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Sample records for international embryo transfer

  1. Health and Safety Advisory Committee (HASAC) of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) has managed critical challenges for two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibier, M; Stringfellow, D A

    2003-02-01

    The International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) was founded in 1974. Early members used the society as a forum for the exchange of scientific and technical information relevant to a newly emerging embryo transfer industry. The impact that embryo transfer could have on the international trade of livestock genetics was clear by 1982, so the IETS commissioned the Import/Export Committee. The initial challenge for this Committee was to deal with concerns about disease transmission via embryo transfer. Many of the early concerns have been dispelled, but at the time they threatened the continued development of a fledgling industry. Over the past two decades, many new critical challenges have been met and managed by this Committee, which was recently renamed the Health and Safety Advisory Committee (HASAC). Assessing risks of animal disease transmission via reproductive technologies and establishing protocols for managing these risks are still major issues for HASAC. However, additional concerns have developed as views of the society changed and as novel applications of biotechnology in farm animals were identified. This paper is intended to chronicle some of the major changes and challenges that were managed by members of the HASAC and its Subcommittees from the early years of embryo transfer to the current millennium with technological advances in molecular biology.

  2. Non-surgical embryo transfer in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Embryo transfer in pigs has been performed surgically for a long time. However, a less invasive, non-surgical, procedure of embryo transfer could be a valuable tool for research (to study embryo survival and embryo-uterus interactions) and practical applications (export, prevention of

  3. Comparison of clinical outcomes between fresh embryo transfers and frozen-thawed embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chunjuan; Shu, Defeng; Zhao, Xiaojie; Gao, Ying

    2014-06-01

    Advances in embryo culture technology and cryopreservation have led to a shift in in vitro fertilization (IVF) from early fresh or frozen-thawed cleavage embryo transfer to fresh or frozen-thawed blastocyst stage transfer. To compare the clinical outcomes of fresh embryo transfers and frozen-thawed embryo transfers. In this retrospective case control study, patients undergoing IVF cycles from January 2012 to December 2012 were enrolled in Assisted Reproduction of Wuhan Union Hospital were enrolled. A total of 1891 cycle contains 1150 fresh embryo transfers and 741 frozen-thawed embryo transfers were studied. All data were transferred directly to SPSS 18 and analyzed. Clinical pregnancy rates of fresh cleavage-stage embryo transfers compared with fresh blastocyst transfers, frozen-thawed cleavage-stage embryo transfers, post thaw cleavage-stage extended blastocyst culture transfers and frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers were 52.7%, 35.88%, 35.29%, 47.75%, 59.8% in patients under 35 years of ages and 41.24%, 26.92%, 11.32%, 46.15%, 55.8% in patients older than 35 years old, respectively. The multiple pregnancy rates, abortion rates and ectopic pregnancy rates did not differ significantly among the five groups. The clinical pregnancy rates were not different significantly between fresh cleavage-stage embryo transfers and fresh blastocyst transfers. But the clinical pregnancy rate of frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer was the highest among fresh/frozen-thawed embryo transfers.

  4. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2007-01-01

    the developmental potential of embryos originating from varied nuclear transfer protocols. In bovine in vivo developed embryos, functional ribosome-synthesizing nucleoli become structurally distinct toward the end of the 4th post-fertilization cell cycle. In embryonic cell nuclear transfer embryos, fully developed...... nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...... is completed toward the end of the 4th cell cycle. A substantial proportion of bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer of embryonic or somatic cells to bovine ooplasts display aberrations in protein localization in one or more blastomers. This information is indicative of underlying aberrations in genomic...

  5. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2007-01-01

    nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...... the developmental potential of embryos originating from varied nuclear transfer protocols. In bovine in vivo developed embryos, functional ribosome-synthesizing nucleoli become structurally distinct toward the end of the 4th post-fertilization cell cycle. In embryonic cell nuclear transfer embryos, fully developed...... is completed toward the end of the 4th cell cycle. A substantial proportion of bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer of embryonic or somatic cells to bovine ooplasts display aberrations in protein localization in one or more blastomers. This information is indicative of underlying aberrations in genomic...

  6. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2007-01-01

    nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...... the developmental potential of embryos originating from varied nuclear transfer protocols. In bovine in vivo developed embryos, functional ribosome-synthesizing nucleoli become structurally distinct toward the end of the 4th post-fertilization cell cycle. In embryonic cell nuclear transfer embryos, fully developed...... is completed toward the end of the 4th cell cycle. A substantial proportion of bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer of embryonic or somatic cells to bovine ooplasts display aberrations in protein localization in one or more blastomers. This information is indicative of underlying aberrations in genomic...

  7. Biofluid Flow Simulations of Embryo Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W. P.; Ding, D. L.

    2011-09-01

    The investigation of the fluid flow for embryo transfer (ET) procedure may find the way to increase the success rate of the assisted reproductive technologies. In this paper, the transferred liquid flow in the uterine cavity during ET procedure is simulated by a two dimensional multiphase flow model, and the discrete phase model is adopted to trace the embryo motion. Through the investigation on the transferred liquid outline and the track of each embryo in ET cases with different parameters, we summarize the effect of transferred liquid viscosity and distance between catheter tip and uterine fundus. According to the numerical results, we recommend the optimizing standard to perform the ET procedure.

  8. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    (nonactivated) or S phase (activated) cytoplasts. Control embryos were fixed at the two-, four-, early eight- and late eight-cell stages; nuclear transfer embryos were fixed at 1 and 3 hr post fusion and at the two-, four-, and eight-cell stages. Control embryos possessed a nucleolar precursor body throughout...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  9. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    (nonactivated) or S phase (activated) cytoplasts. Control embryos were fixed at the two-, four-, early eight- and late eight-cell stages; nuclear transfer embryos were fixed at 1 and 3 hr post fusion and at the two-, four-, and eight-cell stages. Control embryos possessed a nucleolar precursor body throughout...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  10. To transfer fresh or thawed embryos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    and cons of FER versus fresh-embryo transfer with regard to both single-cycle and cumulative pregnancy and delivery rates. The review discusses the obvious advantages of FER: minimizing the proportion of pharmacological and surgical treatments, and lowering the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome...... and multiple pregnancies, thereby increasing the safety for mother and child. Finally the article describes the accumulating literature on perinatal and long-term child outcome after transfer of frozen/thawed embryos, including a discussion on the concerns regarding cryo techniques and their possible roles...

  11. The effect of the number of transferred embryos, the interval between nuclear transfer and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern on pig cloning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Chol Ho; Fu, Zhixin; Bao, Lei; Chen, Haide; Zhang, Dan; Luo, Qiong; Ri, Hak Chol; Huang, Hefeng; Luan, Zhidong; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Chun; Xiao, Lei; Jong, Ui Myong

    2013-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of producing cloned pigs, we investigated the influence of the number of transferred embryos, the culturing interval between nuclear transfer (NT) and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern (single oviduct or double oviduct) on cloning efficiency. The results demonstrated that transfer of either 150-200 or more than 200NT embryos compared to transfer of 100-150 embryos resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (48 ± 16, 50 ± 16 vs. 29 ± 5%, pcloning efficiency is achieved by adjusting the number and in vitro culture time of reconstructed embryos as well as the embryo transfer pattern.

  12. Nonsurgical embryo transfer device compared with surgery for embryo transfer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kendra H; Hester, James M; Stone, Barbara J; Carrico, Kimberly M; Spear, Brett T; Fath-Goodin, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    The use of a murine nonsurgical embryo transfer (NSET) device had been described previously for the transfer of blastocysts, morulae, DNA-microinjected embryos, and embryonic stem cell-containing embryos to create genetically modified mice. However, physiologic effects of the NSET device and traditional surgical methods had not been compared directly. Here we used electrocardiography and fecal corticosterone levels to monitor pseudopregnant mice that underwent anesthesia only, the NSET procedure with or without anesthesia, or surgery. These procedures were performed without the use of actual embryos, to focus on effects of the procedures themselves rather than on any physiologic effects due to the deposition of embryos. As compared with surgery and anesthesia, the NSET procedure was associated with less fluctuation in cardiac rhythm and lower levels of the stress biomarker fecal corticosterone. These results indicate that use of the NSET device avoids these physi- ological perturbations as well as other disadvantages of surgery (for example, postoperative pain and need for postoperative analgesia) and therefore provides a valuable refinement of existing mouse embryo transfer procedures.

  13. Efficient Reproduction of Cynomolgus Monkey Using Pronuclear Embryo Transfer Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qiang Sun; Juan Dong; Wenting Yang; Yujuan Jin; Mingying Yang; Yan Wang; Philip L. Wang; Yinghe Hu; Joe Z. Tsien

    2008-01-01

    ..., often result in poor embryo quality and subsequently lead to low birth rates. We investigated whether pronuclear embryo transfer can be used as an effective means for improving pregnancy and live birth rates of nonhuman primates...

  14. Research Progress on Technique of Frozen Embryo Transfer in Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Qiu-sheng; HU Jian-ye; LOU Peng-yan; TAO Jing; XIE Zhao-hui

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the research progress on the technique of frozen embryo transfer in sheep, illustrated selection of donors and receptors, superovulation, synchronization of estrus, embryo cryopreservation and embryo transplantation. Frozen embryo transfer in sheep is another breakthrough in the high-quality sheep raising, and this technique in China is in its infancy recommendation stage, but it will be comprehensively popularized in the future.

  15. Comparison between Conventional Blind Embryo Transfer and Embryo Transfer Based on Previously Measured Uterine Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Saharkhiz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embryo transfer (ET is one of the most important steps in assisted reproductive technology (ART cycles and affected by many factors namely the depth of embryo deposition in uterus. In this study, the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles after blind embryo transfer and embryo transfer based on previously measured uterine length using vaginal ultrasound were compared. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomised clinical trial included one hundred and forty non-donor fresh embryo transfers during January 2010 to June 2011. In group I, ET was performed using conventional (blind method at 5-6cm from the external os, and in group II, ET was done at a depth of 1-1.5 cm from the uterine fundus based on previously measured uterine length using vaginal sonography. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t test and Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. The software that we used was PASW statistics version 18. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Chemical pregnancy rate was 28.7% in group I and 42.1% in group II, while the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.105. Clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates for group I were 21.2%, 17.7%, and 12.8%, while for group II were 33.9%, 33.9%, and 22.1, respectively. In group I and group II, abortion rates were 34.7% and 0%, respectively, indicating a statistically significant difference (p<0.005. No ectopic pregnancy occurred in two groups. Conclusion: The use of uterine length measurement during treatment cycle in order to place embryos at depth of 1-1.5cm from fundus significantly increases clinical and ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates, while leads to a decrease in abortion rate (Registration Number: IRCT2014032512494N1.

  16. Potential risk of equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) transmission by equine embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebia, I; Fiéni, F; Duchamp, G; Destrumelle, S; Pellerin, J-L; Zientara, S; Vautherot, J-F; Bruyas, J-F

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the 10 wash cycles proposed by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) for bovine embryos efficiently decontaminated equine embryos exposed to equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) in vitro. Donor mares and stallions were individually screened and shown to be negative for the virus by PCR detection of EHV-1 DNA in blood leukocytes, semen, and uterine lavages in which embryos were recovered. Twenty embryos were recovered and randomly assigned to one of two groups: 10 embryos were exposed for 24h to infectious EHV-1 at 10(6)TCID(50)/ml, and 10 embryos were used as negative controls. Exposed embryos were washed in accordance with IETS recommendations for ruminant and porcine embryos, before being incubated for 24 h with semiconfluent rabbit kidney (RK13) cells to detect any cytopathic effects (CPE), and finally tested for the presence of EHV-1 viral DNA by PCR. The embryo washing media were also assayed for the virus on RK 13 cells and by PCR. Control embryos were neither exposed to the virus nor washed. EHV-1 was not found in the control embryos, or in the last five washes of the exposed embryos. However, the virus was detected in 7/10 of the embryos exposed to EHV-1 for 24h, as well as in the first five washes of the embryos. The gradual disappearance of EHV-1 from the 10 successive wash solutions from the exposed embryos and the detection of viral DNA in 7/10 washed embryos by PCR, demonstrated that the washing procedure was unable to remove EHV-1 and suggested that EHV-1 could be attached to the acellular layer surrounding embryos (zona pellucida or capsule) or had penetrated the embryo.

  17. Embryo quality and transcervical technique are not the limiting factors in donkey embryo transfer outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzani, D; Rota, A; Crisci, A; Kindahl, H; Govoni, N; Camillo, F

    2012-02-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) in the donkey resulted in a very low recipient pregnancy rates. The aim of these studies was to investigate if nonsurgical transfer techniques or donkey embryo quality affect donkey recipient pregnancy failure. In Study 1, the impact of transfer technique was investigated by evaluating if cervical catheterization is associated with prostaglandin release and suppression of luteal function and if donkey recipients would become pregnant after nonsurgical transfer of horse embryos. Four jennies, from 5 to 8 d after ovulation, were submitted to a sham transcervical ET and to evaluation of PGFM and progesterone plasma concentrations. Five 8 d horse embryos were nonsurgically transferred into synchronized donkey recipients (HD). Cervical stimulation caused a transient PGF(2α) release in two of four jennies in the absence of a significant decrease in progesterone plasma concentration. All transferred horse embryos resulted in pregnancies in the jenny recipients. In Study 2, donkey embryo viability was investigated by 1.2 meters, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of 10 embryos and by the transfer of 6 and 12 donkey embryos in synchronized mare (DH) and donkey (DD) recipients, respectively, of known fertility. The estimated proportion of dead cells in DAPI stained embryos was 0.9% (range 0-3.9%) and below what is considered normal (20%) for horse embryos. Three of six and six of 12 of the DH and DD ETs, respectively resulted in pregnancies at 14 and 25 d (50%), a higher pregnancy rate than previously reported after DD ET. The overall results of this study suggest that the transcervical technique for ET and donkey embryo viability are not the reasons for the low pregnancy rates that have previously been described in donkey recipients, and that nonsurgical ET in donkeys can result in acceptable results.

  18. Supplement of autologous ooplasm into porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos does not alter embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W-J; Lee, J-H; Jeon, R-H; Jang, S-J; Lee, S-C; Park, J-S; Lee, S-L; King, W-A; Rho, G-J

    2017-02-13

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is considered as the technique in which a somatic cell is introduced into an enucleated oocyte to make a cloned animal. However, it is unavoidable to lose a small amount of the ooplasm during enucleation step during SCNT procedure. The present study was aimed to uncover whether the supplement of autologous ooplasm could ameliorate the oocyte competence so as to improve low efficiency of embryo development in porcine SCNT. Autologous ooplasm-transferred (AOT) embryos were generated by the supplementation with autologous ooplasm into SCNT embryos. They were comparatively evaluated with respect to embryo developmental potential, the number of apoptotic body formation and gene expression including embryonic lineage differentiation, apoptosis, epigenetics and mitochondrial activity in comparison with parthenogenetic, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) and SCNT embryos. Although AOT embryos showed perfect fusion of autologous donor ooplasm with recipient SCNT embryos, the supplement of autologous ooplasm could not ameliorate embryo developmental potential in regard to the rate of blastocyst formation, total cell number and the number of apoptotic body. Furthermore, overall gene expression of AOT embryos was presented with no significant alterations in comparison with that of SCNT embryos. Taken together, the results of AOT demonstrated inability to make relevant values improved from the level of SCNT embryos to their IVF counterparts.

  19. Reproductive outcomes of retransferring retained embryos in blastocyst transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hyun Jeong; Koo, Hwa Seon; Cha, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hye Ok; Park, Chan Woo; Song, In Ok

    2016-06-01

    To determine the incidence of embryo retention (ER) in the transfer catheter following embryo transfer (ET) in blastocyst transfer and investigate whether retransferring retained embryos has an impact on reproductive outcomes in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-ET. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 1,131 blastocyst transfers, which comprised 223 single blastocyst transfer (SBT) and 908 double blastocyst transfer (DBT) cycles. Each SBT and DBT group was classified depending on whether ET was performed without retained embryos in the catheter during the first attempt (without-ER group) or whether any retained embryos were found following ET (ER group) for the purpose of comparing reproductive outcomes in a homogenous population. The overall incidence of finding retained embryos was 2.8% (32/1,131). There were no retained embryos in SBT cycles. In DBT cycles, implantation rates (30.0% vs. 26.6%), positive β-hCG rates (57.2% vs. 56.2%), clinical pregnancy rates (45.3% vs. 46.9%), and live birth rates (38.9% vs. 43.8%) were not significantly different between the without-ER and ER groups. There were no significant differences in the mean birth weight (g) 2,928.4±631.8 vs. 2,948.7±497.8 and the mean gestational age at birth (269.3±17.2 days vs. 264.2±25.7 days). A total of nine cases of congenital birth defects were found in this study population. Eight were observed in the without-ER group and one in the ER group. Our results suggest that retransfer of retained embryos does not have any adverse impact on reproductive outcomes in blastocyst transfer cycles. Furthermore, our results support finding that SBT might be advantageous for decreasing the incidence of retained embryos in catheters.

  20. Debating elective single embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Debating elective single embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization: a plea for a context sensitive approach. ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... and create an ethical dilemma for physicians: Should the physician do as the ...

  1. Serial Nuclear Transfer of Goat-Rabbit Interspecies Reconstructed Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-guo; CHENG Li-zi; ZHANG Xiao-rong; LIU Ya; JING Ren-tao; WANG Cun-li; ZHAO Huan; LI Bin; CAO Chen-chong; LI Dong-wei

    2005-01-01

    The experiments of serial nuclear transfer were conducted between Boer goat and rabbit. The enucleated oocytes of rabbit were used as recipients while the blastomeres of goat morula was used as nuclear donor. The reconstructed embryos developing to morula were used as donor for serial cloning. As a result, two generations of reconstructed embryos were obtained, including 58 first generation reconstructed embryos and 14 second generation reconstructed embryos. The fusion rates were 79.5 and 70%, respectively. and there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). The cleavage rates were 75.9 and 28.6% respectively with significant difference (P<0.01). No blastocyst was obtained from the second generation reconstructed embryos while 13.8% of first generation reconstructed embryos developed to blastocyst.

  2. Embryos produced from fertilization with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-infected semen and the risk of disease transmission to embryo transfer (ET) recipients and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielanski, A; Algire, J; Lalonde, A; Garceac, A

    2013-09-15

    Bovine diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes a variety of economically important enteric and infertility problems in cattle. For that reason, several countries have eradicated the disease, and some others have schemes in progress to achieve freedom. Although there is a considerable amount of information about the risk of BVDV transmission through contaminated semen used for artificial insemination (AI), there is no evidence to indicate whether the resulting embryos, when used for embryo transfer, can lead to the transmission of BVDV to recipients or offspring. For this experiment, semen from a bull persistently infected with BVDV (10(5) 50% tissue culture infective doses/mL NY strain) was used for insemination (two times at estrus) of BVDV-seronegative, superovulated cows (N = 35). Embryos were collected 7 days after insemination and subsequently were washed according to the International Embryo Transfer Society recommendations or left unwashed. Out of 302 collected oocytes and embryos, 173 (57%) were fertilized and the remaining 129 (43%) had degenerated. Infectious BVDV was detected in 24% (17/71) of unwashed and 10% (8/77) of washed embryos, and in all (N = 11) follicular fluid samples, oviductal epithelial cells, endometrium, and corpora lutea tissues as determined by the virus isolation test. After transfer of 39 washed embryos to 27 BVDV-seronegative recipients, 12 (44%) cows became pregnant and 17 calves free of BVDV and BVDV antibodies, including five sets of twins, were born. After embryo transfer, all pregnant and nonpregnant recipients remained free of BVDV and antibodies. In conclusion, results herein suggest that BVDV can be transmitted by AI resulting in the production of some proportion of contaminated embryos. However, it appears that such embryos, when washed according to International Embryo Transfer Society and the World Organization for Animal Health guidelines do not cause BVDV transmission to recipients or their offspring. Crown Copyright © 2013

  3. An investigation into the possibility of bluetongue virus transmission by transfer of infected ovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle H. Venter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT, a disease that affects mainly sheep, causes economic losses owing to not only its deleterious effects on animals but also its associated impact on the restriction of movement of livestock and livestock germplasm. The causative agent, bluetongue virus (BTV, can occur in the semen of rams and bulls at the time of peak viraemia and be transferred to a developing foetus. The risk of the transmission of BTV by bovine embryos is negligible if the embryos are washed according to the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS protocol. Two experiments were undertaken to determine whether this holds for ovine embryos that had been exposed to BTV. Firstly, the oestrus cycles of 12 ewes were synchronised and the 59 embryos that were obtained were exposed in vitro to BTV-2 and BTV-4 at a dilution of 1 x 102.88 and 1 x 103.5 respectively. In the second experiment, embryos were recovered from sheep at the peak of viraemia. A total of 96 embryos were collected from BTV-infected sheep 21 days after infection. In both experiments half the embryos were washed and treated with trypsin according to the IETS protocol while the remaining embryos were neither washed nor treated. All were tested for the presence of BTV using cell culture techniques. The virus was detected after three passages in BHK-21 cells only in one wash bath in the first experiment and two unwashed embryos exposed to BTV-4 at a titre of 1 x 103.5. No embryos or uterine flush fluids obtained from viraemic donors used in the second experiment were positive for BTV after the standard washing procedure had been followed. The washing procedure of the IETS protocol can thus clear sheep embryos infected with BTV either in vitro or in vivo.

  4. Outcomes of elective cryopreserved single or double embryo transfers following failure to conceive after fresh single embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Pedro Augusto Araújo; Mirisola, R J; Gonçalves, S P; Baracat, Edmund C; Serafini, Paulo C

    2016-08-01

    The main adverse effect of IVF is the high multiple pregnancy rate resulting from the transfer of two or more embryos. The objective was to evaluate pregnancy rates in infertile women with a good prognosis who failed to conceive in a fresh elective single embryo transfer (eSET) and had a second cycle with elective double vitrified-warmed embryo transfer (eDFET) compared with elective single vitrified-warmed embryo transfer (eSFET). A total of 142 intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using a conventional protocol were evaluated. Good-prognosis patients underwent eSET in a fresh cycle, and those who failed to conceive underwent a second vitrified-warmed embryo transfer: eDFET (n = 102) or eSFET (n = 40). Embryos were transferred and vitrified on day 5 of development. Patients who received eDFET had fewer implantations (30.9%) than eSFET (52.5%; P = 0.004); pregnancy rates were similar (eDFET: 35.3%, eSFET: 42.5%). Patients with the eSFET had one monozygotic twin (5.9%), and 22.2% of eDFET patients had multiple pregnancies. Patients with a good prognosis who failed to conceive in the first fresh eSET did not have an advantage when receiving eDFET in the second cycle, as pregnancy rates were similar; 22.2% of patients in the eDFET group had multiple pregnancies.

  5. Bovine pretransfer endometrium and embryo transcriptome fingerprints as predictors of pregnancy success after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Hölker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Ghanem, Nasser; Ulas-Cinar, Mehmet; Peippo, Jaana; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2010-07-07

    Aberrant gene expression in the uterine endometrium and embryo has been the major causes of pregnancy failure in cattle. However, selecting cows having adequate endometrial receptivity and embryos of better developmental competence based on the gene expression pattern has been a greater challenge. To investigate whether pretransfer endometrial and embryo gene expression pattern has a direct relation with upcoming pregnancy success, we performed a global endometrial and embryo transcriptome analysis using endometrial and embryo biopsy technology and the pregnancy outcome information. For this, endometrial samples were collected from Simmental heifers at day 7 and 14 of the estrous cycle, one cycle prior to embryo transfer. In the next cycle, blastocyst stage embryos were transferred to recipients at day 7 of the estrous cycle after taking 30-40% of the blastocyst as a biopsy for transcriptome analysis. The results revealed that at day 7 of the estrous cycle, the endometrial gene expression pattern of heifers whose pregnancy resulting in calf delivery was significantly different compared with those resulting in no pregnancy. These differences were accompanied by qualitative and quantitative alteration of major biological process and molecular pathways. However, the transcriptome difference was minimal between the two groups of animals at day 14 of the estrous cycle. Similarly, the transcriptome analysis between embryos biopsies that resulted in calf delivery and those resulted in no pregnancy revealed a total of 70 differentially expressed genes. Among these, the transcript levels of 32 genes including SPAG17, PF6, UBE2D3P, DFNB31, AMD1, DTNBP1, and ARL8B were higher in embryo biopsies resulting in calf delivery. Therefore, the present study highlights the potential of pretransfer endometrial and embryo gene expression patterns as predictors of pregnancy success in cattle.

  6. The current status and future of commercial embryo transfer in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, John F

    2003-12-15

    A commercially viable cattle embryo transfer (ET) industry was established in North America during the early 1970s, approximately 80 years after the first successful embryo transfer was reported in a mammal. Initially, techniques for recovering and transferring cattle embryos were exclusively surgical. However, by the late 1970s, most embryos were recovered and transferred nonsurgically. Successful cryopreservation of embryos was widespread by the early 1980s, followed by the introduction of embryo splitting, in vitro procedures, direct transfer of frozen embryos and sexing of embryos. The wide spread adoption of ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant has simplified the thaw-transfer procedures for frozen embryos. The number of embryos recovered annually has not grown appreciably over the last 10 years in North America and Europe; however, there has been significant growth of commercial ET in South America. Within North America, ET activity has been relatively constant in Holstein cattle, whereas there has been a large ET increase in the Angus breed and a concomitant ET decrease in some other beef breeds. Although a number of new technologies have been adopted within the ET industry in the last decade, the basic procedure of superovulation of donor cattle has undergone little improvement over the last 20 years. The export-import of frozen cattle embryos has become a well-established industry, governed by specific health regulations. The international movement of embryos is subject to sudden and dramatic disturbances, as exemplified by the 2001 outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Great Britain. It is probable that there will be an increased influence of animal rights issues on the ET industry in the future. Several companies in North America are currently commercially producing cloned cattle. The sexing of bovine semen with the use of flow cytometry is extremely accurate and moderate pregnancy rates in heifers have been achieved in field trials, but sexed semen

  7. A simple and rapid flow cytometry-based assay to identify a competent embryo prior to embryo transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Pallinger, Eva; Bognar, Zoltan; Bodis, Jozsef; Csabai, Timea; Farkas, Nelli; Godony, Krisztina; Varnagy, Akos; Buzas, Edit; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Multiple pregnancy is a risk for prematurity and preterm birth. The goal of assisted reproduction is to achieve a single pregnancy, by transferring a single embryo. This requires improved methods to identify the competent embryo. Here, we describe such a test, based on flow cytometric determination of the nucleic acid (PI+) containing extracellular vesicle (EV) count in day 5 embryo culture media. 88 women undergoing IVF were included in the study. More than 1 embryos were transferred to most...

  8. In vitro embryo production and embryo transfer in domestic and non-domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C E; Gomez, M C; Dresser, B L

    2006-10-01

    Over a 5-year interval, multiple laparoscopic oocyte retrievals were done in fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), caracals (Caracal caracal) and domestic cats after ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins. From 21 retrievals in five fishing cats, 579 preovulatory oocytes (mean = 27.6) were recovered and 348 embryos were produced in vitro (mean = 16.6). A total of 452 preovulatory oocytes (mean = 25.1) were recovered from 18 of 24 retrievals in six caracals and 297 (mean = 16.6) embryos were produced. An additional 16 caracal embryos (19%) were produced after in vitro maturation of 83 oocytes, 59 of which came from six retrievals producing only immature oocytes. The presence of corpora lutea at oocyte retrieval occurred in each species (1) at a similar frequency (33%) and (2) more frequently during January through May (11 of 15 retrievals) than during the latter half of the year (4 of 30 retrievals). Of the 12 embryo transfer procedures done in fishing cats, one pregnancy (8%) was obtained and one live kitten born after the auto-transfer of 10 Day-6 embryos. In caracals, a total of 46 Day-4 or Day-5 embryos were auto-transferred to six recipients, one of which delivered two live kittens. Then, 109 caracal embryos were cryopreserved before thawing and transferring to nine recipients (mean = 12.1) on Days 5 or 6. From three pregnancies established (33%), a total of three kittens were born. Two to six gonadotropin treatments/oocyte retrievals were done in domestic cats during 1999 through 2003; an average of 24.9, 23.5, 22.0, 23.1, 23.5 and 40.9 oocytes (P > 0.05) were recovered at the first through the sixth treatment cycles from 138, 138, 97, 49, 22, and seven retrievals, respectively.

  9. RECYCLING OF CATHETER FOR EMBRYO RECOVERY: A TOOL FOR COSTS REDUCTION IN EQUINE EMBRYO TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lopes Gusmao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is becoming a widespread practice.Most embryos are collected from spontaneous single ovulatingmares and result in 50% of embryo recovery, increasing the costsof production. To illustrate, the price of a catheter for embryosrecovery range from US$ 194.00 to US$ 250.00 (R$ 350.00 to R$450.00. Therefore, the aim of this work was to verify if catheterwith damaged balloon can be recuperated and reused withoutaltering its efficiency. For this study, two groups were used: acontrol group (GI, n=10, on which the nonsurgical recovery of theembryos of mares was performed with the catheter with originalballoon; and another group (GII, n=20, in which a restored catheterwas utilized. The mares of GI had an embryo recovery rate of60%, and GII mares had an embryo recovery rate of 55%. Therewas not statistical difference between groups I and II (P>0.05.Considering that the material used to restore the catheter costsUS$16.66 (R$30.00, this data show that the recuperation of thecatheters for embryo recovery in mares may reduce costs withoutcompromising the rates of embryo recovery.

  10. Cloning in cattle: from embryo splitting to somatic nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Y; Vignon, X; Chesné, P; Le Bourhis, D; Marchal, J; Renard, J P

    1998-01-01

    The ability to obtain genetically identical offspring in cattle (clones) is useful for research and for potential applications to breeding schemes. Experimental possibilities for generating such animals have evolved considerably in the last two decades. Embryo splitting has become a relatively simple technique but is limited to twinning. Embryonic nuclear transfer has improved and is associated with sexing to generate sets of clones despite a great variability of results between parent embryos. The factors of progress are reviewed here. Recently, somatic cells used as a source of nuclei in bovine nuclear transfer has been demonstrated. Here we present the results of the developmental potential of nuclei from skin and muscle cells.

  11. Impact of early cleaved zygote morphology on embryo development and in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesters, Laëtitia; Prisant, Nadia; Fanchin, Renato; Méndez Lozano, Daniel H; Feyereisen, Estelle; Frydman, René; Tachdjian, Gérard; Frydman, Nelly

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of the first division morphology on embryo development and IVF-embryo transfer outcome. Prospective study. Teaching hospital, France. All zygotes from 201 couples were checked for early cleavage. We defined as "even," early cleaved (EC) zygotes with 2 cells of even size; as "uneven," EC zygotes with 2 cells of uneven size; and as "fragmented," EC zygotes with more than 20% fragmentation rate. Day 2 embryo quality was assessed as "top" embryo or "non-top," with the evaluation of multinucleated blastomeres. None. Day 2 embryo quality, pregnancy and implantation rates. Among EC zygotes, 59.1% were even, 13.0% were uneven, and 27.9% were fragmented. Even EC yielded more "top" embryos and less multinucleated blastomere embryos than uneven EC (77.0% vs. 46.3%) and fragmented EC (77.0% vs. 13.9%). The 125 double embryo transfers that comprised at least one embryo derived from even EC zygote led to higher pregnancy rate (PR) (64.0% vs. 43.4%) and implantation rate (42.0% vs. 27.6%) compared to the 76 double embryo transfers with embryos derived from breakdown or 2PN zygotes. The morphology of the early cleaved zygote is involved in embryo development. Evaluation of this morphology is an effective and valuable method of assessing the embryo quality.

  12. Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome following a thawed embryo transfer cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyoung; Won, Hyung Jae; Shim, Sung Han; Cha, Dong Hyun; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2014-09-01

    This article reports a case of spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) following a thawed embryo transfer cycle. OHSS, a potentially life-threatening condition, is an iatrogenic complication of controlled ovarian stimulation; therefore, it is very important to prevent and treat OHSS during treatment with ovulation-inducing agents. Despite our efforts to prevent OHSS, in this case, severe spontaneous OHSS occurred, which resulted in uncontrolled preterm labor and a preterm delivery and also persisted for 6 weeks after delivery. Freezing all embryos cannot entirely prevent the development of OHSS because OHSS can occur spontaneously. Although spontaneous OHSS remains a rare event, females with a history of OHSS may have an elevated risk for spontaneous OHSS. We suggest closely monitoring cases of pregnancy following thawed embryo transfer for early diagnosis of spontaneous OHSS and the use of conservative management.

  13. A simple and rapid flow cytometry-based assay to identify a competent embryo prior to embryo transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallinger, Eva; Bognar, Zoltan; Bodis, Jozsef; Csabai, Timea; Farkas, Nelli; Godony, Krisztina; Varnagy, Akos; Buzas, Edit; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Multiple pregnancy is a risk for prematurity and preterm birth. The goal of assisted reproduction is to achieve a single pregnancy, by transferring a single embryo. This requires improved methods to identify the competent embryo. Here, we describe such a test, based on flow cytometric determination of the nucleic acid (PI+) containing extracellular vesicle (EV) count in day 5 embryo culture media. 88 women undergoing IVF were included in the study. More than 1 embryos were transferred to most patients. In 58 women, the transfer resulted in clinical pregnancy, whereas in 30 women in implantation failure. In 112 culture media of embryos from the “clinical pregnancy” group, the number of PI+ EVs was significantly lower than in those of 49 embryos, from the “implantation failure” group. In 14 women, transfer of a single embryo resulted in a singleton pregnancy, or, transfer of two embryos in twin pregnancy. The culture media of 19 out of the 20 “confirmed competent” embryos contained a lower level of PI+ EVs than the cut off level, suggesting that the competent embryo can indeed be identified by low PI+ EV counts. We developed a noninvasive, simple, inexpensive, quick test, which identifies the embryos that are most likely to implant. PMID:28057937

  14. Successful nonsurgical embryo transfer in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ) in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M; Alexiev, A; Vlahov, K; Karaivanov, C; Cripe, W S; Leonards, A P; Kacheva, D; Polihronov, O; Nicolov, N; Petrov, M; Dragoev, A

    1988-10-01

    Forty-one Day 5.0 to Day 5.5 embryos and one unfertilized ovum were recovered nonsurgically from 24 superovulated, parous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ) and transferred nonsurgically to 28 synchronized recipients by a team of Bulgarian and American scientists. Five pregnancies were established and four live buffalo calves were born at the end of normal gestation periods.

  15. Perinatal outcomes of children born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Romundstad, Liv Bente;

    2013-01-01

    What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?......What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?...

  16. Efficacy of in vitro embryo transfer in lactating dairy cows using fresh or vitrified embryos produced in a novel embryo culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J; Bonilla, L; Hansen, P J

    2010-11-01

    Objectives were to determine whether pregnancy success could be improved in lactating cows with timed embryo transfer when embryos were produced in vitro using a medium designed to enhance embryo development and survival after cryopreservation. In experiment 1, embryos (n=569 to 922) were cultured in either modified synthetic oviduct fluid or a serum-free medium, Block-Bonilla-Hansen-7 (BBH7). Development to the blastocyst stage was recorded at d 7, and selected blastocysts (n=79 to 114) were vitrified using open pulled straws. Culture of embryos in BBH7 increased development to the blastocyst stage (41.9±2.0 vs. 14.7±2.0%) and advanced blastocyst stages (expanded, hatching, hatched; 31.1±1.3 vs. 6.4±1.3%) at d 7 and resulted in higher hatching rates at 24h postwarming compared with embryos cultured in modified synthetic oviduct fluid (59.0±0.5 vs. 26.7±0.5%). In experiment 2, embryos were produced using X-sorted semen and cultured in BBH7. At d 7 after insemination, embryos were transferred fresh or following vitrification. Lactating Holstein cows were either subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the day of presumptive ovulation or used as embryo recipients 7 d later. Embryo recipients received an embryo if a corpus luteum was present. The percentage of cows pregnant at d 32, 46, and 76 of gestation was higher among cows that received fresh embryos compared with TAI cows or cows that received vitrified embryos. At d 76, for example, the proportion and percentage pregnant was 47/150 (31.3%) for cows subjected to TAI, 48/95 (50.5%) for cows receiving fresh embryos, and 39/141 (27.7%) for cows receiving a vitrified embryo. No difference was observed in the percentage of cows pregnant among TAI cows and those that received vitrified embryos. There was a service or transfer number × treatment interaction because differences in pregnancy rate between embryo transfer recipients and cows bred by TAI were greater for cows with more than 3 services or

  17. Elective transfer of two embryos: Reduction of multiple gestations while maintaining high pregnancy rates

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling-Lacey, Donna; Jones, Estella; Mayer, Jacob; Bocca, Silvina; Stadtmauer, Laurel; Oehninger, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if the elective transfer of two embryos reduced the incidence of multiple gestations while maintaining high pregnancy rates. Methods: IVF patients and recipients of oocyte donation with an elective day-3 transfer of 2 or 3 embryos were studied. Result(s): In IVF, the elective transfer of 2 embryos resulted in similar pregnancy rate but significantly reduced the overall incidence of multiple gestations (20% versus 39%) when compared to the elective transfer of 3 embryos. ...

  18. Laparoscopy vs. laparotomy for embryo transfer to produce transgenic goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Tae; Jang, Sung Keun; Yang, Hong Suk; Lee, Ok Keun; Shim, Yhong Hee; Choi, Won Il; Lee, Doo Soo; Lee, Gwan Sun; Cho, Jong Ki; Lee, Young Won

    2008-03-01

    This study was performed to produce transgenic Korean native goat (Capra hircus) by laparoscopic embryo transfer (ET) to overcome the limitations of ET performed by laparotomy. Transgenic embryos were produced by DNA pronuclear microinjection of in vivo zygotes. The recipient goats were synchronized for estrus by using an introvaginal progesterone devices as a controlled internal drug-releasing insert (CIDR) for 13 days and injection of 400 IU PMSG 48 h before removal of the insert. Embryos were transferred on day 3 and 4 after removal of the insert. Recipient goats were deprived of feed for 48 h, then suspended in a laparotomy cradle at an angle of 45 degrees . After obtaining a sufficient pneumoperitoneum, the laparoscope and forceps were inserted abdominally through 5 mm trocar sleeves. Examination of the ovaries and uterus was performed and then 213 embryos were transferred into the oviducts via the infundibula of 76 recipient goats. To compare pregnancy rates, ET was also performed by laparotomy in 82 recipient goats. The pregnancies in the recipient goats were diagnosed by ultrasound on day 30 after embryo transfer. The pregnancy rate with laparoscopic ET was significantly higher than with ET performed by laparotomy (46.1% vs. 28.6%, p < 0.05). In addition, the pregnancy rates were compared between ovulated and non-ovulated ovaries of the recipient goats in the laparoscopic ET group. No significant difference was observed between the pregnancy rates of ovulated and non-ovulated ovaries (41.3% vs. 33.3%, p < 0.05) suggesting that ET may also be possible in non-ovulated recipients through artificial rupture of Graafian follicles. These results suggest that laparoscopic ET is a highly efficient method for the transfer of goat embryos.

  19. Shaping the norms that regulate international commerce of embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Julie A; Stringfellow, David A

    2014-01-01

    As various embryo technologies in livestock were developed and evolved to a state of usefulness over the past 40 years, scientists with a specific interest in infectious diseases sought to determine the epidemiologic consequences of movement, especially international movement, of increasing numbers of embryos. Many of the foundational studies in this area were reported in Theriogenology, beginning in the 1970s and especially throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Unquestionably, Theriogenology has been a widely used venue for dissemination of basic information on this subject, which ultimately led to the development of the now universally accepted techniques for certification of embryo health. Today it is well-recognized that movement in commerce of embryos, especially in vivo-derived embryos, is a very low-risk method for exchange of animal germ plasm. This paper chronicles the evolution of strategies for health certification of embryos. An overview is provided of the calculated efforts of practitioners, scientists, and regulators to organize, forge necessary partnerships, stimulate needed research, provide purposeful analysis of the results, and, through these processes, guarantee the universal acceptance of efficient protocols for certifying the health of embryos intended for movement in international commerce.

  20. Superovulation and embryo transfer in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosi, Behzad M; Tribulo, Andres; Lessard, Carl; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; McCorkell, Robert B; Adams, Gregg P

    2013-09-15

    Two experiments were done to develop an effective superovulatory treatment protocol in wood bison for the purpose of embryo collection and transfer. In experiment 1, donor bison were assigned randomly to four treatment groups (N = 5 per group) to examine the effects of method of synchronization (follicular ablation vs. estradiol-progesterone treatment) and ovarian follicular superstimulation (single slow-release vs. split dose of FSH). Recipient bison were synchronized with donor bison by either follicular ablation (N = 8) or estradiol-progesterone treatment (N = 9). In experiment 2, bison were assigned randomly to four treatment groups (N = 5 per group) to examine the ovarian response to two versus four doses of FSH, and the effect of progesterone (ovarian superstimulation with or without an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device). Donor bison were inseminated with fresh chilled wood bison semen 12 and 24 hours after treatment with GnRH (experiment 1) or LH (experiment 2). The ovarian response was assessed using ultrasonography. In experiment 1, the number of large follicles (≥ 7 mm) increased in response to both FSH treatments, but the diameter of the largest follicle detected 4 and 5 days after the start of ovarian superstimulation was greater in bison treated with a single dose of FSH than in those treated with two doses (P < 0.05). A total of 10 ova and/or embryos were collected. One blastocyst was transferred to each of five recipient bison resulting in the birth of two live wood bison calves. In experiment 2, two doses of FSH resulted in a greater number of large follicles (≥ 9 mm) on Days 4, 5, and 6 (P < 0.05) after beginning of superstimulation (Day 0), and more ovulations than four doses of FSH (11.2 ± 2.4 vs. 6.4 ± 0.8; P < 0.05). Embryo collection was performed on only five donors, and a total of 19 ova and/or embryos were recovered. In summary, fewer FSH treatments were as good or better than multiple treatments, consistent with the notion

  1. Studies of embryo transfer from cattle clinically affected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrathall, A E; Brown, K F D; Sayers, A R; Wells, G A H; Simmons, M M; Farrelly, S S J; Bellerby, P; Squirrell, J; Spencer, Y I; Wells, M; Stack, M J; Bastiman, B; Pullar, D; Scatcherd, J; Heasman, L; Parker, J; Hannam, D A R; Helliwell, D W; Chree, A; Fraser, H

    2002-03-23

    Semen from 13 bulls, eight with clinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), was used to artificially inseminate (AI) 167 cows with clinical BSE, and their resultant embryos were collected non-surgically seven days after AI. The viable and non-viable embryos with intact zonae pellucidae were washed 10 times (as recommended by the International Embryo Transfer Society) then frozen. Later, 587 of the viable embryos were transferred singly into 347 recipient heifers imported from New Zealand, and 266 live offspring were born of which 54.1 per cent had a BSE-positive sire and a BSE-positive dam. The recipients were monitored for clinical signs of BSE for seven years after the transfer, and the offspring were monitored for seven years after birth. Twenty-seven of the recipients and 20 offspring died while being monitored but none showed signs of BSE. Their brains, and the brains of the recipients and offspring killed after seven years, were examined for BSE by histopathology, PrP immunohistochemistry, and by electron microscopy for scrapie-associated fibrils. They were all negative. In addition, 1020 non-viable embryos were sonicated and injected intracerebrally into susceptible mice (20 embryos per mouse) which were monitored for up to 700 days, after which their brains were examined for spongiform lesions. They were all negative. It is concluded that embryos are unlikely to carry BSE infectivity even if they have been collected at the end-stage of the disease, when the risk of maternal transmission is believed to be highest.

  2. Modeling embryo transfer into a closed uterine cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Sarit; Jaffa, Ariel J; Elad, David

    2012-11-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) is the last manual intervention after extracorporeal fertilization. After the ET procedure is completed, the embryos are conveyed in the uterus for another two to four days due to spontaneous uterine peristalsis until the window time for implantation. The role of intrauterine fluid flow patterns in transporting the embryos to their implantation site during and after ET was simulated by injection of a liquid bolus into a two-dimensional liquid-filled channel with a closed fundal end via a liquid-filled catheter inserted in the channel. Numerical experiments revealed that the intrauterine fluid field and the embryos transport pattern were strongly affected by the closed fundal end. The embryos re-circulated in small loops around the vicinity where they were deposited from the catheter. The transport pattern was controlled by the uterine peristalsis factors, such as amplitude and frequency of the uterine walls motility, as well as the synchronization between the onset of catheter discharge and uterine peristalsis. The outcome of ET was also dependent on operating parameters such as placement of the catheter tip within the uterine cavity and the delivery speed of the catheter load. In conclusion, this modeling study highlighted important parameters that should be considered during ET procedures in order to increase the potential for pregnancy success.

  3. Successful embryo transfer in Tianzhu white yak using standard protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the efficiency of superovulation, oestrus synchronization, and embryo recovery in Tianzhu white yaks and also to confirm the pregnancy rate of black yaks, to which embryos collected from white yaks were transplanted. Forty-seven yaks were selected from different experiment groups, including 10 Tianzhu white female yaks (donor, group A) and 37 black female yaks (recipient, groups B and C). Superovulation of the donor was induced by the application procedure of CIDR-B + FSH + PG. Oestrus synchronization of recipients was induced using two methods: group B was given the same treatment as group A, except that the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) injection was not administered, whereas group C was injected with cloprostenol only once when corpus luteum (corpora lutea) was (were) palpated. The results showed that the oestrous rates in group A were higher (80%) than those in group B (60%) and group C (44.5%). As for the efficiency of superovulation, it was indicated that the mean numbers (±SD) of total corpora lutea, follicles, viable (transferable), and degenerated embryos were 4.75 ± 2.19, 1.13 ± 0.83, 2.50 ± 1.31, and 1.38 ± 0.92, respectively. The mean embryo recovery rates were 55.6%. All together, 18 viable embryos of Tianzhu white yak were obtained and 12 of them were transplanted to 10 recipients. The pregnancy rate was 50% and the delivery rate was 40%.

  4. Embryo aggregation does not improve the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Andrés; De Stéfano, Adrián; Jarazo, Javier; Buemo, Carla; Karlanian, Florencia; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The low efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) makes it necessary to investigate new strategies to improve embryonic developmental competence. Embryo aggregation has been successfully applied to improve cloning efficiency in mammals, but it remains unclear whether it could also be beneficial for iSCNT. In this study, we first compared the effect of embryo aggregation over in vitro development and blastocyst quality of porcine, bovine, and feline zona-free (ZF) parthenogenetic (PA) embryos to test the effects of embryo aggregation on species that were later used as enucleated oocytes donors in our iSCNT study. We then assessed whether embryo aggregation could improve the in vitro development of ZF equine iSCNT embryos after reconstruction with porcine, bovine, and feline ooplasm. Bovine- and porcine-aggregated PA blastocysts had significantly larger diameters compared with nonaggregated embryos. On the other hand, feline- and bovine-aggregated PA embryos had higher blastocyst cell number. Embryo aggregation of equine-equine SCNT was found to be beneficial for embryo development as we have previously reported, but the aggregation of three ZF reconstructed embryos did not improve embryo developmental rates on iSCNT. In vitro embryo development of nonaggregated iSCNT was predominantly arrested around the stage when transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome is reported to start on the embryo of the donor species. Nevertheless, independent of embryo aggregation, equine blastocyst-like structures could be obtained in our study using domestic feline-enucleated oocytes. Taken together, these results reported that embryo aggregation enhance in vitro PA embryo development and embryo quality but effects vary depending on the species. Embryo aggregation also improves, as expected, the in vitro embryo development of equine-equine SCNT embryos; however, we did not observe positive effects on equine iSCNT embryo development. Among oocytes

  5. Do patients need to remain in bed following embryo transfer? The Birmingham experience of 103 in-vitro fertilization cycles with no bed rest following embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, K; Afnan, M; Lenton, W; Khalaf, Y; Ebbiary, N; Bilalis, D; Morgan, C

    1995-06-01

    Since the early days of human in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, rest in bed for hours immediately following the transfer has been advocated and widely practised. However, there is no scientific validation for this practice which is both time-consuming for the patient and increases space occupancy in the hospital or clinic. We report here on a study of 103 in-vitro fertilization cycles with no bed rest in hospital following the embryo transfer. The mean number of embryos transferred was 2.7 (range 1-3) and the clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer procedure was 40%. These results suggest that bed rest is not necessary following embryo transfer.

  6. Assessment of early cleaving in vitro fertilized human embryos at the 2-cell stage before transfer improves embryo selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, D; Percival, G; D'Arcy, Y; Sharif, K; Afnan, M

    2001-12-01

    To determine the most viable embryos for transfer. Study 1: Preselection of early-cleaving 2-cell embryos for transfer. Study 2: Alternating weeks during which preselection was performed and not performed. ART program, Birmingham Women's Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Patients undergoing IVF or ICSI cycles with transfer on day 2. Culture of all fertilized embryos. Number of fertilized embryos cleaving to the 2-cell stage on day 1, embryo quality, implantation rates, and pregnancy rates. Patients with early-cleaving 2-cell embryos had significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates (45 of 100 [45.0%] and 58 of 219 [25.5%], respectively) than did patients without early-cleaving 2-cell embryos (31 of 130 [23.8%] and 43 of 290 [14.8%], respectively). In weeks during which preselection was used, the overall pregnancy and implantation rates of the clinic improved. The presence of early-cleaving 2-cell embryos improves a patient's chance of achieving pregnancy. Use of more stringent embryo selection criteria can improve overall pregnancy rates.

  7. Risk of ectopic pregnancy following day-5 embryo transfer compared with day-3 transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura P; Oskowitz, Selwyn P; Dodge, Laura E; Hacker, Michele R

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy after IVF is increased approximately 2.5-5-fold compared with natural conceptions; however, the aetiology for this increased risk remains unclear. One proposed practice change to decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy is blastocyst embryo transfer on day 5 rather than cleavage-stage embryo transfer on day 3. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare the risk of ectopic pregnancy following fresh day-5 embryo transfer with day-3 embryo transfer among women who underwent IVF and achieved pregnancy from 1998 to 2011. There were 13,654 eligible pregnancies; 277 were ectopic. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 2.1% among day-3 pregnancies and 1.6% among day-5 pregnancies. The adjusted risk ratio for ectopic pregnancy from day-5 compared with day-3 transfer was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.46-1.10). Although this analysis included 13,654 cycles, with a two-sided significance level of 0.05, it had only 21.9% power to detect a difference between the low incidence of ectopic pregnancy among both day-3 and day-5 transfers. In conclusion, this study was not able to demonstrate a difference in the risk of ectopic pregnancy among day-3 compared with day-5 transfers.

  8. BIRTH OF TWIN CALVES THROUGH MULTIPLE OVULATION AND EMBRYO TRANSFER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sengupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A surrogate Gir cow delevered twin calves after receiving embryo from a donor Sahiwal cow at Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer laboratory, Haringhata, West Bengal, India is reported.

  9. Transmyometrial embryo transfer after difficult immediate mock transcervical transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, K; Afnan, M; Lenton, W; Bilalis, D; Hunjan, M; Khalaf, Y

    1996-05-01

    To evaluate the place of ultrasound-directed transvaginal transmyometrial ET in a protocol using both the transcervical and transmyometrial routes in a step-wise fashion. A prospective descriptive clinical study. A university-based assisted conception unit. Thirteen patients who had difficult or impossible mock transcervical ET immediately before the real transfer. Ultrasound-directed transvaginal transmyometrial ET. Pregnancy and clinical pregnancy. Four patients became pregnant, including three with clinical pregnancies. In cases in which transcervical ET isd difficult or impossible, transvaginal transmyometrial ET is a viable option. The use of mock transcervical ET immediately before the real transfer would identify patients needing transmyometrial ET.

  10. Utero-tubal embryo transfer and vasectomy in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2014-02-28

    The transfer of preimplantation embryos to a surrogate female is a required step for the production of genetically modified mice or to study the effects of epigenetic alterations originated during preimplantation development on subsequent fetal development and adult health. The use of an effective and consistent embryo transfer technique is crucial to enhance the generation of genetically modified animals and to determine the effect of different treatments on implantation rates and survival to term. Embryos at the blastocyst stage are usually transferred by uterine transfer, performing a puncture in the uterine wall to introduce the embryo manipulation pipette. The orifice performed in the uterus does not close after the pipette has been withdrawn, and the embryos can outflow to the abdominal cavity due to the positive pressure of the uterus. The puncture can also produce a hemorrhage that impairs implantation, blocks the transfer pipette and may affect embryo development, especially when embryos without zona are transferred. Consequently, this technique often results in very variable and overall low embryo survival rates. Avoiding these negative effects, utero-tubal embryo transfer take advantage of the utero-tubal junction as a natural barrier that impedes embryo outflow and avoid the puncture of the uterine wall. Vasectomized males are required for obtaining pseudopregnant recipients. A technique to perform vasectomy is described as a complement to the utero-tubal embryo transfer.

  11. Influence of embryo handling and transfer method on pig cloning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junsong; Zhou, Rong; Luo, Lvhua; Mai, Ranbiao; Zeng, Haiyu; He, Xiaoyan; Liu, Dewu; Zeng, Fang; Cai, Gengyuan; Ji, Hongmei; Tang, Fei; Wang, Qinglai; Wu, Zhenfang; Li, Zicong

    2015-03-01

    The somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique could be used to produce genetically superior or genetically engineered cloned pigs that have wide application in agriculture and bioscience research. However, the efficiency of porcine SCNT currently is very low. Embryo transfer (ET) is a key step for the success of SCNT. In this study, the effects of several ET-related factors, including cloned embryo culture time, recipient's ovulation status, co-transferred helper embryos and ET position, on the success rate of pig cloning were investigated. The results indicated that transfer of cloned embryos cultured for a longer time (22-24h vs. 4-6h) into pre-ovulatory sows decreased recipient's pregnancy rate and farrowing rate, and use of pre-ovulatory and post-ovulatory sows as recipients for SCNT embryos cultured for 22-24h resulted in a similar porcine SCNT efficiency. Use of insemination-produced in vivo fertilized, parthenogenetically activated and in vitro fertilized embryos as helper embryos to establish and/or maintain pregnancy of SCNT embryos recipients could not improve the success rate of porcine SCNT. Transfer of cloned embryos into double oviducts of surrogates significantly increased pregnancy rate as well as farrowing rate of recipients, and the developmental rate of transferred cloned embryos, as compared to unilateral oviduct transfer. This study provided useful information for optimization of the embryo handling and transfer protocol, which will help to improve the ability to generate cloned pigs.

  12. Comparison of pregnancy rate between fresh embryo transfers and frozen-thawed embryo transfers following ICSI treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Basirat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART is increasing in the world. The rate, efficacy and safety of ART are very different among countries. There is an increase in the use of intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, single fresh embryo transfer (ET and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare pregnancy rate in fresh ET and FET. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study 1014 ICSI-ET cycles (426 fresh ET and 588 FET from 753 women undergoing ICSI treatment referred to Fatemezahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center in Babol, Iran from 2008 to 2013 were reviewed. Results: There were no significant differences between biochemical pregnancy rate (23% versus 18.8%, OR 1.301; 95% CI .95-1.774, gestational sac (95.6% versus 100% in FET, OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.54-0.67, and fetal heart activity (87.2% versus 93.6% OR .46; 95% CI .16-1.32 in fresh ET and FET cycles, respectively. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all measures. Conclusion: Although, the result showed no significantly difference between the fresh ET and the FET cycles, however the embryos are able to be stored for subsequent ART. Therefore, we recommend FET cycles as an option alongside the fresh ET.

  13. Effect of age of equine embryos and method of transfer on pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuliano, M F; Squires, E L; Cook, V M

    1985-01-01

    A 2 X 2 cross-classified experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of age of equine embryo (7 vs 8 d postovulation) and method of transfer (surgical vs nonsurgical) on pregnancy rates at 50 d of gestation. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 d postovulation using a Foley catheter and 3 liters of modified Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Upon identification, the embryos were placed in millipore-filtered PBS containing 20% heat-inactivated steer serum and maintained at room temperature until transferred. At the time of recovery, embryos were randomly assigned to be transferred either nonsurgically using a sterile insemination pipette or surgically via a flank incision. For nonsurgical transfer, the embryo was deposited into the uterine body; whereas, in surgical transfer, the embryo was placed in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum. Recovery rates for embryos collected on d 7 (75.5%) or 8 (81.9%) were similar (P greater than .05). Age of embryo did not affect (P greater than .05) pregnancy rate. At 50 d, pregnancy rates were 60 and 57% for mares receiving d 7 or 8 embryos. However, more (P less than .05) pregnancies were obtained after transfer of embryos surgically (72%) than nonsurgically (45%). More (P less than .05) pregnancies were obtained after transfer of d 8 embryos surgically (75%) compared with nonsurgically (40%). Within method of transfer, pregnancy rates were similar (P less than .05) for surgical transfer of d 7 and 8 embryos (69 and 75%), but tended (P less than .25) to be higher for nonsurgical transfer of d 7 embryos (50%) compared with d 8 embryos (40%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Embryo quality is the main factor affecting cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in fresh stimulation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, Maarit; Veleva, Zdravka; Martikainen, Hannu

    2015-11-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate which factors affect the cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in women younger than 36 years. Additionally, number of children in women with more than one delivery per ovum pick-up after fresh elective single embryo transfer and subsequent frozen embryo transfers was assessed. Retrospective cohort study analysing data of a university hospital's infertility clinic in 2001-2010. A total of 739 IVF/ICSI cycles with elective single embryo transfer were included. Analyses were made per ovum pick-up including fresh and subsequent frozen embryo transfers. Factors affecting cumulative live birth rates were examined in uni- and multivariate analyses. A secondary endpoint was the number of children born after all treatments. In the fresh cycles, the live birth rate was 29.2% and the cumulative live birth rate was 51.3%, with a twin rate of 3.4%. In the multivariate analysis, having two (odds ratio (OR) 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.67) or ≥3 top embryos (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.79-3.95) was associated with higher odds for live birth after fresh and frozen embryo cycles. Age, body mass index, duration of infertility, diagnosis or total gonadotropin dose were not associated with the cumulative live birth rate. In cycles with one top embryo, the cumulative live birth rate was 40.2%, whereas it was 64.1% in those with at least three top embryos. Of women who had a live birth in the fresh cycle, 20.4% had more than one child after all frozen embryo transfers. Among women with three or more top embryos after ovum pick-up, 16.1% gave birth to more than one child. The cumulative live birth rate in this age group varies from 40% to 64% and is dependent on the quality of embryos. Women with three or more top embryos have good chance of having more than one child per ovum pick-up without elevated risk of multiple pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Employing mated females as recipients for transfer of cloned dog embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that co-transferring parthenogenetic embryos could improve the pregnancy success rate with cloned embryos in mammals. As an alternative to co-transferring parthenotes, in dogs we employed recipient females that possessed in vivo-fertilised embryos as a result of mating to determine whether mated bitches could be suitable recipients for cloned embryos. The effect of using mated recipients on implantation and pregnancy rates of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos was also determined. Cloned embryos were transferred into the oviducts of naturally synchronous females that had mated with male dogs before ovulation. The pregnancy rate appeared to be similar between mated recipients (50%) and non-mated recipients (28.57%; P>0.05). However, the delivery rate of cloned pups was significantly higher in mated recipients than non-mated recipients (10.53 vs 2.38%; Pdogs can be used as recipients for cloned embryos.

  16. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET in camels: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy S. Vettical

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in other domestic animal species like cattle, reproductive biotechnologies like Artificial Insemination (AI and Embryo Transfer (ET are not well developed and thus are not being used as routine breeding procedures in camels. One of the important objectives of this manuscript is to focus on analyzing the present status of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET in camels and its future perspectives. Camels are induced ovulators, thus require hormonal treatment to induce ovulation and control the follicular cycles, which is the main reason why protocols used in other domestic animal species cannot be directly used in this species. The review suggests that the best method for super stimulation of ovaries in camels is use of a combination of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH at any stage after elimination of dominant follicle if any or at the early stage of the follicular wave and ovulation of the developed multiple follicles can be achieved by mating donors. The review highlights that a better pregnancy rate is achieved with recipients who ovulate 24 h after the donor.

  17. Styring af international transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuther, Peter; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2011-01-01

    Nærværende artikel introducerer international transfer pricing, dels som et skatteretligt fænomen og dels som et værktøj til planlægning og økonomisk styring af koncernforbundne selskaber i en multinational virksomhed (MNV). Med udgangspunkt i en case-analyse af MNV’en gives der et konkret eksempel...... international transfer pricing i betragtning, når økonomiske styringssystemer i en MNV skal anvendes til planlægning og opfølgning....

  18. Styring af international transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuther, Peter; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2011-01-01

    Nærværende artikel introducerer international transfer pricing, dels som et skatteretligt fænomen og dels som et værktøj til planlægning og økonomisk styring af koncernforbundne selskaber i en multinational virksomhed (MNV). Med udgangspunkt i en case-analyse af MNV’en gives der et konkret eksempel...... international transfer pricing i betragtning, når økonomiske styringssystemer i en MNV skal anvendes til planlægning og opfølgning....

  19. The economics of international transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractInternational transfers have attracted the attention of economists ever since the famous debate between Keynes and Ohlin on German reparation payments after World War I. Today the subject is of even greater importance with billions of dollars flowing between nations as unilateral transfe

  20. The economics of international transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractInternational transfers have attracted the attention of economists ever since the famous debate between Keynes and Ohlin on German reparation payments after World War I. Today the subject is of even greater importance with billions of dollars flowing between nations as unilateral transfe

  1. Effect of donor cell type on nuclear remodelling in rabbit somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J; Song, J; Li, H; Yang, D; Li, X; Ouyang, H; Lai, L

    2012-08-01

    Cloned rabbits have been produced for many years by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The efficiency of cloning by SCNT, however, has remained extremely low. Most cloned embryos degenerate in utero, and the few that develop to term show a high incidence of post-natal death and abnormalities. The cell type used for donor nuclei is an important factor in nuclear transfer (NT). As reported previously, NT embryos reconstructed with fresh cumulus cells (CC-embryos) have better developmental potential than those reconstructed with foetal fibroblasts (FF-embryos) in vivo and in vitro. The reason for this disparity in developmental capacity is still unknown. In this study, we compared active demethylation levels and morphological changes between the nuclei of CC-embryos and FF-embryos shortly after activation. Anti-5-methylcytosine immunofluorescence of in vivo-fertilized and cloned rabbit embryos revealed that there was no detectable active demethylation in rabbit zygotes or NT-embryos derived from either fibroblasts or CC. In the process of nuclear remodelling, however, the proportion of nuclei with abnormal appearance in FF-embryos was significantly higher than that in CC-embryos during the first cell cycle. Our study demonstrates that the nuclear remodelling abnormality of cloned rabbit embryos may be one important factor for the disparity in developmental success between CC-embryos and FF-embryos.

  2. Effects of different nuclear recipients on developmental potential of mouse somatic nuclear transfer embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of different kinds of nuclear recipients from Kunming (KM) mouse on developmental potential of somatic nuclear transfer em- bryos, the enucleated MⅡ oocytes, enucleated zygotes and 2-cell blastomere were used to produce cloned mouse embryos. Using fibroblast deriving from C57/BL6 ear tissue as nuclear donor, we produced cloned embryos by transferring the fibroblast nuclei into enucleated KM mouse oocytes (single nuclear transfer, SNT), transferring pronuclei from the SNT embryos into enucleated KM zygotes (nuclear into zygote, NZ), and 2-cell blastomere nuclei from SNT embryos into enucleated KM mouse oocytes (nuclear into oocytes, NO); tetraploid embryos (tetraploid embryos, TE) were obtained by fusing two blastomeres, one is from the SNT cloned embryos, and the other from normal 2-cell KM mouse embryos. In group SNT, the cloned embryos could not develop beyond 8-cell stage and the rate of 8-cell stage is only 0.3%; in group NO, the reconstructed embryos could develop to morula stage, the rate of 8-cell stage was significantly greater than that of SNT group (P < 0.05); in group NZ, the development rate was further improved, and the reconstructed embryos could develop into blastocyst stage, the rate of blastocyst was 1.9%; in group TE, as high as 62.3% of the reconstructed embryos could develop into blastocyst. Results suggested that different nuclear recipients could significantly affect the developmental potential of cloned mouse embryos; KM MⅡ oocyte cytoplasm was not so effective as zygotes to reprogram the mouse somatic cell nuclei; serial nuclear transfer could improve the developmental potential of cloned mouse embryos.

  3. Is it the egg or the endometrium? Elevated progesterone on day of trigger is not associated with embryo ploidy nor decreased success rates in subsequent embryo transfer cycles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kofinas, Jason D; Mehr, Holly; Ganguly, Nandita; Biley, Yelena; Bochkovsky, Svetlana; McCulloh, David; Grifo, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if progesterone (P4) values on day of trigger affect certain cycle outcome parameters, ploidy status of embryos, as well as pregnancy outcomes in the subsequent first frozen embryo transfer...

  4. Economic evaluations of single- versus double-embryo transfer in IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiddelers, A. A. A.; Severens, J. L.; Dirksen, C. D.; Dumoulin, J. C. M.; Land, J. A.; Evers, J. L. H.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple pregnancies lead to complications and induce high costs. The most successful way to decrease multiple pregnancies in IVF is to transfer only one embryo, which might reduce the efficacy of treatment. The objective of this review is to determine which embryo-transfer policy is most cost-effec

  5. Genetic analysis of superovulation and embryo transfer traits in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and investigate genomic regions of interest associated with superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle. Superovulation and embryo transfer are methods commonly used by dairy producers to increase the rate of genetic gain achie...

  6. Hypnosis versus diazepam for embryo transfer: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoire, Patrick; Delaunay, Laurent; Dannappel, Thomas; Baracchini, Dominique; Marcadet-Fredet, Sabine; Moreau, Olivier; Pacaud, Luc; Przyrowski, Daniel; Marret, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    Levitas et al. (2006) showed in a cohort study that hypnosis during embryo transfer (ET) increased pregnancy ratio by 76%. In order to evaluate hypnosis during ET in a general population, the authors performed a randomized prospective controlled study comparing diazepam (usual premedication) administered before ET plus muscle relaxation versus hypnosis plus placebo in 94 patients. Additionally, the authors studied anxiety pre and post ET. Anxiety scores were not different in the two groups before and after ET. No difference in pregnancy and birth ratio was found in the two groups. Hypnosis during ET is as effective as diazepam in terms of pregnancy ratio and anxiolytic effects, but with fewer side effects and should be routinely available.

  7. Current status and potential of embryo transfer and reproductive technology in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, J F

    1992-10-01

    Significant use of embryo transfer in dairy cattle commenced with the introduction of nonsurgical embryo recovery in the mid-1970s and developed with the use of nonsurgical transfers in the late 1970s. Numbers of registered Holstein calves from embryo transfer doubled yearly through 1980, after which the rate of increase slowed; the total reached nearly 19,000 calves in 1990. However, the efficacy of superovulation procedures and commercial success rates of transferred fresh embryos have not improved the past 10 to 15 yr. Fertilization rates in superovulated donors remain low. Although embryo-splitting techniques were perfected in the early 1980s, they are not used widely. A practical, commercial embryo-sexing procedure remains unavailable. Recent significant improvement is apparent in the technology of ultrasound-guided oocyte collection and in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryo culture. In the future, this technology may be used in conjunction with sperm separated by sex with a flow cytometer. Modest numbers of embryo clones have been produced in several commercial programs via nuclear transfer techniques. However, the efficiency of gene transfer experiments involving ova of cattle and other domestic species has been low. Recently, DNA probe technology has begun to provide genotype information for cattle and will ultimately be applied to embryos.

  8. In situ DNA transfer to chicken embryos by biolistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Ribeiro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertilized chicken eggs were bombarded with a biolistic device. Transient expression of the lacZ gene under the control of a human cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter was assessed after in situ gene transfer using this approach. The influence of different pressures, vacuum levels and particles was tested. Survival rate improved as particle velocity decreased, but resulted in lower levels of expression. The best survival and expression were obtained with gold particles, a helium gas pressure of 600 psi and a vacuum of 600 mmHg. Under these conditions, all bombarded embryos showed b-galactosidase activity, indicating that this was an effective method for transformation of chicken embryos.Ovos fertilizados de galinha foram bombardeados através da técnica de biobalística. A expressão transiente do gene lacZ, sob o controle do promotor humano citomegalovírus, foi verificada após a transferência in situ. Diferentes níveis de pressão de gás hélio, vácuo e tipos de partículas foram testados. A taxa de sobrevivência aumentou à medida que a velocidade das partículas diminuíram, entretanto, o nível de expressão foi menor. Os melhores resultados, combinando taxa de sobrevivência e expressão, foram obtidos com partículas de ouro, 600 libras por polegada ao quadrado de hélio e 600 mmHg de vácuo. Nestas condições, todos os embriões bombardeados apresentaram atividade da b-galactosidase, indicando que esta técnica é eficiente para a transformação de embriões de galinhas.

  9. Does the number of oocytes retrieved influence pregnancy after fresh embryo transfer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianfang Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nature of the association between the number of oocytes retrieved and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes after fresh embryo transfer remains unclear because of conflicting results reported in the studies on this subject. In addition, the influence of the quality of the embryos transferred is usually neglected. The objective of this study is to assess the relationships of the number of oocytes retrieved, the number and quality of embryos transferred, and the prospects of pregnancy after fresh embryo transfer. METHODS: The data on 3131 infertile women undergoing their first IVF treatment cycle between January 2009 and December 2010 were collected retrospectively. Restricted cubic splines and stratified analyses were used to explore the relationships between the number of oocytes retrieved, the number and quality of embryos transferred, and the IVF outcomes. RESULTS: When stratified by the number and quality of transferred embryos, no significant differences in the chances for clinical pregnancy and live birth were found in three groups of oocytes yielded (≤6, 7-14, or ≥15. The relationship between the number of oocytes retrieved and pregnancy is nearly a reflection of the pattern of the relationship between the number of oocytes retrieved and the probability of having two good-quality embryos transferred. The patients with the "optimal" number of oocytes were not only younger but also had the highest probability of having two good-quality embryos replaced. CONCLUSIONS: Similarly aged patients have similar pregnancy prospects after fresh embryo transfer when the same number and quality of embryos are replaced, irrespective of their number of oocytes. Selecting the desired number of good-quality embryos for transfer is the key to IVF success. Thus, aiming at retrieving an optimal number of oocytes to maximize IVF outcomes in a fresh cycle could place undue stress on the patients and may not be the best medical decision.

  10. Production of calves following nonsurgical transfer of fresh and refrigerated bovine demi-embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. BREDBACKA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The viability of microblade-bisected Day-7 embryos transferred to recipients without zona pellucidae directly after splitting or after overnight storage at 4°C was investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 26 demi-embryos of excellent or good quality and two of fair quality were transferred to 28 heifer recipients 1-3 h after splitting. The transfers resulted in 20 pregnancies (71.4% pregnancy rate, and 19 calves were born (one pregnant heifer was slaughtered. Another 14 demi-embryos were cultured 1 to 3 h at room temperature, transported for 3 h at 8-10°C and stored for 12 h in a refigerator at 4°C. Twelve of the 14 demi-embryos were considered transferable after storage and nine of these were transferred to nine recipients, of which five became pregnant. Four live calves were born. In Experiment 2, 21 excellent or good quality demi-embryos were transferred into 21 heifer recipients to produce 12 pregnancies (57.1% and 10 live calves. Another 19 demi-embryos (17 excellent to good quality and two fair quality were transferred after storage for 1-2 h at 8°C and 18 h at 4°C. Five recipients became pregnant, of which four delivered live calves. It is concluded that a high pregnancy rate can be achieved after the transfer of fresh demi-embryos produced by a simple method of embryo bisection under farm conditions. Although the transfer of demi-embryos stored overnight at 4°C results in decreased pregnancy rates, refrigeration of demi-embryos may be useful in certain practical situations. However, further experiments are needed to determine the optimal conditions for overnight storage of demi-embryos.;

  11. Transfer of human frozen-thawed embryos with further cleavage during culture increases pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat V Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the pregnancy rate following transfer of frozen-thawed embryos with or without overnight culture after thawing. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective analysis of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET cycles performed between January 2006 and December 2008. Materials and Methods: Out of 518 thaw cycles, 504 resulted in embryo transfers (ETs. Of the total FET cycles, 415 were performed after an overnight culture of embryos (group A; and in 89 cycles, ET was performed within 2 hours of embryo thawing (group B. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. Results: We observed that with FET, women ≤30 years of age had a significantly higher (P=0.003 pregnancy rate (PR=28.9% as compared to women >30 years of age (17.5%. A significantly higher (P<0.001FNx08 pregnancy rate was also observed in women receiving 3 frozen-thawed embryos (29% as compared to those who received less than 3 embryos (10.7%. The difference in PR between group A (PR=24.3% and group B (PR=20.3% was not statistically significant. However, within group A, ET with cleaved embryos showed significantly ( P≤0.01 higher pregnancy rate compared to the uncleaved embryos, depending on the number of cleaved embryos transferred. Conclusion: No significant difference was noticed between FETs made with transfer of embryos with overnight culture and those without culture. However, within the cultured group, transfer of embryos cleaved during overnight culture gave significantly higher PR than transfers without any cleavage.

  12. Analysis of Factors Influencing Pregnancy Rate in Frozen-thawed Embryo Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu LI; Xiao-xi SUN; Jun-ling CHEN; Xiao-hong GAO; Yong-wei WANG; Jie-wei TAO; Li-nan CHENG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To analyse factors influencing the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)Method A retrospective analysis was performed in our center on 129 thawing cycles from March 2001 to April 2003. The related parameters were compared between conceived and non-conceived cycles.Results There were totally 129 clinical pregnancies in these transfers (pregnancy rate: 27.1%). Frozen-thawed embryos were transferred to natural cycles and CC cycling and hormone replacement treatment had equal success. Groups of IVF and ICSI did not differ significantly in pregnancy rates (P>0. 05). The pregnancy rates for one, two, three and four pre-embryos transfer were 0, 20.0%,44.1% and 75.0%,respectively (P<0. 05). There were statistical differences between pregnancy group or non- pregnancy group in the endometrial thickness, CES, CES/No. Of embryo. A higher pregnancy rate was observed in embryo transfers which had at least one 4-cell grade I embryo (d 2)(P<0.01). Conclusions The most important factors influencing the implantation rate and pregnancy rate of frozen-thawed embryo transfer are age, endometrium thickness, and the number, morphology and growth rate of transferred frozen embryos of women participants.

  13. Successful twin delivery following transmyometrial embryo transfer in a patient with a false uterine cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Galindo, Noemí; Pérez-Cano, Inmaculada; Cruz, María; García-Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2014-02-01

    A successful pregnancy is the greatest goal for reproductive medicine. The probability that pregnancy occurs during a cycle of assisted reproduction is a function of multiple factors, of which embryo transfer is one of the most critical steps in these treatments. This article reports a case of successful pregnancy and twin delivery by transmyometrial embryo transfer after IVF in a woman with a neocavity parallel to the uterine cavity, which prevented the transfer of embryos to the correct place. The patient first went to another fertility centre where embryo transfer was impossible to perform because the cervix could not be canalized. Subsequently in this study clinic, after considering the difficulty of inserting a catheter into the endometrial cavity, a trial transfer was performed, which discovered a false route parallel to endometrial cavity. Following a first cycle in which conventional transcervical embryo transfer was performed, a transmyometrial embryo transfer was carried out and the patient became pregnant with twins. In cases where transcervical embryo transfer is very difficult or impossible to perform, the value of transmyometrial transfer is self-evident.

  14. Efficient embryo transfer in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) with a reduced transfer volume: a non-surgical approach with cryopreserved late-stage embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Motohashi, Hideyuki H; Kumon, Mami; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Okada, Hironori; Okada, Takashi; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2013-05-01

    Among primates, the common marmoset is suitable for primate embryology research. Its small body size, however, has delayed the technical development of efficient embryo transfer. Furthermore, three factors have been determined to adversely affect the performance of marmoset embryo transfer: nonsurgical approaches, the use of cryopreserved embryos, and the use of late-stage embryos. Here we performed embryo transfer under conditions that included the above three factors and using either a small (1 μl or less) or a large volume (2-3 μl) of medium. The pregnancy and birth rates were 50% (5/10) and 27% (3/11), respectively, when using the large volume, and 80% (8/10) and 75% (9/12), respectively, when using the small volume. The latter scores exceed those of previous reports using comparable conditions. Thus, it appears that these three previously considered factors could be overcome, and we propose that reducing the transfer volume to 1 μl or less is essential for successful marmoset embryo transfer.

  15. Nurses performing embryo transfer: the development and results of the Birmingham experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, L; Morgan, C; Lashen, H; Afnan, M; Sharif, K

    1998-03-01

    Although in-vitro fertilization treatment is doctor-led, many of its steps are performed by nurses. The embryo transfer step, however, is performed exclusively by doctors in the majority of units. In our unit, doctors performed embryo transfers from June 1994 until December 1995 (period I). From January 1996 until May 1997 (period II) the nurses, after appropriate training, performed the procedure. When they experienced difficulties during the mock transfer performed immediately before the real transfer, or if they were not available to do the procedure, a doctor performed it. In period I, 488 embryo transfers were performed (all by doctors), with a pregnancy rate per transfer of 35% and an implantation rate of 16%. In period II, 522 embryo transfers were performed. Nurses performed 371 (71%) and doctors 151 (29%) of the procedures. The pregnancy rate per nurse-transfer was 40.2% and per doctor-transfer 41%. The corresponding implantation rates were 16.9% and 17%. None of these differences were statistically significant (P > 0.05). These data indicate that, with appropriate training and medical back-up, nurses can perform the majority of embryo transfers with ease and outcome comparable to that of doctor embryo transfer.

  16. Mock embryo transfer with a full bladder immediately before the real transfer for in-vitro fertilization treatment: the Birmingham experience of 113 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, K; Afnan, M; Lenton, W

    1995-07-01

    The technique of embryo transfer can have a great impact on the outcome of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Transcervical embryo transfer is a blind procedure and difficulty can unexpectedly arise. Many IVF programmes therefore perform a 'mock' embryo transfer prior to the treatment cycle to determine the most suitable catheter and technique for transfer. This, however, adds an extra separate procedure with time and cost implications. Moreover, as the uterus is mobile, its direction may vary on the day of the embryo transfer from what it was during the mock embryo transfer. Performing mock embryo transfer immediately before the real transfer would circumvent these problems. We report here on 113 embryo transfer procedures where a 'step-wise' mock embryo transfer protocol was performed with a full bladder immediately before the embryo transfer. The number of embryos transferred (mean +/- SD) was 2.6 +/- 0.67, the pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 45.1%, and the intrauterine implantation rate per embryo transferred was 20.6%.

  17. Clinical effectiveness of elective single versus double embryo transfer: meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLernon, D.J.; Harrild, K.; Bergh, C.; Davies, M.J.; de Neubourg, D.; Dumoulin, J.C.M.; Gerris, J.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Martikainen, H.; Mol, B.W.; Norman, R.J.; Thurin-Kjellberg, A.; Tiitinen, A.; van Montfoort, A.P.A.; van Peperstraten, A.M.; van Royen, E.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of elective single embryo transfer versus double embryo transfer on the outcomes of live birth, multiple live birth, miscarriage, preterm birth, term singleton birth, and low birth weight after fresh embryo transfer, and on the outcomes of cumulative live birth

  18. Experimental cloning of embryos through human-rabbit inter-species nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jingjuan; GUO Tonghang; TONG Xianhong; LUO Lihua; ZHOU Guixiang; FU Yingyun; LIU Yusheng

    2007-01-01

    Therapeutic cloning,which is based on human somatic cell nuclear transfer,is one of our major research objectives.Though inter-species nuclear transfer has been introduced to construct human somatic cell cloned embryos,the effects of type,passage,and preparation method of donor cells on embryo development remain unclear.In our experiment,cloned embryos were reconstructed with different passage and preparation methods of ossocartilaginous cell,skin fibroblast,and cumulus cells.The cumulus cell embryos showed significantly higher development rates than the other two (P<0.05).The development rate of embryos reconstructed with skin fibroblasts of different passage number and somatic cells of different chilling durations showed no significant difference.Also,fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)was conducted to detect nuclear derivation of the embryos.The result showed that the nuclei of the inter-species cloned embryo cells came from human.We conclude that (1)cloned embryos can be constructed through human-rabbit interspecies nuclear transfer;(2)different kinds of somatic cells result in different efficiency of nuclear transfer,while in vitro passage of the donor does not influence embryo development;(3)refrigeration is a convenient and efficient donor cell preparation method.Finally,it is feasible to detect DNA gcnotype through FISH.

  19. Reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Navaratnarajah, Ramesan

    2015-02-01

    The reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research was assessed through a cross-sectional analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2010 and 2011. A systematic search identified 325 abstracts; 122 RCTs were included in the study. Embryo transfer methods were described in 42 out of 122 articles (34%). Catheters (32/42 [76%]) or ultrasound guidance (31/42 [74%]) were most frequently mentioned. Performer 'blinding' (12%) or technique standardization (7%) were seldom reported. The description of embryo transfer methods was significantly more common in trials published by journals with lower impact factor (less than 3, 39.6%; 3 or greater, 21.5%; P = 0.037). Embryo transfer methods were reported more often in trials with pregnancy as the main end-point (33% versus 16%) or with positive outcomes (37.8% versus 25.0%), albeit not significantly. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that RCTs published in higher impact factor journals are less likely to describe embryo transfer methods (OR 0.371; 95% CI 0.143 to 0.964). Registered trials, trials conducted in an academic setting, multi-centric studies or full-length articles were not positively associated with embryo transfer methods reporting rate. Recent reports of randomized IVF trials rarely describe embryo transfer methods. The under-reporting of research methods might compromise reproducibility and suitability for meta-analysis.

  20. The effects of superovulation of donor sows on ovarian response and embryo development after nonsurgical deep-uterine embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, M A; Gil, M A; Cuello, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gomis, J; Parrilla, I; Vila, J; Colina, I; Diaz, M; Reixach, J; Vazquez, J L; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of superovulation protocols in improving the efficiency of embryo donors for porcine nonsurgical deep-uterine (NsDU) embryo transfer (ET) programs. After weaning (24 hours), purebred Duroc sows (2-6 parity) were treated with 1000 IU (n = 27) or 1500 IU (n = 27) of eCG. Only sows with clear signs of estrus 4 to 72 hours after eCG administration were treated with 750 IU hCG at the onset of estrus. Nonhormonally treated postweaning estrus sows (n = 36) were used as a control. Sows were inseminated and subjected to laparotomy on Days 5 to 6 (Day 0 = onset of estrus). Three sows (11.1%) treated with the highest dosage of eCG presented with polycystic ovaries without signs of ovulation. The remaining sows from nonsuperovulated and superovulated groups were all pregnant, with no differences in fertilization rates among groups. The number of CLs and viable embryos was higher (P superovulated groups compared with the controls and increased (P superovulated groups than in the control group. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between the number of CLs and the number of viable and transferable embryos, but the number of CLs and the number of oocytes and/or degenerated embryos were not correlated. A total of 46 NsDU ETs were performed in nonhormonally treated recipient sows, with embryos (30 embryos per transfer) recovered from the 1000-IU eCG, 1500-IU eCG, and control groups. In total, pregnancy and farrowing rates were 75.1% and 73.2%, respectively, with a litter size of 9.4 ± 0.6 piglets born, of which 8.8 ± 0.5 were born alive. There were no differences for any of the reproductive parameters evaluated among groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the efficiency of eCG superovulation treatments in decreasing the donor-to-recipient ratio. Compared with nonsuperovulated sows, the number of transferable embryos was increased in superovulated sows without affecting their quality and in vivo capacity to

  1. Factors affecting success of embryo collection and transfer in large dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebel, R C; Demétrio, D G B; Metzger, J

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate factors that affected the success of embryo transfer programs in large dairy herds. Non-lactating donor cows produced a larger number of ova/embryos (Pcows. The interaction between season and donor class was correlated with the proportion of ova/embryos classified as fertilized (P=0.03), because lactating donors had fewer fertilized ova in the summer. There was no correlation between 305-day mature equivalent milk yield and response to superstimulation. Although the interval between superstimulation protocols was correlated with the number of ova/embryos (P=0.03), there was no correlation with the number of viable embryos. Pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in heifer recipients was correlated with embryo quality grade (Pcows tended to have a lower rate of P/ET during the summer (P=0.12 to P=0.08). Synchronization protocols tended to be (P=0.06; Herd 1) or were (P=0.02; Herd 2) correlated with P/ET. Lactating cows receiving vitrified IVF embryos had a lower (P=0.01) P/ET than those receiving fresh IVF embryos, especially in the summer (P=0.09). Milk yield was not correlated with P/ET. The use of heat abatement systems is critical to improve embryo production and P/ET. Synchronization protocols that optimized synchrony of ovulation may increase fertility of recipient cows and eliminate the need for estrous detection.

  2. Evolution studies from embryo transfer and in vitro fertilization in Nelore cattle at Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Travassos Beltrame

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from Brazilian Association of Zebu Breeders were used to show the evolution of conventional embryo transfer (ET and in vitro fertilization techniques between 1997 and 2007 for the Nelore cattle in Brazil. Data from 109.775 conventional embryo transfer and 73.121 ovum pickup (OPU were used. The embryo transfer supremacy was observed until 2004 when a considerable increase of OPU number over ET occurred. More ET and OPU were carried out in Southeast and Mid-West than in others Brazilian regions. The average number of viable embryo along the analysis period is close to that reported by literature (between 5 and 7 embryos per flushing or OPU session.

  3. Cryopreservation of Equine Embryos and First Report of a Native Colombian Breed Born by Transfer of an Equine Vitrified Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Nathalie Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report on the success of a cryopreservation procedure of equine embryos to achieve a viable pregnancy. Equine embryos were collected on day 6-6.5 (<300 μm, n = 24 and subjected to two cryopreservation techniques: group 1 (n = 12, vitrified, exposing them to a VS1 (Gli [1.4 M] 5 min, VS2 (Gli [1.4 M] + EG [3.6 M] and VS3 (Gli [3.4M] + EG [4.6 M] 1 min solution. They were packed in 0.25 ml straws and immersed in liquid nitrogen; group 2 (n = 12, slow freezing: exposed to a freezing solution (1.8 M EG + 0.1 M sucrose for 10 minutes, packed into 0.25 ml straws, brought to the embryos freezer, exposed to a freezing curve and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Following defrosting, cryoprotectants were removed from the 24 embryos in one step; they were submerged in culture medium DMEM/F12 + 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS and incubated under controlled atmosphere (5% CO2, 5% N2, 90% O2 for 48 h. Embryonic development was evaluated in 75% of the vitrified embryos (n = 4; 20% of the embryos were subjected to slow freezing (n = 1. No significant difference was observed in the groups regarding embryonic development, but a greater survival tendency on the vitrified embryos was noted. Also, one of these vitrified embryos was transferred to a receiver, achieving a viable pregnancy and the birth of a living foal.

  4. Predictive value of plasma hCG measured 14 days after Day-2 single embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Oldenburg, Anna; Toftager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prediction of pregnancy outcome after IVF is important for patients and clinicians. Early plasma hCG (p-hCG) levels are the best known predictor of pregnancy outcome, but no studies has been restricted to single embryo transfer (SET) of Day-2 embryos. The aim of the present study...

  5. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of the recipient within a bovine embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Duica A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is a biotechnological technique that allows increasing the descendant of animals with high genetic value. The positive results, represented in pregnancy after the application of this technique, are affected by some factors that are inherent to the donor, the embryo, the technique, and the recipients which receive a strange embryo in the uterus allowing pregnancy. This review describes some factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of the recipients of bovine embryos within a program of embryo transfer. Its important to evaluate the parameters in this kind of recipients, as race, age, physiological status, health status, weight, reproductive tract integrity and management, and also too monitoring the ovarian structures while the estrus synchronization, and within previous and posterior stages in embryo transfer procedure. Therefore an optimum follicular development will be determinant to corpus luteum formation which generates enough serum progesterone concentrations to offer a right uterine environment allowing the optimum embryo development. Controlling the factors that affect the efficiency of the embryo transfer, it will obtain an increasing of positive results represented in pregnancies and births of individuals come from animals with high genetic value.

  6. Use of versapoint to refashion the cervical canal to overcome unusually difficult embryo transfers and improve in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Smooth atraumatic embryo transfer is paramount for the success of in-vitro fertilization (IVF. In difficult cases, cervical canal manipulation may be required. Aim : To see if surgical correction of the cervical canal or cervical canal refashioning could improve ease of embryo transfer. Setting : Private infertility and IVF hospital. Design : Prospective study. Materials and Methods : Patients: 11 women with failed 1-3 IVF cycles with history of extremely difficult embryo transfers (ETs despite undergoing cervical dilatation in the cycle prior to IVF. Interventions : Operative hysteroscopy using Versapoint for refashioning of the cervical canal. Main Outcome Measures : Ease of ET in the subsequent IVF cycle. Secondary outcome measure was to assess reproductive outcome. Results : Easy and atraumatic ET in the IVF cycle after procedure in 100% patients. PR was 46.5%. Conclusions : Use of Versapoint for refashioning the cervical canal can improve the quality of ET and PR.

  7. Does a frozen embryo transfer ameliorate the effect of elevated progesterone seen in fresh transfer cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Mae Wu; Patounakis, George; Connell, Matt T; Devine, Kate; DeCherney, Alan H; Levy, Michael J; Hill, Micah J

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effect of progesterone (P) on the day of trigger in fresh assisted reproduction technology (ART) transfer cycles versus its effect on subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Large private ART practice. Fresh autologous and FET cycles from 2011-2013. None. Live birth. A paired analysis of patients who underwent both a fresh transfer and subsequent FET cycle and an unpaired analysis of data from all fresh transfer cycles and all FET cycles were performed. We analyzed 1,216 paired and 4,124 unpaired cycles, and P was negatively associated with birth in fresh but not FET cycles in all analyses. Interaction testing of P and cycle type indicated P had a different association with birth in fresh versus FET cycles. When P was ≥ 2 ng/mL at the time of trigger, live birth was more likely in FET versus fresh cycles in the paired analysis (47% vs. 10%), in the unpaired analysis (51% vs. 14%), and in unpaired, good blastocyst only transfer subgroup (51% vs. 29%). Live birth was similar in FET cycles, with P ≥ 2 ng/mL versus P birth was lower in fresh cycles, with P ≥ 2 ng/mL versus P trigger during the initial fresh cycle were negatively associated with live birth in the fresh transfer cycles but not in subsequent FET cycles. Freezing embryos and performing a subsequent FET cycle ameliorates the effect of elevated P on live-birth rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Non-invasive assessment of in-vitro embryo quality to improve transfer success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    embryos before the transfer to a recipient still remains challenging. Presently, the predominant non-invasive technique for selecting viable embryos is based on morphology, where parameters such as rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation as well as developmental kinetics are evaluated mostly...... subjectively. The simple morphological approach is, however, inadequate for the prediction of embryo quality, and several studies have focused on developing new non-invasive methods using molecular approaches based particularly on proteomics, metabolomics and most recently small non-coding RNA, including micro......RNA. This review outlines the potential of several non-invasive in-vitro methods based on analysis of spent embryo culture medium....

  9. Influence of recipient cytoplasm cell stage on transcription in bovine nucleus transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Steven D.; Soloy, Eva; Kanka, Jiri

    1996-01-01

    relies upon maternally derived RNA transcripts up to the 8-cell stage, at which time it begins to transcribe its own RNA. In this experiment, RNA synthesis was detected in nucleus transfer embryos (NTE) and control embryos by pulsing with 3H-uridine, fixation, and autoradiography on semithin sections...... of maturation. Control in-vitro-produced embryos were 3H-uridine-labelled and fixed at the 2-, 4-, early 8-, and late 8-cell stages. NTE were similarly prepared at 1, 3, and 20 hr postfusion and at the 2-, 4-, and 8-cell stages. In the control embryos, RNA synthesis was absent in the 2-, 4-, and early 8-cell...

  10. Elevated progesterone and its impact on birth weight after fresh embryo transfers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yetunde Ibrahim; Miriam J Haviland; Michele R Hacker; Alan S Penzias; Kim L Thornton; Denny Sakkas

    2017-01-01

    .... Generalized linear models were used to calculate mean birth weight and z-scores. Results We analyzed 817 fresh IVF embryo transfers in which birth weight, gestational age, and progesterone (ng/mL...

  11. Elevated progesterone and its impact on birth weight after fresh embryo transfers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yetunde Ibrahim; Miriam J Haviland; Michele R Hacker; Alan S Penzias; Kim L Thornton; Denny Sakkas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the association between serum progesterone levels on the day of hCG administration and birth weight among singleton live births after fresh embryo transfer...

  12. Reducing twin pregnancy rates after IVF--elective single embryo transfer (eSET).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Milne, P

    2010-01-01

    Multiple pregnancy is a major complication of IVF and is associated with increased maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity. Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) during IVF, rather than the more standard transfer of two embryos (double embryo transfer or DET), has been shown to significantly reduce the multiple pregnancy rate associated with IVF, while maintaining acceptable pregnancy rates. Couples undergoing IVF in 2008 who met good prognostic criteria had eSET performed. Pregnancy and twinning rates were compared with those for similar couples in 2007 who had DET. Couples unsuccessful with a fresh cycle of treatment had subsequent frozen embryo transfer cycles with DET. The cumulative pregnancy rate was similar for each group. However there were no multiple pregnancies in the eSET group, compared to 4 twins of 5 pregnancies in the DET group. 96% of eligible couples agreed to eSET. ESET is successful in and acceptable to good prognosis Irish couples undergoing IVF.

  13. Large baby syndrome in singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, AA; Loft, A

    2013-01-01

    Are singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) at increased risk of being born large for gestational age (LGA) and if so, is this caused by intrinsic maternal factors or related to the freezing/thawing procedures?......Are singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) at increased risk of being born large for gestational age (LGA) and if so, is this caused by intrinsic maternal factors or related to the freezing/thawing procedures?...

  14. Nonsurgical embryo recovery and transfer in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jeferson F; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria G; Oliveira, Maria Emília F; Leite, Ceci R; Nascimento-Penido, Paula Maria P; Brandão, Felipe Z; Lehloenya, Khoboso C

    2016-07-01

    The embryo transfer techniques used in small ruminants worldwide are based in surgical procedures. These actions are performed under general anesthesia which needs a combination of animal fasting and drugs for secure animal handling and surgery manipulations. Therefore, it involves risks to animal health and life. The major limiting sequels are adhesions formed by the abdominal surgery, in the ovaries, uterus, or between them. These occurrences can both compromise uterus accessing and oocyte capture and are responsible for decreasing success and limiting successive embryo collections. In contrast, nonsurgical embryo procedures can be performed in a relatively simplified way. Nonsurgical embryo recovery does not need animal prolonged starvation, drug retention is minimized, and donors can stay in a standing position. After the end of embryo recovery, donors are promptly restored to their routine housing and feeding. Furthermore, this technique does not need incisions and, therefore, can be used repetitively in superovulated or nonsuperovulated goats and sheep for embryo recovery-a similar procedure done in cattle. In Brazil, promising results are reported using nonsurgical embryo transfer in recipient goats, and studies are currently evaluating similar procedures in sheep. Therefore, this review aimed to present the current panorama of nonsurgical embryo transfer in sheep and goats.

  15. Multiple pregnancy after single or multiple embryo transfer performed according to Korean guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E Jung; Kim, Seul Ki; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-12-01

    To assess compliance with Korean guidelines for embryo transfer, the possible reasons for non-compliance, and multiple pregnancies according to each specific condition in compliant cycles. A single-institution, retrospective study was conducted of 256 fresh in vitro fertilization cycles during 2012-2014. To assess compliance with Korean guidelines, the maximum recommended number of embryos transferred (according to criteria of age, transfer day, and presence of favorable conditions) was compared with the actual number of embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancy rate (PR) was assessed as the percentage of pregnant women resulting from each set of transfer conditions, including the number of embryos transferred. The multiple pregnancy rate (MPR) was calculated as the percentage of pregnant women with a multifetal pregnancy. The compliance rate with the Korean guidelines was 96.5% (247/256). Non-compliance occurred in nine cycles owing to poor embryo quality, repeated implantation failure, or hostile endometrium. In compliant cycles, the PR was 31.2% (77/247), and the MPR was 27.3% (21/77; 20 twins and one triplet). Higher MPR was noted in two types of transfer conditions: transfer of three cleavage embryos in women aged 35-39 years with favorable conditions (66.7%; primarily from those aged 35-37 years) and transfer of two blastocysts in women aged ≥40 years with favorable conditions (50%). Under the Korean guidelines, compliance rate was high in our center. Multiple pregnancies occurred primarily in group with favorable conditions. In high-risk groups for multiple pregnancies, reducing number of embryos transferred should be considered than suggested in the guideline.

  16. Monozygotic Triplets and Dizygotic Twins following Transfer of Three Poor-Quality Cleavage Stage Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assisted reproductive technology has been linked to the increased incidence of monozygotic twinning. It is of clinical importance due to the increased risk of complications in multiple pregnancies in general and in monozygotic twins in particular. Case. A 29-year-old female, nulligravida underwent her first IVF cycle. Three poor-quality cleavage stage embryos were transferred resulting in monochorionic triamniotic triplets and dichorionic diamniotic twins. Selective embryo reduction was performed at 12 weeks leaving dichorionic twins. The patient underwent emergency cesarean section due to preterm labor and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing at 30 weeks of gestation. Conclusion. Our case emphasizes that even embryos with significant morphological abnormalities should be considered viable and the possibility of simultaneous spontaneous embryo splitting must be factored into determining number of embryos to transfer.

  17. Repeated embryo collection and interspecies transfer in alpacas and llamas during non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior evaluation was evaluated, collecting and interspecies embryo transfer inter species in llamas and alpacas during non-breeding season, 10 and 10 donor alpacas llamas, alpacas and 20 receiving 20 llamas, 5 alpacas and 5 llamas males were used. Sexual behavior by libido in males and acceptance of female to male in the presence of a dominant follicle was evaluated, the collection of embryos simple ovulation by non-surgical technique was performed and the fresh embryos are transferred directly into the horn left. It was observed that only 40% of alpaca accept the male and female in all cases had to use two males for mating, but all llama males mounted on the first attempt and accepted all females breeding. Embryos were collected at 25 and 60% of alpacas and llamas washes respectively, all were grade 1 embryos transferable; the embryo transfer fertility evaluated by ultrasound at 25 days was 100 and 41.6% respectively for donor alpaca and llama, however ultrasound evaluation at 60 days fertility was 50 and 25% respectively for donor alpaca and llama. We conclude that there is greater reproductive seasonality in alpaca regard to llamas, all were grade 1 embryos collected, fertility evaluated by ultrasound 25 days down to 60 days, demonstrating embryonic mortality, possibly due to the non-breeding season of both species.

  18. New technology for vitrification and field (microscope-free) warming and transfer of small ruminant embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Alabart, Jose Luis; Dattena, Maria; Nawroth, Frank; Cappai, Pietro; Isachenko, Eugenia; Cocero, Maria Jesus; Olivera, Julio; Roche, Alberto; Accardo, Carla; Krivokharchenko, Alexander; Folch, Jose

    2003-03-01

    This study was designed to test the efficiency of recently developed vitrification technology followed by microscope-free thawing and transfer of sheep embryos. In a first set of experiments, in vivo derived embryos at the morula to blastocyst stage were frozen in an automated freezer in ethylene glycol, and after thawing and removal of cryoprotectants, were transferred to recipient ewes according to a standard protocol (control group). A second group of embryos were loaded into open-pulled straws (OPS) and plunged into liquid nitrogen after exposure at room temperature to the media: 10% glycerol (G) for 5 min, 10% G+20% ethylene glycol (EG) for 5 min, 25% G+25% EG for 30s; or 10% EG+10% DMSO for 3 min, 20% EG+20% DMSO+0.3M trehalose for 30s. The OPS were thawed by plunging into tubes containing 0.5M trehalose. After this rapid thawing, the embryos were directly transferred using OPS as the catheter for the transplantation process. In a second set of experiments, in vivo derived and in vitro produced expanded blastocysts were vitrified in OPS and then transferred as described above. The lambing rates recorded (59% for the conventionally cryopreserved in vivo derived embryos, 56% for the vitrified in vivo derived embryos, and 20% for the vitrified in vitro produced embryos), suggest the suitability of the vitrification technique for the transfer of embryos obtained both in vivo and in vitro. This simple technology gives rise to a high embryo survival rate and will no doubt have applications in rearing sheep or other small ruminants.

  19. Confirmed dioestrus in pseudopregnant mice using vaginal exfoliative cytology improves embryo transfer implantation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamrot, Jared; Pangestu, Mulyoto; Walker, David; Gardner, David K; Dickinson, Hayley

    2015-10-01

    Embryo transfer is a commonly performed surgical technique. In mice, protocols typically specify pairing recipient females with vasectomized males to induce a receptive uterine environment for embryo implantation. However, this induced receptive state is not always maintained until implantation occurs. The use of a well-characterized correlation between oestrous state and exfoliative vaginal cytology was therefore evaluated to assess uterine receptivity immediately before embryo transfer. Eight- to 12-week-old virgin female CD1 mice (n = 22) were paired overnight with vasectomized males and successfully mated, indicated by the presence of a vaginal plug. These dams underwent embryo transfer 3 days later with embryos obtained from superovulated 4-week-old F1 (C57BL/6 × CBA) females. Non-invasive vaginal lavage was conducted immediately before transfer. Dams were killed 6 days after transfer and the uterus collected for histological analysis. Embryo implantation rate in mice was 96% when cytological analysis of the lavage samples signified dioestrus (n = 6), whereas the implantation rate was cytology signified other stages of oestrous. This simple, quick, non-invasive measure of receptivity was accurate and easily adopted and, when applied prospectively, will avoid unnecessary surgery and subsequent culling of non-suitable recipients, while maximizing the implantation potential of each recipient female. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle – effect of management factors with emphasis on sex-sorted semen

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkola, Marja

    2017-01-01

    Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has been established in cattle breeding since the 1970s. It is an efficient means to increase the number of offspring from genetically superior females. Despite nearly 50 years of development, the average number of transferable embryos recovered in a single embryo collection has remained nearly constant at approximately six embryos per donor. Several animal-related, environmental and management factors contribute to the outcome of superovulation a...

  1. Rhesus monkey embryos produced by nuclear transfer from embryonic blastomeres or somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Yeoman, Richard R; Nusser, Kevin D; Wolf, Don P

    2002-05-01

    Production of genetically identical nonhuman primates would reduce the number of animals required for biomedical research and dramatically impact studies pertaining to immune system function, such as development of the human-immunodeficiency-virus vaccine. Our long-term goal is to develop robust somatic cell cloning and/or twinning protocols in the rhesus macaque. The objective of this study was to determine the developmental competence of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos derived from embryonic blastomeres (embryonic cell NT) or fetal fibroblasts (somatic cell NT) as a first step in the production of rhesus monkeys by somatic cell cloning. Development of cleaved embryos up to the 8-cell stage was similar among embryonic and somatic cell NT embryos and comparable to controls created by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI; mean +/- SEM, 81 +/- 5%, 88 +/- 7%, and 87 +/- 4%, respectively). However, significantly lower rates of development to the blastocyst stage were observed with somatic cell NT embryos (1%) in contrast to embryonic cell NT (34 +/- 15%) or ICSI control embryos (46 +/- 6%). Development of somatic cell NT embryos was not markedly affected by donor cell treatment, timing of activation, or chemical activation protocol. Transfer of embryonic, but not of somatic cell NT embryos, into recipients resulted in term pregnancy. Future efforts will focus on optimizing the production of somatic cell NT embryos that develop in high efficiency to the blastocyst stage in vitro.

  2. Cycle regimens for frozen-thawed embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobara, Tarek; Gelbaya, Tarek A; Ayeleke, Reuben Olugbenga

    2017-07-05

    Among subfertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART), pregnancy rates following frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) treatment cycles have historically been found to be lower than following embryo transfer undertaken two to five days following oocyte retrieval. Nevertheless, FET increases the cumulative pregnancy rate, reduces cost, is relatively simple to undertake and can be accomplished in a shorter time period than repeated in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with fresh embryo transfer. FET is performed using different cycle regimens: spontaneous ovulatory (natural) cycles; cycles in which the endometrium is artificially prepared by oestrogen and progesterone hormones, commonly known as hormone therapy (HT) FET cycles; and cycles in which ovulation is induced by drugs (ovulation induction FET cycles). HT can be used with or without a gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa). This is an update of a Cochrane review; the first version was published in 2008. To compare the effectiveness and safety of natural cycle FET, HT cycle FET and ovulation induction cycle FET, and compare subtypes of these regimens. On 13 December 2016 we searched databases including Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL. Other search sources were trials registers and reference lists of included studies. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the various cycle regimens and different methods used to prepare the endometrium during FET. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcomes were live birth rates and miscarriage. We included 18 RCTs comparing different cycle regimens for FET in 3815 women. The quality of the evidence was low or very low. The main limitations were failure to report important clinical outcomes, poor reporting of study methods and imprecision due to low event rates. We found no

  3. Mixed double-embryo transfer: A promising approach for patients with repeated implantation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenov, Georgi Stamenov; Parvanov, Dimitar Angelov; Chaushev, Todor Angelov

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of frozen mixed double-embryo transfer (MDET; the simultaneous transfer of day 3 and day 5 embryos) in comparison with frozen blastocyst double-embryo transfer (BDET; transfer of two day 5 blastocysts) in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF). A total of 104 women with RIF who underwent frozen MDET (n=48) or BDET (n=56) with excellent-quality embryos were included in this retrospective analysis. All frozen embryo transfers were performed in natural cycles. The main outcome measures were the implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and miscarriage rate. These measures were compared between the patients who underwent MDET or BDET using the chi-square test or the Fisher exact test, as appropriate. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were significantly higher in patients who underwent MDET than in those who underwent BDET (60.4% vs. 39.3%, p=0.03 and 52.1% vs. 30.4%, p=0.05, respectively). A significantly lower miscarriage rate was observed in the MDET group (6.9% vs. 10.7%, p=0.05). In addition, the multiple pregnancy rate was slightly, but not significantly, higher in the MDET group (27.1% vs. 25.0%). MDET was found to be significantly superior to double blastocyst transfer. It could be regarded as an appropriate approach to improve in vitro fertilization success rates in RIF patients.

  4. Effect of washing mineral oil on development of mouse embryos in vitro and in vivo after embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Zhang Li-xuan; Zhong Yu; Zhu Kai; Zhang Tian; Wang Min-kang

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To establish a simple and effective washing procedure for both used and purchased mineral oil,that can be used for embryo culture.Methods:A complete test system has been used for this purpose.There are 3 steps in our new washing proto-col.First,the oil was mixed with 95% ethanol at 1:1,the bottle being shaken by hand for 10 minutes,then sepa-rated.Second,the oil was heated to boiling point with 0.31 mol/L NaCl for 30 minutes.Third,anhydrous Na:SO4 was put into the oil for further treatment.1-cell stage embryos of a KM strain mouse have been collected surgically and cultured.Cleavage and blastocyst stage development were recorded and some embryos were transferred into re-cipients.Results:The results show that recycled oil can promote the development from 2-cell to blastocyst stage(23.3%)when compared with that of control(16.9%).Offspring have been obtained at 44 %(7/16),16 %(3/19)from washed recycled oil and control oil respectively.Conclusion:This washing procedure is safe and effective for the used treatment and for other sources of mineral oil used for embryo culture.

  5. In Vitro Embryo Production and Transfer of Bubaline Embryos using Oocytes Derived from Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Follicular Aspiration (TUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FP Aquino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration (TUFA has become a popular tool for embryo production in vitro due to its high degree of repeatability in terms of recovering oocytes from live animals. In Study 1, the quantity and quality of oocytes from Bulgarian Murrah buffalo cows (n=10 of varying ages (Group 1, 8-12; and Group 2, 13-17 years were assessed. Group 1 buffalo donor cows yielded significantly higher (P<0.05 number of oocytes vs Group 2 buffalo donor cows (71 vs 29 oocytes, respectively, though in terms of oocyte quality, no difference was observed. In Study 2, oocytes collected (n=100 in Study 1 were matured, fertilized in vitro and the resulting zygotes were cultured which developed to blastocyst stage embryos. The maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development rates obtained were 53.0%, 40.0% and 32.5%, respectively. In Study 3, the viability of resulting blastocyst stage embryos was determined by transferring to recipient cows. Of 10 recipients 1 got pregnant and delivered a 35 kg male calf after 310 days gestation period. Overall, the results of the studies conducted demonstrated the potential of TUFA technology in the in vitro production of embryos which eventually could be used in the production of live offspring.

  6. Developmental competence of equine oocytes and embryos obtained by in vitro procedures ranging from in vitro maturation and ICSI to embryo culture, cryopreservation and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, C; Colleoni, S; Duchi, R; Lagutina, I; Lazzari, G

    2007-03-01

    Development of assisted reproductive technologies in horses has been relatively slow compared to other domestic species, namely ruminants and pigs. The scarce availability of abattoir ovaries and the lack of interest from horse breeders and breed associations have been the main reasons for this delay. Progressively though, the technology of oocyte maturation in vitro has been established followed by the application of ICSI to achieve fertilization in vitro. Embryo culture was initially performed in vivo, in the mare oviduct or in the surrogate sheep oviduct, to achieve the highest embryo development, in the range of 18-36% of the fertilised oocytes. Subsequently, the parallel improvement of in vitro oocyte maturation conditions and embryo culture media has permitted high rates of embryo development from in vitro matured and in vitro cultured ICSI embryos, ranging from 5 to 10% in the early studies to up to 38% in the latest ones. From 2003, with the birth of the first cloned equids, the technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer has also become established due to improvement of the basic steps of embryo production in vitro, including cryopreservation. Pregnancy and foaling rates are still estimated based on a small number of in vitro produced equine embryos transferred to recipients. The largest set of data on non-surgical embryo transfer of in vitro produced embryos, from ICSI of both abattoir and in vitro-matured Ovum Pick Up (OPU) oocytes, and from somatic cell nuclear transfer, has been obtained in our laboratory. The data demonstrate that equine embryos produced by OPU and then cryopreserved can achieve up to 69% pregnancy rate with a foaling rate of 83%. These percentages are reduced to 11 and 23%, respectively, for cloned embryos. In conclusion, extensive evidence exists that in vitro matured equine oocytes can efficiently develop into viable embryos and offspring.

  7. Functional full-term placentas formed from parthenogenetic embryos using serial nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikichi, Takafusa; Ohta, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Mammalian parthenogenetic embryos invariably die in mid-gestation from imprinted gene defects and placental hypoplasia. Based on chimera experiments, trophoblastic proliferation is supposed to be inhibited in the absence of a male genome. Here, we show that parthenogenetic mouse embryonic cell nuclei can be reprogrammed by serial rounds of nuclear transfer without using any genetic modification. The durations of survival in uteri of cloned foetuses derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled parthenogenetic cell nuclei were extended with repeated nuclear transfers. After five repeats, live cloned foetuses were obtained up to day 14.5 of gestation; however, they did not survive longer even when we repeated nuclear transfer up to nine times. All foetuses showed intestinal herniation and possessed well-expanded large placentas. When embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from fertilised embryos were aggregated with the cloned embryos, full-term offspring with large placentas were obtained from the chimeric embryos. Those placentas were derived from parthenogenetic cell nuclei, judging from GFP expression. The patterns of imprinted gene expression and methylation status were similar to their parthenogenetic origin, except for Peg10, which showed the same level as in the normal placenta. These results suggest that there is a limitation for foetal development in the ability to reprogramme imprinted genes by repeated rounds of nuclear transfer. However, the placentas of parthenogenetic embryos can escape epigenetic regulation when developed using nuclear transfer techniques and can support foetal development to full gestation.

  8. Judging the international transfer of technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    International transfer of technology is a widely discussed area in the scientific literature. Although many different factors are discussed in the literature that affect the transfer of technology, it is not clear how to judge the performance of companies involved in international technology

  9. Judging The International Transfer Of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2000-01-01

    International transfer of technology is a widely discussed area in the scientific literature. Although many different factors are discussed in the literature that affect the transfer of technology, it is not clear how to judge the performance of companies involved in international technology transfe

  10. Two-staged nuclear transfer can enhance the developmental ability of goat-sheep interspecies nuclear transfer embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Bing; Cai, Lu; Li, Jia-Jia; Chen, Xiu-Li; Ji, Feng-Yu

    2011-02-01

    The technique of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which interspecies cloned embryos can be reconstructed by using domestic animal oocytes as nuclear recipients and endangered animal or human somatic cells as nuclear donors, can afford more opportunities in endangered animal rescue and human tissue transplantation, but the application of this technique is limited by extremely low efficiency which may be attributed to donor nucleus not fully reprogrammed by xenogenic cytoplasm. In this study, goat fetal fibroblasts (GFFs) were used as nuclear donors, in vitro-matured sheep oocytes were used as nuclear recipients, and a two-stage nuclear transfer procedure was performed to improve the developmental ability of goat-sheep interspecies clone embryos. In the first stage nuclear transfer (FSNT), GFFs were injected into the ooplasm of enucleated sheep metaphase-II oocytes, then non-activated reconstructed embryos were cultured in vitro, so that the donor nucleus could be exposed to the ooplasm for a period of time. Subsequently, in the second stage nuclear transfer, FSNT-derived non-activated reconstructed embryo was centrifuged, and the donor nucleus was then transferred into another freshly enucleated sheep oocyte. Compared with the one-stage nuclear transfer, two-stage nuclear transfer could significantly enhance the blastocyst rate of goat-sheep interspecies clone embryos, and this result indicated that longtime exposure to xenogenic ooplasm benefits the donor nucleus to be reprogrammed. The two-stage nuclear transfer procedure has two advantages, one is that the donor nucleus can be exposed to the ooplasm for a long time, the other is that the problem of oocyte aging can be solved.

  11. Cryopreservation and delayed embryo transfer-assisted reproductive technology registry and reporting implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Kevin J

    2014-07-01

    Clinics performing assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures have collected data via registry and publicly reported pregnancy outcomes for more than 25 years. During this time, the practice of ART has changed considerably with frozen embryo transfer (FET) procedures contributing an increasing proportion of live births. Cycles initiated with the intent of embryo banking for the purpose of fertility preservation have been excluded from these public reports, because pregnancy outcomes are not immediately available. An unintended consequence of the common sense handling of fertility preservation has been that cycles performed with intentional short-term cryopreservation of all embryos for other indications have also been excluded from the report. Over the last few years, cryopreservation with short-term delayed transfer increasingly has been performed for reasons other than fertility preservation. The pregnancy outcomes of these cycles are expected within a reasonable time frame and should be transparently reported. The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology has collaborated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to "recapture" these cycles for the public reports. This recapture is done by linking the FET cycles to the stimulation cycles from which the embryos were derived and by changing the labels of the outcome success metrics. Stimulations using ART, initiated for the purpose of transferring embryos within 1 year will be included in the report despite any prospective intent to freeze all eggs or embryos. A positive outcome will be reported when a live birth results from the first embryo transfer following stimulation ("primary transfer"). Linkage of ovarian stimulation and egg-retrieval procedures to FET will also allow development of other success metrics to further benefit fertility patients.

  12. Inositol and In Vitro Fertilization with Embryo Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, G.; Genazzani, A. R.; Obino, M. E. R.; Papini, F.; Pinelli, S.; Cela, V.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, studies on inositol supplementation during in vitro fertilization program (IVF) have gained particular importance due to the effect of this molecule on reducing insulin resistance improving ovarian function, oocyte quality, and embryo and pregnancy rates and reducing gonadotropin amount during stimulation. Inositol and its isoforms, especially myoinositol (MYO), are often used as prestimulation therapy in infertile patients undergoing IVF cycle. Inositol supplementation started three months before ovarian stimulation, resulting in significant improvements in hormonal responses, reducing the amount of FSH necessary for optimal follicle development and serum levels of 17beta-estradiol measured the day of hCG injection. As shown by growing number of trials, MYO supplementation improves oocyte quality by reducing the number of degenerated and immature oocytes, in this way increasing the quality of embryos produced. Inositol can also improve the quality of sperm parameters in those patients affected by oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.

  13. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark....... A total of 346 infertility patients with oligoamenorrhoea undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer after priming with oestradiol and vaginal progesterone gel were included. The vaginal progesterone dose was changed from 90 mg (Crinone) once a day to twice a day and the reproductive outcome during the two...... rate (8.7% versus 20.5%, respectively; P=0.002). Doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles decreased the early pregnancy loss rate, resulting in a significantly higher delivery rate. This study evaluated the reproductive outcome of 346 women...

  14. The influence of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer on epigenetic enzymes transcription in early embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Morovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reason for the incorrect development of embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer is caused by insufficient demethylation of injected somatic chromatin to a state comparable with an early embryonic nucleus. It is already known that the epigenetic enzymes transcription in oocytes and early embryos of several species including bovine and porcine zygotes is species-dependent process and the incomplete DNA methylation correlates with the nuclear transfer failure rate in mammals. In this study the transcription of DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a (DNMT1, DNMT3a genes in early embryonic stages of interspecies (bovine, porcine nuclear transfer embryos (iSCNT by RT-PCR were analyzed. Coming out from the diverse timing of embryonic genome activation (EGA in porcine and bovine preimplantation embryos, the intense effect of ooplasm on transferred somatic cell nucleus was expected. In spite of the detection of ooplasmic DNA methyltransferases, the somatic genes for DNMT1 and DNMT3a enzymes were not expressed and the development of intergeneric embryos stopped at the 4-cell stage. Our results indicate that the epigenetic reprogramming during early mammalian development is strongly infl uenced by the ooplasmic environment.

  15. Accidental Thawing of Embryos, Cryopreserved for Transfer. Two Italian cases, Milan and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco P; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Bolino, Giorgio; Vullo, Annamaria; Frati, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The bioethical and juridical debate on the status of frozen embryos sometimes adds new issues arising from new scientific evidence or by accidental occurrences that bring to the attention of the scientific community the need for new practical solutions. Within this scenario, there have been, in recent years, episodes concerning the accidental thawing of embryos, which have been cryopreserved for transfer. Two Italian cases (the Milan and the Rome cases) are here reported: the Milan case involves a couple undergoing artificial insemination. Three eggs were collected for insemination and two of them had been fertilized. During the night of 8/9 May 2007 a short circuit occurred, resulting in an electricity blackout, which caused the loss of the embryos in culture, which should have been transferred to the woman's uterus on 9 May. The couple applied for damage compensation from the hospital following the loss of the embryos. The case went to Court and the result was a judgment issued by the Milan civil court, which recognized that the centre was to blame for irreparable damage to the embryos. The Rome case, involves two couples (A and B) affected by sterility who applied to an authorized public centre to undergo an ART program. Following the medical procedures, two of the embryos produced were transferred to the woman in couple A and five were frozen, whereas three embryos produced by couple B were transferred to the uterus of the woman and six eggs were cryopreserved in the centre. Two years after the procedure there was an electricity blackout, and the backup electricity generator failed to function, causing the loss of the gametes and the embryos cryopreserved in the centre. Legal proceedings begun by the couples to obtain compensation for damages are still underway. The above reported cases have significantly intensified the bioethical debate on the lawfulness of such practices and on the fate of the cryopreserved embryos, at the same time opening new frontiers in

  16. Promoting the use of elective single embryo transfer in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobias, Tamara; Sharara, Fady I.; Franasiak, Jason M.;

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of multiple embryos after in vitro fertilization (IVF) increases the risk of twins and higher-order births. Multiple births are associated with significant health risks and maternal and neonatal complications, as well as physical, emotional, and financial stresses that can strain fam...... families and increase the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders in parents. Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) is among the most effective methods to reduce the risk of multiple births with IVF. Current societal guidelines recommend eSET for patients...

  17. Neonatal health including congenital malformation risk of 1072 children born after vitrified embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, F; Bonduelle, M; Roelants, M; Verheyen, G; Van Landuyt, L

    2016-07-01

    Does vitrification of Day 3 and Day 5 embryos adversely affect birth outcomes of singletons and twins in comparison with peers born after fresh embryo transfer? Neonatal health parameters, including the prevalence of congenital malformations, in singletons and twins born after embryo vitrification are similar to or slightly better than after fresh embryo transfer. Although vitrification, rather than slow-freezing, of embryos is routine practice nowadays, convincing evidence regarding the safety for the offspring is sparse. Literature data comprise results from mostly small-sized studies or studies including only Day 3 or only Day 5 vitrified embryo transfers. Overall, better or comparable perinatal outcomes, in terms of higher birthweight and lower risk for small-for-gestational age or for low birthweight, have been reported for singletons born after vitrified embryo transfer compared with fresh embryo transfer. According to the single available study with sufficient sample size, the congenital malformation rate was found to be comparable after vitrified and fresh embryo transfers. Data were collected from 960 cycles after transfer of embryos vitrified on Day 3 (n = 457) or Day 5 (n = 503) and from 1644 cycles after fresh embryo transfer on Day 3 (n = 853) or Day 5 (n = 791), performed between 2008 and 2013 at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the university hospital UZ Brussel. Outcome measures were neonatal health in terms of birthweight, small-for-gestational age, prematurity rate, perinatal death and major/minor/total malformation rate. Perinatal health parameters of 11 stillborns and 1061 live borns (827 singletons and 234 twins) in the vitrified group and of 28 stillborns and 1838 live borns (1374 singletons and 464 twins) in the fresh embryo group are reported. Within 3 months after birth, children in the two study groups were assessed clinically with special attention to congenital malformations by a paediatrician blinded to the type of embryo

  18. International Transfer Pricing in Multinational Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Cools, Martine; Rohde, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Current curricula in management accounting stress the role of transfer pricing as a tool for measuring the performance of responsibility centers and their managers. Recently, however, multinational enterprises (MNEs) have felt increasing pressure to comply with transfer pricing tax regulation....... As a result, tax risk management considerations play a key role in the transfer pricing decisions of MNEs today. This case seeks to provide you with examples of the core principles of international transfer pricing, as well as to allow you to discuss international transfer pricing in the context...... of responsibility accounting. Specifically, the case study is a fictional MNE, allowing you to apply the OECD Guidelines in practice to cross-border transfers within an MNE, and to discuss the implications of tax-based transfer pricing for responsibility accounting. As a basis for working on the case study...

  19. Morphological assessment on day 4 and its prognostic power in selecting viable embryos for transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabozzi, Gemma; Alteri, Alessandra; Rega, Emilia; Starita, Maria Flavia; Piscitelli, Claudio; Giannini, Pierluigi; Colicchia, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a system for embryo morphology scoring at the morula stage and to determine the efficiency of this model in selecting viable embryos for transfer. In total, 519 embryos from 122 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were scored retrospectively on day 4 according to the grading system proposed in this article. Two separate quality scores were assigned to each embryo in relation to the grade of compaction and fragmentation and their developmental fate was then observed on days 5 and 6. Secondly, the prediction value of this scoring system was compared with the prediction value of the traditional scoring system adopted on day 3. Morulas classified as grade A showed a significant higher blastocyst formation rate (87.2%) compared with grades B, C and D (63.8, 41.3 and 15.0%, respectively), (P Akaike information criterion (AIC) index 16.4 vs. 635.3 and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) index -68.8 vs. -30.0 for morulas and embryos respectively]. In conclusion, results demonstrated that the presented scoring system allows for the evaluation of eligible embryos for transfer as a significant correlation between the grade of morula, blastulation rate and blastocyst quality was observed. Furthermore, the morula scoring system was shown to be the best predictive model when compared with the traditional scoring system performed on day 3.

  20. Efficacy of timed embryo transfer with fresh and frozen in vitro produced embryos to increase pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, J D; Drost, M; Monson, R L; Rutledge, J J; Leibfried-Rutledge, M L; Thatcher, M J; Kassa, T; Binelli, M; Hansen, P J; Chenoweth, P J; Thatcher, W W

    1999-11-01

    Our objective was to determine whether pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle could be enhanced by timed embryo transfer of fresh (nonfrozen) or frozen-thawed in vitro-derived embryos compared to timed insemination. Ovulation in Holstein cows was synchronized by a GnRH injection followed 7 d later by PGF2 alpha and a second treatment with GnRH 48 h later. Control cows (n = 129) were inseminated 16 h (d 0) after the second GnRH injection. On d 7, a fresh (n = 133) or frozen-thawed (n = 142) in vitro-derived embryo was transferred to cows assigned for timed embryo transfer after categorizing the corpus luteum by palpation per rectum as 3 (excellent), 2 (good or fair), 1 (poor), and 0 (nonpalpable). Response to the synchronization treatment, determined by plasma progesterone concentration (ng/ml) or = 2.0 on d 7, was 76.2%. Mean plasma progesterone concentration on d 7 increased as the quality of corpus luteum improved from category 0 to 3. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma were elevated (> or = 2.0 ng/ml) at 21 d in 64.7 (fresh embryo), 40.3 (frozen embryo), and 41.4 +/- 0.1% (timed insemination) of cows, respectively. Cows that received a fresh embryo had a greater pregnancy rate at 45 to 52 d than did cows that received a frozen-thawed embryo or timed insemination (14.3 > 4.8, 4.9 +/- 2.3%). Body condition (d 0) of cows influenced the pregnancy rate and plasma progesterone concentrations. In summary, timed embryo transfer with fresh in vitro-produced embryos in heat-stressed dairy cattle improved pregnancy rate relative to timed insemination.

  1. Serial nuclear transfer improves the development of interspecies reconstructed giant panda (Aluropoda melanoleuca) embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Interspecies somatic nuclear transfer (NT) may provide a new approach for preservation of the endangered rare species. Previous interspecies cloning studies have shown that a nucleus from a quiescent somatic cell supports early development of reconstructed embryos in the ooplasm from another species. In this study, we transferred nonquiescent somatic cells from a giant panda into the perivitelline space of the enucleated rabbit oocytes. After electrofusion (at the rate of 71.6%) and electrical activation, 4.2% of the panda-rabbit reconstructed embryos developed to blastocyst in vitro. For improving the development rate of reconstructed embryos, we used serial NT in this study, I.e. Blastomeres from reconstructed morulae were transferred into the perivitelline space of the enucleated rabbit oocytes. The fusion rates in the groups of serial Ⅰ, serial Ⅱ and serial Ⅲ were 79.5%, 84.1% and 78.0%, respectively, having no difference with that of somatic group. And the blastocyst rates in serial NT groups were 19.4%, 13.5% and 10.3%, respectively, which are significantly higher than that in somatic NT group. These results indicate that the nuclei from nonquiescent somatic cells can support early development of reconstructed embryos and serial NT can improve the development rate of interspecies reconstructed embryos.

  2. A randomized controlled, non-inferiority trial of modified natural versus artificial cycle for cryo-thawed embryo transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, E. R.; Cohlen, B. J.; Al-Oraiby, A.; Brinkhuis, E. A.; Broekmans, F. J M; De Bruin, J. P.; Van Den Dool, G.; Fleisher, K.; Friederich, J.; Goddijn, M.; Hoek, A.; Hoozemans, D. A.; Kaaijk, E. M.; Koks, C. A M; Laven, J. S E; Van Der Linden, P. J Q; Manger, A. P.; Slappendel, E.; Spinder, T.; Kollen, B. J.; Macklon, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    studyquestion: Are live birth rates (LBRs) after artificial cycle frozen-thawed embryo transfer (AC-FET) non-inferior to LBRs after modified natural cycle frozen-thawed embryo transfer (mNC-FET)? summaryanswer: AC-FET is non-inferior to mNC-FET with regard to LBRs, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rat

  3. The onset of foreign gene transcription in nuclear-transferred embryos of fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The transcriptional onset of hGH-transgene in fish was studied in the following three cases: the first is in MThGH-transgenic F4 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos, the second is in nuclear-transferred embryos supported by the transgenic F4 embryonic nuclei, and the third is in nuclear-transferred embryos supported by the transgenic F4 tail-fin nuclei. RT-PCR results show that the hGH-transgene initiates its transcriptional activity from early-gastrula stage, the early blas-tula stage and even 16-cell stage in the first, second and third cases, respectively. It looks like that fish egg cytoplasm could just offer a very restricted reprogramming on transcriptional activity of specific gene in differentiated cell nuclei by nuclear transplantation.

  4. The onset of foreign gene transcription in nuclear-transferred embryos of fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永华; 陈尚萍; 汪亚平; 朱作言

    2000-01-01

    The transcriptional onset ot hGH-transgene in fish was studied in the following three cases: the first is in MThGH-transgenic F4 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos, the second is in nuclear-transferred embryos supported by the transgenic F4 embryonic nuclei, and the third is in nuclear-transferred embryos supported by the transgenic F4 tail-fin nuclei. RT-PCR results show that the hGH-transgene initiates its transcriptional activity from early-gastrula stage, the early blastula stage and even 16-cell stage in the first, second and third cases, respectively. It looks like that fish egg cytoplasm could just offer a very restricted reprogramming on transcriptional activity of specific gene in differentiated cell nuclei by nuclear transplantation.

  5. Production of piglets from in vitro-produced embryos following non-surgical transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Koji; Noguchi, Michiko; Suzuki, Chie

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance procedures for producing piglets derived from in vitro-produced (IVP) pig embryos by non-surgical embryo transfer (ET). The effects of insertion length for the catheter, asynchrony between the age of donor IVP blastocysts and the recipient estrous cycle, and volume of transfer medium were investigated. The IVP blastocysts at 5 days after in vitro fertilization were placed into porcine zygote medium (PZM)-5 supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (PZM+FBS) in a 0.25 mL plastic straw (21-40 blastocysts per straw) and then transferred into one uterine horn of recipients using the Takumi(®) catheter for deep intrauterine insertion. Successful production of piglets derived from IVP embryos was achieved following non-surgical ET when the catheter was inserted at more than 30 cm anterior to the spiral guide spirette. The efficiency of piglet production (percentage number of piglet(s) born based on the number of embryos transferred) was greater (P<0.05) in recipients whose estrous cycle was asynchronous to that of donors with a 1-day delay (8.3%) than in those with a 2-day (1.5%) or 3-day (0.9%) delay, while pregnancy and farrowing rates (10-40%) did not differ among treatments. When blastocysts were transferred into recipients with 1.0 or 2.5 mL PZM+FBS, there were no significant differences in farrowing rate (30-40%) or average litter size (4.5-6.7) between treatments. The results of the present study indicate that the insertion length of the deep intrauterine catheter and the degree of asynchrony between donor embryos and recipient estrous cycle influenced on pregnancy and birth outcome following non-surgical transfer of IVP blastocysts.

  6. The impact of laser-assisted hatching on the outcome of frozen human embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyo, Katalin; Zeke, Jozsef; Kriston, Rita; Szücs, Zoltan; Cseh, Sandor; Somoskoi, Bence; Konc, Janos

    2016-10-01

    Biochemical modifications of zona pellucida (ZP) result in zona hardening. Zona hardening (ZH) is induced by several factors such as advancing maternal age, in vitro culture conditions and cryopreservation and adversely effects implantation. The objective of the clinical study was to determine whether or not laser-assisted hatching (LAH) applied on day 3 frozen embryos improves the outcome of frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles in patients with recurrent implantation failure and/or advanced female age. In total, 413 patients of different ages with recurrent implantation failure (maximum three cycles) were involved into the study. Patients were allocated randomly into LAH and control groups. On the day of FET, after thawing and just before FET, the ZP was thinned using a laser system. In the control group no treatment was applied on frozen embryo before transfer. The main outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rate. Overall, the results indicate a tendency that LAH increased (P = 0.08) clinical pregnancy. However, for patients older than 37 years, LAH increased pregnancy rates significantly (P = 0.03). In the LAH and control groups, the age of patients and the number of transferred embryos influenced pregnancy rates (P = 0.01). For patients older than 37 years, no effect of number of transferred embryos was detected (P = 0.14). The incidence of multiple pregnancies also increased in the LAH group (P = 0.01). In conclusion, in older woman, to overcome the negative effect of zona hardening, LAH could be performed on frozen embryos as a routine strategy before FET in frozen cycles in order to increase the possibility of pregnancy formation.

  7. Successful pregnancy following the transfer of vitrified blastocyst which developed from poor quality embryos on day 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-jian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The selection of pre-embryos for transferred is based on morphological appearance. But some poor quality cleaved embryos also can be cultured to the blastocyst stage and implanted.Objective: To assess the clinical pregnancy outcomes of blastocyst transfer which developed from poor quality embryos. Materials and Methods: A total of 109 cleaved embryos with poor quality were cultured to day 5/day 6 and 27 (24.8% blastocysts were collected from the 15 cycles/patients undergoing conventional IVF. All the blastocysts were cooling with fast-freezing. Then the blastocysts were warmed for transfer. Results: All of 25 vitrified blastocysts (92.6% survived after warming and were transferred to 15 patients. Five of the women became pregnant. Conclusion: Our results suggest that vitrified human day 5/day 6 blastocyst transfer which develop from poor quality embryo at day 3 can contribute to increasing cumulative pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction

  8. Factors associated with dizygotic twinning after IVF treatment with double embryo transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, E.; Lambers, M. J.; Stakelbeek, M. E. F.; Mooij, T. M.; van den Belt-Dusebout, A. W.; Heymans, M. W.; Schats, R.; Hompes, P. G. A.; Hoek, A.; Burger, C. W.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Lambalk, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    Dizygotic twin pregnancies after IVF treatment are the result of multiple embryos transferred into the uterine cavity, followed by successful double implantation. Factors that increase the chance of multiple implantation after IVF are relatively unknown. The present study aimed to investigate whethe

  9. Term delivery following pyometra after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathya Balasubramanyam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old woman presented 12 days after embryo transfer with lower abdominal pain and orange vaginal discharge. She was diagnosed to have pyometra. A conservative management with drainage of the pyometra was followed by an uneventful pregnancy and term delivery. Conservative management in a case of pregnancy with pyometra needs close supervision to ensure maternal and fetal well being.

  10. Term delivery following pyometra after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanyam, Sathya; Varma, Thankam R

    2014-04-01

    A 30 year old woman presented 12 days after embryo transfer with lower abdominal pain and orange vaginal discharge. She was diagnosed to have pyometra. A conservative management with drainage of the pyometra was followed by an uneventful pregnancy and term delivery. Conservative management in a case of pregnancy with pyometra needs close supervision to ensure maternal and fetal well being.

  11. Embryo quality before and after slow freezing: Viability, implantation and pregnancy rates in 627 single frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles following failure of fresh transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodanno, Francesco; De Feo, Gaetano; Gizzo, Salvatore; Nicoli, Alessia; Palomba, Stefano; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2016-06-01

    Frozen embryo transfer cycles are now common practice, however, various aspects regarding the potential of frozen embryos remain unclear. The main goal of the present study was to assess embryo quality before and after slow freezing procedure, and more specifically blastomere loss and embryo quality as indicator of viability. A single center retrospective analysis of single frozen-thawed embryo replacements (s-FER) was performed. The embryo quality before and after slow freezing and thawing, implantation, and pregnancy rates were recorded. One hundred and twenty seven s-FER were included in the final analysis. The probability of achieving an ongoing pregnancy was significantly associated with embryo quality and the percentage of blastomere loss after thawing. Considering thawed embryos, a non-significant difference in term of implantation rate was observed, regardless to their post-thawing quality and the percentage of blastomeres loss. In conclusion, current data suggest that thawed embryos are capable of implantation regardless of their morphological quality and the degree of cryoinjury sustained.

  12. Genetic analysis of traits affecting the success of embryo transfer in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S; Bosselmann, F; von Borstel, U U; Simianer, H

    2007-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate variance components for traits related to embryo transfer (ET) by applying generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) for different distributions of traits (normal, binomial, and Poisson) in a synergistic context. Synergistic models were originally developed for traits affected by several genotypes, denoted as maternal, paternal, and direct effects. In the case of ET, the number of flushed ova (FO) only depends on a donor's maternal genetic effect, whereas paternal fertility must be considered for other embryo survival traits, such as the number of transferable embryos (TE), the number of degenerated embryos (DE), the number of unfertilized oocytes (UO), and the percentage of transferable embryos (PTE). Data for these traits were obtained from 4,196 flushes of 2,489 Holstein cows within 4 regions of northwest Germany from January 1998 through October 2004. Estimates of maternal heritability were 0.231 for FO, 0.096 for TE, 0.021 for DE, 0.135 for UO, and 0.099 for PTE, whereas the relative genetic impact of the paternal component was near zero. Estimates of the genetic correlations between the maternal and the paternal component were slightly negative, indicating a genetic antagonism. For the analysis of pregnancy after ET, 8,239 transfers to 6,819 different Holstein-Friesian recipients were considered by applying threshold methodology. The direct heritability for pregnancy in the recipient after ET was 0.056. The relative genetic impact of maternal and paternal components on pregnancy of recipients describing a donor's and a sire's ability to produce viable embryos was below 1%. The genetic correlations of the direct effect of the recipient with the sire of embryos (paternal effect) and the donor cow (maternal effect) for pregnancy after ET were -0.32 and -0.14, respectively. With the exception of FO and PTE (-0.17), estimates of genetic correlations among traits for the maternal site were distinctly positive, especially

  13. Can Characteristics of Reciprocal Translocations Predict the Chance of Transferable Embryos in PGD Cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Dul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Translocation carriers have an increased risk of miscarriage or the birth of a child with congenital anomalies. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is performed in translocation carriers to select for balanced embryos and, thus, increase the chance of an ongoing pregnancy. However, a common experience is that reciprocal translocation carriers produce a high percentage of unbalanced embryos, which cannot be transferred. Therefore, the pregnancy rates in PGD in this patient group are low. In a cohort of 85 reciprocal translocation carriers undergoing PGD we have searched for cytogenetic characteristics of the translocations that can predict the percentage of balanced embryos. Using shape algorithms, the most likely segregation mode per translocation was determined. Shape algorithm, breakpoint location, and relative chromosome segment sizes proved not to be independent predictors of the percentage of balanced embryos. The ratio of the relative sizes of the translocated segments of both translocation chromosomes can give some insight into the chance of transferable embryos: Very asymmetrical translocations have a higher risk of unbalanced products (p = 0.048. Counseling of the couples on the pros and cons of all their reproductive options remains very important.

  14. Increasing The Number of Embryos Transferred from Two to Three, Does not Increase Pregnancy Rates in Good Prognosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare the pregnancy outcomes after two embryos versus three embryos transfers (ETs in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on three hundred eighty seven women with primary infertility and with at least one fresh embryo in good quality in order to transfer at each IVF/ICSI cycle, from September 2006 to June 2010. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the number of ET as follows: ET2 and ET3 groups, indicating two and three embryos were respectively transferred. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between ET2 and ET3 groups. Chi square and student t tests were used for data analysis. Results: Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar between two groups. The rates of multiple pregnancies were 27 and 45.2% in ET2 and ET3 groups, respectively. The rate of multiple pregnancies in young women was significantly increased when triple instead of double embryos were transferred. Logistic regression analysis indicated two significant prognostic variables for live birth that included number and quality of transferred embryos; it means that the chance of live birth following ICSI treatment increased 3.2-fold when the embryo with top quality (grade A was transferred, but the number of ET had an inverse relationship with live birth rate; it means that probability of live birth in women with transfer of two embryos was three times greater than those who had three ET. Conclusion: Due to the difficulty of implementation of the elective single-ET technique in some infertility centers in the world, we suggest transfer of double instead of triple embryos when at least one good quality embryo is available for transfer in women aged 39 years or younger. However, to reduce the rate of multiple pregnancies, it is recommended to consider the elective single ET strategy.

  15. Live births after polar body biopsy and frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryo transfer: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Guimar?es, Fernando; Roque,Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Kostolias, Alessandra; Azevedo, Rodrigo A de; Martinhago, Ciro D; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber,Selmo

    2016-01-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or screening (PGS) technology, has emerged and developed in the past few years, benefiting couples as it allows the selection and transfer of healthy embryos during IVF treatments. These techniques can be performed in oocytes (polar-body biopsy) or embryos (blastomere or trophectoderm biopsy). In this case report, we describe the first two live births to be published in Brazil after a polar-body (PB) biopsy. In case 1, a 42-year-old was submitted to PB...

  16. The Influence of Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer on Epigenetic Enzymes Transcription in Early Embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morovic, Martin; Murin, Matej; Strejcek, Frantisek;

    2016-01-01

    One of the main reason for the incorrect development of embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer is caused by insufficient demethylation of injected somatic chromatin to a state comparable with an early embryonic nucleus. It is already known that the epigenetic enzymes transcription....... In spite of the detection of ooplasmic DNA methyltransferases, the somatic genes for DNMT1 and DNMT3a enzymes were not expressed and the development of intergeneric embryos stopped at the 4-cell stage. Our results indicate that the epigenetic reprogramming during early mammalian development is strongly...

  17. Effect of Adding Human Chorionic Gonadotropin to The Endometrial Preparation Protocol in Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eftekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, one of the initial embryonic signals, isprobably a major regulator of the embryo-endometrial relationship. This study aims to assess theadvantage of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase of hormonally prepared cycles forthe transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos.Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Infertile women who werecandidates for frozen-thawed embryo transfers entered the study and were divided into two groups,HCG and control. The endometrial preparation method was similar in both groups: all women receivedestradiol valerate (6 mg po per day from the second day of the menstrual cycle and progesteronein oil (100 mg intramuscular (I.M. when the endometrial thickness reached 8 mm. Estradiol andprogesterone were continued until the tenth week of gestation. In the HCG group, patients received anHCG 5000 IU injection on the first day of progesterone administration and the day of embryo transfer.Results: In this study, 130 couples participated: 65 in the HCG group and 65 in the control group.There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding basic characteristics.Implantation rate, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and abortion rateswere similar in both groups.Conclusion: Although HCG has some advantages in assisted reproductive technology (ARTcycles, our study did not show any benefit of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase offrozen cycles (Registration Number: IRCT201107266420N4.

  18. Live birth in a woman with recurrent implantation failure and adenomyosis following transfer of refrozen-warmed embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Somayyeh; Faramarzi, Azita; Agha-Rahimi, Azam; Khalili, Mohammad Ali

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to report a healthy live birth using re-vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage embryos derived from supernumerary warmed embryos after frozen embryo transfer (ET) in a patient with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The case was a 39-year-old female with a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome and adenomyosis, along with RIF. After ovarian hyperstimulation, 33 cumulus-oocyte complexes were retrieved and fertilized with conventional in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Because of the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, 16 grade B and C embryos were vitrified. After 3 and 6 months, 3 and 4 B-C warmed embryos were transferred to the uterus, respectively. However, implantation did not take place. Ten months later, four embryos were warmed, two grade B 8-cell embryos were transferred, and two embryos were re-vitrified. One year later, the two re-vitrified cleavage-stage embryos were warmed, which resulted in a successful live birth. This finding showed that following first warming, it is feasible to refreeze supernumerary warmed embryos for subsequent ET in patients with a history of RIF.

  19. Live birth in a woman with recurrent implantation failure and adenomyosis following transfer of refrozen-warmed embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Somayyeh; Faramarzi, Azita; Khalili, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to report a healthy live birth using re-vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage embryos derived from supernumerary warmed embryos after frozen embryo transfer (ET) in a patient with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The case was a 39-year-old female with a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome and adenomyosis, along with RIF. After ovarian hyperstimulation, 33 cumulus-oocyte complexes were retrieved and fertilized with conventional in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Because of the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, 16 grade B and C embryos were vitrified. After 3 and 6 months, 3 and 4 B–C warmed embryos were transferred to the uterus, respectively. However, implantation did not take place. Ten months later, four embryos were warmed, two grade B 8-cell embryos were transferred, and two embryos were re-vitrified. One year later, the two re-vitrified cleavage-stage embryos were warmed, which resulted in a successful live birth. This finding showed that following first warming, it is feasible to refreeze supernumerary warmed embryos for subsequent ET in patients with a history of RIF. PMID:27689042

  20. Characteristics of pregnancies and offspring following transfer of bovine in vivo embryos assessed by nanorespirometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Ana Sofia; Madsen, S E; Greve, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    It has been speculated whether the metabolism of the pre-implantation embryo may be reflected on the pregnancy and characteristics of the newborn animal. The present study investigated whether respiration rates of individual embryos were correlated with gestation length, type of parturition, birth......, III), stage of development, and diameter and were subsequently transferred individually (n = 43) to synchronized recipients. Gestation length of the recipients (n = 22) was calculated and the type of parturition (no assistance, light traction, heavy traction, or caesarean section) recorded. Sex......, weight, and condition of the calves at birth (weak, normal, or very active) were also assessed. Results were evaluated by chi-square analysis and using a linear mixed model. The pregnancy rate was 60% (26/43), and the respiration rates of individual embryos influenced gestation length as well...

  1. Pregnancies and piglets from large white sow recipients after two transfer methods  of cloned  and trangenic embryos of different pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Kragh, Peter Michael; Li, Juan;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report from a larger study with pregnancy and delivery results after transfer of cloned transgenic/non-transgenic Large White or minipig embryos to Large White sow recipients. The effect of both total numbers of transferred embryos as well as site of their deposition...... (uni- vs. bi-lateral) was studied. Four to five days after natural heat, 85 Large White (LW) sows received Day 5 or 6 handmade cloned embryos. Large White embryos were non-transgenic and were transferred to 36 recipients, while 49 recipients each received Minipig embryos, either non......-transgenic or with 1 of 4 types of transgenes. Furthermore, the number of embryos transferred was in two categories, as 46 recipients received 40-60 embryos while 39 received 60-120 embryos. Finally, in 59 of the recipients embryos were transferred to one of the uterine horns (unicornual) while 26 other recipients had...

  2. Ascorbic acid increases demethylation in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos of the pig (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Investigated the effect and mechanism of ascorbic acid on the development of porcine embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Methods Porcine embryos were produced by SCNT and cultured in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid. Ten-eleven translocation 3 (TET3 in oocytes was knocked down by siRNA injection. After ascorbic acid treatment, reprogramming genes were analyzed by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Furthermore, relative 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine content in pronucleus were detected by realtime PCR. Results Ascorbic acid significantly increased the development of porcine embryos produced by SCNT. After SCNT, transcript levels of reprogramming genes, Pou5f1, Sox2, and Klf were significantly increased in blastocysts. Furthermore, ascorbic acid reduced 5-methylcytosine content in pronuclear embryos compared with the control group. Knock down of TET3 in porcine oocytes significantly prevents the demethylation of somatic cell nucleus after SCNT, even if in the presence of ascorbic acid. Conclusion Ascorbic acid enhanced the development of porcine SCNT embryos via the increased TET3 mediated demethylation of somatic nucleus.

  3. Development of interspecies nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed with argali (Ovis ammon) somatic cells and sheep ooplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yanli; Guo, Zhiqin; Wang, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Interspecies nuclear transfer has already achieved success in several species, which shows great potential in recovery and conservation of endangered animals. The study was conducted to establish an efficient system for in vitro argali (Ovis ammon)-sheep embryo reconstruction via interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT). The competence of domestic sheep cytoplasts to reprogram the adult argali fibroblast nuclei was evaluated, and the effects of enucleation methods and donor cell passage and cell state on the in vitro development of argali-sheep cloned embryos were also examined. Sheep oocytes could support argali and sheep fibroblast cell nuclei transfer and develop to blastocysts in vitro. Oocytes matured for 21–23 h and enucleated by chemically assisted enucleation (CAE) had a higher enucleation rate than blind enucleation (BE), but the development rate of iSCNTembryos was the same (P>0.05). Moreover, passage numbers of fibroblast cells cell cycle stages did not affect the development rate of iSCNT reconstructed embryos. Thus sheep cytoplasm successfully supports argali nucleus development to blastocyst stage after optimising the nuclear transfer procedure, which indicates that iSCNT can be used to conserve endangered argali in the near future.

  4. Pregnancy rates following timed embryo transfer with fresh or vitrified in vitro produced embryos in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Katanani, Y M; Drost, M; Monson, R L; Rutledge, J J; Krininger, C E; Block, J; Thatcher, W W; Hanse, P J

    2002-07-01

    Timed embryo transfer (TET) using in vitro produced (IVP) embryos without estrus detection can be used to reduce adverse effects of heat stress on fertility. One limitation is the poor survival of IVP embryos after cryopreservation. Objectives of this study were to confirm beneficial effects of TET on pregnancy rate during heat stress as compared to timed artificial insemination (TAI), and to determine if cryopreservation by vitrification could improve survival of IVP embryos transferred to dairy cattle under heat stress conditions. For vitrified embryos (TET-V), a three-step pre-equilibration procedure was used to vitrify excellent and good quality Day 7 IVP Holstein blastocysts. For fresh IVP embryos (TET-F), Holstein oocytes were matured and fertilized; resultant embryos were cultured in modified KSOM for 7 days using the same method as for production of vitrified embryos. Excellent and good quality blastocysts on Day 7 were transported to the cooperating dairy in a portable incubator. Nonpregnant, lactating Holsteins (n = 155) were treated with GnRH (100 microg, i.m., Day 0), followed 7 days later by prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha, 25 mg, i.m.) and GnRH (100 microg) on Day 9. Cows in the TAI treatment (n = 68) were inseminated the next day (Day 10) with semen from a single bull that also was used to produce embryos. Cows in the other treatments (n = 33 for TET-F; n = 54 for TET-V) received an embryo on Day 17 (i.e. Day 7 after anticipated ovulation and Day 8 after second GnRH treatment). The proportion of cows that responded to synchronization based on plasma progesterone concentrations on Day 10 and Day 17 was 67.7%. Pregnancy rate for all cows on Day 45 was higher (P cows responding to synchronization, pregnancy rate was also higher (P cows producing more milk had lower (P cows producing less milk. In conclusion, ET of fresh IVP embryos can improve pregnancy rate under heat stress conditions, but pregnancy rate following transfer of vitrified embryos was no

  5. Cloned pigs derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos cultured in vitro at low oxygen tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pig cloning has great potential to human xenotransplantation. The present study was designed to establish a more efficient system for producing cloned pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Our approach was as follows: SCNT embryos were reconstructed by using fetal fibroblasts of Chinese miniature pig as donors and in vitro matured oocytes of prepubertal gilts as recipients. Reconstructed embryos were induced by electrical fusion/activation and cultured in BSA-containing North Carolina State University 23 medium (NCSU-23) or Porcine Zygote Medium (PZM-3) at the gas condition of 5% CO2, 7% O2, 88% N2. A total of 230 cloned embryos were transferred to three surrogate sows, producing three piglets. One of them is apparently healthy. The clonal provenance of the piglet was indicated by its coat color and confirmed by DNA microsatellite analysis. These results indicate that the use of in vitro matured oocytes from prepubertal gilts as recipient, combined with cloned embryos cultured at low oxygen tension is an effective way to produce cloned pigs.

  6. The influence of season and sire on the results of superovulation and embryo transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hegedűšová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was evaluate the influence of season and sires on profit and quality of embryos after superovulated treatment. Next we evaluated the conception rate after transfer of fresh and frozen embryos.In 1991–2004 there were used the beef cattle. Into the basic statistic evaluation it was involved 487 realised embryo recoveries and 2008 realised transfers in 1991–2004. Data for database were obtaining from ETprotocols – ET team Research Institute for Cattle Breeding, Ltd., Rapotin, prof. Říha. The data processing was carried out by means of the common variation-statistical methods.The best results were achieved in summer (suitable 3.68 ± 3.65; the ratio of the suitable and total: 59.3% and in autumn (suitable 3.54 ± 3.80; the ratio: 54.48% and the good results, little different from the summer and autumn results, were achieved in spring.The average number of the recovered ova of the chosen breeds sires were variable (from 6.60 ± 6.17 in Blonde d´Aquitaine to 17.16 ± 6.66 in Charolais. The most of the suitable embryos was recovered in the donors inseminated by the Hereford breed sires (7.15 ± 6.42. It was evaluated the above-average conception in the Simmental breed (63.43 %.

  7. Why we should transfer frozen instead of fresh embryos: the translational rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinerman, Rachel; Mainigi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an increased rate of adverse perinatal outcomes, including small for gestational age (SGA) births, in fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles compared with frozen embryo transfer cycles. This increase is not seen in the donor oocyte population, suggesting that it is the peri-implantation environment created after superovulation that is responsible for these changes. During a fresh IVF cycle, multiple corpora lutea secrete high levels of hormones and other factors that can affect the endometrium and the implanting embryo. In this review, we discuss both animal and human data demonstrating that superovulation has significant effects on the endometrium and embryo. Additionally, potential mechanisms for the adverse effects of gonadotropin stimulation on implantation and placental development are proposed. We think that these data, along with the growing body of epidemiologic evidence, support the proposal that frozen embryo transfer should be considered preferentially, particularly in high responders, as a means to potentially decrease at least some of the adverse perinatal outcomes associated with IVF. PMID:24890274

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitor significantly improved the cloning efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Yao, Chaogang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated donor nuclear is converted into an embryonic totipotent state, we speculated that VPA would be useful in promoting cloning efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether VPA can promote the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by improving the reprogramming state of donor nucleus. Here we report that 1 mM VPA for 14 to 16 h following activation significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation of porcine SCNT embryos constructed from Landrace fetal fibroblast cells compared to the control (31.8 vs. 11.4%). However, we found that the acetylation level of Histone H3 lysine 14 and Histone H4 lysine 5 and expression level of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 was not significantly changed between VPA-treated and -untreated groups at the blastocyst stage. The SCNT embryos were transferred to 38 surrogates, and the cloning efficiency in the treated group was significantly improved compared with the control group. Taken together, we have demonstrated that VPA can improve both in vitro and in vivo development competence of porcine SCNT embryos.

  9. Refuting a misguided campaign against the goal of single-embryo transfer and singleton birth in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Robert J; Richter, Kevin S; Jones, Howard W

    2013-10-01

    Much recent progress has been made by assisted reproductive technology (ART) professionals toward minimizing the incidence of multiple pregnancy following ART treatment. While a healthy singleton birth is widely considered to be the ideal outcome of such treatment, a vocal minority continues a campaign to advocate the benefits of multiple embryo transfer as treatment and twin pregnancy as outcome for most ART patients. Proponents of twinning argue four points: that patients prefer twins, that multiple embryo transfer maximizes success rates, that the costs per infant are lower with twins and that one twin pregnancy and birth is associated with no higher risk than two consecutive singleton pregnancies and births. We find fault with the reasoning and data behind each of these tenets. First, we respect the principle of patient autonomy to choose the number of embryos for transfer but counter that it has been shown that better patient education reduces their desire for twins. In addition, reasonable and evidentially supported limits may be placed on autonomy in exchange for public or private insurance coverage for ART treatment, and counterbalancing ethical principles to autonomy exist, especially beneficence (doing good) and non-maleficence (doing no harm). Second, comparisons between success rates following single-embryo transfer (SET) and double-embryo transfers favor double-embryo transfers only when embryo utilization is not comparable; cumulative pregnancy and birth rates that take into account utilization of cryopreserved embryos (and the additional cryopreserved embryo available with single fresh embryo transfer) consistently demonstrate no advantage to double-embryo transfer. Third, while comparisons of costs are system dependent and not easy to assess, several independent studies all suggest that short-term costs per child (through the neonatal period alone) are lower with transfers of one rather than two embryos. And, finally, abundant evidence conclusively

  10. Large scale in vivo risk assessment of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) transmission through transfer of bovine embryos produced via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, K; Gosch, G; Guerra, T; Chen, S H; Xiang, T; Broek, D; Bruner, B; Polejaeva, I

    2010-10-15

    The objective was to use the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) as a model to assess the risk of infectious disease transmission in the system of in vitro embryo production and transfer via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The risks of BVDV transmission in the SCNT embryo production were previously evaluated. In that in vitro study, following standard operating procedures (SOP), including pre-nuclear transfer donor cell testing, oocyte decontamination and virus-free cell and embryo culture conditions, SCNT embryos produced were free of detectable viral RNA. The current study focused on the evaluation of the potential risk of disease transmission from SCNT embryos to recipients, and the risk of producing persistently infected animals via SCNT embryo transfer. Blood samples were collected from 553 recipients of SCNT embryos and 438 cloned calves and tested for the presence of BVDV viral RNA via a sensitive real time PCR method. All samples tested were negative. These results, in conjunction with the previous in vitro study, confirmed that the established SCNT embryo production and transfer system is safe and presents no detectable risk of disease transmission. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of in vitro fertilization and nuclear transfer techniques in the production of buffalo pre-implantation embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Cruz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the timing of cleavage and blastocoel formation of in vitro fertilized and nuclear transfer embryos and to compare the efficiency of in vitro fertilization (IVF and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT techniques in the production of buffalo embryos under the same culture system. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were matured in vitro for 22 and 24 hr for SCNT and IVF, respectively. For IVF, COCs were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen and cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid supplemented with amino acids for 7 days. For SCNT, ear skin fibroblasts were inserted individually into enucleated oocytes, fused electrically, and activated with ethanol followed by cycloheximide treatment for 6 hr before culture in the same condition as IVF embryos. The results showed that SCNT embryos cleaved and formed blastocoel earlier than IVF embryos. The cleavage rate is significantly higher in SCNT embryos; while the blastocyst formation rate of IVF embryos is significantly higher (P<0.01 than SCNT embryos. The shorter time taken from cleavage to blastocoel formation by NT embryos as compared to in vitro fertilized ones suggests a difference in their developmental kinetics. The difference in the developmental competence between NT and IVF embryos warrants further investigation.

  12. Morphological characterization of pre- and peri-implantation in vitro cultured, somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vivo derived ovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Peura, T.T.; Hartwich, K.M.;

    2005-01-01

    The processes of cellular differentiation were studied in somatic cell nuvlear transfer (SCNT), in vitro cultured (IVC) and in vivo developed (in vivo) ovine embryos on days 7, 9, 11, 13, 17 and 19. SCNT embryos were constructed from in vitro matured oocytes and granulosa cells, and IVC embryos...... were produced by in vitro culture of in vivo fertilized zygotes. Most SCNT and IVC embryos were transferred to recipients on day 6 while some remained in culture for day 7 processing. In vivo embryos were collected as zygotes, transferred to intermediate recipients and retransferred to final recipients...... embryos had impaired hypoblast development, some lacking identifiable inner cell masses. On day 11, only in vivo and IVC embryos had developed an embryonic disc, and gastrulation was evident in half of in vivo embryos and one IVC embryo. By day 13, all in vivo embryos had completed gastrulation whereas...

  13. Acupuncture on the day of embryo transfer: a randomized controlled trial of 635 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe; Løssl, Kristine; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, controlled and double-blinded trial studied whether acupuncture in relation to embryo transfer could increase the ongoing pregnancy rates and live birth rates in women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy. A total of 635 patients undergoing IVF or intracytoplasmic...... sperm injection (ICSI) were included. In 314 patients, embryo transfer was accompanied by acupuncture according to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine. In the control group, 321 patients received placebo acupuncture using a validated placebo needle. In the acupuncture group and the placebo...... group, the ongoing pregnancy rates were 27% (95% CI 22-32) and 32% (95% CI 27-37), respectively. Live birth rates were 25% (95% CI 20-30) in the acupuncture group and 30% (95% CI 25-30) in the placebo group. The differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that acupuncture...

  14. Acupuncture on the day of embryo transfer: a randomized controlled trial of 635 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorota; Løssl, Kristine; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, controlled and double-blinded trial studied whether acupuncture in relation to embryo transfer could increase the ongoing pregnancy rates and live birth rates in women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy. A total of 635 patients undergoing IVF or intracytoplasmic...... sperm injection (ICSI) were included. In 314 patients, embryo transfer was accompanied by acupuncture according to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine. In the control group, 321 patients received placebo acupuncture using a validated placebo needle. In the acupuncture group and the placebo...... group, the ongoing pregnancy rates were 27% (95% CI 22-32) and 32% (95% CI 27-37), respectively. Live birth rates were 25% (95% CI 20-30) in the acupuncture group and 30% (95% CI 25-30) in the placebo group. The differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that acupuncture...

  15. The effect of medical clowning on pregnancy rates after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedler, Shevach; Glasser, Saralee; Azani, Liat; Freedman, Laurence S; Raziel, Arie; Strassburger, Dvora; Ron-El, Raphael; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2011-05-01

    This experimental prospective quasi-randomized study examining the impact of a medical clowning encounter after embryo transfer (ET) after in vitro fertilization (IVF) found that the pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 36.4%, compared with 20.2% in the control group (adjusted odds ratio, 2.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-5.24). Medical clowning as an adjunct to IVF-ET may have a beneficial effect on pregnancy rates and deserves further investigation.

  16. Theoretical Model of the Relationship between Single Embryo Transfer Rate and Multiple Pregnancy Rate in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Syuichi Ooki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of single embryo transfer (SET) in assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the reduction of the multiple pregnancy rate. We also estimated the monozygotic (MZ) twinning rates according to the SET diffusion indirectly. A reverse sigmoid curve was assumed and examined using nationwide data of SET from 2007 to 2009 in Japan. The multiple pregnancy rate decreased almost linearly where the SET pregnancy rate was between about 40% and 80%...

  17. Transcriptional reprogramming of gene expression in bovine somatic cell chromatin transfer embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Grier P

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reprogramming of a somatic genome to produce a healthy clone by somatic cells nuclear transfer (SCNT is a rare event and the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly defined. When serial or successive rounds of cloning are performed, blastocyst and full term development rates decline even further with the increasing rounds of cloning. Identifying the "cumulative errors" could reveal the epigenetic reprogramming blocks in animal cloning. Results Bovine clones from up to four generations of successive cloning were produced by chromatin transfer (CT. Using Affymetrix bovine microarrays we determined that the transcriptomes of blastocysts derived from the first and the fourth rounds of cloning (CT1 and CT4 respectively have undergone an extensive reprogramming and were more similar to blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF than to the donor cells used for the first and the fourth rounds of chromatin transfer (DC1 and DC4 respectively. However a set of transcripts in the cloned embryos showed a misregulated pattern when compared to IVF embryos. Among the genes consistently upregulated in both CT groups compared to the IVF embryos were genes involved in regulation of cytoskeleton and cell shape. Among the genes consistently upregulated in IVF embryos compared to both CT groups were genes involved in chromatin remodelling and stress coping. Conclusion The present study provides a data set that could contribute in our understanding of epigenetic errors in somatic cell chromatin transfer. Identifying "cumulative errors" after serial cloning could reveal some of the epigenetic reprogramming blocks shedding light on the reprogramming process, important for both basic and applied research.

  18. Serum Beta-hCG of 11 Days after Embryo Transfer to Predict Pregnancy Outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinic value of a single maternal serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) assay 11 d after embryo transfer in ART pregnancies and to predict pregnancy outcome.Methods A total of 384 pregnancies after embryo transfer were included.Inviable pregnancies were defined as biochemical pregnancies,ectopic pregnancies and first trimester abortions.Ongoing pregnancies were defined as singleton pregnancies and multiple pregnancies whose gestation were achieved more than 12 weeks.Serum β-hCG concentrations were compared among different groups.Results On the post embryo transfer d 11,the mean β-hCG concentration of the ongoing pregnancy group (323.7±285.2 mIU/ml) was significantly higher than that of the inviable pregnancy group(81.4±68.1 mmIU/ml)(P<0.001).In multiple gestations,the levels of β-hCG were significantly higher compared with singleton pregnancies.If the β-hCG level was between 10 mIU/ml and 50 mIU/ml,the positive predictive value of biochemical pregnancies and ectopic pregnancies was 81.8%,the negative predictive value was 94.4%.If the level was less than 100 mIU/ml,the positive predictive value of first trimester abortions was 80.8% the negative predictive value was 77.8%.If the level was greater than 250 mIU/ml,the positive predictive value of multiple pregnancies was 83.3%.the negative predictive value was 74.4%.Conclusions A single serum β-hCG level on d 11 after embryo transfer has good predictive valuefor clinical pregnancy outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation cycles and helps to plan the subsequent follow-up.

  19. Is mandating elective single embryo transfer ethically justifiable in young women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelton Tremellen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared with natural conception, IVF is an effective form of fertility treatment associated with higher rates of obstetric complications and poorer neonatal outcomes. While some increased risk is intrinsic to the infertile population requiring treatment, the practice of multiple embryo transfer contributes to these complications and outcomes, especially concerning its role in higher order pregnancies. As a result, several jurisdictions (e.g. Sweden, Belgium, Turkey, and Quebec have legally mandated elective single-embryo transfer (eSET for young women. We accept that in very high-risk scenarios (e.g. past history of preterm delivery and poor maternal health, double-embryo transfer (DET should be prohibited due to unacceptably high risks. However, we argue that mandating eSET for all young women can be considered an unacceptable breach of patient autonomy, especially since DET offers certain women financial and social advantages. We also show that mandated eSET is inconsistent with other practices (e.g. ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination–ovulation induction that can expose women and their offspring to risks associated with multiple pregnancies. While defending the option of DET for certain women, some recommendations are offered regarding IVF practice (e.g. preimplantation genetic screening and better support of IVF and maternity leave to incentivise patients to choose eSET.

  20. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Pang, Daxin, E-mail: pdx@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Ouyang, Hongsheng, E-mail: ouyh@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. {yields} The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. {yields} A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 {mu}g/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

  1. Exploration on the effect of transferred embryos number on clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization- embryo transfer%移植胚胎数对体外受精-胚胎移植临床结局影响探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙燕萍; 陈自洪; 牛向丽; 黄华; 方伟芬; 公方强

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of transferred embryos number on clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization - embryo transfer (IVF - ET) . Methods: 1 302 IVF - ET or ICSI - ET cycles were selected from January to December in 2008, then they were divided into single embryo transfer group, double embryo transfer group and triple embryo transfer group according to transferred embryos number; the clinical pregnancy rates, implantation rates, twin pregnancy rates, multiple pregnancy rates, abortion rates and live birth rates in the three groups were compared. Results: Among the three groups, the clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate and live birth rate in double embryo transfer group were the highest, there was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy rate between double embryo transfer group and triple embryo transfer group (P > 0. 05), but the multiple pregnancy rate in double embryo transfer group was significantly lower than that in triple embryo transfer group (P <0.01), compared with triple embryo transfer group, the live birth rate in double embryo transfer group was higher, but the abortion rate was lower (P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion: In IVF - ET cycle, reducing the number of transferred embryos may reduce clinical pregnancy rate, but transplanting two embryos can reduce the occurrence of multiple pregnancy effectively.%目的:探讨移植胚胎数对体外受精-胚胎移植(In vitro fertilization and embryos transfer;IVF- ET)临床结局的影响.方法:选择2008年1~12月在中心行IVF - ET或ICSI - ET治疗的1302周期,按移植胚胎数目分为移植1枚组、移植2枚组、移植3枚组,比较3组间的临床妊娠率、胚胎种植率、双胎率、多胎率、流产率、活产率.结果:3组中2枚组的临床妊娠率、胚胎种植率、活产率最高,2枚组和3枚组的临床妊娠率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但多胎妊娠率显著低于3枚组(P<0.01),2枚组和3枚组比较有较高的活产

  2. Impact on outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer by reducing numbers of transferred embryos%减少移植胚胎数量对冻融胚胎移植结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江楠; 王丽萍; 常永富; 付伟平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the impact on pregnant outcome of reducing the number of embryos transferred from three to two in women at age less than 35 who received frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). Methods The analysis was performed on 90 FET cycles (77 infertile couples,less than 35 years old) with slow-freezing/rapid-thawing method, including 48 cycles with two embryos transferred and 42 cycles with three embryos transferred. The embryo survival rate, high quality embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate and multiple pregnancies rate were analyzed. Results No significant differences in embryo survival rate (88.9% versus 88.1%), high quality embryo rate (89.6% versus 81.0%), clinical pregnancy rate (37.5% versus 42.9%), implantation rate (26.0% versus 18.3%) and multiple pregnancy rate (38.9% versus 16.7%) were observed between two and three embryos transferred group (all P > 0.05). However, there were 2 triple pregnancies in three embryos transferred group while none in two embryos transferred group. Conclusion Reducing the number of high quality embryos transferred from three to two in women at age of less than 35 years old who received FET,could decrease the incidence of triple pregnancy and keep the similar clinical pregnancy rate.%目的 探讨年龄0.05).但移植2个胚胎者中无三胎妊娠发生,而移植3个胚胎者中发生2次三胎妊娠.结论 冻融胚胎移植周期中,如果胚胎质量良好,年龄<35岁妇女移植胚胎数量从3个减少至2个,并不会明显降低临床妊娠率,同时可减少三胎妊娠的发生.

  3. Comparison of ectopic pregnancy risk among transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tong; Chen, Hong; Fu, Rong; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Yun; Mol, Ben W; Kuang, Yanping; Lyu, Qifeng

    2017-07-01

    To compare ectopic pregnancy risk among transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6. Retrospective cohort study. Academic tertiary-care medical center. A total of 10,736 pregnancies after 23,730 frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection from March 2003 to May 2015. The ectopic pregnancy rate was compared among pregnancies resulting from transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6. Generalized estimation equation regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ectopic pregnancy and selected patient and treatment characteristics. We studied this association in both the group that achieved pregnancy and the group that underwent an FET cycle. Odds of ectopic pregnancy. The overall rate of ectopic pregnancy was 2.8% (304/10,736). Ectopic pregnancy rates after day-3, day-5, and day-6 vitrified embryo transfers were 3.1% (287/9,224), 2.0% (11/562), and 0.6% (6/950), respectively. After adjusting for confounders, the risks of ectopic pregnancy in day-3 and day-5 vitrified embryo transfers were both significantly higher than in day-6 vitrified embryo transfers. The associations were similar when we did calculations per cycle. In women undergoing FET, day-6 vitrified embryo transfer is associated with a significantly lower risk of ectopic pregnancy than both day-3 and day-5 vitrified embryo transfers. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of ribosomal RNA genes in porcine embryos produced in vitro or by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Jakobsen, Anne Sørig

    2007-01-01

    The onset of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis occurs during the second half of the third cell cycle, that is, at the four-cell stage, in porcine embryos developed in vivo. In the present study the onset of rRNA synthesis was investigated in porcine embryos produced in vitro (IVP) or by somatic cell...... nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with an rDNA probe and subsequent visualization of the nucleolar proteins by silver staining. In the 205 IVP embryos investigated, all two-cell embryos (n = 34) were categorized as transcriptionally inactive. At the late four......-cell stage (n = 45), 38% of the embryos contained 1-3 nuclei with signs of rRNA transcription, indicating an asynchronous transcription initiation. This pattern continued in the following stages, as 78% (n = 47), 47% (n = 42) and 83% (n = 37) of the embryos revealed a mixture of transcriptionally inactive...

  5. MODELAGEM BIOECONÔMICA DA TRANSFERÊNCIA DE EMBRIÕES EM BOVINOS BIOECONOMIC MODEL IN BOVINE EMBRYO TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Travassos Beltrame

    2010-04-01

    Monte Carlo random simulation process, which presupposed a negative exponential distribution of density of probability. Costs were inserted in the model through a basis scenery to calculate economic indicators of profitability (cost per pregnancy, Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. The analysis suggested the impracticality of the activity if it is carried out in the proposed scenery NPV (US$ - 25,042.04. An estimate average cost of US$ 512.25 and of US$ 426.01 was obtained by the proposed scenery to get a pregnancy at an optimized situation, (5/100; 5/190.

    KEY WORDS: Optimization, recipients, simulation, embryo transfer, economic viability.

  6. Elective single-embryo transfer: persuasive communication strategies can affect choice in a young British population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, O B A; Purewal, S

    2011-12-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of the framing effect and fear appeals to inform young people about the risks of multiple births and the option of selecting elective single-embryo transfer (eSET). A non-patient student sample (age (mean±SD) 23±5.5 years; n=321) were randomly allocated to one of seven groups: (1) framing effect: (1a) gain and (1b) loss frame; (2) fear appeal: (2a) high, (2b) medium and (2c) low fear; or (3) a control group: (3a) education and (3b) non-education. The primary outcome measure was the Attitudes towards Single Embryo Transfer questionnaire, before exposure to the messages (time 1) and immediately afterwards (time 2). Results revealed participants in the high fear, medium fear and gain condition demonstrated the most positive and significant differences (Ppersuasive communication techniques on a student population to promote immediate and hypothetical eSET preferences is more successful at promoting eSET than merely reporting educational content. Future research should investigate its application in a clinical population. A multiple pregnancy is a health risk to both infant and mother following IVF treatment. The aims of this study were to test the effectiveness of two persuasive communication techniques (the framing effect and fear appeals) to inform young people about the risks of multiple births and the hypothetical option of selecting elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) (i.e., only one embryo is transferred to the uterus using IVF treatment). A total of 321 non-patient student sample (mean age 23) were randomly allocated to read a message from one of seven groups: (1) framing effect: (1a) gain and (1b) loss frame; (2) fear appeal: (2a) high, (2b) medium and (2c) low fear; or (3) a control group: education (3a) and (3b) non-education. Participants completed the Attitudes towards Single Embryo Transfer questionnaire, before exposure to the messages (time 1) and immediately afterwards (time 2). Results revealed that participants

  7. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Newborn Size in Singletons Resulting from Fresh and Cryopreserved Embryos Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Claudia; Zhang, Yujia; Talge, Nicole M.; Li, Chenxi; Todem, David; Boulet, Sheree L.; McKane, Patricia; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Copeland, Glenn; Bernson, Dana; Diamond, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives and Study Design The aim of this study was two-fold: to investigate the association of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and small newborn size, using standardized measures; and to examine within strata of fresh and cryopreserved embryos transfer, whether this association is influenced by parental infertility diagnoses. We used a population-based retrospective cohort from Michigan (2000–2009), Florida and Massachusetts (2000–2010). Our sample included 28,946 ART singletons conceived with non-donor oocytes and 4,263,846 non-ART singletons. Methods Regression models were used to examine the association of ART and newborn size, measured as small for gestational age (SGA) and birth-weight-z-score, among four mutually exclusive infertility groups: female infertility only, male infertility only, combined female and male infertility, and unexplained infertility, stratified by fresh and cryopreserved embryos transfer. Results We found increased SGA odds among ART singletons from fresh embryos transfer compared with non-ART singletons, with little difference by infertility source [adjusted odds-ratio for SGA among female infertility only: 1.18 (95% CI 1.10, 1.26), male infertility only: 1.20 (95% CI 1.10, 1.32), male and female infertility: 1.18 (95% CI 1.06, 1.31) and unexplained infertility: 1.24 (95% CI 1.10, 1.38)]. Conversely, ART singletons, born following cryopreserved embryos transfer, had lower SGA odds compared with non-ART singletons, with mild variation by infertility source [adjusted odds-ratio for SGA among female infertility only: 0.56 (95% CI 0.45, 0.71), male infertility only: 0.64 (95% CI 0.47, 0.86), male and female infertility: 0.52 (95% CI 0.36, 0.77) and unexplained infertility: 0.71 (95% CI 0.47, 1.06)]. Birth-weight-z-score was significantly lower for ART singletons born following fresh embryos transfer than non-ART singletons, regardless of infertility diagnoses. PMID:28114395

  8. Development of porcine tetraploid somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos is influenced by oocyte nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Liu, Di; Ma, Hong; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Liang; Li, Zhong-Qiu; Peng, Fu-Gang; Bai, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Cloning efficiency in mammalian systems remains low because reprogramming of donor cells is frequently incomplete. Nuclear factors in the oocyte are removed by enucleation, and this removal may adversely affect reprogramming efficiency. Here, we investigated the role of porcine oocyte nuclear factors during reprogramming. We introduced somatic cell nuclei into intact MII oocytes to establish tetraploid somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos containing both somatic nuclei and oocyte nuclei. We then examined the influence of the oocyte nucleus on tetraploid SCNT embryo development by assessing characteristics including pronucleus formation, cleavage rate, and blastocyst formation. Overall, tetraploid SCNT embryos have a higher developmental competence than do standard diploid SCNT embryos. Therefore, we have established an embryonic model in which a fetal fibroblast nucleus and an oocyte metaphase II plate coexist. Tetraploid SCNT represents a new research platform that is potentially useful for examining interactions between donor nuclei and oocyte nuclei. This platform should facilitate further understanding of the roles played by nuclear factors during reprogramming.

  9. Influence of recipient cytoplasm cell stage on transcription in bovine nucleus transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Steven D.; Soloy, Eva; Kanka, Jiri

    1996-01-01

    relies upon maternally derived RNA transcripts up to the 8-cell stage, at which time it begins to transcribe its own RNA. In this experiment, RNA synthesis was detected in nucleus transfer embryos (NTE) and control embryos by pulsing with 3H-uridine, fixation, and autoradiography on semithin sections...... of maturation. Control in-vitro-produced embryos were 3H-uridine-labelled and fixed at the 2-, 4-, early 8-, and late 8-cell stages. NTE were similarly prepared at 1, 3, and 20 hr postfusion and at the 2-, 4-, and 8-cell stages. In the control embryos, RNA synthesis was absent in the 2-, 4-, and early 8-cell...... stages, whereas in all late 8-cell stages, it was present. In NTE from nonactivated (MII phase) cytoplasts, there was a sharp decline in RNA synthesis at 1 hr and 3 hr after fusion and a total absence by 20 hr after fusion. In contrast, NTE from activated (S phase) cytoplasts exhibited continued high...

  10. Use of purified FSH and LH for embryo production, cryopreservation by conventional freezing or vitrification and transfer of embryos in dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Martemucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out with the aim of evaluating the efficiency of techniques of in vivo production, storageand transfer of embryos in dairy sheep. Experiment I - For embryo production, thirty-one ewes were synchronized withFGA (vaginal sponges, 40 mg, 9 d and PGF2α (ICI; 50 μg, 7th d, and subdivided into three groups corresponding to thefollowing superovulatory treatments over 3 days with purified gonadotrophic preparations: A control, FSH/LH ratio = 1(250 IU p-FSH : 250 UI p-LH; B FSH/LH ratio = 2 (250 IU p-FSH : 125 IU p-LH and daily FSH/LH ratio of 3.4 – 1.7 –0.8 in the 3 days of treatment, respectively; C FSH/LH ratio = 2 (250 IU p-FSH : 125 IU p-LH and daily FSH/LH ratioof 5.0 – 1.0 – 0.3. On the 7th day after oestrus and mating, ovarian response and embryo production were evaluated.Experiment II – Three freezing methods were evaluated based upon post-thaw embryo quality: CF conventional slowfreezing by 1.5 M ethylene glycol (EG; V-1 one-step vitrification based on exposure of the embryos to one solution (EG7.15 M + ficoll 2.5 mM; V-3 vitrification in three steps, corresponding to three solutions at increasing concentration ofglycerol (GLY and EG (GLY 1.4 M; GLY 3.4 M + EG 1.4 M; GLY 4.6 M + EG 3.4 M. V-1 and V-3 frozen embryos weredirectly plunged in liquid nitrogen. At thawing, embryo viability was evaluated on the basis of morphological features.Experiment III – For embryo transfer, a total of 26 recipient ewes were synchronized with donors. On the 7th d fromoestrus, 11 recipient ewes received fresh embryos (Group FE – control and 15 recipients received vitrified-thawedembryos (Group VTE. Each recipient received 2 embryos. Superovulatory treatment B significantly advanced the onsetof oestrus compared to the control (27.3 vs 34.7 h; P10.8. Transferable embryos in Group B (7.2 resulted similar to Group A (5.3 and significantly (Pcompared to Group C (3.2. V3-method resulted in the highest (PCF- and V1-methods

  11. The fate of frozen human embryos when transferred either on the day of thawing or after overnight culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhe Liu; Kelli Peirce; Kailin Yap; Kate McKenzie; Jay Natalwala; Vince Chapple; Margo Norman; Phillip Matson

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the performance of thawed zygotes and cleavage stage embryos transferred either on the day of thaw or after overnight culture.Methods:A retrospective study of864 frozen embryo transfer cycles.Cryosurvival rates per thawed embryo and implantation rates were analysed for embryos frozen onDay1,Day2 orDay3 relative to oocyte collection(Day0) and transferred on the day of thaw or after overnight culture, together with clinical pregnancy rates and prevalence of multiple gestations.Results:Survival ofDay3 embryos was significantly lower than those frozen onDay1(P=0.017) orDay2(P=0.015).Following overnight culture, resumption of mitosis of zygotes was more frequent thanDay2(P=0.000) which are in turn higher thanDay3(P=0.000) embryos.The implantation rate forDay2 embryos dividing overnight was significantly higher than those that did not divide for women <35 yrs(P=0.001) but not those women≥35 yrs(P=0.055).There were no differences in the implantation rates for those dividing or not after culture, for embryos frozen onDay3 for women <35 yrs(P=0.254) or≥35 yrs(P=0.403). Conclusions:Later cleavage stage post-thaw embryos survive and resume mitosis less frequently compared to earlier stages.Embryos not resuming mitosis after culture overnight can implant, particularlyDay3 embryos, suggesting that they can further increase the cumulative pregnancy rate per oocyte collection and that discarding them is wasteful.Overnight culture is best used for logistical reasons rather than a strategy to improve pregnancy rates.

  12. The effect of mare's age on multiple ovulation rate, embryo recovery, post-transfer pregnancy rate, and interovulatory interval in a commercial embryo transfer program in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinone, A I; Losinno, L; Fumuso, E; Rodríguez, E M; Redolatti, C; Cantatore, S; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age is an important predisposing factor on the reduction of reproductive efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor's age on several reproductive parameters in a commercial equine embryo transfer program. Donors were classified into 3 age groups: Group 1=fillies (3 and 4 years old), Group 2=middle age mares (aged 5-10) and Group 3=old mares (aged 13-25). Embryo recovery, multiple ovulation and pregnancy rates and interovulatory intervals were compared amongst age groups. Group 1 (171/244, 70.1%) and Group 2 (774/1081, 71.6%) had a higher (Precovery rate than Group 3 (385/701, 54.9%). Groups 2 and 3 were 2.5 and 3.4 times more likely to have multiple ovulations than Group 1 (Prate was not significant (P>0.05). The interovulatory intervals length was influenced by individual mare (P0.05), but was shorter than the one of Group 3 (17.4±0.15 days; Precovery rate of flushings from Groups 1 and 2 was influenced by the length of the previous interovulatory interval (P=0.03).

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus--genes or intrauterine environment? An embryo transfer paradigm in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill-Randall, R; Adams, D; Ollerton, R L; Lewis, M; Alcolado, J C

    2004-08-01

    The familial predisposition to Type 2 diabetes mellitus is mediated by both genetic and intrauterine environmental factors. In the normal course of events, maternal genes always develop in the same uterus, thus restricting studies aimed at investigating the relative contribution of these factors. We have developed an embryo transfer paradigm in rats to overcome this difficulty. Euglycaemic female Wistar rats were superovulated and mated with male Wistar rats. The following day, fertilised eggs were transferred into pseudo-pregnant female Wistar rats or hyperglycaemic Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats. Pregnancies were allowed to go to term. Offspring were weighed at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months of age and an intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out at 6 months of age. Offspring from Wistar into Wistar embryo transfers (n=20) were not significantly hyperglycaemic compared to the non-manipulated Wistar stock colony (n=26). However, offspring from Wistar gametes reared in hyperglycaemic GK mothers (n=51) were significantly lighter at 6 weeks of age (156+/-4.1 g vs 180+/-6.1 g [mean +/- SEM], p<0.01) and significantly more hyperglycaemic at 6 months of age (fasting glucose 6.6+/-0.18 mmol/l vs 4.8+/-0.21 mmol/l, mean blood glucose during glucose tolerance test 14.3+/-0.31 mmol/l vs 11.1+/-0.28 mmol/l, p<0.01) than Wistar gametes transferred back into euglycaemic Wistar mothers. When GK rats were superovulated and mated together, transfer of 1-day-old embryos into pseudo-pregnant Wistar dams did not alleviate hyperglycaemia in adult offspring. In GK rats, a euglycaemic intrauterine environment cannot overcome the strong genetic predisposition to diabetes. However, in Wistar rats with a low genetic risk of diabetes, exposure to hyperglycaemia in utero significantly increases the risk of diabetes in adult life.

  14. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun, E-mail: yinxj33@msn.com

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.

  15. Developmental disparity between in vitro-produced and somatic cell nuclear transfer bovine days 14 and 21 embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexopoulos, Natalie I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde

    2008-01-01

    the application of new reproductive technologies such as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In the present study, days 14 and 21 bovine embryos, generated by either in vitro-production (IVP) or SCNT, performed by either subzonal injection (SUZI) or handmade cloning (HMC), were compared by stereomicroscopy...... recovered from the embryos transferred respectively, and similar low recovery rates were noted on D21, suggesting that most of the embryonic loss had already occurred by D14. A number of D14 IVP, SUZI, and HMC embryos lacked an epiblast, but presented trophectoderm and hypoblast. When the epiblast...

  16. Embryo transfer day does not affect the initial maternal serum β-hCG levels: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Mona; Rupani, Karishma; Yu, Su Ling; Fook-Chong, Stephanie M C; Siew Fui, Diana Chia; Rajesh, Hemashree

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the serum β-hCG values post transfer of a cleavage stage embryo versus a blastocyst stage embryo at equal time intervals post oocyte retrieval (OR) in clinically pregnant patients, and to ascertain a β-hCG value to predict pregnancy outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study of 560 women with clinical pregnancy who underwent an embryo transfer performed at either the cleavage stage or the blastocyst stage of embryo development between January 2003 and June 2014 at the Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARE), Singapore General Hospital. The serum β-hCG level was measured on day 17 post OR. The β-hCG values were not significantly different in the cleavage stage versus the blastocyst stage embryos (mean±SD: 387±486IU/L D3 vs. 352±268IU/L D5, p=0.96, median value 297 in both groups). Our study suggests that the initial maternal serum β-hCG values were not affected by the day of transfer of the embryos since assessing the β-hCG at equivalent points after transfer should not lead to a significant difference assuming the progress and development of the embryos occurred as expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk of equine infectious anemia virus disease transmission through in vitro embryo production using somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, K; Polejaeva, I

    2009-08-01

    Prevention and regulation of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) disease transmission solely depend on identification, isolation, and elimination of infected animals because of lack of an effective vaccine. Embryo production via the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology uses oocytes collected mainly from untested animals, which creates a potential risk of EIAV transmission through infected embryos. The current review examines the risk of EIAV disease transmission through SCNT embryo production and transfer. Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus from the family Retroviridae. Because of a lack of direct reports on this subject, relevant information gathered from close relatives of EIAV, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), is summarized and used to predict the biological plausibility of EIAV disease transmission through transfers of the equine SCNT embryos. Based on published information regarding interaction of oocytes with lentiviruses and the sufficiency of oocyte and embryo washing procedures to prevent lentivirus transmission from in vitro-produced embryos of various species, we predicted the risk of EIAV transmission through SCNT embryo production and transfer to be very small or absent.

  18. The monitoring of bovine pregnancies derived from transfer of in vitro produced embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Taverne, Marcel; Breukelman, Simone; Perényi, Zsolt; Dieleman, Steph; van der Vos, Peter; Jonker, Herman; De Ruigh, Lisette; Jannecke M. Van Wagtendonk-De Leeuw,; Beckers, Jean-François

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Both an increased rate of embryonic, foetal and perinatal losses, and the occurrence of deviations in foetal and placental development are associated with bovine pregnancies obtained from in vitro produced embryos. This thus requires for a more accurate and frequent monitoring of foetal and maternal functions during pregnancies. Such approaches will enable to establish the period during which these losses and deviations in development occur and to plan possible clinica...

  19. Embryo production and possible species preservation by nuclear transfer of somatic cells isolated from bovine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Westhusin, Mark; Long, Charles; Johnson, Gregory; Burghardt, Robert; Kraemer, Duane

    2010-12-01

    Somatic cells in semen are a potential source of nuclei for nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical animals; this is especially important when an animal has died and the only viable genetic material available is frozen semen. Usefulness of somatic cells obtained from fresh (cultured) and frozen (isolated, not cultured) bovine semen for nuclear transfer was evaluated. Twelve ejaculates were collected from nine bulls representing three breeds: Charolais, Brahman, and crossbred Rodeo bull. All samples were processed immediately and cell growth was obtained from seven of the twelve ejaculates (58.3%). Cells from three bulls (with the best growth rates) were evaluated by optical microscopy and used in cloning experiments. In culture, these cells exhibited classic epithelial morphology and expressed cytokeratin and vimentin, indicating they were of epithelial origin. When cells from the three bulls were used as donor cells, 15.9% (18/113), 34.5% (29/84), and 14.4% (13/90) of the fused embryos developed into blastocysts, respectively. Of the blastocyst stage embryos, 38.9% (7/18), 72.4% (21/29), and 61.5% (8/13) hatched, respectively. Somatic cells isolated (not cultured) from frozen bovine semen were also used in the cloning experiments. Although cleavage occurred, no compact morulae or blastocysts were obtained. In conclusion, epithelial cell growth was obtained from fresh bovine ejaculates with relatively high efficiency. Somatic cells from semen can be used as nucleus donors to produce cloned blastocyst-stage embryos.

  20. Production of nuclear transfer embryos by using somatic cells isolated from milk in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, K; Selokar, N L; Saini, M; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Palta, P; Singla, S K

    2012-10-01

    Somatic cells in milk are a potential source of nuclei for nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical animals; this is especially important in animals that are susceptible to risks of bacterial infection on biopsy collection. In this study, a minimum of 10 milk samples were collected from each of the three buffaloes representing Murrah breed. All the samples were processed immediately and cell colonies were obtained. Cell colonies from one buffalo (MU-442) survived beyond 10 passages and were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and used in nuclear transfer experiments. In culture, these cells expressed vimentin, indicating they were of fibroblast origin similar to ear cells. We compared the effectiveness of cloning using those milk-derived fibroblast (MDF) cells and fibroblast cells derived from the ear derived fibroblast (EDF). Fusion and cleavage rates of MDF-NT and EDF-NT embryos were found to be similar (92.43 ± 1.28% vs 94.98 ± 1.24%, and 80.27 ± 1.75% vs 84.56 ± 3.73%, respectively; p > 0.01); however, development to blastocyst stage and total cell number was higher for EDF-NT embryos (50.24 ± 2.54%, 227.14 ± 13.04, respectively, p somatic cells from milk can be cultured effectively and used as nucleus donor to produce cloned blastocyst-stage embryos.

  1. Transfer of plutonium to rat embryos in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Sentaro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Inaba, Jiro (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    The [sup 239]Pu distribution in the 12.5-day-old rat conceptus was compared between in vivo and in vitro experimental systems to establish a possible mechanism of cross-palcental transfer of this radionuclide. In the in vivo study, plutonium citrate solution was injected intravenously to pregnant Wistar rats. In the in vitro study, either plutonium citrate or plutonium hydroxide colloid was administered, as a solution of Eagle MEM and FCS containing [sup 239]Pu at the concentration used in the maternal serum in the in vivo experiments, to rat conceptuses maintained by the whole-embryo culture method. The concentration of [sup 239]Pu in the yolk sac ([sup 239]Pu activity per gram wet weight) were much higher than in the embryo in both the in vivo and in vitro experiments, suggesting that the yolk sac may be an effective barrier against the transfer of plutonium to the embryos. The ratios of the [sup 239]Pu concentration in the yolk sac to that in the embryo were relatively constant with time after administration in the in vitro system; 18-27 for plutonium citrate and 67-84 for plutonium hydroxide. In the in vivo experiment, these ratios changed with time after injection; 15 at 5 min and 62 and 60 min after injection. This suggests that in the in vivo system, the chemical form of [sup 239]Pu changed with time after injection, probably to a macromolecular form such as the hydroxide colloid or plutonium-protein complex although [sup 239]Pu was injected to the maternal blood as citrate. (author).

  2. Production of transgenic canine embryos using interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, So Gun; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Koo, Ok Jae; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2012-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has emerged as an important tool for producing transgenic animals and deriving transgenic embryonic stem cells. The process of SCNT involves fusion of in vitro matured oocytes with somatic cells to make embryos that are transgenic when the nuclear donor somatic cells carry 'foreign' DNA and are clones when all the donor cells are genetically identical. However, in canines, it is difficult to obtain enough mature oocytes for successful SCNT due to the very low efficiency of in vitro oocyte maturation in this species that hinders canine transgenic cloning. One solution is to use oocytes from a different species or even a different genus, such as bovine oocytes, that can be matured easily in vitro. Accordingly, the aim of this study was: (1) to establish a canine fetal fibroblast line transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene; and (2) to investigate in vitro embryonic development of canine cloned embryos derived from transgenic and non-transgenic cell lines using bovine in vitro matured oocytes. Canine fetal fibroblasts were transfected with constructs containing the GFP and puromycin resistance genes using FuGENE 6®. Viability levels of these cells were determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. Interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) embryos from normal or transfected cells were produced and cultured in vitro. The MTT measurement of GFP-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.25) was not significantly different from non-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.35). There was no difference between transgenic iSCNT versus non-transgenic iSCNT embryos in terms of fusion rates (73.1% and 75.7%, respectively), cleavage rates (69.7% vs. 73.8%) and development to the 8-16-cell stage (40.1% vs. 42.7%). Embryos derived from the transfected cells completely expressed GFP at the 2-cell, 4-cell, and 8-16-cell stages without mosaicism. In summary, our results demonstrated that

  3. Nonsurgical deep uterine transfer of vitrified, in vivo-derived, porcine embryos is as effective as the default surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Emilio A; Martinez, Cristina A; Nohalez, Alicia; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Vazquez, Juan M; Roca, Jordi; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Gil, Maria A; Cuello, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Surgical procedures are prevalent in porcine embryo transfer (ET) programs, where the use of vitrified embryos is quasi non-existent. This study compared the effectiveness of surgical vs nonsurgical deep uterine (NsDU) ET using vitrified, in vivo-derived embryos (morulae and blastocysts) on the reproductive performance and welfare of the recipients. The recipient sows (n=122) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: surgical ET with 30 vitrified-warmed embryos (S-30 group, control); NsDU-ET with 30 vitrified-warmed embryos (NsDU-30 group) and NsDU-ET with 40 vitrified-warmed embryos (NsDU-40 group). Regardless of embryo stage, the NsDU-ET with 40 embryos presented similar rates of farrowing (72.7%) and litter size (9.9 ± 2.1 piglets) as the customary surgical procedure (75.0% and 9.6 ± 2.7 piglets). Numbers of ET-embryos appeared relevant, since the NsDU-ET with 30 embryos resulted in a decrease (P<0.05) in farrowing rates (38.9%) and litter sizes (5.7 ± 2.4 piglets). In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that farrowing rate and litter size following a NsDU-ET procedure increase in function of a larger number of transferred vitrified embryos, with fertility equalizing that obtained with the invasive surgical approach. The results open new possibilities for the widespread use of non-invasive ET in pigs.

  4. Effects of trichostatin A on histone acetylation and methylation characteristics in early porcine embryos after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Peiqing; Zhu, Kongju; Ji, Qianqian; Zhao, Haijing; Chen, Yaosheng

    2013-09-01

    Until now, the efficiency of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has remained low. Efforts to improve cloning efficiency have demonstrated a positive role of trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of deacetylases, on the development of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos in many species. Here, we report the effects of TSA on pre-implantation development of porcine NT embryos. Our results showed that treatment of reconstructed porcine embryos with 50 nmol/L TSA for 24 h after activation significantly improved the production of blastocysts (P cells with the same solution resulted in increases in cleavage rates and blastomere numbers (P cells and SCNT embryos did not improve blastocyst production, nor did it increase blastomere numbers. Using indirect immunofluorescence, we found that TSA treatment of NT embryos could improve the reprogramming of histone acetylation at lysine 9 of histone 3 (H3K9) and affect nuclear swelling of transferred nuclei. However, no apparent effect of TSA treatment on H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) was observed. These findings suggest a positive effect of TSA treatment (either treating NT embryos or donor cells) on the development of porcine NT embryos, which is achieved by improving epigenetic reprogramming.

  5. Is it the egg or the endometrium? Elevated progesterone on day of trigger is not associated with embryo ploidy nor decreased success rates in subsequent embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofinas, Jason D; Mehr, Holly; Ganguly, Nandita; Biley, Yelena; Bochkovsky, Svetlana; McCulloh, David; Grifo, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if progesterone (P4) values on day of trigger affect certain cycle outcome parameters, ploidy status of embryos, as well as pregnancy outcomes in the subsequent first frozen embryo transfer cycle. Two hundred thirty-eight patients undergoing pre-gestational screening and freeze all protocol at our fertility center from 2013 to 2014 were included. Excluded patients were those whom had cancelled cycles prior to egg retrieval as well as cycles utilizing donor eggs. Once patients were identified as eligible for this study, frozen serum from the day of trigger was identified and analyzed using the Siemens Immulite 2000. Number of eggs retrieved, number of available embryos for biopsy, and number of euploid/aneuploid embryos were analyzed. The first frozen embryo transfer cycle was linked to the initial egg retrieval and outcomes including pregnancy rates, and live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates were calculated and analyzed. A discriminatory P4 value of 1.5 ng/ml was set. Group A had P4 values of less than 1.5 ng/ml and group B had P4 values greater than or equal to 1.5 ng/ml. T tests and chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. Group A had an average trigger P4 value of 0.87 +/- 0.3 and group B had an average trigger P4 of 2.1 +/- 0.8. Table 1 shows the baseline characteristics of both group A and group B. The only significant difference between the two groups was total gonadotropin dosage (IU) with a p value of 0.02 and estradiol (pg/ml) at trigger, also with a p value of 0.02 (Table 1). Number of eggs retrieved, number of embryos biopsied, number euploid/aneuploid, and non-diagnosis embryos were all non-significant. Chi-square analysis was used to compare pregnancy rates between the two groups after the first frozen embryo transfer cycle. Group A had a pregnancy rate of 72 % and Group B had a pregnancy rate of 66.7 %, which was not significant. Ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates were 65.6 % in group A and 66

  6. Rapid policy change to single-embryo transfer while maintaining pregnancy rates per initiated cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, M P; Kadoch, I-J; Phillips, S J; Bissonnette, F

    2013-05-01

    Public financing of IVF aims at increasing access to treatment while decreasing the expenses associated with multiple pregnancies. Critics argue that it is associated with lower pregnancy rates. This study compared cycles performed during 2009 (before implementation of Quebec's public IVF programme; period I) to those performed in the year following implementation (period II) in a single IVF centre. First fresh cycles in period I (499 women) and first fresh cycles (815 women) along with their corresponding first vitrified-warmed transfer (271 women) in period II were evaluated. From period I to period II, single-embryo transfer increased from 17.3% to 85.0% (Ppregnancy rate decreased from 25.8% to 1.6% (Ppregnancy rate decreased from 31.9% to 23.3% (P=0.001). During period II, the ongoing pregnancy rate per vitrified-warmed embryo transfer was 19.2%, leading to a cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate per initiated cycle of 29.7%, which was not different to the pregnancy rate per fresh cycle during period I (31.9%). To conclude, Quebec's public IVF programme decreased multiple pregnancy rates while maintaining an acceptable cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate, a more precise outcome to evaluate the impact of public IVF programmes.

  7. Mid-luteal serum progesterone concentrations govern implantation rates for cryopreserved embryo transfers conducted under hormone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, John L; Conceicao, Jason L; Stanger, James D; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Keane, Kevin N

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the relevance of mid-luteal serum hormonal concentrations in cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles conducted under hormone replacement therapy (HRT) control and which involved single-embryo transfer (SET) of 529 vitrified blastocysts. Widely ranging mid-luteal oestradiol and progesterone concentrations ensued from the unique HRT regimen. Oestradiol had no influence on clinical pregnancy or live birth rates, but an optimal progesterone range between 70 and 99 nmol/l (P decreased implantation rates. There was no clear interaction between oestradiol and progesterone concentrations but embryo quality grading did show a significant influence on outcomes (P pregnancy and live birth rates, respectively). Multiple comparison analysis showed that the progesterone effect was influential regardless of embryo grading, body mass index or the woman's age, either at vitrification or at cryopreserved embryo transfer. The results support the argument that careful monitoring of serum progesterone concentrations in HRT-cryopreserved embryo transfer is warranted and that further studies should explore pessary adjustments to optimize concentrations for individual women to enhance implantation rates.

  8. Does sequential embryo transfer improve pregnancy rate in patients with repeated implantation failure? A randomized control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael A. Ismail Madkour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repeated failure of in vitro fertilization treatment is frustrating to the patients and their clinicians. Various treatment plans and a change of protocol have been suggested for “low responders”; however, patients who fail treatment repeatedly inspite of good quality embryos pose a special therapeutic challenge. Additional challenge would be imposed on that particular group when the local IVF regulating low does not permit surplus embryo freezing. Objective: To examine whether sequential transfer of embryos on day 3 and on day 5 after ovum pick-up improves IVF/ET success rates in patients with repeated consecutive IVF failures (⩾ 3 trials compared to day 3 alone, with the background that local regulation prohibits embryo freezing. Study design: Randomized controlled study. Women scheduled for IVF/ET with repeated consecutive IVF failures (⩾ 3 trials were randomized to either sequential transfer of embryos on day 3 and on day 5 after ovum pick-up (Group I = 74 or conventional day 3 transfer (Group II = 73 as a control. The primary outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate. The secondary outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy rate and early pregnancy loss. Results: Baseline and cycle characteristics were comparable in both groups. Clinical pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer was significantly higher in sequential ET group (37. 8% compared to that in day 3 group (21.9% (P value <0.05. Also, implantation rate (per embryos transferred was significantly higher in sequential ET group (17.1% compared to that in control group (10.5% (P value <0.01. Similarly, ongoing pregnancy (per embryo transfer was significantly higher in sequential ET group (33. 8% compared to that in day 3 group (19.2% (P value <0.05. Conclusions: Patients with repeated implantation failures, treatment with the sequential embryo transfer approach had significantly improved pregnancy outcomes compared to regular day 3 transfers

  9. Effects of Seasons on Embryo Transfer of Cattle in Different Climatic Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Feng; Wang; Shenyuan; Zhang; Dong; Han; Lidong; Li; Lu; Huang; Chunhua; Zhong; Gang; Han; Jinlong; Wang; Bingping; Liu; Yiyi; Liu; Caiyun; Pan; Jing; Zhao; Zhichao; Zhou; Huanmin; Zhang; Li

    2014-01-01

    The paper was to evaluate the efficient seasons for embryo transfer of cattle in different climatic zones in China. Three climatic zones(mid-temperate zone,warm temperate zone,subtropical zone) were designed,and embryo transfers had been carried out in spring,summer,autumn and winter from 2009 to 2011,respectively. The total number of transplant recipient cattle was 22 208. The results showed that the best seasons for embryo transfers varied with different climatic zones. In mid-temperate zone,summer and autumn were better while summer was the best,and the rate of pregnant was 50. 67%(the number of pregnant cattle was 8 005). In warm temperate zone,spring and autumn were better while autumn was the best,and the rate of pregnant was 54. 99 %(the number of pregnant cattle was 551). In subtropical zone,spring and winter were better while winter was the best,and the rate of pregnant was 56. 94 %(the number of pregnant cattle was 328). The seasonal average temperatures and relative humidity of the best seasons in different climatic zones were concentrated on the same region. In mid-temperate zone,the mean temperature ranged between 22. 4 ℃ and 24. 2 ℃,and the mean relative humidity ranged from 44% to 55. 3%. In warm zone,the mean temperature ranges were between 14. 2 ℃ and 16. 2 ℃,and the mean relative humidity ranges were from 59. 3% to 71. 6%. In sub-tropical zone,the mean temperature ranges were between 3. 26 ℃ and 7. 73 ℃,and the mean relative humidity ranges were from 72% to 80. 6%. Therefore,the optimized conditions of temperature and humidity of season in different zones could be simulated. It is possible that we apply the program to bovine production in the similar agroecological zones,which is of great significance for improving the embryo transfer efficiency of livestock in production.

  10. Initial maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels in pregnancies achieved after assisted reproductive technology are higher after preimplantation genetic screening and after frozen embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Elie; Singh, Sonali; Malik, Shaveta; Knochenhauer, Eric S; Traub, Michael L

    2017-06-21

    Few published articles have compared initial hCG values across all different types of ART cycles, including cycles with fresh or frozen embryo transfer. No articles have compared initial hCG values in cycles utilizing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). The purpose of this study is to compare initial hCG values after fresh embryo transfer, frozen embryo transfer, and after PGS. This was a single-center retrospective cohort study at an academically affiliated private IVF center. All fresh and frozen embryo transfers between January 2013 and December 31, 2015 were included. We compared mean initial serum hCG values 14 days after oocyte retrieval for fresh cycles and 9 days after frozen embryo transfer. We examined cycles of single embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET). Two hundred elven IVF (fresh embryo transfer), 128 FET (frozen embryo transfer cycles, no PGS), and 111 PGS cycles (ovarian stimulation with embryo cryopreservation, PGS, and frozen transfer in a subsequent estrogen-primed cycle) with initial positive hCG values were analyzed. In patients achieving a positive hCG after SET, initial hCG values were higher after PGS compared to FET (182.4 versus 124.0 mIU/mL, p = 0.02) and IVF (182.4 versus 87.1 mIU/mL, p transfer of a frozen embryo compared to a fresh embryo. This suggests that initial hCG values relate to the chromosomal status of embryos. Initial hCG values may help determine intervention and monitoring later in pregnancy.

  11. Study on relationship between perifollicular blood flow and in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhang; Jing Yang; Wangming Xu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between perifoUicular blood flow and follicule development, oocyte maturing rate, fertilizing rate, cleaving rate, embryo quality and the outcomes of embryo transfer. Methods: The samples were selected from 66 suffers who underwent in vitro fertilization(IVF)or intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI). Eeach patients' perifollicular blood flow(diameter≥12mm )was estimated on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG)administration. Results:Among 66 cycles, 26(39.4%) cycles resulted in pregnancy, perifollicular blood flow resistance index(Rl), peak systolic velocity/end diastasis velocity(S/D) of non-preg-nant group was significantly higher than that of the pregnant group (P < 0.004). When RI<0.49, the pregnancy rates, fecundation rates, fertilization rates, metaphase numbers for the of second meiosis oocytes increased evidently(P<0.05), but there were no statistical difference in gonadotropin dosage, cycle frequency, infertility years, ages, estradiol(E2)on the day of HCG administration,numbers of oocyet retrieved and high-quality embryo rates (P > 0.05 ). There were no statistical difference between non-pregnant group and pregnant group in S and D (P>0.05). There was no correlation between periFollicular blood flow RI and follicular diameter by linear regression analysis. Conclusion:Our study shows that perifollicular blood flow RI and S/D are effective indices of predicting the pregnancy outcome of IVF-ET.

  12. Effect of two activation treatments and age of blastomere karyoplasts on in vitro development of bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; Holm, P; Vajta, G;

    2001-01-01

    The yield and quality of (a) parthenogenetic blastocysts produced by two activation treatments (cycloheximide [CHX] or 6-dimethylaminopurine [DMAP]) and (b) nuclear transfer blastocysts generated using these two activation treatments and three different ages of karyoplast derived from day 3, 4......, or 5 in vitro produced donor embryos, were examined in order to define an optimal nuclear transfer protocol. The two activation protocols comprised calcium ionophore followed by either CHX or DMAP. Parthenogenetic blastocyst yields were greater (P ....7 +/- 5.1 vs. 31.4 +/- 4.5 [mean +/- SEM]). In contrast, nuclear transfer blastocyst rates per fused embryo were lower (P

  13. Effects of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (GCSF) on Persistent Thin Endometrium in Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet V; Choudhary, Sumesh; Sharma, Urmila; Aggarwal, Rohina; Agarwal, Ritu; Gandhi, Khushali; Goraniya, Nilesh

    2016-10-01

    To predict the effectiveness of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) in the treatment of persistent thin endometrium resistant to other treatments in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. This is a hospital-based prospective study. Thirty-five women with persistent thin endometrium (transfer. Of these, 3 (15.78 %) patients had chemical pregnancy, but there was no clinical pregnancy. In 16 participants, embryo transfer was canceled in view of insufficient endometrial thickness (<7 mm). GCSF caused a small increase in endometrial thickness in women with persistent thin endometrium, but there was no improvement in their pregnancy rates.

  14. Women's age and embryo developmental speed accurately predict clinical pregnancy after single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Keiichi; Ueno, Satoshi; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Uchiyama, Kazuo; Okuno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Segawa, Tomoya; Teramoto, Shokichi

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a simple, objective blastocyst grading system using women's age and embryo developmental speed to predict clinical pregnancy after single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer. A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted in a private infertility centre. A total of 7341 single vitrified-armed blastocyst transfer cycles were included, divided into those carried out between 2006 and 2011 (6046 cycles) and 2012 (1295 cycles). Clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate and delivery rates were stratified by women's age (149 h) as embryo developmental speed. In all the age groups, clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate and delivery rates decreased as the embryo developmental speed decreased (P pregnancy rates observed in the 2006-2011 cohort. Subsequently, the novel grading score was validated in the 2012 cohort (1295 cycles), finding an excellent association. In conclusion, we established a novel blastocyst grading system using women's age and embryo developmental speed as objective parameters.

  15. 5 CFR 870.509 - Transfers to international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers to international organizations. 870.509 Section 870.509 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Transfers to international organizations. An employee transferred to an international organization...

  16. Effects of different nuclear transfer and activation methods on the development of mouse somatic cell cloned embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang ErYao; YU Yang; Li XueMei; JIAO LiHong; Wang Liu

    2007-01-01

    A group of adult somatic cell cloned mice were obtained by using cumulus cells as nuclei donor cells. To study the effect of different nuclear transfer (NT) and activation methods on the development of mouse cloned embryos, embryos were reconstructed using two traditional NT methods (electrofusion and direct injection) and four activation treatments (electric pulse, ethanol, SrCl2 and electric pulse combined with SrCl2). The data showed that the efficiency of reconstruction using the direct injection method is significantly higher (90.7%) than that of the electrofusion method (49.7%). Parthenogenetic embryos can develop to blastocyst stage with three activation conditions, including ethanol, electric pulse and SrCl2; however, the rates of development to blastocyst after ethanol and electric pulse activation (52.4%, 54.2%) are significantly lower than after SrCl2 activation (76.9%). Treatment of embryos for 6 h with 10 mmol/L SrCl2 was found to be the best condition for activation of parthenogenetic as well as reconstructed embryos. By contrast, reconstructed embryos failed to develop to blastocyst stage after being activated by ethanol. The use of either injection or electrofusion for embryo reconstruction affected the pre-implantation development. However, after transfer in pseudopregnant mice, cloned mice were obtained from both methods.

  17. First field results on the use of stallion sex-sorted semen in a large-scale embryo transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarace, M; Pellegrini, R O; Basualdo, M O; Belé, M; Ursino, D A; Cisterna, R; Desimone, G; Rodríguez, E; Medina, M J

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometry sex-sorting technology was developed in 1989. However, it is only the bovine species in which offspring of the desired sex are obtained at a commercial level. The aim of the present work was to evaluate efficiency parameters when using fresh sexed semen in a large-scale equine commercial embryo transfer program. During the 2009, 2010 and 2011 breeding seasons, 938 synchronized cycles were artificially inseminated. One hundred (10.6%) mares failed to ovulate, and for the remaining 838 useable cycles, 887 doses of sexed semen were used, representing 1.06 doses per cycle. In general, 435 (51.9%) out of 838 flushing performed resulted in the recovery of at least one embryo and 496 (59.1%) embryos were recovered, including twins and triplets. Pregnancy rate at 25 days achieved 81.5% (one embryo transferred per recipient). Embryo recovery rate was not statistically different either between preovulatory and postovulatory artificially inseminated mares or when increased quantities of sexed sperm per dose were used (15-45 million) (P > 0.05). A broad variation in embryo recovery rate was observed between the different stallions used in this study. Sex accuracy of the sex sorting assessed by ultrasound fetal sex determination was 90.3%. Finally, overall efficiency (female embryo pregnancies per useable cycles) was 39% (325/838), meaning that to obtain a female pregnancy of at least 75 days it was necessary to perform 2.5 flushing.

  18. Developmental disparity between in vitro-produced and somatic cell nuclear transfer bovine days 14 and 21 embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexopoulos, Natalie I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde

    2008-01-01

    the application of new reproductive technologies such as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In the present study, days 14 and 21 bovine embryos, generated by either in vitro-production (IVP) or SCNT, performed by either subzonal injection (SUZI) or handmade cloning (HMC), were compared by stereomicroscopy...... was present, POU5F1 staining was limited to this compartment in all types of embryos. At the ultrastructural level, SCNT embryos displayed abundant secondary lysosomes and vacuoles, had fewer mitochondria, polyribosomes, tight junctions, desmosomes, and tonofilaments than their IVP counterparts. The staining...

  19. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Dikmen, S; Null, D J; Cole, J B; Hansen, P J

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these methods remains the variability of animal responses to the procedures. If some variability can be explained genetically, selection can be used to improve animal response. Data collected from a Holstein dairy farm in Florida from 2008 to 2015 included 926 superovulation records (number of structures recovered and number of good embryos), 628 in vitro fertilization records (number of oocytes collected, number of cleaved embryos, number of high- and low-quality embryos, and number of transferrable embryos), and 12,089 embryo transfer records (pregnancy success). Two methods of transformation (logarithmic and Anscombe) were applied to count variables and results were compared. Univariate animal models were fitted for each trait with the exception of pregnancy success after embryo transfer. Due to the binary nature of the latter trait, a threshold liability model was fitted that accounted for the genetic effect of both the recipient and the embryo. Both transformation methods produced similar results. Single-step genomic BLUP analyses were performed and SNP effects estimated for traits with a significant genetic component. Heritability of number of structures recovered and number of good embryos when log-transformed were 0.27 ± 0.08 and 0.15 ± 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates from the in vitro fertilization data ranged from 0.01 ± 0.08 to 0.21 ± 0.15, but were not significantly different from zero. Recipient and embryo heritability (standard deviation) of pregnancy success after embryo transfer was 0.03 (0.01) and 0.02 (0.01), respectively. The 10-SNP window explaining the largest proportion of variance (0.37%) for total structures collected was located on

  20. Experimental risk assessment of bovine viral diarrhea virus transmission via in vitro embryo production using somatic cell nucleus transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, K; Chen, S H; Sadeghieh, S; Guerra, T; Xiang, T; Meredith, J; Polejaeva, I

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive risk assessment on infectious disease transmission in the system of in vitro embryo production via somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) technology using bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) as a model. The risks of BVDV transmission in each step of the SCNT embryo production procedure, from donor cells to preimplantation SCNT embryo culture, were carefully examined using a sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The identified primary source of BVDV transmission in SCNT embryo production was donor cell infection, most likely caused by contaminated fetal bovine serum in the culture medium. The risk of disease transmission through contaminated oocytes from an abattoir was relatively low, and it can be greatly minimized by cumulus cell removal and adequate oocyte washing procedures. Of the 200 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and more than 1500 cumulus cell-free oocyte (CFO) samples collected from multiple sources over a course of 7 months, only 2.5% of the COCs were BVDV positive, and all of the CFOs (100%) were BVDV negative. To evaluate the risk of BVDV introduction during in vitro SCNT embryo culture, 324 SCNT embryos were produced from 18 different cell lines using oocytes from 26 different batches collected over a course of 9 months. The embryos were cultured in vitro for 7 days and then tested for BVDV. All of the 324 SCNT embryos (100%) were negative, indicating that the embryo culture system is virtually risk-free for BVDV transmission. Based on these results, a standard operational protocol (SOP) for SCNT embryo production was proposed to greatly minimize the risk of BVDV transmission through the SCNT embryo production system. This SOP could be a starting point to produce a SCNT system that is virtually risk-free for disease transmission in general.

  1. IVF outcomes in average- and poor-prognosis infertile women according to the number of embryos transferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Mario G; Gleicher, Norbert; Darmon, Sarah K; Weghofer, Andrea; Wu, Yan-Guang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Lin; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Kushnir, Vitaly A

    2016-09-01

    Outcome measures of IVF success, which account for effectiveness of IVF and perinatal outcome risks, have recently been described. The association between number of embryos transferred in average and poor-prognosis IVF patients, and the chances of having good or poor IVF and perinatal outcomes, was investigated. Good IVF and perinatal outcome was defined as the birth of a live, term, normal-weight infant (≥2500 g). Poor IVF and perinatal outcome was defined as no live birth or birth of a very low weight neonate (<1500 g) or severe prematurity (birth at <32 weeks gestation). Each neonate was analysed as a separate outcome. A total of 713 IVF cycles in 504 average and poor-prognosis patients from January 2010 to December 2013 were identified. The odds of having good IVF and perinatal outcomes increased by 28% for each additional embryo transferred. The odds of poor IVF and perinatal outcome decreased by 32% with an additional embryo transferred. The likelihood of live birth with good perinatal outcome in average- and poor-prognosis patients after IVF increases with additional embryos being transferred. These data add to recently reported evidence in favour of multiple embryo transfer in older women and those with average or poor IVF prognosis.

  2. Effects of donor fibroblast cell type and transferred cloned embryo number on the efficiency of pig cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zicong; Shi, Junsong; Liu, Dewu; Zhou, Rong; Zeng, Haiyu; Zhou, Xiu; Mai, Ranbiao; Zeng, Shaofen; Luo, Lvhua; Yu, Wanxian; Zhang, Shouquan; Wu, Zhenfang

    2013-02-01

    Currently, cloning efficiency in pigs is very low. Donor cell type and number of cloned embryos transferred to an individual surrogate are two major factors that affect the successful rate of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pigs. This study aimed to compare the influence of different donor fibroblast cell types and different transferred embryo numbers on recipients' pregnancy rate and delivery rate, the average number of total clones born, clones born alive and clones born healthy per litter, and the birth rate of healthy clones (=total number of healthy cloned piglets born /total number of transferred cloned embryos). Three types of donor fibroblasts were tested in large-scale production of cloned pigs, including fetal fibroblasts (FFBs) from four genetically similar Western swine breeds of Pietrain (P), Duroc (D), Landrace (L), and Yorkshire (Y), which are referred to as P,D,LY-FFBs, adult fibroblasts (AFBs) from the same four breeds, which are designated P,D,L,Y-AFBs, and AFBs from a Chinese pig breed of Laiwu (LW), which is referred to as LW-AFBs. Within each donor fibroblast cell type group, five transferred cloned embryo number groups were tested. In each embryo number group, 150-199, 200-249, 250-299, 300-349, or 350-450 cloned embryos were transferred to each individual recipient sow. For the entire experiment, 92,005 cloned embryos were generated from nearly 115,000 matured oocytes and transferred to 328 recipients; in total, 488 cloned piglets were produced. The results showed that the mean clones born healthy per litter resulted from transfer of embryos cloned from LW-AFBs (2.53 ± 0.34) was similar with that associated with P,D,L,Y-FFBs (2.72 ± 0.29), but was significantly higher than that resulted from P,D,L,Y-AFBs (1.47 ± 0.18). Use of LW-AFBs as donor cells for SCNT resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (72.00% vs. 59.30% and 48.11%) and delivery rate (60.00% vs. 45.93% and 35.85%) for cloned embryo recipients, and a

  3. "The effects of hydrosalpinx on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcomes "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari Asbagh F

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrosalpins (dilatation of Fallpian tube that can be seen by hysterosalpingogeraphy. Laparoscocpy, and in severe cases by sonography is one of the probable confounding factors of assited – reproduction therapy (ART outcomes. This cohort study is conducted to determine the effects of hydrosalpins on IVF-ET outcomes. For this, of the total number of patients who had approached the infertility Department Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital in the period between ordibehcesht 1377 to Aban 1378 (April 1998 to November 1999, 392 patients had come for the IVF0 ET cysles and were selected for our study. In these patients the numbers of oocytes retrieved and fertilized, the number of embryos transferred to the uterine cavity and resulting clinical pregnancy rates were measured.51 patients who had hydrosalpins were studied in two separate comparisons. Initially with 50 patients who had tubal involvement other hydrosalpinx, but had other indications of IVF-ET. These groups had similar age distribution. The numbers of oocytes retrieved (in first comparison = 1.6 & 3.92 and in second comparison = 4.6 & 4.65 and the number of embryo comparison = 2.6& 2.47 didn’t have significant statistical differences, but despite the fact that the same number of embryos were transferred to the uterine cavity (in the first comparison = 2.53 & 2.14 and in the second comparison= 2.53 & 2.27 , the clinical pregnancy rates in both comparisons were reduced by more than 50% in patients with hydrosaplins as comparison = 7.8% & 20% and in second comparison = 7.8% & 16.1% . we conclude that hydrosalpins didn’t result in impaired ovarian stimulation or decreased oocyte fertilization. It did however interfere with implantation and reduced to some degree the success of IVF in achieving a clinical pregnancy.

  4. Aberrant Expression of Xist in Aborted Porcine Fetuses Derived from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP. q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

  5. Success of frozen embryo transfer: Does the type of gonadotropin influence the outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Al-Inany

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hesham Al-Inany1, Pieter van Gelder21Egyptian IVF-ET Center, Maadi, Egypt; 2PSCT BV, Den Haag, The NetherlandsObjectives: To determine whether there is a difference in outcome between different ovulationinduced cycles after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET.Methods: We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group’s trials register in May 2009, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2008, ISI Web of Knowledge (1985 to August 2009, and reference lists of articles. Relevant conference proceedings were hand-searched and researchers in the field were contacted. Randomized controlled trials and retrospective studies were included, comparing the various cycle regimens and different methods during FET in assisted reproductive technology, ie, in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.Results: Using the agonist long protocol for downregulation, five trials provided extractable data for live-birth rates, ongoing pregnancy, and clinical pregnancy rates following FET. One trial provided extractable data for clinical pregnancy rate. There was no evidence of a significant difference in any outcome between the users of urinary gonadotropins versus recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone. Data on implantation and miscarriage rates following FET were not available for analysis.Conclusions: It seems that clinical pregnancy rate after FET is not influenced by the type of gonadotropins used. Research should be directed towards improving freezing and thawing techniques.Keywords: infertility, assisted reproductive technology, frozen embryo transfer, gonadotropins

  6. Morphological characterization of pre- and peri-implantation in vitro cultured, somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vivo derived ovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Peura, T.T.; Hartwich, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    The processes of cellular differentiation were studied in somatic cell nuvlear transfer (SCNT), in vitro cultured (IVC) and in vivo developed (in vivo) ovine embryos on days 7, 9, 11, 13, 17 and 19. SCNT embryos were constructed from in vitro matured oocytes and granulosa cells, and IVC embryos w...

  7. A comparison of implantation, miscarriage and pregnancy rates of single and double day 3 embryo transfer between fresh and frozen thawed transfer cycles: a retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Liu; Tong Xiaomei; Jiang Lingying; Tinchiu Li; Zhou Feng; Zhang Songying

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced endometrial receptivity in hyperstimulated cycles may lead to a lower implantation rate and a lower clinical pregnancy rate,but it is unclear if it is also associated with an increase in pregnancy loss rate.The aim of this study was to compare the implantation,miscarriage,and pregnancy rates between fresh and frozen thawed transfer of one or two day-3 embryos,with a view to understanding whether or not reduced endometrial receptivity encountered in hyperstimulated cycles is associated with an increase in miscarriage rate.Methods This study involved a consecutive series of 1 551 single day-3 embryo transfer cycles and consecutive 5 919 double day-3 embryo transfer cycles in the Assisted Reproductive Unit of the Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital,Hangzhou,China,between January 2010 and December 2012.Results The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates (single embryo 30.7% and double embryos 33.4% and 51.4%)using fresh cycle were both significantly lower than that of frozen-thawed cycles (single embryo 35.8% and double embryos 38.1% and 57.8%).There was no difference in biochemical loss or clinical miscarriage rates between the two groups.Conclusions Impairment of endometrial receptivity associated with ovarian hyperstimulation leads to implantation failure at a very early stage,resulting in an increased number of non-pregnancy.It does not lead to increase in biochemical or clinical losses.The significantly reduced ongoing pregnancy rates in both fresh single and double embryo transfer are therefore due to failure to achieve a pregnancy,rather than pregnancy loss after conception.

  8. Uterine artery blood flow in the periimplantation period in embryo transfer cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ursula Zollner; Marie-Theres Specketer; Klaus-Peter Zollner; Johannse Dietl

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the role of the uterine artery blood flow in the prediction of implantation in women undergoing embryo transfer during the periimplantation period.Methods:A total of 233 couples were included in this prospective study.All patients had embryo transfer,125 were performed inin-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection(IVF/ICSI) and108 in cryo cycles.Ultrasound measurements were performed immediately before transfer.The pulsatility index(PI),Resistance index(RI) and the peak systolic velocity(PSV) were measured in both uterine arteries using endovaginal ultrasound.Results:InIVF/ICSI cycles the doppler parameters PI(2.48vs.2.15),RI(0.78vs.1.30) andPSV(60 vs.63) did not differ significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant group.The pregnancy rate per transfer was similar in women showing an unilateral(24%), bilateral(33%) or no(27%) notch in the uterine blood flow.In cryo cycles the uterine artery blood flow parametersPI(3.2vs.3.0),RI(0.9vs.0.9) andPSV(53.2vs.51.2) did not differ either between pregnant and not pregnant patients.Conclusions:Previous studies were aiming at the measurement of arterial doppler parameters during the follicular phase which may not be adequate for the prediction of implantation.However, our results show that doppler studies during the early luteal phase of assisted reproductive technology cycles are not indicative for the likelihood of pregnancy, too.

  9. Difficult embryo transfers or blood on catheter and assisted reproductive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James A S; Martins, Wellington P; Nastri, Carolina O; Raine-Fenning, Nicholas J

    2013-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether a difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter affects assisted reproduction outcomes. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). We aimed to determine the risk ratio (RR) associated with difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter for the following outcomes: live birth, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage. We identified 3066 papers, of which 194 were reviewed and nine were included. The outcome of live birth was not reported in any of the included studies and the effect on miscarriage was too imprecise for any conclusions. Pooled analysis of five studies demonstrated lower clinical pregnancy rates following a non-easy embryo transfer (RR=0.75; 95% CI=0.66-0.86). This included three studies showing subjectively difficult transfers reducing clinical pregnancies (RR=0.67; 95% CI=0.51-0.87) and two studies in which the need for additional manoeuvers reduced clinical pregnancies (RR=0.78; 95% CI=0.67-0.91). The presence of blood on the transfer catheter did not affect clinical pregnancy rates (RR=0.96; 95% CI=0.82-1.14) in five studies. We concluded that low quality evidence suggests that a difficult embryo transfer but not a bloody catheter reduces the chance of achieving a clinical pregnancy. More good quality studies are needed to evaluate the effect of difficult embryo transfer and the presence of blood on the catheter on the main outcomes of assisted reproduction.

  10. Embryo transfer technique: Factors affecting the viability of the corpus luteum in llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasorras, Virginia; Chaves, María Graciela; Neild, Deborah; Gambarotta, Mariana; Aba, Marcelo; Agüero, Alicia

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the embryo transfer (ET) maneuvers on plasma progesterone concentrations in recipient Lama glama females and the relationship between the site the embryo was transferred to and corpus luteum (CL) localization. Experiment I (effect of transcervical threading): adult non-pregnant, non-lactating llama females were randomly assigned into two groups: control group (without cervical threading, n=10) and group A (with cervical threading, n=10). In both groups, CL activity was evaluated through measurement of progesterone plasma concentrations. In group A, on Day 6 after inducing ovulation with buserelin, the cervix was threaded to evaluate the effect of the maneuver on CL viability. No significant differences were observed in mean progesterone concentrations between groups (P>0.05). Experiment II (effect of depositing PBS): females (n=66) were randomly assigned into six groups (n=10 per group and control group: n=6) to evaluate the effect of depositing PBS in different sites in the uterus in relation to the localization of the CL: group 'Left-Ipsilateral': transcervical placing of PBS in the left uterine horn (CL in left ovary); group 'Left-Contralateral': transcervical placing of PBS in the left uterine horn (CL in right ovary); group 'Right-Ipsilateral': transcervical placing of PBS in the right uterine horn (CL in right ovary); group 'Body-Left': transcervical placing of PBS in the uterine body (CL in left ovary); group 'Body-Right': transcervical placing of PBS in the uterine body (CL in right ovary) and control group. Corpus luteum activity was evaluated in all groups by measuring plasma progesterone concentrations. On Day 6 post-buserelin, the corresponding maneuver was carried out according to the group. No significant differences were found for the mean plasma progesterone concentrations between groups (P>0.05). Experiment III (effect of ET on CL viability): females (n=22) were used as embryo donors and 50

  11. How often does the embryo implant at the location to which it was transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravelos, S H; Wong, A W Y; Chan, C P S; Kong, G W S; Li, T-C

    2016-07-01

    To determine how often the embryo implants exactly at the site of transfer and what additional factors may affect the eventual site of implantation in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. This was a prospective observational study of women undergoing ART treatment in a tertiary university unit. Several factors inherent to the embryo transfer (ET), such as the location of the air bubbles and uterine contractility at 1 and at 60 min after ET were assessed with two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. In women in whom there was a resulting pregnancy, the position of the gestational sac (i.e. right, left, center or low) was subsequently assessed using 3D ultrasound, and predictors of its location were evaluated. Of 239 recruited women with visualization of air bubbles at ET, 71 singleton gestational sacs were subsequently observed on 3D ultrasound. Overall, 40.8% (29/71) of embryos implanted at the location where the air bubbles were visualized at 1 min after ET, and 50.7% (36/71) implanted where the air bubbles were visualized at 60 min after ET (Cohen's kappa coefficients 0.21 and 0.37, respectively; comparison of agreement values: P = 0.28). Specifically, at 1 min the correspondence between the location of the air bubble and embryo implantation was 37.5% (6/16), 57.1% (8/14), 36.8% (7/19) and 36.4% (8/22) for right, left, central and lower uterus, respectively (4 × 4 contingency table, P < 0.01); at 60 min, the correspondence was 72.2% (13/18), 50.0% (9/18), 33.3% (8/24) and 85.7% (6/7), respectively (5 × 4 contingency table, P < 0.001). In addition, higher vs lower frequency of uterine contractions at 60 min was associated with different sites of implantation (5.6% (1/18), 11.1% (2/18), 27.8% (5/18) and 55.6% (10/18) vs 34.0% (18/53), 24.5% (13/53), 13.2% (7/53) and 28.3% (15/53) for right, left, central and lower uterus, respectively, P < 0.05). In particular, a high uterine contraction frequency

  12. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos: a meta-analysis related to transfers, pregnancies and piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter; Schmidt, Mette; Larsen, Knud; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets. The techniques of nuclear transfer have been developed markedly through the increasing number of studies performed, and the results have become more stable. Prolonged in vitro culture period did not lead to any negative effect on nuclear transfer embryos after their transfer and it resulted in a similar or even higher litter size. More complete information is needed in future scientific articles about these in vitro manipulation techniques to establish a more solid basis for the evaluation of their status and to reveal and further investigate any eventual problems.

  13. Effects of prepartum lipid supplementation on FSH superstimulation and transferable embryo recovery in multiparous beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, J F; Kojima, F N; Wehrman, M E; Lindsey, B R; Kerley, M S; Patterson, D J

    2005-01-01

    evaluated at the initiation of the experiment, two weeks prior to calving, and at initiation of superovulation with FSH. Estrous cyclicity prior to the initiation of estrus synchronization did not differ (P > 0.10) between treatments. There was no difference (P > 0.10) between treatments in recovery of total embryos (WSB, 14.7 +/- 3.5; SBS, 17.5 +/- 3.0), transferable embryos (WSB, 10.3 +/- 2.5; SBS, 13.6 +/- 2.6), degenerate embryos (WSB, 3.3 +/- 1.1; SBS, 1.6 +/- 1.7) or unfertilized ova (WSB, 1.1 +/- 0.5; SBS, 2.3 +/- 1.2). Cows that were supplemented with whole soybeans prior to parturition failed to produce an increased total number of ova or transferable embryos following super-ovulation.

  14. A device for the simple and rapid transcervical transfer of mouse embryos eliminates the need for surgery and potential post-operative complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Bass, Shannon; Spear, Brett

    2009-11-01

    We describe a novel device that can be used for the transcervical transfer of embryos into pseudopregnant female mice. This nonsurgical embryo transfer (NSET) device is as efficient as standard surgical embryo transfer in the production of transgenic mice, and can also be used for the transfer of embryonic stem cell-containing chimeric blastocysts and cryopreserved embryos. In addition to the elimination of surgery, recipient females do not have to be anesthetized. The NSET device eliminates a painful surgical procedure as well as potential complications associated with anesthesia/post-operative care, reduces the technical expertise and equipment needed for surgical transfer, and represents substantial cost savings and regulatory reduction. NSET technology provides an easy and rapid alternative to surgical embryo transfer. Address correspondence to Brett Spear, Room 210, Combs Building, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY, 40536-0298, USA. email:

  15. Production of porcine cloned transgenic embryos expressing green fluorescent protein by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Yunhai; PAN; Dengke; SUN; Xiuzhu; SUN; Guojie; WANG; Xiaobo; LIU; Xiaohui; LI; Yan; DAI; Yunping; LI; Ning

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, nuclear transferred embryos (NTEs) were reconstructed by using pig fetal fibroblasts as donors and in vitro matured oocytes as recipients. The effects of G418 selection on donor cells, duration of IVM of prepubertal gilt oocytes and oxygen tension in IVM of oocytes were investigated. The results were as follows: (i) When G418 selected cells expressing GFP were used as donors, the cleavage rate of NTEs decreased drastically in comparison to NTEs derived from donors without antibiotic selection (47.5% vs. 71.6%, p0.05). (ii) The rate of nuclear maturation of oocytes increased significantly when IVM duration time was extended from 36 to 42 h (83.6% vs. 96.7%, p0.05) and blastocyst formation (9.3% vs. 13.2%, p>0.05); (iii) no significant difference was observed between NTEs reconstructed from oocytes matured under lower oxygen (7% O2) tension and NTEs derived from oocytes matured under higher oxygen tension (20% O2) in cleavage rate (70.6% vs. 67.1%, p>0.05) and blastocyst rate (11.8% vs. 12.3%, p>0.05). These results suggest that: (i) G418 selection does not have a significant effect on cleavage rate of NTEs expressing GFP. (ii) Nuclear maturation is greatly improved by prolonging IVM duration from 36 to 42 h, while no significant differences were observed for developmental potential of transgenic embryos. Thus IVM 42 h is the better choice in order to obtain maximum number of MⅡ oocytes as recipients. (iii) Lower oxygen tension and higher oxygen tension in IVM have no significant effect on development of cloned embryos.

  16. Single-embryo transfer reduces clinical pregnancy rates and live births in fresh IVF and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira João

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become an accepted procedure to transfer more than one embryo to the patient to achieve acceptable ongoing pregnancy rates. However, transfers of more than a single embryo increase the probability of establishing a multiple gestation. Single-embryo transfer can minimize twin pregnancies but may also lower live birth rates. This meta-analysis aimed to compare current data on single-embryo versus double-embryo transfer in fresh IVF/ICSI cycles with respect to implantation, ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates. Methods Search strategies included on-line surveys of databases from 1995 to 2008. Data management and analysis were conducted using the Stats Direct statistical software. The fixed-effect model was used for odds ratio (OR. Fixed-effect effectiveness was evaluated by the Mantel Haenszel method. Seven trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results When pooling results under the fixed-effect model, the implantation rate was not significantly different between double-embryo transfer (34.5% and single-embryo transfer group (34.7% (P = 0.96; OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.78, 1.25. On the other hand, double-embryo transfer produced a statistically significantly higher ongoing clinical pregnancy rate (44.5% than single-embryo transfer (28.3% (P Conclusion Meta-analysis with 95% confidence showed that, despite similar implantation rates, fresh double-embryo transfer had a 1.64 to 2.60 times greater ongoing pregnancy rate and 1.44 to 2.42 times greater live birth rate than single-embryo transfer in a population suitable for ART treatment.

  17. Current Status of Comprehensive Chromosome Screening for Elective Single-Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yih Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most in vitro fertilization (IVF experts and infertility patients agree that the most ideal assisted reproductive technology (ART outcome is to have a healthy, full-term singleton born. To this end, the most reliable policy is the single-embryo transfer (SET. However, unsatisfactory results in IVF may result from plenty of factors, in which aneuploidy associated with advanced maternal age is a major hurdle. Throughout the past few years, we have got a big leap in advancement of the genetic screening of embryos on aneuploidy, translocation, or mutations. This facilitates a higher success rate in IVF accompanied by the policy of elective SET (eSET. As the cost is lowering while the scale of genome characterization continues to be up over the recent years, the contemporary technologies on trophectoderm biopsy and freezing-thaw, comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS with eSET appear to be getting more and more popular for modern IVF centers. Furthermore, evidence has showen that, by these avant-garde techniques (trophectoderm biopsy, vitrification, and CCS, older infertile women with the help of eSET may have an opportunity to increase the success of their live birth rates approaching those reported in younger infertility patients.

  18. Pregnancy loss after frozen-embryo transfer--a comparison of three protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Candido; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Martikainen, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    of embryos and ET. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Pregnancy test rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and pregnancy loss rate. RESULT(S): The natural cycle followed by P (NC + P) was used in 26% of cycles, the natural cycle with hCG (NC + hCG) in 10%, and the substituted cycle with estrogen and P (E + P) in 64...... was similar in all groups (27.7%, 29.1%, and 24.3%, respectively). Moreover, no differences were seen between groups regarding the live-birth rate (20.1%, 23.5%, and 20.7%, respectively). A logistic regression analysis showed that the type of protocol was the only predictor of pregnancy loss, while age......, irregular cycles, endometrial thickness, number, and quality of embryos transferred did not correlate to pregnancy loss. CONCLUSION(S): A higher positive pregnancy test rate was obtained in E + P frozen ET cycles in comparison with other protocols; however, due to an increased preclinical and clinical...

  19. Production of wild buffalo (Bubalus arnee) embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer using domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, D; Selokar, N L; Raja, A K; Saini, M; Sahare, A A; Nala, N; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Singla, S K

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of producing wild buffalo embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) through handmade cloning using wild buffalo somatic cells and domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes. Somatic cells derived from the ear skin of wild buffalo were found to express vimentin but not keratin and cytokeratin-18, indicating that they were of fibroblast origin. The population doubling time of skin fibroblasts from wild buffalo was significantly (p cell proliferation rate was significantly (p cell number (TCN) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (192.0 ± 25.6 vs 345.7 ± 42.2), and the apoptotic index was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (15.1 ± 3.1 vs 8.0 ± 1.4) for interspecies than that for intraspecies cloned embryos. Following vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS) and warming, although the cryosurvival rate of both types of cloned embryos, as indicated by their re-expansion rate, was not significantly different (34.8 ± 1.5% vs 47.8 ± 7.8), the apoptotic index was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for vitrified-warmed interspecies than that for corresponding intraspecies cloned embryos (48.9 ± 7.2 vs 23.9 ± 2.8). The global level of H3K18ac was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in interspecies cloned embryos than that in intraspecies cloned embryos. The expression level of HDAC1, DNMT3a and CASPASE3 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher, that of P53 was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in interspecies than in intraspecies embryos, whereas that of DNMT1 was similar between the two types of embryos. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that wild buffalo embryos can be produced by iSCNT.

  20. Preferences of subfertile women regarding elective single embryo transfer : additional in vitro fertilization cycles are acceptable, lower pregnancy rates are not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2007-01-01

    With identical pregnancy rates after elective single embryo transfer (ET) and double ET strategies consisting of three cycles of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) plus transfers of thawed/frozen embryos if available, 46% of the women undergoing IVF/ICSI favor elective single ET. If elec

  1. Nuclear and nuclear reprogramming during the first cell cycle in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Petrovicova, Ida; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The immediate events of genomic reprogramming at somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are to high degree unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the nuclear and nucleolar changes during the first cell cycle. Bovine SCNT embryos were produced from starved bovine fibroblasts and fixed......, somatic cell nuclei introduced into enucleated oocytes displayed chromatin condensation, partial nuclear envelope breakdown, nucleolar desegregation and transcriptional quiescence already at 0.5 hpa. Somatic cell cytoplasm remained temporally attached to introduced nucleus and nucleolus was partially...... restored indicating somatic influence in the early SCNT phases. At 1-3 hpa, chromatin gradually decondensed toward the nucleus periphery and nuclear envelope reformed. From 4 hpa, the somatic cell nucleus gained a PN-like appearance and displayed NPBs suggesting ooplasmic control of development....

  2. Improving post-transfer survival of bovine embryos produced in vitro: actions of insulin-like growth factor-1, colony stimulating factor-2 and hyaluronan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J; Hansen, P J; Loureiro, B; Bonilla, L

    2011-12-01

    Technologies for in vitro embryo production have the potential to enhance the efficiency of cattle production systems. However, utilization of in vitro-produced embryos for transfer remains limited throughout much of the world. Despite improvements over the past two decades, problems associated with the production of bovine embryos in vitro still exist which limit the widespread commercial application of this technology. In particular, bovine embryos produced in vitro have a reduced capacity to establish and maintain pregnancy as compared with their in vivo-derived counterparts. Embryo competence for survival following transfer is improved by in vivo culture in the sheep oviduct, thus indicating that standard embryo culture conditions are sub-optimal. Therefore, one strategy to improve post-transfer survival is to modify embryo culture media to more closely mimic the in vivo microenvironment. The maternal environment in which the bovine embryo develops in vivo contains various growth factors, cytokines, hormones, and other regulatory molecules. In addition to affecting bovine embryo development in vitro, recent research indicates that embryo competence for survival following transfer can also be improved when such molecules are added to embryo culture medium. Among the specific molecules that can increase post-transfer embryo survival are insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), colony stimulating factor-2 (CSF-2) and hyaluronan. This paper will review the effects IGF-1, CSF-2 and hyaluronan on post-culture embryo viability and discuss the potential mechanisms through which each of these molecules improves post-transfer survival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of ooplasm in nuclear and nucleolar remodeling of intergeneric somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos during the first cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Strejcek, Frantisek; Petrovicova, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Initially, development of the zygote is under control of the oocyte ooplasm. However, it is presently unknown if and to what extent is the ooplasm able to interact with a transferred somatic cell from another species in the context of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Here, one-cell...... intergeneric SCNT embryos were compared to their parthenogenetic counterparts to assess the effects of the introduced somatic cell. Despite the absence of morphological remodeling (premature chromatin condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown), reconstructed embryos showed nuclear and nucleolar precursor body...... (NPB) morphology similar to the host ooplasm, which, together with detected posttranslational activity of somatic cell introduced into the bovine ooplasm, suggests a universal function of ooplasmic factors. However, the lack of distinct UBF localization in intergeneric embryos indicates failures...

  4. The role of angiogenic markers in adverse perinatal outcomes: fresh versus frozen embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Irene; Chan, Yen; Sriprasert, Intira; Louie, Kristin; Ingles, Sue; Stanczyk, Frank; McGinnis, Lynda K; Chung, Karine

    2017-09-04

    We aimed to investigate the angiogenic balance in fresh compared to frozen embryo transfers, and among neonates with adverse perinatal outcomes. This was a retrospective cohort study. All IVF cycles resulting in a singleton live birth at a university academic fertility center from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2013, were examined. Concentrations of sFLT-1 and PlGF were measured in previously frozen serum specimens collected during early gestation at approximately 5 weeks gestation. Patients completed an electronic survey to detail perinatal outcome. We identified 152 singleton live births (103 fresh, 49 frozen). Demographic characteristics were similar between the two groups. Ratios of sFlt-1:PlGF were not different between fresh and frozen transfers. Neonates from fresh cycles had a mean birth weight 202 g lighter (p = 0.01) than frozen cycles, after adjusting for gestational age. Among babies born with poor perinatal outcomes, there was a difference in sFlt-1:PlGF ratios after adjusting for race. In non-Asians, infants born small for gestational age (SGA) (< 10th percentile) had significantly higher sFLT-1:PLGF ratio, median ratio (0.21 vs 0.12, p = 0.016). Fresh transfers were associated with lower birth weight infants compared to frozen transfers. While there was no difference in sFlt-1:PlGF ratios between fresh and frozen transfers, these ratios were significantly lower in SGA infants, suggesting an imbalance in angiogenic markers during placentation.

  5. Effect of intrauterine injection of human chorionic gonadotropin before embryo transfer on pregnancy rate: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostajeran, Fatemeh; Godazandeh, Farzaneh; Ahmadi, Sayed Mehdi; Movahedi, Minoo; Jabalamelian, Seyed Abolfazl

    2017-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the most important factor to controlled implantation is one of the early embryonic signals in primates that is secreted by the embryo before its implantation. This study was designed to assess the effects of intrauterine injection of hCG before the embryo transfer in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle on pregnancy rate in infertile patients. This randomized study was done on 100 infertile patients in two groups: intervention group received injection of 700 IU of intrauterine hCG 10 min before embryo transfer and control group did not receive hCG. The pregnancy rate was tested 2 weeks after embryo transfer, and if the pregnancy test was positive, a transvaginal ultrasound was performed 3 weeks later to search for signs of pregnancy, such as the presence of a gestational sac, embryo, and fetal heart rate, and confirmed as successful pregnancy. Pregnancy test was positive in 13 (28.6%) of 46 patients in hCG group and in control group was positive in 6 (12.5%) of 48 patients. The pregnancy rate between hCG group and control group was not significantly different (P = 0.54). The pregnancy rate in hCG group with IVF fertilization was 20.8% and in their controls was 7.4% (P = 0.51). The pregnancy rate in hCG group with ICSI fertilization was 36.4% and in their controls was 19% (P = 0.16). The intrauterine injection of 700 IU of hCG before embryo transfer improved pregnancy rate compared to control group but was not significantly different.

  6. Evaluation of an effective multifaceted implementation strategy for elective single-embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuwel, I.A.M.; Peperstraten, A.M. van; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between the rate of elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) and couples' exposure to different elements of a multifaceted implementation strategy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Additional elements in a multifaceted implementation strategy do not result in an increased eSET

  7. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  8. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and International Technology Transfer: A Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamal Saggi

    2002-01-01

    ...? Using these questions as motivation, this article surveys the recent trade literature on international technology transfer, paying particular attention to the role of foreign direct investment...

  10. Nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility in interorder rhesus monkey-cow embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Daekee; Koo, Ok-Jae; Kim, Min-Jung; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-10-01

    Monkey interorder somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) using enucleated cow oocytes yielded poor blastocysts development and contradictory results among research groups. Determining the reason for this low blastocyst development is a prerequisite for optimizing iSCNT in rhesus monkeys. The aim of this study was to elucidate nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility of rhesus monkey-cow iSCNT embryos and its relationship to low blastocyst development. Cytochrome b is a protein of complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC). According to meta-analysis of amino acid sequences, the homology of cytochrome b is 75 % between rhesus monkeys and cattle. To maintain the function of ETC after iSCNT, 4n iSCNT embryos were produced by fusion of non-enucleated cow oocytes and rhesus monkey somatic cells. The blastocyst development rate of 4n iSCNT embryos was higher than that of 2n embryos (P monkey iSCNT embryos reconstructed with cow oocytes have nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility due to fundamental species differences between rhesus monkeys and cattle. Nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility seems to correlate with low ETC activity and extremely low blastocyst development of rhesus monkey-cow iSCNT embryos.

  11. An ideal oocyte activation protocol and embryo culture conditions for somatic cell nuclear transfer using sheep oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiren; Chougule, Shruti; Chohan, Parul; Shah, Naval; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are possibly the best candidates for regenerative medicine, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is one of the viable options to make patient-specific embryonic stem cells. Till date efficacy of SCNT embryos is very low and requires further improvement like ideal oocyte activation and in vitro culture system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ideal oocyte activation using different stimulation protocols and to study the effect of cumulus co-culture conditions on embryo development. Results demonstrate that between electric stimulation and chemical stimulation using calcium ionomycin and ionophore, best oocyte activation was obtained using calcium ionomycin (5 microM for 5 min) which resulted in 83% cleavage followed by 7% of early blastocyst which further increased to 15% when a cumulus bed was also introduced during embryo culture. Sequential modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2) medium was used for embryo culture in which glucose levels were increased from 1 mM to 5 mM from Day 3 onwards. SCNT using cumulus cells as donor somatic cell, calcium ionomycin to activate the reconstructed oocyte and embryo culture on a cumulus bed in sequential mCR2 medium, resulted in the development of 6% embryos to early blastocyst stage. Such technological advances will make SCNT a viable option to make patient-specific pluripotent stem cell lines in near future.

  12. Comparison of Clinical Outcome after Transfer of Cryopreserved and Fresh Embryos Originating from Conventional IVF and ICSI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-ying LIU; Jin-lan HAN; Zhu-di LU; Ying CAO; Bin TENG; Yu ZHENG; Xian-dong PENG; Hua CHEN; Jing-ming YAN

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of cryopreservation on early cleavage stage (d 2)embryosMethods This was a retrospective study. Embryo survival rate, implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates per transfer from fresh and cryopreserved cycles were analyzed.Results From January to December, 2002, in a total of 628 thawing cycles in which 1876 embryos were thawed, the embryo survival rate was similar between the IVF and ICSI group (88.09% and 88.95%, respectively). There was no significant difference in implantation rates both between the frozen and fresh IVF groups (19.19% and 21.07%,respectively) and between the frozen and fresh ICSI groups (15.22% and 15.64%, respectively),but there were significant differences either between frozen IVF and frozen ICSI groups (P<0. 05) or between fresh IVF and fresh ICSI groups (P<0.01). The clinical pregnancy rates in the frozen and fresh IVF groups were 45.86% and 43.43%, respectively (P>0.05). The clinical pregnancy rate of the frozen ICSI group was 42.07%,slightly higher than that of fresh ICSI (35.43%), but the difference was not significant (P>0. 05). The clinical pregnancy rate between fresh IVF and fresh ICSI was significantly different (P<0. 05).Conclusion The present study indicated that frozen-thawed embryos at early cleavage stage had equivalent pregnancy rates as that of fresh embryos.

  13. Cryopreservation and single embryo transfer%玻璃化冷冻技术与单胚胎移植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓓; 朱桂金

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy rates increased gradually with the development of assisted reproduction technology (ART). Nevertheless, multiple pregnancy has become the major complication beside ovarian hy-perstimulation syndrome(OHSS). Now more and more centers begin to develop single embryo transfer to decrease multiple pregnancy rate. The method for increasing the successful rates of single embryo transfer is single blastocyst transfer. To realize single blastocyst transfer,it should firstly improve the culture condition to increase blastocyst rate. Secondly, preservation of surplus blastocysts, which could ensure the cumulative pregnancy rate,needs safe and simple freezing method. However, programmed cryopreservation is liable to produce ice crystals due to the large volume, numerous and varied cells of blastocyst and blasto-coele existed. Therefore vitrification cryopreservation emerged as required in recent decades, which could significantly improve the freezing effects of blastocyst. The pregnancy rate of frozen embryo transfer (FET)by vitrification cryopreservation is similar to that in fresh cycles,which is essential for single blastocyst transfer in future.

  14. Role of Embryo Glue as a transfer medium in the outcome of fresh non-donor in-vitro fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: EmbryoGlue is a hyaluronan-enriched embryo transfer (ET medium which aids in implantation of embryos, hence, improves pregnancy rates in in-vitro fertilization-ET cycles (IVF-ET. Aim: To evaluate the role of EmbryoGlue in improving implantation and pregnancy rates. Design and Setting: A prospective case-control study conducted at assisted reproductive center of a tertiary care hospital. Method: In 42 women undergoing IVF, embryos were transferred into 50 μL of EmbryoGlue for 10 min prior to transfer inside uterine cavity. In the control group (n = 42, embryos were transferred to conventional blastocyst culture medium. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS IBM version 19.0. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate in the study group was 7% higher than the control group. The difference, however, was not statistically significant. In addition, no improvement in implantation rates was observed in the study group. However, significant difference (P = 0.04 in clinical pregnancy rate was observed with the EmbryoGlue in patients with previous IVF failure. In the study group, 50% patients (6/12 with previous IVF failure had successful implantation, but in the control group none of the patients (0/11 with previous implantation failure could achieve pregnancy. Conclusion: It is difficult to conclude a favourable role of EmbryoGlue in IVF-ET cycles with a good prognosis. However, in patients with recurrent implantation failure, it may be considered as a useful transfer medium.

  15. 牛胚胎移植技术的产业化研究%Study of Industrilization of Bovine Embryo Transferring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯建忠; 史远刚; 张秀陶; 梁小军; 薛伟; 扬奇; 孟华; 李毓华

    2001-01-01

    Embryo transfer and relative technology was explicated, including setting up of nucleus herd of cattle by importing frozen embryo, choice of donor, superovalution, cryopreservation of embryo and embryo splitting. This study make a base for the industrilization of bovine embryo transferring.%本文探讨了引进国外优质奶、肉牛冷冻胚胎建立核心群,以及供体牛选择、超数排卵、胚胎冷冻保存和分割等相关技术,为牛胚胎移植产业化奠定基础。

  16. Abdominal ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and single embryo transfer: a case report and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Nicole; Tal, Reshef; Martin, J Ryan

    2016-10-19

    Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality during the first trimester and the incidence increases dramatically with assisted-reproductive technology (ART), occurring in approximately 1.5-2.1 % of patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Abdominal ectopic pregnancy is a rare yet clinically significant form of ectopic pregnancy due to potentially high maternal morbidity. While risk factors for ectopic pregnancy after IVF have been studied, very little is known about risk factors specific for abdominal ectopic pregnancy. We present a case of a 30 year-old woman who had an abdominal ectopic pregnancy following IVF and elective single embryo transfer, which was diagnosed and managed by laparoscopy. We performed a systematic literature search to identify case reports of abdominal or heterotopic abdominal ectopic pregnancies after IVF. A total of 28 cases were identified. Patients' ages ranged from 23 to 38 (Mean 33.2, S.D. = 3.2). Infertility causes included tubal factor (46 %), endometriosis (14 %), male factor (14 %), pelvic adhesive disease (7 %), structural/DES exposure (7 %), and unexplained infertility (14 %). A history of ectopic pregnancy was identified in 39 % of cases. A history of tubal surgery was identified in 50 % of cases, 32 % cases having had bilateral salpingectomy. Transfer of two embryos or more (79 %) and fresh embryo transfer (71 %) were reported in the majority of cases. Heterotopic abdominal pregnancy occurred in 46 % of cases while 54 % were abdominal ectopic pregnancies. Our systematic review has revealed several trends in reported cases of abdominal ectopic pregnancy after IVF including tubal factor infertility, history of tubal ectopic and tubal surgery, higher number of embryos transferred, and fresh embryo transfers. These are consistent with known risk factors for ectopic pregnancy following IVF. Further research focusing on more homogenous population may help in better characterizing

  17. Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbs Combined with Low Dose Human Menopausal Gonadotropin Applied in Frozen-thawed Embryo Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess embryo implantation rate (IR) and pregnancy rate (PR) in women who received Bushen Wengong Decoction (补肾温宫汤, BSWGD), a Chinese herbal formula, combined with low dose of human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) prior to frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). Methods: A total of 262 subjects (674 transferred embryos) who received FET were analyzed retrospectively. In them,122 women were under 30 years old, 106 between 30-35 years and 32 over 35 years. The 85 subjects with normal ovulation were assigned to Group A, the natural menstruation cycling group, on whom no pre-transfer treatment was applied. The other 177 subjects with abnormal ovulation were assigned to Group B, and subdivided, according to the pre-transfer treatment they received, into three groups, Group B1 (50 cases) received BSWGD, Group B2 (58 cases) received hMG and Group B3 (69 cases) received both BSWGD and low dose hMG. The IR and PR of FET in the four groups were compared, and the effect of the embryo cryotime on PR of FET were compared also. Besides, the influencing factors to FET were analyzed. Results: IR and PR were significantly higher in all age sects of Group B3 than those in Group A, showing significant difference (P< 0.05). IR and PR in subjects in age sects of <30 years and > 35 years in group B3 were signifi cantly higher than those in Group B1 ( P<0.05), but no significant difference was shown in the two parameters between Group B 2 and Group B3 ( P>0.05). PR in the subjects who received embryos with cryo-time of > 200 days was significantly lower than that in those with cryo-time of < 100 days (P<0.05). Embryo cryo-time, endometrial thickness, use of BSWGD and use of hMG were of significance in FET ( P< 0.05).Conclusion: A programmed cycle of BSWGD combined with low dose of hMG could improve the embryo IR and PR of FET. Embryo cryo-time, endometrial thickness, and the use of BSWGD and hMG are of significance for FET.

  18. Factors affecting conception rates following artificial insemination or embryo transfer in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrio, D G B; Santos, R M; Demetrio, C G B; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that may affect conception rates (CR) following artificial insemination (AI) or embryo transfer (ET) in lactating Holstein cows. Estrous cycling cows producing 33.1 +/- 7.2 kg of milk/d received PGF2alpha injections and were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups (AI or ET). Cows detected in estrus (n = 387) between 48 and 96 h after the PGF2alpha injection received AI (n = 227) 12 h after detection of estrus or ET (n = 160) 6 to 8 d later (1 fresh embryo, grade 1 or 2, produced from nonlactating cows). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 28 and 42 d after estrus, and embryonic loss occurred when a cow was pregnant on d 28 but not pregnant on d 42. Ovulation, conception, and embryonic loss were analyzed by a logistic model to evaluate the effects of covariates [days in milk (DIM), milk yield, body temperature (BT) at d 7 and 14 post-AI, and serum concentration of progesterone (P4) at d 7 and 14 post-AI] on the probability of success. The first analysis included all cows that were detected in estrus. The CR of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 32.6% vs. ET, 49.4%) and 42 (AI, 29.1% vs. ET, 38.8%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7) and DIM. The second analysis included only cows with a corpus luteum on d 7. Ovulation rate was 84.8% and was only negatively affected by DIM. Conception rates of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 37.9% vs. ET, 59.4%) and 42 (AI, 33.8% vs. ET, 46.6%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7). The third analysis included only ovulating cows that were 7 d postestrus. Conception rates of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 37.5% vs. ET, 63.2%) and 42 (AI, 31.7% vs. ET, 51.7%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7). There was a positive effect of serum concentration of P4 and a negative effect of milk production on the probability of conception for the AI group but not for the ET group. The fourth analysis was embryonic loss (AI, 10.8% vs. ET, 21.5%). The transfer

  19. Association between ABO blood type and live-birth outcomes in single embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Patel, Hency H; Stone, Logan D; Christos, Paul J; Elias, Rony T; Spandorfer, Steven D; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the association between ABO blood type and live-birth outcomes in patients undergoing IVF with day 5 single embryo transfer (SET). Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated center. Normal responders, Live-birth rate was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were birth weight and gestational age at delivery. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between blood type and live birth, while controlling for confounders. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for live birth were estimated. A total of 2,329 patients were included. The mean age of the study cohort was 34.6 ± 4.78 years. The distribution of blood types was as follows: A = 897 (38.5%); B = 397 (17.0%); AB = 120 (5.2%); and, O = 1,915 (39.3%) patients. There was no difference in the baseline demographics, ovarian stimulation, or embryo quality parameters between the blood types. The unadjusted ORs for live birth when comparing blood type A (referent) with blood types B, AB, and O were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.6-1.7), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.4-1.2), and 0.96 (95% CI. 0.6-1.7), respectively. The adjusted ORs for live birth remained not significant when comparing blood type A to blood types B, AB, and O individually. No difference in birth weight or gestational age at delivery was noted among the four blood types. Our findings suggest that ABO blood type is not associated with live-birth rate, birth weight, or gestational age at delivery in patients undergoing IVF with day 5 SET. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The International Transfer of Microteaching Programmes for Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This is a report of one of the Center for Educational Research and Innovation's (CERI) pilot studies in international transfer. The report states that the international transfer of learning systems involves a process whereby a learning system, a curriculum project, or an educational practice is introduced and implemented in a cultural and…

  1. Impact of equine assisted reproductive technologies (standard embryo transfer or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with in vitro culture and embryo transfer) on placenta and foal morphometry and placental gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Orlando A; Couturier-Tarrade, Anne; Choi, Young-Ho; Aubrière, Marie-Christine; Ritthaler, Justin; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2017-07-24

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in vitro embryo culture and embryo transfer (ET) may be associated with alterations in fetal and placental development. In horses, ET has been used for decades. More recently, in vitro embryo production by ICSI and in vitro culture, followed by embryo transfer (ICSI-C) has become an accepted method for clinical foal production. However, no information is available on the effects of ICSI-C or even of standard ET itself on placental and neonatal parameters in horses. We therefore evaluated placental and neonatal morphology and placental gene expression in reining- and cutting-type American Quarter Horse foals produced using different technologies. Thirty foals and placentas (naturally conceived (NC), ET and ICSI-C; 10 in each group) were examined morphometrically. The only parameter that differed significantly between groups was the length of the foal upper hindlimb, which was longer in ET and ICSI-C than in NC foals. Evaluation of placental mRNA expression for 17 genes related to growth and vascularisation showed no difference in gene expression between groups. These data indicate that within this population, use of ARTs was not associated with meaningful changes in foal or placental morphometry or in expression of the placental genes evaluated.

  2. Interaction between season and culture with insulin-like growth factor-1 on survival of in vitro produced embryos following transfer to lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J; Hansen, P J

    2007-06-01

    Culture of bovine embryos in the presence of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can increase pregnancy rates following transfer to heat-stressed, lactating dairy cows. The objective of the present experiment was to determine whether the effect of IGF-1 on post-transfer embryo survival was a general effect or one specific to heat stress. Lactating recipients (n=311) were synchronized for timed-embryo transfer at four locations. Embryos were produced in vitro and cultured with or without 100 ng/mL IGF-1. At Day 7 after anticipated ovulation (Day 0), a single embryo was randomly transferred to each recipient. Pregnancy was diagnosed at Day 21 by elevated plasma progesterone concentrations, at Days 27-32 by ultrasonography, and at Days 41-49 by transrectal palpation. Transfers were categorized into two seasons, hot or cool (based on the month of transfer). There was a tendency (Pcalving rate (Pcalves born was 77.5%. In conclusion, treatment of embryos with IGF-1 improved pregnancy and calving rates following the transfer of in vitro produced embryos into lactating recipients, but only under heat-stress conditions.

  3. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    JEON, Yubyeol; NAM, Yeong-Hee; CHEONG, Seung-A; KWAK, Seong-Sung; LEE, Eunsong; HYUN, Sang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation. PMID:27064112

  4. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Nam, Yeong-Hee; Cheong, Seung-A; Kwak, Seong-Sung; Lee, Eunsong; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-08-25

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation.

  5. Day-3 Medium Changes can Affect Developmental Potential of Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer and Parthenogenesis Embryos In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Biswas and Sang Hwan Hyun*

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the developmental competence of porcine parthenotes and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos after day-3 medium change with fresh embryo culture medium to that of embryos that did not have a medium change (monoculture system. The parthenogenetic and SCNT blastocyst formation rates were significantly (P<0.05 higher in the no-medium-change group (43.3±2.3, 18.5±1.1%, respectively compared with the day-3 medium-change group (35.9±2.4, 7.9±0.9%, respectively. Total cell number in parthenotes and SCNT blastocysts was also significantly (P<0.05 higher in the no-media-change group (92.0±4.2, 66.9±7.7, respectively compared with the media-change group (81.5±3.1, 46.6±4.9, respectively. No significant difference in cleavage rate was found in either group for parthenotes or SCNT embryos. This result suggests that day-3 medium changes have negative effects on porcine parthenotes and SCNT embryos in vitro.

  6. Influence of position and length of uterus on implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF and embryo transfer treatment cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbase, P E; Al-Sharhan, M; Grudzinskas, J G

    2000-09-01

    In a prospective study of 807 consecutive women shown to have an apparently normal uterus after hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy or pelvic ultrasonography prior to IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer, the position and length of the uterine cavity was measured routinely at a pre-treatment mock transfer procedure. The apparent length of the uterine cavity was 9 cm in 85 women (group 3). The uterus was noted to be retroverted in 38. 2% (308) women. The embryo transfer catheter was advanced to 5 mm from the uterine fundus based on the previously determined cavity length in all the embryo transfer procedures at 48 h after oocyte collection. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly different with respect to position of the uterus, difficulties encountered in passage of the catheter, mean age of the women, aetiology or duration of infertility or embryology events. An apparently greater cavity length was seen in older and/or parous women, but the difference was not statistically significant. Although the highest implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were seen in women with a cavity length of 7-9 cm (group 2) the differences were not statistically significant: group 1, 18.9 and 36. 7%; group 2, 21.0 and 46.5%; and group 3, 17.3 and 32.9% respectively. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy per reported clinical pregnancy was highest in group 1 women, being 14.9% (7/47) in comparison with group 2 (1.8%, 5/276) and group 3 (0%, 0/27) (P: size of the uterus is a critical factor in the aetiology of ectopic pregnancy in IVF/ICSI-embryo transfer.

  7. International transfer pricing restrictions: impact on corporate financial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Limberg,Stephen T.; Robinson,John R.; Christians,Raimundo L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Transfer pricing is a pervasive issue that presents significant tax savings potential concerning international enterprises. The authors discuss company incentives to manage transfer prices in an article appearing in the preceding issue of this journal. In response to these incentives, governments have increasingly enacted and enforced domestic restrictions on transfer prices. In this article, contemporary norms restricting transfer pricing are analyzed. The OEGO and US pricing standards are a...

  8. Does premature elevated progesterone on the day of trigger increase spontaneous abortion rates in fresh and subsequent frozen embryo transfers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Mae; Patounakis, George; Zanelotti, Austin; Devine, Kate; DeCherney, Alan; Levy, Michael; Hill, Micah J

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence has shown elevated progesterone (P) advances the endometrium in fresh ART cycles, creating asynchrony with the embryo and thus implantation failure and decreased live birth rates. If the window of implantation is closing as the embryo attempts to implant, there may be difficulty with trophoblastic invasion, leading to failure of early pregnancies. Our objective was to evaluate if P on the day of trigger was associated with spontaneous abortion (SAB) rates in fresh ART transfers. This was a retrospective cohort study involving fresh autologous and FET cycles from 2011 to 2013. The main outcome was spontaneous abortion rates. About 4123 fresh and FET transfer cycles were included which resulted in 1547 fresh and 491 FET pregnancies. The overall SAB rate was 20% among fresh cycles and 19% in FET cycles. P on the day of trigger, as a continuous variable or when > 2 ng/mL, was not associated with SAB in fresh cycles. Similar results were found after adjusting for age, embryo quality, and embryo stage. Despite elevated P likely advancing the window of implantation, once implantation occurs, pregnancies were no longer negatively impacted by progesterone.

  9. Intravenous intralipid therapy is not beneficial in having a live delivery in women aged 40-42 years with a previous history of miscarriage or failure to conceive despite embryo transfer undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Check, D L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intralipid intravenous infusion in achieving a live pregnancy following IVF--embryo transfer in women of advanced reproductive age (40-42 years). A matched control was performed. Women aged 40-42 with a previous history of miscarriage or who failed to conceive despite previous embryo transfer who entered an IVF program were offered intravenous intralipid therapy (four ml of 20% liposyn II in 100 ml normal saline over one hour) during the mid-follicular phase. Clinical pregnancy rates (eight weeks with viable gestation) and live delivered pregnancy rates were then determined and compared. The results were evaluated after ten matched cycles. There were no clinical pregnancies in those receiving intralipid vs. a 40% clinical and a 30% live delivered pregnancy rate in the untreated controls (p = 0.087, Fisher's exact test). The study was terminated because of these preliminary data. In the test tube, adding intralipid to natural killer cells can inhibit their cytolytic action. However, the use of intravenous intralipid to suppress natural killer cell activity does not seem to improve the chance of a live delivery in women aged 40-42 years with a previous history of miscarriage. In fact this therapy may actually be detrimental in this age group. Since efficacy of this therapy was not found in a group of advanced reproductive age, it is not clear why this should be effective for a younger population. A controlled study for the younger group is needed. Perhaps such a study could be limited to only those with miscarriage rather than also concluding failure to conceive despite embryo transfer. Intralipid failed to improve live delivered pregnancy rates in women with prior miscarriage or previous failure with embryo transfer.

  10. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  11. In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in seminatural cycles for patients with ovarian aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo Branco, Altina; Achour-Frydman, Nelly; Kadoch, Jacques; Fanchin, Renato; Tachdjian, Gerard; Frydman, René

    2005-10-01

    To investigate whether seminatural cycle is a reasonable management for ovarian aging patients. Prospective study. ART Unit, Clamart, France. Seventy-five women, 158 cycles. Infertile women who presented with ovarian aging (defined as low ovarian reserve and characterized by cycle day 3 high FSH, high E2, and/or low inhibin B and/or previous cycle cancellations due to poor ovarian response to COH) were studied. Patients were offered up to three cycles. Treatment was scheduled as follows. From cycle day 8 onward the selection of the dominant follicle was monitored by ultrasound and hormonal measurements. When the dominant follicle appeared, patients received GnRH antagonist and, thereafter, hMG to support further follicular development. Implantation rate and clinical pregnancy. Twenty-eight of 158 cycles were cancelled (17.7%). Oocyte pickups were performed in 119 (75.3%) cycles, 91 (57.6%) mature oocytes were retrieved, and 67 (42.4%) embryos transferred. Nineteen clinical pregnancies were obtained; the cumulative pregnancy rate per patient, after 3 cycles, was 35.2%. Use of a seminatural cycle is a reasonable management for patients with ovarian aging who have ovulatory menstrual cycles. It achieves a high implantation rate (28.3%).

  12. Emotional aspects and support in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, V J; Hennessey, J F

    1988-10-01

    Little is known about the emotional demands upon women of the step-by-step procedures characteristic of involvement in an in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. In this study, 77 women provided their perceptions of the emotional demands of IVF-ET and explanations for failed attempts, as well as describing their coping strategies and sources of emotional support. Nominated as the two most difficult stages of IVF were the wait for a possible pregnancy after the procedure and the blood tests and injections prior to hospitalization. Women were overly optimistic with a first attempt, with 70% being moderately to highly optimistic about success. Levels of optimism, however, generally declined across attempts. About half of the women intended to stop after four attempts, and almost all would stop after six treatment cycles. Women attributed their lack of success to a wide range of factors, including the low success rate, being anxious or stressed, bad luck, or problems associated with their condition and the procedure. Asked how they coped with the program, the women reported that the major strategy was to adopt the attitude that they might be successful in the long term. Other coping strategies involved keeping busy, staying calm, and seeking the support of other IVF women and husbands. Husbands were listed as the major source of emotional support, followed by other infertile women and nurses, counselors, and doctors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effect of meloxicam on pregnancy rate of recipient heifers following transfer of in vitro produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, T S; Araújo, C V; Tirloni, R R; Martins, L R

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if administration of meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase (COX) two inhibitor, to heifers in which embryo transfer (ET) is more difficult and requires a greater manipulation of the tract, would be beneficial. Nulliparous recipient heifers were divided in two groups: CON (n = 102), in which animals received 10 ml of saline IM (the same volume of meloxicam) and MEL (n = 105) animals that were treated with meloxicam. According to the degree in passing the catheter, recipients from both groups were classified as Grade I, easy (meloxicam (10 ml).There was no difference in the pregnancy rates on Day 35 considering animals which presented Grade I cervix independently whether the treatment was performed or not (p = 0.22). There was a statistical difference in the pregnancy rates (p meloxicam had a positive influence on general pregnancy rate of treated heifers in comparison to non-treated heifers. It was also observed that pregnancy rate was not influenced by meloxicam administration in Grade I heifers. Treatment increased the pregnancy rate of Grade II heifers.

  14. Relationship between Antithyroid Antibody and Pregnancy Outcome following in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ping Zhong, Ying Ying, Hai-tao Wu, Can-quan Zhou, Yan-wen Xu, Qiong Wang, Jie Li, Xiao-ting Shen, Jin Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the impact of antithyroid antibody on pregnancy outcome following the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET.Methods: A total of 90 patients (156 cycles positive for antithyroid antibody (ATA+ group and 676 infertile women (1062 cycles negative for antithyroid antibody (ATA- group undergoing IVF/ICSI from August 2009 to August 2010 were retrospectively analyzed.Results: There was no significant difference in the days of ovarian stimulation, total gonadotropin dose, serum E2 level of HCG day and number of oocytes retrieved between the two groups. The fertilization rate, implantation rate and pregnancy rate following IVF-ET were significantly lower in women with antithyroid antibody than in control group (64.3% vs 74.6%, 17.8% vs 27.1% and 33.3% vs 46.7%, respectively, but the abortion rate was significantly higher in patients with antithyroid antibody (26.9% vs 11.8%.Conclusion: Patients with antithyroid antibody showed significantly lower fertilization rate, implantation rate and pregnancy rate and higher risk for abortion following IVF-ET when compared with those without antithyroid antibody. Thus, the presence of antithyroid antibody is detrimental for the pregnancy outcome following IVF-ET.

  15. Development of a generally applicable morphokinetic algorithm capable of predicting the implantation potential of embryos transferred on Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Boel, Mikkel; Montag, Markus; Gardner, David K.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can a generally applicable morphokinetic algorithm suitable for Day 3 transfers of time-lapse monitored embryos originating from different culture conditions and fertilization methods be developed for the purpose of supporting the embryologist's decision on which embryo to transfer back to the patient in assisted reproduction? SUMMARY ANSWER The algorithm presented here can be used independently of culture conditions and fertilization method and provides predictive power not surpassed by other published algorithms for ranking embryos according to their blastocyst formation potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Generally applicable algorithms have so far been developed only for predicting blastocyst formation. A number of clinics have reported validated implantation prediction algorithms, which have been developed based on clinic-specific culture conditions and clinical environment. However, a generally applicable embryo evaluation algorithm based on actual implantation outcome has not yet been reported. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Retrospective evaluation of data extracted from a database of known implantation data (KID) originating from 3275 embryos transferred on Day 3 conducted in 24 clinics between 2009 and 2014. The data represented different culture conditions (reduced and ambient oxygen with various culture medium strategies) and fertilization methods (IVF, ICSI). The capability to predict blastocyst formation was evaluated on an independent set of morphokinetic data from 11 218 embryos which had been cultured to Day 5. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The algorithm was developed by applying automated recursive partitioning to a large number of annotation types and derived equations, progressing to a five-fold cross-validation test of the complete data set and a validation test of different incubation conditions and fertilization methods. The results were expressed as receiver operating characteristics curves using the area under the

  16. Development of a generally applicable morphokinetic algorithm capable of predicting the implantation potential of embryos transferred on Day 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Boel, Mikkel; Montag, Markus; Gardner, David K

    2016-10-01

    Can a generally applicable morphokinetic algorithm suitable for Day 3 transfers of time-lapse monitored embryos originating from different culture conditions and fertilization methods be developed for the purpose of supporting the embryologist's decision on which embryo to transfer back to the patient in assisted reproduction? The algorithm presented here can be used independently of culture conditions and fertilization method and provides predictive power not surpassed by other published algorithms for ranking embryos according to their blastocyst formation potential. Generally applicable algorithms have so far been developed only for predicting blastocyst formation. A number of clinics have reported validated implantation prediction algorithms, which have been developed based on clinic-specific culture conditions and clinical environment. However, a generally applicable embryo evaluation algorithm based on actual implantation outcome has not yet been reported. Retrospective evaluation of data extracted from a database of known implantation data (KID) originating from 3275 embryos transferred on Day 3 conducted in 24 clinics between 2009 and 2014. The data represented different culture conditions (reduced and ambient oxygen with various culture medium strategies) and fertilization methods (IVF, ICSI). The capability to predict blastocyst formation was evaluated on an independent set of morphokinetic data from 11 218 embryos which had been cultured to Day 5. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING,  The algorithm was developed by applying automated recursive partitioning to a large number of annotation types and derived equations, progressing to a five-fold cross-validation test of the complete data set and a validation test of different incubation conditions and fertilization methods. The results were expressed as receiver operating characteristics curves using the area under the curve (AUC) to establish the predictive strength of the algorithm. By applying the here

  17. Practical experience with the treatment of recipient mares with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in an equine embryo transfer programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischke, P; Budik, S; Müller, J; Aurich, C

    2010-12-01

    As part of a commercial embryo transfer programme, 20 embryos were transferred to spontaneously synchronous or synchronized recipient mares. In 14 cases, embryo recipients were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), receiving flunixin meglumine i.v. at the time of transfer and vedaprofen orally twice a day on the 3 days after embryo transfer, while six embryos were transferred to untreated mares that served as controls. Out of the 14 recipient mares treated with NSAID, 11 (79%) were pregnant at 6-8 days after transfer and in 10 mares, the pregnancy was continued. From the six untreated recipients, only one became pregnant but underwent early embryonic death between day 14 and 35 after ovulation. In conclusion, pregnancy rate in NSAID-treated recipients is higher than that in untreated recipients and above reported average values, indicating that treatment of recipient mares with NSAID helps to increase pregnancy rates after transcervical transfer and can be recommended for equine embryo transfer.

  18. Knowledge Transfer in International Manufacturing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov

    This paper is built around eight longitudinal case studies of knowledge transfer in manufacturing relocation. The paper introduces a model designed to identify knowledge in relation to four task situations on the shop floor in a manufacturing environment. Explicit and tacit knowledge are introduced...... and the paper suggests how the transfer of tacit knowledge, in particular, can be improved. The paper discusses two dramatic shifts in organizational settings, i.e. from operations management to project management in the sending unit before a transfer and the reverse in the receiving unit after relocation...

  19. Effect of transfer of one or two in vitro-produced embryos and post-transfer administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone on pregnancy rates of heat-stressed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, M; Block, J; Jousan, F D; de Castro e Paula, L A; Brad, A M; Franco, J M; Grisel, F; Monson, R L; Rutledge, J J; Hansen, P J

    2006-07-15

    Pregnancy rates following transfer of an in vitro-produced (IVP) embryo are often lower than those obtained following transfer of an embryo produced by superovulation. The purpose of the current pair of experiments was to examine two strategies for increasing pregnancy rates in heat stressed, dairy recipients receiving an IVP embryo. One method was to transfer two embryos into the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL, whereas the other method involved injection of GnRH at Day 11 after the anticipated day of ovulation. In Experiment 1, 32 virgin crossbred heifers and 26 lactating crossbred cows were prepared for timed embryo transfer by being subjected to a timed ovulation protocol. Those having a palpable CL were randomly selected to receive one (n = 31 recipients) or two (n = 27 recipients) embryos on Day 7 after anticipated ovulation. At Day 64 of gestation, the pregnancy rate tended to be higher (P = 0.07) for cows than for heifers. Heifers that received one embryo tended to have a higher pregnancy rate than those that received two embryos (41% versus 20%, respectively) while there was no difference in pregnancy rate for cows that received one or two embryos (57% versus 50%, respectively). Pregnancy loss between Day 64 and 127 only occurred for cows that received two embryos (pregnancy rate at Day 127=17%). Between Day 127 and term, one animal (a cow with a single embryo) lost its pregnancy. There was no difference in pregnancy rates at Day 127 or calving rates between cows and heifers, but females that received two embryos had lower Day-127 pregnancy rates and calving rates than females that received one embryo (P cows were synchronized for timed embryo transfer as in Experiment 1. Cows received a single embryo in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the ovary containing the CL and received either 100 microg GnRH or vehicle at Day 11 after anticipated ovulation (i.e. 4 days after embryo transfer). There was no difference in pregnancy rate for cows that received the Gn

  20. Effect of superovulation on uterine and serum biochemical parameters and its potential association with transferable embryos in Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, Hasina Santatriniaina; Chorfi, Younès; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Lefebvre, Réjean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of superovulation (SOV) on serum and uterine biochemical parameters, uterine bacteriology and cytology and number of transferable embryos (TE). Dairy cows were placed on a Presynch/CIDR Synch protocol. The SOV group was superovulated, induced in estrus, and inseminated, whereas the control group was induced in estrus and inseminated without SOV. Uterine bacteriology and cytology and uterine and serum biochemical parameters were measured...

  1. Interspecies embryo transfer in camelids: the birth of the first Bactrian camel calves (Camelus bactrianus) from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niasari-Naslaji, A; Nikjou, D; Skidmore, J A; Moghiseh, A; Mostafaey, M; Razavi, K; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies embryo transfer is a possible approach that can be used to conserve endangered species. It could provide a useful technique to preserve the Iranian and wild Bactrian camels, both of which are threatened with extinction. In the present study, one Bactrian camel was superovulated using decreasing doses of FSH (60, 40, 30, 30, 20, 20 mg, b.i.d.; Folltropin-V; Bioniche, London, ON, Canada) for 6 days, followed by a single injection of FSH (20 mg, i.m.) on Day 7. Daily ovarian ultrasonography was performed until most of the growing follicles had reached a mature size of 13-17 mm, at which time the camel was mated twice, 24 h apart, with a fertile male Bactrian camel. At the time of first mating, female camels were given 20 microg, i.v., buserelin (Receptal; Intervet, Boxmeer, The Netherlands). One day after the donor camel had been mated, the dromedary recipients (n = 8) were injected with 25 mg, i.v., porcine LH (Lutropin-V; Bioniche) to induce ovulation. Embryos were recovered on Day 8.5 after the first mating and transferred non-surgically into recipients on Day 7.5 after LH injection. Pregnancy was diagnosed 25 days after embryo transfer. Healthy Bactrian camel calves (n = 4) were born without any particular complications at the time of parturition (e.g. dystocia and neonatal diseases). The present study is the first report of the birth of Bactrian camel calves from dromedary camels, as well as the first report of interspecies embryo transfer in old world camelids.

  2. Development of nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic rabbit embryos activated with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, S M; White, K L; Farrar, V R; Morrey, J; Reed, W A

    1999-04-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different activation protocols, enucleation methods, and culture media on the development of parthenogenetic and nuclear transfer (NT) rabbit embryos. Electroporation of 25 mM inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) in calcium- and magnesium-free PBS immediately induced a single intracellular calcium transient in 6 out of 14 metaphase II-stage rabbit oocytes evaluated during a 10-min recording period. The percentage of oocytes treated with IP3 followed by 6-dimethylaminopurine (IP3 + DMAP) that cleaved (83.9%) and reached the blastocyst stage (50%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those activated with multiple pulses (61.6% and 30.1%, respectively) or treated with ionomycin + DMAP (52.9% and 5.7%, respectively). Development of IP3 + DMAP-activated rabbit oocytes and in vivo-fertilized zygotes in different culture media was studied. Development of activated oocytes to the blastocyst stage in Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) supplemented with MEM nonessential amino acids, basal medium Eagle amino acids, 1 mM L-glutamine, 0.4 mM sodium pyruvate, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (EBSS-complete) (40.6%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those that developed in either Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/RPMI + 10% FBS (15.5%) or CR1aa + 10% FBS (4%) medium. In addition, 100% of in vivo-fertilized rabbit zygotes developed to the blastocyst stage in EBSS-complete. A third set of experiments was carried out to study the efficiency of blind versus stained (Hoechst 33342) enucleation of oocytes. Twenty-nine of 48 blind enucleated and IP3 + DMAP-activated oocytes cleaved (60.4%), and 15 (31.2%) subsequently reached the blastocyst stage, whereas 9 of 52 oocytes enucleated using epifluorescence (17.3%) cleaved, and none of these reached the blastocyst stage. When the above parameters that yielded the highest blastocysts were combined in an NT experiment using adult rabbit fibroblast nuclei, 72

  3. Blastocyst transfer ameliorates live birth rate compared with cleavage-stage embryos transfer in fresh in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: reviews and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Sun, Hai-Xiang

    2014-05-01

    Blastocyst transfer has been recommended to raise the implantation rate without affecting the pregnancy rate. The objective of this meta-analysis is to systematically evaluate whether the live birth rate and other pregnancy outcomes can be improved by blastocyst transfer compared with cleavage-stage embryos transfer. EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers published between March 2004 and March 2013. An extensive range of the electronic databases yielded initially 317 studies from which seven trials met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Our outcome measures were the live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, first trimester miscarriage rate and ectopic pregnancy rate. Fixed effects models were chosen to calculate the odds ratio (OR). Seven trials (n=1446 cases) were finally analyzed. Compared with cleavage-stage embryos transfer, the blastocyst transfer was statistically significantly associated with an increase in clinical pregnancy rate [OR 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.78], implantation rate (OR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09-1.74) and ongoing pregnancy rate (OR 2.15; 95% CI, 1.57-2.94), and also a reduction in the probability of first trimester miscarriage rate (OR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.87). The improvement in the live birth rate was also observed (OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.32-2.37). Moreover, there was no evidence of difference in multiple pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy rates. The available evidences suggest that live birth and other pregnancy outcomes after fresh in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) are significantly improved following blastocyst transfer as compared to cleavage-stage embryo transfer.

  4. Perinatal outcomes among singletons after assisted reproductive technology with single-embryo or double-embryo transfer versus no assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Angela S; Chang, Jeani; Zhang, Yujia; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Boulet, Sheree L; McKane, Patricia; Bernson, Dana; Kissin, Dmitry M; Jamieson, Denise J

    2017-04-01

    To examine outcomes of singleton pregnancies conceived without assisted reproductive technology (non-ART) compared with singletons conceived with ART by elective single-embryo transfer (eSET), nonelective single-embryo transfer (non-eSET), and double-embryo transfer with the establishment of 1 (DET -1) or ≥2 (DET ≥2) early fetal heartbeats. Retrospective cohort using linked ART surveillance data and vital records from Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Connecticut. Not applicable. Singleton live-born infants. None. Preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks), very preterm birth (VPTB <32 weeks), small for gestational age birth weight (<10th percentile), low birth weight (LBW <2,500 g), very low birth weight (VLBW <1,500 g), 5-minute Apgar score <7, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. After controlling for maternal characteristics and employing a weighted propensity score approach, we found that singletons conceived after eSET were less likely to have a 5-minute Apgar <7 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.69) compared with non-ART singletons. There were no differences among outcomes between non-ART and non-eSET infants. We found that PTB, VPTB, LBW, and VLBW were more likely among DET -1 and DET ≥2 compared with non-ART infants, with the odds being higher for DET ≥2 (PTB aOR 1.58; 95% CI, 1.09-2.29; VPTB aOR 2.46; 95% CI, 1.20-5.04; LBW aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24-3.79; VLBW aOR 3.67; 95% CI, 1.38-9.77). Compared with non-ART singletons, singletons born after eSET and non-eSET did not have increased risks whereas DET -1 and DET ≥2 singletons were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Mother-embryo isotope (δ¹⁵N, δ¹³C) fractionation and mercury (Hg) transfer in aplacental deep-sea sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, B; Kiszka, J; Bustamante, P

    2014-05-01

    Stable carbon (δ¹³C) and nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) isotopic values and total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analysed in muscle and liver of mothers and embryos of two aplacental shark species, Squalus megalops and Centrophorus moluccensis. Embryos of the two species had similar or lower isotopic values than their respective mothers, the only exception being for δ¹³C, which was higher in the liver of C. moluccensis embryos than in their mothers. Hg concentrations were systematically lower in embryos compared with their mothers suggesting a low transfer of this element in muscle and liver.

  6. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    was already considered in the previous opinion, its conclusions and recommendations relating to the risk of classical scrapie transmission via embryo transfer remain valid. In ovines, the susceptibility to classical scrapie infection in sheep is strongly influenced by certain polymorphisms of the PrP gene....... Irrespective of the embryo’s genotype, embryos derived from rams and dams carrying at least one ARR allele would significantly decrease this risk (compared to an embryo from parents of unknown genotypes). The use of homozygous ARR embryos would provide the highest level of safety regarding the risk...

  7. Impact of whole-genome amplification on the reliability of pre-transfer cattle embryo breeding value estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei Saadi, Habib A; Vigneault, Christian; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Gagné, Dominic; Fournier, Éric; de Montera, Béatrice; Chesnais, Jacques; Blondin, Patrick; Robert, Claude

    2014-10-12

    Genome-wide profiling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms is receiving increasing attention as a method of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in humans and of commercial genotyping of pre-transfer embryos in cattle. However, the very small quantity of genomic DNA in biopsy material from early embryos poses daunting technical challenges. A reliable whole-genome amplification (WGA) procedure would greatly facilitate the procedure. Several PCR-based and non-PCR based WGA technologies, namely multiple displacement amplification, quasi-random primed library synthesis followed by PCR, ligation-mediated PCR, and single-primer isothermal amplification were tested in combination with different DNA extractions protocols for various quantities of genomic DNA inputs. The efficiency of each method was evaluated by comparing the genotypes obtained from 15 cultured cells (representative of an embryonic biopsy) to unamplified reference gDNA. The gDNA input, gDNA extraction method and amplification technology were all found to be critical for successful genome-wide genotyping. The selected WGA platform was then tested on embryo biopsies (n = 226), comparing their results to that of biopsies collected after birth. Although WGA inevitably leads to a random loss of information and to the introduction of erroneous genotypes, following genomic imputation the resulting genetic index of both sources of DNA were highly correlated (r = 0.99, PDNA in sufficient quantities for successful genome-wide genotyping starting from an early embryo biopsy. However, imputation from parental and population genotypes is a requirement for completing and correcting genotypic data. Judicious selection of the WGA platform, careful handling of the samples and genomic imputation together, make it possible to perform extremely reliable genomic evaluations for pre-transfer embryos.

  8. The integrated HIV-1 provirus in patient sperm chromosome and its transfer into the early embryo by fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Wang

    Full Text Available Complete understanding of the route of HIV-1 transmission is an important prerequisite for curbing the HIV/AIDS pandemic. So far, the known routes of HIV-1 transmission include sexual contact, needle sharing, puncture, transfusion and mother-to-child transmission. Whether HIV can be vertically transmitted from human sperm to embryo by fertilization is largely undetermined. Direct research on embryo derived from infected human sperm and healthy human ova have been difficult because of ethical issues and problems in the collection of ova. However, the use of inter-specific in vitro fertilization (IVF between human sperm and hamster ova can avoid both of these problems. Combined with molecular, cytogenetical and immunological techniques such as the preparation of human sperm chromosomes, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, and immunofluorescence assay (IFA, this study mainly explored whether any integrated HIV provirus were present in the chromosomes of infected patients' sperm, and whether that provirus could be transferred into early embryos by fertilization and maintain its function of replication and expression. Evidence showed that HIV-1 nucleic acid was present in the spermatozoa of HIV/AIDS patients, that HIV-1 provirus is present on the patient sperm chromosome, that the integrated provirus could be transferred into early embryo chromosomally integrated by fertilization, and that it could replicate alongside the embryonic genome and subsequently express its protein in the embryo. These findings indicate the possibility of vertical transmission of HIV-1 from the sperm genome to the embryonic genome by fertilization. This study also offers a platform for the research into this new mode of transmission for other viruses, especially sexually transmitted viruses.

  9. Successful laparoscopic management of a rare complication after embryo transfer: ovarian pregnancy. A case report and up-to-date literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Turgut; Yucel, Burak; Aksoy, Huseyin; Ekemen, Suheyla

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian pregnancy (OP) after embryo transfer is very rare. Due to the rarity and the asymptomatic nature, there are still difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. The traditional operative treatment for OP has been oophorectomy. However, the desire to maintain reproductive capability and improvements in laparoscopy have more recently led to conservative laparoscopic techniques. This rare complication could be diagnosed early and managed by a conservative laparoscopic approach. Here we present a survey of the literature and a case of successful laparoscopic management of ovarian pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer. The current case is the first case in the literature in which ovarian pregnancy occurred after a single embryo transfer. We also summarize the literature about management of ovarian pregnancy after embryo transfer.

  10. Mother-embryo isotope (δ15N, δ13C) fractionation and mercury (Hg) transfer in aplacental deep-water sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bourg, Baptiste; Kiszka, Jeremy; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic values and total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analysed in muscle and liver of mothers and embryos of two aplacental shark species, Squalus megalops and Centrophorus moluccensis. Embryos of the two species had similar or lower isotopic values than their respective mothers, the only exception being for δ13C, which was higher in the liver of C. moluccensis embryos than in their mothers. Hg concentrations were systemati...

  11. Factors related to clinical pregnancy after vitrified-warmed embryo transfer: a retrospective and multivariate logistic regression analysis of 2313 transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenhao; Zhang, Silin; Zhao, Wanqiu; Xia, Xue; Wang, Min; Wang, Hui; Bai, Haiyan; Shi, Juanzi

    2013-07-01

    What factors does multivariate logistic regression show to be significantly associated with the likelihood of clinical pregnancy in vitrified-warmed embryo transfer (VET) cycles? Assisted hatching (AH) and if the reason to freeze embryos was to avoid the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) were significantly positively associated with a greater likelihood of clinical pregnancy. Single factor analysis has shown AH, number of embryos transferred and the reason of freezing for OHSS to be positively and damaged blastomere to be negatively significantly associated with the chance of clinical pregnancy after VET. It remains unclear what factors would be significant after multivariate analysis. The study was a retrospective analysis of 2313 VET cycles from 1481 patients performed between January 2008 and April 2012. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors to affect clinical pregnancy outcome of VET. There were 22 candidate variables selected based on clinical experiences and the literature. With the thresholds of α entry = α removal= 0.05 for both variable entry and variable removal, eight variables were chosen to contribute the multivariable model by the bootstrap stepwise variable selection algorithm (n = 1000). Eight variables were age at controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), reason for freezing, AH, endometrial thickness, damaged blastomere, number of embryos transferred, number of good-quality embryos, and blood presence on transfer catheter. A descriptive comparison of the relative importance was accomplished by the proportion of explained variation (PEV). Among the reasons for freezing, the OHSS group showed a higher OR than the surplus embryo group when compared with other reasons for VET groups (OHSS versus Other, OR: 2.145; CI: 1.4-3.286; Surplus embryos versus Other, OR: 1.152; CI: 0.761-1.743) and high PEV (marginal 2.77%, P = 0.2911; partial 1.68%; CI of area under receptor operator characteristic

  12. Superovulation of the Cloned Cattle Derived from Somatic Cells and the Transfer of the Vitrified-Thawed Embryos of the Cloning Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ya-juan; BAI Xue-jin; LI Jian-dong; CHENG Ming

    2004-01-01

    In this experiment, it was designed to carry out superovulation on the two cloned cattles, vitrification and transfer of the embryos recovered from them. First of all, it was carried out vitrification on embryos obtained by IVF. Results showed that there were no significant differences between the blastocysts (obtained by IVF) vitrified in EPS10 and these in EPS20 on the resuscitative rate and the developmental rate. The hatched rate of the blastocysts vitrified in EPS10 (31.3%, 35/112) was significantly higher than that in EPS20 (12.2%, 13/107) (P<0.01), so EPS20 was selected as the vitrification solution to freeze the embryos recovered from the cloned cattle. After superovulation, six (four usable embryos) and ten (nine usable embryos) embryos were respectively recovered from Kangkang and Shuanghuang. Two embryos were selected from the recovered embryos of each cloned cattle to freeze in EPS20, subsequently thawed and transferred into luteal ipsilateral uterine horns of 4 Holstein recipient cows after synchronization of estrus, respectively. At last, one recipient cow (No. 9908) became pregnant and delivered one healthy calf (descendant of the cloned cattle-Shuangshuang). The results of this experiment show that the cloned cattle as well as common cattle had better response to the exotic FSH and better ability to multiovulation, the embryos recovered from the cloned cattle can be vitrificated.

  13. Knowledge Transfer in International Manufacturing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov

    This paper is built around eight longitudinal case studies of knowledge transfer in manufacturing relocation. The paper introduces a model designed to identify knowledge in relation to four task situations on the shop floor in a manufacturing environment. Explicit and tacit knowledge are introduced....... Finally, the paper discusses how “dispatching capacity” and “absorptive capacity” can improve the process....

  14. A biolistic process for in vitro gene transfer into chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Ribeiro

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken embryos kept in culture medium were bombarded using a high helium gas pressure biolistic device. To optimize the factors that affect transformation efficiency, the lacZ gene under control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter was used as a reporter gene. There was an inverse relationship between survival rate and transformation efficiency. The best conditions obtained for high embryo survival and high transformation efficiency were achieved with 800 psi helium gas pressure, 500 mmHg vacuum, gold particles, an 8 cm DNA-coated microparticle flying distance to the embryo and embryo placement 0.5 cm from the center of the particle dispersion cone. Under these conditions, transformation efficiency was 100%, survival rate 25% and the number of expression units in the embryo body cells ranged from 100 to 1,000. Expression of green fluorescent protein was also detected in embryos bombarded under optimal conditions. Based on the results obtained, the biolistic process can be considered an efficient method for the transformation of chicken embryos and therefore can be used as a model system to study transient gene expression and tissue-specific promoters.

  15. Embryo transfer in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) using non-ovulated and ovulated, asynchronous progesterone-treated recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Billah, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of exogenous progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) in non-ovulated and ovulated, asynchronous dromedary camel recipients being prepared for an embryo transfer programme. The uteri of 12 mated donor camels were flushed non-surgically 7 days after ovulation and 42 embryos were recovered. In Experiment 1, 16 embryos were transferred non-surgically to recipients on Day 3 or 4 after ovulation (ov+3 and ov+4, respectively). Each recipient received a daily dose of 75 mg, i.m., progesterone-in-oil from 2 days before embryo transfer until 6 days after ovulation. Thereafter, the progesterone dose was reduced to 50 mg on Day 7 and finally to 25 mg day(-1) on Days 8 and 9. Nine of 16 recipients (56%; ov+3, n=4; ov+4, n=5) became pregnant compared with none of eight non-progesterone treated controls, into which embryos were transferred on Day 4 after ovulation. In Experiment 2, 18 non-ovulated recipients received 75 mg, i.m., progesterone-in-oil daily from 3 days before until 12 days after non-surgical transfer of a Day 7 blastocyst, at which time pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography. All pregnant recipients continued to receive 75 mg progesterone-in-oil daily for a further 6 days, when each camel received 2000 IU, i.m., eCG. Progesterone treatment was then reduced to 50 mg day(-1) and, when a follicle(s) ≥1.3 cm in diameter were present in the ovaries, each animal received 20 μg buserelin to induce ovulation. Once the corpora lutea had developed, progesterone treatment was reduced to 25 mg day(-1) for a final 3 days. Fourteen of 18 recipients (78%) became pregnant and seven of these (50%) remained pregnant after eCG treatment. Of the seven pregnancies that were lost, two were lost before eCG treatment, two did not respond to eCG treatment and three responded to eCG treatment and ovulated, but lost their pregnancies 6-8 days after the last progesterone injection.

  16. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jugulam

    Full Text Available Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18 and B. napus (2n = 38 were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH. This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds.

  17. Normal epigenetic inheritance in mice conceived by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei LI; Fang LE; Li-ya WANG; Xiang-rong XU; Hang-ying LOU; Ying-ming ZHENG; Jiang-zhong SHENG; He-feng HUANG; Fan JIN

    2011-01-01

    An association between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and neurobehavioral imprinting disorders has been reported in many studies,and it seems that ART may interfere with imprint reprogramming.However,it has never been explored whether epigenetic errors or imprinting disease susceptibility induced by ART can be inherited transgenerationally.Hence,the aim of this study was to determine the effect of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) on transgenerational inheritance in an inbred mouse model.Mice derived from IVF-ET were outcrossed to wild-type C57BL/6J to obtain their female and male line F2 and F3 generations.Their behavior,morphology,histology,and DNA methylation status at several important differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were analyzed by Morris water maze,hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining,and bisulfite genomic sequencing.No significant differences in spatial learning or phenotypic abnormality were found in adults derived from IVF (F1) and female and male line F2 and F3 generations.A borderline trend of hypomethylation was found in H19 DMR CpG island 3 in the female line-derived F3 generation (0.40±0.118,P=0.086).Methylation status in H19/Igf2 DMR island 1,Igf2 DMR,KvDMR,and Snrpn DMR displayed normal patterns.Methylation percentage did not differ significantly from that of adults conceived naturally,and the expression of the genes they regulated was not disturbed.Transgenerational integrity,such as behavior,morphology,histology,and DNA methylation status,was maintained in these generations,which indicates that exposure of female germ cells to hormonal stimulation and gamete manipulation might not affect the individuals and their descendents.

  18. Accounting for unknown foster dams in the genetic evaluation of embryo transfer progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, M J; Munilla, S; Cantet, R J C

    2015-02-01

    Animals born by embryo transfer (ET) are usually not included in the genetic evaluation of beef cattle for preweaning growth if the recipient dam is unknown. This is primarily to avoid potential bias in the estimation of the unknown age of dam. We present a method that allows including records of calves with unknown age of dam. Assumptions are as follows: (i) foster cows belong to the same breed being evaluated, (ii) there is no correlation between the breeding value (BV) of the calf and the maternal BV of the recipient cow, and (iii) cows of all ages are used as recipients. We examine the issue of bias for the fixed level of unknown age of dam (AOD) and propose an estimator of the effect based on classical measurement error theory (MEM) and a Bayesian approach. Using stochastic simulation under random mating or selection, the MEM estimating equations were compared with BLUP in two situations as follows: (i) full information (FI); (ii) missing AOD information on some dams. Predictions of breeding value (PBV) from the FI situation had the smallest empirical average bias followed by PBV obtained without taking measurement error into account. In turn, MEM displayed the highest bias, although the differences were small. On the other hand, MEM showed the smallest MSEP, for either random mating or selection, followed by FI, whereas ignoring measurement error produced the largest MSEP. As a consequence from the smallest MSEP with a relatively small bias, empirical accuracies of PBV were larger for MEM than those for full information, which in turn showed larger accuracies than the situation ignoring measurement error. It is concluded that MEM equations are a useful alternative for analysing weaning weight data when recipient cows are unknown, as it mitigates the effects of bias in AOD by decreasing MSEP.

  19. Process of international kaizen transfer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study sheds light on the international kaizen transfer process. Two research questions were explored: what are the major stages in the kaizen transfer process? And what are the activities, positive and negative factors influencing each stage? Case studies with 15 Japanese manufacturers in the

  20. Expression of LIF, VEGF,CD57 and CD68 after the transfer of rat embryos to mouse uteri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The high failure rate of interspecific pregnancy is a major obstacle to the successful interspecific cloning of mammals. To investigate the reasons for the failure of interspecfic pregnancy between rats and mice, we transferred rat blastocysts into mouse uteri on the third day of pseudopregnancy (D3). Our previous study showed that intact rat embryos could still be observed in mouse uteri on D9. In the present study, we found that expression of CD57 and CD68 increased significantly at the maternal-fetal interface following the transfer of rat embryos. Similarly, Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expression increased, but vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expession decreased. In a co-culture system, the percentage of rat ectoplacental cones (EPCs) with adhesion and outgrowth and outgrowth area on mouse uterine decidual cells were less than that of mouse EPCs. These results indicate that an increase in the immunological rejection response and a decrease in the invasiveness of rat embryos may be important reasons for the failure of interspecific pregnancy between rat and mouse.

  1. Voluntary intake of paracetamol-enriched drinking water and its influence on the success of embryo transfer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Thea; Arras, Margarete; Sauer, Mareike; Saleh, Lanja; Rülicke, Thomas; Jirkof, Paulin

    2016-12-30

    Embryo transfer (ET) in mice is a key technique in biomedical research, and is carried out mostly via surgery by transferring founder embryos into pseudo-pregnant recipient females. To cover post-operative analgesic requirements in surrogate mothers, oral self-administration of painkillers has several advantages, but its effectiveness has also been criticized as voluntary ingestion of the drug can be uncertain. Additionally, concerns about potential negative side effects of analgesics on embryo viability and development have been raised. In this regard, we investigated the impact of orally administered analgesia by comparing the outcome of ET with and without paracetamol in the drinking water (3.5mg/ml) of surrogate mothers. Water intake increased significantly when paracetamol, as a sweet-tasting formulation (children's syrup), was added to the drinking water. Measurements of paracetamol concentrations in blood serum confirmed reasonable drug uptake. Success rate of ETs and the body weight of newborn offspring were not different whether paracetamol was administered for two days after surgery or not. In conclusion, paracetamol in drinking water was consumed voluntarily in substantial doses, without detectable side-effects, by freshly operated surrogate mothers, and can therefore be recommended as a feasible method for providing analgesic treatment for surgical ET in mice.

  2. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation.

  3. Post-fusion treatment with MG132 increases transcription factor expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinyoung; Lee, Joohyeong; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Eunsong

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of post-fusion treatment of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 on maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, nuclear remodeling, embryonic development, and gene expression of cloned pig embryos. Immediately after electrofusion, SCNT oocytes were treated with MG132 and/or caffeine for 2 hr, vanadate for 0.5 hr, or vanadate for 0.5 hr followed by MG132 for 1.5 hr. Of the MG132 concentrations tested (0-5 microM), the 1 microM concentration showed a higher rate of blastocyst formation (25.9%) than 0 (14.2%), 0.5 (16.9%), and 5 microM (16.9%). Post-fusion treatment with MG132, caffeine, and both MG132 and caffeine improved blastocyst formation (22.1%, 21.4%, and 24.4%, respectively), whereas vanadate treatment inhibited blastocyst formation (6.5%) compared to the control (11.1%). When examined 2 hr after fusion and 1 hr after activation, MPF activity remained at a higher (P fusion with caffeine and/or MG132, but it was decreased by vanadate. The rate of oocytes showing premature chromosome condensation was not altered by MG132 but was decreased by vanadate treatment. In addition, formation of single pronuclei was increased by MG132 compared to control and vanadate treatment. MG132-treated embryos showed increased expression of POU5F1, DPPA2, DPPA3, DPPA5, and NDP52l1 genes compared to control embryos. Our results demonstrate that post-fusion treatment of SCNT oocytes with MG132 prevents MPF degradation and increases expression of transcription factors in SCNT embryos, which are necessary for normal development of SCNT embryos.

  4. Cloned embryos from semen. Part 2: Intergeneric nuclear transfer of semen-derived eland (Taurotragus oryx) epithelial cells into bovine oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel-Themaat, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Pope, C.E.; Lopez, M.; Wirtu, G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Cole, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Bondioli, K.R.; Godke, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The production of cloned offspring by nuclear transfer (NT) of semen-derived somatic cells holds considerable potential for the incorporation of novel genes into endangered species populations. Because oocytes from endangered species are scarce, domestic species oocytes are often used as cytoplasts for interspecies NT. In the present study, epithelial cells isolated from eland semen were used for intergeneric transfer (IgNT) into enucleated bovine oocytes and compared with bovine NT embryos. Cleavage rates of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos were similar (80 vs. 83%, respectively; p > 0.05); however, development to the morula and blastocyst stage was higher for bovine NT embryos (38 and 21%, respectively; p < 0.0001), than for eland IgNT embryos (0.5 and 0%, respectively). DNA synthesis was not observed in either bovine NT or eland IgNT cybrids before activation, but in 75 and 70% of bovine NT and eland igNT embryos, respectively, cell-cycle resumption was observed at 16 h postactivation (hpa). For eland IgNT embryos, 13% had ???8 cells at 84 hpa, while 32% of the bovine NT embryos had ???8 cells at the same interval. However, 100 and 66% of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos, respectively, that had ???8 cells synthesized DNA. From these results we concluded that (1) semen-derived epithelial cell nuclei can interact and be transcriptionally controlled by bovine cytoplast, (2) the first cell-cycle occurred in IgNT embryos, (3) a high frequency of developmental arrest occurs before the eight-cell stage in IgNT embryos, and (4) IgNT embryos that progress through the early cleavage stage arrest can (a) synthesize DNA, (b) progress through subsequent cell cycles, and (c) may have the potential to develop further. ?? 2008 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  5. Two protocols to treat thin endometrium with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during frozen embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Qiong; Hao, Jie; Xu, Dabao; Li, Yanping

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of two granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) protocols for thin endometrium were investigated. Eighty-two patients were diagnosed with thin endometrium (transfers received intrauterine G-CSF in subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Patients were divided into the G-CSF only and G-CSF with endometrial scratch subgroups. Compared with previous cycles, endometrial thickness increased from 5.7 ± 0.7 mm to 8.1 ± 2.1 mm after G-CSF treatment (P transfer cancellation and G-CSF treatment in subsequent FET cycles is beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Embryo transfer and sex determination following superovulated hinds inseminated with frozen-thawed sex-sorted Y sperm or unsorted semen in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus songaricus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q H; Wang, H E; Zeng, W B; Wei, H J; Han, C M; Du, H Z; Zhang, Z G; Li, X M

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate embryo production in superovulated wapiti hinds inseminated with either Y-sorted or unsorted semen. Eighteen hinds were allocated to three treatment groups: AI following multiple ovulation (CIDR/FSH) with 10×10(6) Y-sorted frozen-thawed semen (Y group, n=6), or 10×10(6) and 100×10(6) unsorted frozen-thawed semen for the unsorted (n=6) and the control group (n=6). The embryos from the sixth day following insemination were collected and classified. Fifteen embryos from the unsorted or the control group, and four embryos from the Y group were sex determinated based on DNA analysis of the amelogenin gene. Twenty-one embryos from the Y group and 42 embryos from the unsorted or the control group were transferred into 21 and 42 synchronized recipients via standard procedures on 6th day post estrus, respectively. There were no significant differences in the number of recovered eggs, transferable embryos, degenerated embryos or unfertilized oocytes per hind among the three groups of the control (9.2±3.6, 4.7±1.9, 3.0±2.0, 1.5±1.4), the unsorted (8.2±1.9, 4.8±0.7, 1.7±1.0, 1.7±1.0) and the Y group (8.8±4.2, 4.2±1.8, 2.2±1.2, 2.5±2.1), respectively (P>0.05). The sex ratio of embryos from the Y group (4M/0F) was significantly (Psex ratio of the offspring from sexed embryos (8M/0F) was deviated significantly (Psexed embryos (11M/9F). In conclusion, the results suggested that the male embryos of predicted sex can be achieved with AI of sex-sorted cryopreserved sperm. PCR amplification using the amelogenin gene primers can be applied to DNA analysis of micro samples from wapiti embryo biopsies for sex identification. The male offspring can be produced after transferred with the male embryos of predicted sex.

  7. [Transfer of genetic constructions through the transplacental barrier into mice embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A M; Buglaeva, A O; Orlov, S V; Burov, S V; Ignatovich, I A; Dizhe, E B; Shavva, V S; Perevozchikov, A P

    2010-01-01

    Genetic modification of mammalian embryos is an important way to model various changes in human development; also, it is an instrument for studying the functions of certain genes in mammals. Using our own experience in developing modes of delivery of genetic constructions to mammals in a nonviral way, we present here data on the delivery of a eukaryotic expression vector to mice embryos through the transplacental barrier with the use of hydrodynamic intravenous injections of DNA-hybrid peptide complexes to pregnant females. The peptide has a cationic part for interaction with DNA and includes a ligand structure towards receptors of the releasing factor of luteinizing hormone (RFLH, luliberin). Advantages of the suggested method are simplicity, economy, nonimmunogenicity for females, and the ability to multiply repeat the procedure. On the basis of the method, systemic gene delivery into tissues of mammalian embryos may be developed.

  8. 鲜胚移植后累计妊娠率及其影响因素%Cumulative pregnancy rates after fresh embryo transfer and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋天然; 孙海翔; 王玢

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pregnancy outcomes and factors influencing on fertilization in vitro and embryo transfer (IVF‐ET ) .Methods The pregnancy outcomes of 1660 women after fresh embryo IVF were analyzed ,who were divided into groups of A (got pregnant) and B (failed to get pregnant) .The women failed to get pregnant after fresh embryo transfer and had frozen embryo transfer were divided into groups of C (got pregnant) and D(failed to get pregnant) .The factors influencing on pregnancy outcomes were analyzed .Results The pregnancy rate was higher in women with fresh embryo IVF than that in those with frozen embryo transfer (60.12% vs .53.15% ) (P<0 .05) .The numbers of egg and effective embryos ,effective embryo ratio ,endometrial thickness and embryo score in group A were higher than those in group B (P<0 .05) .The number of effective embryos ,effective embryo ratio and the number of transferred embryos in group C were higher than those in group D(P<0 .05) .The clinical pregnancy rate of group A was higher than that in group C (P<0 .05) .The clinical pregnancy rate for the third time of frozen embryo transfer was significantly decreased(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Fresh embryo transfer should be taken as the first choice .Frozen embryo transfer still has a higher success rate for fertilization .Some special causes of infertility should be considered in the cases failed to get pregnant after second frozen embryo transfer and the eggs should be taken again if necessary .%目的:探讨体外受精‐胚胎移植妊娠结局及其影响因素。方法回顾性分析1660例鲜胚移植患者临床结局。根据是否临床妊娠分为妊娠组(A组)和非妊娠组(B组);根据冻胚移植结果,新鲜周期未获得活胎分娩的妇女分为妊娠组(C组)和未妊娠组(D组)。分析影响妊娠结局的相关因素。结果鲜胚移植临床妊娠率60.12%(998/1660),高于冻胚移植临床妊娠率53.15%(253/476)( P<0

  9. ECTOPIC PREGNANCY RATES WITH CLEAVAGE STAGE EMBRYO TRANSFER AT DAY 3 VERSUS BLASTOCYST STAGE TRANSFER AT DAY 5: A PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhleen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to compare the tubal pregnancy rates between day 3 and day 5 transfers. As theoretically blastocyst transfer is said to decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy following IVF-ET due to the decreased uterine contractility reported on day 5. METHODS: A prospective analysis of all clinical pregnancies conceived in our IVF program between May 2010 to April 2011 was performed. The ectopic pregnancy rates were compared for day 3 and day 5 transfers. RESULTS: There were 44 pregnancies resulting from day 3 transfers of which one was ectopic (2.27%. In day 5 transfers, there was also one ectopic pregnancies out of 66 clinical pregnancies (1.52%, difference between these rates was not statistically significant (P>0.05 CONCLUSION: This suggests that the ectopic pregnancy rate is not reduced following blastocyst transfer on day 5 compared to cleavage stage embryo on day 3. While there may be several benefits to extended culture in IVF, the decision to offer blastocyst transfer should be made independently from the issue of ectopic pregnancy risk.

  10. Effect of superovulation on uterine and serum biochemical parameters and its potential association with transferable embryos in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, Hasina Santatriniaina; Chorfi, Younès; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Lefebvre, Réjean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of superovulation (SOV) on serum and uterine biochemical parameters, uterine bacteriology and cytology and number of transferable embryos (TE). Dairy cows were placed on a Presynch/CIDR Synch protocol. The SOV group was superovulated, induced in estrus, and inseminated, whereas the control group was induced in estrus and inseminated without SOV. Uterine bacteriology and cytology and uterine and serum biochemical parameters were measured at day 7 of the estrous cycle to start the SOV protocol, as well as on the day of embryo recovery (DER). The SOV group produced 7.5 ± 6.7 oocytes/embryos, of which 3.4 ± 4.7 were TE. Serum urea and E2 and uterine Glu, CK, LDH, TP, P4 and PGFM in the control group and serum P4 and PGFM and uterine LDH and PGFM in the SOV group were significantly higher (p < 0.01) at DER than day 7. At DER, uterine urea, LDH, PGFM and TP and serum urea, LDH, PGFM, and P4 concentrations were higher (p < 0.01) in the SOV group than the control. There was no significant variation in uterine bacteriology or cytology. Overall, these results infer that SOV affects both serum profile and uterine secretions, and that these changes may influence the number of TE.

  11. The overlaying oil type influences in vitro embryo production: differences in composition and compound transfer into incubation medium between oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina A; Nohalez, Alicia; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Motas, Miguel; Roca, Jordi; Romero, Inmaculada; García-Gonza Lez, Diego L; Cuello, Cristina; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Martinez, Emilio A; Gil, Maria A

    2017-09-05

    The oil overlay micro-drop system is widely used for cultures of mammalian gametes and embryos. We evaluated hereby the effects of two unaltered commercial oils- Sigma mineral oil (S-MO) and Nidoil paraffin oil (N-PO)-on in vitro embryo production (IVP) outcomes using a pig model. The results showed that while either oil apparently did not affect oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, S-MO negatively affected embryo cleavage rates, blastocyst formation rates, and, consequently, total blastocyst efficiency of the system. No differences in the oxidation state were found between the oils or culture media incubated under S-MO or N-PO. Although both oils slightly differed in elemental composition, there were no differences in the concentrations of elements between fresh media and media incubated under oils. By contrast, we demonstrated clear oil-type differences in both the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and the transfer of some of these VOC´s (straight-chain alkanes and pentanal and 1,3-diethyl benzene) to the culture medium, which could have influenced embryonic development.

  12. DOT1L inhibitor improves early development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Zuo, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    -mediated H3K79me2 is a reprogramming barrier to early development of porcine SCNT embryos. qRT-PCR analysis further demonstrated that DOT1L inactivation did not change the expression levels of DOT1L itself but increased the expression levels of POU5F1, LIN28, SOX2, CDX2 and GATA4 associated with pluripotency...

  13. Reproductive efficiency of asymptomatic Theileria equi carriers mares submitted to an embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Bezerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and evaluate the effects of Theileria equi infection on embryonic recovery, gestation and early embryonic loss. Thirteen Mangalarga Marchador Theileria equi positive donors (diagnosed through nested-PCR and 40 embryos receptors were used. Donors were submitted to two embryo collections in two consecutive estrous cycles (GId; after, the same mares were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (1.2mg/kg IM. in order to collect more embryos in two more estrous cycles (GIId. Receptors were divided into two groups (control and with treated with 20 animals each, where one group was the control (GIr and the other one (GIIr treated with 1.2mg/kg IM of imidocarb dipropionate assessing the gestation rate at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. After 52 embryo collections, the embryonic recovery rates were 53.84% (14/26 and 65.38% (17/26 (p> 0.05 for GId and GIId, respectively. The gestation rate was 70% (14/20 (p>0.05 at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days in group GIr and for GIIr was 85% (17/20 (p>0.05 at 15 days, 80% (16/20 (p>0.05 at 30, 45 and 60 days. The treatment with imidocarb dipropionate did not cause significant improvement in the reproductive efficiency at an ET program.

  14. Birth of kittens after the transfer of frozen-thawed embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection with spermatozoa collected from cryopreserved testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharasanit, T; Buarpung, S; Manee-In, S; Thongkittidilok, C; Tiptanavattana, N; Comizzoli, P; Techakumphu, M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to produce live kittens from oocytes fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with frozen/thawed testicular spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were collected from thawed testicular tissue and subsequently injected into in vitro matured cat oocytes. At 24 h post-ICSI, presumptive zygotes/cleaved embryos were treated with 10 μm forskolin for 24 h to reduce intracellular lipid content of embryos (delipidation). At 48 h after oocyte injection, cleaved embryos (2- to 8-cell stage) were frozen in 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol-based medium by a slow controlled rate method and stored in liquid nitrogen. To evaluate in vitro and in vivo developmental competence, frozen embryos were thawed and then cultured for 6 days (n = 155) or cultured for 2 h before transferred (n = 209) to hormonal (equine chorionic gonadotropin/hCG)-treated cat recipients. Cleavage frequency at day 2 after ICSI with frozen/thawed testicular spermatozoa was ~30%. The percentages of frozen/thawed embryos that developed to morula and blastocyst stage (on day 3 and day 6 of in vitro culture, respectively) were significantly lower than that of fresh ICSI embryos (22.6 vs 45.2% and 21.3 vs 38.7%, respectively; p kittens. This is the first report of the birth of kittens after the transfer of frozen-thawed embryos produced by ICSI with frozen/thawed testicular sperm.

  15. Individual learning effects on knowledge transfer in international joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li Thuy; Napier, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines micro (individual-level) aspects of knowledge transfer and learning in international joint ventures in an emerging economy context. Learning by expatriate and local managers appears far more complex, mutually dependent, and significant to the knowledge transfer process than...... suggested in existing literature. Building upon conceptualizations of individual learning and cognitive – behavioural effects in an organisational context while drawing evidence from two cases of Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, we propose a model of individual-level knowledge transfer and learning...

  16. Monochorionic-triamniotic triplet pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, assisted hatching, and two-embryo transfer: first reported case following IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eller Daniel P

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a case of monochorionic-triamniotic pregnancy that developed after embryo transfer following in vitro fertilization (IVF. Methods After controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and transvaginal retrieval of 22 metaphase II oocytes, fertilization was accomplished with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Assisted embryo hatching was performed, and two embryos were transferred in utero. One non-transferred blastocyst was cryopreserved. Results Fourteen days post-transfer, serum hCG level was 423 mIU/ml and subsequent transvaginal ultrasound revealed a single intrauterine gestational sac with three separate amnion compartments. Three distinct foci of cardiac motion were detected and the diagnosis was revised to monochorionic-triamniotic triplet pregnancy. Antenatal management included cerclage placement at 19 weeks gestation and hospital admission at 28 weeks gestation due to mild preeclampsia. Three viable female infants were delivered via cesarean at 30 5/7 weeks gestation. Conclusions The incidence of triplet delivery in humans is approximately 1:6400, and such pregnancies are classified as high-risk for reasons described in this report. We also outline an obstetric management strategy designed to optimize outcomes. The roles of IVF, ICSI, assisted embryo hatching and associated laboratory culture conditions on the subsequent development of monozygotic/monochorionic pregnancy remain controversial. As demonstrated here, even when two-embryo transfer is employed after IVF the statistical probability of monozygotic multiple gestation cannot be reduced to zero. We encourage discussion of this possibility during informed consent for the advanced reproductive technologies.

  17. The Outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome in comparison with tubal factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fazel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Infertility with an incidence of about 15% has mainly been one of the community burdens that have even been threatening to the continuity of the family life. One of the most prevalent causes of women infertility is ovarian causes particularly PCOS. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of IVF & ET in women with PCOS in comparison with tubal factor.Materials and methods : This was a historical cohort study performed from 1997 to 1999, at Royan Institute. 33 patients with PCOS (without any other causes of infertility who failed standard ovulation induction treatment with clomiphen citrate (≥6 cycles underwent 33 cycles of IVF & ET. Controlled group include 76 patients with only tubal factor infertility. Long protocol with Buserelin (GnRHa/HMG was used in this study.IVF & ET cycle characteristics were compared using students t-test and χ2 and Fisher’s exact test.Results : The results of this research showed that there were statistically significant difference in mean age and incidence of OHSS in two groups. Howerer there were no satistically significant differences in duration of follicular phase, the duration of GnRHa usage up to the onset of HMG, cyst number after using GnRHa, cyst aspiration percent, HMG ampoule retrieved oocyte, produced embryo per person, embryo transfer per person, cycle cancellation and pregnancy rate per embryo transfer in two groups.Conclusion : It seems that IVF & ET are successful procedures in PCOS patients resistant to other usual treatment and hormonal dysfunction of this group of patients did not affect the results.

  18. Ectopic pregnancy following in vitro fertilization with embryo transfer: A single-center experience during 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ling-Yun; Lin, Pin-Yao; Huang, Fu-Jen; Kung, Fu-Tsai; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Lin, Yu-Ju; Lan, Kuo-Chung

    2015-10-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is an obstetrical disease that is potentially associated with maternal death in the first trimester. It is one of the well-known complications following in vitro fertilization (IVF) with embryo transfer (ET). The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is estimated to be 2.1-8.6% of clinical pregnancy after IVF-ET, which is higher than natural conceptions (incidence rate 2%). This study aimed to re-evaluate the ectopic pregnancy rate in patients undergoing IVF-ET and to investigate the effects of embryo stage and frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer and ET during full bladder distention on ectopic pregnancy rate. This retrospective study reviewed women who achieved a clinical pregnancy after IVF-ET at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 1999 and 2013. We compared ectopic pregnancy rate following Day 3 ET with Day 5 ET, and after fresh ET with thawed ET. Besides, multivariate analysis was used to clarify the factors affecting ectopic pregnancy after IVF-ET. Of the total 1213 clinical pregnancies after fresh ET, 18 (1.5%) were verified as ectopic, which is similar to the rate following natural conception. The ectopic pregnancy rates were similar for Day 3 (1.2%) and Day 5 (1.7%) ETs. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in thawed ET cycles (0.6%) was not significantly reduced than fresh ET cycles (1.5%). Tubal ET (TET) and ET under full bladder distention had a significant effect on ectopic pregnancy. Thawed ET was not associated with a lower incidence of ectopic pregnancy than fresh ET, and embryo stage did not affect the rate of ectopic pregnancy. In addition, TET and ET under conditions of full bladder distention may increase the ectopic pregnancy rate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  20. GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depalo Raffaella

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several protocols are actually available for in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer. The review summarizes the main differences and the clinic characteristics of the protocols in use with GnRH agonists and GnRH antagonists by emphasizing the major outcomes and hormonal changes associated with each protocol. The majority of randomized clinical trials clearly shows that in “in Vitro” Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, the combination of exogenous Gonadotropin plus a Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH agonist, which is able to suppress pituitary FSH and LH secretion, is associated with increased pregnancy rate as compared with the use of gonadotropins without a GnRH agonist. Protocols with GnRH antagonists are effective in preventing a premature rise of LH and induce a shorter and more cost-effective ovarian stimulation compared to the long agonist protocol. However, a different synchronization of follicular recruitment and growth occurs with GnRH agonists than with GnRH antagonists. Future developments have to be focused on timing of the administration of GnRH antagonists, by giving a great attention to new strategies of stimulation in patients in which radio-chemotherapy cycles are needed.

  1. Embryo transfer in no cycling Crioula and Quarter horse breeds treated with estradiol cipionate and long-acting progesterone

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    Fernanda Kaercher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare the mares for embryo transfer. In group 1 (G1,treated, n=15, recipient mares in anoestrus or in a transition period were treated with 5.0, 3.0 and 2.0 mg of estradiol cipionate at the days 0, 1 and 2 respectively, beginning at the day of ovulation (DO. From the fourth day on, the mares this group received long-acting progesterone weekly, up to the 120 day of gestation. At D8, the embryo was collected from the donor and transferred to the recipient. At D12, the ultrasonographyc diagnosis of pregnancy was carried out. The control group (G2, not treated, n=20 was formed by cycling recipient mares, displaying ovulation at each 2 to 3 days after the donors mare ovulation. The pregnancy rate was higher (p<0.05 in the mares from G2 (85.0% than from G1 (53.3%. Thus, it could be concluded that the treated mares although showed lesser pregnancy rate than the cycling mare, were satisfactory alternative to be used mainly when there is no available cycling recipient.

  2. GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalo, Raffaella; Jayakrishan, K; Garruti, Gabriella; Totaro, Ilaria; Panzarino, Mariantonietta; Giorgino, Francesco; Selvaggi, Luigi E

    2012-04-13

    Several protocols are actually available for in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer. The review summarizes the main differences and the clinic characteristics of the protocols in use with GnRH agonists and GnRH antagonists by emphasizing the major outcomes and hormonal changes associated with each protocol. The majority of randomized clinical trials clearly shows that in "in Vitro" Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, the combination of exogenous Gonadotropin plus a Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonist, which is able to suppress pituitary FSH and LH secretion, is associated with increased pregnancy rate as compared with the use of gonadotropins without a GnRH agonist. Protocols with GnRH antagonists are effective in preventing a premature rise of LH and induce a shorter and more cost-effective ovarian stimulation compared to the long agonist protocol. However, a different synchronization of follicular recruitment and growth occurs with GnRH agonists than with GnRH antagonists. Future developments have to be focused on timing of the administration of GnRH antagonists, by giving a great attention to new strategies of stimulation in patients in which radio-chemotherapy cycles are needed.

  3. Transgenerational inheritance of the insulin-resistant phenotype in embryo-transferred intrauterine growth-restricted adult female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Garg, Meena; Oak, Shilpa; Rogers, Lisa M; Pan, Gerald; Sangiorgi, Frank; Lee, Paul W N; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2007-05-01

    To determine mechanisms underlying the transgenerational presence of metabolic perturbations in the intrauterine growth-restricted second-generation adult females (F2 IUGR) despite normalizing the in utero metabolic environment, we examined in vivo glucose kinetics and in vitro skeletal muscle postinsulin receptor signaling after embryo transfer of first generation (F1 IUGR) to control maternal environment. Female F2 rats, procreated by F1 pre- and postnatally nutrient- and growth-restricted (IUGR) mothers but embryo transferred to gestate in control mothers, were compared with similarly gestating age- and sex-matched control (CON) F2 progeny. Although there were no differences in birth weight or postnatal growth patterns, the F2 IUGR had increased hepatic weight, fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and unsuppressed hepatic glucose production, with no change in glucose futile cycling or clearance, compared with F2 CON. These hormonal and metabolic aberrations were associated with increased skeletal muscle total GLUT4 and pAkt concentrations but decreased plasma membrane-associated GLUT4, total pPKCzeta, and PKCzeta enzyme activity, with no change in total SHP2 and PTP1B concentrations in IUGR F2 compared with F2 CON. We conclude that transgenerational presence of aberrant glucose/insulin metabolism and skeletal muscle insulin signaling of the adult F2 IUGR female offspring is independent of the immediate intrauterine environment, supporting nutritionally induced heritable mechanisms contributing to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, J; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A high frequency of embryo regeneration and hybrid plant establishment was achieved. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber to the hybrids was assessed by whole-plant screening of hybrids with dicamba, a widely used auxinic herbicide. Furthermore, the hybrids were tested for fertility (both pollen and pistil) and their ability to produce backcross progeny. The auxinic herbicide-resistant trait was introgressed into B. juncea by backcross breeding. DNA ploidy of the hybrids as well as of the backcross progeny was estimated by flow cytometry. Creation of auxinic herbicide-resistant Brassica crops by non-transgenic approaches should facilitate effective weed control, encourage less tillage, provide herbicide rotation options, minimize occurrence of herbicide resistance, and increase acceptance of these crops.

  5. IVF policy and global/local politics: the making of multiple-embryo transfer regulation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory trajectory of multiple-embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Taiwan. Taking a latecomer to policy-making as the case, it argues the importance of conceptualizing the global/local dynamics in policy-making for assisted reproductive technology (ART). The conceptual framework is built upon recent literature on standardization, science policy, and global assemblage. I propose three interrelated features that reveal the "global in the local": (1) the power relationships among stakeholders, (2) the selected global form that involved actors drew upon, and (3) the re-contextualized assemblage made of local networks. Data included archives, interviews, and participant observation. In different historical periods the specific stakeholders selected different preferred global forms for Taiwan, such as Britain's code of ethics in the 1990s, the American guideline in the early 2000s, and the European trend in the mid-2000s. The global is heterogeneous. The failure to transfer the British regulation, the revision of the American guideline by adding one more embryo than it specified, and the gap between the cited European trend and the "no more than four" in Taiwan's 2007 Human Reproduction Law all show that the local network further transforms the selected global form, confining it to rhetoric only or tailoring it to local needs. Overall, Taiwanese practitioners successfully maintained their medical autonomy to build a 'flexible standardization'. Multiple pregnancy remains the most common health risk of IVF in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of Perioperative Analgesia on Litter Size in Crl:CD1(ICR) Mice Undergoing Embryo Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, David R; Myers, Page H; Goulding, Eugenia H; Blankenship, Terry L; Grant, Mary F; Forsythe, Diane B

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect on litter size of 2 analgesics used perioperatively during mouse embryo transfer surgery. Day 2.5 pseudopregnant CD1 mice (n = 96) were divided equally into 2 analgesic treatment groups and a saline control group. Each mouse received a single, subcutaneous dose of buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.1 mg/kg), flunixin meglumine (2.5 mg/kg), or saline immediately after induction of anesthesia with 2.5% isoflurane. Each mouse then was prepared for aseptic surgery. Blastocysts had previously been collected from C57BL/6NCrl female mice that were synchronized and superovulated by using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin and mated with C57BL/6NTac male mice 3.5 d before collection. Viable blastocysts were pooled, and 8 were selected arbitrarily and transplanted into the right uterine horn of each pseudopregnant CD1 mouse. Mice were monitored throughout pregnancy, and the number of pups at birth was documented. No statistically significant difference was found between the 3 groups. These results indicate that perioperative analgesic treatment with buprenorphine or flunixin in the CD1 mouse undergoing embryo transfer is not associated with increased embryonic loss. PMID:20819387

  7. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration for infertile women with thin endometrium in frozen embryo transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Pan, Ping; Chen, Xiaoli; Li, Lin; Li, Yi; Yang, Dongzi

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration for infertile women with thin endometrium in frozen embryo transfer program. Among 59 infertile patients with thin endometrium (≤7 mm), 34 patients received uterine infusion of recombinant human G-CSF (100 μg/0.6 mL) on the day of ovulation or administration of progesterone or human chorionic gonadotropin, with 40 cycles defined as G-CSF group and 49 previous cycles as self-controlled group, and 25 patients refused, with 80 cycles defined as the control group. Higher proportion of induced cycles and lower proportion of natural cycles were observed in the G-CSF group, when compared to the self-controlled group or control group (P transfer were similar in all the groups (P > .05). Our study fails to demonstrate that G-CSF has the potential to improve embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rate of the infertile women with thin endometrium.

  8. Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer and on blastocyst formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuhua Ni

    Full Text Available During the last decades, many studies have shown the possible influence of sperm DNA fragmentation on assisted reproductive technique outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of sperm DNA fragmentation on the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET from cycles of conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. In the present study, the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF and FET clinical outcomes in IVF and ICSI cycles was analyzed. A total of 1082 FET cycles with cleavage stage embryos (C-FET (855 from IVF and 227 from ICSI and 653 frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles (B-FET (525 from IVF and 128 from ICSI were included. There was no significant change in clinical pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy and miscarriage rates in the group with a SDF >30% compared with the group with a SDF ≤30% in IVF and ICSI cycles with C-FET or B-FET. Also, there was no significant impact on the FET clinic outcome in IVF and ICSI when different values of SDF (such as 10%, 20%, 25%, 35%, and 40% were taken as proposed threshold levels. However, the blastulation rates were significantly higher in the SDF ≤30% group in ICSI cycle. Taken together, our data show that sperm DNA fragmentation measured by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD test is not associated with clinical outcome of FET in IVF and ICSI. Nonetheless, SDF is related to the blastocyst formation in ICSI cycles.

  9. Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer and on blastocyst formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wuhua; Xiao, Shiquan; Qiu, Xiufang; Jin, Jianyuan; Pan, Chengshuang; Li, Yan; Fei, Qianjin; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Liya; Huang, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, many studies have shown the possible influence of sperm DNA fragmentation on assisted reproductive technique outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of sperm DNA fragmentation on the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) from cycles of conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In the present study, the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and FET clinical outcomes in IVF and ICSI cycles was analyzed. A total of 1082 FET cycles with cleavage stage embryos (C-FET) (855 from IVF and 227 from ICSI) and 653 frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles (B-FET) (525 from IVF and 128 from ICSI) were included. There was no significant change in clinical pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy and miscarriage rates in the group with a SDF >30% compared with the group with a SDF ≤30% in IVF and ICSI cycles with C-FET or B-FET. Also, there was no significant impact on the FET clinic outcome in IVF and ICSI when different values of SDF (such as 10%, 20%, 25%, 35%, and 40%) were taken as proposed threshold levels. However, the blastulation rates were significantly higher in the SDF ≤30% group in ICSI cycle. Taken together, our data show that sperm DNA fragmentation measured by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test is not associated with clinical outcome of FET in IVF and ICSI. Nonetheless, SDF is related to the blastocyst formation in ICSI cycles.

  10. Effect of Gutai Decoction (固胎汤) on the Abortion Rate of in vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; WU Jing-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of Chinese herbal medicine Gutai Decoction (固胎汤, GTD) on the abortion rate of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Methods: Observed were two hundred and forty-seven women having received IVF-ET and with β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) > 25 IU/L on the 14th day after transferring. All were treated conventionally with progesterone 20-80 mg per day after transferring and if necessary the treatment was supplemented with Progynova 2 - 4 mg per day, with the medication withdrawn gradually from the 9th week of pregnancy till stopped completely. Among them 131 cases received GTD medication additionally, for 109 cases of whom the medication started from the 2nd day of transferring (taken as Group A) and for the other 22 cases from the 14th day after transferring (taken as Group B), the other 116 cases with no additional GTD treatment given were taken as the control group, with the medication lasting to the 12th week. The abortion rate in them was observed. Results: The abortion rate in Group A, Group B and the control group was 12.84%, 13.64% and 23.28%, respectively, the difference between the GTD treated groups and the control group was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Chinese medicine GTD could reduce abortion rate in women receiving IVF-ET.

  11. Timing of prostaglandin F2α treatment in an estrogen-based protocol for timed artificial insemination or timed embryo transfer in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Sanches, C P; Guida, T G; Rodrigues, A D P; Aragon, F L; Veras, M B; Borges, P T; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2013-05-01

    Objectives were to investigate progesterone concentrations and fertility comparing 2 different intervals from PGF(2α) treatment and induced ovulation in an estrogen-based ovulation synchronization protocol for timed artificial insemination (TAI) or timed embryo transfer (TET) in lactating dairy cows. A total of 1,058 lactating Holstein cows [primiparous (n=371) and multiparous (n=687)], yielding 34.1 ± 0.33 kg of milk/d at various days in milk were randomly assigned to receive treatment with PGF(2α) on either d 7 or 8 of the following protocol: d 0: 2mg of estradiol benzoate + controlled internal drug release device; d 8: controlled internal drug release device removal + 1.0mg of estradiol cypionate; d 10: TAI or d 17: TET. Only cows with a corpus luteum at d 17 received an embryo and all cows received GnRH at TET. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by detection (transrectal ultrasonography) of an embryo on d 28 or a fetus on d 60. Fertility [pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) or pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET)] was affected by breeding technique (AI vs. ET) and time of PGF(2α) treatment (d 7 vs. 8) at the 28-d pregnancy diagnosis for TAI [32.9% (238) vs. 20.6% (168)] and TET cows [47% (243) vs. 40.7% (244)] and at the 60-d pregnancy diagnosis for TAI [30% (238) vs. 19.2% (168)] and TET cows [37.9% (243) vs. 33.5% (244)]. The progesterone (P4) concentration at d 10 altered fertility in TAI cows, with higher P/AI in cows with P4 concentration <0.1 ng/mL compared with cows with P4 concentration ≥ 0.1 ng/mL, and in ET cows, with higher P/ET in cows with P4 concentration <0.22 ng/mL compared with cows with P4 concentration ≥ 0.22 ng/mL. Prostaglandin F(2α) treatment at d 7 increased the percentage of cows with P4 <0.1 ng/mL on d 10 [39.4 (85) vs. 23.2 (54)]. Reducing the period between PGF(2α) and TAI from 72 to 48 h in dairy cows resulted in a clear reduction in fertility in cows bred by TAI and a subtle negative effect in cows that received

  12. The Membrane Modulates Internal Proton Transfer in Cytochrome c Oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öjemyr, Linda Nasvik; Ballmoos, Christoph von; Faxén, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    The functionality of membrane proteins is often modulated by the surrounding membrane. Here, we investigated the effect of membrane reconstitution of purified cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO) on the kinetics and thermodynamics of internal electron and proton-transfer reactions during O-2 reduction...

  13. Tools of Internal Communication from Knowledge Transfer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudcova Sarka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The world nowadays is very often titled as the world of knowledge. Knowledge is a critical differentiator for companies and source of competitive advantage. Therefore companies pay careful attention to knowledge management and put a lot of energy and money to right set-ups ensuring that knowledge is owned and used as adequately as possible. Part of that is also the transfer of knowledge between individuals. The paper deals with the topic of knowledge transfer and sharing and aims to identify the most efficient tool of internal communication in terms of knowledge transfer. The research based on expert interviews is presented in the paper. The results should help management of companies to organize internal communication in the way which allows them to accomplish their knowledge management strategy.

  14. In vitro development competence of bovine nuclear transfer embryos derived from Nanog-overexpressing fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-bang Zheng, Yan Yun, Yong-ce Hu, Yong Li, Hua-yan Wang, Xiao-ling Ma, Jin-qiang Sui, An-min Lei and Zhong-ying Dou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish Nanog-expressing cell lines that can be used as donor cells to construct transgenic cloned embryos, and to investigate their in vitro development competence. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, the cDNA of Nanog gene was cloned from fetal bovine primordial genital ridge tissues. The gene was inserted into PMD18-T vector using recombination techniques and then subcloned into vector pEGFP-C1. After confirmation by restrictive endonuclease digestion and sequencing, the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-Nanog was transfected into skin fibroblast cells. A stable transfected cell line was successfully established after two months of selection with neomycine (G418. Fluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR, and Western Blotting assays indicated that Nanog mRNA and EGFP-Nanog fusion protein were expressed in these cells. The EGFP-Nanog expressing fibroblast cells and the intact fibroblast cells (BEF422 were respectively used to construct cloned embryos. The results showed that the cleavage rate of recombinant embryos in BEF422 cells was significantly (P<0.05 higher than in EGFP-Nanog expressing cells (82.14 vs 40.38 %, but the blastocyst development rate in the latter was slightly higher than in the former (17.30 vs 14.29% (P<0.05, indicating that Nanog-overexpressed fibroblasts may be a better candidate of donor cells. To our knowledge, this is the first time that Nanog gene has been introduced into fibroblast cells to produce cloned embryos in bovine.

  15. The use of single embryo transfer to reduce the incidence of twins: Implications and questions for practice from the 'towardSET?' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen A; McGowan, Linda; Vail, Andy; Brison, Daniel R

    2011-06-01

    In vitro fertilisation treatments where multiple embryos are transferred are associated with high multiple birth rates leading to a corresponding high infant morbidity. Here we review the results from a multidisciplinary project which aimed to combine state of the art statistical modelling of routine clinical data with consideration of patient perspectives to explore options for reducing multiple birth incidence by increased use of single embryo transfer (SET). Modelling was based on a large multicentre cohort, supplemented by analysis of HFEA register data. Patient perspectives were explored in qualitative interviews and focus groups. The data confirm the reduction of around one-third in the chance of a live birth for any couple in moving from double embryo transfer (DET) to SET in a fresh cycle. This can be somewhat offset by appropriate patient and cycle selection for SET, with many suggested schemes performing similarly, although many patients perceive such selection as unfair. If we take a complete cycle perspective, and consider the transfer of all good-quality embryos with cryopreservation then it is possible for SET to match or even outperform DET. However, the additional treatment cycles are seen by patients as physically and emotionally burdensome. Such treatments will require optimisation of embryo freezing policies and a number of options are explored.

  16. Ethische Argumente zur morphologischen Beobachtung früher Embryonen mit nachfolgendem Transfer eines Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreß H

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel stellt den heutigen therapeutischen Forschritt bei IVF sowie die hohe Rate von Mehrlingsschwangerschaften, die in Deutschland von den Vorgaben des Embryonenschutzgesetzes abhängt, einander gegenüber. Aus ethischer Sicht werden die morphologische Beobachtung von Embryonen – die von genetisch-diagnostischen Untersuchungen am Embryo zu unterscheiden ist –, die Übertragung nur eines Embryos, der Status des Embryos außerhalb des Mutterleibes sowie der Wertkonflikt zwischen dem Schutz von Embryonen in vitro einerseits, dem Patientenrecht auf Gesundheitsschutz andererseits erörtert. Daraus ergibt sich die Schlußfolgerung, daß die morphologische Beobachtung von Präimplantationsembryonen – als präventiver Ansatz, zugunsten der Frau und des erhofften Kindes eine Reduktion von Mehrlingsschwangerschaften zu erreichen –, gegenüber den Einschränkungen, die sich aus dem Embryonenschutzgesetz ergeben, ethisch vorzugswürdig ist. Statt gesetzlicher Restriktionen sollten die Aufklärung und Beratung der Kinderwunschpaare sowie ein hohes Niveau des Gesundheitsschutzes bzw. der Gesundheitsversorgung im Vordergrund stehen.

  17. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non

  18. 77 FR 4815 - Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and Information International Associates; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Manual. In addition, Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor, Information International... AGENCY Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and Information International Associates; Transfer of Data AGENCY... transferred to Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor, Information International Associates, in...

  19. No Peri- and Postnatal Effects on Calves Born After Transfer of in Vitro Produced Embryos Vitrified by the Open Pulled Straw (OPS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to perform follow-up studies including selected peri- and postnatal characteristics on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP embryos vitrified by the 'Open Pulled Straw' (OPS method. An overall pregnancy rate of 16% after transfer of the OPS-vitrified IVP embryos was achieved and resulted in birth of 9 calves, with 11 AI calves serving as controls. There were no immediate or long-term effects on these calves with respect to birth weight, gestation length, perinatal mortality, growth rate, disease susceptibility and reproductive performance.

  20. The Recipients' Parity Does Not Influence Their Reproductive Performance Following Non-Surgical Deep Uterine Porcine Embryo Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, E A; Nohalez, A; Martinez, C A; Parrilla, I; Vila, J; Colina, I; Diaz, M; Reixach, J; Vazquez, J L; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Gil, M A

    2016-02-01

    With the development of the non-surgical deep uterine (NsDU) embryo transfer (ET) technology, the commercial applicability of ET in pigs is now possible. There are, nevertheless, many factors that influence NsDU-ET effectiveness that need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the weaned recipients' parity on fertility and prolificacy following NsDU-ET. The recipients (n = 120) were selected based on their reproductive history and body condition and grouped into three categories according to their parity: primiparous sows, sows of parity 2 and sows of parities from 3 to 5. Thirty fresh embryos (morulae and unhatched blastocysts) were non-surgically transferred into one uterine horn of each recipient. It was possible to insert the NsDU-ET catheter through the cervix along a uterine horn in 98.3% of the recipients. The parity had no influence on the difficulty grade of the insertions or on the percentage of correct insertions. The cervix and uterine wall were not perforated during the insertions, and vaginal discharge was not observed after transfer in any of the recipients. There were no differences in the pregnancy rates (74.8%), farrowing rates (71.2%) or litter sizes (9.6 ± 3.3) between groups. Also, there were no differences between groups regarding to the piglets' birthweights or piglet production efficiency. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that weaned sows from parity 1 to 5 are appropriate to be used as recipients in NsDU-ET programs, which increase the possibilities for the utilization of ET in the recipient farms.

  1. Transgenic expression of green fluorescent protein in caprine embryos produced through electroporation-aided sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Pramod, R; Kumar, Rakesh; Mitra, Abhijit

    2016-01-15

    Current methods of transgenic animal production are afflicted by low efficiency and high cost. Recently, the electroporation aided sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) emerges as a promising alternative with variable success rate. Among the domestic animal species, the electroporation-aided SMGT is less investigated in goats, except a few reports in which attempts have been made using the auto-uptake method of SMGT. In this study, we report an optimized electroporation condition for SMGT of caprine sperm cells. Results of this study demonstrated that electroporation of caprine sperm cells at 300 V for 200 mS in TALP medium allowed the maximum uptake of foreign DNA with minimum adverse effects on the vital semen parameters viz., progressive motility, viability, and membrane and acrosome integrity. Further, DNA binding assay revealed DNA uptake by 81.3% sperm cells when 1.0 μg of DNA was used under optimum electroporation conditions as compared to 16.5% on simple incubation. The qPCR analysis showed four-fold more (Pelectroporation than incubation. A similar cleavage rate was observed after IVF using either electroporated (23.20 ± 1.20) or non-electroporated (25.20 ± 2.41) sperm cells suggesting the absence of adverse effect of electroporation on the fertilizing ability. Out of the 116 embryos produced by electroporated sperm, five (4.31%) embryos showed the expression of the foreign gene. In conclusion, our results confirm that using optimized electroporation conditions, the caprine sperm cells can uptake foreign DNA effectively with minimum negative effect on the semen parameters and could produce transgenic embryos.

  2. Reduced Ectopic Pregnancy Rate on Day 5 Embryo Transfer Compared with Day 3: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rong; Ding, Lingling; Yan, Lei; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the risk of ectopic pregnancy (EP) after embryo transfer on day 3(D3-ET) and day 5(D5-ET). Design Meta-analysis Patients Women with pregnancy resulting from in vitro undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) Result(s) Twenty-two studies were identified through research conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases and ClinicalTrials.gov. All studies were conducted prior to October 2016. Adding the reproductive data from our center, a total of 143 643 pregnancies were reviewed(D3-ET: n = 62027,D5-ET:n = 81616). A lower EP rate was found in women undergoing D5-ET than in those undergoing D3-ET [relative risk (RR), 0.67;95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54–0.85;143643 pregnancies in 23 studies; I2 = 67%]. These results were validated in subgroups of fresh embryo-transfer (Fre-ET) cycles [RR, 0.78; 95%CI, 0.69–0.88; 91 871 pregnancies in 21 studies; I2 = 29%] and frozen-thawed embryo-transfer (Fro-ET) cycles [RR, 0.43; 95%CI, 0.36–0.51; 51 772 pregnancies in 10 studies; I2 = 33%]. After separating out the randomized controlled trials (RCTs), a significant difference was found in the retrospective studies in both subgroups [both Fre-ET (RR,0.78;95% CI 0.69–0.88);91182 pregnancies in 14 studies; I2 = 45%] and Fro-ET(RR,0.43;95% CI 0.36–0.51; 51751pregnancies in 9 studies;I2 = 33%)], while the RCTs showed no statistical significance for Fre-ET cycles[RR,0.86;95% CI 0.32–2.26); 689 pregnancies in 7 studies; I2 = 0%]. Conclusion(s) The present study indicates that D5-ET reduces the risk for EP in cycles that use IVF or ICSI, compared with D3-ET. It suggests that D5-ET may be a better choice for decreasing the EP rate in assisted reproductive technology. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials are anticipated. PMID:28121989

  3. The German Middleway as Precursor for Single Embryo Transfer. A Retrospective Data-analysis of the Düsseldorf University Hospital's Interdisciplinary Fertility Centre - UniKiD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliebisch, T K; Bielfeld, A P; Krüssel, J S; Baston-Büst, D M

    2016-06-01

    Introduction: Patients receiving fertility treatment in Germany appear to be disadvantaged in comparison to those in other countries due to the restrictive Embryo Protection Act ("Embryonenschutzgesetz, ESchG"), which prohibits the selection of a "top" embryo. The so-called German Middleway ("Deutscher Mittelweg, DMW") now provides for a liberal interpretation of the ESchG by allowing the culture of numerous pronuclear stages (2PN stage). Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 2 assisted reproduction treatment cycles in n = 400 patients between the ages of 21 and 45 years, either treated 2× conservatively or 1× conservatively and 1× liberally according to DMW. Results: Pregnancy was achieved in 35 % of patients in the DMW group and 31 % of controls. The birth rate among controls was 28.5 % and 30.5 % in the DMW group. Most pregnancies resulted from the culture of 4 × 2PN stages. Conclusion: Patients in the DMW group had significantly higher pregnancy and birth rates compared to their previous cycles despite significantly increased age and significantly fewer transferred embryos. Key factors were the number of 2PNs generated and the quality of embryos transferred. Thus it can be assumed that particularly older patients with adequate ovarian reserves will benefit from DMW, i.e. the transfer of fewer embryos of the best possible quality.

  4. Ectopic pregnancy rates with day 3 versus day 5 embryo transfer: a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Sunny H; Milki Amin A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Blastocyst transfer may theoretically decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy following IVF-ET in view of the decreased uterine contractility reported on day 5. The purpose of our study is to specifically compare the tubal pregnancy rates between day 3 and day 5 transfers. Methods A retrospective analysis of all clinical pregnancies conceived in our IVF program since 1998 was performed. The ectopic pregnancy rates were compared for day 3 and day 5 transfers. Results Th...

  5. A successful live birth with in vitro fertilization and thawed embryo transfer after conservative treatment of recurrent endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Woo; Kim, Hoon; Ku, Seung-Yup; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun; Choi, Young Min

    2017-06-26

    Estrogen-dependent early stage endometrial cancer is relatively common in young women of reproductive age. The standard treatment is hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), even in early stage well-differentiated endometrial cancer patients. This surgical option results in permanent loss of fertility. There have been some reports of live births using in vitro fertilization after conservative management of endometrial cancer with high-dose progestin for the purpose of fertility preservation. However, most were not recurrent cases and pregnancy was achieved through conventional in vitro fertilization, which usually raises serum estradiol levels and may lead to the recurrence of endometrial cancer. To date, it is hard to find a case that can be referred for any possible different approach needed for the patients who experience recurrence. Here we report a successful live birth with in vitro fertilization using letrozole to maintain physiological levels of estradiol, and subsequent thawed embryo transfer after elective cryopreservation of embryos in a patient with recurrent endometrial cancer. There has been no evidence of disease recurrence at one year after delivery.

  6. Establishment of pregnancy after the transfer of nuclear transfer embryos produced from the fusion of argali (Ovis ammon) nuclei into domestic sheep (Ovis aries) enucleated oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K L; Bunch, T D; Mitalipov, S; Reed, W A

    1999-01-01

    Cloning mammalian species from cell lines of adult animals has been demonstrated. Aside from its importance for cloning multiple copies of genetically valuable livestock, cloning now has the potential to salvage endangered or even extinct species. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the bovine and domestic (Ovis aries) ovine oocyte cytoplasm on the nucleus of an established cell line from an endangered argali wild sheep (Ovis ammon) after nuclear transplantation. A fibroblast cell line was established from skin biopsies from an adult argali ram from the People's Republic of China. Early karyotype analysis of cells between 3-6 passages revealed a normal diploid chromosome number of 56. The argali karyotype consisted of 2 pairs of biarmed and 25 pairs of acrocentric autosomes, a large acrocentric and minute biarmed Y. Bovine ovaries were collected from a local abattoir, oocytes aspirated, and immediately placed in maturation medium consisting of M-199 containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 IU/mL penicillin, 100 microg/mL streptomycin, 0.5 microg/mL follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 5.0 microg/mL luetinizing hormone (LH) and 1.0 microg/mL estradiol. Ovine (O. aries) oocytes were collected at surgery 25 hours postonset of estrus from the oviducts of superovulated donor animals. All cultures were carried out at 39 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and air. In vitro matured MII bovine oocytes were enucleated 16-20 hours after onset of maturation and ovine oocytes within 2-3 hours after collection. Enucleation was confirmed using Hoechst 33342 and UV light. The donor argali cells were synchronized in G0-G1 phase by culturing in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) plus 0.5% fetal bovine serum for 5-10 days. Fusion of nuclear donor cell to an enucleated oocyte (cytoplast) to produce nuclear transfer (NT) embryos was induced by 2 electric pulses of 1.4 kV/cm for 30 microsc. Fused NT embryos were activated after 24 hours of maturation

  7. The analysis of clinical outcome of frozen-thawing embryo transfer after whole embryo cryopreservation%全胚冷冻后冻融周期移植的临床结局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李攀; 姜宏; 陈京京; 范静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the outcomes of frozen-thawed blastocyst and cleavage embryo transfer after whole embryos cryopreservation. Methods The data of 489 IVF-ET cycles in reproductive medicine center of our hospital from September 2012 to August 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Whole embryos cryopreservation in 214 patients were carried out with vitrification method and served as group A , 275 cycles performed fresh embryo transfer were served as group B. Then group A and group B were subdivided into group A1 (83 cycles),group A2 (131 cycles), group B1 (120 cycles)and group B2 (155 cycles)according to blastocyst transfer or cleavage-stage embryo transfer. The clinical outcomes of all groups were compared each other. Results The pregnancy rate and embryo implantation rate in group A1 were significantly higher(71.1% ,53.0%)than those in group A2, B1 and B2 (A2 group: 57.3%, 34.0%, B1group: 55.0%,42.1%, B2 group: 52.9%, 32.7%,respectively)(P<0.05). The embryo implantation rate in group B1 were higher than those in group B2 (P < 0.05). Conclusion F-ET after whole embryos freezing could significantly improve the embryo utilization rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer could get better clinical outcomes than frozen-thawed cleavage-stage embryo transfer.%目的:分析全胚冷冻对体外受精/卵泡浆内单精子注射-胚胎移植(IVF/ICSI-ET)临床结局的影响。方法:回顾性分析2012年9月至2013年8月我院生殖医学中心489个移植周期的临床资料,其中214个全胚冷冻后首次冻融移植周期(F-ET)为A组,275个新鲜移植周期为B 组,并根据移植胚胎发育阶段将各组进一步分为囊胚移植组(A1组,B1组)和卵裂胚移植组(A2组,B2组),比较各组的临床结局。结果:A1组临床妊娠率和胚胎种植率(71.1%、53.0%)显著高于 A2、B1和 B2组(分别为:57.3%、34.0%;55.0%、42.1%;52.9%、32.7

  8. The Impact of the Depth of Embryo Replacement into the Uterine Cavity under Transabdominal Ultrasound Guidance on In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitko Ivanovski

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, our results suggest that depth of embryo replacement inside the uterine cavity may influence the pregnancy rates and should be considered as an important factor to improve the success of IVF cycles.

  9. Effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the in vitro developmental potential of porcine oocytes and embryos obtained parthenogenetically and by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG on the in vitro development of porcine oocytes, parthenogenetic activation embryos (PA, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos. In Experiment 1, 0 (control, 10, 30, and 50 μg/mL EGCG were added to in vitro maturation (IVM medium to explore the effect of EGCG on IVM of pig oocytes. The matured oocytes were then used to produce PA and SCNT embryos. Either for nuclear maturation of oocytes or for the rates of cleavage and blastocyst of PA and SCNT embryos, no significant difference was found among all groups. However, the total cell number per cloned blastocyst was significantly lower in blastocysts derived from oocytes matured in 50 μg/mL EGCG (P<0.05 as compared with the other groups. In Experiment 2, we cultured pig SCNT and PA embryos in medium containing various concentrations of EGCG to examine the effect of EGCG on preimplantation development. The cleavage and blastocyst rates and the total cell number per blastocyst did not significantly differ between PA and SCNT embryos among all groups. However, the reactive oxygen species level was significantly lower in the PA embryos cultured in 10 μg/mL EGCG than the other groups (P<0.05. Our results suggest that high doses of EGCG in IVM are harmful to the oocytes as evidenced by the decreased quality of SCNT embryos, and EGCG has no beneficial effects on in vitro development of pig cloned embryos.

  10. Production of human lysozyme-transgenic cloned porcine embryos by somatic nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuyan Li; Hengxi Wei; Ying Guo; Yan Li; Rui Zhao; Yufang Ma; Zhengquan Yu; Bo Tang; Lei Zhang; Yunping Dai; Ning Li

    2009-01-01

    Due to their physiology and organ size, pigs have significant potential as human disease models and as organ transplantation donors. Genetic modification of pigs could provide benefits for both agriculture and human medicine. In this study, five fetal pig fibroblast cell lines from two species (Wuzhishan and Landrace pigs) were transfected using double-marked human lysozyme (HLY) plasmids (pBC1-HLY-GFP-NEO) by a liposome-mediated method. The ratio of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing cells was >95% in sw7, sw8, s1w3 and s1w6 cell lines, but only 49.3% in slw9 cells. Cells from the four highly transgenic lines were used as nuclear donors to construct embryos, which were then cultured after fusion and activation by electric stimulation. The rate of cleavage was 76.7%, 48 h after acti-vation. After 7 days, 18.5% of cleaved eggs had developed to the blastocyst stage and 93.3% of blastocysts were GFP-positive. These results indicate that transgenic fetal pig fibroblast cell lines could be obtained by a liposome-mediated method, though the transfection efficiency varied between cell lines. Reconstructed embryos derived from transgenic cells could successfully develop into blastocysts, most of which were GFP-positive.

  11. Where is the best site for embryo transfer? A study of relation of embryo-fundal distance with pregnancy rate in ICSI-ET cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreedevi J. Tanksale

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that higher pregnancy rates are obtained if the embryos are selectively placed at a distance between 10mm to 15 mm from the fundal endometrial surface. It is not possible to determine exact location of embryo placed in utero by any method. The findings of our study can be considered as a guiding force by clinicians. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2661-2665

  12. Whole-mount three-dimensional imaging of internally localized immunostained cells within mouse embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Yokomizo (Tomomasa); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); A.D. Yzaguirre (Amanda); M.J. Chen (Michael); N.A. Speck (Nancy); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a three-dimensional (3D) confocal imaging technique to characterize and enumerate rare, newly emerging hematopoietic cells located within the vasculature of whole-mount preparations of mouse embryos. However, the methodology is broadly applicable for examining the development

  13. Correlation of site of embryo transfer with IVF outcome: Analysis of 743 cycles from a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the influence of site of embryo transfer (ET on reproductive outcome. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 743 ultrasound-guided ET in fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles from a single center over a period of 4 years was conducted. The distance between the fundal endometrial surface and the air bubble was measured, and accordingly, patients were divided into four groups (≤10 mm; >10 and ≤15 mm; >15 and 20 mm; >20 and 15 and <20 mm compared to less than 10-mm distance group. Ectopic pregnancy rates were similar in all the four groups. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that site of ET has significant difference on reproductive outcome.

  14. Effect of synchronization of donor cells in early G1-phase using shake-off method on developmental potential of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuji; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Takeda, Kazuya; Tukamoto, Nobuyuki; Sakata, Osamu; Kaeriyama, Hiroshi; Geshi, Masaya

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we compared the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos reconstructed with three bovine somatic cells that had been synchronized in G0-phase (G0-SCNT group) or early G1-phase (eG1-SCNT group). Furthermore, we investigated the production efficiency of cloned offspring for NT embryos derived from these donor cells. The G0-phase and eG1-phase cells were synchronized, respectively, using serum starvation and antimitotic reagent treatment combined with shaking of the plate containing the cells (shake-off method). The fusion rate in the G0-SCNT groups (64.2 ± 1.8%) was significantly higher than that of eG1-SCNT groups (39.2 ± 1.9%) (P cells in eG1-phase using the shake-off method improved the overall production efficiency of the clone offspring per transferred embryo.

  15. Positive effects of treatment of donor cells with aphidicolin on the preimplantation development of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in Chinese Bama mini-pig (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Yu; Dai, Jian-Jun; Wu, Cai-Feng; Gu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Liang; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Yi-Ni; Wu, Bin; Chen, Hui-Lan; Li, Yao; Chen, Xue-Jin; Zhang, De-Fu

    2012-02-01

    To optimize somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedures in mini-pigs, the present study was designed to examine the effects of donor cell types and aphidicolin (APC) treatment on in vitro development of reconstructed embryos. Oviduct epithelial cells (OEC), ear fibroblast cells (EFC) and cumulus cells (CC) derived from mini-pigs were treated with serum starvation only or serum starvation followed by treatment of 0.1 µg/mL APC. The reconstructed embryos were cultured for 7 days to evaluate their developmental competency. Cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of reconstructed embryos derived from the OEC by APC treatment were significantly higher than the serum starvation (61.82% vs. 56.25%, 24.55% vs. 17.86%; P cell types. Therefore, our results suggest that treatment of CC with serum starvation plus APC prior to nuclear transfer is more suitable in SCNT of mini-pigs.

  16. 冷冻前和复苏后胚胎质量对临床结局的影响%Impact of embryo factors on clinical outcome in frozen - thawed embryo transfer cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆小溦; 孙贻娟; 张爱军; 谷瑞环; 冯云

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of post -thaw survival rate or pre -freeze embryo qulity and clinical pregnancy rate in frozen -thawed embryo transfer program (FET). Methods: A total of 683 FET of the patients aged <35 years and who were only transferred 2 embryos in a cycle were analyzed retrospectively from Jan 2008 to Dec 2010. Cases were divided into 4 groups according to the pre - freeze embryo qulity and post - thaw survival rate ( Group A: fully intact embryos and ≥1 pre - freeze high - qulity embryo, Group B: fully intact embryos and no pre - freeze high - qulity embryo, Group C: post - thaw damaged embryos and ≥1 pre - freeze high - qulity embryo, Group D: post - thaw damaged embryos and no pre - freeze high - qulity embryo). And clinical pregnancy rate and multiple pregnancy rate were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy rate and multiple pregnancy rate between Group A and Group C, or Group B and Group D, or Group A + B and Group C + D. But there was a significantly higher pregnancy rate in Group A and Group C (A vs. B,A vs. D,A + C vs. B + D, P < 0. 01; C vs. B, P < 0. 05). Conclusions: If there was any pre - freeze high - qulity embryo in the post — thaw embyos, they will have a higher pregnancy rate.%目的 将复苏后胚胎按冷冻前是否含有优胚和/或是否同冻存时分组,比较他们的妊娠结局,探讨是冷冻前的胚胎质量还是复苏后胚胎是否同冻存时,对妊娠结局的影响更大.方法 本中心2008.01 - 2010.12期间促排获得胚胎并冻存,患者年龄<35岁,复苏并移植2枚胚胎的683周期,共分四组:A组同冻存时,≥1枚优胚;B组同冻存时,0枚优胚;C组≥1枚有球溶解可用胚,≥1枚冻前优胚;D组≥1枚有球溶解可用胚,0枚冻前优胚.分析各组妊娠率、多胎率的差异.结果 总复苏率94.08%,冻前优胚复苏率98.01% (395/403),高于冻前非优胚复苏率92.56% (971/1049),P<0

  17. International Transfer of Kaizen: Japanese Manufacturers in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Yokozawa, K

    2012-01-01

    Kaizen, the synonym for continuous improvement, is an essential component of Japanese management system. Kaizen programs have long been employed with great success in Japanese companies. Due to their origin in Japanese organisations, and their embeddedness in Japanese context, applicability of kaizen to countries with different cultures and different management styles still remains to be understood. The purpose of the research is to investigate the international transfer of kaizen. Case study...

  18. International Co-operation and Trends in Social Science Information Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, Gyorgy; Foldi, Tamas

    1980-01-01

    Identifies the role and mechanism of information transfer in the social sciences, and surveys selected, significant institutions and organizations (mostly international), which promote such transfer. (RAA)

  19. Embryo transfer techniques: an American Society for Reproductive Medicine survey of current Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Thomas L; Lee, Malinda S; Bendikson, Kristin A; Reindollar, Richard H

    2017-04-01

    To better understand practice patterns and opportunities for standardization of ET. Cross-sectional survey. Not applicable. Not applicable. An anonymous 82-question survey was emailed to the medical directors of 286 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member IVF practices. A follow-up survey composed of three questions specific to ET technique was emailed to the same medical directors. Descriptive statistics of the results were compiled. The survey assessed policies, protocols, restrictions, and specifics pertinent to the technique of ET. There were 117 (41%) responses; 32% practice in academic settings and 68% in private practice. Responders were experienced clinicians, half of whom had performed transfer followed immediately with ET (40%); [2] afterload transfer (30%); and [3] direct transfer without prior trial or afterload (27%). Embryos are discharged in the upper (66%) and middle thirds (29%) of the endometrial cavity and not closer than 1-1.5 cm from fundus (87%). Details of each step were reported and allowed the development of a "common" practice ET procedure. ET training and practices vary widely. Improved training and standardization based on outcomes data and best practices are warranted. A common practice procedure is suggested for validation by a systematic literature review. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Luteal phase supplementation after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in fresh embryo transfer: the American versus European approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidan, Peter; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The challenges in attaining an adequate luteal phase after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger to induce final oocyte maturation have resulted in different approaches focused on rescuing the luteal phase insufficiency so that a fresh transfer can be carried out without jeopardizing IVF outcomes. Over the years, two different concepts have emerged: intensive luteal support with aggressive exogenous administration of E2 and P; and low-dose hCG rescue in the form of a small dose of hCG either on the day of oocyte retrieva or on the day of GnRHa trigger (the so called "dual trigger"). Both approaches have been shown to be effective in achieving pregnancy rates similar to those obtained after conventional hCG trigger and resulting in a very low risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Although the idea of freezing all embryos after GnRHa trigger and transferring them in a subsequent frozen-thawed cycle has been gaining momentum, a fresh transfer leading to the live birth of a healthy child is currently considered to be the goal of IVF treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between serum β-hCG on day 24 of pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy in frozen embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Huang, Yuan; Guo, Ping-Ping; Ye, De-Sheng; Xu, Li-Juan; Chen, Shi-Ling

    2016-09-01

    To determine the relationship between serum levels of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) on day 24 of pregnancy during a frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycle and ongoing pregnancy. In a retrospective cohort study, data were reviewed from women aged 38years or younger who underwent a FET cycle at Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China, from January 2013 to December 2014. Inclusion criteria were use of hormone-replacement therapy to achieve an endometrial thickness of 8mm or more, and at least two surviving embryos. Serum β-hCG on day 24 of pregnancy was assessed in relation to ongoing pregnancy at 12weeks. Overall, 217 patients who underwent 248 FET cycles were included. The only measure that differed between cycles with (n=112) and without (n=136) ongoing pregnancy was β-hCG level on day 24 of pregnancy (73.0±65.8 vs 19.4±34.5mIU/mL; PhCG levels higher than 26.6mIU/mL had a 75.8% likelihood of ongoing pregnancy. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the corresponding area under curve was 0.845 (95% confidence interval 0.795-0.895). A maternal serum β-hCG level higher than 26.6mIU/mL was predictive of ongoing pregnancy at 12weeks. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. International transferability of accident modification functions for horizontal curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2013-10-01

    Studies of the relationship between characteristics of horizontal curves and accident rate have been reported in several countries. The characteristic most often studied is the radius of a horizontal curve. Functions describing the relationship between the radius of horizontal curves and accident rate have been developed in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the United States. Other characteristics of horizontal curves that have been studied include deflection angle, curve length, the presence of transition curves, super-elevation in curves and distance to adjacent curves. This paper assesses the international transferability of mathematical functions (accident modification functions) that have been developed to relate the radius of horizontal curves to their accident rate. The main research problem is whether these functions are similar, which enhances international transferability, or dissimilar, which reduces international transferability. Accident modification functions for horizontal curve radius developed in the countries listed above are synthesised. The sensitivity of the functions to other characteristics of curves than radius is examined. Accident modification functions developed in different countries have important similarities. The functions diverge with respect to accident rate in the sharpest curves.

  3. Simple gene transfer technique based on I-SceI meganuclease and cytoplasmic injection in IVF bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, R J; Canel, N G; Hiriart, M I; Sipowicz, P; Rozenblum, G T; Vitullo, A; Radrizzani, M; Fernandez Martin, R; Salamone, D F

    2013-07-15

    Although transgenic methods in mammals are inefficient, an easy and highly efficient transgenesis system using I-SceI meganuclease (intron-encoded endonuclease from S. cerevisiae) was recently described in Xenopus. The method consisted of injection into fertilized eggs of an I-SceI reaction mixture with a plasmid DNA carrying the transgene, flanked by the meganuclease recognition sites (pIS). In the present study, the effects of I-SceI on gene transfer were tested apparently for the first time in mammals, in particular, in cattle. Various conditions were evaluated, including three concentrations of the plasmid pIS Pax6egfp, carrying I-SceI recognition sites flanking egfp under Pax6 promoter and two injection times (before IVM and after IVF) of pIS CAGegfp, carrying I-SceI sites fanking egfp under CAG promoter. In addition, the quantity of transgene was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and presence of transgene signals was evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Transgene expression rates were higher (P < 0.05) for groups treated after IVF (79.1%, 91/115 and 63.0%, 75/119) than before IVM (32.6%, 31/95 and 34.7%, 33/95), with and without I-SceI, respectively. Interestingly, injection with pIS plus I-SceI after IVF increased frequency (P < 0.05) of nonmosaic transgene-expressing embryos (58.3%, 42/72 vs. 29.7%, 25/84) for pIS plus I-SceI and pIS alone. Based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, injection with I-SceI increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of embryos with transgene signals in all blastomeres compared with pIS alone (44.0%, 11/25 vs. 6.9%, 2/29) for pIS plus I-SceI and pIS alone. In addition, transgene copy number was numerically higher for the group treated with pIS plus I-SceI compared with pIS alone. In conclusion, I-SceI gene transfer increased transgene signals in bovine embryos.

  4. Which factors are most predictive for live birth after in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatments? Analysis of 100 prospectively recorded variables in 8,400 IVF/ICSI single-embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegter, Katarina Kebbon; Lakic, Tatevik Ghukasyan; Olovsson, Matts; Berglund, Lars; Brodin, Thomas; Holte, Jan

    2017-03-01

    To construct a prediction model for live birth after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment and single-embryo transfer (SET) after 2 days of embryo culture. Prospective observational cohort study. University-affiliated private infertility center. SET in 8,451 IVF/ICSI treatments in 5,699 unselected consecutive couples during 1999-2014. A total of 100 basal patient characteristics and treatment data were analyzed for associations with live birth after IVF/ICSI (adjusted for repeated treatments) and subsequently combined for prediction model construction. Live birth rate (LBR) and performance of live birth prediction model. Embryo score, treatment history, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI; number of oocytes/total dose of FSH administered), female age, infertility cause, endometrial thickness, and female height were all independent predictors of live birth. A prediction model (training data set; n = 5,722) based on these variables showed moderate discrimination, but predicted LBR with high accuracy in subgroups of patients, with LBR estimates ranging from 40%. Outcomes were similar in an internal validation data set (n = 2,460). Based on 100 variables prospectively recorded during a 15-year period, a model for live birth prediction after strict SET was constructed and showed excellent calibration in internal validation. For the first time, female height qualified as a predictor of live birth after IVF/ICSI. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 人胚胎移植后剩余胚胎继续体外培养潜能的研究%Potential development to blastocyst of the surplus embryos from human embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛侠; 赵皖秋; 张四林; 秦臻; 师娟子

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the developmental potential of the surplus embryos from human embryo transfer during IVF - ET cycles. Methods All embryos with non - pronucleus (0PN), a single pronudeus (1PN), a number of pronucleus (≥3PN) and 2 pronudeus delaying development in cleavage stage (2PN) were cultured into blastula by the sequential method. Results ① 314 Surplus embryos were collected and formed 152 blastulas(48.41% ) after the sequential culture, among which 53 (34.87%) were high-quality blastula. ② The embryo grade on Day 3 was related to blastocyst rate. The higher embryo grade, the higher blastula formation (54.39%, 52.39%, 49.61% and 21.62% ); ③ Blastocyst formation rates of embryos in 1PN embryos,0PN embryos and D3 from blastocyst embryos classified Ⅲ had higher rates of blastula formation than D3 from blastocyst embryos classified beyond Ⅲ ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Embryos of level Ⅲ and above in D3 are still opportunities for blastocyst formation. The 0PN, 1PN embryo cleavage embryos developed from the D3 can continue to develop in high - quality, until after the formation of blastocysts, and then a pre- implantation genetic diagnosis. If the karyotype is aneuploid karyotype, then it should be frozen or transplanted first. The measures above can improve the oocyte retrieval in patients with accumulation of a single pregnancy, which can also provide resources for embryonic stem cell research.%目的 探讨IVF新鲜周期中D3可用胚胎移植和冷冻后剩余胚胎继续培养的价值.方法 通过囊胚序贯培养法将无原核(0PN)、单个原核(1PN)、多个原核(≥3PN)和卵裂期发育延缓的2原核(2PN)废弃胚胎培养至囊胚期.结果 ① 314枚剩余胚胎于D5~D7形成152枚囊胚(48.41%),其中53枚为优质囊胚(34.87%); ② 胚胎级别越高,囊胚形成率越高(54.39%、52.39%、49.61%和21.62%); ③ 0PN和1PN卵裂发育而来的D3优质胚胎、2PN卵裂发育来的D3评分为Ⅲ级

  6. E-Screen evaluation of sugar beet feedstuffs in a case of reduced embryo transfer efficiencies in cattle: the role of phytoestrogens and zearalenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The E-Screen assay was used to evaluate the estrogenicity of sugar beet by-products obtained from a dairy farm experiencing low success rates of embryo transfer. The beet tailings had ~ 3 fold the estradiol equivalents of the pelleted beet pulp (3.9 and 1.2 µg estradiol equivalents or E2Eq/kg dry m...

  7. Detection of endometrial and subendometrial vasculature on the day of embryo transfer and prediction of pregnancy during fresh in vitro fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Kim

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Three dimensional PD-US was a useful and effective method for assessing endometrial blood flow in IVF cycles. Good endometrial blood flow on the day of embryo transfer might be associated with high pregnancy success with a GnRH long protocol, because this is indicative of endometrial receptivity in fresh IVF cycles.

  8. The effect of a multifaceted empowerment strategy on decision making about the number of embryos transferred in in vitro fertilisation: randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peperstraten, A.M. van; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Adang, E.M.M.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a multifaceted empowerment strategy on the actual use of single embryo transfer after in vitro fertilisation. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Five in vitro fertilisation clinics in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 308 couples (women aged <40) on the

  9. Parabolic trend in endometrial thickness at embryo transfer in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cases with clinical pregnancy evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Giuseppina; Scioscia, Marco; Lorusso, Filomenamila; Serrati, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Luigi E; Depalo, Raffaella

    2008-10-01

    Sonographic measurement of endometrial thickness at embryo transfer is thought to be a good predictor of the success of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles because the clinical pregnancy rate increases as the endometrium thickens. Nevertheless, a retrospective analysis of a study population of 606 patients showed a decrease of clinical pregnancy rates in the setting of extreme endometrial thicknesses.

  10. Increased incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities in chorionic villus samples from pregnancies established by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. In't Veld (Peter); A.R.M. van Opstal (Diane); C.D.F. van den Berg (Cardi); M. van Ooijen (M.); H. Brandenburg (Helen); L. Pijpers (Leendert); M.G. Jahoda (M.); Th. Stijnen (Theo); F.J. Los

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe studied 201 pregnancies that were established by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF–ET) and compared the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities with that found in a large control population matched for indication group (advanced maternal age) and time of sampling. A total

  11. Multiple gestations/pregnancies from IVF process in a fertility center in Nigeria, 2009-2011: implementing policy towards fewer (double and single) embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukoya, Oluwakemi Y; Okeke, Chizara C; Kemi, Ailoje-Ibru; Ogbeche, Rose O; Adewusi, Abiola J; Ashiru, Oladapo A

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is a major problem in Nigeria, which has caused many couples to be burdened with physical, psychological and social issues. IVF (In-vitro fertilization) has played a major role in reducing the burden among infertile couples. However, despite the role of IVF in solving infertility in Nigeria, it is important to address the issue of rising rates of multiple births from IVF. Also to create a balance between the number of embryo transferred and easing the burden couples face from infertility. To determine the trend/rate in multiple gestations from IVF, identify possible factors responsible and proffer ways to reduce multiple gestation rates. We did a case series review from 2009-2011 of IVF cycles performed at a private clinic with an academic setting in Nigeria. Our primary outcome of interest was multiple gestations/pregnancies All patients identified with outcome of interest, were included in the study sample. We reviewed the IVF process of each patient using medical records from pre-evaluation to clinical pregnancy confirmed by ultrasound. We reported the multiple gestation trend/rate. 25 women with the mean age of 39.9 +/- 7.3 years had multiple pregnancies from 2009 to 2011. Of the 25 women, 24% of the pregnancies, occurred in 2009, 40% occurred in 2010 and 36% in 2011. In 2009, 83% of the pregnancies were twin gestations and 17% triplets. In 2010, 40% were twin gestations, while triplet, quadruplet and quintuplet gestations were 20% each. In 2011, 66% were twin gestations and 34% quadruplet gestation. The factors we identified that could have lead to an increase in multiple gestations from 2009-2010 included improvement in pre-evaluation work up, stimulation protocol, efficacy of the IVF lab and mean of 5 embryos transferred. In 2011, embryo transferred was reduced to 3-4. From 2009 to 2011, mean number of embryos transferred was 4.2 (95% CI: 3.87-4.47). Multiple gestations and associated risk from IVF in Nigeria can be reduced by reduction in number

  12. A comparative study between cleavage stage embryo transfer at day 3 and blastocyst stage transfer at day 5 in in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection on clinical pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhleen; Swarankar, M L; Maheshwari, Manju; Acharya, Veena

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of blastocyst transfer in comparison with cleavage stage transfer. A randomized, prospective study was conducted in Infertility clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jaipur on 300 patients aged 25-40 years undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle from May 2010-April 2011. When three or more Grade-I embryos were observed on day 2 of culture, patients were divided randomly into two study groups, cleavage stage transfer and blastocyst transfer group having 150 patients each. Primary outcomes evaluated were, Clinical pregnancy rate and Implantation rate. The results were analyzed using proportions, standard deviation and Chi-square test. Both the groups were similar for age, indication and number of embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancies after blastocyst transfer were significantly higher 66 (44.0%) compared to cleavage stage embryo transfer 44 (29.33%) (P < 0.01). Implantation rate for blastocyst transfer group was also significantly higher (P < 0.001). Blastocyst transfer having higher implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate lead to reduction in multiple pregnancies.

  13. A comparative study between cleavage stage embryo transfer at day 3 and blastocyst stage transfer at day 5 in in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection on clinical pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhleen Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of blastocyst transfer in comparison with cleavage stage transfer. Study Design: A randomized, prospective study was conducted in Infertility clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jaipur on 300 patients aged 25-40 years undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycle from May 2010-April 2011. When three or more Grade-I embryos were observed on day 2 of culture, patients were divided randomly into two study groups, cleavage stage transfer and blastocyst transfer group having 150 patients each. Primary outcomes evaluated were, Clinical pregnancy rate and Implantation rate. The results were analyzed using proportions, standard deviation and Chi-square test. Results: Both the groups were similar for age, indication and number of embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancies after blastocyst transfer were significantly higher 66 (44.0% compared to cleavage stage embryo transfer 44 (29.33% (P < 0.01.Implantation rate for blastocyst transfer group was also significantly higher (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Blastocyst transfer having higher implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate lead to reduction in multiple pregnancies.

  14. Determining the status of non-transferred embryos in Ireland: a conspectus of case law and implications for clinical IVF practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of in vitro fertilisation (IVF as a treatment for human infertilty was among the most controversial medical achievements of the modern era. In Ireland, the fate and status of supranumary (non-transferred embryos derived from IVF brings challenges both for clinical practice and public health policy because there is no judicial or legislative framework in place to address the medical, scientific, or ethical uncertainties. Complex legal issues exist regarding informed consent and ownership of embryos, particularly the use of non-transferred embryos if a couple separates or divorces. But since case law is only beginning to emerge from outside Ireland and because legislation on IVF and human embryo status is entirely absent here, this matter is poised to raise contractual, constitutional and property law issues at the highest level. Our analysis examines this medico-legal challenge in an Irish context, and summarises key decisions on this issue rendered from other jurisdictions. The contractual issues raised by the Roche case regarding informed consent and the implications the initial judgment may have for future disputes over embryos are also discussed. Our research also considers a putative Constitutional 'right to procreate' and the implications EU law may have for an Irish case concerning the fate of frozen embryos. Since current Medical Council guidelines are insufficient to ensure appropriate regulation of the advanced reproductive technologies in Ireland, the report of the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction is most likely to influence embryo custody disputes. Public policy requires the establishment and implementation of a more comprehensive legislative framework within which assisted reproductive medical services are offered.

  15. Determining the status of non-transferred embryos in Ireland: a conspectus of case law and implications for clinical IVF practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2009-01-01

    The development of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) as a treatment for human infertilty was among the most controversial medical achievements of the modern era. In Ireland, the fate and status of supranumary (non-transferred) embryos derived from IVF brings challenges both for clinical practice and public health policy because there is no judicial or legislative framework in place to address the medical, scientific, or ethical uncertainties. Complex legal issues exist regarding informed consent and ownership of embryos, particularly the use of non-transferred embryos if a couple separates or divorces. But since case law is only beginning to emerge from outside Ireland and because legislation on IVF and human embryo status is entirely absent here, this matter is poised to raise contractual, constitutional and property law issues at the highest level. Our analysis examines this medico-legal challenge in an Irish context, and summarises key decisions on this issue rendered from other jurisdictions. The contractual issues raised by the Roche case regarding informed consent and the implications the initial judgment may have for future disputes over embryos are also discussed. Our research also considers a putative Constitutional \\'right to procreate\\' and the implications EU law may have for an Irish case concerning the fate of frozen embryos. Since current Medical Council guidelines are insufficient to ensure appropriate regulation of the advanced reproductive technologies in Ireland, the report of the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction is most likely to influence embryo custody disputes. Public policy requires the establishment and implementation of a more comprehensive legislative framework within which assisted reproductive medical services are offered.

  16. Pregnancy rates and corpus luteum-related factors affecting pregnancy establishment in bovine recipients synchronized for fixed-time embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, L G B; Torres, C A A; Souza, E D; Monteiro, P L J; Arashiro, E K N; Camargo, L S A; Fernandes, C A C; Viana, J H M

    2009-10-15

    The objective was to investigate the influence of corpora lutea physical and functional characteristics on pregnancy rates in bovine recipients synchronized for fixed-time embryo transfer (FTET). Crossbred (Bos taurus taurus x Bos taurus indicus) nonlactating cows and heifers (n=259) were treated with the following protocol: 2mg estradiol benzoate (EB) plus an intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR 1.9g progesterone; Day 0); 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; Day 5); prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and CIDR withdrawal (Day 8); and 1mg EB (Day 9). Ovarian ultrasonography and blood sample collections were performed on Day 17. Of the 259 cattle initially treated, 197 (76.1%) were suitable recipients; they received a single, fresh, quality grade 1 or 2 in vivo-derived (n=90) or in vitro-produced (n=87) embryo on Day 17. Pregnancy rates (23 d after embryo transfer) were higher for in vivo-derived embryos than for in vitro-produced embryos (58.8% vs. 31.0%, respectively; Pcattle that became pregnant than that in nonpregnant cattle (5.2+/-5.0 vs. 3.8+/-2.4 ng/mL; P=0.02). Mean pixel values (71.8+/-1.3 vs. 71.2+/-1.1) and pixel heterogeneity (14.8+/-0.3 vs. 14.5+/-0.5) were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant recipients (P>0.10). No significant relationship was detected between pregnancy outcome and plasma P(4), corpus luteum area, or corpus luteum echotexture. Embryo type, however, affected the odds of pregnancy. In conclusion, corpus luteum-related traits were poor predictors of pregnancy in recipients. The type of embryo, however, was a major factor affecting pregnancy outcome.

  17. Curbing international transfers of arms and military technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayrynen, R.

    1978-07-01

    The magnitude of the value and quantity of transfers of arms and military technology, the internationalization and commercialization of armaments industry (through vastly increased direct investments, through co-production, licensing and sub-contracting arrangements), the supply of training and technical services as adjuncts of arms supply, the blurring of the dividing line between military and civilian technology--all have made control measures infinitely more complicated and difficult. What compounds the difficulty is the fact that, since an overwhelmingly preponderant portion of arms transfers is made up of government-to-government transactions, control measures must emanate from supplying and/or receiving governments. But even if by some miracle these measures were forthcoming and proved effective, they will have touched only a small part of the problem of disarmament, because the share of international transfers of arms and military technology amounts to only 5 to 6% of the total world military expenditure. The other, far larger and more intractable, part relates to the staggering stockpiles of both conventional and nuclear weapon systems, almost wholly concentrated in the hands of the two superpowers. Both transfers and stockpiles of armaments are inextricably enmeshed in the existing international structure, epitomized in a dominance-dependency relationship. This paper examines the measures that the supplier nations and recipient nations can take unilaterally, bilaterally, and multilaterally to curb arms transfers, and comes to the conclusion that unilateral initiatives, especially on the part of receiving nations, are more feasible. Not to take such initiatives on the ground that they cannot succeed unless taken in concert is only an excuse for doing nothing.

  18. Scriptaid Treatment Decreases DNA Methyltransferase 1 Expression by Induction of MicroRNA-152 Expression in Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liang

    Full Text Available Abnormal epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is thought to be the main cause of low cloning efficiencies. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated a positive role of Scriptaid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi that belongs to an existing class of hydroxamic acid-containing HDACis, on the development competence of cloned embryos in many species. The present study investigated the effects of Scriptaid on the development of porcine SCNT embryos in vitro and its mechanism. Treatment with 300 or 500 nM Scriptaid for 20 h after activation significantly increased the percentage of SCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage and the total number of cells per blastocyst and significantly decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. Scriptaid treatment significantly increased the level of histone H3 acetylated at K9 and the conversion of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and significantly decreased the level of histone H3 trimethylated at K9 at the pronuclear stage. As a potential mechanism for the DNA methylation changes, our results showed that the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 was frequently down-regulated in Scriptaid-treated embryos in comparison with untreated embryos and was inversely correlated to endogenous microRNA-152 (miR-152. Taken together, these findings illustrated a crucial functional crosstalk between miR-152 and DNMT1. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein levels of POU5F1 and CDX2 were increased in Scriptaid-treated embryos. mRNA levels of Caspase3, and Bax were significantly decreased and that of Bcl-xL was significantly increased in Scriptaid-treated embryos. In conclusion, these observations would contribute to uncover the nuclear reprogramming mechanisms underlying the effects of Scriptaid on the improvement of porcine SCNT embryos.

  19. [Implementation of an internal transfer pricing system for anaesthesia services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raetzell, M; Reissmann, H; Steinfath, M; Schuster, M; Schmidt, C; Scholz, J; Bauer, M

    2004-12-01

    Internal transfer pricing system (ITPS) of anaesthesia services is established to guarantee a close connection of delivered service and the budget of the department of anaesthesia. In most cases a time-based system is used with the pricing unit being calculated as the quotient from the enumerator "costs" divided by the denominator "anaesthesia time in minutes". The implementation of a transfer pricing system requires the identification of all relevant costs caused by the department of anaesthesia and a cost centre structure is needed which allocates all costs correctly according to their cause. The regulations regarding cost calculations as defined by the German DRG System should be considered. To generate valid data not only the necessary technical infrastructure is needed, but also detailed training of the staff and plausibility checks are needed to ensure correct and complete data. Subsequent agreements with the hospital administration are necessary in order to adjust the system if extrinsic cost increases occur. This paper gives a step-by-step guidance for the successful implementation of an internal transfer pricing system based on anaesthesia time.

  20. TRIPS Agreement, International Technology Transfer and Least Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Shugurov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the role of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS Agreement in facilitation the international technology transfer to least developed countries (LDCs. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the new conditions of technology development of LDCs connected with TRIPS adoption. Special attention is paid to the potentials of Article 66.2 for solving the problem of LDCs capacity building. The article presents detailed analysis of the discussions on the impact of the TRIPS provisions concerning the strengthening of the intellectual property rights (IPRs and the protection of technology transfer to LDCs. An important finding of this study is the recognition of the need to take urgent measures for the transition unto a new model of partnership between developed countries and LDCs in area of technology transfer and IPRs protection. The study concluded that a new model needed to be elaborated at the international level should be based on the effective implementation of Article 66.2 of the TRIPS Agreement.

  1. The impact of cryopreservation timing and embryo factors on clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles%冷冻时机和胚胎因素对冻融胚胎移植结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱桂杰; 谭丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of cryopreservation timing and embryo quality on the clinical out -come oi irozen - thawed embryo transfer cycles ( FET). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 417 FET cycles. The patients were divided into different groups according to freezing time , embryo blastomere count and good - quality embryo count. Frozen - thawed effects and clinical outcomes in different cryopreservation timings and embryo qualities were observed. Results The good -quality embryo rate of D2 embryo was significantly higher than that of D3 embryo (56. 84% vs 48. 82% ), though with significantly lower clinical pregnancy rate (27. 61% vs 38. 52% ). However, there was no significant difference in the post - thaw embryo survival rate or abortion rate between D 2 embryo and D3 embryo ( 83. 50% vs 79. 44% , and 10. 81 % vs 10. 09% , P >0. 05) . In D2 embryo group , the post - thaw embryo survival rate and total blastomere survival rate were significantly higher in cells exceeded 4 - cell than those less than 4 - cell (89. 35% vs 79. 11% , and 42. 01% vs 30. 22% , respectively, P < 0. 05). In D3 embryo group, they were significantly higher in cells exceeded 6 -cell comparing with those less than 6 -cell (86.52% vs 72.43% , and 41. 13% vs 31.07% , respectively, P <0. 01). When more and more were transferred , The clinical pregnancy rate and multiple pregnancy rate were significantly positively correlated with the good - quality embryo count ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion The D3 embryo cryopreservation in FET provides better clinical outcome . The embryos quality and good - quality embryo count transferred is close correlated with FET outcomes , suggesting the key factors to FET cycles.%目的 探讨冷冻时机和胚胎因素对冻融胚胎移植(FET)结局的影响.方法 回顾性分析417个FET周期,按冷冻时机、冷冻时胚胎卵裂球数、FET优质胚胎数进行分组,观察不同冷冻时机和胚胎质量复苏

  2. The international regulation of Informal Value Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ajay Shah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 11th September 2001 attacks on the United States international attention quickly focused on the sources and methods of terrorist financing. Among the methods terrorists and other criminal actors use to transfer funds are Informal Value Transfer Systems (IVTS which operate either outside the formal financial sector, or through use of the formal financial sector, but without leaving a full record of the transaction. Though the vast majority of funds moved through IVTS are the earnings of migrant workers and immigrant communities, the lack of uniform worldwide regulation of IVTS provides ample opportunity for abuse and misuse. The international community primarily responded to IVTS concerns through the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, which issued a series of recommendations and best practices for states in regulating IVTS operations. While these recommendations are a secure beginning to regulation of IVTS operating within ethnic communities, they fail to address the more modern forms of IVTS that have come about in the post-Cold War globalised world. Comprehensive recommendations governing all types of IVTS, as well as concerted international cooperation and coordination are necessary to address this global phenomenon.

  3. The international regulation of Informal Value Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ajay Shah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 11th September 2001 attacks on the United States international attention quickly focused on the sources and methods of terrorist financing. Among the methods terrorists and other criminal actors use to transfer funds are Informal Value Transfer Systems (IVTS which operate either outside the formal financial sector, or through use of the formal financial sector, but without leaving a full record of the transaction. Though the vast majority of funds moved through IVTS are the earnings of migrant workers and immigrant communities, the lack of uniform worldwide regulation of IVTS provides ample opportunity for abuse and misuse. The international community primarily responded to IVTS concerns through the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, which issued a series of recommendations and best practices for states in regulating IVTS operations. While these recommendations are a secure beginning to regulation of IVTS operating within ethnic communities, they fail to address the more modern forms of IVTS that have come about in the post-Cold War globalised world. Comprehensive recommendations governing all types of IVTS, as well as concerted international cooperation and coordination are necessary to address this global phenomenon.

  4. Effect of a CIDR insert and flunixin meglumine, administered at the time of embryo transfer, on pregnancy rate and resynchronization of estrus in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, S H; Beal, W E; Gray, K R

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM), an inhibitor of PGF(2alpha) synthesis, and insertion of an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR), on pregnancy rates in beef cattle embryo transfer (ET) recipients, and to examine the effect of a CIDR after embryo transfer on the synchrony of the return to estrus in non-pregnant recipients. Cows (n=622) and heifers (n=90) at three locations were assigned randomly to one of four groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments with FM administration (500 mg i.m.) 2-12 min prior to ET, and insertion of a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone) immediately following ET as main effects. Fresh or frozen embryos (Stage=4 or 5; Grade=1 or 2) were transferred on Days 6-9 of the estrous cycle and CIDR devices were removed 13 days after ET. Recipients at Location 2 only were observed for signs of return to estrus. Recipients that returned to estrus at Location 2 were either bred by AI or received an embryo 7 days after estrus. Following the initial ET, there was an FMxlocation interaction on pregnancy rate (P0.05; 65% with CIDR, 70% without CIDR), however, the timing of the return to estrus was more synchronous (P0.13). Effects of FM on pregnancy rate were location dependent and CIDR insertion at ET improved synchrony of the return to estrus.

  5. Successful pregnancy following transfer of feline embryos derived from vitrified immature cat oocytes using 'stepwise' cryoprotectant exposure technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharasanit, Theerawat; Manee-In, Sukanya; Buarpung, Sirirak; Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Lohachit, Chainarong; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2011-11-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation is the desired tool for the 'long-term' storage of female genetic potential especially for endangered/valuable species. This study aims at examining the ability of different cryoprotectant (CPA) and CPA exposure techniques to protect immature feline oocytes against cryoinjury during vitrification. Immature oocytes were submitted to different CPA exposure techniques: 1) 2-step DMSO, 2) 4-step DMSO, 3) 2-step EG, 4) 4-step EG, 5) 2-step EG plus DMSO and 6) 4-step EG plus DMSO. Non-CPA treated, non-vitrified oocytes served as controls. The oocytes were then submitted either to in vitro maturation (Experiment 1, n = 334) or to vitrification/warming (Experiment 2, n = 440). The stage of nuclear maturation was subsequently determined. In Experiment 3, the vitrified immature oocytes (n = 254) were matured and fertilized in vitro, and their developmental competence was assessed. A total of 424 embryos derived from vitrified immature oocytes were transferred into the oviduct of 6 recipient queens (Experiment 4). Vitrification reduced significantly the meiotic and developmental competence of immature cat oocytes compared with the non-vitrified controls. The EG alone or a combination of EG and DMSO yielded higher maturation rates than DMSO, irrespective of the CPA equilibration techniques used. The 4-step EG vitrification resulted in the highest maturation rate (37.6%) but cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly lower than the non-vitrified controls (24.8% and 30.2% vs 62.5% and 49.3%, respectively). Pregnancy was established in recipients receiving embryos derived from non-vitrified and vitrified/warmed immature oocytes. It is concluded that the stepwise CPA exposure technique can be successfully applied for vitrification of immature cat oocytes, in terms of in vitro development but it is likely to affect in utero development.

  6. A modified natural cycle results in higher live birth rate in vitrified-thawed embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yichun; Fan, Hongfang; Styer, Aaron K; Xiao, Zhiying; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jianrui; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Xingling; Zhang, Zhan

    2016-10-01

    There is no consensus regimen for the optimal endometrial preparation for cryopreservation and vitrified-thawed embryo transfer cycles. This is largely caused by the lack of sufficient investigation and analyses on the respective pregnancy and perinatal outcomes by different regimens. This study aimed to compare both pregnancy and perinatal outcomes between the modified natural and artificial cycles in vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation. A total of 1,482 vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer cycles were reviewed including 427 modified natural cycles (NC), 132 ovulation induction cycles (OC), 794 artificial cycles (AC), and 129 GnRH agonist artificial cycles (GAC). The primary outcome that was evaluated was live birth rate. The NC regimen demonstrated a higher rate of ongoing pregnancy (43.8% vs. 30.2%, P = 0.002) and a lower rate of late abortion (2.8% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.003) than the GAC regimen as well as a higher implantation rate (31.9% vs. 27.1%, P = 0.008) and live birth rate (43.1% vs. 34.1%, P = 0.002) than the AC regimen. A significantly higher peak endometrial thickness before transfer was observed in patients using the NC and GAC regimens (10.0 ± 1.7, 9.9 ± 2.4) compared to the AC regimens (9.2 ± 1.5, P = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the NC protocol was associated with a higher live birth rate. There were no significant differences in rates of pregnancy complications, neonatal mortality, birth defects, mean birth weight, and other perinatal outcomes among the regimens. Modified natural cycle endometrial preparation regimen for vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer is associated with superior live birth pregnancy outcomes compared to artificial cycles. Future studies are warranted to investigate the underlying biologic mechanisms of these findings. Abbreviations ART: assisted reproductive technology; BMI: body mass index; FET: frozen-thawed embryo transfer; HCG: human chorionic

  7. Heat transfer in window frames with internal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2001-07-01

    Heat transfer in window frames with internal air cavities is studied in this thesis. Investigations focus on two- and three-dimensional natural convection effects inside air cavities, the dependence of the emissivity on the thermal transmittance, and the emissivity of anodized and untreated aluminium profiles. The investigations are mostly conducted on window frames which are the same size as real frames found in residential buildings. Numerical and experimental investigations were performed to study the effectiveness of one commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program for simulating combined natural convection and heat transfer in simple three-dimensional window frames with internal air cavities. The accuracy of the conjugate CFD simulations was evaluated by comparing results for surface temperature on the warm side of the specimens to results from experiments that use infrared (IR) thermography to map surface temperatures during steady-state thermal tests. In general, there was good agreement between the simulations and experiments. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic and conduction simulations are performed to study the difference between treating air cavities as a fluid and as a solid when calculating the thermal transmittance of window frames. The simulations show that traditional software codes, simulating only conduction and using equivalent conductivities for the air cavities, give Uvalues that compare well with results from fluid flow simulations. The difference between the two models are mostly limited to the temperature distribution inside air cavities. It is also found that cavities with an interconnection less than about 7 mm can be treated as separate cavities. Three-dimensional natural convection effects in simple and custom-made PVC and thermally broken aluminum window frames with one open internal cavity were studied, with the use of CFD simulations and thermography experiments. Focus was put on corner effects and heat transfer

  8. Comparation of multiple-pregnancy rate between cleavage stage embryos transfer and blastocyst transfer%胚胎卵裂期移植与囊胚移植多胎率的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文浩; 张四林; 任文娟; 张鑫; 师娟子

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过胚胎卵裂期移植与囊胚移植的不同移植胚胎数目间比较,寻找降低多胎率的方法和策略。方法2014年1月1日至2015年6月30日在陕西省妇幼保健院生殖中心行常规体外受精/卵胞浆内单精子注射-胚胎移植( IVF/ICSI-ET)的患者为研究对象,其中受精后第三天新鲜移植或解冻胚胎第三天移植为卵裂期组,受精后第五天新鲜移植或解冻后囊胚移植为囊胚期组。根据移植胚胎数目(1~3枚)分别进行两组间临床妊娠及多胎率的比较。结果共计移植7454周期,其中新鲜移植4756周期,冻融胚胎移植2698周期。移植数目相同的情况下,囊胚移植的临床妊娠率比卵裂期胚胎明显增加(移植1枚、2枚、3枚时,P值分别为0.001,0.001,0.033);卵裂期胚胎移植由2枚增加到3枚时,临床妊娠率并未增加反而下降(P=0.002),同时多胎率无明显变化(P=0.252),因此移植3枚胚胎临床妊娠率下降且多胎率无明显变化;囊胚移植由2枚增加到3枚时临床妊娠率略升高(P=0.739),同时多胎率升高(P=0.595),但无统计学差异。结论卵裂期胚胎移植数目为1~3枚,可通过增加移植胚胎数目维持一定的临床妊娠率,多胎风险并无增加;囊胚移植由2枚增加至3枚时并未显著提高临床妊娠率,相反有增加多胎率的风险。故囊胚移植数目应该为1~2枚,并应禁止移植3枚囊胚。%Objective To compare the number of embryo between cleavage stage embryos transfer and blastocyst transfer so as to look for the strategies to reduce the rate of multiple-pregnancies.Methods The patients, undergoing in vitro fertilization /intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) in Reproductive Center of Northwest Women and Children's Hospital during January 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015 were enrolled as research objects.The cleavage stage group

  9. Pregnancy rate in women with adenomyosis undergoing fresh or frozen embryo transfer cycles following gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Choi, Min Hye; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok

    2016-09-01

    To determine the preferred regimen for women with adenomyosis undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared the IVF outcomes of fresh embryo transfer (ET) cycles with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist pretreatment and of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles following GnRH agonist treatment. This retrospective study included 241 IVF cycles of women with adenomyosis from January 2006 to January 2012. Fresh ET cycles without (147 cycles, group A) or with (105 cycles, group B) GnRH agonist pretreatment, and FET cycles following GnRH agonist treatment (43 cycles, group C) were compared. Adenomyosis was identified by using transvaginal ultrasound at the initial workup and classified into focal and diffuse types. The IVF outcomes were also subanalyzed according to the adenomyotic region. GnRH agonist pretreatment increased the stimulation duration (11.5±2.1 days vs. 9.9±2.0 days) and total dose of gonadotropin (3,421±1,141 IU vs. 2,588±1,192 IU), which resulted in a significantly higher number of retrieved oocytes (10.0±8.2 vs. 7.9±6.8, p=0.013) in group B than in group A. Controlled ovarian stimulation for freezing resulted in a significantly higher number of retrieved oocytes (14.3±9.2 vs. 10.0±8.2, p=0.022) with a lower dose of gonadotropin (2,974±1,112 IU vs. 3,421±1,141 IU, p=0.037) in group C than in group B. The clinical pregnancy rate in group C (39.5%) tended to be higher than those in groups B (30.5%) and A (25.2%) but without a significant difference. FET following GnRH agonist pretreatment tended to increase the pregnancy rate in patients with adenomyosis. Further large-scale prospective studies are required to confirm this result.

  10. Relationship between lower number of oocytes retrieved and clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xue-mei; Jiang Hong; Zhang Wen-xiang; Wei Zhao-lian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical outcomes of the infertile women with retrieved oocytes less than or equal to 5 undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).Methods: The clinical data of 216 embryo transfer cycles with retrieved oocytes less than or equal to 5 during the procedure of IVF/ICSI in Reproductive Medicine Center of the 105th Hospital of PLA from Jul.2008 to Dec.2011 were analyze retrospectively.All the patients were divided into group A (< 35 years),group B (35-39 years) and group C (≥40 years) according to the ages,and 409 IVF/ICSI cycles with patients’ age less than 35 years old and 6-15 retrieved oocytes in the same period were served as controlled group.Then the patients ≥ 35 years were subdivided into gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) long protocol group,GnRH-a short group and GnRH antagonist group according to the protocols of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).The clinical date and the outcomes were analyzed and compared among all groups.Results: There were significantly differences in clinical pregnancy rate (38.3 % vs.19.4 %) and early abortion rate (16.1% vs.50.0%) between group A and group C (P<0.05),and there were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate(38.3% vs.41.6%)and early abortion rate (16.1% vs.10.0%) between group A and control group (P>0.05).There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rates (29.01% vs.26.1% vs.25.9%)and early abortion rates (33.3% vs.33.3% vs.40.0%) among GnRH-a long protocol group,GnRH-a short group and GnRH antagonist group (P>0.05).Conclusions: Relatively satisfactory clinical outcomes of IVF/ICSI would still be got for the patients <35 years with retrieved oocytes less than or equal to 5,but whatever COH protocols such as GnRH-a long protocol,GnRH-a short and GnRH antagonist could not improve the outcomes of IVF/ICSI for the patients aged ≥35 with retrieved

  11. Mitochondria-targeted DsRed2 protein expression during the early stage of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Min, Sung-Hun; Choi, Hoonsung; Park, Junghyung; Kim, Sun-Uk; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kong, Il-Keun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2016-09-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been widely used as an efficient tool in biomedical research for the generation of transgenic animals from somatic cells with genetic modifications. Although remarkable advances in SCNT techniques have been reported in a variety of mammals, the cloning efficiency in domestic animals is still low due to the developmental defects of SCNT embryos. In particular, recent evidence has revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction is detected during the early development of SCNT embryos. However, there have been relatively few or no studies regarding the development of a system for evaluating mitochondrial behavior or dynamics. For the first time, in mitochondria of bovine SCNT embryos, we developed a method for the visualization of mitochondria and expression of fluorescence proteins. To express red fluorescence in mitochondria of cloned embryos, bovine ear skin fibroblasts, nuclear donor, were stably transfected with a vector carrying mitochondria-targeting DsRed2 gene tagged with V5 epitope (mito-DsRed2-V5 tag) using lentivirus-mediated gene transfer because of its ability to integrate in the cell genome and the potential for long-term transgene expression in the transduced cells and their dividing cells. From western blotting analysis of V5 tag protein using mitochondrial fraction and confocal microscopy of red fluorescence using SCNT embryos, we found that the mitochondrial expression of the mito-DsRed2 protein was detected until the blastocyst stage. In addition, according to image analysis, it may be suggested possible use of the system for visualization of mitochondrial localization and evaluation of mitochondrial behaviors or dynamics in early development of bovine SCNT embryos.

  12. Application of a validated prediction model for in vitro fertilization: comparison of live birth rates and multiple birth rates with 1 embryo transferred over 2 cycles vs 2 embryos in 1 cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B; Wantman, Ethan; Stern, Judy E; Baker, Valerie L; Widra, Eric; Coddington, Charles C; Gibbons, William E; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Ball, G David

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a validated prediction model to examine whether single embryo transfer (SET) over 2 cycles results in live birth rates (LBR) comparable with 2 embryos transferred (DET) in 1 cycle and reduces the probability of a multiple birth (ie, multiple birth rate [MBR]). Prediction models of LBR and MBR for a woman considering assisted reproductive technology developed from linked cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System for 2006-2012 were used to compare SET over 2 cycles with DET in 1 cycle. The prediction model was based on a woman's age, body mass index (BMI), gravidity, previous full-term births, infertility diagnoses, embryo state, number of embryos transferred, and number of cycles. To demonstrate the effect of the number of embryos transferred (1 or 2), the LBRs and MBRs were estimated for women with a single infertility diagnosis (male factor, ovulation disorders, diminished ovarian reserve, and unexplained); nulligravid; BMI of 20, 25, 30, and 35 kg/m2; and ages 25, 35, and 40 years old by cycle (first or second). The cumulative LBR over 2 cycles with SET was similar to or better than the LBR with DET in a single cycle (for example, for women with the diagnosis of ovulation disorders: 35 years old; BMI, 30 kg/m2; 54.4% vs 46.5%; and for women who are 40 years old: BMI, 30 kg/m(2); 31.3% vs 28.9%). The MBR with DET in 1 cycle was 32.8% for women 35 years old and 20.9% for women 40 years old; with SET, the cumulative MBR was 2.7% and 1.6%, respectively. The application of this validated predictive model demonstrated that the cumulative LBR is as good as or better with SET over 2 cycles than with DET in 1 cycle, while greatly reducing the probability of a multiple birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics of Progesterone, TNF-α, and a Metabolite of PGF2α in Blood Plasma of Beef Cows following Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactating beef cows previously synchronized for estrus (d 0 were assigned to four treatments to assess their effectiveness in increasing blood progesterone (P4 and its effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α after the transfer of embryos. At the time of transfer (d 7, cows received no treatment (control; n=16, a controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR; n=16, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; n=15, or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; n=15. Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21 for analysis of P4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Blood was collected (every 15 min for 2 h in half the animals in each treatment group on d 14 and the remaining half on d 21 for analysis of prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM. Retention rates were 56.2, 62.5, 46.7, and 13.3% for cows in the control, CIDR, hCG, and GnRH groups, respectively. Progesterone was greater (P≤0.05 in cows receiving hCG compared to others on d 14. Progesterone in all treatment groups increased from d 7 to d 14 and declined (P≤0.05 from d 14 to d 21. Contrary to pregnant cows, P4 and TNF-α declined from d 7 to d 21 in nonpregnant cows (P≤0.05. Although PGFM increased by d 21, there was no difference between pregnant and nonpregnant cows.

  14. Conjugated laminar forced convective heat transfer from internally finned tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Quan Tao (Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China))

    1987-08-01

    The use of internal fins is a very effective means of augmenting heat transfer in a tubular heat exchanger, especially for the laminar flow case. Several theoretical investigations have been undertaken to determine heat transfer performance under fully developed conditions. Results reported in the literature are derived for prescribed thermal boundary conditions, wither with axially uniform heat flux with peripherally uniform temperature, or with constant temperature axially as well as circumferentially. However, for double pipe heat exchangers, the thermal boundary condition of the separating wall can not be prescribed a priori; it is determined by the thermal interaction between the fluid inside the tube and that in the annular space. Mikhailov and Shishedjiev (1981), and Tao (1986) have shown that Nusselt number of the tube and that of the annular are strongly dependent upon the heat capacity ratio of the two fluids. In this investigation, a performance analysis is conducted numerically for an internally finned tube which serves as the inner tube of a double pipe heat exchanger.

  15. Effect of Different Concentrations of Melatonin on Live Births Resulting from the Transfer of Two-Cell Embryos of NMRI Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Saadati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Infertility is a global problem affecting millions of men and women in developed and developing countries. In this regard, in-vitro fertilization (IVF plays an important role in improving the quality of life in infertile patients. However, studies have shown that the implantation failure in IVF is the main challenge of this procedure. Melatonin can increase the survival rate of embryos and IVF success rate through eliminating free radicals and removing reactive oxygen species. So, this study is conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of melatonin on the rate of newborns of mice following transfer oftwo-cell embryos .   Methods : In this study, female mice with average age of six to eight weeks were superovulated by administering pregnant mares serum gonadotropin (PMSG intraperitoneally (7.5 IU. ip, and followed after 48h by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG (7.5 IU. ip. Two-cell mouse embryos were obtained from female mice oviduct after 48 h. The embryos transferred bilaterally into pseudopregnant mice of the same strain through surgical procedure and 8-14 embryos were transferred to each tube. The study included 4 treatment groups and one control group (6 mice in each group. The treatment groups were exposed to subcutaneous injection of concentrations of 100 µm , 10 µm , 1 µm and 100 nm of melatonin. After the cesarean on 18th day of pregnancy, the percentage of live births was assessed. The outcomes of the live birth rate were as­sessed using the chi-square test and statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS version 16.0. Percentage of live birth was calculated and compared with the control group.   Results: A total of 701 two-cell mouse embryos were transferred into one control group and four experimental groups. The number and percentage of live births at concentrations of 100 µm and 10 µm of melatonin and the control groups were 21 (15.55%, 13 (9.15% and 9 (6

  16. Effect of histone acetylation modification with MGCD0103, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on nuclear reprogramming and the developmental competence of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Li, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Cui, Cheng-Du; Li, Wen-Xue; Cui, Zheng-Yun; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kang, Jin-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Cloning remains as an important technique to enhance the reconstitution and distribution of animal population with high-genetic merit. One of the major detrimental factors of this technique is the abnormal epigenetic modifications. MGCD0103 is known as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. In this study, we investigated the effect of MGCD0103 on the in vitro blastocyst formation rate in porcine somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) embryos and expression in acetylation of the histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H4 lysine 12. We compared the in vitro embryonic development of SCNT embryos treated with different concentrations of MGCD0103 for 24 hours. Our results reported that treating with 0.2-μM MGCD0103 for 24 hours effectively improved the development of SCNT embryos, in comparison to the control group (blastocyst formation rate, 25.5 vs. 10.7%, P transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and three fetuses developed. These results suggest that MGCD0103 can enhance the nuclear reprogramming and improve in vitro developmental potential of porcine SCNT embryos.

  17. Effect of leptin on oocyte maturation and subsequent pregnancy rate of cloned embryos reconstructed by somatic cell nuclear transfer in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hengxi Wei; Qiuyan Li; Jun Li; Yan Li; Yunping Dai; Yufang Ma; Kai Xue; Ning Li

    2008-01-01

    Cloning pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has wide applications in basic research,human medicine and agricultural production.To improve cloning efficiency,the effect of two basic maturation media,NCSU-23 and TCMI99,was compared,and TCM199 was selected for the following experiments with leptin.We systematically studied the effects of leptin supplementation on oocytes in vitro maturation (IVM),in vitro development of parthenogenetically activated (Phi) and SCNT embryos and/n vivo develop-ment of SCNT embryos after embryo transfer (ET).The results showed that supplementation of 100 or 200 ng/ml leptin into the mat-uration medium did not greatly affect nuclear maturation of oocytes,or cleavage rates of PA and SCNT (P<0.05).Blastocyst rates of PA and SCNT embryos were significantly improved when 100 or 200 ng/ml leptin was added to maturation medium,and the number of cells in PA blastocysts was also improved (P<0.05).The number of cells in blastocyst of SCNT was improved,when 100 ng/ml leptin was added (P<0.05).Furthermore,supplementation of 100 or 200 ng/ml leptin to the IVM medium may improve pregnancy rate and the delivery rate in pig cloning.

  18. Effects of recipient oocyte age and interval from fusion to activation on development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, F; Jiang, J; Li, N; Zhang, S; Sun, H; Luo, C; Wei, Y; Shi, D

    2011-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 μg/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 μM ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P fusion (P fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation.

  19. Development potentiality of day-3 embryo in women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer treatment%人体外受精-胚胎移植中第3天胚胎发育潜能的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国勇; 黄吴键; 洪新如

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过分析第3天(D3)胚胎的优质囊胚形成率,探讨形态学评估在胚胎发育潜能评估中的价值。方法选取接受体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)治疗的不育症夫妇1185对,其中女方年龄21~45岁,平均年龄30.88岁。对正常自然受精的8184个D3胚胎进行囊胚培养,所有的培养都为25μL液滴单培养,对其形成的优质囊胚情况进行比较。结果 D3胚胎中8Ⅰ级胚胎发育形成优质囊胚概率最高(76.49%),明显优于9细胞(70.36%)的Ⅰ级胚胎相比,差异有显著统计学意义(P8Ⅰ级胚胎>7Ⅰ级胚胎(68.29%vs 68.06%vs 40.82%),差异有显著统计学意义(P9-cell(70.36%) gradeⅠD3 embryos. The higher rate of high-quality blastocyst formation in 8-cell gradeⅠD3 embryos was also observed in female8-cell gradeⅠ(68.29%)>8-cell gradeⅠ(68.06%)>7-cell gradeⅠ(40.82%) D3 embryos, with statistically significant differences among them(P<0.01). Conclusion It is demonstrated that 8-cell gradeⅠD3 embryo is optimal for cleavage-stage embryo transfer, however, 7-and 9-cell gradeⅠandⅡembryos are the “high-quality embryos”. The criteria for D3 high-quality embryos in female≥35-year-old needs to be further studied.

  20. The internal structure of Early Cambrian fossil embryo Olivooides revealed in the light of Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fang; DONG XiPing

    2008-01-01

    Countless fossil embryo Olivooides and the hatched larvae, juveniles and adults (the latter two kinds are Punctatus) are recovered by means of acid maceration from the fine-crystalline to medium-crystalline phosphatic limestone and phosphatic micrite of Early Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation at the Shizhonggou section, near Kuanchuanpu Village, Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province, China. Using the technique of Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Microscopy, the 3D internal structure of Olivooides and Punctatus is reconstructed. The morphological and statistic analyses are also given to the stellae structure of Olivooides and Punctatus, which indicates that this structure is a result of adaptive evolution to a lifestyle of fast-attaching after hatching, probably with the function of mucilage secretion. The internal structure of Punctatus is described and discussed. The ovum-like structure, a common internal feature of Punctatus, is considered as the taphonomic structure, rather than eggs or other biological structure. This structure is thought to be formed after the burial of the animal and before or during the mineralization. The original internal structure of Punctatus is assumed to be tabulae-filled, with soft body grown on them.

  1. 113例全胚胎冷冻患者首次冻融胚胎移植的临床分析%Study of embryo transfer in infertile patients with 113 cases of whole embryo freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮永铭; 郑华; 吴重聪; 蔡桂丰; 杨桂艳; 曾伟荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To study the frozen - thawed embryo transfer (FET) as the first transplant, compared with the fresh embryo transplant in clinical pregnancy outcome. Methods: A database was analyzed retrospectively which covered 902 ART cycles from January 2010 to December 2010 in reproductive fertility center of ZhuHai Maternal and Children Health Hospital, including 789 fresh embryo transfer cycles and 113 FET cycles. Results; Compared with the control group, the FET group had no significant differences in the terms of the cause of infertility, the abortion rate, the number of oocytes, frozen embryos and transferred embryos. There were also no significant differences between the control group and the FET group in clinical pregnancy outcome, but the differences existed in the FET groups caused by different factors. Conclusions; The FET groups caused by different factors had differences in the clinical pregnancy outcome. Whether the patient was integrated to take FET, all aspects should be considered in order to obtain the optimal ART pregnancy outcome when the fresh embryo transfer was not suitable.%目的 探讨冻融胚胎移植(frozen - thawed embryo transfer,FET)作为首次移植的临床结局,比较其与新鲜胚胎移植的临床妊娠结局.方法 回顾性分析珠海市妇幼保健院生殖中心2010年1月至12月接受人类辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)的共902例患者的临床资料.其中,冻融胚胎移植作为首次移植113例,按全胚胎冷冻的原因不同分为5组,即卵巢过度刺激综合征(OHSS)组、孕酮升高组、雌二醇升高组、胚胎发育迟缓组、其他特殊原因组;同期新鲜胚胎移植789例,为对照组.结果 FET组与对照组相比,无论在不孕原因、获卵数、冷冻胚胎数、移植胚胎数、流产率的差异均无显著的差异,而两组患者临床妊娠率(P<0.05)有统计学差异,但FET各组间存在差异.结论 不同因素所致FET的临床妊娠结局存在

  2. Twin pregnancy and partial hydatidiform mole following in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer: a novel case of placental mosaicism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-juan; ZHAO You-ping; YU Song; FAN Ling; WU Qing-qing; LI Guang-hui; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Twin pregnancy with mosaic partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and survival of two healthy fetuses following in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer (IVF-ET) is a rare situation and is considered a challenge for management.A 32-year-old Chinese woman conceived twin pregnancy following IVF-ET.At 22 weeks' gestation,an additional intrauterine echogenic mass with features of PHM were shown by successive ultrasound examinations.At 35 weeks'gestation,two live male infants and two placentas were delivered by caesarean section (CS).Histologic examination of the abnormal placenta confirmed mosaic PHM.Genetic study showed the abnormal placental mosaicism (expressed in molar-69XXY and normal vili-46XY),co-existing with a hypospadia new-born (46XY) in one amniotic sac.However,the other one was normal.Serial serum β-hCG levels showed a declining trend and serum 3-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were undetectable at 6 months after delivery.The case demonstrated that it is possible to prolonged gestation by PHM under close surveillance during the entire pregnancy.

  3. Increased circulating cell-derived microparticle count is associated with recurrent implantation failure after IVF and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zamora, M Angeles; Tàssies, Dolors; Reverter, Juan Carlos; Creus, Montserrat; Casals, Gemma; Cívico, Salvadora; Carmona, Francisco; Balasch, Juan

    2016-08-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) are small membrane vesicles that are released from many different cell types in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. Elevated cMP counts have been found in almost all thrombotic diseases and pregnancy wastage, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion and in a number of conditions associated with inflammation, cellular activation and angiogenesis. cMP count was investigated in patients experiencing unexplained recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The study group was composed of 30 women diagnosed with RIF (RIF group). The first control group (IVF group) (n = 30) comprised patients undergoing a first successful IVF cycle. The second control group (FER group) included 30 healthy women who had at least one child born at term and no history of infertility or obstetric complications. cMP count was significantly higher in the RIF group compared with the IVF and FER groups (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) (RIF group: 15.8 ± 6.2 nM phosphatidylserine equivalent [PS eq]; IVF group: 10.9 ± 5.3 nM PS eq; FER group: 9.6 ± 4.0 nM PS eq). No statistical difference was found in cMP count between the IVF and FER groups. Increased cMP count is, therefore, associated with RIF after IVF and embryo transfer.

  4. The correlation between endometrial thickness and outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rejjal Rafat

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relationship between endometrial thickness on day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration (hCG and pregnancy outcome in a large number of consecutive in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET cycles. Methods A retrospective cohort study including all patients who had IVF-ET from January 2003–December 2005 conducted at a tertiary center. Results A total of 2464 cycles were analysed. Pregnancy rate (PR was 35.8%. PR increased linearly (r = 0.864 from 29.4% among patients with a lining of less than or equal to 6 mm, to 44.4% among patients with a lining of greater than or equal to 17 mm. ROC showed that endometrial thickness is not a good predictor of PR, so a definite cut-off value could not be established (AUC = 0.55. Conclusion There is a positive linear relationship between the endometrial thickness measured on the day of hCG injection and PR, and is independent of other variables. Hence aiming for a thicker endometrium should be considered.

  5. Twin pregnancy and partial hydatidiform mole following in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer: a novel case of placental mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng-juan; Zhao, You-ping; Yu, Song; Fan, Ling; Wu, Qing-qing; Li, Guang-hui; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2012-12-01

    Twin pregnancy with mosaic partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and survival of two healthy fetuses following in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer (IVF-ET) is a rare situation and is considered a challenge for management. A 32-year-old Chinese woman conceived twin pregnancy following IVF-ET. At 22 weeks' gestation, an additional intrauterine echogenic mass with features of PHM were shown by successive ultrasound examinations. At 35 weeks' gestation, two live male infants and two placentas were delivered by caesarean section (CS). Histologic examination of the abnormal placenta confirmed mosaic PHM. Genetic study showed the abnormal placental mosaicism (expressed in molar-69XXY and normal vili-46XY), co-existing with a hypospadia new-born (46XY) in one amniotic sac. However, the other one was normal. Serial serum β-hCG levels showed a declining trend and serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were undetectable at 6 months after delivery. The case demonstrated that it is possible to prolonged gestation by PHM under close surveillance during the entire pregnancy.

  6. Embryo impacts and gas giant mergers II: Diversity of Hot Jupiters' internal structure

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Lin, D N C; Li, Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    We consider the origin of compact, short-period, Jupiter-mass planets. We propose that their diverse structure is caused by giant impacts of embryos and super-Earths or mergers with other gas giants during the formation and evolution of these hot Jupiters. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that typical head-on collisions generally lead to total coalescence of impinging gas giants. Although extremely energetic collisions can disintegrate the envelope of gas giants, these events seldom occur. During oblique and moderately energetic collisions, the merger products retain higher fraction of the colliders' cores than their envelopes. They can also deposit considerable amount of spin angular momentum to the gas giants and desynchronize their spins from their orbital mean motion. We find that the oblateness of gas giants can be used to infer the impact history. Subsequent dissipation of stellar tide inside the planets' envelope can lead to runaway inflation and potentially a substantial loss of gas ...

  7. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in-vivo or produced by in-vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben;

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome....... Embryos produced under in vitro conditions had higher levels of DNA methylation than IV. A lineage-specific DNA methylation (hypermethylation of the inner cell mass and hypomethylation of the trophectoderm) was observed in porcine IV late blastocysts, but was absent in PA- and SCNT-derived blastocysts...

  8. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in vivo and produced by in vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben;

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome....... Embryos produced under in vitro conditions had higher levels of DNA methylation than IV. A lineage-specific DNA methylation (hypermethylation of the inner cell mass and hypomethylation of the trophectoderm) was observed in porcine IV late blastocysts, but was absent in PA- and SCNT-derived blastocysts...

  9. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in vivo or produced by in vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben;

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome....... Embryos produced under in vitro conditions had higher levels of DNA methylation than IV. A lineage-specific DNA methylation (hypermethylation of the inner cell mass and hypomethylation of the trophectoderm) was observed in porcine IV late blastocysts, but was absent in PA- and SCNT-derived blastocysts...

  10. Live birth in a 50-year-old woman following in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer with autologous oocytes: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Geetha; Goswami, Sourendra; Chattopadhyay, Ratna; Ghosh, Sanghamitra; Chakravarty, Baidyanath; Ganesh, Ashalatha

    2015-02-01

    To report a live birth with in vitro fertilization (IVF) from a 50-year-old woman with homologous oocytes. Case report. Referral center. A 50-year-old woman. IVF with fresh embryo transfer (ET). Live birth after IVF. A 50-year-old woman conceived with her own oocytes by means of IVF. Three fresh embryos were transferred, resulting in a pregnancy and delivery by cesarean section at 35 weeks of a healthy male baby weighing 2,300 g. Extensive literature search suggests that this is the first case report of live birth in a 50-year-old woman after IVF-ET with her own oocytes. This is a very rare and unusual case that deviates from the norm and therefore warrants attention. In selected cases, assisted reproductive technology might be reasonable to try for a limited number of times with a woman's own oocytes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Reduced Circulating Concentration of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor is Associated with Peri- and Post-implantation Failure following In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Ilana; Kruczek, Alexis; Doulaveris, Georgios; Orfanelli, Theofano; Shulman, Brittney; Witkin, Steven S; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated associations between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT4) and pregnancy outcome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Sera obtained on days 24 and 28 of an IVF cycle from women with a live birth, spontaneous abortion, biochemical pregnancy, not pregnant, or an ectopic pregnancy were retrospectively analyzed for BDNF and NT4 by ELISA. Median BDNF levels were higher in women with a live birth compared to women with an ectopic pregnancy (P transfer embryo parameters. Decreased circulating BDNF early in an IVF cycle is associated with adverse peri- and/or post-implantation events and subsequent pregnancy failure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Maternal Effects of Japanese Shorthorn Cows on the Growth of Embryo-transferred Japanese Black Calves in a Cow-calf Grazing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Manabu; Ikeda, Kentaro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Higashiyama, Masakazu; Watanabe, Akira

    2013-07-01

    The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan.

  13. Fixed Schedule for in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer : Comparison of Outcome between the Short and the Long Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether a short or long protocol would be preferable for simplification of a fixed-schedule for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program without negatively affecting the pregnancy rate per cycle. All women were allocated, according to the ovarian stimulation protocol, into two groups. In Group 1 for the short protocol (41 occasions), the patients were treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) before pituitary desensitization using busere...

  14. High in vitro development after somatic cell nuclear transfer and trichostatin A treatment of reconstructed porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Svarcova, O; Villemoes, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of our present study was to establish the optimal TSA treatment in order to improve the development of handmade cloned (HMC) porcine embryos and examine the effect of TSA on their development. The blastocyst percentage of HMC embryos treated with 37.5 nM TSA for 22-24 h after activation increased up...

  15. Occurrence of Campylobacter in the genitals of teaser bulls maintained at an embryo transfer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modolo J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Em central de transferência de embriões, após os procedimentos de reconhecimento do cio em 37 vacas receptoras, através de quatro rufiões vasectomizados, observou-se que 83% delas apresentavam retorno ao cio e algum corrimento serofibrinoso. Nos exames bacteriológicos realizados nos lavados prepuciais dos rufiões foi isolado o Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis em todos, fato que, analisado associadamente com o retorno ao cio das vacas receptoras, é indicativo da ocorrência de campilobacteriose no plantel. Essa ocorrência demonstra a necessidade de medidas eficazes de planejamento de saúde animal, pela utilização de rufiões com desvio lateral do pênis. Uma vez impossibilitado o contato sexual, seria impedida a transmissão do agente durante o coito. Torna-se imperioso consignar que a prática da prevenção racional de enfermidades continua sendo o procedimento mais econômico para uma produtividade animal mais rentável.

  16. Technology transfer significance of the International Safeguards Project Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, W.; Waligura, A.J.

    1988-06-01

    The safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are of major importance to the non-proliferation objectives of the United States of America and other nations of the world. Assurance of safeguards effectiveness is mandatory to continued peaceful use of nuclear power. To enhance the ability of the IAEA to apply safeguards effectively, and to ensure that the IAEA does not lack technical assistance in critical areas, the US Congress has made available a special authorization for a Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). This substantial program of technology transfer was initiated in 1976. The United States Departments of State and Energy, the Arms control and Disarmament Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have each accepted responsibility for parts of the Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards. Funding is provided by state through the Foreign Assistance Act. This report provides a discussion of this program.

  17. Intrauterine insemination of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells prior to embryo transfer improves clinical outcome for patients with repeated implantation failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aicha; Bouamoud, Nouzha; Louanjli, Noureddine; Kaarouch, Ismail; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Sefrioui, Omar

    2016-02-01

    Implantation failure is a major limiting factor in assisted reproduction improvement. Dysfunction of embryo-maternal immuno-tolerance pathways may be responsible for repeated implantation failures. This fact is supported by immunotropic theory stipulating that maternal immune cells, essentially uterine CD56+ natural killer cells, are determinants of implantation success. In order to test this hypothesis, we applied endometrium immuno-modulation prior to fresh embryo transfer for patients with repeated implantation failures. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from repeated implantation failure patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology cycles. On the day of ovulation induction, cells were isolated and then cultured for 3 days and transferred into the endometrium cavity prior to fresh embryo transfer. This immunotherapy was performed on 27 patients with repeated implantation failures and compared with another 27 patients who served as controls. Implantation and clinical pregnancy were increased significantly in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell test versus control (21.54, 44.44 vs. 8.62, 14.81%). This finding suggests a clear role for endometrium immuno-modulation and the inflammation process in implantation success. Our study showed the feasibility of intrauterine administration of autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an effective therapy to improve clinical outcomes for patients with repeated implantation failures and who are undergoing in vitro fertilization cycles.

  18. Developmental stage on day-5 and fragmentation rate on day-3 can influence the implantation potential of top-quality blastocysts in IVF cycles with single embryo transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devroey Paul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In IVF-ICSI cycles with single embryo transfer (SET, embryo selection for transfer is of crucial importance. The present study aimed to define which embryo parameters might be related to the implantation potential of advanced blastocysts. Methods Overall, in 203 cycles with SET, developmental characteristics of 93 implanted (group A and 110 non-implanted (group B advanced blastocysts of good quality were compared. The following developmental parameters were assessed in the two groups: normal fertilization, developmental stage on day 5, number of blastomeres on day 2 and on day 3, fragmentation rate on day 3, compaction on day 4 and cleavage pattern on day 2 and day 3. Results Expanded blastocysts compared to full blastocysts have higher implantation potential (56.5% vs. 29.3%, p 10–50% fragments on day 3 showed a significant lower implantation (29.7% than those with ≤ 10%fragments (49.4%, P = 0.03. All the other parameters analysed were comparable for the two groups. Conclusion Developmental stage on day 5 and fragmentation rate on day 3 were related to the implantation potential of advanced blastocysts and should also be taken into account in the selection of the best advanced blastocyst for transfer.

  19. Growth hormone gene family (GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1) polymorphisms and its association with superovulation response, ovulation rate and embryo quality in Embryo Transfer Station (BET) of Cipelang

    OpenAIRE

    Cece Sumantri; M. Imron; Sugyono; E. Andreas; M. Restu; A. B. L. Ishak

    2011-01-01

    The decrease in fertility is considered to be the main cause of reproductive loss in dairy cattle and beef industry. Many candidate genes that play an important role in fertility and embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to detect genetic variations of the growth hormone gene family (GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR| AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI) and its association with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryos rate. A total of 45 blood samples taken...

  20. Embryo impacts and gas giant mergers - II. Diversity of hot Jupiters' internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Agnor, Craig B.; Lin, D. N. C.; Li, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    We consider the origin of compact, short-period, Jupiter-mass planets. We propose that their diverse structure is caused by giant impacts of embryos and super-Earths or mergers with other gas giants during the formation and evolution of these hot Jupiters. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that typical head-on collisions generally lead to total coalescence of impinging gas giants. Although extremely energetic collisions can disintegrate the envelope of gas giants, these events seldom occur. During oblique and moderately energetic collisions, the merger products retain higher fraction of the colliders' cores than their envelopes. They can also deposit considerable amount of spin angular momentum to the gas giants and desynchronize their spins from their orbital mean motion. We find that the oblateness of gas giants can be used to infer the impact history. Subsequent dissipation of stellar tide inside the planets' envelope can lead to runaway inflation and potentially a substantial loss of gas through Roche lobe overflow. The impact of super-Earths on parabolic orbits can also enlarge gas giant planets' envelope and elevates their tidal dissipation rate over ˜100 Myr time scale. Since giant impacts occur stochastically with a range of impactor sizes and energies, their diverse outcomes may account for the dispersion in the mass-radius relationship of hot Jupiters.

  1. Rat postimplantation embryo culture as a tool for internal dose modelling in embryotoxicity risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Verhoef A; Klaassen R; van Eijkeren JCH; Olling M; LEO; LBO

    1997-01-01

    De bruikbaarheid van de postimplantatie embryokweek voor interne dosis-modellering van embryotoxiciteit werd geevalueerd met carbamazepine als modelstof. Blootstelling via het kweekmedium leidde tot neuraalbuisdefecten, en blootstelling via amnionholte of exocoeloom veroorzaakte slechts lokale effe

  2. Effects of single dose GnRH agonist as luteal support on pregnancy outcome in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles: an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Davar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no doubt that luteal phase support is essential to enhance the reproductive outcome in IVF cycles. In addition to progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin, several studies have described GnRH agonists as luteal phase support to improve implantation rate, pregnancy rate and live birth rate, whereas other studies showed dissimilar conclusions. All of these studies have been done in fresh IVF cycles. Objective: To determine whether an additional GnRH agonist administered at the time of implantation for luteal phase support in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET improves the embryo developmental potential. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective controlled trial study in 200 FET cycles, patients were randomized on the day of embryo transfer into group 1 (n=100 to whom a single dose of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg triptorelin was administered three days after transfer and group 2 (n=100, who did not receive agonist. Both groups received daily vaginal progesterone suppositories plus estradiol valerate 6 mg daily. Primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcome measures were implantation rate, chemical, ongoing pregnancy rate and abortion rate. Results: A total of 200 FET cycles were analyzed. Demographic data and embryo quality were comparable between two groups. No statistically significant difference in clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates was observed between the two groups (26% versus 21%, p=0.40 and 21% versus 17%, p=0.37, respectively. Conclusion: Administration of a subcutaneous GnRH agonist at the time of implantation does not increase clinical or ongoing pregnancy.

  3. Expression and role of cubilin in the internalization of nutrients during the peri-implantation development of the rodent embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assémat, Emeline; Vinot, Stéphanie; Gofflot, Françoise; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Illien, Françoise; Châtelet, François; Verroust, Pierre; Louvet-Vallée, Sophie; Rinninger, Franz; Kozyraki, Renata

    2005-05-01

    Histiotrophic nutrition is essential during the peri-implantation development in rodents, but little is known about receptors involved in protein and lipid endocytosis derived from the endometrium and the uterine glands. Previous studies suggested that cubilin, a multiligand receptor for vitamin, iron, and protein uptake in the adult, might be important in this process, but the onset of its expression and function is not known. In this study, we analyzed the expression of cubilin in the pre- and early post-implantation rodent embryo and tested its potential function in protein and cholesterol uptake. Using morphological and Western blot analysis, we showed that cubilin first appeared at the eight-cell stage. It was expressed by the maternal-fetal interfaces, trophectoderm and visceral endoderm, but also by the future neuroepithelial cells and the developing neural tube. At all these sites, cubilin was localized at the apical pole of the cells exposed to the maternal environment or to the amniotic and neural tube cavities, and had a very similar distribution to megalin, a member of the LDLR gene family and a coreceptor for cubilin in adult tissues. To analyze cubilin function, we followed endocytosis of apolipoprotein A-I and HDL cholesterol, nutrients normally present in the uterine glands and essential for embryonic growth. We showed that internalization of both ligands was cubilin dependent during the early rodent gestation. In conclusion, the early cubilin expression and its function in protein and cholesterol uptake suggest an important role for cubilin in the development of the peri-implantation embryo.

  4. Comparison between lignocaine hydrochloride and ropivacaine hydrochloride as lumbosacral epidural anaesthetic agents in goats undergoing laparoscopy assisted embryo transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Khajuria

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Goats (n=12 undergoing laparoscopy assisted embryo transfer were randomly allotted to two groups (I and II and injected lignocaine hydrochloride (4mg/kg or ropivacaine hydrochloride (1mg/kg at the lumbosacral epidural space. The animals were held with raised hind quarters for first three minutes following injection. Immediately after induction of regional anaesthesia, they were restrained in dorsal recumbency in Trendelenburg position in a cradle. Laparoscopy was performed after creating pneumoperitoneum using filtered room air. The mean (± S.E induction time in animals of group I was significantly shorter (5.33 ± 0.61 min than those belonging to group II (12.66 ±1.99 min. Complete analgesia developed throughout the hind quarters and abdomen for 30 min and 60 min in group I and II animal’s respectively. Unlike animals of group I, group II goats continued to show moderate analgesia for 180 minutes. The motor activity returned after a lapse of 130.00 ± 12.64 min and 405.00 ± 46.31 min respectively. Occasional vocalization and struggling was noticed in two goats one from each group irrespective of the surgical manipulations during laparoscopy. The rectal temperature and respiration rates showed only non-significant increase, but the heart rate values were significantly higher (P < 0.5 up to 150 min in animals of both the groups when compared to their baseline values. From this study, it was concluded that both anaesthetic agents produced satisfactory regional anaesthesia in goats undergoing laparoscopy. However, considering the very long delay in regaining the hind limb motor activity, the use of ropivacaine may not be recommended for this purpose. Supplementation of sedative/tranquilizer with lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia needs evaluation.

  5. Comparison of Pregnancy Stress Between In Vitro Fertilization/Embryo Transfer and Spontaneous Pregnancy in Women During Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Fen-Fen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Chiao, Chia-Yi; Li, Chi-Rong; Kuo, Pi-Chao; Lai, Te-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Women who undergo in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) face complicated psychological stress and negative emotions, which may affect health during pregnancy and the development of the fetus. The current literature does not address the question of whether women who become pregnant spontaneously and women who undergo IVF face similar levels of pregnancy stress. This study investigates the differences in pregnancy stress between women with spontaneous pregnancy and women with IVF/ET pregnancy living in central Taiwan during their first 20 weeks of pregnancy. A prospective, longitudinal design with repeated measures, generalized estimated equations model, Wilks' λ, and Bonferroni test was used. Purposive samples of 163 women who had undergone IVF/ET and of 94 women who had undergone spontaneous pregnancy were enrolled as participants. Pregnancy stress was measured using the Chinese version of the self-administered Pregnancy Stress Scale at the 9th, 12th, and 20th weeks of pregnancy. The psychological stress experienced by IVF participants significantly increased with gestational week during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy (p pregnancy participants. Gestational week was the main factor found to influence stress ratings for "identifying maternal role." "Altering body structure and body function" was the main factor found to influence pregnancy stress (p pregnancy stress during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy (p > .05). The results of this study provide clinical evidence that IVF/ET does not cause more stress for women than spontaneous pregnancy. However, the intensity and trend of stresses differed between these two groups. These findings suggest that nurses should consider method of pregnancy when assessing the risk of stress in expectant mothers for each gestational week and when providing appropriate care and support.

  6. Heat transfer in two-component internal mist cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, V.; Sadowski, D.L.; Schoonover, K.G.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States); Ghiaasiaan, S.M. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)], E-mail: mghiaasiaan@gatech.edu

    2008-09-15

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine steady, internal, nozzle-generated, gas/liquid mist cooling in vertical channels. The ideal primary cooling mechanism in this situation is surface evaporation of an ultra-thin, subcooled liquid film that forms on the heated surface. The aim was to quantify the effects of various operating and design parameters on the cooling effectiveness. Parameters tested included the liquid atomization nozzle design, inlet flow condition (liquid mass fraction; carrier gas velocity, temperature and humidity; liquid temperature; liquid droplet size distribution; and gas/liquid combination), channel characteristics (cross-section geometry, length and surface wettability), and flow direction. Interest in this research has been motivated by the need for a highly efficient cooling mechanism in high-power lasers for inertial fusion reactor applications. A fully instrumented experimental test facility that included three cylindrical and two rectangular electrically heated test sections with different cross-sections and unheated entry lengths was used. The channel hydraulic diameters covered the range 16-26.7 mm, and the heated length-to-hydraulic-diameter ratio varied in the range from 23.3 to 51. Water was used as the mist liquid, with air or helium as the carrier gas. Three types of mist generating nozzles with significantly different spray characteristics were used. Local heat transfer coefficients, defined based on the temperature difference between the heated surface and the bulk gas, were obtained along the channels for a wide range of operating conditions. The data indicate that mist cooling can increase the heat transfer coefficient by more than an order of magnitude compared to forced convection using only the carrier gas.

  7. Birth weight and gestation length of Japanese black calves following transfer of embryos produced in vitro with or without co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numabe, T; Oikawa, T; Kikuchi, T; Horiuchi, T

    2001-05-01

    Birth weight and gestation length of calves following the transfer of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos with or without co-culture of cumulus cells, were compared to those produced in vivo (IVD). Spermatozoa from one Japanese Black bull were used for both IVP and IVD. IVP embryos were produced using two types of culture method: 1) co-culturing with cumulus cells in TCM 199 supplemented with calf serum (IVP-Co), and 2) non-co-culturing without cumulus cells in CR1aa supplemented with BSA / calf serum (IVP-NON-Co). Both IVP and IVD embryos were transferred non-surgically to Holstein recipients on day 7+/-1 of the estrous cycle. Birth weight and gestation length of half-sib single calves were analyzed. No differences were observed in birth weight and gestation length between IVP-Co and IVP-NON-Co calves (31.0 kg and 31.8 kg, and 291.9 days and 291.0 days, respectively). However, the birth weight of the IVP-Co and IVP-NON-Co calves was significantly higher than that of the IVD calves (PGestation length of the IVP-Co and IVP-NON-Co calves was also significantly longer than that of the IVD calves (P<0.01).

  8. Effects in cattle of genetic variation within the IGF1R gene on the superovulation performance and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Yang, Li-Guo; Riaz, Hasan; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Chen, Long; Li, Shu-Jing

    2013-12-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a membrane glycoprotein mediating most biological actions of IGF1 and IGF2, and has an important effect on ovulation, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy rate. The objectives of this study were to detect IGF1R gene polymorphisms of cattle and analyze the relationship with superovulation performance and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer (ET), as well as the hormone concentrations at the day of ET. One reported SNP of IGF1R G404T and a novel SNP of IGF1R G399A were analyzed in 170 Chinese Holstein donor cows and 118 Luxi recipients cattle. Statistical analysis revealed that the G404T mutation was associated (p=0.019) with increased ovulation rate and females with this mutation had enhanced performance in producing transferable embryos. For the polymorphic locus G399A, recipients with g.399 GG and g.399 GA genotypes had greater pregnancy rates after ET than that of g.399 AA genotype. Furthermore, the same tendency was observed that the genotype groups with greater pregnancy rates had greater progesterone and lesser estrogen concentrations, but these did not reach statistical significance. Results of the present study showed, for the first time, that the polymorphism in IGF1R is associated with superovulation traits, and indicated that the IGFIR gene can be used as a potential marker for donor selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Successful pregnancy and delivery via in vitro fertilization with cryopreserved and thawed embryo transfer in an acute myeloid leukemia patient after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hideyuki; Kishimoto, Kumiko; Numata, Ayumi; Motohashi, Kenji; Tachibana, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Masatsugu; Yamashita, Naoki; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Shin

    2015-04-01

    As the number of young long-term survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute leukemia continues to increase, post-transplant infertility is becoming a significant concern. HSCT, particularly with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation conditioning, is known to cause secondary premature ovarian failure, resulting in infertility. To preserve post-transplant fertility, several methods have been proposed, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) with embryo cryopreservation. Due to the aggressiveness of acute leukemia, however, patients have little chance to undergo egg harvesting and IVF before they must begin receiving chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no detailed reports of successful pregnancy after HSCT using IVF with embryo cryopreservation and transfer in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Here, we report the case of a 42-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia who became pregnant 2 years and 2 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation via IVF-embryo transfer with an egg collected after induction therapy and delivered a full-term healthy infant.

  10. Bed rest following embryo transfer might negatively affect the outcome of IVF/ICSI: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunas, Laurentiu; Tsampras, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The majority of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment will reach the stage of embryo transfer (ET), but only a small proportion of transferred embryos implant. Bed rest following ET has been recommended as a way to prevent embryo expulsion by gravity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published prior to May 2014 reporting the effect of bed rest following ET, and irrespective of language, country of origin, blinding or sample size. Four RCTs, including 757 women met the inclusion criteria. Bed rest following ET did not improve clinical pregnancy and live birth rates, but reduced the implantation rate. The quality of the trials included was moderate because of attrition bias and possible reporting bias. The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis are concordant with previously published literature and suggest that bed rest is not beneficial following ET. Moreover, it might negatively affect the outcome of IVF/ICSI cycles via stress/anxiety mechanisms.

  11. Comparison between an exclusive in vitro-produced embryo transfer system and artificial insemination for genetic, technical, and financial herd performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyamattam, K; Block, J; Hansen, P J; De Vries, A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to implement an in vitro-produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system in an existing stochastic dynamic dairy simulation model with multitrait genetics to evaluate the genetic, technical, and financial performance of a dairy herd implementing an exclusive IVP-ET or artificial insemination (AI) system. In the AI system, sexed semen was used on the genetically best heifers only. In the IVP-ET system, all of the animals in the herd were impregnated with female sexed embryos created through in vitro fertilization of oocytes collected from animals of superior genetics for different traits of interest. Each donor was assumed to yield on average 4.25 transferable embryos per collection. The remaining animals in the herd were used as recipients and received either a fresh embryo or a frozen embryo when fresh embryos were not available. Selection of donors was random or based on the greatest estimated breeding value (EBV) of lifetime net merit (NM$), milk yield, or daughter pregnancy rate. For both the IVP-ET and AI systems, culling of surplus heifer calves not needed to replace culled cows was based on the lowest EBV for the same traits. A herd of 1,000 milking cows was simulated 15 yr over time after the start of the IVP-ET system. The default cost to produce and transfer 1 embryo was set at $165. Prices of fresh embryos at which an exclusive IVP-ET system financially breaks even with the comparable AI system in yr 15 and for an investment period of 15 yr were also estimated. More surplus heifer calves were sold from the IVP-ET systems than from the comparable AI systems. The surplus calves from the IVP-ET systems were also genetically superior to the surplus calves from the comparable AI systems, which might be reflected in their market value as a premium price. The most profitable scenario among the 4 IVP-ET scenarios in yr 15 was the one in which NM$ was maximized in the herd. This scenario had an additional profit of $8/cow compared with a

  12. Expression profile of genes as indicators of developmental competence and quality of in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer bovine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cánepa

    Full Text Available Reproductive biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT enable improved reproductive efficiency of animals. However, the birth rate of in vitro-derived embryos still lags behind that of their in vivo counterparts. Thus, it is critical to develop an accurate evaluation and prediction system of embryo competence, both for commercial purposes and for scientific research. Previous works have demonstrated that in vitro culture systems induce alterations in the relative abundance (RA of diverse transcripts and thus compromise embryo quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the RA of a set of genes involved in cellular stress (heat shock protein 70-kDa, HSP70, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, Bip; proteasome subunit β5, PSMB5 and apoptosis (BCL-2 associated X protein, Bax; cysteine aspartate protease-3, Caspase-3 in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF or SCNT and compare it with that of their in vivo counterparts. Poly (A + mRNA was isolated from three pools of 10 blastocysts per treatment and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The RA of three of the stress indicators analyzed (Bax, PSMB5 and Bip was significantly increased in SCNT embryos as compared with that of in vivo-derived blastocysts. No significant differences were found in the RA of HSP70 and Caspase-3 gene transcripts. This study could potentially complement morphological analyses in the development of an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis of embryo quality, ultimately aiding to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART.

  13. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  14. The transcriptome of corona radiata cells from individual MII oocytes that after ICSI developed to embryos selected for transfer: PCOS women compared to healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissing, Marie Louise; Sonne, Si Brask; Westergaard, David;

    2014-01-01

    individual oocytes developing into embryos selected for transfer. CRCs were isolated in a two-step denudation procedure, separating outer cumulus cells from the inner CRCs. Extracted RNA was amplified and transcriptome profiling was performed with Human Agilent® arrays. The transcriptomes of CRCs showed......-related genes and cell cycle pathways in PCOS CRCs could indicate a disturbed or delayed final maturation and differentiation of the CRCs in response to the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) surge. However, this had no effect on the in vitro development of the corresponding embryos. Future studies are needed....... It is controversial whether PCOS associate with diminished oocyte quality. The purpose of this study was to compare individual human CRC samples between PCOS patients and controls. All patients were stimulated by the long gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist protocol. The CRC samples originated from...

  15. 体外培养与胚胎移植的策略选择%Strategies of in Vitro Culture and Embryo Transfer in Human Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    人类辅助生殖技术(ART)是目前解决不孕症最为有效的治疗方式之一。在ART治疗过程中,体外培养条件以及胚胎移植的策略是直接影响其临床活产率和单胎妊娠率的关键因素。体外培养条件主要包括温度、pH值、氧浓度、培养液的成分以及培养过程中不同阶段是否应该更换培养液等。胚胎移植的策略则包含胚胎移植数量的选择、卵裂期与囊胚期移植的选择以及优质囊胚指标的选择等。结合近期国外研究成果对体外培养条件以及胚胎移植的策略中仍然存在争议的一些问题进行了探讨和综述。%Human assisted reproductive technology (ART) is one of the most effective therapies for human infertility. In vitro culture condition and the strategy of embryo transfer are important factors of ART outcomes such as the live birth rate and the singleton pregnancies rate. Those conditions of in vitro culture include temperature, pH, oxygen concentration, medium and sequential or continuous culture. The strategy of embryo transfer involves the elective single or double embryo transfer, transfer in cleavage or blastocyst stage, and the index for selecting the best blastocyst. Based on recent studies, this review discussed above controversial problems.

  16. Discussion on feasibility of single embryo transfer after the FET cycle%冷冻胚胎解冻后单胚胎移植的可行性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘宏; 胡艳秋; 李晓聪

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨冷冻卵裂期胚胎解冻(FET)后单胚胎移植的可行性.方法 选取我院收治的不孕患者249例,按照胚胎移植数量分为单胚胎移植组(60例)、双胚胎移植组(168例)、三胚胎移植组(21例),观察胚胎移植情况及临床妊娠情况;双胚胎移植组按胚胎优劣分为双优质胚胎移植组(103例)、单优质胚胎搭配非优质胚胎移植组(50例)、无优质胚胎移植组(15例),观察胚胎移植情况、临床妊娠情况及多胎发生情况.结果 单胚胎移植组、双胚胎移植组、三胚胎移植组胚胎种植成功分别为18个(30%)、97个(28.87%)、13个(20.63%),三组比较P均>0.05;临床妊娠分别为18例(30%)、77例(45.83%)、7例(33.33%),单胚胎移植组与双胚胎移植组比较P<0.05.双优质胚胎移植组、单优质胚胎搭配非优质胚胎移植组、无优质胚胎组胚胎种植成功分别为65个(31.55%)、26个(26%)、6个(20%),两两比较P均>0.05;临床妊娠分别为47例(45.63%)、25例(50%)、5例(33.33%),两两比较P均>0.05;多胎发生分别为18例(38.30%)、1例(4%)、1例(20%),双优质胚胎移植组与单优质胚胎搭配非优质胚胎移植组比较P均<0.01.结论 FET后单胚胎移植可行,选择优质胚胎进行单胚胎移植能够获得满意的胚胎种植和临床妊娠结果.%Objective To explore the posibility of single embryo transfer after the frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycle. Methods There were 249 cycles of human FET in our hospital. According to the number of embryo transfer, the cycles were divided into 3 groups, including single embryo transfer group (60 cycles) , double embryos transfer group (168 cycles) and three embryos transfer group (21 cycles) , the condition of embryos transfer and clinical pregnancy was observed; According to embryo quality, double embryos transfer group was divided into double good quality embryos transfer sub-group (103 cycles) , a good quality

  17. Decreased Sperm Motility Retarded ICSI Fertilization Rate in Severe Oligozoospermia but Good-Quality Embryo Transfer Had Achieved the Prospective Clinical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jufeng; Lu, Yongning; Qu, Xianqin; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Luiwen; Gao, Minzhi; Shi, Huijuan; Jin, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spermatozoa motility is the critical parameter to affect the treatment outcomes during assisted reproductive technologies (ART), but its reproductive capability remains a little informed in condition of severe male factor infertility. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the effects of reduced sperm motility on the embryological and clinical outcomes in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment of severe oligozoospermia. Patients and Methods 966 cycles (812 couples) of severe oligozoospermia diagnosed by spermatozoa count ≤ 5 × 106/mL and motile spermatozoa ≤ 2 × 106/mL were divided into four groups in according to the number of motile spermatozoa in one ejaculate on the day of oocyte retrieval (Group B—E). The control (Group A) was 188 cycles of moderate oligozoospermia with spermatozoa count > 5 × 106/mL and motile spermatozoa > 2 × 106/mL. All female partners were younger than 35 years of age. Logistic regression analyzed embryological outcomes (the rates of fertilization, cleavage and good-quality embryo) and clinical outcomes (the rates of pregnancy, implantation, early miscarriage and live birth). Quality of embryo transfer (ET) was divided into three classes as continuous factor to test the effects of embryo quality on clinical outcomes. Results The reduction in the number of motile sperm in four groups of severe oligozoospermia gave rise to comparable inability of the fertilization (p < 0.001) and a decreased rate of good-quality embryo at Day 3 (p < 0.001) by compared to the control. The cleavage rate of the derived zygotes was similar to the control. ET classes significantly affected the clinical outcomes (p < 0.001). Class I ET gave rise to similar rates of clinical outcomes between five groups, but Class II and Class III ET retarded the rates of pregnancy, implantation and live birth and this particularly occurred in Group C, D and E. The rate of early miscarriage was not comparably different between groups

  18. 进口奶牛胚胎移植效果的研究%Research on the Embryos Transfer Effect of Imported Dairy Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛建华; 吴胜权; 麻柱; 赵鹏; 宣柏华; 朱玉林; 李艳华; 吕小青

    2011-01-01

    2007年5月8日至2010年11月9日以来,笔者在北京奶牛中心良种场及中国农机院小王庄牛场移植进口奶牛胚胎.引进美、加系优质荷斯坦奶牛胚胎的目的是选育优秀后备种公牛和建立种子母牛群.截止2010年11月,累计使用胚胎369枚,移植受体牛367头,妊娠212头,平均移植妊娠率为60.40%.移植结果说明,本研究成功建立了一套先进的进口胚胎移植方法.%From May 8, 2007 to November 9, 2010, we transferred imported dairy cattle embryos in Breeding Farm of Beijing Dairy Cattle Center and Xiao Wang Zhuang of China Agricultural Machinery Institute. The entrance of holstein embryos from the United States and Canada were used to cultivate and breed superior bulls and cows of Holstein. Up to November 2010, total 369 embryos were used and 367 receptor cows were transplanted(with 15 cows not yet reached the pregnancy examination time), of which 212 were pregnant, so the average pregnancy rate was 60.40%. The transplantation results illustrated that we have established a set of advanced technology for imported embryo transfer technology.

  19. Studies on Construction and Transfer of Cloned Minipig Embryos%小型猪克隆胚的构建及胚胎移植研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴建军; 张德福; 李垚; 顾晓龙; 张廷宇; 吴彩凤; 张树山; 吴斌; 陈会兰; 陈学进

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish the somatic cell nuclear transfer technology of minipig and provide technical support for studies of transgenic animal models. Methods Using somatic cell nuclear transfer techniques, nuclear transfer was finished with fetal fibroblast cells and ear fibroblast cells (donor cells) from minipig and Fengjing pig respectively. Embryo transfer was carried out using the two kinds of reconstructed embryos. Result There were no significant differences between the two kinds of donor cells in vitro development (P>0.05). Chemical activation after electric fusion could partially improve the blastocyst rates, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Four healthy cloned piglets were borned after embryos transfer by the mixture of the two kinds reconstructed embryos. Microsatellite identification of cloned piglets showed whole same with their donor cells in heredity, and had nothing to do with their surrogate sows. Conclusion The method of our study group could be used to produce clone pigs.%目的 建立小型猪的体细胞核移植技术,为开展转基因小型猪动物模型研究提供技术支撑.方法 应用体细胞核移植技术,以小型猪胎儿成纤维细胞和枫泾猪耳成纤维细胞作为供体细胞进行体细胞核移植,并将两种重构胚混合后进行胚胎移植.结果 两种供体细胞在体外发育能力上无显著差异(P>0.05);电融合后进行化学激活能部分提高囊胚发育率,但差异不显著(P>0.05).两种方法生产的小型猪和枫泾猪克隆胚胎混合后,经胚胎移植均能顺利产下4只健康后代.经微卫星亲缘关系鉴定,克隆猪100%与供体细胞相同,与代孕母猪无关.结论 建立的克隆平台能够用于克隆猪的生产.

  20. 绵羊胚胎移植技术在柴达木地区的应用%Application of Embryo Transfer Technique of Sheep in Chaidamu Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扎西卓玛; 韩方森; 布仁朝格图

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the test of embryo transfer in sheep was conducted in Yangjia Ecological Agricultune Development co. ,Ltd of Delingha city,xaixi Prefecture, Qinghai province,86 Qinghai semi -wool sheep with meat- wool dual- purpose type were treat by estnm synchronization and superovulation. The rate of estms synchronization was 88.37% and 11 sheep which had good effect of superovulation of them were regarded as recipient sheep , at the sane tine,7 Texel donor sheep were treated. The results showed that the average ovulation point in 11 recipient sheep were 2.8 eggs per sheep and the one of 7 donor sheep were 11.9 eggs and 9.7 eggs of them were obtained. The fertility rate of egg was 7.65%. 12 Embryos were transfered ( one recipient sheep was transfered by two embryos . There were 5 pregnant sheep of 11 transfer sheep and which lambing 5 lamb. The survival rate of lamb was 100% and the pregnancy rato of embryo transfer was 45.45 %.%2006年在青海省海西州德令哈市洋嘉生态农业开发有限公司进行了绵羊胚胎移植试验,试验中同期发情和超数排卵处理青海高原毛肉兼用半细毛羊共86只,同期发情率达88.37%,其中将超排效果好的11只羊做为胚胎移植受体羊,同时处理供体羊特克赛尔羊7只。试验结果:11只受体羊平均超数排卵点2.8个/只,7只供体羊平均超数排卵11.9枚,取卵9.7枚,卵子受精率17.65%,移植12枚胚胎,其中1只受体羊移植双胚,最后观察到移植的11只受体羊中妊娠5只,产羔5只(移双胚的羊产1只羊羔),移植受胎率达45.45%,羔羊成活率达100%。

  1. A randomized double-blinded controlled trial of hCG as luteal phase support in natural cycle frozen embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Li, Raymond Hang Wun; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Pak Chung, H O; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2017-05-01

    Does the use of hCG as luteal phase support in natural cycle frozen embryo transfer (FET) increase the ongoing pregnancy rate? The use of hCG in natural cycle FET did not improve the ongoing pregnancy rate. The use of luteal phase support in stimulated cycles has been associated with higher live-birth rates and the results are similar when using hCG or progesterone. This is a randomized double-blinded controlled trial of 450 women recruited between August 2013 and October 2015. Women with regular cycles undergoing natural cycle FET were recruited. Serial serum hormonal concentrations were used to time natural ovulation and at least Day 2 cleavage embryos were replaced. Patients were randomized into either: (i) the treatment group, receiving 1500 IU hCG on the day of FET and 6 days after FET, or (ii) the control group, receiving normal saline on these 2 days. The ongoing pregnancy rate [60/225 (26.7%) in the treatment group vs 70/225 (31.3%) in the control group, odds ratio 1.242 (95% CI 0.825-1.869)], implantation rate and miscarriage rate were comparable between the two groups. In the treatment group, there were significantly more cycles with top quality embryos transferred and a significantly higher serum oestradiol level, but a comparable serum progesterone level, 6 days after FET. However, no significant differences were observed in serum oestradiol and progesterone levels 6 days after FET between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. In the multivariate logistic regression, the number of embryos transferred was the only significant factor predictive of the ongoing pregnancy rate after natural cycle FET. This study only included FET with cleavage stage embryos and only hCG, not vaginal progesterone, was used as luteal phase support. The findings in this study do not support the use of hCG for luteal phase support in natural cycle FET. No external funding was used and there were no competing interests. clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT01931384. 23/8/2013. 30/8/2013.

  2. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  3. Morphological and Gene Expression Changes in Cattle Embryos from Hatched Blastocyst to Early Gastrulation Stages after Transfer of In Vitro Produced Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available A detailed morphological staging system for cattle embryos at stages following blastocyst hatching and preceding gastrulation is presented here together with spatiotemporal mapping of gene expression for BMP4, BRACHYURY, CERBERUS1 (CER1, CRIPTO, EOMESODERMIN, FURIN and NODAL. Five stages are defined based on distinct developmental events. The first of these is the differentiation of the visceral hypoblast underlying the epiblast, from the parietal hypoblast underlying the mural trophoblast. The second concerns the formation of an asymmetrically positioned, morphologically recognisable region within the visceral hypoblast that is marked by the presence of CER1 and absence of BMP4 expression. We have termed this the anterior visceral hypoblast or AVH. Intra-epiblast cavity formation and the disappearance of the polar trophoblast overlying the epiblast (Rauber's layer have been mapped in relation to AVH formation. The third chronological event involves the transition of the epiblast into the embryonic ectoderm with concomitant onset of posterior NODAL, EOMES and BRACHYURY expression. Lastly, gastrulation commences as the posterior medial embryonic ectoderm layer thickens to form the primitive streak and cells ingress between the embryonic ectoderm and hypoblast. At this stage a novel domain of CER1 expression is seen whereas the AVH disappears. Comparison with the mouse reveals that while gene expression patterns at the onset of gastrulation are well conserved, asymmetry establishment, which relies on extraembryonic tissues such as the hypoblast and trophoblast, has diverged in terms of both gene expression and morphology.

  4. Global League Tables, Big Data and the International Transfer of Educational Research Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The international transfer of educational policy and practice has long been a key theme in comparative research and scholarship. Recent years have seen renewed attention to the processes of international policy transfer, with new understandings emerging from innovative theorising and analysis. This article examines the nature and implications of…

  5. Global League Tables, Big Data and the International Transfer of Educational Research Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The international transfer of educational policy and practice has long been a key theme in comparative research and scholarship. Recent years have seen renewed attention to the processes of international policy transfer, with new understandings emerging from innovative theorising and analysis. This article examines the nature and implications of…

  6. 人类配子及胚胎转移伦理问题的探讨%Discussion on the Transfer of Human Gamete and Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红英; 葛建一; 侯建全; 徐溢涛; 张拥军; 陈瑞华

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the reasons for the transfer of cryopreservation gamete and embryos, such as information factor, social movement of personnel, surrogacy requirements, scientific research requirements, business or personal purpose, and so forth. Based on the clinical required transfer and scientific research required transfer, the proposals of Ethical Committee were made. This paper also proposed that, should set up and perfect the management mechanism for cryopreservation gametes and embryos, fully play the role of Ethical Committee, provide full understanding and so forth, in order to eliminate some violations.%通过对要求进行冻存配子、胚胎转移的原因进行分析,即信息知讯、社会人员流动、代孕要求、相关科研需要、商务或个人目的等.从医疗需要的转移和科研需要的转移方面给出伦理委员会的指导性意见,并提出建立健全冻存配子、胚胎的管理机制,充分发挥伦理委员会职能,提高全员认识等建议,以杜绝一些违规行为的发生.

  7. Treatment of Abnormal Vaginal Microbiota before Frozen Embryo Transfer: Case-Report and Minireview to Discuss the Longitudinal Treatment Efficacy of Oral Clindamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Haahr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal vaginal microbiota (AVM or bacterial vaginosis (BV might negatively impact reproductive outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF. However, before randomized controlled trials are initiated to investigate cause and effect, it is necessary to establish the optimal treatment for AVM. Metronidazole seems ineffective to treat the biofilm in AVM; thus, clindamycin could be suggested as a relevant antibiotic agent for future intervention based studies. In the present case report, we present the first longitudinal follow-up of the vaginal microbiota with molecular methods during and after oral clindamycin treatment. Furthermore, we review the recent literature with the aim to discuss the optimal AVM treatment in a fertility setting. The patient was 40 years old suffering from unexplained secondary infertility. Prior to the present transfer cycle, she had had two failed IVF cycles. The tentative explanation of failed treatment was age-related aneuploidy. However, the patient asked for AVM diagnosis and she was subsequently diagnosed and treated successfully. Unfortunately, the patient did not achieve pregnancy after clindamycin treatment and two subsequent frozen embryo transfer cycles. Taken together, we report an excellent AVM treatment efficacy both short-term and long-term following oral clindamycin treatment. We discuss the potential impact on the vaginal microbiota of co-treatment with estrogen patches in the stimulated frozen embryo transfer cycle. Furthermore, we discuss future aspects of AVM treatment such as the potential impact of estrogen and live biotherapeutic products to positively modulate the microbiota of the reproductive tract.

  8. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces the calf play an important role in its ultimate performance for B crossbred calves. For body composition and meat-related traits, it appears that the breed makeup of the embryo transfer calf itself is more important to animal performance than the specific cross used to produce the calf.

  9. A Case of Unicornuate Uterus with Atypical Located Hyperstimulated Ovary after in Vitro Fertilization Pre-Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Angelova Angelova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of a congenital Mullerian anomaly, uterus unicornis with missing right fallopian tube. An in Vitro Fertilization Pre-Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET procedure was done and presently is known that the patient has left fallopian tube and left ovary, two kidneys, and right ovary is missing. No diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy were done, only hysterosalpingography (HSG before the IVF procedure.  Several days after the follicular puncture of the left ovary the patient was urgently admitted to the hospital for specialized gynaecology in Varna. Transabdominal ultrasonography showed right ovary atypically located immediately next to the liver and with emerging theca-lutein cysts.

  10. Embryo transfers between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice: Examination of a maternal effect on ethanol teratogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGilliam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors influence Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD in both humans and animals. Experiments using inbred and selectively bred mouse stocks that controlled for 1 ethanol dose, 2 maternal and fetal blood ethanol levels, and 3 fetal developmental exposure stage, show genotype can affect teratogenic outcome. Other experiments distinguish the teratogenic effects mediated by maternal genotype from those mediated by fetal genotype. One technique to distinguish maternal versus fetal genotype effect is to utilize embryo transfers. This study is the first to examine ethanol teratogenesis - fetal weight deficits and mortality, and digit, kidney, and vertebral malformations - in C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 fetuses that were transferred as blastocysts into B6 and D2 dams. We hypothesized that, following maternal alcohol exposure, B6 and D2 fetuses gestating within B6 mothers, as compared to D2 mothers, will exhibit a higher frequency of malformations. On day 9 of pregnancy, females were intubated (IG with either 5.8 g/kg ethanol (E or maltose dextrin (MD. Other females were mated within strain and treated with either ethanol or maltose, or were not exposed to either treatment. Implantation rates were affected by genotype. Results show more B6 embryos implanted into D2 females than B6 females (p<.05; 47% vs 23%, respectively. There was no difference in the percentage of D2 embryos implanting into B6 and D2 females (14% and 16%, respectfully. Litter mortality averaged 24% across all experimental groups. Overall, in utero ethanol exposure reduced mean litter weight compared to maltose treatment (E=1.01 g; MD=1.19 g; p<.05; but maltose exposed litters with transferred embryos weighed more than similarly treated natural litters (1.30 g vs 1.11 g; p<.05. Approximately 50% of all ethanol exposed B6 fetuses exhibited some malformation (digit, vertebral, and/or kidney regardless of whether they were transferred into a B6 or D2 female, or were naturally

  11. Gut endoderm is involved in the transfer of left-right asymmetry from the node to the lateral plate mesoderm in the mouse embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Saund, Ranajeet S.; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kim, Injune; Lucero, Mary T.; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    In the mouse, the initial signals that establish left-right (LR) asymmetry are determined in the node by nodal flow. These signals are then transferred to the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) through cellular and molecular mechanisms that are not well characterized. We hypothesized that endoderm might play a role in this process because it is tightly apposed to the node and covers the outer surface of the embryo, and, just after nodal flow is established, higher Ca2+ flux has been reported on the...

  12. Resurgence of Minimal Stimulation In Vitro Fertilization with A Protocol Consisting of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone-Agonist Trigger and Vitrified-Thawed Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang John

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Minimal stimulation in vitro fertilization (mini-IVF consists of a gentle controlled ovarian stimulation that aims to produce a maximum of five to six oocytes. There is a misbelief that mini-IVF severely compromises pregnancy and live birth rates. An appraisal of the literature pertaining to studies on mini-IVF protocols was performed. The advantages of minimal stimulation protocols are reported here with a focus on the use of clomiphene citrate (CC, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH ago- nist trigger for oocyte maturation, and freeze-all embryo strategy. Literature review and the author’s own center data suggest that minimal ovarian stimulation protocols with GnRH agonist trigger and freeze-all embryo strategy along with single embryo transfer produce a reasonable clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in both good and poor responders. Additionally, mini-IVF offers numerous advantages such as: i. Reduction in cost and stress with fewer office visits, needle sticks, and ultrasounds, and ii. Reduction in the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Mini-IVF is re-emerging as a solution for some of the problems associated with conventional IVF, such as OHSS, cost, and patient discomfort.

  13. Risk and prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) transmission through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using oocytes from persistently infected donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, K; Riddell, K P; Chen, S H; Galik, P K; Xiang, T; Guerra, T; Marley, M S; Polejaeva, I; Givens, M D

    2010-07-01

    The objective was to assess the risk of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), with oocytes obtained from persistently infected (PI) donors. Using ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration following superstimulation, oocytes were obtained from five female beef cattle, including three that were PI and two that were negative for BVDV. In the three PI cattle, seven aspirations yielded 32 oocytes (PI-1: three aspirations yielding six oocytes; PI-2: two aspirations yielding 14 oocytes; and PI-3: two aspirations yielding 12 oocytes). The oocyte recovery rate was better in negative control cattle, with 32 oocytes obtained from the two cattle in a single superstimulation and aspiration session. Oocytes were processed individually for SCNT, evaluated, and tested for BVDV. Nearly all (31/32) oocytes from the three PI donors were positive for BVDV by PCR, with detected viral RNA copy number ranging from 1 to 1.1 x 10(5). The proportion of oocytes acceptable for SCNT embryo production (based on oocyte quality and maturation status) was only 16 to 35% from PI donors, but was 81% from control donors. Therefore, routine testing of unacceptable (discarded) oocytes could be an effective approach to identify batches that might contain infected oocytes from PI donors. Identification and removal of high-risk batches of oocytes would minimize the risk of BVDV transmission through SCNT embryo production.

  14. TSA and BIX-01294 Induced Normal DNA and Histone Methylation and Increased Protein Expression in Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Biao; Zuo, Xiaoyuan; Li, Hui; Ding, Jianping; Li, Yunsheng; Huang, Weiping; Zhang, Yunhai

    2017-01-01

    The poor efficiency of animal cloning is mainly attributed to the defects in epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells’ chromatins during early embryonic development. Previous studies indicated that inhibition of histone deacetylases or methyltransferase, such as G9A, using Trichostatin A (TSA) or BIX-01294 significantly enhanced the developmental efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, potential mechanisms underlying the improved early developmental competence of SCNT embryos exposed to TSA and BIX-01294 are largely unclear. Here we found that 50 nM TSA or 1.0 μM BIX-01294 treatment alone for 24 h significantly elevated the blastocyst rate (P cell stage, which is comparable with that in in vivo and in vitro fertilized counterparts. However, only co-treatment significantly decreased the levels of 5mC and H3K9me2 in trophectoderm lineage and subsequently increased the expression of OCT4 and CDX2 associated with ICM and TE lineage differentiation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that co-treatment of TSA and BIX-01294 enhances the early developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos via improvements in epigenetic status and protein expression. PMID:28114389

  15. Efficacy of local aspiration in the conservative treatment of live interstitial pregnancy coexisting with live intrauterine pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Ma, Cai-hong; Qiao, Jie; Chen, Xin-na; Liu, Ping

    2012-04-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy (HP) is defined as a pregnancy in which one or more embryos is viably implanted in the uterus while the other is implanted elsewhere as an ectopic pregnancy. The occurrence of HP rises dramatically with the increased use of assisted reproductive technology. HP of interstitial pregnancy is one special situation which needs more concern. Here we evaluate the efficacy of local aspiration and instillation of hyperosmolar glucose in the treatment of live interstitial pregnancy complicated with live intrauterine pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Five female patients were diagnosed with live interstitial pregnancies complicated with intrauterine pregnancies. They were treated with transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of interstitial pregnancy and instillation of hyperosmolar glucose at the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Peking University Third Hospital from January 1st, 2008 to May 30th, 2011. Gemmule embryos in all 5 cases were aspirated successfully and there was no abdominal hemorrhage, threatened abortion or infection in any of the cases. The sac of interstitial pregnancy continued to progress after aspiration and stopped growing between 11 to 20 weeks. By the 30th week of pregnancy, 80% of the interstitial masses had disappeared. Four cases have delivered and one is still in on-going pregnancy. All of the four cases underwent cesarean section and there were nothing special detected in the corner of the uterus. Local aspiration and instillation of hyperosmolar glucose may be an effective way to treat live interstitial pregnancy when coexisting with a live intrauterine pregnancy.

  16. Observation of the fresh embryo transfer and frozen thawed embryo transfer on the assisted pregnancy in patients with high risk of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome%新鲜胚胎移植和冻融胚胎移植用于 OHSS高风险患者辅助妊娠的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华芳; 吴培雅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze the clinical effect of fresh embryo transfer and frozen thawed embryo transfer in patients with high risk of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome(OHSS). Methods 130 patients with high risk of OHSS in IVF/ ICSI treatment cycle were divided into fresh embryo transfer group(n = 67)and frozen thawed embryo transfer group(n = 63)under fully informed consent. Differences in outcome of pregnancy,neonatal quality and incidence of OHSS were compared. Results For patients at high risk of OHSS,the pregnancy rate and implantation rate,the live birth rate of the frozen embryo transplantation group was significantly higher than those of fresh embryo transfer group(P ﹤ 0. 01 or P ﹤ 0. 05),and the incidence of OHSS was significantly reduced(P ﹤ 0. 05). In addition,the preterm birth rate was significantly lower than that of the fresh embryo transfer group(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion Patients at high risk of OHSS should use frozen embryo transplanta-tion,which will improve embryo transplantation clinical pregnancy rate,implantation rate and live birth rate,but also can re-duce OHSS incidence and the incidence of premature birth. So it is worth of clinical application.%目的:观察分析卵巢过度刺激综合征(OHSS)高风险患者行新鲜胚胎移植和冻融胚胎移植辅助妊娠后的临床效果。方法选取体外受精(IVF)及卵胞浆内单精子显微注射技术(ICSI)周期诊断为 OHSS 高风险的不孕患者130例,在给患者充分知情同意后由其选择新鲜胚胎移植或全胚冷冻后择期冻胚移植,分为鲜胚组67例和冻胚组63例,对比分析行不同移植技术后患者妊娠结局、新生儿质量和 OHSS 发病率方面的差异。结果对于 OHSS 高风险患者,冻胚组的种植率、妊娠率、活产率明显高于鲜胚组(P ﹤0.05或 P ﹤0.01),而且 OHSS 发生率明显低于鲜胚组(P ﹤0.05),早产率明显低于鲜胚组(P ﹤0.05)。结论对于 OHSS

  17. 奶牛超数排卵及胚胎移植的试验研究%Experiment on the Superovulation and Embryo Transfer In Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宜存

    2011-01-01

    Superovulation was conducted on 22 Holstein cows as donors by FSH+PG methods. There were 140 Nan Yang cattle as recipients and donors, they had been synchronized estrus by PG for two times. The results showed as follows. (1)20 Holstein cows and 104 Nan Yang cattle had estrous in 96h after the second time in PG. The percentage of synchronized estrus about Holstein cows and Nan Yang cattle were 90.90% and 74.29% respectively;(2)The total embryos collected and usable embryos obtained, the average embryos collected number and the average usable embryos obtained per donor, the usable embryo rate of 20 Holstein cows were 176,104, 8.8, 7.0 and 79.55% respectively;(3)One usable embryo obtained was transferred to one of 104 Nan Yang cartle, the pregnancy number was 51 and the rate of pregnancy was 49.04%.%本试验采用FSH+PG的方法对22头供体荷斯坦牛分两批进行了超数排卵处理,140头受体南阳黄牛和供体牛采用2次PG法分批进行了同期发情处理.结果如下:(1)共有20头供体牛、104头受体牛在第二次注射PG后96h内发情,同期发情率分别为90.90%和74.29%;(2)20头供体牛回收胚胎176枚,可用胚胎140枚/头,平均回收胚胎8.8枚/头,平均可用胚胎7.0枚/头,可用胚胎比率79.55%;(3)104头南阳黄牛受体均移植单胚,51头妊娠,妊娠率为49.04%.

  18. To transfer or not to transfer? Evidence from validity and reliability tests for international transfers of non-market adaptation benefits in river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Damigos, Dimitrios

    2016-10-28

    The attempt to design cost-effective adaptation policies incorporating non-market values to inhibit climate change impacts on water resources may increase the interest in applying the Benefit Transfer method. Benefit Transfer is a practical way to consider non-market values using functions and estimates acquired through primary valuation methods from other sites. Among the primary methods, Choice Experiments appear to particularly accommodate Benefit Transfer. Nevertheless, validity and reliability of international value transfers obtained from Choice Experiments have not been adequately examined. To this end, two identical Choice Experiments were conducted in Greece and Italy in the context of river services adaptation, testing validity and reliability of Benefit Transfer. The application of validity and reliability tests for different types of transfers is supportive for the use of Benefit Transfer, at least for the value transfer types. In particular the reliability of value transfer was higher when income adjustments were taken into account. Overall, Benefit Transfer can be attentively considered to evaluate cost-effective adaptation policies across countries experiencing similar climate change trends. The latter gains more importance given that an international Benefit Transfer setting as regards the non-market benefits of adaptation to climate change for river services is absent in the relevant literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nondestructive Imaging of Internal Structures of Frog (Xenopus laevis) Embryos by Shadow-Projection X-Ray Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sadao; Yoneda, Ikuo; Nagai, Takeharu; Ueno, Naoto; Murakami, Kazuo

    1994-04-01

    Nondestructive high-resolution imaging of frog ( Xenopus laevis) embryos has been developed by X-ray microtomography. Shadow-projection X-ray microtomography with a brilliant fine focus laboratory X-ray source could image fine structures of Xenopus embryos which were embedded in paraffin wax. The imaging system enabled us to not only distinguish endoderm from ectoderm at the gastrula stage, but also to obtain a cross-section view of the tail bud embryo showing muscle, notochord and neural tube without staining. Furthermore, the distribution of myosin was also imaged in combination with whole-mount immunohistochemistry.

  20. Production of transgenic cashmere goat embryos expressing red fluorescent protein and containing IGF1 hair-follicle-cell specific expression cassette by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BOU; ShorGan

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts were transfected with pCDsR-KI, a hair-follicle-cell specific expression vector for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) that contains two markers for selection (red fluorescent protein gene and neomycin resistant gene). The transgenic fibroblasts cell lines were obtained after G418 selection. Prior to the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the maturation rate of caprine cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) was optimized to an in vitro maturation time of 18 h. Parthenogenetic ooctyes were used as a model to investigate the effect of two activation methods, one with calcium ionophore IA23187 plus 6-DMAP and the other with ethanol plus 6-DMAP. The cleavage rates after 48 h were respectively 88.7% and 86.4%, with no significant difference (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the cleavage rate and the blastocyst rate in two different media (SO- Faa and CR1aa; 86.3% vs 83.9%, P>0.05 and 23.1% vs 17.2%,P>0.05). The fusion rate of a 190 V/mm group (62.4%) was significantly higher than 130 V/mm (32.8%) and 200 V/mm (42.9%), groups (P<0.05). After transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer (TSCNT) manipulation, 203 reconstructed embryos were obtained in which the cleavage rate after in vitro development (IVD) for 48 h was 79.3% (161/203). The blastocyst rate after IVD for 7 to 9 d was 15.3% (31/203). There were 17 embryos out of 31 strongly ex- pressing red fluorescence. Two of the red fluorescent blastocysts were randomly selected to identify transgene by polymerase chain reaction. Both were positive. These results showed that: (i) RFP and Neor genes were correctly expressed indicating that transgenic somatic cell lines and positive trans- genic embryos were obtained; (ii) one more selection at the blastocyst stage was necessary although the donor cells were transgenic positive, because only partially transgenic embryos expressing red fluorescence were obtained; and (iii) through TSCNT manipulation and

  1. Production of transgenic cashmere goat embryos expressing red fluorescent protein and containing IGF1 hair-follicle-cell specific expression cassette by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO XuDong; YANG DongShan; Ao XuDong; WU Xia; LI GuangPeng; WANG LingLing; BAO MingTao; XUE Lian; BOU ShorGan

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, cashmere goat fetal flbroblasta were transfected with pCDsR-KI, a hair-follicle-cell specific expression vector for insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF1) that contains two markers for selection (red fluorescent protein gene and neomycin resistant gene). The transgenic fibroblasta cell lines were obtained after G418 selection. Prior to the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the maturation rate of caprine cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) was optimized to an in vitro maturation time of 18 h.Parthenogenetic ooctyes were used as a model to Investigate the effect of two activation methods, one with calcium ionophore IA23187 plus 6-DMAP and the other with ethanol plus 6-DMAP. The cleavage rates after 48 h were respectively 88.7% and 86.4%, with no significant difference (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the cleavage rate and the blastocyst rate in two different media (SO-Faa and CR1aa; 86.3% va 83.9%, P>0.05 and 23.1% vs 17.2%, P>0.05). The fusion rate of a 190 V/mm group (62.4%) was significantly higher than 130 V/mm (32.8%) and 200 V/mm (42.9%), groups (P<0.05).After transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer (TSCNT) manipulation, 203 reconstructed embryos were obtained in which the cleavage rate after in vitro development (IVD) for 48 h was 79.3% (161/203). The blastocyst rate after IVD for 7 to 9 d was 15.3% (31/203). There were 17 embryos out of 31 strongly ex-pressing red fluorescence. Two of the red fluorescent blastocysta were randomly selected to identify transgene by polymeraee chain reaction. Both were positive. These results showed that: (i) RFP and Neo genes were correctly expressed indicating that transgenlc somatic cell lines and positive trans-genic embryos were obtained; (ii) one more selection at the blastocyst stage was necessary although the donor cells were transgenic positive, because only partially transgenic embryos expressing red fluorescence were obtained; and (iii) through TSCNT manipulation and

  2. Evaluation of serum estradiol/ progestrone ratio on day of embryo transfer and it’s effect on intra-cytoplasmic sperm induction outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masomeh Hagshafiha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background : One of the important problems in fertilization in vitro (IVF is failure of implantation. This could be the result of estrogen and progesterone effects in endometrial acceptance during ovulation stimulation. Although progesterone has a vital role in primary phase of pregnancy, but the estradiol role in luteal phase is unknown. The aim of this study is assessment of the ratio of estradiol to progesterone in embryo transfer day on Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI outcomes. Methods : This is a cohort study. The subjects were 311 infertile women referred to Urmia Kosar infertility clinic & Urmia reproductive health research center who treated with ICSI method between August-Jan 2011 . Five cc blood was drawn for determine of estradiol and progesterone in transfer day. Transfer occurred after a variable in vitro culture period ranging from 48 to 72 hours after ovulation induction. Chemiluminescent ELICA the level of mention hormones was used to determine the ratio of the progesterone level to the estradiol serum level and was compared based on treatment outcomes. Results : A total of 311 patients, 115 (37% were pregnant and happened abortion were 18 (5.8% . The mean ratio of estradiol to progesterone in transfer day in two groups of miscarriage/ non miscarriage and pregnant/ non pregnant was 32.26±23.86 , 28.17±26.5 and 28.58±2.4 , 36.09±4.39 respectively. There is no significant difference between two groups in regard of estradiol on progesterone ratio (P=0.5, P= 0.2 . Conclusion: The results of this prospective cohort study show that there is no effect of estradiol to progesterone ratio on day of embryo transfer, successful pregnancy in ICSI cycles and abortion rate following of ICSI .

  3. An immediate assessment of serum progesterone levels in frozen embryo transfer%在冻融胚胎移植当日即时评估血清孕酮的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵小光; 史艳彬; 佟玉

    2013-01-01

    An important influencing factor for pregnancy rate and pregnancy outcome in frozen embryo transfer cycles is the difficulty handling endometrial receptivity status. Appropriate endometrial progesterone(P) level is essential to endometrial receptivity. Progesterone is one of the most basic hormones to maintain endometrial receptivity in luteal phase. It is generally believed that progesterone threshold for endometrium luteinized is 3. 18-31. 8 nmol/L in mid-luteal phase. The serum progesterone level less than 47. 7 nmol/L in mid-luteal phase is often diagnosed as luteal phase defect. The data of the frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles in our center from 2011 to 2012 suggested that it is of predictive value to detect progesterone level on the embryo transfer day. When P<15. 9 nmol/L on the embryo transfer day, the pregnancy rate was significantly decreased and abortion rate significantly increased in the patients with normal endometrium, and it would be better to cancel the transfer. When 15. 9 nmol/L≤P<47. 7 nmol/L on the transfer day,the pregnancy rate was lower and abortion rate higher than those in the patients with P≥47. 7 nmol/L, and the embryos could be transferred, but it needs to increase the amount of progesterone for luteal support to achieve pregnancy or improve the pregnancy outcome. The pregnancy rates was the highest and the abortion rate was the lowest in the patients with P≥47. 7 nmol/L on the embryo transfer day, but it also needs amount of progesterone to maintain the original luteal support.

  4. Effects of exposure to the xenoestrogen octylphenol and subsequent transfer to clean water on liver and gonad ultrastructure during early development of Zoarces viviparus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Ase; Rasmussen, Tina H; Hirche, Majken; Sørensen, Kristine J K; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2010-08-01

    Female eelpouts (Zoarces viviparus L.) are exposed during early pregnancy to nominal concentrations of 100 microg/L of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) or 0.5 microg/L of 17beta-estradiol (E2). Effects on maternal metabolism and on liver and gonad development in embryos were examined and compared with controls (C) during exposure and after transfer to clean water (depuration). In the mother fish, significantly higher concentrations of plasma vitellogenin (vtg) and calcium were found in the two exposed groups, when compared with the C group after exposure and depuration. When compared, however, with the respective values after exposure, vtg had decreased significantly after depuration. The hepatosomatic index was normalized after depuration. In both exposed groups, the hepatocytes were rounded and not distinctly polygonal as in the controls. The amount of glycogen was considerably less while the number of mitochondria increased, and the rER significantly proliferated after exposure as well as after depuration. The gonads of nine of more than 28 embryos in the group treated with OP exhibited a number of abnormalities as compared with the normal gonad development in both sexes. Feminization of the male gonads in the exposed specimens and a number of histopathological features were observed in all the abnormal gonads, whereas reliable male features, such as formation of seminiferous tubules or spermioduct, were not observed. This study showed that 4t-tert-OP and 17beta-estradiol exert estrogenic effects during very early development of the embryos and that depuration had a positive effect on the motherfish and her embryos.

  5. Growth hormone gene family (GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1 polymorphisms and its association with superovulation response, ovulation rate and embryo quality in Embryo Transfer Station (BET of Cipelang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cece Sumantri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in fertility is considered to be the main cause of reproductive loss in dairy cattle and beef industry. Many candidate genes that play an important role in fertility and embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to detect genetic variations of the growth hormone gene family (GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR| AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI and its association with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryos rate. A total of 45 blood samples taken from cows that have been superovulated Angus, Brahman, HF, Limousin and Simmental. DNA was extracted with phenol-chloroform protocol followed by polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR using specific primers for GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1 gene. PCR product was cut with restriction enzyme MspI, AluI, HaeIII and HinfI and electrophoresed on agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide (EtBr. Superovulation is done by injecting a totally of 20 ml FSH for 4 days. Injecting the prostaglandin hormone (PGF2α was performed on the eleventh day of CIDR implantation. Artificial insemination (AI performed two or three days after the injection of PGF2α and Flushing was done on the seventh day after the AI. The results showed that the Angus, Limousin, Brahman and Simental GH loci diversity of GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR|AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI was not associated with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryo rate. In HF dairy cattle, genotype on Pit-1|HinfI AA has higher percentage of superovulation response (P < 0.05 when compared to AB genotype, but did not differ to BB genotype. Dairy cattle HF AA genotype also had higher ovulation rate (P < 0.05 when compared to AB and BB genotypes, but AB and BB have the same ovulation rate.

  6. A bipartição como alternativa para melhorar os índices de gestação na transferência de embriões eqüinos The embryo splitting as an alternative to improve gestation indices from embryo transfer in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Luiz da Silveira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A transferência de embriões (TE já vem sendo utilizada em eqüinos há pelo menos duas décadas, sempre a partir de ovulação simples. Para aumentar a eficiência reprodutiva, este estudo avaliou a bipartição embrionária como uma alternativa para melhorar os índices de gestação na transferência de embriões em eqüinos. Foram utilizadas 21 éguas de diferentes padrões raciais, com idade variando entre 4 e 15 anos de idade, pesando entre 270 a 480kg. A partir da identificação do cio (rufiação, os animais foram monitorados através de exames ultra-sonográficos trans-retais até o momento da ovulação, sendo as receptoras, uma vez ao dia e as doadoras três vezes ao dia. As receptoras utilizadas ovularam um dia antes ou até três dias depois das doadoras. As doadoras foram coletadas entre 144 e 156 horas após a ovulação (D0. Foram recuperados 20 embriões (mórulas em 29 coletas (68,96%, sendo que 10 embriões foram transferidos inteiros (T1, e 10 embriões foram bipartidos (T2, originando 20 hemi-embriões e transferidos para 20 receptoras. Não houve diferença na taxa de prenhez entre os grupos, T1, 70% (7/10, e T2, 50% (10/20 (P>0,05. Em relação ao número inicial de embriões em cada grupo (10, houve diferença na taxa de prenhez entre os grupos, T1, 70% (7/10 e T2, 100% (10/10 (PEmbryo transfer (ET has been used in horses for at least twenty years, always from a single ovulation. In order to increase reproductive efficiency this study evaluated embryo splitting as an alternative, to improve pregnancy rates in horse embryo transfer. Twenty-one mares of different genetic groups, aged between 4 and 15 yrs, and weighing 270 to 480kg were used. Estrus was identified using a teaser and the animals were monitored with transrectal ultrasonography exams until ovulation (donors were examined three times a day and recipients once a day. The recipients ovulated one day prior, or up to 3 days after, the donors. Donors were

  7. TRANSFER OF MARKETING KNOWLEDGE IN THAI INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mohamad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the transfer of marketing knowledge within Thai joint venture firms. The perspectives of Thai managers were surveyed using a structured instrument. The analysis identifies seven dimensions of marketing management knowledge: promotion management, price management, logistics management, product innovation management, strategic marketing management, cross-cultural management, and target marketing management. The incidence of transfer is highest for activities in strategic marketing management, followed by price management. Transfer in product innovation management and target marketing management tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. Joint venture firms with foreign partners originating from Western, advanced, industrialised nations recorded the highest incidence of knowledge transfer occurring within product innovation management. This trend also holds true for the management of promotion activities. The incidence of transfer in target marketing management is lowest among firms with foreign partners from neighbouring nations. The incidence of knowledge transfer within product innovation and target marketing also tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. An analysis based on industry classification revealed that the transfer of knowledge regarding logistics management occurs most for firms in the manufacturing sector. In the service sector, the highest incidence of knowledge transfer within the areas of promotion management and target marketing management occurred in the agricultural sector.

  8. International Water and Sanitation Technology Transfers, Experiences from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Hophmayer-Tockich, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Possibilities of transferring cost-effective, innovative water and wastewater technologies on public water markets are discussed based on experiences of the Dutch water business cluster in the Central and Eastern European Countries. These transfers evolved under suitable conditions, among others fin

  9. International water and sanitation technology transfers, experiences from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Possibilities of transferring cost-effective, innovative water and wastewater technologies on public water markets are discussed based on experiences of the Dutch water business cluster in the Central and Eastern European Countries. These transfers evolved under suitable conditions, among others fin

  10. 胚胎移植技术在扩繁德系西门塔尔牛核心群中的应用%Application of Embryo Transfer on Reproduction of German Simmental Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕江华; 冯春涛; 朱士恩; 余文莉

    2011-01-01

    13头德系西门塔尔供体牛连续4次重复超排,生产胚胎654枚(头均50.31枚),可用胚胎335枚(头均25.77枚);4次冲胚的平均回收胚数,可用胚数差异均不显著(P>0.05).移植受体牛278头次(鲜胚移植115头,冻胚移植118头,双半胚移植45头),妊娠率55.04%(153/278),共获得犊牛137头.其中,鲜双半胚和鲜胚移植妊娠率显著高于冻胚(64.44%,60.87% vs 45.76%)(P<0.05).45枚鲜胚二分后移植到45头受体牛,29头妊娠,其中11头产双胎,双犊率为37.93%(11/29),存活犊牛29头.%3 German Simmental donor cows for 4 times repeated superovulation, 654 embryos were obtained (the average number of embryos per cow was 50.31), and the available embryo was 335 (the average number of embryos per cow was 25.77). The results of donors were flushed repeatedly for 4 times showed the average recovery of embryos, transferable embryos had no significantly different (P>0.05). 278 recipients were transplanted (115 use fresh embryo, 118 use frozen embryo, 45 use pairs of demi-embryos) followed by pregnancy rate of 55.04% (135/278), total of 137 calves. Both pairs of demi-embryos and fresh embryos transfer pregnancy rate were significantly higher than that of frozen embryos (64.44%, 60.87% vs 45.76%) (P< 0.05). 45 fresh Pairs of demi-embryos were transferred to 45 recipients, 29 were pregnant, among them, there were 11 identical twins with twin rate of 37.93% (11/29), 29 calves survived.

  11. [Retrospective analysis of outcomes of selectively or spontaneously reduced multiple pregnancies out of 6 917 in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer pregnancy cycles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q L; Ye, H; Ding, X Y; Shen, X L; Huang, G N

    2017-03-25

    Objective: To analyze the effects of fetal reduction in early pregnancy on obstetric and neonatal outcomes of spontaneously or selectively reduced multiple pregnancies produced by in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Methods: Retrospective study of 6 917 clinical pregnancies from IVF-ET cycles, including 754 multiple pregnancies divided into two groups according to the remaining fetus number: reduced singleton group (n=599) and reduced twin group (n=155); and maternal and neonatal outcomes of two groups were compared to primary singleton group (n=3 589) and primary twin group (n=2 574). Results: The rate of pregnancy complication [9.85%(59/599) versus 6.21%(223/3 589)], preterm birth [19.37%(116/599) versus 10.73%(385/3 589)], low birth weight [9.71%(56/577) versus 4.57% (152/3 324)], perinatal death [0.69%(4/577) versus 0.12%(4/3 324)] and malformation [2.95