculated the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores in 94%/70% in a presented case patient, but only 60%/49% of neurologists and 58%/42% of GPs/FPs did. There was much uncertainty on how to deal with anticoagulant therapy in complex patients. There was also a high disparity in using rate or rhythm control strategies, and indications for ablation. Information delivery to patients and communication between different specialties was often considered suboptimal, while national regulations and restrictions often hamper international guideline implementation. We identified major gaps in physicians' knowledge and skills across all domains of AF care, as well as system factors hampering guideline-compliant care implementation and

  14. Legal and ethical consequences of international biobanking from a national perspective: the German BMB-EUCoop project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Jürgen W; Pickardt, Thomas; Bedau, Maren; Fuchs, Michael; Lenk, Christian; Paster, Inga; Spranger, Tarde M; Stockter, Ulrich; Bauer, Ulrike; Cooper, David N; Krawczak, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The international transfer of human biomaterial and data has become a prerequisite for collaborative biomedical research to be successful. However, although a national legal framework for 'biobanking' has already been formulated in many countries, little is known about how an international exchange of data and samples might affect the legal position of national biobanks and their donors. The German Telematics Platform and the Competence Network 'Congenital Heart Defects' jointly instigated a project (BMB-EUCoop) to (i) identify and assess the legal risks ensuing for biobanks and their donors in the context of Europe-wide research collaborations, (ii) devise practical recommendations to minimize or avoid these risks, and (iii) provide generic informational text, contracts and agreements to facilitate their practical implementation. Four different countries were included in the study; namely, the UK, Netherlands, Austria and Switzerland. The results of the study indicate that the degree of similarity between legal systems in different countries varies according to the respective field of jurisdiction. Although personality and property rights have long been enshrined in virtually identical pieces of law, the applicable medical professional regulations were found to be somewhat heterogeneous. Furthermore, clear-cut differences were often found to be lacking between regulations that reflect either 'soft law' or the nationally binding 'hard law' that has emerged from it. In view of the potential ambiguities, the experts uniformly concluded that the rights and interests of national (in this case, German) biobanks and their donors would be best protected by explicitly addressing any uncertainties in formal contractual agreements.

  15. The ethics of industry experimentation using employees: the case of taste-testing pesticide-treated tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Solomon, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, companies that use their own funds to test consumer products on their employees are subject to few regulations. Using previously undisclosed tobacco industry documents, we reviewed the history of that industry's efforts to create internal guidelines on the conditions to be met before employee taste testers could evaluate cigarettes made from tobacco treated with experimental pesticides. This history highlights 2 potential ethical issues raised by unregulated industrial research: conflict of interest and lack of informed consent. To ensure compliance with accepted ethical standards, an independent federal office should be established to oversee industrial research involving humans exposed to experimental or increased quantities of ingested, inhaled, or absorbed chemical agents.

  16. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  17. Modern Radiation Therapy for Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma—Target Definition and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illidge, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Illidge@ics.manchester.ac.uk [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Yahalom, Joachim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Aleman, Berthe [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berthelsen, Anne Kiil [Department of Radiation Oncology and PET Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Constine, Louis [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pediatrics, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dharmarajan, Kavita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ricardi, Umberto [Radiation Oncology Unit, Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Wirth, Andrew [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, St. Andrews Place, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT techniques that targeted nodal regions have now been replaced by limiting the RT to smaller volumes based solely on detectable nodal involvement at presentation. A new concept, involved-site RT, defines the clinical target volume. For indolent NHL, often treated with RT alone, larger fields should be considered. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated RT, breath holding, image guided RT, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented, and their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control.

  18. [Total abstinence or harm reduction--different strategies of alcohol treatment in research studies and international guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use is considered to be one of the major factors contributing to global health burden as well as social and economic harm. Only about 16% of alcohol dependent individuals enter addiction treatment programs in Poland, with only a few more in Western Europe. The aim of the paper was to present two main treatment strategies of alcohol dependence: total abstinence and harm reduction. The advantages and disadvantages of both treatment goals are presented, pointing to a possibility of treating them as complementary strategies. A need to choose a proper, personalised patient-oriented aim of a treatment program is emphasised, with an option to revise the objective during long-term therapy. The paper describes implications from investigating the problem of alcohol dependence from a population health perspective. The surprisingly high amount of individuals remitting spontaneously from alcohol dependence without treatment is also discussed, and a possible bias resulting from analysing data on alcoholic subjects coming only from addiction centres, not from general population is taken into consideration. In the second part of the paper, American as well as British alcohol treatment guidelines are presented.

  19. International Myeloma Working Group guidelines for serum-free light chain analysis in multiple myeloma and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispenzieri, A; Kyle, R; Merlini, G; Miguel, J S; Ludwig, H; Hajek, R; Palumbo, A; Jagannath, S; Blade, J; Lonial, S; Dimopoulos, M; Comenzo, R; Einsele, H; Barlogie, B; Anderson, K; Gertz, M; Harousseau, J L; Attal, M; Tosi, P; Sonneveld, P; Boccadoro, M; Morgan, G; Richardson, P; Sezer, O; Mateos, M V; Cavo, M; Joshua, D; Turesson, I; Chen, W; Shimizu, K; Powles, R; Rajkumar, S V; Durie, B G M

    2009-02-01

    The serum immunoglobulin-free light chain (FLC) assay measures levels of free kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chains. There are three major indications for the FLC assay in the evaluation and management of multiple myeloma and related plasma cell disorders (PCD). In the context of screening, the serum FLC assay in combination with serum protein electrophoresis (PEL) and immunofixation yields high sensitivity, and negates the need for 24-h urine studies for diagnoses other than light chain amyloidosis (AL). Second, the baseline FLC measurement is of major prognostic value in virtually every PCD. Third, the FLC assay allows for quantitative monitoring of patients with oligosecretory PCD, including AL, oligosecretory myeloma and nearly two-thirds of patients who had previously been deemed to have non-secretory myeloma. In AL patients, serial FLC measurements outperform PEL and immunofixation. In oligosecretory myeloma patients, although not formally validated, serial FLC measurements reduce the need for frequent bone marrow biopsies. In contrast, there are no data to support using FLC assay in place of 24-h urine PEL for monitoring or for serial measurements in PCD with measurable disease by serum or urine PEL. This paper provides consensus guidelines for the use of this important assay, in the diagnosis and management of clonal PCD.

  20. Ethical dimensions of genetics in pediatric neurology: a look into the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avard, Denise M; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2002-03-01

    Health care providers and families with children who participate in genetic research or who need specialized genetic services, including genetic testing, will encounter not only medical but difficult social, ethical, and legal questions surrounding pediatric genetic neurology. Children are often at the center of much of the genetic revolution and their unique needs raise special concerns about the risks and benefits associated with genetic research, particularly the issues of consent, the use of genetic databases, and gene therapy. Moreover, genetic research and testing raise important psychosocial risks. In this article we discuss some of the benefits and consequences of genetic technologies for children in relation to national and international guidelines. In particular, physicians, policy-makers, and families should be knowledgeable about the guidelines and have a good understanding of the psychosocial and ethical issues associated with genetics in pediatric neurology.