WorldWideScience

Sample records for international efforts relating

  1. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years waste management has received increased attention not only at the national level but also internationally in order to harmonise to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard in this field. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short term but also the longer term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition to the discussion of policies and practices, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority particularly as far as high level waste and alpha bearing wastes are concerned. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high level radioactive waste. As a result of these efforts an international R and D programme is being established at the site of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the incorporation of high level waste into metal matrices. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes in detail the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities [fr

  2. International Efforts for the Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Lee, Ho Jin; Shim, Hye Won; Lee, Jong Uk

    2005-01-01

    Many concerns have been focused on the nuclear security since the 9.11. With increasing the threat related to nuclear material and nuclear facilities, the demand of strengthening the international physical protection system has been raised. Along with this, the international communities are making their efforts to increase nuclear security. The agreement of revising the 'Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials'(hereafter, CPPNM), which was held in Vienna on the July of 2005, was one of these efforts. U.N is also preparing the 'International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism' to show its firm resolution against nuclear terror. It is important to understand what measures should be taken to meet the international standard for establishing national physical protection system. To do this, international trend on the physical protection system such as CPPNM and U.N. convention should be followed. This paper explains about the content of the CPPNM and U.N convention. They will be helpful to consolidate the physical protection system in Korea

  3. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries, and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years, waste management has received increased attention at the national level and also internationally, to harmonize to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems, covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short-term but also the longer-term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority, particularly regarding high-level waste and alpha-bearing wastes. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high-level radioactive waste. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities. (author)

  4. International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McGlinchey, S.

    2017-01-01

    A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...

  5. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  6. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity......., or dimension of variation. The dilemmas in question were chosen for the way they capture key themes in the field of International Studies (IR) as well as central aspects of the ‘international’ itself (ir). The six Blocks are: • Block 1: Co-operation or conflict? Introducing international relations • Block 2...

  7. Selected international efforts to address climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, M.; Christ, R. [Atmosphere Unit, United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1995-12-31

    Over the past two decades, concern about human-induced climate change has become an increasingly important item on the environmental and political agenda. The signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the adoption of Agenda 21 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 provided international organizations and the nations of the world with a new focus for climate-related activities. Although there remains considerable scientific uncertainty about the extent, magnitude, and rate of climate change and the impacts of such change, actions to address climate change have been initiated both internationally and nationally. Major international activities include the World Climate Programme, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. and the United Nations Environment Program me. 16 refs.

  8. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  9. International Collaboration Enhances Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH is working with the International Agency for Research on CancerExit Disclaimer (IARC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) on the ESTAMPA Study, a multi-centric study of cervical cancer screening and triage with HPV testing.

  10. Gaining internal support for a marketing effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, E

    1988-06-01

    Franciscan Health System, Chadds Ford, Pa., developed a systemwide marketing initiative to assure positive participation from its internal market segments. In the first of a series, the author outlines the goals, objectives and positioning of the marketing mix used to achieve voluntary involvement from these segments.

  11. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  12. Money Laundering and International Efforts to Fight It

    OpenAIRE

    David Scott

    1996-01-01

    According to one estimate, US$300 billion to US$500 billion in proceeds from serious crime is laundered each year. Left unchecked, money laundering could criminalize the financial system and undermine development efforts in emerging markets. The author reviews efforts by international bodies to fight it.

  13. The United Nations recommendations and data efforts: international migration statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, A B

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the UN's efforts to improve international migration statistics. The review addresses the challenges faced by the UN, the direction in which this effort is going, gaps in the current approach, and priorities for future action. The content of the UN recommendations has changed in the past and seems to be moving toward further changes. At each stage, the direction of change corresponds broadly to earlier shifts in the overall context of world social-economic affairs and related transformations in international travel and migration patterns. Early (1953) objectives were vaguely stated in terms of social, economic, and demographic impacts of long term settlement. 1976 recommendations continued the focus on long term resettlement and, at the same time, gave more attention to at least 1 kind of short term (work-related) movement. Most recent recommendations have given more attention to other classes of short term travellers, such as refugees and contract workers. Recommendations on the measures and data sources have changed over time, also. The 1953 recommendations were limited to flow data from international border statistics. 1976 recommendations drew attention to stock data and the use of civil registration data to supplement border crossing data. Recent UN reflections recognize that the volume of border crossings has now reached the point where many countries simply refuse to gather data on all travellers, choosing instead to make estimates. It is implied that either sample surveys at border points and/or visas and entry permits may be the best way of counting various specific kinds of migrants. Future recommendations corresponding to contemporary and emerging concerns will require that the guidelines be restructured: 1) to give more explicit attention in international migration statistics to citizenship and access to political and welfare benefits; 2) to distinguish more carefully various sub-classes of movers; 3) to expand objectives of data

  14. Customer relations data aids marketing efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werronen, H J

    1988-08-01

    A customer relations information system can help improve a hospital's marketing performance. With such a system, the author writes, a medical center can easily redirect its information systems away from the traditional transaction-oriented approach toward the building of long-lasting relationship with customers.

  15. Overview of NASA/OAST efforts related to manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of some of NASA's current efforts related to manufacturing technology and some possible directions for the future are presented. The topics discussed are: computer-aided design, composite structures, and turbine engine components.

  16. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible....... The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory....

  17. File: International bilateral relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltin, Ch.; Rabouhams, J.; Bravo, X.; Rousseau, M.; Le Breton, S.; Saint Raymond, Ph.; Brigaud, O.; Pertuis, V.; McNair, J.; Sayers, M.R.; Bye, R.; Scherrer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since its creation in 1973, the Authority of Safety was assigned missions in the international field with following objectives: to develop information exchanges with its foreign counterpart, to make know and to explain the French approach and practice; to give to concerned countries the useful information on french nuclear facilities situated near the border; This file shows with some examples, how bilateral relations allow to fill up these objectives and how the French Authority got the foreign experience. (N.C.)

  18. The Environment in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Oran R.

    2009-11-01

    In this lucid and well-organized text, Kate O'Neill provides a survey of current thinking in the field of international environmental politics. To make her effort manageable, she approaches this task as an analysis of the “politics of global environmental governance” (p. 1). This approach has the effect of orienting the survey toward research on efforts to develop cooperative and lasting solutions to a variety of environmental problems. The downside of this approach is a relative lack of emphasis on various forms of environmental conflict that lead to outcomes such as growth in the number of environmental refugees and the destruction of important ecosystems. But the virtue of the decision to focus on environmental governance is that it provides a coherent and easily understandable framework for the chapters that follow.

  19. A critical evalluation of internal revenue generating efforts of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their bad financial state has robbed our rural areas of ... electricity, food production, staff welfare and general condition of living in the rural areas. This ugly ... Inspite of these efforts by successive governments, the problem continues to persist.

  20. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...... theories to ‘explain’ international relations and distinguishes between different kinds of explanation. In Section 4 I look at how different theories have been grouped – first according to their underlying views of what is valid knowledge, and second in terms of different accounts of how history works.......Presented with conflicting evidence and interpretations, how do we ever come to valid conclusions about complex questions of continuity and change in global politics? In any analytical task you need to consider a number of things and this final chapter will take you through some of them including...

  1. Efforts for optimization of BWR core internals replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, N.

    2000-01-01

    The core internal components replacement of a BWR was successfully completed at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3 (1F3) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in 1998. The core shroud and the majority of the internal components made by type 304 stainless steel (SS) were replaced with the ones made of low carbon type 316L SS to improve Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) resistance. Although this core internals replacement project was completed, several factors combined to result in a longer-than-expected period for the outage. It was partly because the removal work of the internal components was delayed. Learning a lesson from whole experience in this project, some methods were adopted for the next replacement project at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 2 (1F2) to shorten the outage and reduce the total radiation exposure. Those are new removal processes and new welding machine and so on. The core internals replacement work was ended at 1F2 in 1999, and both the period of outage and the total radiation exposure were the same degree as expected previous to starting of this project. This result shows that the methods adopted in this project are basically applicable for the core internals replacement work and the whole works about the BWR core internals replacement were optimized. The outline of the core internals replacement project and applied technologies at 1F3 and 1F2 are discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Mediates Effort-related Responding in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Alexandra; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2017-11-17

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the mOFC increased, while pharmacological stimulation reduced PR responding. In addition, pharmacological mOFC stimulation attenuated methylphenidate-induced increase of PR responding. Intact rats tested for PR responding displayed higher numbers of c-Fos positive mOFC neurons than appropriate controls; however, mOFC neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens did not show a selective increase in neuronal activation implying that they may not play a major role in regulating PR responding. Collectively, these results suggest that the mOFC plays a major role in mediating effort-related motivational functions. Moreover, our data demonstrate for the first time that the mOFC modulates effort-related effects of psychostimulant drugs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Compilation of piping benchmark problems - Cooperative international effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAfee, W J [comp.

    1979-06-01

    This report is the culmination of an effort initiated in 1976 by the IWGFR to evaluate detailed and simplified analysis methods for piping systems with particular emphasis on piping bends. The procedure was to collect from participating member IWGFR countries descriptions of tests and test results for piping systems or bends, to compile, evaluate, and issue a selected number of these problems for analysis, and to compile and make a preliminary evaluation of the analysis results. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory agreed to coordinate this activity, including compilation of the original problems and the final analyses results. Of the problem descriptions submitted three were selected to be used. These were issued in December 1977. As a follow-on activity, addenda were issued that provided additional data or corrections to the original problem statement. A variety of both detailed and simplified analysis solutions were obtained. A brief comparative assessment of the analyses is contained in this report. All solutions submitted have also been included in order to provide users of this report the information necessary to make their own comparisons or evaluations.

  4. Compilation of piping benchmark problems - Cooperative international effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, W.J.

    1979-06-01

    This report is the culmination of an effort initiated in 1976 by the IWGFR to evaluate detailed and simplified analysis methods for piping systems with particular emphasis on piping bends. The procedure was to collect from participating member IWGFR countries descriptions of tests and test results for piping systems or bends, to compile, evaluate, and issue a selected number of these problems for analysis, and to compile and make a preliminary evaluation of the analysis results. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory agreed to coordinate this activity, including compilation of the original problems and the final analyses results. Of the problem descriptions submitted three were selected to be used. These were issued in December 1977. As a follow-on activity, addenda were issued that provided additional data or corrections to the original problem statement. A variety of both detailed and simplified analysis solutions were obtained. A brief comparative assessment of the analyses is contained in this report. All solutions submitted have also been included in order to provide users of this report the information necessary to make their own comparisons or evaluations

  5. Status of international collaborative efforts on selected ITER materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, V.A.; Fabritsiev, S.A.; Mazul, I.V.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the performance of refractory metals, beryllium, and copper alloys, for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) high heat flux structures. High temperature brazing, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), friction welding, explosive bonding, and other methods were explored to join copper alloys to 316 stainless steel for first wall and limiter applications. It is concluded that the main material problems for the ITER high heat flux components are: (a) degradation of properties after the manufacturing cycle (especially for Be/Cu and Cu/stainless steel (SS) joints); (b) helium embrittlement of Be, and Cu, and; (c) radiation-induced loss of fracture toughness for Be, W, and Cu alloys

  6. International efforts to cope with 'brain-drain' issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, D.

    1992-01-01

    Regional arms limitation is realistically a function of the relationships among the four great Pacific Powers and of global disarmament efforts. It reflects the political and security balance among the regional States, many of which are striving to modernize their arm forces. In addition, there are ongoing developments, particularly in Russia and China, which impact on the political-security situation in the Western Pacific. The United States and Japan are also in the process of redefining their relationship, but it is assessed that the United States-Japan security treaty is unlikely to be scrapped, although it may be modified in the light of changing realities. In order to assist the United States in bearing the burdens of maintaining regional security, the other regional States may wish to explore new security architecture, with due regard to regional sensitivities about access and exclusion, through such initiatives as the Australian proposed APEC summit or regional discussions on security such as the First Asia-Pacific Defence Conference, held in Singapore in March 1992. The United Nations could certainly play a useful role, if invited, on such difficult issues as the Spratleys dispute and the Korean issues. Finally, there is a growing awareness that regional security has broadened to include more than just political-military aspects. Of particular importance are the regional economic cooperation programmes organized by ASEAN, ESCAP and APEC. Regional States have become much more aware that military power is not as usable in the post cold war era and that economic development is just as important to overall security. War and conflict over resources may have thus become less important than the search for market access, investments and high technology

  7. International efforts to cope with `brain-drain` issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, D [Disarmament Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bonn (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Regional arms limitation is realistically a function of the relationships among the four great Pacific Powers and of global disarmament efforts. It reflects the political and security balance among the regional States, many of which are striving to modernize their arm forces. In addition, there are ongoing developments, particularly in Russia and China, which impact on the political-security situation in the Western Pacific. The United States and Japan are also in the process of redefining their relationship, but it is assessed that the United States-Japan security treaty is unlikely to be scrapped, although it may be modified in the light of changing realities. In order to assist the United States in bearing the burdens of maintaining regional security, the other regional States may wish to explore new security architecture, with due regard to regional sensitivities about access and exclusion, through such initiatives as the Australian proposed APEC summit or regional discussions on security such as the First Asia-Pacific Defence Conference, held in Singapore in March 1992. The United Nations could certainly play a useful role, if invited, on such difficult issues as the Spratleys dispute and the Korean issues. Finally, there is a growing awareness that regional security has broadened to include more than just political-military aspects. Of particular importance are the regional economic cooperation programmes organized by ASEAN, ESCAP and APEC. Regional States have become much more aware that military power is not as usable in the post cold war era and that economic development is just as important to overall security. War and conflict over resources may have thus become less important than the search for market access, investments and high technology

  8. Efforts in Public Relations on Fusion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; van Oost, G.

    2001-10-01

    An overview will be given of different published materials currently in use in Europe for public relations on fusion. We will also present a CD-ROM for individual and classroom use, containing (i) a general background on different energy forms, (ii) general principles of fusion, (iii) current research efforts and (iv) future prospects of fusion. This CD-ROM is currently in English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian. Fusion posters developed in collaboration with CPEP in Dutch, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese will be shown. Several new brochures and leaflets intended to increase the public awareness on fusion in Europe will be on display.

  9. Uruguay in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sergeevich Andreev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the foreign policy of the leftist government of Uruguay at the beginning of the XXI century. Latin America is an important actor in the process of creating a multipolar world, and Uruguay becomes one of the political and economic centers of the continent. One of the important political processes in South America is a regional integration which has many forms. This article shows the main areas of Uruguay diplomacy in various integration formations of the region. Based on the analysis of the program of the third government of “Broad Front” article shows the goals and objectives of the country in the processes of regional integration, the problems and prospects of these processes. The author notes that the Government of Uruguay is looking for creating common political and economic institutions for the united Latin American continent. In the new political and economic conditions Uruguay becomes important partner for the BRICS countries as well as for the EU and the United States. The article shows the prospects for Uruguay in the BRICS in the context of changing the place of developing countries in the architecture of the global world, as well as in the context of the participation of ex-President Jose Mujica in the BRICS summit 2014. Currently, Uruguay is standing in front of a political choice, because the country has people who want the development of relations with the United States as economic partner and political center of the region. Also in Uruguay are supporters of the development of relations with the EU. The paper shows the tasks and objectives of Uruguay's foreign policy towards the US and the EU, as well as a place of Uruguay in the foreign policy of major actors of international relations. The article says the prospects for the foreign policy of Uruguay in the context of the presidential and parliamentary elections in 2014, a new government and the conservation status of Uruguay as a country of “left turn

  10. An international effort to compare gas hydrate reservoir simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, J.W. [Akron Univ., Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Math; Moridis, G.J. [California Univ., Berkely, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div., Lawrence Berkely National Lab.; Wilson, S.J. [Ryder Scott Co., Denver, CO (United States); Kurihara, M. [Japan Oil Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); White, M.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Hydrology Group, Richland, WA (United States); Masuda, Y. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Geosystem Engineering; Anderson, B.J. [National Energy Technology Lab., Morgantown, WV (United States)]|[West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Collett, T.S. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Hunter, R.B. [ASRC Energy Services, Anchorage, AK (United States); Narita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, MEthane hydrate Research Lab., Sapporo (Japan); Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Rose, K.; Boswell, R. [National Energy Technology Lab., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, 5 different gas hydrate production scenarios were modeled by the CMG STARS, HydateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD and the TOUGH+HYDRATE reservoir simulators for comparative purposes. The 5 problems ranged in complexity from 1 to 3 dimensional with radial symmetry, and in horizontal dimensions of 20 meters to 1 kilometer. The scenarios included (1) a base case with non-isothermal multi-fluid transition to equilibrium, (2) a base case with gas hydrate (closed-domain hydrate dissociation), (3) dissociation in a 1-D open domain, (4) gas hydrate dissociation in a one-dimensional radial domain, similarity solutions, (5) gas hydrate dissociation in a two-dimensional radial domain. The purpose of the study was to compare the world's leading gas hydrate reservoir simulators in an effort to improve the simulation capability of experimental and naturally occurring gas hydrate accumulations. The problem description and simulation results were presented for each scenario. The results of the first scenario indicated very close agreement among the simulators, suggesting that all address the basics of mass and heat transfer, as well as overall process of gas hydrate dissociation. The third scenario produced the initial divergence among the simulators. Other differences were noted in both scenario 4 and 5, resulting in significant corrections to algorithms within several of the simulators. The authors noted that it is unlikely that these improvements would have been identified without this comparative study due to a lack of real world data for validation purposes. It was concluded that the solution for gas hydrate production involves a combination of highly coupled fluid, heat and mass transport equations combined with the potential for formation or disappearance of multiple solid phases in the system. The physical and chemical properties of the rocks containing the gas hydrate depend on the amount of gas hydrate present in the system. Each modeling and

  11. Simulation in International Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Brigid A.; Blake, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the educational implications of simulations in international relations. Highlights include the development of international relations simulations; the role of technology; the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) project at the University of Maryland; evolving information technology; and simulating real-world…

  12. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children’s effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment

    OpenAIRE

    EISENBERG, NANCY; CHANG, LEI; MA, YUE; HUANG, XIAORUI

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders’ effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children’s EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children’s internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children’s externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenti...

  13. International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts. Summary of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts was organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna on 1-5 July 2013. The conference was organized in cooperation with the following organizations and initiatives: the European Union; the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT); the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL); the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM); the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI); the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); the Partnership for Global Security; the Police Community of the Americas (AMERIPOL); the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI); the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC); the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS); the World Nuclear Association (WNA); and the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI). A total of 34 ministers participated in the ministerial session of the conference. Altogether, the conference attracted more than 1300 registered participants from 125 IAEA Member States and 21 organizations. The aim of the conference was to review the international community's experience and achievements to date in strengthening nuclear security, to enhance the understanding of current approaches to nuclear security worldwide and identify trends, and to provide a global forum for ministers, policymakers and senior officials to formulate views on future directions and priorities for nuclear security. This book contains the President's Summary of the conference and a summary of the ministerial session, the full text of the ministerial declaration adopted by the conference and summaries of the main conference sessions. The attached CD-ROM contains the full conference programme, the list of conference participants, the national statements from the ministerial session and a selection of papers

  14. Scientometrics of drug discovery efforts: pain-related molecular targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissin I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Igor KissinDepartment of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: The aim of this study was to make a scientometric assessment of drug discovery efforts centered on pain-related molecular targets. The following scientometric indices were used: the popularity index, representing the share of articles (or patents on a specific topic among all articles (or patents on pain over the same 5-year period; the index of change, representing the change in the number of articles (or patents on a topic from one 5-year period to the next; the index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of all types of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000 biomedical journals covered by PubMed over a 5-year period; the total number of articles representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs over a 5-year period; and the trial balance index, a ratio of Phase I–II publications to Phase III publications. Articles (PubMed database and patents (US Patent and Trademark Office database on 17 topics related to pain mechanisms were assessed during six 5-year periods from 1984 to 2013. During the most recent 5-year period (2009–2013, seven of 17 topics have demonstrated high research activity (purinergic receptors, serotonin, transient receptor potential channels, cytokines, gamma aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and protein kinases. However, even with these seven topics, the index of expectations decreased or did not change compared with the 2004–2008 period. In addition, publications representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs (2009–2013 did not indicate great enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry regarding drugs specifically designed for treatment of pain. A promising development related to the new tool of molecular targeting, ie, monoclonal antibodies, for pain treatment has not

  15. The dynamics of security provision in the aftermath of war : How international efforts to contribute to security in post-settlement countries relate to national and local perceptions and practices of security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is based on field research in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and South Sudan and looks at the dynamics of security provisioning in post-settlement contexts. A particular focus is on international security interventions, which are constituted by Disarmament,

  16. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohn, Samantha E.; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related

  17. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Yohn, Samantha E; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-05-01

    Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related decision

  18. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children's effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Chang, Lei; Ma, Yue; Huang, Xiaorui

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders' effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children's EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children's ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems.

  19. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children’s effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EISENBERG, NANCY; CHANG, LEI; MA, YUE; HUANG, XIAORUI

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders’ effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children’s EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children’s internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children’s externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children’s ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems. PMID:19338693

  20. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The International Data Sharing Challenge: Realities and Lessons Learned from International Field Projects and Data Analysis Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. F.; Moore, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    One of the major challenges facing science in general is how foster trust and cooperation between nations that then allows the free and open exchange of data. The rich data coming from many nations conducting Arctic research must be allowed to be brought together to understand and assess the huge changes now underway in the Arctic regions. The NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory has been supporting a variety of international field process studies and WCRP sponsored international projects that require international data collection and exchange in order to be successful. Some of the programs include the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) International Tundra Experiment (ITEX), the Arctic Climate Systems Study (ACSYS), the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO), and the Coordinated Energy and water-cycle Observations Project (CEOP) to name a few. EOL played a major role in the data management of these projects, but the CEOP effort in particular involved coordinating common site documentation and data formatting across a global network (28 sites). All these unique projects occurred over 25 years but had similar challenges in the international collection, archival, and access to the rich datasets that are their legacy. The Belmont Forum offers as its main challenge to deliver knowledge needed for action to avoid or adapt to environmental change. One of their major themes is related to the study of these changes in the Arctic. The development of capable e-infrastructure (technologies and groups supporting international collaborative environments networks and data centers) to allow access to large diverse data collections is key to meeting this challenge. The reality of meeting this challenge, however, is something much more difficult. The authors will provide several specific examples of successes and failures when trying to meet the needs of an international community of researchers specifically related to Belmont Forum Work Package Themes regarding standards of

  2. Stigma Management in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical approach to stigma in international relations and resituates conventional approaches to the study of norms and international order. Correcting the general understanding that common values and norms are the building blocks of social order, this article claims...

  3. Relative efforts of countries to conserve world’s megafauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lindsey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly little attention has been paid to variation among countries in contributions to conservation. As a first step, we developed a Megafauna Conservation Index (MCI that assesses the spatial, ecological and financial contributions of 152 nations towards conservation of the world’s terrestrial megafauna. We chose megafauna because they are particularly valuable in economic, ecological and societal terms, and are challenging and expensive to conserve. We categorised these 152 countries as being above- or below-average performers based on whether their contribution to megafauna conservation was higher or lower than the global mean; ‘major’ performers or underperformers were those whose contribution exceeded 1 SD over or under the mean, respectively. Ninety percent of countries in North/Central America and 70% of countries in Africa were classified as major or above-average performers, while approximately one-quarter of countries in Asia (25% and Europe (21% were identified as major underperformers. We present our index to emphasise the need for measuring conservation performance, to help nations identify how best they could improve their efforts, and to present a starting point for the development of more robust and inclusive measures (noting how the IUCN Red List evolved over time. Our analysis points to three approaches that countries could adopt to improve their contribution to global megafauna conservation, depending on their circumstances: (1 upgrading or expanding their domestic protected area networks, with a particular emphasis on conserving large carnivore and herbivore habitat, (2 increase funding for conservation at home or abroad, or (3 ‘rewilding’ their landscapes. Once revised and perfected, we recommend publishing regular conservation rankings in the popular media to recognise major-performers, foster healthy pride and competition among nations, and identify ways for governments to improve their performance.

  4. Brain and effort: brain activation and effort-related working memory in healthy participants and patients with working memory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eEngstrom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the interest in the neuroimaging of working memory, little is still known about the neurobiology of complex working memory in tasks that require simultaneous manipulation and storage of information. In addition to the central executive network, we assumed that the recently described salience network (involving the anterior insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex might be of particular importance to working memory tasks that require complex, effortful processing. Method: Healthy participants (n=26 and participants suffering from working memory problems related to the Kleine-Levin syndrome (a specific form of periodic idiopathic hypersomnia; n=18 participated in the study. Participants were further divided into a high and low capacity group, according to performance on a working memory task (listening span. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study, participants were administered the reading span complex working memory task tapping cognitive effort. Principal findings: The fMRI-derived blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal was modulated by 1 effort in both the central executive and the salience network and 2 capacity in the salience network in that high performers evidenced a weaker BOLD signal than low performers. In the salience network there was a dichotomy between the left and the right hemisphere; the right hemisphere elicited a steeper increase of the BOLD signal as a function of increasing effort. There was also a stronger functional connectivity within the central executive network because of increased task difficulty. Conclusion: The ability to allocate cognitive effort in complex working memory is contingent upon focused resources in the executive and in particular the salience network. Individual capacity during the complex working memory task is related to activity in the salience (but not the executive network so that high-capacity participants evidence a lower signal and possibly hence a larger

  5. Blog Consumption and International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    International relations professors have sought to incorporate current events into their curriculum through various mechanisms. A traditional way to incorporate the news into the classroom is to have students either subscribe and read a particular newspaper or watch the nightly news and hold them responsible for that information. However, with the…

  6. Raymond Aron and International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    At a time when the field of International Relations (IR) is diverting from grand theoretical debates, rediscovering the value of classical realism and exploring its own intellectual history, this book contributes to these debates by presenting a cohesive view of Raymond Aron’s theory of IR...... multidisciplinarity is possible (and desirable) in the study of IR. This edited collection offers a synthetic approach to Raymond Aron’s theory of International Relations by bringing together some of the most prominent specialists on Raymond Aron, thus filling an important gap in the current market of books devoted...... to IR theories and the historiography of the field. The volume is divided into three parts: the first part explores Aron’s intellectual contribution to the theoretical debates in IR, thus showing his originality and prescience; the second part traces Aron’s influence and explores his relations...

  7. Outsourcing in International Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Bilan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Entities from different countries interact through various forms of international cooperation, integration, subcontracting, outsourcing to ensure competitive advantage, reduce costs and increase economic efficiency. The article is an analysis and synthesis of existing approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing research and its application in international. The article deals with the prerequisites of outsourcing as a new form of organization of business processes. There are investigated and classified approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing. The hierarchy of objectives and motives based on organization of outsourcing is built. The practice of outsourcing during implementation of international economic relations is studied. Specifically examined the dynamics of development of the outsourcing market. Studied leader countries which provide outsourcing services and major consumers of these services.

  8. International Relations Research Methodology: Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Prussian and Austrian cases, this understanding of politics within the systematics of the XIX century; the adaptation of the bourgeois liberal and national ideas to the foreign-policy specifics Germany middle of the XIX century. It is shown that political realism is targeting an international actor on the desire to subjugate the greatest possible political space. In the case of political weakness (absolute or relative political realism indicates a way of adapting to circumstances in order to achieve the most desirable of the possible. The article discusses the concept A. Rochau, H. Morgenthau, H. Kissinger, K. Waltz, showing differences and instrumentality realistic theories and concludes that the main provisions of the concept as a whole.

  9. International relations and co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the international relations and co-operation of the UJD are presented. International community is aware of the fact that nuclear energy shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and on condition of high standard of nuclear safety. Therefore, the long-term aim of UJD in the area of international relations is to maintain and develop internationally recognised system of state supervision upon the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to reach internationally accepted level of nuclear safety in the Slovak Republic. There are many important international treaties (Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Convention on Nuclear Safety, etc.) to which slovakia is a party. In order to meet the obligations of these treaties UJD has the main aim for contribute to the process of international disarmament, and to a mutually advantageous co-operation. By means of the most important international organisations (e.g. International Atomic Energy Agency) the Slovak Republic actively participates in the international co-operation. Under the leadership of UJD, Slovak institutions participate in many projects and activities which have the aim to improve the safety of nuclear international obligations. In addition, UJD actively participates in the integration process of the Slovak Republic into European and Trans-Atlantic structures. Since 1993 the co-operation with the European Commission and the Nuclear Energy Agency of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD/NEA) has been successfully implemented. Besides multilateral co-operation UJD attaches extraordinary importance to bilateral co-operation, in particular with neighbouring countries. Regular meetings of senior Slovak experts with foreign experts are organised, with the aim to exchange the newest experiences and information on peaceful use of nuclear energy. Also in

  10. How Effective Have Thirty Years of Internationally Driven Conservation and Development Efforts Been in Madagascar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmé, Lucienne; Mercier, Jean-Roger; Camara, Christian; Lowry, Porter P.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and development are intricately linked. The international donor community has long provided aid to tropical countries in an effort to alleviate poverty and conserve biodiversity. While hundreds of millions of $ have been invested in over 500 environmental-based projects in Madagascar during the period covered by a series of National Environmental Action Plans (1993–2008) and the protected areas network has expanded threefold, deforestation remains unchecked and none of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established for 2000–2015 were likely be met. Efforts to achieve sustainable development had failed to reduce poverty or deliver progress toward any of the MDGs. Cross-sectorial policy adjustments are needed that (i) enable and catalyze Madagascar’s capacities rather than deepening dependency on external actors such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and donor countries, and that (ii) deliver improvements to the livelihoods and wellbeing of the country’s rural poor. PMID:27532499

  11. How Effective Have Thirty Years of Internationally Driven Conservation and Development Efforts Been in Madagascar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeber, Patrick O; Wilmé, Lucienne; Mercier, Jean-Roger; Camara, Christian; Lowry, Porter P

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and development are intricately linked. The international donor community has long provided aid to tropical countries in an effort to alleviate poverty and conserve biodiversity. While hundreds of millions of $ have been invested in over 500 environmental-based projects in Madagascar during the period covered by a series of National Environmental Action Plans (1993-2008) and the protected areas network has expanded threefold, deforestation remains unchecked and none of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established for 2000-2015 were likely be met. Efforts to achieve sustainable development had failed to reduce poverty or deliver progress toward any of the MDGs. Cross-sectorial policy adjustments are needed that (i) enable and catalyze Madagascar's capacities rather than deepening dependency on external actors such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and donor countries, and that (ii) deliver improvements to the livelihoods and wellbeing of the country's rural poor.

  12. Maximizing DOE R and D efforts in tru waste management learning from international programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxman, P.A.; Loughead, J.S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Through the International Technology Exchange Program, Department of Energy (DOE) technical specialists maintain a formal dialogue with research and Development (R and D) specialists from nuclear programs in other countries. The objective of these exchanges is to seek innovative waste management solutions, maximize progress for ongoing R and D activities, and minimize the development time required for implementation of transuranic (TRU) waste processing technologies and waste assay developments. Based on information provided by PNC during the exchange, DOE specialists evaluated PNC's efforts to implement technologies and techniques from their R and D program activities. This paper presents several projects with particular potential for DOE operations, and suggests several ways that these concepts could be used to advantage by DOE or commercial programs

  13. Unifying a fragmented effort: a qualitative framework for improving international surgical teaching collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Parisa Nicole; Bernstein, Mark

    2017-09-07

    Access to adequate surgical care is limited globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To address this issue, surgeons are becoming increasingly involved in international surgical teaching collaborations (ISTCs), which include educational partnerships between surgical teams in high-income countries and those in LMICs. The purpose of this study is to determine a framework for unifying, systematizing, and improving the quality of ISTCs so that they can better address the global surgical need. A convenience sample of 68 surgeons, anesthesiologists, physicians, residents, nurses, academics, and administrators from the U.S., Canada, and Norway was used for the study. Participants all had some involvement in ISTCs and came from multiple specialties and institutions. Qualitative methodology was used, and participants were interviewed using a pre-determined set of open-ended questions. Data was gathered over two months either in-person, over the phone, or on Skype. Data was evaluated using thematic content analysis. To organize and systematize ISTCs, participants reported a need for a centralized/systematized process with designated leaders, a universal data bank of current efforts/progress, communication amongst involved parties, full-time administrative staff, dedicated funds, a scholarly approach, increased use of technology, and more research on needs and outcomes. By taking steps towards unifying and systematizing ISTCs, the quality of ISTCs can be improved. This could lead to an advancement in efforts to increase access to surgical care worldwide.

  14. Cognitive Load and Listening Effort: Concepts and Age-Related Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Ulrike; Besser, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort has been recognized as an important dimension of everyday listening, especially with regard to the comprehension of spoken language. At constant levels of comprehension performance, the level of effort exerted and perceived during listening can differ considerably across listeners and situations. In this article, listening effort is used as an umbrella term for two different types of effort that can arise during listening. One of these types is processing effort, which is used to denote the utilization of "extra" mental processing resources in listening conditions that are adverse for an individual. A conceptual description is introduced how processing effort could be defined in terms of situational influences, the listener's auditory and cognitive resources, and the listener's personal state. Also, the proposed relationship between processing effort and subjectively perceived listening effort is discussed. Notably, previous research has shown that the availability of mental resources, as well as the ability to use them efficiently, changes over the course of adult aging. These common age-related changes in cognitive abilities and their neurocognitive organization are discussed in the context of the presented concept, especially regarding situations in which listening effort may be increased for older people.

  15. Opportunities and challenges of international coordination efforts in space exploration - the DLR perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Andrea

    The German Aerospace Center and German Space Agency DLR has defined internationalisation one of the four pillars of its corporate strategy. Driven by global challenges, national space agencies like DLR are seeking partnerships to contribute to essential societal needs, such as human welfare, sustainability of life, economic development, security, culture and knowledge. All partnerships with both traditional and non-traditional partners must reflect a balanced approach between national requirements and needs of the international community. In view of the challenges emerging from this complexity, endeavours like space exploration must be built on mutual cooperation especially in a challenging political environment. Effective and efficient exploitation of existing expertise, human resources, facilities and infrastructures require consolidated actions of stakeholders, interest groups and authorities. This basic principle applies to any space exploration activity. DLR is among the agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) from its beginning in 2007. The strategic goals of DLR regarding space exploration correspond to the purpose of ISECG as a forum to share objectives and plans to take concrete steps towards partnerships for a globally coordinated effort in space exploration. DLR contributes to ISECG publications especially the “Global Exploration Roadmap” and the “Benefits stemming from Space Exploration” to see those messages reflected that support cooperation with internal and external exploration stakeholders in science and technology and communication with those in politics and society. DLR provides input also to other groups engaging in space exploration. However, taking into account limited resources and expected results, the effectiveness of multiple coordination and planning mechanisms needs to be discussed.

  16. Leveraging the International Polar Year Legacy: Providing Historical Perspective for IPY Education, Outreach and Communication Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukernik, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.

    2006-12-01

    As the International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) is fast approaching, it is important to look back and learn from the previous experience. Over 125 years ago, when an Austrian explorer and naval officer Lt. Karl Weyprecht called for an international yearlong intensive effort to study the Polar Regions, he probably never imagined that his model for international collaboration would become so widely popular. Frustrated by the lack of coordinated, international collaboration in research activities, Weyprecht proposed an intensive burst of research activity over the course of at least a year. The first IPY began in 1882 with 12 nations establishing 13 stations in the Arctic and 2 in the Southern Hemisphere. The initial yearlong plan did not go beyond data collection. However, the idea lived in the minds of scientists worldwide and the second IPY followed the first one 50 years later. By 1932, technology evolved significantly, and on top of ground-based meteorological and geophysical measurements, data collection also included radiosonde and acoustic atmospheric measurements. Occurring during a global economic depression, and between world wars, the second IPY faced many challenges. However, 40 permanent stations were established, some of which are still active. Scientific exploration also reached remote frontiers from Antarctica to the Earth's ionosphere. Less than a decade after the WWII, the idea of the next IPY started to circulate in scientific circles. The world was focused on space exploration and the word "polar" seemed too narrow for the gigantic projects planned for the 1957. That is why the initial idea of the third IPY evolved into the International Geophysical Year (IGY), although polar regions were still a major focus. The success of the IGY is almost overwhelming the first Earth orbiting satellites, a traverse of Antarctica, a discovery of the Radiation Belt, a series of science education films about IGY activities and research themes are just a few

  17. Efforts made for health and medical care by International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The author, being a former senior medical officer and currently a consultant of the Nuclear Medicine Section, the Division of Human Health, the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to standardize the isotope and radiation technologies for health and medical care and transfer them to the IAEA member states to address their health issues, participated in an international cooperation project to survey the current situation of the health and medical care in Viet Nam and exchange opinions with the World Health Organization Western Pacific Regional Office Viet Nam Office and the Viet Nam Health Department coordinated by the Japan Public Health Association from 10th to 15th January 2016 and perceived efforts made and action plans for the health and medical care in Viet Nam by the international organizations of the IAEA and the World Health Organization (WHO). IAEA has verified various isotopes and radiation technologies up to now in the international field of health and medical care and has being offered them to the member states under the sustainable frame work of technical co-operation. However, the activity in the health and medical care field of IAEA is hardly recognized by the public health professionals in Japan. In order to attain the objective to improve and maintain human health under the umbrella of the United Nations system, the peaceful use of nuclear technology has been promoted in the field of non-electric applications of nuclear energy including human health and medical care by the IAEA. There are several discrepancies seen with the field and tactics of health and medical care between the IAEA and the WHO. In terms of measures to fight NCDs which should be an urgent issue in most of the member states, a comprehensive approach is often needed beyond the capability of IAEA as isotopes and radiation technologies. The IAEA should strive to solve issues on human health and medical care maintaining much

  18. Civil-military relations : enhancing international security

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The thesis describes how civil-military relations at the international level enhance international security, in particular, the way of development of international society in trying to orient its progress towards international peace, security and sustainable development. It focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The International Committee of Re...

  19. The pharmacology of effort-related choice behavior: Dopamine, depression, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yohn, Samantha; Lopez Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemi; Alatorre, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    This review paper is focused upon the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and related brain systems in effort-based processes. Interference with DA transmission affects instrumental behavior in a manner that interacts with the response requirements of the task, such that rats with impaired DA transmission show a heightened sensitivity to ratio requirements. Impaired DA transmission also affects effort-related choice behavior, which is assessed by tasks that offer a choice between a preferred reinforcer that has a high work requirement vs. less preferred reinforcer that can be obtained with minimal effort. Rats and mice with impaired DA transmission reallocate instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response costs, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Tests of effort-related choice have been developed into models of pathological symptoms of motivation that are seen in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. These models are being employed to explore the effects of conditions associated with various psychopathologies, and to assess drugs for their potential utility as treatments for effort-related symptoms. Studies of the pharmacology of effort-based choice may contribute to the development of treatments for symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia, which are seen in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An ODIP effort to map R2R ocean data terms to international vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Renata; Stocks, Karen; Arko, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The heterogeneity of terminology used in describing data creates a barrier to the efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a US program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving the interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access international ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed locally or are specific to the US. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international vocabularies, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: R2R science party names to ORCID person identifiers, UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, and R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO). Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships only, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. The majority of ports were successfully mapped. Differences in the character sets (i.e. whether diacritic marks were used) caused automated matching to fail occasionally, but the number of ports was small enough that these could be manually

  1. Beyond the Borders: Principles of International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Connie

    1994-01-01

    Advice on international public relations for colleges and universities includes focusing efforts on one country or region at a time; researching the market and media outlets; involving faculty and administrators; using the local language; careful budgeting; providing photographs and copy; focusing story ideas; considering politics; and considering…

  2. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...

  3. Limitation of therapeutic effort in patients hospitalised in departments of internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Caballero, R; Herreros, B; Real de Asúa, D; Gámez, S; Vega, G; García Olmos, L

    There is little information on the limitation of therapeutic effort (LTE) in patients admitted to hospital internal medicine units. To describe the indicated LTE regimens in the departments of internal medicine and the characteristics of the patients who undergo them. An observational, descriptive retrospective study was conducted on 4 hospitals of the Community of Madrid. The study collected demographic and comorbidity data and the LTE orders prescribed for all patients who died during a period of 6 months. The study included 382 patients with a mean age of 85±10 years; 204 were women (53.4%) and 222 (58.1%) came from their homes. Some 51.1% of the patients were terminal, 43.2% had moderate to severe dementia, and 95.5% presented at least moderate comorbidity. Some type of LTE was performed in 318 patients (83.7%); the most common orders were "No cardiopulmonary resuscitation" (292 patients, 76.4%; 95% CI 72.1-80.8), "Do not use aggressive measures" (113 patients, 16.4%; 95% CI 13.7-19.4) and "Do not transfer to an intensive care unit" (102 cases, 14.8%, 95% CI 12.3-17.7). Some type of LTE was performed in 318 patients (83.7%); the most common orders were "No cardiopulmonary resuscitation" (292 patients, 76.4%; 95% CI 72.1-80.8), "Do not use aggressive measures" (113 patients, 16.4%; 95% CI 13.7-19.4) and "Do not transfer to an intensive care unit" (102 cases, 14.8%, 95% CI 12.3-17.7). LTE is common among patients who die in Internal Medicine. The most widely used regimens were "No CPR" and the unspecific statement "Do not use aggressive measures". The patients were elderly and had significant comorbidity, terminal illness and advanced dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring listening-related effort and fatigue in school-aged children using pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarrigle, Ronan; Dawes, Piers; Stewart, Andrew J; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Munro, Kevin J

    2017-09-01

    Stress and fatigue from effortful listening may compromise well-being, learning, and academic achievement in school-aged children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) typical of those in school classrooms on listening effort (behavioral and pupillometric) and listening-related fatigue (self-report and pupillometric) in a group of school-aged children. A sample of 41 normal-hearing children aged 8-11years performed a narrative speech-picture verification task in a condition with recommended levels of background noise ("ideal": +15dB SNR) and a condition with typical classroom background noise levels ("typical": -2dB SNR). Participants showed increased task-evoked pupil dilation in the typical listening condition compared with the ideal listening condition, consistent with an increase in listening effort. No differences were found between listening conditions in terms of performance accuracy and response time on the behavioral task. Similarly, no differences were found between listening conditions in self-report and pupillometric markers of listening-related fatigue. This is the first study to (a) examine listening-related fatigue in children using pupillometry and (b) demonstrate physiological evidence consistent with increased listening effort while listening to spoken narratives despite ceiling-level task performance accuracy. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underpin listening-related effort and fatigue could inform intervention strategies and ultimately mitigate listening difficulties in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relations among school students' self-determined motivation, perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao

    2009-12-01

    Guided by the self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of self-determined motivation toward motivational outcomes (perceived enjoyment, perceived effort, physical activity behaviors) for 286 middle school students in physical education. Analyses indicated that intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and introjected regulation were positively related to students' enjoyment, perceived effort, and physical activity, whereas amotivation was negatively associated with students' enjoyment and perceived effort. The findings highlighted the importance of higher self-determined motivation (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) in students' perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors. This study supports the use of self-determination theory to investigate students' motivational outcomes in school physical education.

  6. Judicialization of International Relations: Do International Courts Matter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíř, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 208-224 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : judicialization * international relations * legal and extralegal factors Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  7. Labour Law for Persons with Disability in Iran: From First International Efforts to Decent Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Reza Abadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis and Matching the legal system of Work for Persons with disability in Iran with Standards of International Labor Organization concerning to Decent Work. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive – Analytic study , after studying International efforts around Labor law for Persons With Disability , in the context of general and special Human rights documents and ILO ‘s Standards, the present Legal system for the work of persons with disability in Iran, Include Laws and Regulations has been considered by Using the Library – documentation method. Results: In the scope of fundamental Rights, Iranian legal system 1- About Disabled compulsory Work has enough guarantees like other workers, and there is not any deficiency. 2- About Freedom of syndicalism: there is not any deficiency too, and there is not any limitation for Disabled workers and employers membership in present associations. 3- In subject of equal remuneration, despite of non-ratification any special approval, but the Base Wage has determined the same for disabled workers (like the others in article 41 of the Labor Law. 4- About nondiscrimination, also based on present legal foundations, any kind of discrimination because of disability has been prohibited, and in field of employment, by ratification the comprehensive law recently in 2004 and by joining to convention for persons with disability in 2008 has taken serious steps too. Specially the significant gap of facilities presented in various areas of rationing public sector employment, Direct and Indirect Educational services for entering the labor market , and self –employment between war reterans and other groups of disability has been narrowed. Conclusion: Based on results of present comparative research, legal principles for fundamental Rights of vocation for people with disabilities in Iran attempt to meet the basic standards of Decent Work and thus it seems that the crucial issue, besides the passing the

  8. Interim report on the Global Design Effort Global International Linear Collider (ILC) R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, M.

    2011-04-30

    The International Linear Collider: A Technical Progress Report marks the halfway point towards the Global Design Effort fulfilling its mandate to follow up the ILC Reference Design Report with a more optimised Technical Design Report (TDR) by the end of 2012. The TDR will be based on much of the work reported here and will contain all the elements needed to propose the ILC to collaborating governments, including a technical design and implementation plan that are realistic and have been better optimised for performance, cost and risk. We are on track to develop detailed plans for the ILC, such that once results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN establish the main science goals and parameters of the next machine, we will be in good position to make a strong proposal for this new major global project in particle physics. The two overriding issues for the ILC R&D programme are to demonstrate that the technical requirements for the accelerator are achievable with practical technologies, and that the ambitious physics goals can be addressed by realistic ILC detectors. This GDE interim report documents the impressive progress on the accelerator technologies that can make the ILC a reality. It highlights results of the technological demonstrations that are giving the community increased confidence that we will be ready to proceed with an ILC project following the TDR. The companion detector and physics report document likewise demonstrates how detector designs can meet the ambitious and detailed physics goals set out by the ILC Steering Committee. LHC results will likely affect the requirements for the machine design and the detectors, and we are monitoring that very closely, intending to adapt our design as those results become available.

  9. [Interface between bioethics and international relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchola-Castillo, Camilo; Garrafa, Volnei

    2016-08-01

    Recently, bioethics and international relations have gotten closer to one an other, probably as a result of the motivation of bioethics to intervene in global affairs. However, this relationship has only been on the practical level.This study's objective, through a literature review, is to highlight the huge potential that the epistemologies of both areas have to build a more fruitful dialogue. 18 articles relating both areas were retrieved from databases Scopus, Web of Science, Bireme and PubMed. The articles were then grouped in three categories of analysis: bioethics and global health; international organizations and bioethics; and international relations and bioethics. This study concludes that an epistemological approaching between these areas is desirable and proposes the establishment of two new areas of study: international relations in health and international relations from the South, drawing upon the conceptual basis developed by Latin-American bioethics.

  10. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age ("Ns" = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at…

  11. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the “rewarding” impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in effort-related choice behavior. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA-depleted rats show a heightened sensitivity to response costs, especially ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:22287808

  12. Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, K.M.; Lessells, C.M.; Komdeur, J.

    2005-01-01

    Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct

  13. Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, KM; Lessells, CM; Komdeur, J; Lessells, C(Kate). M.

    Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct

  14. Measuring international relations in social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, GA; Xu, WW; Chu, J; Jiang, K; Huh, C; Park, JY; Park, HW

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Inc. This paper examines international relations as perceived by the public in their social media conversations. It examines over 1.8 billion Facebook postings in English and 51 million Chinese posts on Weibo, to reveal the relations among nations as expressed in social media conversations. It argues that social media represent a transnational electronic public sphere, in which public discussions reveal characteristics of international relations as perceived by a foreign publi...

  15. Public Relations: Membangun Komunikasi Internal dalam Perusahaan

    OpenAIRE

    Setyanto, Yugih; Anggarina, Paula T.

    2017-01-01

    Public relations had a management function within the company. The process of public relations entirely refers to a managerial approach consisting of fact finding, planning, communications and evaluation. In addition, public relations also runs internal activities to build good communication between the parties involved in the company to create a conducive working atmosphere. Internal communication within the company becomes an important element in creating a good working climate especially i...

  16. Perceived vocal fatigue and effort in relation to laryngeal functional measures in paresis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Sheila V; Bielamowicz, Steven A

    2014-07-01

    To determine if differences in objective measures of laryngeal function can meaningfully explain different levels of self-perceptions of effort or fatigue in patients with vocal fold paresis. A retrospective chart review of 72 patients with vocal fold paresis diagnosed using laryngeal electromyography, who had either been observed (n=21), treated only by injection (n=24), or treated only by surgery (n=27). Before and after treatment/observation, patients' subjective ratings of severity of vocal effort and fatigue were assessed using the Glottal Function Index. Laryngeal function was assessed using maximum phonation time and translaryngeal flow. None of the variables demonstrated a significant linear change across time. Post hoc Tukey analyses following analysis of variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in flow among three groups, those rating symptoms of effort as no problem, moderate problem, or severe problem. Post hoc Tukey analyses following ANOVA found significant differences in the amount that flow changed among three groups, those demonstrating no difference, minor differences, or major differences in ratings of effort before and after treatment. Changes in reported symptom severity of effort were related to changes in translaryngeal midvowel flow that were not explained by passage of time. 4. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Efforts to save 244Pu in Mark 18A targets for use in international safeguards measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Steven A.; Cappis, John; Clarke, Stephanie; Whitesel, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation and the Office of Security and Emergency Operations are working collaboratively to evaluate the disposition of a large quantity of the 244 Pu isotope contained in 65 Mark ISA targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). 244 Pu is used as a standard reference material for plutonium analytical measurements required for both domestic and international safeguards. 244 Pu is particularly valuable for high accuracy measurements of plutonium in small samples containing trace quantities of plutonium (environmental analysis) and for measurements of material through-put in bulk processing facilities handling large volumes of plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials. In October 2000, an assessment team was tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Under Secretary to evaluate pathways and costs for the chemical separation and isotopic enrichment of the 244 Pu identified in the targets. Even though the target materials have recently been designated as a National Resource, they are scheduled for waste disposal unless funds can be identified and assigned to the project. Background information on the Mark ISA targets and a review of the assessment process are presented below to inform other organizations and governments of current efforts to examine potential disposition options and to solicit international cooperation for the extraction of the 244 Pu. Background - The United States possesses the bulk of the world's supply of the rare isotope 244 Pu. This isotope was produced by extremely long neutron irradiation of 242 Pu in a high-flux reactor during experiments used primarily to create isotopes of medical interest. In its separated enriched form, 244 Pu is regarded as the most accurate and desirable spike for safeguards, forensics, and environmental analysis of plutonium, allowing the simultaneous measurement of a sample for isotopic abundances and elemental concentration. Such measurements are a critical component of

  18. International Security in the World Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna P

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the urgent topic of the evolution of international relations, the issue of establishing international security, and the development of international economic cooperation based on the principles of security. In order to analyze the current status of international security in the world and to identify key factors that hinder the way of establishing a positive global community, researches by the international analytical centers together with the institutes for international security and cooperation have been generalized. To this end, both the status of and changes in the Global Peace Index in the recent years has been disclosed, the position of Ukraine in the world according to this index has been examined. It has been proven that the main international security problems are related to the armed conflicts, civil wars, political violence, terrorism impacting the development of humanity as a whole, the status of international relations, the evolution of the world economy as well as national economies. Further researches should be focused on how the status of peace in the countries impacts their economic status and the status of international cooperation in other areas of economic cooperation, excluding the military. It should be answered particularly, how the above indicated status affects strengthening the Ukraine's position in the world.

  19. Going global: Trust research and international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Jan; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2015-01-01

    In this review article we explore the growing body of literature on the subject of trust in the field of international relations. We argue that the international level represents a unique challenge for trust research. This is so because some of the most pressing problems facing the world today...

  20. Australia's international health relations in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-02-21

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.

  1. Inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly determine the expenditure of effort in project teams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojie Han

    Full Text Available The literature on team cooperation has neglected the effects of relative kindness intention on cooperation, which we measure by comparing the kindness intentions of an agent to her group members to the kindness shown by other members to this same agent. We argue that the agent's emotional reaction to material payoff inequity is not constant, but rather affected by her relative kindness intention. Then, we apply the model to team projects with multiple partners and investigate how inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly influence team cooperation. We first consider the case of homogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are the same, and then consider the case of heterogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are not the same. Our results show that inequity-aversion has no effect on effort expenditure in the former case, but does affect it in the latter case. The consideration of relative kindness intention may impact the agents' optimal cooperative effort expenditure when their technical capacities are different. In addition, it is beneficial for team cooperation, and might not only reduce the negative impact but also enhance the positive impact of inequity-aversion on the agents' effort expenditures.

  2. Communications and Public Relations Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Coordinates relations with journalists and the media in general and responds to ... the region's culture and communication capacity, both internally and externally. ... Systematically reviews, with program officers, projects likely to influence the ...

  3. Introduction:Bourdieu and International Relations theory

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This book rethinks the key concepts of International Relations by drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu.The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible analysis of what Bourdieu-inspired IR might look like. This book provides the answer. It offers a...

  4. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  5. Implicit activation of the aging stereotype influences effort-related cardiovascular response: The role of incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiriou, Athina; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2017-09-01

    Based on previous research on implicit effects on effort-related cardiovascular response and evidence that aging is associated with cognitive difficulties, we tested whether the mere activation of the aging stereotype can systematically influence young individuals' effort-mobilization during cognitive performance. Young participants performed an objectively difficult short-term memory task during which they processed elderly vs. youth primes and expected low vs. high incentive for success. When participants processed elderly primes during the task, we expected cardiovascular response to be weak in the low-incentive condition and strong in the high-incentive condition. Unaffected by incentive, effort in the youth-prime condition should fall in between the two elderly-prime cells. Effects on cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and heart rate (HR) largely supported these predictions. The present findings show for the first time that the mere activation of the aging stereotype can systematically influence effort mobilization during cognitive performance-even in young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Relations of Temperament Reactivity and Effortful Control to Children’s Adjustment Problems in China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The relations of parents’ and teachers’ reports of temperament anger-irritability, positive emotionality, and effortful control (attention focusing and inhibitory control) to children’s externalizing and internalizing problems were examined in Chinese (N = 382) and U.S. (N = 322) samples of school-age children. Results suggested that in both cultures, low effortful control and high anger–irritability were associated with high externalizing problems, although the relations were stronger in the Chinese sample than in the U.S. sample. Low positive emotionality was associated with high internalizing problems in both cultures. However, high positive emotionality was associated with noncomorbid externalizing problems (teachers’ reports) in the Chinese sample but not in the U.S. sample. These findings suggest that there are considerable cross-cultural similarities in the temperament-adjustment associations, although some cross-cultural differences might exist. Implications of the findings for the detection and intervention of adjustment problems in Chinese children are discussed. PMID:19413428

  7. [The US Government's effort in decreasing the cost of sleep-related problems and its outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, You Hwi; Nishino, Seiji

    2008-09-01

    Sleepiness and inattention caused by sleep and circadian rhythm disorders or inadequate sleep habits adversely affect workers in many industries as well as the general public, and these disorders are likely to lead to public health and safety problems and adversely affect civilian life. Evidence is accumulating that these sleep related problems are contributing factors not only in many errors of judgement and accidents, but also related to some highly prevalent diseases, such as diabetes, obesity and hypertension. For each of these societal concerns, sleep science must be translated to the general public and to those in policy positions for improving public policy and public health awareness. In the United State, the National Commission for Sleep Disorders Research (established by the US Congress in 1998) completed a comprehensive report of its findings in 1993 to address these problems. The commission estimated that sleep disorders and sleepiness cost the United States $50 billion and called for permanent and concentrated efforts in expanding basic and clinical research on sleep disorders as well as in improving public awareness of the dangers of inadequate sleep hygiene. As a result of these efforts, the number of sleep centers has increased steadily and the total of the NIH (National Institutes of Health) funding for sleep research has also grown. In response to this progress in the US (together with appeals by Japanese Sleep Specialists), the Science Council of Japan published "The Recommendation of Creation of Sleep Science and Progression of Research" in 2002. In this article, we introduce and detail to the Japanese readers the US Government's efforts focusing on the report of the National Commission for Sleep Disorders Research, and we believe that the US Government's effort is a good example for the Japanese society to follow.

  8. Energy problem and harmony in international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Akira

    1975-01-01

    Energy problems and harmony in international relation are closely related with world politics. Oil is destined to remain as the primary energy source for the time being. The situation of oil has different implications to the U.S. and U.S.S.R., oil producing countries, and consumer countries. The hasty attitude in the past to attain energy sufficiency must be avoided by all means. Congenial harmony is to be established in international relation to meet world energy requirement. This also applies to the case of nuclear power in future. (Mori, K.)

  9. The end of International Relations theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunne, Tim; Hansen, Lene; Wight, Colin

    2013-01-01

    With a view to providing contextual background for the Special Issue, this opening article analyses several dimensions of ‘The end of International Relations theory?’ It opens with a consideration of the status of different types of theory. Thereafter, we look at the proliferation of theories...... to the alternatives currently being practised: integrative pluralism. The article ends on a cautiously optimistic note: given the disciplinary competition that now exists in relation to explaining and understanding global social forces, International Relations may find resilience because it has become theory...

  10. REVOLUTIONS AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THE AFRICAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fagundes Visentini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the impact of revolutions in the International Relations and the World System as constitutive and renewed elements. Criticizes the stance of theories that consider it a domestic phenomenon that causes a systemic disturbance, focusing in the case of the African Revolutions in the 1970s. Explores the international dimension they possess, considering their impact regarding the end of the Cold War, even though it happened in the periphery of the world.

  11. Assessing the risk of work-related international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Myles; Harber, Philip; Liu, Yihang; Quigley, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting the likelihood of requiring medical services during international business trips. Data from more than 800,000 international trips and medical assistance cases provided to 48 multinational corporations in 2009. Travel destination countries were grouped into four a priori risk-related categories. Travel to "low" medical risk countries in aggregate accounted for more hospitalizations and medical evacuations than travel to "high" medical risk countries. Nevertheless, the risk per trip was much higher for travel to higher medical risk countries. Corporations with employees on international travel should allocate sufficient resources to manage and ideally prevent medical issues during business travel. Travel medicine must focus on more than infectious diseases, and programs are necessary for both high- and low-risk regions. Improved understanding of travel-related needs determines resource allocation and risk mitigation efforts.

  12. Attitudes towards Internationalism through the Lens of Cognitive Effort, Global Mindset, and Cultural Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Joan; Platania, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we examine attitudes towards internationalism through the lens of a specific set of constructs necessary in defining an effective global leader. One hundred fifty-nine undergraduates responded to items measuring need for cognition, cultural intelligence, and a set of items measuring the correlates of global mindset. In…

  13. Advancing toward far-infrared interferometry in space through coordinated international efforts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisawitz, D.; Baryshev, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Helmich, F. P.; Ivison, R. J.; Rinehart, S. A.; Savini, G.; Shibai, H.

    2013-01-01

    The international far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation, Active Galactic Nuclei, chemical enrichment in

  14. International Relations in China and Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The international relations (IR) discipline is known as an ‘American Social Science’ dominated by scholars and theories from the US core. This paper compares IR in two noncore settings, China and Europe. It shows that there is a growing institutional and intellectual integration into global...... Anglophone, mostly American, IR in both Europe and China. Both Chinese and European IR communities have established top Anglophone journals like the European Journal of International Relations and the Chinese Journal of International Politics to spearhead their integration into mainstream Anglophone IR...... and carve out a space for regional thinking. Yet, the analysis of their publication and citation patterns shows that IR outside the American core communicates through a hub-and-spokes system where there is always a connection to the American core but rarely very strong linkages to other peripheral regions...

  15. International Relations: Understanding the Behavior of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, David R.; And Others

    In today's world, no nation acts in isolation; the interdependence of nations makes international relations complex and ever-changing. This book is designed to help students understand why nations compete, why they cooperate, and why they sometimes go to war. Chapter 1 examines the behavior of nations and how national interest dictates the…

  16. Teaching International Relations to a Multicultural Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julia Lau; Lee, Ji-Young

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that instructors should adopt a more multicultural perspective when designing syllabi for and teaching undergraduate courses in International Relations (IR). The examination of teaching practices in IR draws on the personal experiences of the authors as foreign natives and instructors of IR at two American universities. The…

  17. Reflections on Dead Theory in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    In this short autobiographical essay, I trace my journey in the discipline of International Relations. While entering the discipline, I, along with a host of my classmates, were enamoured by the exciting possibilities of thinking theoretically. Almost a decade later, those promises look bleak. From the perspective of a student in the discipline, I…

  18. Industry's efforts toward technology development related to aging management of PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    The term, 'aging plants', which refers to nuclear power plants operating more than 30 years, has become popular among local residents around nuclear power plants as well as among the media. The term 'aging' was first used in the title of the document issued by Agency of Natural Resources and Energy in 1996, 'The Basic Concept of Aging Management'. In addressing aging degradation, it was a matter of question which measure of time (date, month or year) should be used as a unit to consider an events. Although the aging plant was defined as a plant operating more than 30 years, the mode and timing of aging degradation depend on the environment and service conditions under which a component has been operating. Previous efforts made by related parties have contributed to the prevention of potential aging events which may challenge the reactor safety. Owing to such efforts, causes of some events attributable to defective design have been clarified and preventive maintenance measures, including the replacement and mitigation, have been taken accordingly. As a result, the number of events resulting from such aging phenomena has been reduced. On other other hand, the events caused by aging phenomena attributable to manufacturing processes (welding, surface treatment, etc.), which hardly emerge, are slightly increasing. There have been many cases that a shorter weld line due to lack of penetration in the narrow gap has been led to fatigue cracking. More recently, incidents of stress corrosion cracking due to work hardening and local tensile stresses on the surface have been observed. It should be noted that an effort to analyze not only the phenomena but also the mechanisms of the above events to clarify the root causes can improve the quality of preventive maintenance by means of rolling-out the analytical results to relevant plants. This paper introduces valuable experiences with the application of the results of technology development regarding to aging degradation of

  19. International Relations Scholarship Around the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    It has become widely accepted that the discipline of International Relations (IR) is ironically not "international" at all. IR scholars are part of a global discipline with a single, shared object of study - the world, and yet theorizing gravitates around a number of concepts that have been...... conceived solely in the United States. The purpose of this book is to re-balance this "western bias" by examining the ways in which IR has evolved and is practiced around the world. The fifteen case studies offer fresh insights into the political and socioeconomic environments that characterize diverse...

  20. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2016; all rights reserved.

  1. Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.P.

    1981-09-01

    The Los Alamos efforts related to resolution of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki doses are described as follows: (1) Using recently located replicas of the Hiroshima bomb, measurements will be made which will define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield. (2) Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made. Similar measurements on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly are proposed. These measurements will provide a check for present day cross sections and calculations. (3) Calculations of several air transport experiments are in progress. A comparison of calculated results with experimental results is given. (4) The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested

  2. Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... by diplomatic scholars). Relationalism takes as its point of departure the idea that social phenomena making up world politics always develop in relation to other social phenomena. Thus, for example, states are not born into' this world as fully developed states that then "exist"; states are made in continuous...... scholarship and diplomatic knowledge and practice are important for how we understand (and construct) world politics, including war, international cooperation, and responses to human and natural catastrophes....

  3. Functional composition of epifauna in the south-eastern North Sea in relation to habitat characteristics and fishing effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Hermann; Diekmann, Rabea; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of ecosystem functioning is essential to describe the ecological status of ecosystems and is therefore directly requested in international directives. There is a lack of knowledge regarding functional aspects of benthic communities and their environmental and anthropogenic driving forces in the southern North Sea. This study linked functional composition of epibenthic communities to environmental conditions and fishing effort and investigated spatial correlations between habitat characteristics to gain insight into potential synergistic and/or cumulative effects. Functional composition of epifauna was assessed by using biological trait analysis (BTA), which considered 15 ecological traits of 54 species. Functional composition was related to ten predictor variables derived from sediment composition, bottom temperature and salinity, hydrodynamics, annual primary production and fishing effort. Our results revealed significantly different functional composition between the Dogger Bank, the Oyster Ground, the West and North Frisian coast. Mobility, feeding type, size and adult longevity were the most important traits differentiating the communities. A high proportion of trait modalities related to an opportunistic life mode were obvious in coastal areas especially at the West Frisian coast and in the area of the Frisian Front indicating disturbed communities. In contrast, functional composition in the Dogger Bank area indicated undisturbed communities with prevalence of large, long-lived and permanently attached species being sensitive towards disturbance such as fishing. Tidal stress, mud content of sediments, salinity, stratification and fishing effort were found to be the most important habitat characteristics shaping functional composition. Strong correlations were found between variables, especially between those which changed gradually from the coast to offshore areas including fishing effort. Unfavourable extremes of these factors in coastal areas

  4. Externalizing symptoms, effortful control, and intrusive parenting: A test of bidirectional longitudinal relations during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Taylor, Zoe E; Widaman, Keith F; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2015-11-01

    At approximately 30, 42, and 54 months of age (N = 231), the relations among children's externalizing symptoms, intrusive maternal parenting, and children's effortful control (EC) were examined. Both intrusive parenting and low EC have been related to psychopathology, but children's externalizing problems and low EC might affect the quality of parenting and one another. Mothers' intrusive behavior with their children was assessed with observations, children's EC was measured with mothers' and caregivers' reports, and children's externalizing symptoms were assessed with mothers', fathers', and caregivers' reports. In a structural equation panel model, bidirectional relations between intrusive parenting and EC were found: EC at 30 and 42 months predicted low levels of intrusive parenting a year later, controlling for prior levels of parenting and vice versa. Moreover, high levels of children's externalizing problems at both 30 and 42 months negatively predicted EC a year later, controlling for prior levels of EC. Although externalizing problems positively predicted high EC over time, this appeared to be a suppression effect because these variables had a strong negative pattern in the zero-order correlations. Moreover, when controlling for the stability of intrusive parenting, EC, and externalizing (all exhibited significant stability across time) and the aforementioned cross-lagged predictive paths, EC and externalizing problems were still negatively related within the 54-month assessment. The findings are consistent with the view that children's externalizing behavior undermines their EC and contributes to intrusive mothering and that relations between intrusive parenting and EC are bidirectional across time. Thus, interventions that focus on modifying children's externalizing problems (as well as the quality of parenting) might affect the quality of parenting they receive and, hence, subsequent problems with adjustment.

  5. The Role of Communication in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Frosin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the impact of (global communication on international relations in various fields: military, diplomatic, economic, scientific, educational, and cultural, and to draw out the implications of the communication in each field. The main idea is that in the absence of the communication, nothing is possible, either the peace or the welfare of the humankind. Global communication it is blurring technological, economic, political, and cultural boundaries and, particularly in its interactive forms, has created immense new moral spaces for exploring new communities of affinity rather than vicinity. First, dialogue and communication are the essence of the foreign relations.

  6. A Review on Microdialysis Calibration Methods: the Theory and Current Related Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Chun Min; Enche Ab Rahim, Siti Kartini; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin; Abdullah, Norazharuddin Shah

    2017-07-01

    Microdialysis is a sampling technique first introduced in the late 1950s. Although this technique was originally designed to study endogenous compounds in animal brain, it is later modified to be used in other organs. Additionally, microdialysis is not only able to collect unbound concentration of compounds from tissue sites; this technique can also be used to deliver exogenous compounds to a designated area. Due to its versatility, microdialysis technique is widely employed in a number of areas, including biomedical research. However, for most in vivo studies, the concentration of substance obtained directly from the microdialysis technique does not accurately describe the concentration of the substance on-site. In order to relate the results collected from microdialysis to the actual in vivo condition, a calibration method is required. To date, various microdialysis calibration methods have been reported, with each method being capable to provide valuable insights of the technique itself and its applications. This paper aims to provide a critical review on various calibration methods used in microdialysis applications, inclusive of a detailed description of the microdialysis technique itself to start with. It is expected that this article shall review in detail, the various calibration methods employed, present examples of work related to each calibration method including clinical efforts, plus the advantages and disadvantages of each of the methods.

  7. The relation of attachment security status to effortful self-regulation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallini, Susanna; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Morelli, Mara; Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2018-05-01

    Secure attachment relationships have been described as having a regulatory function in regard to children's emotions, social cognition, and behavior. Although some theorists and researchers have argued that attachment affects children's self-regulation, most attachment theorists have not strongly emphasized this association. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to determine the magnitude of the relation between attachment security status and effortful control (EC)/top-down self-regulation in children up to 18 years of age. One hundred six papers met the inclusion criteria and 101 independent samples were used in analyses. When secure attachment status was compared with insecure attachment status, a significant relation (effect size [ES]) with EC favoring children with a secure attachment was found (100 studies; 20,350 participants; r = .20). A stronger relation was found when the same coder evaluated attachment than when the coder was different and when the measure of attachment was continuous; other moderators were not significant. Securely attached children were higher in EC than their avoidant (r = .10) or resistant (r = .17) counterparts. Children with organized attachments were higher in EC than those with disorganized attachments (r = .17), although this finding could be due to publication bias. For some comparisons of subgroups (B vs. A, B vs. C, and/or D vs. all others), moderation was found by source of information (higher ES for same reporter), age at assessment of EC and/or attachment (higher ES at older ages), method of attachment (lower ES for observational measures), time difference between assessments or research design (higher ESs for smaller time differences and concurrent findings), and published versus unpublished studies (higher ES for unpublished studies for A vs. B). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Chinese Children's Effortful Control and Dispositional Anger/Frustration: Relations to Parenting Styles and Children's Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control,…

  9. Transfusion-related adverse reactions: From institutional hemovigilance effort to National Hemovigilance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Vasudev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study we have evaluated the various adverse reactions related to transfusion occurring in our institution as a pilot institutional effort toward a hemovigilance program. This study will also help in understanding the problems faced by blood banks/Transfusion Medicine departments in implementing an effective hemovigilance program. Materials and Methods: All the adverse reactions related to transfusion of whole blood and its components in various clinical specialties were studied for a period of 1 year. Any transfusion-related adverse event was worked up in accordance with guidelines laid down by the Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS and departmental standard operating procedures. Results: During the study period from November 1, 2011 to October 31, 2012, 45812 components were issued [30939 WB/PRBC; 12704 fresh frozen plasma (FFP; 2169 platelets]. Risk estimation per 1000 units of red cells (WB/PRBC transfused was estimated to be: 0.8 for febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR, 0.7 for allergic reaction, 0.19 for acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (AcHTR, 0.002 for anaphylactoid reactions, 0.1 for bacterial sepsis, and 0.06 for hypervolemia and hypocalcemia. 0.09 is the risk for delayed transfusion reaction and 0.03 is the risk for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI. Risk estimate per 1,000 units of platelets transfused was estimated to be 1.38 for FNHTR, 1.18 for allergic reaction, and 1 in case of bacterial sepsis. Risk estimation per 1,000 units of FFP was estimated to be 0.15 for FNHTR and 0.2 for allergic reactions. Conclusions: Factors such as clerical checks at various levels, improvement in blood storage conditions outside blood banks, leukodepletion, better inventory management, careful donor screening, bedside monitoring of transfusion, and documentation of adverse events may decrease transfusion-related adverse events. Better coordination between transfusion specialists and various clinical

  10. Effort Thrombosis of the Upper Extremities Related to an Arm Stretching Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Wen Liang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available “Effort” axillary-subclavian vein thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome is an uncommon deep venous thrombosis due to repetitive activity of the upper limbs. Most cases of this condition are related to strenuous or prolonged sport or occupational activities, while others are associated with endogenous or exogenous risk factors. We report the case of a 43-year-old, previously healthy, male who developed right axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis, which was possibly associated with an exercise involving arm extension and shaking in a posture of shoulder abduction and outstretched for 10 minutes on 2 consecutive days. The condition improved but returned with increased severity when he resumed the exercise after a 2-day break, when he presented with a swollen and bluish arm at the emergency department. Sonographic examination showed moderate thrombotic stenosis of the right axillary vein. Effort thrombosis was diagnosed after ruling out associated coagulopathy or concomitant malignancy. External compression of the accessory ribs or lymph nodes were not detected. He was treated with low molecular weight heparin, followed by oral anticoagulant therapy for 6 months. Only partial resolution of thrombosis was achieved after 6 months of anticoagulant therapy, but pulmonary embolism did not occur during 18 months of follow-up. This case illustrates that, although unusual, Paget-Schroetter syndrome can occur in a healthy patient as a result of mild to moderate exercise.

  11. File: International bilateral relations; Dossier: les relations internationales bilaterales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltin, Ch.; Rabouhams, J. [Direction de la Surete des Installations Nucleaires (DSIN), 75 - Paris (France). Sous-Direction des Relations Internationales; Moche, L. [Bureau de Controle des Chaudieres Nucleaires (BCCN), 75 - Paris (France); Bravo, X. [Direction de la Surete des Installations Nucleaires (DSIN), 75 - Paris (France). Sous-Direction des Reacteurs de Puissance; Feider, M. [Direction de la Sante du Luxembourg, 75 - Paris (France); Rousseau, M.; Le Breton, S.; Saint Raymond, Ph.; Brigaud, O. [Direction de la Surete des Installations Nucleaires (DSIN), 75 - Paris (France); Pertuis, V. [Direction regionale de l`industrie, de la recherche et de l`environnement, (DRIRE), Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France); McNair, J.; Sayers, M.R.; Bye, R. [Health and Safety Executive, Bootle (United Kingdom). Nuclear Installations Inspectorate; Scherrer, J

    1998-08-01

    Since its creation in 1973, the Authority of Safety was assigned missions in the international field with following objectives: to develop information exchanges with its foreign counterpart, to make know and to explain the French approach and practice; to give to concerned countries the useful information on french nuclear facilities situated near the border; This file shows with some examples, how bilateral relations allow to fill up these objectives and how the French Authority got the foreign experience. (N.C.)

  12. Strengthening CERN’s international relations

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Council’s decision in June to open membership of CERN to the world in a clear and well-defined way means that it’s time to strengthen our international relations. Non-Member State interest, and participation, in CERN has been rising for many years, and with the LHC running smoothly that trend is continuing.   Furthermore, the long-term future of particle physics may well see Europe contributing to facilities in other regions of the world, with European participation coordinated through CERN. It was with these developments in mind that I established the External Relations Office under Felicitas Pauss at the start of my mandate last year. Council’s decision underlines the need for that office, and clarifies its liaison role of with Member and non-Member States. Clarity of function demands clarity of name, so from now on, the Office will be known as the Office for International Relations. It will continue to be headed by Felicitas Pauss. The Office’s main r...

  13. Dealing with femtorisks in international relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Aaron Benjamin; Collins, Margaret Goud; Levin, Simon A.; Lo, Andrew W.; Ramo, Joshua; Dieckmann, Ulf; Kremenyuk, Victor; Kryazhimskiy, Arkady; Linnerooth-Bayer, JoAnne; Ramalingam, Ben; Roy, J. Stapleton; Saari, Donald G.; Thurner, Stefan; von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary global community is increasingly interdependent and confronted with systemic risks posed by the actions and interactions of actors existing beneath the level of formal institutions, often operating outside effective governance structures. Frequently, these actors are human agents, such as rogue traders or aggressive financial innovators, terrorists, groups of dissidents, or unauthorized sources of sensitive or secret information about government or private sector activities. In other instances, influential “actors” take the form of climate change, communications technologies, or socioeconomic globalization. Although these individual forces may be small relative to state governments or international institutions, or may operate on long time scales, the changes they catalyze can pose significant challenges to the analysis and practice of international relations through the operation of complex feedbacks and interactions of individual agents and interconnected systems. We call these challenges “femtorisks,” and emphasize their importance for two reasons. First, in isolation, they may be inconsequential and semiautonomous; but when embedded in complex adaptive systems, characterized by individual agents able to change, learn from experience, and pursue their own agendas, the strategic interaction between actors can propel systems down paths of increasing, even global, instability. Second, because their influence stems from complex interactions at interfaces of multiple systems (e.g., social, financial, political, technological, ecological, etc.), femtorisks challenge standard approaches to risk assessment, as higher-order consequences cascade across the boundaries of socially constructed complex systems. We argue that new approaches to assessing and managing systemic risk in international relations are required, inspired by principles of evolutionary theory and development of resilient ecological systems. PMID:25404317

  14. Dealing with femtorisks in international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Aaron Benjamin; Collins, Margaret Goud; Levin, Simon A; Lo, Andrew W; Ramo, Joshua; Dieckmann, Ulf; Kremenyuk, Victor; Kryazhimskiy, Arkady; Linnerooth-Bayer, JoAnne; Ramalingam, Ben; Roy, J Stapleton; Saari, Donald G; Thurner, Stefan; von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2014-12-09

    The contemporary global community is increasingly interdependent and confronted with systemic risks posed by the actions and interactions of actors existing beneath the level of formal institutions, often operating outside effective governance structures. Frequently, these actors are human agents, such as rogue traders or aggressive financial innovators, terrorists, groups of dissidents, or unauthorized sources of sensitive or secret information about government or private sector activities. In other instances, influential "actors" take the form of climate change, communications technologies, or socioeconomic globalization. Although these individual forces may be small relative to state governments or international institutions, or may operate on long time scales, the changes they catalyze can pose significant challenges to the analysis and practice of international relations through the operation of complex feedbacks and interactions of individual agents and interconnected systems. We call these challenges "femtorisks," and emphasize their importance for two reasons. First, in isolation, they may be inconsequential and semiautonomous; but when embedded in complex adaptive systems, characterized by individual agents able to change, learn from experience, and pursue their own agendas, the strategic interaction between actors can propel systems down paths of increasing, even global, instability. Second, because their influence stems from complex interactions at interfaces of multiple systems (e.g., social, financial, political, technological, ecological, etc.), femtorisks challenge standard approaches to risk assessment, as higher-order consequences cascade across the boundaries of socially constructed complex systems. We argue that new approaches to assessing and managing systemic risk in international relations are required, inspired by principles of evolutionary theory and development of resilient ecological systems.

  15. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Charles T; Garcia, Benito Borrego; Logan, Michael H; New, John C; Patton, Sharon

    2003-07-01

    To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis). Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%), who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42%) that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts promoted for prevention of cholera. The occurrence of

  16. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  17. The 50th Anniversary of the International Indian Ocean Expedition: An Update on Current Planning Efforts and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Raleigh; D'Adamo, Nick; Burkill, Peter; Urban, Ed; Bhikajee, Mitrasen

    2014-05-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. In the 50 years since the IIOE three fundamental changes have taken place in ocean science. The first is the deployment of a broad suite of oceanographic sensors on satellites that have dramatically improved the characterization of both physical and biological oceanographic variability. The second is the emergence of new components of the ocean observing system, most notably remote sensing and Argo floats. And the third is the development of ocean modeling in all its facets from short-term forecasting to seasonal prediction to climate projections. These advances have revolutionized our understanding of the global oceans, including the Indian Ocean. Compared to the IIOE era, we now have the capacity to provide a much more integrated picture of the Indian Ocean, especially if these new technologies can be combined with targeted and well-coordinated in situ measurements. In this presentation we report on current efforts to motivate an IIOE 50th Anniversary Celebration (IIOE-2). We envision this IIOE-2 as a 5-year expedition and effort beginning in 2015 and continuing through to 2020. An important objective of our planning efforts is assessing ongoing and planned research activities in the Indian Ocean in the 2015 to 2020 time frame, with the goal of embracing and

  18. Foraging effort in relation to the constraints of reproduction in free-ranging albatrosses

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Scott A; Costa, D P; Weimerskirch, H

    2003-01-01

    1. Theoretical models predict that animals will vary their effort to maximize different currencies such as time and energy when the constraints of reproduction change during breeding, but this has been poorly studied in free-ranging animals. 2. Foraging effort (energy per unit time) was examined by comparing mass changes, foraging costs and activity-specific behaviours of Wandering Albatrosses (Diomedea exulans Linnaeus) during the incubation and chick-brooding stages. In 1998, 38 albatrosses...

  19. Monetary incentive moderates the effect of implicit fear on effort-related cardiovascular response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Mathieu; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2016-05-01

    Integrating the implicit-affect-primes-effort model (Gendolla, 2012, 2015) with the principles of motivational intensity theory (Brehm & Self, 1989) we investigated if the effort mobilization deficit observed in people exposed to fear primes (vs. anger primes) in a difficult short-term memory task could be compensated by high monetary incentive. Effort was operationalized as cardiac response. We expected that fear primes should lead to the strongest cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity when incentive was high (high subjective demand and high justified effort) and to the weakest response when incentive was low (high subjective demand but only low justified effort). PEP reactivity in the anger-prime conditions should fall in between (high but feasible demand). We obtained the predicted pattern on responses of PEP and systolic blood pressure. The present findings show for the first time that the effort mobilization deficit of participants exposed to fear primes in a difficult cognitive task could be compensated by a high incentive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Do Countries Consistently Engage in Misinforming the International Community about Their Efforts to Combat Money Laundering? Evidence Using Benford's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleanu, Ioana Sorina

    2017-01-01

    Indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, collected by EUROSTAT, are plagued with shortcomings. In this paper, I have carried out a forensic analysis on a 2003-2010 dataset of indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, that European Union member states self-reported to EUROSTAT, and on the basis of which, their efforts were evaluated. I used Benford's law to detect any anomalous statistical patterns and found that statistical anomalies were also consistent with strategic manipulation. According to Benford's law, if we pick a random sample of numbers representing natural processes, and look at the distribution of the first digits of these numbers, we see that, contrary to popular belief, digit 1 occurs most often, then digit 2, and so on, with digit 9 occurring in less than 5% of the sample. Without prior knowledge of Benford's law, since people are not intuitively good at creating truly random numbers, deviations thereof can capture strategic alterations. In order to eliminate other sources of deviation, I have compared deviations in situations where incentives and opportunities for manipulation existed and in situations where they did not. While my results are not a conclusive proof of strategic manipulation, they signal that countries that faced incentives and opportunities to misinform the international community about their efforts to combat money laundering may have manipulated these indicators. Finally, my analysis points to the high potential for disruption that the manipulation of national statistics has, and calls for the acknowledgment that strategic manipulation can be an unintended consequence of the international community's pressure on countries to put combatting money laundering on the top of their national agenda.

  1. Do Countries Consistently Engage in Misinforming the International Community about Their Efforts to Combat Money Laundering? Evidence Using Benford's Law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sorina Deleanu

    Full Text Available Indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, collected by EUROSTAT, are plagued with shortcomings. In this paper, I have carried out a forensic analysis on a 2003-2010 dataset of indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, that European Union member states self-reported to EUROSTAT, and on the basis of which, their efforts were evaluated. I used Benford's law to detect any anomalous statistical patterns and found that statistical anomalies were also consistent with strategic manipulation. According to Benford's law, if we pick a random sample of numbers representing natural processes, and look at the distribution of the first digits of these numbers, we see that, contrary to popular belief, digit 1 occurs most often, then digit 2, and so on, with digit 9 occurring in less than 5% of the sample. Without prior knowledge of Benford's law, since people are not intuitively good at creating truly random numbers, deviations thereof can capture strategic alterations. In order to eliminate other sources of deviation, I have compared deviations in situations where incentives and opportunities for manipulation existed and in situations where they did not. While my results are not a conclusive proof of strategic manipulation, they signal that countries that faced incentives and opportunities to misinform the international community about their efforts to combat money laundering may have manipulated these indicators. Finally, my analysis points to the high potential for disruption that the manipulation of national statistics has, and calls for the acknowledgment that strategic manipulation can be an unintended consequence of the international community's pressure on countries to put combatting money laundering on the top of their national agenda.

  2. Lifting devices with minimum effort for testing, maintenance and repair at the example of a lifting rig for core internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pache, Martin [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH (Germany); Wiesendanger, Robert [Kernkraftwerk Beznau, NOK (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Beznau is a Westinghouse built nuclear power plant in the Aargau area Switzerland. It consists of two PWR units, each providing 365 MWe net capacity. The units were set into operation in 1969 and 1972, respectively, and hold an unlimited license for operation, provided they continue to fulfill current legal and security requirements. Beznau's previous lifting rigs for core internals required a high effort in testing and maintenance. Moreover, a damage to one of the rigs nearly resulted in the inoperability of the rig. However, no element of the load chain was affected, so there was no danger of a crash, but it could have caused an extended outage. Hence, it was decided to replace the lifting rigs with a state-of-the-art functional design that reflects modern requirements on maintenance and testing. Although the plant was built to ASME standards and codes, the new lifting rigs have been designed to German KTA code for lifting devices (KTA 3902 / 3903 for equipment with increased requirements, as per section 4.3 of KTA 3902). Given KTA's demands on periodic testing, one main requirement on the new design was to minimize the testing effort for the new rigs. (orig.)

  3. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  4. Constructing a chinese international relations theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P.M.; Nielsen, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Chinese scholars are debating whether, and how, to innovate a Chinese theory of International Relations (IR). This article examines the driving forces behind this theoretical debate. It challenges the commonsensical link between external events in the subject matter (i.r.) and theorizing (IR......), which suggests that the innovation of a Chinese IR theory is a natural product of China's geopolitical rise, its growing political ambitions, and discontent with Western hegemony. We propose instead a sociological approach to intellectual innovation which opens the black box of knowledge production...... attention from their peers-theorizing a Chinese IR theory being one important way of doing this. The external layer-which ranges from power politics to sociopolitical developments-affects this process indirectly by providing more research funds and autonomy to the more immediate institutional environment...

  5. Bourdieu, International Relations and European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Despite promising attempts to apply the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu to International Relations (IR), the field could still profit from unexplored potential in his thinking for understanding pivotal theoretical and empirical puzzles. This article takes the failure to fully grasp the paradigmatic...... case of European security after the Cold War as an example of how IR would benefit from reformulating not only its empirical research questions but also several of its central conceptual building blocks with the aid of Bourdieusian sociology. The separation between theory and practice...... and the overemphasis on military power and state actors blind IR from seeing the power struggles that reshaped European security. Instead, a Bourdieusian reformulation adds new types of agency, focuses on the social production of forms of power, and stresses the processual rather than the substantive character...

  6. International Relations as if the Earth mattered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    This book set out to examine how International Relations has begun to come to terms with the entwinement of social and natural systems. In a sense it is mysterious that this entwinement ever disappeared from view. Natural features of the world were originally the central focus of 19th century...... thinking about geopolitics (e.g. Mackinder 1904), and world politics is by definition a spatial and geographically located affair. Still, the modern discipline of IR, like many social sciences, almost lost sight of nature, rediscovering it gradually from around the 1960s in the form of ‘environmental...... problems’. In this concluding chapter, we first summarise the contribution of this volume to IR and the field of Global Environmental Politics. We also draw attention to additional themes and theories that define the field while lying beyond the scope of this volume. We then summarise what we see...

  7. EXPERTISE OF POLITICAL ANALYSIS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Bogaturov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a problem of political analysis in the fi eld of international relations. The author discusses the key rules, standards and requirements of correct political research as well as basic criteria of analytical correctness. The author formulates typology of analytical papers, assesses the state of environment and working conditions for today’s experts, analysis key problems and diffi culties at the stage of empirical data selection (including verifi cation of information sources, while choosing analytical methods and formulating conclusions. The article gives advice for experts, how to organize research, deal with diffi culties and fi nd non-standard solutions.

  8. Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2004-06-18

    The requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993 mandate the reporting of outcomes expected to result from programs of the Federal government. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops official metrics for its 11 major programs using its Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis (OPBFA). OPBFA conducts an annual integrated modeling analysis to produce estimates of the energy, environmental, and financial benefits expected from EERE’s budget request. Two of EERE’s major programs include the Building Technologies Program (BT) and Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the OPBFA effort by developing the program characterizations and other market information affecting these programs that is necessary to provide input to the EERE integrated modeling analysis. Throughout the report we refer to these programs as “buildings-related” programs, because the approach is not limited in application to BT or WIP. To adequately support OPBFA in the development of official GPRA metrics, PNNL communicates with the various activities and projects in BT and WIP to determine how best to characterize their activities planned for the upcoming budget request. PNNL then analyzes these projects to determine what the results of the characterizations would imply for energy markets, technology markets, and consumer behavior. This is accomplished by developing nonintegrated estimates of energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., outcomes) of the technologies and practices expected to result from the budget request. These characterizations and nonintegrated modeling results are provided to OPBFA as inputs to the official benefits estimates developed for the Federal Budget. This report documents the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits

  9. Breaking the Double-Edged Sword of Effort/Trying Hard: Developmental Equilibrium and Longitudinal Relations among Effort, Achievement, and Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Guo, Jiesi; Arens, A. Katrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the classic research of Nicholls (1976) and others, effort has been recognized as a double-edged sword: while it might enhance achievement, it undermines academic self-concept (ASC). However, there has not been a thorough evaluation of the longitudinal reciprocal effects of effort, ASC, and achievement, in the context of modern…

  10. The role of sleep in the relation between young children’s mobile media use and effortful control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nathanson, A.I.; Beyens, I.

    We explored the relations among young children's mobile media use, sleep, and a form of self‐regulation, temperamental effortful control (EC), among a national sample of 402 mothers who completed an online survey. We found that the relation between mobile media use and EC was moderated by children's

  11. Identification of gaps in the national research effort related to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.; Plews, M.; Kane, P.

    1987-08-01

    Based on papers submitted to the Government's Radioactivity Research and Environmental Monitoring Committee (RadREM), this report presents a consolidated summary of perceived research requirements for 1988/89 and a comparison with the research proposed for that period. On this basis, discussion is included of gaps in the national research effort to 1989, duplication of research plans and areas where better co-ordination or funding of research might be appropriate. (author)

  12. Reproductive performance and gestational effort in relation to dietary fatty acids in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Siutz, Carina; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Quint, Ruth; Wallner, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Dietary saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can highly affect reproductive functions by providing additional energy, modulating the biochemical properties of tissues, and hormone secretions. In precocial mammals such as domestic guinea pigs the offspring is born highly developed. Gestation might be the most critical reproductive period in this species and dietary fatty acids may profoundly influence the gestational effort. We therefore determined the hormonal status at conception, the reproductive success, and body mass changes during gestation in guinea pigs maintained on diets high in PUFAs or SFAs, or a control diet. The diets significantly affected the females' plasma fatty acid status at conception, while cortisol and estrogen levels did not differ among groups. SFA females exhibited a significantly lower body mass and litter size, while the individual birth mass of pups did not differ among groups and a general higher pup mortality rate in larger litters was diminished by PUFAs and SFAs. The gestational effort, determined by a mother's body mass gain during gestation, increased with total litter mass, whereas this increase was lowest in SFA and highest in PUFA individuals. The mother's body mass after parturition did not differ among groups and was positively affected by the total litter mass in PUFA females. While SFAs reduce the litter size, but also the gestational effort as a consequence, PUFA supplementation may contribute to an adjustment of energy accumulations to the total litter mass, which may both favor a mother's body condition at parturition and perhaps increase the offspring survival at birth.

  13. Human Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and Universal Values in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist and far right-wing (national-socialistic threats to be met by the supporters of liberal political rights and civil freedoms in the interwar period. The list of human rights and fundamental freedoms had constantly been updating in the postwar period, including by the efforts of the UNO and other international organizations, and fixing in different international documents. The author emphasizes the import role of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE in transforming the issues of human rights and fundamental freedoms into the essential element of public diplomacy of contemporary states. He traces the process of the increasing utilization of liberal political rights and civilian freedoms, which are usually the effective tools for domestic democratic transformation, within the framework of diplomatic practice of European and North-American states, aimed at ensuring their political and economic interests on the world stage. In this regard the author addresses the attempts of Western countries to legalize "humanitarian"interventions in circumvention of the UN Security Council. The article emphasizes the necessity to replenish the understanding of universal human rights and freedoms by the values, developed both by the international community within the framework of implementing the Millennium Development Goals and by various countries and peoples, which in sum constitute the modern international civilizational baggage.

  14. The value of EHR-based assessment of physician competency: An investigative effort with internal medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venta, Kimberly; Baker, Erin; Fidopiastis, Cali; Stanney, Kay

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of developing an EHR-based model of physician competency, named the Skill Deficiency Evaluation Toolkit for Eliminating Competency-loss Trends (Skill-DETECT), which presents the opportunity to use EHR-based models to inform selection of Continued Medical Education (CME) opportunities specifically targeted at maintaining proficiency. The IBM Explorys platform provided outpatient Electronic Health Records (EHRs) representing 76 physicians with over 5000 patients combined. These data were used to develop the Skill-DETECT model, a predictive hybrid model composed of a rule-based model, logistic regression model, and a thresholding model, which predicts cognitive clinical skill deficiencies in internal medicine physicians. A three-phase approach was then used to statistically validate the model performance. Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel reviews resulted in a 100% overall approval rate of the rule based model. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves calculated for each logistic regression curve resulted in values between 0.76 and 0.92, which indicated exceptional performance. Normality, skewness, and kurtosis were determined and confirmed that the distribution of values output from the thresholding model were unimodal and peaked, which confirmed effectiveness and generalizability. The validation has confirmed that the Skill-DETECT model has a strong ability to evaluate EHR data and support the identification of internal medicine cognitive clinical skills that are deficient or are of higher likelihood of becoming deficient and thus require remediation, which will allow both physician and medical organizations to fine tune training efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Coordinated research efforts for establishing an international radiotherapy dose intercomparison service based on the alanine/ESR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nette, H.P.; Onori, S.; Fattibene, P.; Regulla, D.; Wieser, A.

    1993-01-01

    The IAEA has long been active in the field of high-dose standardization. An International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) was established based on alanine/ESR dosimetry. This service operates over the range of 100 Gy to 100 kGy and is directed towards industrial radiation processing in IAEA member states. It complements the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose intercomparison service for dose assurance in hospital radiotherapy departments. Experience with the alanine high dose service suggests that the alanine dosimeter might provide superior performance to TLD in the therapy dose range. Preliminary test measurements with the participation of GSF/Germany, Istituto Superiore di Sanita/Italy (both providing alanine dosimeters and their evaluation) and IAEA (providing reference irradiations) seems to justify research efforts through an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP). This CRP, entitled ''Therapy Level Dosimetry with the Alanine/ESR System'' is presently under set-up. It will include general work common to all assigned/potential contract holders as well as some specific research topics in accordance to individual proposals of each participant. (author)

  16. Research and development efforts relative to superconducting materials. Final report. [Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, E; Beishcher, P; Marancik, W; Lucariello, R; Young, M

    1976-04-01

    Three processes for the production of low-loss superconducting tapes of Nb/sub 3/Sn were investigated. They are the rolled-bronze process, the electron beam (EB) bronze deposition process, and the high-rate sputtering process. Shortly after the start of the investigation, effort on the last two processes was suspended because the process-development time that would be needed to arrive at a suitable transmission-line tape appeared most likely to be the shortest with the rolled-bronze process. Long lengths of Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were prepared by the rolled-bronze process from extruded and rolled bronze-clad niobium billets. Tapes were stabilized by removing the bronze layer after reaction and then coating the exposed Nb/sub 3/Sn with high-purity copper by EB evaporation. Several meters of high quality Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were produced by the rolled-bronze process. Even when the tapes were stabilized with copper, the losses were as low as 1.8 ..mu..W/cm/sup 2/ at 4.2 K and a surface current density of 500 rms A/cm. Despite early curtailment of the effort on the EB bronze-deposition process, short samples of Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were produced.

  17. THE ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN-VESSEL SINKING AS AN EFFORT BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDONESIA TO COMBAT IUU FISHING PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiyanto - Kristiyanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelagic state, Indonesia possesses some of the most abundant fishery resources in the world. Geographically, Indonesia’s strategic location makes it a challenge, and it is a shared responsibility for all citizens to preserve and conserve these resources. The strategic location and rich biological as well as non-biological marine resources automatically attract foreign vessels to carry out IUU fishing activities, particularly in the area of ZEEI (Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone. The Government of Indonesia has taken various preventive measures to combat IUU fishing practices through bilateral cooperations and various laws. In addition, the Government has also taken some repressive efforts by burning and sinking foreign vessels. In this study, the researcher will analyze the governmental action pursuant to international law and examine the extent to which the sinking of the ship is effective from the perspective of international law. This study will be conducted using normative and juridical approach by reviewing and analyzing various national and international legal instruments related to IUU fishing. We hope that this study will be able to deliver theoretical and practical benefits for students and other researchers who are interested in the issue of IUU fishing practices.   Keywords : IUU fishing, marine resources, archipelagic state.

  18. Netherlands as producer of energy knowledge. Dutch governmental efforts for energy R and D in an international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Duin, A.M.

    2006-04-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs aims to link its transition policy in a broader context to international energy - and climate policy. A clear view on the Dutch position in the field of energy research policy is an important aspect of this international anchoring of the transition policy. For that purpose this report offers a first insight in the scope, the quality and the focus of Dutch energy R and D budget in comparison with the situation in a number of other countries. Furthermore, the attention is directed at recent developments and issues involved in the organisation of energy research. Several instruments for priority setting and organisational issues are recommended for consideration in the process of the international anchoring of transition policy. With regard to the per capita budgets for energy R and D, the Netherlands is leading together with Japan and the United States. Concerning the knowledge position in the field of energy, as of yet no research has been conducted expressing this knowledge position in publications, citations and patents. However, in the programming for the Dutch energy research strategy (EOS) a positive picture is presented. The role of the Netherlands in the European Framework Programmes indirectly indicates a good position as well. However, the scope of the Dutch government budget for energy R and D has been relatively strongly decreasing over the past years. The private contributions to energy R and D in the Netherlands are reasonable (50%), but the Dutch government expects that these - as a result of liberalisation - will decrease as well. In the Netherlands a relatively great part of the budget is spent on sustainable energy and energy conservation (together 70%). The Netherlands spend more on biomass and in particular on wind energy and less on solar energy than is the case in the other countries. Compared to the other countries, the Dutch budget for energy conservation has been remarkably evenly divided over the

  19. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony William Blanchfield

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effect of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks is however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effect of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces revealed that individuals cycled for significantly longer (178 s, p = .04 when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 x 5 (condition x iso-time ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE during the time to exhaustion (TTE test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = .04. In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer (399 s, p = .04 TTE in comparison to inaction words (p = .04. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = .03. These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise.

  20. Bodily Effort Enhances Learning and Metacognition: Investigating the Relation Between Physical Effort and Cognition Using Dual-Process Models of Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Recent embodiment research revealed that cognitive processes can be influenced by bodily cues. Some of these cues were found to elicit disparate effects on cognition. For instance, weight sensations can inhibit problem-solving performance, but were shown to increase judgments regarding recall probability (judgments of learning; JOLs) in memory tasks. We investigated the effects of physical effort on learning and metacognition by conducting two studies in which we varied whether a backpack was worn or not while 20 nouns were to be learned. Participants entered a JOL for each word and completed a recall test. Experiment 1 ( N = 18) revealed that exerting physical effort by wearing a backpack led to higher JOLs for easy nouns, without a notable effect on difficult nouns. Participants who wore a backpack reached higher recall scores. Therefore, physical effort may act as a form of desirable difficulty during learning. In Experiment 2 ( N = 30), the influence of physical effort on JOL s and learning disappeared when more difficult nouns were to be learned, implying that a high cognitive load may diminish bodily effects. These findings suggest that physical effort mainly influences superficial modes of thought and raise doubts concerning the explanatory power of metaphor-centered accounts of embodiment for higher-level cognition.

  1. Civil-Military Relations: Enhancing International Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    .... In particular, it focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and The International Committee of Red Cross...

  2. International Accounting Convergences Related to EU Admitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from January 1, 2005, member countries of the European Union began the obligatory or optional application of the international standards IAS/IFRS for consolidated accounts, what means a revolution in financial reporting of the enterprises. In regards to the individual accounts (generally based on the national book-keeping standards these will converge gradually to referential international book-keeper on short and medium term. At the world level the process which dominates the accounting systems is the convergence between american and international reference system, followed immediatly more or less by the convergence between national accounting systems and the international one. Where Romania and its specialists are situated confronting this process? A reflection subject which finalises this article.

  3. Cultural Dimension of International Relations During Interwar Period: International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation and the Scientific Study of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the past is highly influenced/leaded by the “lens” (readings, ideologies, etc. that have guided us through approaching realities of a specific period of time. In this article, we will discuss the cultural dimension of international relations characteristic for the interwar period , emphasizing , while tracing back on Romanian historiography, the aspects regarding the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had in organizing the scientifically study of IR and the specific participation of Romania within this League of Nations‘ body activity.

  4. DOD Financial Management: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    of Major Systems Involved in Processing and Reporting Navy Military Payroll 8 Figure 3: Management Representation Letter Timeline for the April 2013...Figure 3: Management Representation Letter Timeline for the April 2013 Military Payroll Examination Without a policy that addresses...DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related

  5. An International Coordinated Effort to Further the Documentation & Development of Quality Assurance, Quality Control, and Best Practices for Oceanographic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, M.; Waldmann, C.; Hermes, J.; Tamburri, M.

    2017-12-01

    Many oceanographic observation groups create and maintain QA, QC, and best practices (BP) to ensure efficient and accurate data collection and quantify quality. Several entities - IOOS® QARTOD, AtlantOS, ACT, WMO/IOC JCOMM OCG - have joined forces to document existing practices, identify gaps, and support development of emerging techniques. While each group has a slightly different focus, many underlying QA/QC/BP needs can be quite common. QARTOD focuses upon real-time data QC, and has produced manuals that address QC tests for eleven ocean variables. AtlantOS is a research and innovation project working towards the integration of ocean-observing activities across all disciplines in the Atlantic Basin. ACT brings together research institutions, resource managers, and private companies to foster the development and adoption of effective and reliable sensors for coastal, freshwater, and ocean environments. JCOMM promotes broad international coordination of oceanographic and marine meteorological observations and data management and services. Leveraging existing efforts of these organizations is an efficient way to consolidate available information, develop new practices, and evaluate the use of ISO standards to judge the quality of measurements. ISO standards may offer accepted support for a framework for an ocean data quality management system, similar to the meteorological standards defined by WMO (https://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/qassurance.html). We will first cooperatively develop a plan to create a QA/QC/BP manual. The resulting plan will describe the need for such a manual, the extent of the manual, the process used to engage the community in creating it, the maintenance of the resultant document, and how these things will be done. It will also investigate standards for metadata. The plan will subsequently be used to develop the QA/QC/BP manual, providing guidance which advances the standards adopted by IOOS, AtlantOS, JCOMM, and others.

  6. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance for the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, Robert; Vandezande, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with on-orbit ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post-Shuttle 6-year service life.

  7. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Neave, Fraser B.; Sullivan, W. Paul; Young, Robert J.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected in each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  8. Public Relations Efforts for the Third World: Images in the News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Robert B.; Manheim, Jarol B.

    1985-01-01

    Found that, after Argentina, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Turkey hired U. S. public relations consultants, their news image in the "New York Times" improved in positive coverage and portrayal as more cooperative nations. (PD)

  9. Monitoring Urban Stream Restoration Efforts in Relation to Flood Behavior Along Minebank Run, Towson, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Miller, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Urban stream restoration efforts are commonly undertaken to combat channel degradation and restore natural stream hydrology. We examine changes in flood patterns along an approximately 1.5-mile reach of Minebank Run, located in Towson, MD, by comparing pre-restoration morphology from surveys conducted in 2001, post-restoration morphology in 2007, and current conditions in 2017 following damage to the restoration project from persistent flooding. Hydraulic modeling was conducted in HEC-RAS 2D using three alternative scenarios: 1) topographic contours from a 2001 survey of pre-restoration topography combined with 2005 LiDAR, 2) 2007 survey combined with 2005 LiDAR data representing the post-restoration channel morphology, and 3) a March 2017 DEM of current channel conditions. The 2017 DEM was created using Structure from Motion (SfM) from high resolution 4K video collected via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flights at a resolution of 0.05 meters. Flood hydrographs from a USGS stream gage located within the study reach as well as a simulated hydrograph of the 100-year storm event were routed through the pre-restoration, post-restoration, and current modeled terrain and analyzed for changes in water-surface elevation and depth, inundation extent, 2-d velocity fields, and translation vs. attenuation of the flood wave to assess the net impact on potential flood hazards. In addition, our study demonstrates that SfM is a quick and inexpensive method for collecting topographic data for hydrologic modeling, assessing stream characteristics including channel bed roughness, and for examining short term changes of channel morphology at a very fine scale.

  10. Perturbations in Effort-Related Decision-Making Driven by Acute Stress and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Courtney A; Floresco, Stan B

    2016-07-01

    Acute stress activates numerous systems in a coordinated effort to promote homeostasis, and can exert differential effects on mnemonic and cognitive functions depending on a myriad of factors. Stress can alter different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, yet the mechanisms that drive these effects, remain unclear. In the present study, we probed how corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) may contribute to stress-induced alterations in cost/benefit decision-making, using an task where well-trained rats chose between a low effort/low reward lever (LR; two pellets) and a high effort/high reward lever (HR; four pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over a session (2, 5, 10, and 20 presses). One-hour restraint stress markedly reduced preference for the HR option, but this effect was attenuated by infusions of the CRF antagonist, alpha-helical CRF. Conversely, central CRF infusion mimicked the effect of stress on decision-making, as well as increased decision latencies and reduced response vigor. CRF infusions did not alter preference for larger vs smaller rewards, but did reduce responding for food delivered on a progressive ratio, suggesting that these treatments may amplify perceived effort costs that may be required to obtain rewards. CRF infusions into the ventral tegmental area recapitulated the effect of central CRF treatment and restraint on choice behavior, suggesting that these effects may be mediated by perturbations in dopamine transmission. These findings highlight the involvement of CRF in regulating effort-related decisions and suggest that increased CRF activity may contribute to motivational impairments and abnormal decision-making associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression.

  11. Teaching International Public Relations: An Update Report among Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Angela Ka Ying

    2017-01-01

    Involvement in international and multicultural career-related practices is ever on the rise in a global economic and political society, especially in public relations. This article reported an update of examining the attributes of public relations educators and their institutions in teaching of international public relations (IPR) through an…

  12. Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    history and diplomacy, political and administrative sciences, strategic studies and international relations, international law and organizations, and general readers ...... to assess others without considerations for historical and social differences.

  13. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-Related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J.; Randall, Patrick A.; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the "rewarding" impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding…

  14. Successful community relations efforts at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, James E. Jr.; Meyer, Linda L.

    1992-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) Community Relations Program involves many participants from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Prime Management Contractor (PMC) composed of M.K. Ferguson and Jacobs Engineering. The proactive community relations plan exceeds the compliance requirements of NEPA and CERCLA and is coordinated by a three-person staff of professional communicators. The program permeates many of the operating decisions and the result has been public acceptance of the Project and its actions to date, which has been to conduct remedial actions that will place the site in a radiologically and chemically safe condition, eliminating potential hazards to the public and environment. (author)

  15. All projects related to | Page 414 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security Reasoning, Spatial Politics, Patriarchy and the Economic Rights of Palestinian Women in Israel ... and humanitarian conditions of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and to coordinate efforts by stakeholders (United Nations Relief and Works Agency-UNRWA, Lebanese ministries, the international community, etc.

  16. Building International Relations for Children through Sister Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Carolyn B.

    1992-01-01

    Inspired by Sister Cities International and the NASSP's school-to-school exchange program, "sister school" pairings have proved to be workable educational programs with long-range impact on participants. Some post-cold war efforts include U.S.-USSR High School Academic Partnerships, Project Harmony, and Center for U.S.-USSR Initiatives.…

  17. International cost relations in electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Duengen, H.; Wilhelm, M.

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the fact that analyses of the cost of electric power generation as the result of international comparative evaluations are indisputably relevant, problems pending in connection with the costs of representative power plant technologies are of the methodological bind. German authors have hitherto also been failing to clear up and consider all aspects connected with the problems of data acquisition and the adequate interpretation of results. The analysis presented by the paper abstracted therefore aims at the following: 1) Systematization of the different categories of cost relevant in connection with international comparative evaluation. Classification into different categories of decision making and development of standards meeting the requirements of international comparative evaluation. 2) Calculation of relevant average financial costs of Western German, America and French fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants by means of adequate calculation models, that is the assessment of costs with regard to countries and power plant technologies which are relevant to the Federal Republic of Germany. 3) Analysis of the resulting differences and determinantal interpretation. (orig./UA) [de

  18. Relative abundance and size of coastal sharks derived from commercial shark longline catch and effort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J K; Hale, L F; Morgan, A; Burgess, G

    2012-04-01

    In the north-west Atlantic Ocean, stock assessments conducted for some commercially harvested coastal sharks indicate declines from 64 to 80% with respect to virgin population levels. While the status of commercially important species is available, abundance trend information for other coastal shark species in the north-west Atlantic Ocean are unavailable. Using a generalized linear modelling (GLM) approach, a relative abundance index was derived from 1994 to 2009 using observer data collected in a commercial bottom longline fishery. Trends in abundance and average size were estimated for bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna, tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier and lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris. Increases in relative abundance for all shark species ranged from 14% for C. brevipinna, 12% for C. leucas, 6% for N. brevirostris and 3% for G. cuvier. There was no significant change in the size at capture over the time period considered for all species. While the status of shark populations should not be based exclusively on abundance trend information, but ultimately on stock assessment models, results from this study provide some cause for optimism on the status of these coastal shark species. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. State of the Art of International Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Gay; And Others

    To examine aspects of the political/economic/social/cultural environments (PESCE) affecting international public relations and their significance to the future of public relations practitioners, this paper reviews the 1980s literature regarding the current and projected trends in international public relations practice and their implications for…

  20. Policy Analysis, International Relations, and European Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Tatham, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the rationale of the special issue in terms of its objectives and guiding principles. It maps different evolutions and challenges within three analytical streams (1) regarding the field of policy analysis, (2) concerning the interaction between domestic and international...... affairs, and (3) with regards to the transformation of European Union governance in troubled times. These three research avenues highlight how not only European governance itself has evolved in a changing world, but also how the analysis of interests, institutions, and policy-making has morphed...

  1. Effort Optimization in Minimizing Food Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions, a look at "Organic" and "Local"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, E.; Martin, P. A.; Eshel, G.

    2008-12-01

    The adverse environmental effects, especially energy use and resultant GHG emissions, of food production and consumption are becoming more widely appreciated and increasingly well documented. Our insights into the thorny problem of how to mitigate some of those effects, however, are far less evolved. Two of the most commonly advocated strategies are "organic" and "local", referring, respectively, to growing food without major inputs of fossil fuel based synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and to food consumption near its agricultural origin. Indeed, both agrochemical manufacture and transportation of produce to market make up a significant percentage of energy use in agriculture. While there can be unique environmental benefits to each strategy, "organic" and "local" each may potentially result in energy and emissions savings relative to conventionally grown produce. Here, we quantify the potential energy and greenhouse gas emissions savings associated with "organic" and "local". We take note of energy use and actual GHG costs of the major synthetic fertilizers and transportation by various modes routinely employed in agricultural distribution chains, and compare them for ~35 frequently consumed nutritional mainstays. We present new, current, lower-bound energy and greenhouse gas efficiency estimates for these items and compare energy consumption and GHG emissions incurred during producing those food items to consumption and emissions resulting from transporting them, considering travel distances ranging from local to continental and transportation modes ranging from (most efficient) rail to (least efficient) air. In performing those calculations, we demonstrate the environmental superiority of either local or organic over conventional foods, and illuminate the complexities involved in entertaining the timely yet currently unanswered, and previously unanswerable, question of "Which is Environmentally Superior, Organic or Local?". More broadly, we put forth a

  2. Multiple song features are related to paternal effort in common nightingales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Conny; Weiss, Michael; Kipper, Silke

    2015-06-18

    Sexual ornamentation may be related to the degree of paternal care and the 'good-parent' model predicts that male secondary characters honestly advertise paternal investment. In most birds, males are involved in bringing up the young and successful reproduction highly depends on male contribution during breeding. In passerines, male song is indicative of male attributes and for few species it has been shown that song features also signal paternal investment to females. Males of nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos are famous for their elaborate singing but so far there is only little knowledge on the role of male song in intersexual communication, and it is unknown whether male song predicts male parenting abilities. Using RFID technology to record male feeding visits to the nest, we found that nightingale males substantially contribute to chick feeding. Also, we analyzed male nocturnal song with focus on song features that have been shown to signal male quality before. We found that several song features, namely measures of song complexity and song sequencing, were correlated with male feeding rates. Moreover, the combination of these song features had strong predictive power for male contribution to nestling feeding. Since male nightingales are involved in chick rearing, paternal investment might be a crucial variable for female mate choice in this species. Females may assess future paternal care on the basis of song features identified in our study and thus these features may have evolved to signal direct benefits to females. Additionally we underline the importance of multiple acoustic cues for female mating decisions especially in species with complex song such as the nightingale.

  3. Manager, Employee and Labour Relations | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Develop high-level presentations to senior management on strategic labour ... Plan, IDRC Annual Report, Corporate Dashboard and other reporting obligations by ... complex employee relations cases by supporting the HR Business Solutions ...

  4. Communications and Media Relations Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brings to the attention of the Media Relations Advisor and/or Social Media Officer in ... Monitors, evaluates and reports on the effectiveness and influence of IDRC's social ... projects to promote research results among regional decision-makers.

  5. Relative costs to nuclear plants: international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-03-01

    This work approaches the relative costs to nuclear plants in the Brazil. It also presents the calculation methods and its hypothesis to determinate the costs, and the nacional experience in costs of investment, operating and maintenance of the nuclear plants

  6. Public diplomacy and cooperation with non-governmental organizations in the liberal perspective of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Broś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of state cooperation with non-governmental organizations in public diplomacy. This has been explored in relation to the liberal perspective in international relations, which very clearly highlights the importance of NGOs as an influential participant in world politics. The article contains an analysis of the international system, categorizes the roles and functions of NGOs in international relations. It shows concepts on contemporary understanding of power and a clear focus on reinforcing and using components of soft power, including public diplomacy, in moden international relations. Methodological aspects are deepened by an analytical layer exploring Civil Society 2.0 Program, what is an example of an effective combination of diplomatic efforts between the state and NGOs to achieve common goals.

  7. The intern structure of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierseaux, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The author presents the forgotten fact that in 1905 there were 2 restricted theories of relativity: that of Einstein and that of Poincare. These 2 theories were independently formulated, they are very close to each other but are fundamentally different when we consider their basic principles. Poincare's theory is based on a classical representation of the purely undulatory aspect of light, whereas Einstein stipulates for the quantum aspect of light. Poincare's theory implies the existence of the ether and asserts the primacy of continuity over discontinuity. The author has based his work on a thorough study of the scientific articles in which Poincare and Einstein explained their ideas. The comparison of these 2 theories sheds light on the evolution of concepts on which the whole modern physics is based. An extended bibliography of works published on special relativity or on related topics is given. (A.C.)

  8. Determinants of International Outsourcing and Performance: A Relational Exchange Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl E. Dresden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prescriptive discussions regarding international outsourcing abound, but there are few previously proposed models of the antecedents leading to such sourcing. This empirical study utilizes the relational exchange framework proposed by Dwyer, Schurr and Oh (1987 and builds a conceptual model of the firm's use of international outsourcing within the context of relational exchange. The model concentrates on the aspects of relational exchange that are crucial antecedents to successful international outsourcing and empirically demonstrates how both economic and social factors have their influence. The resulting model demonstrates how cooperation, rather than competition, leads to successful international outsourcing.

  9. Teaching the Scientific Study of International Relations to Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how theory and science are integrated into "Introduction to International Relations" and "International Relations Theory", two undergraduate courses at Pennsylvania State University (University Park). Highlights five issues that are used in the author's approach to teaching theory and science. (CMK)

  10. Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To what extent have the principles and theories of international relations (as formulated) accommodated the specific needs and circumstances of Africa? In other words, how can the circumstances and peculiarities of Africa be made to shape and influence the established principles and theories of international relations as ...

  11. Teaching Culture: The Challenges and Opportunities of International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amiso M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…

  12. War and Peace in International Relations Theory: A Classroom Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nathan Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Simulations are increasingly common pedagogical tools in political science and international relations courses. This article develops a classroom simulation that aims to facilitate students' theoretical understanding of the topic of war and peace in international relations, and accomplishes this by incorporating important theoretical concepts…

  13. Perspectives on Climate Effects on Agriculture: The International Efforts of AgMIP in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Job; MacCarthy, Dilys S.; Bationo, Andre; Koala, Saidou; Hickman, Jonathon; Koo, Jawoo; Vanya, Charles; Adiku, Samuel; Beletse, Yacob; Masikate, Patricia; hide

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is experiencing climate change-related effects that call for integrated regional assessments, yet capacity for these assessments has been low. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) is advancing research on integrated regional assessments of climate change that include climate, crop, and economic modeling and analysis. Through AgMIP, regional integrated assessments are increasingly gaining momentum in SSA, and multi-institutional regional research teams (RRTs) centered in East, West, and Southern· Africa are generating new information on climate change impacts and adaptation in selected agricultural systems. The research in Africa is organized into four RRTs and a coordination team. Each of the RRTs in SSA is composed of scientists from the Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) institutions, National Agriculture Research institutes (NARs), and universities consisting of experts in crop and economic modeling, climate, and information technology. Stakeholder involvement to inform specific agricultural systems to be evaluated, key outputs, and the representative agricultural pathways (RAPs), is undertaken at two levels: regional and national, in order to contribute to decision making at these levels. Capacity building for integrated assessment (lA) is a key component that is undertaken continuously through interaction with experts in regional and SSA-wide workshops, and through joint creation of tools. Many students and research affiliates have been identified and entrained as part of capacity building in IA. Bi-monthly updates on scholarly publications in climate change in Africa also serve as a vehicle for knowledge-sharing. With 60 scientists already trained and actively engaged in IA and over 80 getting monthly briefs on the latest information on climate change, a climate-informed community of experts is gradually taking shape in SSA. (See Part 2, Appendices 3-5 in

  14. Gritty people try harder: grit and effort-related cardiac autonomic activity during an active coping challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Eddington, Kari M; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2013-05-01

    Grit, a recently proposed personality trait associated with persistence for long-range goals, predicts achievement in a wide range of important life outcomes. Using motivational intensity theory, the present research examined the physiological underpinnings of grit during an active coping task. Forty young adults completed the Short Grit Scale and worked on a self-paced mental effort task. Effort-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity was assessed using impedance cardiography, which yielded measures of sympathetic activity (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic activity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Multilevel models revealed that people high on the Perseverance of Effort subscale showed autonomic coactivation: both PEP and RSA became stronger during the task, reflecting higher activity of both ANS divisions. The Consistency of Interest subscale, in contrast, predicted only weaker sympathetic activity (slower PEP). Taken together, the findings illuminate autonomic processes associated with how "gritty" people pursue goals, and they suggest that more attention should be paid to the facets' distinct effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Global Health Cooperation: International Relations' New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This issue of MEDICC Review appears in the wake of a media splash on the reopening of the Cuban and US embassies in Washington and Havana, signaling the renewal of full diplomatic relations between the two governments. Although the US embargo is still law and one of the thorniest bilateral issues remaining, the Obama administration's bold opening towards Cuba is being echoed in the chambers of Senate committees, calling for an end to the policy in place since 1962. Meanwhile, people from the United States have begun to travel to Cuba in droves, and for the first time in many years, we perceive real hope that cooperation may replace hostility-at least in the sectors that most matter to ordinary people in both nations.

  16. International business cycles and the relative price of investment goods

    OpenAIRE

    Parantap Basu; Christoph Thoenissen

    2009-01-01

    Is the relative price of investment goods a good proxy for investment frictions? We model this relative price in a flexible price international economy with two fundamental shocks, namely the total factor productivity (TFP) shock and the investment specific technology (IST) shock. The paper argues that the one-to-one correspondence between investment friction and the relative price of investment goods breaks down in an international economy because of the short run correlation between the ter...

  17. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. NATURE OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the factors influencing the business environment in the economic relations of enterprises in national and international aspect are discussed. Global interdependencies have been explored and results have been drawn on the impact of international political and economic changes on the business environment of national and supranational companies.

  19. POS 591: International Relations Seminar "The Modern World-System."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Patrick J.

    The syllabus outlines a college level international relations seminar with a neo-Marxist theoretical orientation. The objective of the seminar is to present an historical and comparative approach to a study of the evolution of the international political economy. Following an introduction explaining seminar objectives, grading, and course…

  20. Building relationships with physicians. Internal marketing efforts help strengthen organizational bonds at a rural health care clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, J W; Boyt, T; Westfall, J E

    1997-01-01

    Physician turnover is costly for health care organizations, especially for rural organizations. One approach management can take to reduce turnover is to promote physician loyalty by treating them as an important customer segment. The authors develop an information--oriented framework for generating physician loyalty and illustrate how this framework has helped to eliminate physician turnover at a rural health care clinic. Rural health care organizations must develop a more internal marketing orientation in their approach to establishing strong relationship bonds with physicians.

  1. All projects related to nigeria | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations ... International Remittances, Poverty and Inequality : a Case Study of Ghana, Ivory ... HEALTH STATISTICS, HEALTH PLANNING, PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, ...

  2. Back to the Future: International Education in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerness, Martin D.; Beaman, Ronda

    1994-01-01

    Finds few offerings of university courses emphasizing international public relations across the United States, despite global trends underlining increased internationalization. Argues that individuals and organizations must take account of those trends to stay abreast of the changing environment. (SR)

  3. All projects related to | Page 301 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NETWORKS, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT THEORY, STRATEGIC PLANNING. Region: Middle East, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, West Indies, North and Central America, South America, North of Sahara, Canada.

  4. Impact of stimulus-related factors and hearing impairment on listening effort as indicated by pupil dilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Lunner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has reported effects of masker type and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as indicated by the peak pupil dilation (PPD) relative to baseline during speech recognition. At about 50% correct sentence recognition performance, increasing SNRs generally results...... in declining PPDs, indicating reduced effort. However, the decline in PPD over SNRs has been observed to be less pronounced for hearing-impaired (HI) compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. The presence of a competing talker during speech recognition generally resulted in larger PPDs as compared......-talker masker) on the PPD during speech perception. Twenty-five HI and 32 age-matched NH participants listened to sentences across a broad range of SNRs, masked with speech from a single talker (-25 dB to +15 dB SNR) or with stationary noise (-12 dB to +16 dB). Correct sentence recognition scores and pupil...

  5. Young adult social smokers: their co-use of tobacco and alcohol, tobacco-related attitudes, and quitting efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Lee, Youn O; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-12-01

    Young adults frequently report social smoking. This study examined the relationship between different social smoking definitions and the co-use of cigarettes and alcohol, tobacco-related attitudes, and quitting efforts. Cross-sectional data were collected at bars using randomized time location sampling among young adults aged 21-26 in San Diego, California from 2010 to 2011 (73% response rate). Multivariable logistic regression examined if current smoking and quit attempts were associated with tobacco-related attitudes, and whether social smoking self-identification or behavior was associated with cigarette-and-alcohol co-use, tobacco-related attitudes, quit attempts, or quitline use. Among 537 current smokers, 80% self-identified and 49% behaved as social smokers. Social smoking self-identification was positively associated with cigarette-and-alcohol co-use, and quit attempts. Social smoking behavior was negatively associated with tobacco marketing receptivity, quit attempts, and quitline use. Tobacco-related attitudes were associated with smoking but did not generally differ by social smoking status. Identification and behavior as a social smoker have opposing associations with co-use of cigarettes and alcohol and quit attempts. Tobacco cessation programs for self-identified social smokers should address co-use. Interventions denormalizing the tobacco industry or emphasizing the health effects of temporary smoking and secondhand smoke may address smoking among young adult bar patrons regardless of social smoking status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. All projects related to | Page 135 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-21

    Although many developing countries are working on appropriate mechanisms for financing adaptation to combat climate-related problems, there is a great need for research and insight to support these efforts. End Date: August 21, 2017. Topic: POLICY MAKING, Capacity building, METHODOLOGY, DATA ANALYSIS, ...

  7. Global health diplomacy in Iraq: international relations outcomes of multilateral tuberculosis programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Jaf, Payman; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Abu Dalod, Mohammad; Tabena, Mohammed; Rashid, Sara; Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    International development programmes, including global health interventions, have the capacity to make important implicit and explicit benefits to diplomatic and international relations outcomes. Conversely, in the absence of awareness of these implications, such programmes may generate associated threats. Due to heightened international tensions in conflict and post-conflict settings, greater attention to diplomatic outcomes may therefore be necessary. We examine related 'collateral' effects of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis programmes in Iraq. During site visits to Iraq conducted during 2012 and 2013 on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, on-site service delivery evaluations, unstructured interviews with clinical and operational staff, and programme documentary review of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis treatment and care programmes were conducted. During this process, a range of possible external or collateral international relations and diplomatic effects of global health programmes were assessed according to predetermined criteria. A range of positive diplomatic and international relations effects of Global Fund-supported programmes were observed in the Iraq setting. These included (1) geo-strategic accessibility and coverage; (2) provisions for programme sustainability and alignment; (3) contributions to nation-building and peace-keeping initiatives; (4) consistent observation of social, cultural and religious norms in intervention selection; and (5) selection of the most effective and cost-effective tuberculosis treatment and care interventions. Investments in global health programmes have valuable diplomatic, as well as health-related, outcomes, associated with their potential to prevent, mitigate or reverse international tension and hostility in conflict and post-conflict settings, provided that they adhere to appropriate criteria. The associated international presence in such regions may also contribute to peace

  8. Oscillatory reactivity to effortful cognitive processing in the subthalamic nucleus and internal pallidum: a depth electrode EEG study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bočková, M.; Chládek, Jan; Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Rapcsak, S.Z.; Baláž, M.; Chrastina, J.; Rektor, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 7 (2017), s. 841-852 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-33798A; GA ČR GAP103/11/0933; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : subthalamic nucleus * internal globus pallidum * complex cognitive functions * lateralization * deep brain stimulation * erd/s Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: Medical engineering Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016

  9. International organizations as corporate actors: Agency and emergence in theories of international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Maier-Rigaud, Remi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the implicit and explicit conceptualizations of international organizations found in the three major theories of international relations are outlined and compared. It turns out that in a neorealist framework, international organizations can be explained; however, they exhibit no autonomy and cannot therefore be conceptualized as a corporate actor. Principally, the same applies to rational choice institutionalism, although limited autonomy is conceivable. Both theories are reduc...

  10. Theories of International Relations and the Explanation of Foreign Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUSELLI, Gino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 50 years after the publication of the first and influential article in international relations (IR analyzing foreign aid motivations, A theory of foreign aid, by Hans Morgenthau, IR scholarship has not yet accomplished a consistent theoretical body explaining international development cooperation. Most of the empirical studies on foreign aid have been contributions from other disciplines, especially economics. Research from the field of international relations has been mostly descriptive or poorly connected with IR paradigms.This article proposes to analyze motivations of foreign aid allocations decisions of donors. These motivations will be examined from the theoretical perspective of the international relations scholarship. In this way, it is sought to contribute, from the discipline of IR, to the explanation of the process in which developed countries make transfers of resources to developing countries.

  11. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR LAW PRINCIPLES AS GUIDELINES TO FOSTEREMPLOYMENT RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Noemi TURI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary human resource management practices often ignore very important values of international labour law; however there is a wide floor for improvements in this area. In this sense the main guidelines are arising from the legal acts of the International organizations. The social responsibility, professional ethics and management are categories which have the intense relation with the legal system. Some historically developed degree of social responsibility and professional ethics may be considered as an important resource of values which are the starting point for building the legal system and also international regulations. The international labour law principles are significant elements in employment relations. The paper represents how the principles of the international labour law can positively influence managerial strategies through the social dialogue. Social dialogue provides a communication platform between social partners and by that it is actually creating a socio-economic and social development. Furthermore social dialogue is a key instrument in planning social development, harmonizing different interests, prevent and resolve disputes between the management and labour. International law shows many ways how to strengthen the principle of ethics in the employment relations. The values, arising from the existing international legal documents may be the significant guideline for the development of “good practices of managers”.

  12. Vessel-related problems in severe accidents, International Research Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes those most relevant aspects of research programmes and projects, on the behavior of vessel during severe accidents with partial or total reactor core fusion, performed during the last twenty years or still on-going projects, by countries or international organizations in the nuclear community, presenting the most important technical aspects, in particular the results achieved, as well as the financial and organisational aspects. The paper concludes that, throughout a joint effort of the international nuclear community, in which Spain has been present via private and public organizations, actually exist a reasonable technical and experimental knowledge of the vessel in case of severe accidents, but still there are aspects not fully solved which are the basis for continuing some programmes and for proposal of new ones. (Author)

  13. Do international tax relations impede a shift towards expenditure taxation?

    OpenAIRE

    Genser, Bernd

    1990-01-01

    The paper questions the view that international tax relations had a decisive impact on the dismissal of expenditure tax scenarios as guidelines for recent national tax reforms in industrialized countries. It is argued that the introduction of consumption-type value-added tax systems must be regarded a step towards expenditure taxation favoured by international agreements and that double taxation treaties should not be regarded as a specific obstacle against a reform of national enterprise tax...

  14. Educational and Community Outreach Efforts by the United States Polar Rock Repository during the International Polar Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.; Codispoti, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The US Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) houses more than 19,000 rock samples from polar regions and these samples are made available to the scientific, educational and museum community. The USPRR has been active in promoting polar earth science to educational and community groups. During the past year, outreach efforts reached over 12,000 people. The USPRR outreach involve tours of the facility, school presentations, online laboratory exercises, working with the Columbus Metro Parks, teaching at summer camps, teaching special geology field assignments at the middle school level, as well as offering an ‘Antarctic Rock Box’ that contains representative samples of the three types of rocks, minerals, fossils, and books and activities about geology and Antarctica. The rock box activities have been designed and reviewed by educators and scientists to use as an educational supplement to the Earth Science course of study. The activities have been designed around the Academic Content Standards: k-12 Science manual published by the Ohio Department of Education to ensure that the activities and topics are focused on those mandated by the state of Ohio. The USPRR website has a Virtual Web Antarctic Expedition with many activities for Middle to High School age students. The students learn about how to plan a field season, safety techniques, how to make a remote field camp, identify what equipment is needed, learn about the different transportation choices, weather issues, understanding GPS, etc. Educational and community networks have been built in part, by directly contacting individuals at an institution and partnering with them on educational outreach. The institutions have been very interested in doing this because it brings scientists to the classroom and to the public. This type of outreach has also served as an opening for children to consider possible career choices in science that they may not have considered before. In many of the presentations, a female geologist

  15. Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele-Vos, M. J.; Commandeur, J. J.F.; Twisk, D. A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects

  16. Age-Related Changes in Children's Understanding of Effort and Ability: Implications for Attribution Theory and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Amy S.; Cole, David A.; Sigal, Amanda B.; Benbow, Lovisa D.; Satterwhite, Lindsay F.; Swygert, Katherine E.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Building on Nicholls's earlier work, we examined developmental changes in children's understanding of effort and ability when faced with a negative outcome. In a sample of 166 children and adolescents (ages 5-15 years), younger children conflated the meaning of effort and ability, explaining that smart students work hard, whereas older children…

  17. Science and diplomacy a new dimension of international relations

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Pierre-Bruno

    2017-01-01

    This book examines in depth science diplomacy, a particular field of international relations, in which the interests of science and those of foreign policy intersect. Building on a wealth of examples drawn from history and contemporary international relations, it analyzes and discusses the links between the world of scientists and that of diplomats. Written by a professor of economics and former Embassy counselor for science and technology, the book sets out to answer the following questions: Can science issues affect diplomatic relations between countries? Is international scientific cooperation a factor for peace? Are researchers good ambassadors for their countries? Is scientific influence a particular form of cultural influence on the world stage? Do diplomats really listen to what experts say when negotiating on the future of the planet? Is the independence of the scientist threatened by science diplomacy? What is a scientific attaché for?

  18. Reading comics for the field of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    This article draws attention to a medium that has escaped the attention of International Relations scholars: comics. Comics are combinations of text and drawings and they come in a variety of formats: as newspaper strips, as stories printed in magazines and as long narratives presented in free......-standing books. Comics have been central to how generations of children have encountered foreign places and comics artists have successfully captured public attention, with comics offering explicit engagements with foreign policy events. Theoretically, comics provide a unique combination of text and images...... through which central questions on the research agenda of International Relations scholars working on visuality, practices and intertextuality can be pursued. Drawing on comics scholarship, this article presents a theoretical framework aimed specifically at analysing comics as international relations...

  19. Idealism and realism in International Relations: an ontological debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Ramon Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The debate between realism and idealism continues to mark the discipline of International Relations. On the one hand, realism argues that international politics is a struggle for power and a quest for survival, which results in a condition of permanent conflict between States without any possibility of evolution or progress. On the other hand, idealism considers it possible to build a world of peaceful coexistence, prosperity and well-being, achieved through cooperation and based on values and aspirations shared by humans. The object of this article is to analyse the debate between idealism and realism, considering it as an ontological debate and taking into account the controversy it has generated. The argument presented here is that both realism and idealism are two responses to the creation and maintenance of international order, that is, how States relate in international society; however these responses are not mutually exclusive and can coexist in constant tension with one another. An analysis of internationalist thought of two authors, Hans Morgenthau and Raymond Aron, is also presented, which relates to how they are positioned in this debate as well as International Relations as a whole.

  20. Fishing effects in northeast Atlantic shelf seas : patterns in fishing effort, diversity and community structure. III. International trawling effort in the North Sea : an analysis of spatial and temporal trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, S.; Alsväg, J.; Cotter, A.J.R.

    1999-01-01

    of beam trawling effort increases from north to south. Plots of annual fishing effort by ICES statistical rectangle (211 boxes of 0.5 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude) indicate that the majority of fishing effort in the North Sea are concentrated in a very few rectangles. Thus mean annual total...

  1. Prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia during exercise stress testing. Its relation to effort tolerance and myocardial perfusion abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, G; Sciammarella, M G; Rossetti, E E; Xuereb, R G; Xuereb, M; Bonetti, F; Carandente, O M; Margonato, A; Chierchia, S L

    1992-07-01

    The number of underperfused myocardial segments, the extent of coronary artery disease and the severity of impairment of coronary flow reserve were compared in 147 consecutive patients exhibiting painful or painless ischaemic ST segment depression on exercise testing. Of 147 patients, only 61 (41%) experienced angina (group 1) whilst 86 (59%) did not (group 2). In the two groups coronary disease was comparable for both extent and distribution, and neither the location of transient perfusion defects nor their relation to areas of old myocardial necrosis appeared to influence the presence or absence of chest pain. However, exercise duration, exercise time and rate-pressure product at the beginning of ischaemia were lower in group 1. Furthermore, a greater proportion of asymptomatic patients had only one ischaemic segment on 99mTc-MIBI perfusion scintigraphy. We conclude that: (1) in patients with effort angina and coronary disease, the incidence of electrocardiographic silent ischaemic events induced by exercise is similar to that observed in studies based on continuous ECG monitoring. (2) Exertional angina is more frequently associated with greater ischaemic areas and with more severe degrees of impairment of residual coronary flow reserve. (3) The presence of an old myocardial infarction does not appear to influence the incidence of ischaemic cardiac pain.

  2. The Concept of Security in International Relations Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orozco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War and the emergence of globalisation have transformed the reality of International Relations, which has meant a change in the theories which this reality had assumed. The concept of security reveals itself as an organisational idea on the different phenomena of globalisation, carrying out a programme of research that goes beyond the realistic presumptions of military power or of the idealistic principles of research for peace. This article explores the new meanings of security for International Relations theory and discusses the theoretical models that influence policy design and that aim to confront the problems and challenges of security in globalisation.

  3. Effortful echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  4. Training specialists in international relations: rethinking the new paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Voevoda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers new tasks of universities and faculties training students of international relations. The author analyzes the essence of the concept "paradigm" in education because paradigm serves as the basis of the educational process in universities. The content of professional education depends on the aims of professional education of specialists in international relations. The process of globalization, global changes, challenges and threats bring about the necessity to study specific features of international cooperation in ecology, psychology of conflict, psychology of leadership, etc. In the age of globalization, national economies are converging while national cultures are diverging. Representatives of different nations realize the importance of preserving cultural identity. It is of vital importance to instil tolerance in future specialists in international relations and prepare them for cross-cultural communication. At the same time, it is necessary that they should not only enjoy individual freedom and national cultural identity, but realize their own responsibility to the state. In the modern world, the axiological and educational functions of professional training are growing. At the same time, it is crucial to let the students build a number of professionally relevant competences that will make it possible for them to effectively perform their professional functions. It is the competence-based approach that makes the basis of Federal state education standards, including education standards for faculties of international relations. Another direction that needs developing is training and retraining lecturers for universities specializing in international relations. Foreign language training of lecturers in basic subjects will make it possible for the, to give lectures in foreign languages, particularly in English, which, in its turn, will help to make Russia's universities more competitive.

  5. International Relations and the environment: practical examples of environmental multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Tiago Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental crisis” we experience today and the international community’s struggle to develop environmental standards to reach the epic “sustainable development” are widely known topics. What is needed, then, is an urgent and determined practice, which is only possible if international governance is structured, coherent and effective. The optimization of Environmental Multilateralism (the joining of what are considered the “driving forces” of Environmental International Relations: Law, Politics and international Diplomacy contributes greatly to this end. To understand its basic concepts and systems, as for example, its actors, negotiation and implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs and the carrying out of their Regimes, as well as their development in the United Nations, these are all crucial elements for its improvement and optimization. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 and “its” Conventions are important examples in the history of Environmental Multilateralism, still very up-to-date not only due to the 20th anniversary of the “Rio Conference” but also due to the continuity and importance that the “Rio Conventions” and their Conferences of Parties (COP still have. This papers aims to analyze this area of studies transversal to International Relations and to the Environment, namely by studying the relation between the theory of Environmental Multilateralism and its practice.

  6. Candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of drug-induced liver injury: An international collaborative effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Rachel J; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Aubrecht, Jiri; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Chalasani, Naga; Fontana, Robert J; Goepfert, Jens C; Hackman, Frances; King, Nicholas M P; Kirby, Simon; Kirby, Patrick; Marcinak, John; Ormarsdottir, Sif; Schomaker, Shelli J; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Wolenski, Francis; Arber, Nadir; Merz, Michael; Sauer, John-Michael; Andrade, Raul J; van Bömmel, Florian; Poynard, Thierry; Watkins, Paul B

    2018-01-22

    Current blood biomarkers are suboptimal in detecting drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and predicting its outcome. We sought to characterize the natural variabilty and performance characteristics of fourteen promising DILI biomarker candidates. Serum or plasma from multiple cohorts of healthy volunteers (n=192 and =81), subjects who safely took potentially hepatotoxic drugs without adverse effects (n=55 and =92) and DILI patients (n=98, =28, and =143) were assayed for microRNA-122 (miR-122), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), total keratin 18 (K18), caspase cleaved K18 (ccK18), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTα), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), arginase-1 (ARG1), osteopontin (OPN), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), cadherin-5 (CDH5), macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (MCSFR), paraoxonase 1 (PON1, normalized to prothrombin protein), and leucocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2). Most candidate biomarkers were significantly altered in DILI cases compared to healthy volunteers. GLDH correlated more closely with gold standard alanine aminotransferase (ALT) than miR-122 and there was a surprisingly wide inter- and intra-individual variability of miR-122 levels among the healthy volunteers. Serum K18, OPN, and MCSFR levels were most strongly associated with liver-related death or transplant within 6 months of DILI-onset. Prediction of prognosis among DILI patients using Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) was improved by incorporation of K18 and MCSFR levels. GLDH appears to be more useful than miR-122 in identifying DILI patients. K18, OPN and MCSFR are promising candidates for prediction of prognosis during an acute DILI event. Serial assessment of these biomarkers in large prospective studies will help further delineate their role in DILI diagnosis and management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Theory of International Relations In The Mirror of Contemporary Russian International Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Lebedeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the evolution of Western theories of international relations in the postSoviet Russia, it analyzes the world view of Russian international scholars, as well as their reflection on the epistemological foundations of the probable Russian IR school. It states that pluralization of theoretical approaches continues in Russia, while liberalism is gradually givingup to realism on the way to the dominant theory. Constructivism is gaining popularity and postmodernism remains without followers. Russian international studies are structured by a long-standing debate about the identity of Russia. "Westerners" continue to argue with "Slavophiles."Sometimes these arguments translate into a cry for building independent national school of international relations, thereby exacerbating the problem of epistemological relativism. The bases for the school may be found in Russian spiritual philosophy, the Tartu-Moscow school of semiotics, Russian cultural studies, postcolonial tradition of national historical science.

  8. Theory of International Relations In The Mirror of Contemporary Russian International Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Marina M. Lebedeva; Maxim V. Harkevich

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the evolution of Western theories of international relations in the postSoviet Russia, it analyzes the world view of Russian international scholars, as well as their reflection on the epistemological foundations of the probable Russian IR school. It states that pluralization of theoretical approaches continues in Russia, while liberalism is gradually givingup to realism on the way to the dominant theory. Constructivism is gaining popularity and postmodernism remains wit...

  9. Critical Realism versus Social Constructivism in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bobulescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the methodological differences between the British school and the American school of international relations. It attempts to demonstrate that Susan Strange, representative of the British school, could be considered a critical realist. The aim of the article is to show that her vision of international political economy fulfills the methodological reorientation initiated in economics by Tony Lawson at the end of the 90s. Strange’s radical ontology claims that structural power determines human actions. The paper contrasts Strange’s approach with that of John Ruggie, from the American school, who identifies himself as a social constructivist. Ruggie emphasizes the role of ideational factors in international relations and the constructed nature of social reality.

  10. Age-related degradation of boiling water reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory performed an assessment of the aging of the reactor internals in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and identified the unresolved technical issues related to the degradation of these components. The overall life-limiting mechanism is intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, and thermal aging embrittlement are other potential degradation mechanisms. Several failures in BWR internals have been caused by a combination of factors such as environment, high residual or preload stresses, and flow-induced vibration. The ASME Code Section XI in-service inspection requirements are insufficient for detecting aging-related degradation at many locations in reactor internals. Many of the potential locations for IGSCC or fatigue are not accessible for inspection. (orig.)

  11. Evaluating internal public relations using the critical incident technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the critical incident technique (CIT) is one of the current methods in communication audits, little is known about the way it works. The validity of the CIT in the context of internal public relations depends on 3 assumptions: that participants can describe discrete communication events,

  12. "In-Awareness" Approach to International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharna, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a three-tiered framework intended to expose hidden cultural assumptions and expectations that plague international public relations. Notes the country profile outlines what may be feasible within a particular country; the cultural profile speaks to what may be effective in that country; and the communication profile delineates…

  13. Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Janszky, J. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Man'ko, V. I. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, on 27-31 May 1997. This series was initiated in 1991 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland as the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations. The scientific purpose of this series was to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics including quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic. As the meeting attracted more participants and started covering more diversified subjects, the fourth meeting was called an international conference. The Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held in 1995 was hosted by Shanxi University in Taiyuan, China. The fifth meeting of this series, which was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, was also supported by the IUPAP. In 1999, the Sixth International Conference will be hosted by the University of Naples in 1999. The meeting will take place in Ravello near Naples.

  14. Some activities at CEA related to behaviour of core internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrequin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Eighteen transparencies where presented, elaborating some activities at CEA related to behaviour of core internals. After some introduction, ten of the transparencies are essentially a copy of the table of contents of the AMES report no. 11 (report no: EUR 17694 EN). The remaining 6 foils concerned themselves with irradiation experiments in test reactors, namely the IDAHO, CASIMIR and ALEXANDRA experiments

  15. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The content of the first International African Vaccinology Conference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussions being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and advocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012. The theme of the conference was "Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases". There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conference workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral and poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the global launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has been significant progress in introducing new and under-utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries

  16. Professional Language Training of International Students in the Multicultural Environment of University for International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Glebova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the specific features of professional language training of international students in the multicultural environment of a Russian university teaching students of international relations. After a brief historical survey of teaching foreign students in the universities of Russia, the writer considers the factors that influence the choice of universities graduating specialists in international relations by foreign students. The author goes on to analyze the specifics of linguisticand socio-cultural environment in Russian universities and its impact on international students stressing the fact that the educational environment at MGIMO-University is multilingual and multicultural. That explains the relevance of studying the quality of professional language training of foreign students in the sphere of international relations. The language of teaching in most universities of the Russian Federation is Russian, besides, all MGIMO students are obliged to learn English either as their first or second foreign language, that is why international students have to study in a tri-lingual environment and the interfering influence of several cultures. The writer points out that under such circumstances it is necessary for future IR specialists to build a number of professionally relevant competences: linguistic, socio-cultural, communicative, and suggests educational technologies that have proved to be effective in building them: case-study, role-plays, etc. The article gives special attention to the place and role of translation in teaching English as translation is a system of encoding within the system of two language systems. Translating phrases from Russian into English the student does 'inner', mental translation using the mother tongue. That makes the author suggest using the students'mother tongues in the teaching process. While learning foreign languages, international students should, along with language material, study the system

  17. 6th International Conference on the History of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenstaedt, Jean; The Universe of General Relativity; GR 6

    2005-01-01

    This volume from the Einstein Studies Series is based largely on papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on the History of General Relativity, held in Amsterdam on June 26-29, 2002. These contributions from notable experts offer both new and historical insights on gravitation, general relativity, cosmology, unified field theory, and the history of science. Topics discussed include the prehistory of special relativity, early attempts at a relativistic theory of gravitation, the beginnings of general relativity, the problem of motion in the context of relativity, conservation laws, the axiomatization of relativity, classical and contemporary cosmology, gravitation and electromagnetism, quantum gravity, and relativity as seen through the eyes of the public and renowned relativists. Contributors: K. Brading; G. Gale; H.F.M. Goenner; J. Goldberg; S. Katzir; D. Kennefick; H. Kragh; C. Lehner; U. Majer; J. Mattingly; E.T. Newman; J.D. Norton; J. Renn; R. Rynasiewicz; J.M. Sánchez-Ron; T. Sauer; C. Sm...

  18. Blocking the benefit of group-based HIV-prevention efforts during adolescence: the problem of HIV-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David H; Swenson, Rebecca R; Brown, Larry K; Stanton, Bonita F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F; Diclemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to impede HIV-antibody testing and safer sexual practices in adults. Less is known about its effects on prevention programs among at-risk youth. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between HIV-stigma and HIV-knowledge following completion of a validated group-based intervention. Data were provided by 1,654 African-American adolescents who participated in a large multi-city prevention trial (Project iMPACCS). Participants were randomly assigned to an empirically-validated skill-based intervention or a general health promotion control group. Both stigma and knowledge were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results suggested that adolescents participating in the intervention showed improvements in knowledge and decreases in stigma when compared to controls. Improvements in stigma appeared to be partly driven by improvements in knowledge. Higher baseline stigma was shown to reduce gains in knowledge in both the treatment and control groups. Results suggest that HIV-stigma can interfere with how youth identify with and internalize messages from group-based prevention trials.

  19. Regional Cooperation Efforts in the Mekong River Basin: Mitigating river-related security threats and promoting regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of international rivers is often perceived as leading to conflicts or even water wars. However, as the development of the Mekong River shows, cooperation has not only prevailed in the last decades, but River Basin Organizations (RBOs, established to mitigate river-related conflicts and/or develop the river basin, have also contributed to the emergence of more general cooperation structures, mainly by creating spill-over effects in other issue-areas, bringing cooperation to policy fields beyond the river itself. This article assesses the contribution of the Mekong River Commission (MRC and the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS to the sustainable development of the Mekong Region as well as to the promotion of regional cooperation in mainland South-East Asia in general. --- Die Entwicklung grenzüberschreitender Flüsse wird oft mit Konflikten oder gar Kriegen um Wasser assoziiert. Wie jedoch die Entwicklung im Mekong-Becken zeigt, waren die vergangenen Jahrzehnte nicht nur von Kooperation gezeichnet, sondern Flussbeckenorganisationen konnten außerdem dazu beitragen, weitreichendere Kooperationsstrukturen zu entwickeln, die sich auf andere Politikfelder ausdehnen. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit dem Beitrag der Mekong River Commission (MRC und der Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Mekong Region sowie zur Förderung allgemeiner regionaler Kooperation im Festländischen Südostasien.

  20. The Place of Culture in the Current International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Frosin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture and international relations easily appear to be mutually contradictory terms. To speak of "culture" is to invoke the creative capacities of human beings, to point, for example, to the constitutive role of values and visions, to the power of language and aesthetic expression, to communities great and small engaged in reconstructing normative aspirations and reshaping the possibilities for a decent way of life. To speak of "international relations," by contrast, is to draw upon an altogether bleaker account of the human condition, to refer to missiles and bombs, trade figures and debts, statesmanship and diplomacy, intrigue and force. It is to echo assertions about naked power and the sacrifice of cultural creativity and normative aspiration to the supposedly more enduring determinations of survival or supremacy. From the dark depths of international relations, the term culture takes on an aura of frivolity. It appears to refer to the idealistic and utopian, to the veneer of civilized decency that is always stripped away by the harsh realities of power politics and international conflict. This work aims at showing the contrary.

  1. Survey of environment related monitoring programmes of international organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report is a summary of environment-related monitoring programmes of international governmental organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes. it presents the situation as of November 1986: This survey has been prepared by a consultant for the Secretariat as a background document for the second meeting of the Environment Experts, Economic Summit in Munich, November 1986. It serves information purposes only. No claim for completeness is intended. This report may also prove to be helpful for administrators and the scientific community as regards gaining knowledge on present arrangements, approaches and environmental activities in the framework of international organizations. In this light, the present report could facilitate communication and progress in solving pressing environmental problems on the international level. (orig.)

  2. The use of offensive public relations during a conflict: Hamas's efforts to damage Israel's image during the 2010 flotilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Mozes-Sadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crisis communication models contain strategies to rehabilitate an organization's image, but do not deal with strategies used to damage the image of another player or competitor. Using qualitative content analysis of 178 items published by Palestinian Information Center (PIC, the Hamas's leading website, the purpose of this manuscript is to examine Hamas's efforts to run offensive PR and to harm Israel's image restoration efforts at the time of the flotilla crisis in May 2010. We discover that Hamas deployed a strategy that consisted of five elements: evidence of existence of the crisis event, damages, victims, performance history and undermining the competitor's response.

  3. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS OF WAGES AND RELATED RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the issue of employee benefits nationwide and can be placed in the sphere of accounting research at the intersection of the finance research and field research on human resource management. The current conditions of global economic crisis, rewarding staff works on two levels, influencing both the behavior of employees and the efficiency of the economic entity. Wages and related rights are regulated under International Accounting Standards and International Financial Reporting Standards by IAS 19 "Employee Benefits" and IFRS 2 "Share-based Payment". Concerns over the years, on remuneration, was the International Accounting Standards Board, as in 1998 was developed International Accounting Standard 19 "Employee Benefits" and in 2004 was drafted to International Financial Reporting Standard 2 "Share-based Payment". This article is part of a broader research and through it we tried to address a topical issue that employee benefits and consequences of the degree of economic and financial development of economic entities and living standards of the population.

  5. Cognitive performance after mild traumatic brain injury: the impact of poor effort on test results and its relation to distress, personality and litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulemeijer, Maja; Andriessen, Teuntje M J C; Brauer, Jolanda M P; Vos, Pieter E; Van Der Werf, Sieberen

    2007-03-01

    To compare consecutive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) patients with and without adequate effort on cognitive performance, litigation status, fatigue, distress and personality. (Neuro)psychological assessment was done 6 months post-injury in 110 patients from a cohort of 618 consecutive MTBI patients aged 18-60, who attended the emergency department of our level I trauma centre. Effort was tested with the Amsterdam Short Term Memory test. Thirty patients (27%) failed the effort test. Poor effort was associated with significantly poorer scores on seven out of eleven measures, covering all tested domains. Poor effort was associated with lower educational level and changes in work status, but not litigation. Furthermore, poor effort was related to high levels of distress, Type-D personality and fatigue. Even in a sample of non-referred MTBI patients, poor effort was common and was strongly associated with inferior test performance. These findings imply that effort testing should be part of all cognitive assessments, also outside mediolegal settings. Behavioural factors like distress and personality should be considered as potential threats to the validity of neuropsychological testing after MTBI.

  6. Do Countries Consistently Engage in Misinforming the International Community about Their Efforts to Combat Money Laundering? Evidence Using Benford’s Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, collected by EUROSTAT, are plagued with shortcomings. In this paper, I have carried out a forensic analysis on a 2003–2010 dataset of indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, that European Union member states self-reported to EUROSTAT, and on the basis of which, their efforts were evaluated. I used Benford’s law to detect any anomalous statistical patterns and found that statistical anomalies were also consistent with strategic manipulation. According to Benford’s law, if we pick a random sample of numbers representing natural processes, and look at the distribution of the first digits of these numbers, we see that, contrary to popular belief, digit 1 occurs most often, then digit 2, and so on, with digit 9 occurring in less than 5% of the sample. Without prior knowledge of Benford’s law, since people are not intuitively good at creating truly random numbers, deviations thereof can capture strategic alterations. In order to eliminate other sources of deviation, I have compared deviations in situations where incentives and opportunities for manipulation existed and in situations where they did not. While my results are not a conclusive proof of strategic manipulation, they signal that countries that faced incentives and opportunities to misinform the international community about their efforts to combat money laundering may have manipulated these indicators. Finally, my analysis points to the high potential for disruption that the manipulation of national statistics has, and calls for the acknowledgment that strategic manipulation can be an unintended consequence of the international community’s pressure on countries to put combatting money laundering on the top of their national agenda. PMID:28122058

  7. Brazilian nuclear politics in the context of contemporary international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpes, Mariana Montez

    2006-09-01

    The present dissertation analyses the retaking of the debate over Brazilian nuclear Program's recovery by Luis Inacio Lula da Silva government, based on the defense of the utilization of an already acquired technology of its own to enrich uranium. In spite of the intrinsic duality on this subject and having in mind the pacific ends concerning the utilization of such technology by Brazil, the hypothesis sustained in this work is that the Program's defense is considered a strategy of sovereign international insertion with relative autonomy and an instrument of national valorization against other powers. In order to verify the hypothesis outlined above, we will analyse the actual government, comparing it to, two other moments in Brazilian History in which the nuclear issue also acquired preponderance on the national agenda, namely, Geisel and Sarney governments. Although these three moments differ in relation to their internal political regime, our goal is to identify their similarities. (author)

  8. International experience in the use of leasing relations in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Mikhalchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the market of leasing relations in the UK, Germany, France, the USA. Comparative analysis of development of leasing in foreign countries has been carried out in order to use international experience of leasing relations in Ukraine at the present stage of development of state economy. In spite of prevalence of leasing in developed countries, this kind of relationship is still uncommon in the economic environment of Ukraine because of its novelty and lack of experience. Relevance of leasing development in Ukraine, including the formation of leasing market, primarily is caused by a significant proportion of obsolete equipment and low efficiency of its use. One of solutions to these problems can be leasing which brings together all the elements of international trade, credit, and investment operations.

  9. FEATURES OF UKRAINE’S PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL CONTRACTUAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Melnyk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights theoretical and practical aspects of economic rivalry escalation between countries in the process of deepening international economic relations, which are not mediated by investments. The purpose of the research is to summarize the empirical data and theoretical developments of the determinants, macroeconomic effects, and peculiarities of the countries’ participation in international production and marketing cooperation through the format of non-investment contractual relations and investigate their potential for Ukrainian enterprises. The subject of the research is contractual relations as an instrument for incorporating the country’s enterprises into global value chains. Methodology. Assessment of competitive advantages of countries integrated into the international subordinate production was carried out using the techniques of Vollrath T.L. and G. Lafay. Results. Based on the generalization of empirical data and theoretical studies on the latest trends in deepening economic rivalry among participants in international cooperative relations, there were found out factors of activation of non-investment forms of external expansion by TNCs, in particular, the exhaustibility of the extensive way of cross-border production development and investment, and the increased level of investment risks caused by permanent economic crises, political instability, corruption of local elites in the countries where TNC units are localized, regional military conflicts. Estimation of the level of comparative advantages according to Vollrath T.L. and G. Lafay approaches made it possible to identify the competitive positions of the producers of individual countries in the system of international cooperation. Estimation shows that among 41 tested countries, the most significant index of the identified comparative advantages in production under contract was demonstrated by the following countries: Bangladesh, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

  10. Analysing public relations education through international standards: The Portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Spínola, Susana de Carvalho; Padamo, Celma

    2013-01-01

    By using international reports on PR education as a benchmark we analyse the status of PR higher education in Portugal. Despite differences among the study programs, the findings reveal that the standard five courses recommendation by the Commission on Public Relations Education (CPRE) are a part of Portuguese undergraduate curriculum. This includes 12 of the 14 content field guidelines needed to achieve the ideal master's program. Data shows, however, the difficulty of positioning public rel...

  11. The role of tourism in the development of international relations

    OpenAIRE

    MORADI A.; MORADI M.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, tourism is considered as a profitable and job-making indus- try and one of the largest sections of the global economy. This designation indi- cates its importance and eminent position in economy and international relations. Aside from economic aspects, tourism has got extensive social and cultural as- pects, as well. This industry can play a significant role in easing the tensions and establishing world peace and security as one of the solutions of development in the modern world an...

  12. CONSIDERATIONS APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS OF WAGES AND RELATED RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    NASTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA; AVRAM MARIOARA

    2014-01-01

    General research area of this article is the issue of employee benefits nationwide and can be placed in the sphere of accounting research at the intersection of the finance research and field research on human resource management. The current conditions of global economic crisis, rewarding staff works on two levels, influencing both the behavior of employees and the efficiency of the economic entity. Wages and related rights are regulated under International Accounting Sta...

  13. Review of The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McArthur, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Book reviews in this journal usually proceed by considering the value of the book in question for Dewey scholarship. In this case I would rather say that this book is of interest to Dewey Scholars. Jackson's general project is heavily informed by Dewey's pluralistic brand of pragmatism. As Jackson notes “Dewey's Logic... stand[s] firmly in the tradition leading to this book” (216). Dewey scholars will greet Jackson's extension of this approach to the study of international relations warmly.

  14. Arctic Sovereignty Disputes: International Relations Theory in the High North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Russians continue to retain their long-range strategic bombing fleets, consisting of the TU-160 Supersonic ( Blackjack ), an all-weather aircraft with...icebreakers, and the only operational heavy icebreaker, it is already beyond service life expectations and recently suffered a major engine failure...DISPUTES: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY IN THE HIGH NORTH by Darrin D. Davis December 2011 Thesis Co-Advisors: Anne L. Clunan

  15. The role of cultural diplomacy in international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Saddiki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diplomacy, as a cornerstone of public diplomacy, plays an important role in today’s international relations, which are characterised by so-called culture shocks, and it should represent a decisive tool not only for transmitting culture and national values, but also for listening to what the cultures from the rest the world are saying to us. The main role of cultural diplomacy is to promote transnational dialogue between cultures and nations, especially between the West and the Muslim world. Cultural diplomacy, just like other new dimensions in diplomacy, is not exclusively controlled by nation-states, given that at present they are not the only actors on the international stage, since other non-state actors (civil society, NGOs, universities, academics, etc. are playing an important role in this field. The aim of this article is to analyse the role of culture in modern diplomacy and its impact on relations between peoples and nations. It also attempts to focus on the positive aspects of the influence of culture on contemporary international relations.

  16. The Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.; Manko, V. I.

    1993-01-01

    This conference publication contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Moscow, Russia, on 25-29 May 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to study possible applications of squeezed states of light. The Workshop brought together many active researchers in squeezed states of light and those who may find the concept of squeezed states useful in their research, particularly in understanding the uncertainty relations. It was found at this workshop that the squeezed state has a much broader implication than the two-photon coherent states in quantum optics, since the squeeze transformation is one of the most fundamental transformations in physics.

  17. The relation of appraisal, coping efforts, and acuteness of trauma to PTS symptoms among former political prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanninen, Katri; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir

    2002-06-01

    We examined how trauma-specific appraisals and coping efforts mediate between traumatic experiences, acuteness of trauma, and length of imprisonment and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) among 103 Palestinian former political prisoners. The findings provide support for both direct and mediated models of trauma. The acuteness of trauma (time since release), appraisal of prison experience as harmful and involving loss, and use of both emotion- and problem-focused coping efforts were associated with high levels of PTS symptoms. Torture and ill-treatment had a direct association with intrusion, and recent release from prison with avoidance symptoms. Acuteness of trauma turned out to be important in the coping and symptom association: emotion-focused coping was associated with a low level of PTS symptoms in the long run, whereas problem-focused coping was associated with a low level of PTS symptoms in the short run.

  18. Quantifying relative fishing impact on fish populations based on spatio-temporal overlap of fishing effort and stock density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of the effects of management measures on fish populations are usually based on the analyses of population dynamics and estimates of fishing mortality from stock assessments. However, this approach may not be applicable in all cases, in particular for data-limited stocks, which may...... GAM analyses to predict local cod densities and combine this with spatio-temporal data of fishing effort based on VMS (Vessel Monitoring System). To quantify local fishing impact on the stock, retention probability of the gears is taken into account. The results indicate a substantial decline...... in the impact of the Danish demersal trawl fleet on cod in the Kattegat in recent years, due to a combination of closed areas, introduction of selective gears and changes in overall effort....

  19. Labor rights as legal constitutional category – Kosovo in relation to international labor organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Vokrri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study paper is the analyzing of the processes that followed the labor relations, its historical development respectively, since its first concrete efforts from the representatives of the workers (unions till the establishment of the International Labor Organization (1919. As it is known the labor law presents one of the fundamental rights of the human being, thus such rights (right to work, freedom of work are constitutional category and protected in whole legal systems of the present time. The efforts to install such positive spirit were not easy. Genuinely is known that bearers of progressive developments in this field (end of XIX century were organized groups of workers (unions, then initiatives from various statesmen and later to be materialized from the governments of present time followed by the addressing and protecting of these rights in international aspect. Practice has proved that creation, purpose and activity of International Labor Organization has provided its benefits in achieving the primary principles of work, such rights proclaimed by the majority of world states and embedded in their highest legal act (Constitution of the organization in question (ILO. We consider that bearers of government politics of Kosovo, responsible sectors of this field respectively, shall regard these rules set and implemented by this international body and at the same time make maximal efforts towards advancing the current legislation in this field as well as to utilize all necessary resources in order to achieve the vital goal which is the adherence in ILO. This would certainly have an impact on minimizing the occurrence of eventual discontent from the organized groups (Unions as well as other classes and naturally the progress and positive effects in this field would be visible and useful for the society.

  20. Two models at work : A study of interactions and specificity in relation to the Demand-Control Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, N.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relation between work and employee health, several work stress models, e.g., the Demand-Control (DC) Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model, have been developed. Although these models focus on job demands and job resources, relatively little attention has been devoted

  1. Practice, science and governance in interaction: European effort for the system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Zampolini, Mauro; Juocevicius, Alvydas; Negrini, Stefano; Christodoulou, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Since its launch in 2001, relevant international, regional and national PRM bodies have aimed to implement the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), whereby contributing to the development of suitable practical tools. These tools are available for implementing the ICF in day-to-day clinical practice, standardized reporting of functioning outcomes in quality management and research, and guiding evidence-informed policy. Educational efforts have reinforced PRM physicians' and other rehabilitation professionals' ICF knowledge, and numerous implementation projects have explored how the ICF is applied in clinical practice, research and policy. Largely lacking though is the system-wide implementation of ICF in day-to-day practice across all rehabilitation services of national health systems. In Europe, system-wide implementation of ICF requires the interaction between practice, science and governance. Considering its mandate, the UEMS PRM Section and Board have decided to lead a European effort towards system-wide ICF implementation in PRM, rehabilitation and health care at large, in interaction with governments, non-governmental actors and the private sector, and aligned with ISPRM's collaboration plan with WHO. In this paper we present the current PRM internal and external policy agenda towards system-wide ICF implementation and the corresponding implementation action plan, while highlighting priority action steps - promotion of ICF-based standardized reporting in national quality management and assurance programs, development of unambiguous rehabilitation service descriptions using the International Classification System for Service Organization in Health-related Rehabilitation, development of Clinical Assessment Schedules, qualitative linkage and quantitative mapping of data to the ICF, and the cultural adaptation of the ICF Clinical Data Collection Tool in European languages.

  2. Introduction: gender-based violence and international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brysk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women (according to the WHO, one in three women worldwide suffers from gender violence is an issue of global security as well as of human rights. Because these human security violations have a very significant impact on development, conflict, public health and transnational flows, they merit study from the international relations perspective. We find that academic research into the links between neoliberal development and insecurity, the response via the mobilisation of international institutions for legal and public policy reform, and the rise of transnational social movements contributes and enriches our understanding of the dynamics and the direction to of globalisation, as well as the well-being of over a billion of our planet’s female inhabitants.

  3. Improving fishing effort descriptors: Modelling engine power and gear-size relations of five European trawl fleets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Rihan, Dominic; Graham, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Based on information from an international inventory of gears currently deployed by trawlers in five European countries, the relationship between vessel engine power and trawl size is quantified for different trawl types, trawling techniques and target species. Using multiplicative modelling it i...

  4. Nucleus accumbens neurotransmission and effort-related choice behavior in food motivation: effects of drugs acting on dopamine, adenosine, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Podurgiel, Samantha; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2013-11-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA depletions or antagonism leave aspects of appetite and primary food motivation intact, rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and that stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors produces behavioral effects that are similar to those induced by DA antagonism. The present review summarizes the literature on the role of NAc DA and adenosine in effort-related processes, and also presents original data on the effects of local stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in NAc core. Local injections of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine directly into NAc core produces shifts in effort-related choice behavior similar to those induced by DA antagonism or A2A receptor stimulation, decreasing lever pressing but increasing chow intake in rats responding on a concurrent fixed ratio/chow feeding choice task. In contrast, injections into a neostriatal control site dorsal to the NAc were ineffective. The actions of pilocarpine on this task were attenuated by co-administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Thus, drugs that act on DA, adenosine A2A, and muscarinic receptors regulate effort-related choice behavior, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia that can be observed in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine affects effort-related decision making in a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task: reversal with antidepressant drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Behavioral activation is a fundamental feature of motivation, and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon evaluations of reinforcement value and response costs. Furthermore, people with major depression and other disorders often show anergia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and alterations in effort-related decision making. Tasks measuring effort-based decision making can be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine induces depressive symptoms in humans, and also preferentially depletes dopamine (DA. Rats were assessed using a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding task, in which they can either lever press on a PROG schedule for preferred high-carbohydrate food, or approach and consume a less-preferred lab chow that is freely available in the chamber. Previous work has shown that the DA antagonist haloperidol reduced PROG work output on this task, but did not reduce chow intake, effects that differed substantially from those of reinforcer devaluation or appetite suppressant drugs. The present work demonstrated that tetrabenazine produced an effort-related shift in responding on the PROG/chow procedure, reducing lever presses, highest ratio achieved and time spent responding, but not reducing chow intake. Similar effects were produced by administration of the subtype selective DA antagonists ecopipam (D1 and eticlopride (D2, but not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist and putative appetite suppressant AM 4413, which suppressed both lever pressing and chow intake. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3, the antidepressant and catecholamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl, all reversed the impairments induced by tetrabenazine. This work demonstrates the potential utility of the PROG/chow procedure as a

  6. Non-Western International Relations Theory: Myth or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mikhailovna Lebedeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Russian and foreign literature increasingly raises the question on national theories of international relations. A special interest is manifested towards non-Western theories of international relations. The article analyzes the reasons for such interest. It is noted that the main motive for scholars to search for national schools is the transformation of the political organization of the world that emerged in the West and was developing largely on the Western model. This transformation encompasses three levels of political organization of the modern world: the Westphalian system, the system of international (interstate relations and the political systems of a state. Three levels of political organization of the world changing at the same time today reinforce each other and generate synergies. With such a large-scale transformation, when all three levels are “moving”, the world is facing for the first time, although the change of the second and especially the third levels were before. As far as the system of political organization of the world undergoes major changes, IR theories, which appeared in the West, are in crisis. Researchers’ attention to non-Western, primarily Asian TMO to find answers due to the following reasons: 1 the rapid economic growth of the region; 2 the development of scientific research in Asia; 3 the crisis of the Western model of political organization in the world that encourages the search for solutions in other civilizational structures. The article substantiates the necessity and possibility of “project activities” for reforming the political organization of the world and include practices that exist in different regions of the world. In order to implement such activities, the work of specialists from different brunches of social sciences is required.

  7. Global assemblages and structural models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    -category of assemblages – those constructed as malleable and governable which I call ‘governance-objects’ – is central to structure in international relations. The chapter begins with standard definitions of what structures are – patterns of interaction between elements – and briefly covers the range of models currently...... used to simplify different structures. Next the chapter points to the blindness of most structural theories of IR to the role of assemblages in general and governance-objects in particular. Thirdly, the idea that a polity is constituted precisely by the assemblage of a governance...

  8. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhot, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. International Conference on Advances of Fractals and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ka-Sing

    2014-01-01

    This volume collects thirteen expository or survey articles on topics including Fractal Geometry, Analysis of Fractals, Multifractal Analysis, Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems, Probability and Stochastic Analysis, written by the leading experts in their respective fields. The articles are based on papers presented at the International Conference on Advances on Fractals and Related Topics, held on December 10-14, 2012 at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The volume offers insights into a number of exciting, cutting-edge developments in the area of fractals, which has close ties to and applications in other areas such as analysis, geometry, number theory, probability and mathematical physics.   

  10. The Curious Case of ‘Schools’ of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yongjin; Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2017-01-01

    This article interrogates the questions evoked by the curious case of ‘schools’ of thought in International Relations (IR) through the twin perspectives of the sociology of knowledge and geopolitics of knowledge. Drawing inspirations from the tradition of the sociology of IR pioneered by E. H. Carr......: to engage in a purposely contentious politics, to question the claim of the American ‘core’ as the creator, depositor, and distributor of universal knowledge, and to unveil the geo-historical linkage between the political and the epistemic. School labelling matters, we further argue, because it has become...

  11. Collaborative research efforts and related activities of the Office of Rare Diseases Research at the USA National Institutes of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Groft

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Rare diseases present unique challenges to meet the numerous and varied needs of the rare diseases community and it is required to identify and address these needs. Significant financial and personnel resources are required to address these needs identified. The Office of Rare Diseases Research (ORDR at the USA National Institutes of Health (NIH has attempted to meet many of these needs in collaborative efforts with the research Institutes and Centers of NIH and other partners in the private and public sectors in the USA and around the world. Several of the activities of the NIH and the ORDR are presented as possible collaborative efforts available to research investigators and include the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network, the Bench-to-Bedside research program at NIH, the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information center, the genetic test development program, and the information on clinical research studies made available through Clinical trials.gov. The value of an appropriate family medical history is discussed as are the provisions of the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act of 2008 (GINA. Definitions of rare or orphan diseases vary from country to country and may cause some confusion to the rare diseases community.

    Conclusions: Rare diseases are not limited by geographical or historical boundaries and global partnerships of the rare diseases community are experiencing rapid expansion to assist in the development of orphan products for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases and conditions. The unmet needs of the rare diseases community require additional innovative research and educational programs to reach the extensive global populations affected by the thousands of different rare diseases including activities with the National Organization for Rare Disorders and the Genetic Alliance.

  12. [Psychosocial stress and disease risks in occupational life. Results of international studies on the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J; Dragano, N

    2008-03-01

    Given the far-reaching changes of modern working life, psychosocial stress at work has received increased attention. Its influence on stress-related disease risks is analysed with the help of standardised measurements based on theoretical models. Two such models have gained special prominence in recent years, the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. The former model places its emphasis on a distinct combination of job characteristics, whereas the latter model's focus is on the imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received in turn. The predictive power of these models with respect to coronary or cardiovascular disease and depression was tested in a number of prospective epidemiological investigations. In summary, twofold elevated disease risks are observed. Effects on cardiovascular disease are particularly pronounced among men, whereas no gender differences are observed for depression. Additional evidence derived from experimental and ambulatory monitoring studies supplements this body of findings. Current scientific evidence justifies an increased awareness and assessment of these newly discovered occupational risks, in particular by occupational health professionals. Moreover, structural and interpersonal measures of stress prevention and health promotion at work are warranted, with special emphasis on gender differences.

  13. All projects related to China | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, China, India, Philippines, Viet ... GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, Gender ... Topic: International cooperation, INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS, Civil society, ...

  14. International evaluation of the programme on engine-related combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcoumanis, D [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Greenhalgh, D [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom); Magnusson, B F [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Peters, N [Institut fuer Technische Mechanik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The 12 projects in the engine related combustion programme cover the entire range from fundamental and theoretical aspects of combustion to more applied subjects such as engine control. The common denominator in the programme clearly is the internal combustion engine, both the reciprocating as well as the gas turbine engine. Such a large coverage by a relatively small number of projects necessarily leads to an isolation of some of the projects in terms of their subject as well as the methodology that is used. On the other hand, all the research areas of interest in combustion technology are represented by at least one of the projects. These are: mathematical and numerical methods in combustion; modelling of turbulent combustion; laser diagnostics of flows with combustion; studies of engine performance and their control; semi-empirical model development for practical applications. As a conclusion, the evaluation committee believes that the programme is well balanced between fundamental and applied projects. It covers the entire range of modern methodologies that are used on the international level and thereby contributes to the application and further development of these research tools in Sweden

  15. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  16. Public Diplomacy and Refugee Relations Reflections of Turkey’s Refugees Relations on the International Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün Köksoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Public diplomacy is described as a new form of relations and communications between countries and societies in the field of international relations with the process of globalisation. The subject of refugees shown among the priority issues can be solved through international cooperation and solidarity with its results affecting all countries and societies, that’s why becoming part of public diplomacy. Asylum seekers and refugee rights are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and considered to be an area that the international community needs to take the roles and share responsibilities. In this aspect, it is shown as global responsibilities and part of the humanitarian sensibility of countries and societies. In one hand, asylum seekers and refugees are considered to be the subject of the problem and crisis, on the other hand, due to contributing to the human and cultural interaction between the different communities, these are specified as part of public diplomacy. This article discusses the relationship between public diplomacy and refugees relations which provides the interaction between countries and effects the prestige and perception of them. In the study, to reveal the reflections of Turkey’s Refugees Relations on the International Media, three highest-circulation newspapers (“The Guardian”, “Le Monde”, “Der Spiegel” will be choosen from three important EU countries (United Kingdom, France, Germany. These newspapers’ headlines and news content which related to Turkey and Syrian refugees are going to be analized on three-month period. As a result, Turkish public diplomacy and refugee relations and its implications on the international media in the context of Syrian refugees will be evaluated and some recommendations for the future of Turkish public diplomacy and refugee relations will be provided.

  17. Multicultural, Intercultural Diversity--What Do We Call "It" and How Do These Terms Show Up in Public Relations Efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Diversity should be first understood from an individual's own culture. Yet few public relations professionals have had a course in interpersonal communication. If public relations is viewed as a profession where the management of people is important, then knowledge of diversity in the workplace seems imperative. The multicultural, intercultural,…

  18. Baseline autonomic nervous system arousal and physical and relational aggression in preschool: the moderating role of effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L; Crick, Nicki R

    2011-09-01

    The current study investigates whether established associations between physical aggression and low autonomic nervous system arousal, as indexed by heart rate and blood pressure, also apply to the study of the development of relational aggression. Baseline heart rate and blood pressure were collected in two samples of preschoolers, and teachers reported on classroom physical and relational aggression. In Study 1, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure were related to increased engagement in relational aggression among older preschoolers. In Study 2, lower heart rate and blood pressure predicted increased engagement in classroom physical and relational aggression concurrently and across a preschool year in some cases. Low baseline arousal-aggression associations were strongest for children with poorer self-regulation abilities, whereas high self-regulation appeared to protect children with low heart rate and blood pressure from engagement in aggressive classroom behavior. These findings suggest the utility of examining baseline physiological measures in the study of relational aggression as well as physical aggression. Implications for interventions targeted to physical and relational aggression in early childhood are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related

  20. Relations between information and communication technologies and international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the topic of the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on the international migration phenomenon According to the discussed literature, there is an impression that ICTs change the essence of migration and monitoring of migration flows. It also suggests that migration and migrants’ needs shape the development of ICT services intended to them, but they also shape the content of social media. The impact of new technologies on international migration (before migration, during migration and upon arrival in the country of destination has been discussed through an overview of empirical research findings in Serbia and other countries. In this context, the ICT users relevant to the migration process (individuals and interest groups have been more closely determined and discussed, the aspects of the relations between ICTs and migration have been highlighted, as well as their implications for individuals and society. The considered aspects of relations of ICTs and international migration at different stages of the migration process and their severe implications for individuals and society, in our opinion, point to the need for cooperation of users of information and communication technologies relevant to the migration process in different domains ‒ the spheres of influence of ICTs. We believe that is how the potential of ICTs will be exploited in an adequate way, for benefit of both ‒ migrants and other relevant interested parties. While widely accepted by individuals, information and communication technologies have just begun to be recognized as important for migration policy in Serbia and generally, in terms of their opportunities and challenges. In Serbia, only recently (as of the 2011 Census there has been data available on the use of ICTs by certain migrant groups (long-term settled refugees from former Yugoslav republics. Also, the qualitative surveys on the use of ICTs during the migration by transit

  1. Designing Interventions that Last: A Classification of Environmental Behaviors in Relation to the Activities, Costs, and Effort Involved for Adoption and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Harriet E.; Boldero, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers draw on behavioral research to design interventions that promote the voluntary adoption of environmental behavior in societies. Many environmental behaviors will only be effective if they are maintained over the long-term. In the context of climate change and concerns about future water security, behaviors that involve reducing energy consumption and improving water quality must be continued indefinitely to mitigate global warming and preserve scarce resources. Previous reviews of environmental behavior have focused exclusively on factors related to adoption. This review investigates the factors that influence both adoption and maintenance, and presents a classification of environmental behaviors in terms of the activities, costs, and effort required for both adoption and maintenance. Three categories of behavior are suggested. One-off behaviors involve performing an activity once, such as purchasing an energy efficient washing machine, or signing a petition. Continuous behaviors involve the performance of the same set of behaviors for adoption and for maintenance, such as curbside recycling. Dynamic behaviors involve the performance of different behaviors for adoption and maintenance, such as revegetation. Behaviors can also be classified into four categories related to cost and effort: those that involve little cost and effort for adoption and maintenance, those that involve moderate cost and effort for adoption and maintenance, those that involve a high cost or effort for adoption and less for maintenance, and those that involve less cost or effort for adoption and a higher amount for maintenance. In order to design interventions that last, policy makers should consider the factors that influence the maintenance as well as the adoption of environmental behaviors. PMID:29163265

  2. Work-Related Attitudes of Czech Generation Z: International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kubátová,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present work-related attitudes of a sample of Czech Generation Z and their comparison to the results of an international research study. Currently, there are three important trends influencing the labor market: (1 the origin and development of a ubiquitous working environment, (2 the thriving of coworking centers, and (3 Generation Z's entering the labor market. Instead of traditional jobs, the bearers of human capital tend to choose independent work in an online environment, and often work in coworking centers. Using self-determination theory, we substantiate why they thrive better this way. Based on the results of an international research project focused on work attitudes among Generation Z and the results of a replication study we carried out in the Czech Republic, we attest that members of Generation Z may prefer independent virtual work in coworking centers, too. The total amount of available human capital, the lack of which is pointed out by companies, may grow thanks to new ways of working. Companies, which can use human capital of independent workers, gain a competitive advantage.

  3. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  4. GROWTH OF CORMORANT PHALACROCORAX-CARBO-SINENSIS CHICKS IN RELATION TO BROOD SIZE, AGE RANKING AND PARENTAL FISHING EFFORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PLATTEEUW, M; KOFFIJBERG, K; DUBBELDAM, W

    1995-01-01

    Growth parameters of Cormorant hatchlings are described in relation to brood size and age ranking of each chick within individual broods. Growth rates, expressed as body mass increment per day over the period of linear, growth (5-30 days), ranged from 56.4-102.8 g . d(-1) and were found to be

  5. Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the fourth meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.

  6. Sixth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Solimento, S. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings contain contributions from about 200 participants to the 6th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'99) held in Naples May 24-29, 1999, and organized jointly by the University of Naples "Federico II," the University of Maryland at College Park, and the Lebedev Institute, Moscow. This was the sixth of a series of very successful meetings started in 1990 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland. The other meetings in the series were held in Moscow (1992), Baltimore (1993), Taiyuan P.R.C. (1995) and Balatonfuered, Hungary (1997). The present one was held at the campus Monte Sant'Angelo of the University "Federico II" of Naples. The meeting sought to provide a forum for updating and reviewing a wide range of quantum optics disciplines, including device developments and applications, and related areas of quantum measurements and quantum noise. Over the years, the ICSSUR Conference evolved from a meeting on quantum measurement sector of quantum optics, to a wide range of quantum optics themes, including multifacet aspects of generation, measurement, and applications of nonclassical light (squeezed and Schrodinger cat radiation fields, etc.), and encompassing several related areas, ranging from quantum measurement to quantum noise. ICSSUR'99 brought together about 250 people active in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on nonclassical light sources and related areas. The Conference was organized in 8 Sections: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations; Harmonic oscillators and squeeze transformations; Methods of quantum interference and correlations; Quantum measurements; Generation and characterisation of non-classical light; Quantum noise; Quantum communication and information; and Quantum-like systems.

  7. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed.

  8. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance Time in the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter,David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, robert; Zande, Chris Vande

    2012-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR - Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post- Shuttle 6-year service life.

  9. All projects related to | Page 536 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY, ACCESS ... Building a Cross-sectoral, Multi-sectoral, Gender-sensitive Approach to ... in international trade and an important item on the international development agenda.

  10. All projects related to | Page 522 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Peru, Uruguay, North and Central America ... Topic: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, Gender ... Negotiations around intellectual property rights (IPR) are increasingly a key factor in international trade and an important item on the international development agenda.

  11. All projects related to | Page 259 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-20

    Project. Different countries are at different stages of demographic change. Start Date: October 20, 2011. End Date: April 20, 2014. Topic: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Region: Brazil ...

  12. All projects related to Burkina Faso | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... with the general rise in food prices has increased food insecurity in the Sahel. ... Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) is an international ... between researchers, inventors and innovators and public decision-makers with a ...

  13. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effort-related effects of dopamine blockade: differential interaction with D1 and D2 family antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Lila T; Shahriari, Mona; Farrar, Andrew M; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-04-01

    Brain dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-seeking behaviors that have high response requirements, and instead select less effortful alternatives. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related choice behavior, emerging evidence demonstrates a role for adenosine A(2A) receptors. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism has been shown to reverse the effects of DA antagonism. The present experiments were conducted to determine if this effect was dependent upon the subtype of DA receptor that was antagonized to produce the changes in effort-related choice. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg IP) was assessed for its ability to reverse the effects of the D1 family antagonist SCH39166 (ecopipam; 0.2 mg/kg IP) and the D2 family antagonist eticlopride (0.08 mg/kg IP), using a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding procedure. MSX-3 produced a substantial dose-related reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing and chow intake. At the highest dose of MSX-3, there was a complete reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing. In contrast, MSX-3 produced only a minimal attenuation of the effects of SCH39166, as measured by regression and effect size analyses. The greater ability of MSX-3 to reverse the effects of D2 vs. D1 blockade may be related to the colocalization of D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors on the same population of striatal neurons.

  14. Transfusion-related adverse events at the tertiary care center in North India: An institutional hemovigilance effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Prasun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to analyze the incidence and spectrum of adverse effects of blood transfusion so as to initiate measures to minimize risks and improve overall transfusion safety in the institute. Materials and Methods: During the period from July 2002 to July 2003 all the adverse events related to transfusion of blood and blood components in various clinical specialties were recorded. They were analyzed and classified on the basis of their clinical features and laboratory tests. Attempt was also made to study the predisposing risk factors. Results: During the study period 56,503 blood and blood components were issued to 29,720 patients. A total of 105 adverse reactions due to transfusion were observed during the study period. A majority of the adverse reactions was observed in hemato-oncology patients 43% (n = 45 and in presensitized patient groups 63% (n = 66. FNHTR 41% (n = 43 and allergic reactions 34% (n = 36 were the most common of all types of adverse transfusion reactions, followed by AcHTR 8.56% (n = 9. Majority of these AcHTR were due to unmonitored storage of blood in the refrigerator of wards resulting in hemolysis due to thermal injury. Less frequently observed reactions were anaphylactoid reactions (n = 4, bacterial sepsis (n = 4, hypervolemia (n = 2, hypocalcemia (n = 2, TRALI (n = 1, DHTR (n = 1, and TAGvHD (n = 1. Conclusion: Analysis of transfusion-related adverse outcomes is essential for improving safety. Factors such as improvement of blood storage conditions outside the blood bank, improvement in cross-matching techniques, careful donor screening, adherence to good manufacturing practices while component preparation, bedside monitoring of transfusion, and documentation of adverse events will help in reducing transfusion-related morbidity and mortality.

  15. Elite International Schools in the Global South: Transnational Space, Class Relationalities and the "Middling" International Schoolteacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarc, Paul; Mishra Tarc, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The elite international school is a rich site for sociological inquiry in global times. In this paper, we conceptualize the international school as a transnational space of agonist social class-making given the dynamic positioning of the complement of international school actors. We position international schoolteachers in the middle of these…

  16. New insights from direct monitoring of turbidity currents; and a proposal for co-ordinating international efforts at a series of global "turbidity current test sites"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talling, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Turbidity currents, and other types of submarine sediment density flow, arguably redistribute more sediment across the surface of the Earth than any other flow process. It is now over 60 years since the seminal publication of Kuenen and Migliorini (1950) in which they made the link between sequences of graded bedding and turbidity currents. The deposits of submarine sediment density flows have been described in numerous locations worldwide, and this might lead to the view that these flows are well understood. However, it is sobering to note quite how few direct measurements we have from these submarine flows in action. Sediment concentration is the critical parameter controlling such flows, yet it has never been measured directly for flows that reach and build submarine fans. How then do we know what type of flow to model in flume tanks, or which assumptions to use to formulate numerical simulations or analytical models? It is proposed here that international efforts are needed for an initiative to monitor active turbidity currents at a series of 'test sites' where flows occur frequently. The flows evolve significantly, such that source to sink data are needed. We also need to directly monitor flows in different settings with variable triggering factors and flow path morphologies because their character can vary significantly. Such work should integrate numerical and physical modelling with the collection of field observations in order to understand the significance of field observations. Such an international initiative also needs to include coring of deposits to link flow processes to deposit character, because in most global locations flow behaviour must be inferred from deposits alone. Collection of seismic datasets is also crucial for understanding the larger-scale evolution and resulting architecture of these systems, and to link with studies of subsurface reservoirs. Test site datasets should thus include a wide range of data types, not just from direct flow

  17. All projects related to canada | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Malawi has high rates of maternal mortality despite concerted efforts to increase the rate of births at health ... Community-Based Cause of Death Study Linked to Maternal and Child Health Program and Vital Statistics in Ethiopia (IMCHA).

  18. All projects related to Mexico | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AIDS has emerged as a major challenge to sustainable development and poverty reduction efforts - including the Millennium Development Goals - the world over. ... and promote leadership and participation in, the battle against HIV/AIDS.

  19. All projects related to malawi | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Malawi has high rates of maternal mortality despite concerted efforts to increase the rate of births at health facilities. Topic: MATERNAL AND CHILD ... Malawi has the highest preterm delivery rate in the world. Topic: MATERNAL AND CHILD ...

  20. All projects related to | Page 90 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Malawi has high rates of maternal mortality despite concerted efforts to increase the rate of births at health facilities. Topic: MATERNAL AND CHILD ... Malawi has the highest preterm delivery rate in the world. Topic: MATERNAL AND CHILD ...

  1. Trying to Win the Legal Battle but Losing the Strategic War: U.S. Efforts to Thwart the International Criminal Court

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chitwood, Mitchell R

    2007-01-01

    The International Criminal Court ("ICC") is widely regarded within the international community as a positive and necessary step toward individual accountability for those who order and carry out the most heinous of crimes genocide, crimes...

  2. Problems relating to international transport of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, U.E.

    1985-01-01

    Owing to the tremendous geographic distances between uranium deposits of interest, to the various degrees of sophistication of nuclear industry in industrialized countries and to the close international cooperation in the field of nuclear energy, safe international transports, physical protection and transport handling play an important role. It is suggested to better coordinate the activities of nuclear power plant operators, the nuclear industry and specialized transport companies with respect to all national and international issues of nuclear fuel transports. (DG) [de

  3. International migration desires related to subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ruohong; Esipova, Neli; Oppenheimer, Michael; Feng, Shuaizhang

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the determinants of international migration has largely focused on objective factors, such as income. We instead use subjective well-being (SWB) to explain international migration desires, an expressed willingness to migrate. We find that individuals with higher SWB have lower international migration desires. At the individual level, the SWB-migration relationship appears to be more robust than the income-migration relationship. At the country level, national average SWB ...

  4. All projects related to Nigeria | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adding Behavioural Science Capacity to Document Deterrents and Promoters of HIV ... Topic: HIGHER EDUCATION, KNOWLEDGE, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, ... Program: International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change.

  5. All projects related to | Page 382 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... WATERWAYS, INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS, CONFLICT RESOLUTION ... Because Gender Matters : Strengthening Social and Gender Analysis in ENRM in ... Addressing inequality and environmental insecurity in the Middle East and ...

  6. All projects related to | Page 409 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... WATERWAYS, INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS, CONFLICT RESOLUTION ... Because Gender Matters : Strengthening Social and Gender Analysis in ENRM in ... Addressing inequality and environmental insecurity in the Middle East and ...

  7. All projects related to canada | Page 11 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Canadian International Food Security Research Fund ... Topic: CASE STUDIES, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, HEALTH SYSTEM, PUBLIC HEALTH, ... for good practices in consumer protection, particularly for developing countries.

  8. All projects related to chile | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... demands economic, social and environmental data from a wide range of sources. ... WATERWAYS, INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS, CONFLICT RESOLUTION ... Fiscal Schemes for Inclusive Development (FSID) : Evaluating Tax and ...

  9. Regional Community and International Relations: the Volgograd Region Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danakari Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the complex and controversial problems of the new regional communities’ formation and the impact of the interethnic relations sphere on them. The author notes that the processes of interaction between representatives of different cultures and civilizations, ethnic groups and religions have become increasingly controversial and tense in the context of continuous social dynamics. Similarly to the Russian society as a whole, regional communities are in a state of transitivity. They get transformed, they acquire new qualities such as multicasting and heterogeneity, multi-ethnicity and multi-confessionalism, fragmentarity and multiculturality. This fact increases the risks and uncertainties, problematizes future prospects. National non-governmental organizations are increasingly positioning themselves as civil society institutions at the present stage of social development at the regional level. They perform a difficult dual task: on the one hand, they ensure the preservation and development of history, native language, culture, ethnic traditions, and on the other hand, they work on the integration, on the common identity and the Russian nation formation. On the territory of the Volgograd region, largely due to the active cooperation of regional authorities and local authorities with national public associations, international and inter-confessional relations are stable. The basis of such activity is respect for history, native language, culture, tradition, religion, national dignity of all people in the region, regardless of their belonging to a certain ethnic group or religion. Over two decades of accumulated considerable experience of joint inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation, provided tolerance and peace, harmony and mutual understanding between people of different ethnicities and religions in the country.

  10. Texas-style Fundraising and Public Relations for the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Sandra; Barna, J. W.; Geiger, S.; Johnson, R.; Rimm, N.; Griffin, J.; Watson, K.

    2008-05-01

    McDonald Observatory can be a leader in Texas for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA09) celebration. Our strategy builds on the IYA09 program, tailoring it for the Texas audience, while also nationally promoting McDonald Observatory, UT Astronomy, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and our partnership in the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). We will also use this opportunity to make a concentrated outreach effort toward the Hispanic and Spanish-speaking communities in Texas and the nation, aligning with the IYA09 objective for improving relations with underrepresented and minority populations. Fundraising is a key ingredient to our success in 2009 and the future. With NASA Office of Space Science funding for education and public outreach being rethought, we will be focusing on new sources for fundraising, including private donations and corporate sponsorship, augmented by planned giving. We will take advantage of the timing to raise funds for special IYA09 programs, as well as for our large telescope projects HETDEX and GMT, along with our endowment and planned giving programs for education, outreach, and research. We will work with the UT McCombs School of Business on corporate sponsorship. During this time we will also go through a branding experience that will visually unify McDonald Observatory, UT Astronomy, and the education and public outreach programs. A consistent brand that can be used on the website and other media is our goal to build a stronger public presence that will aid us in our fundraising efforts. A Public Relations Internship Project produced a report to help launch this process. We are working with the UT College of Communications Advertising Department and with Hill Strategic Brand Solutions in Houston, Texas. We hope that our efforts will produce Texas-sized results!

  11. All projects related to Guatemala | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-01-23

    Project. For several decades, a variety of Canadian academic and nonacademic programs have enabled young Canadians to undertake international practicums through volunteer and work abroad programs. Start Date: January 23, 2007. End Date: July 6, 2012. Topic: VOLUNTEERS, YOUTH, International cooperation, ...

  12. All projects related to | Page 528 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    Negotiations around intellectual property rights (IPR) are increasingly a key factor in international trade and an important item on the international development agenda. Start Date: January 1, 2008. End Date: April 14, 2011. Topic: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ACCESS TO INFORMATION.

  13. All projects related to | Page 551 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    Negotiations around intellectual property rights (IPR) are increasingly a key factor in international trade and an important item on the international development agenda. Start Date: January 1, 2008. End Date: April 14, 2011. Topic: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ACCESS TO INFORMATION.

  14. All projects related to | Page 552 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    Negotiations around intellectual property rights (IPR) are increasingly a key factor in international trade and an important item on the international development agenda. Start Date: January 1, 2008. End Date: April 14, 2011. Topic: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ACCESS TO INFORMATION.

  15. All projects related to | Page 336 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-25

    The Chantier de l'économie social, in consortium with its major partners, is organizing an international forum on social economy and solidarity (Forum international de l'économie sociale et solidaire) in Montreal, 17-20 October 2011. Start Date: October 25, 2010. End Date: October 25, 2013. Topic: COMMUNITY ...

  16. All projects related to Canada | Page 16 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Canadian universities with liaison and information services on international development. ... Topic: UNIVERSITIES, International cooperation, POLICY MAKING ... a viable food system and are therefore highly vulnerable to climate change. ... Canada's World is a three-year citizens' dialogue aimed at advancing a new ...

  17. Middle east and North African oil in international relations (from 1970 to these days)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafie, Hossein

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum is not purely an economical product, its main role in world economy and its concentration in Middle East and North Africa (two third of world reserves) made influence international politics. Knowing the nature of the region, petroleum and politics make one. The politicization of oil in the region starts, first of all, with the efforts of some powers, through their companies, to dominate oil countries, which by reaction incite these countries to eliminate foreign domination and establish their national control on oil matters. The situation is changing progressively. The position of productive states got stronger with the beginning of the 1970's which permitted the use of oil, in a way relatively efficient, as an instrument of power. Consequently, the balance of power shifted deeply in the favor of producers. On this basis, the argument consists of three parts: the first puts theoretic bases - theory of economical arm - and defines geographical and historical environment of the research. The second part studies the period of force of the oil countries, from the fourth Israel-Arab war and oil embargo that followed it, to the end of the second oil slump. The third part explains the shift of power on the international scene and the relative decline of oil power for the states of the region. The analysis of impact of the oil slump in 1986 and the mini impact of the second Persian Gulf war, quickly dominated, lead to clear the actual situation and outline the viewpoint of the future. (author)

  18. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  19. All projects related to ethiopia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 365,500.00. Upgrading Women's Food Product Value Chains in Northern Ethiopia. Project. Promoting agricultural product value chains and linking farmers to markets are key strategies in Ethiopia's efforts to fight poverty and improve food security. Topic: Poverty ...

  20. Global, regional and national nuclear risk management. Use of ALARA in decision-making on costly international cleanup effort of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, I.; Shaposhnikov, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the national risk management, it's found out that 'external' source of hazard situated at the territory of neighbor country contributes heavily to total public and environment risk of the country. In order to remove such an opportunity, it's necessary to establish for these purposes special international funds ('safety funds') intended for environment pollution international standards. They are used for helping to establish quantitative standards for contribution in such fund from different countries. The authors considered problem of the optimal international investment in risk reducing from radioactive waste dumping in water of oceans. Coordinated mechanism for management and control, international legislative and legal norms are discussed

  1. All projects related to peru | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Think Tank Initiative's (TTI) Phase 2 capacity development strategy focuses on ... access to the Internet has become a priority for developing countries. ... SOCIAL JUSTICE, VIOLENCE, WOMEN, International cooperation, Gender ... Topic: LATIN AMERICA, EDUCATION, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, GENDER EQUALITY, ...

  2. All projects related to canada | Page 12 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-11-01

    Integrated Nutrient and Water Management for Sustainable Food Production in the Sahel (CIFSRF) ... equality") is an important principle of Canada's international cooperation program. Start Date: November 1, 2011. End Date: March 31, 2015.

  3. All projects related to pakistan | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia : Building a Community of Experts ... an organization based in India with South Asian reach, to facilitate exchange ... Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality.

  4. All projects related to | Page 537 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-24

    End Date: December 24, 2010. Topic: TRADE LIBERALIZATION, Globalization, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, INTRAREGIONAL TRADE, TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SMALL ENTERPRISES, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, TRADE AGREEMENTS. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Ghana, ...

  5. All projects related to | Page 683 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-05-01

    End Date: May 1, 2010. Topic: INFORMATION NETWORKS, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, International cooperation. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, West Indies. Program: Networked Economies.

  6. All projects related to | Page 279 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Canadian International Food Security Research Fund ... two regions of the Peruvian Andes (Cusco and Cajamarca) known for their high biodiversity and active farmers' associations. ... Obesity rates are on the rise in the Caribbean.

  7. All projects related to Indonesia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    International labour migration is a salient feature of regional economic ... PAN Localization : Bahasa Indonesia Language Resources and Translation System ... the H5N1 subtype is a major disease of poultry that affects humans at a low rate.

  8. All projects related to mexico | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and international organizations to address challenges faced by indigenous people, ... Harnessing big data to meet the Sustainable Development Goals – Building ... Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Open data platforms for ...

  9. All projects related to colombia | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and economic inclusion in developing countries poses particular challenges for ... Region: North and Central America, South America, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, ... Program: International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change.

  10. Security as a Power Element within Contemporary International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Gabriel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, more than ever, in a globalized and constantly changing world, Europe has to face new stakes and challenges. The globalization, climate change, power supply and the new threats to security are challenges that Europe of the XXIst century has to cope with. The early XXIst century coincides with a new era in the international politics, the future evolution of the worls and the new international order, with the economy and security being the central spots.

  11. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  12. International Contribution to the Highway Agency's Bridge Related Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowak, A. S.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    and prediction of the remaining life. However, the parameters, which are involved in the evaluation process, are random variable. Therefore, a considerable research effort has been directed at the development of probability-based methodology. The research projects considered in the paper include the development...... of reliability models for analysis of bridges subjected to corrosion and fatigue, and reliability-based optimization of maintenance strategies for bridges....

  13. Globalisation of water resources: International virtual water flows in relation to international crop trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Hung, P.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The water that is used in the production process of a commodity is called the ‘virtual water’ contained in the commodity. International trade of commodities brings along international flows of virtual water. The objective of this paper is to quantify the volumes of virtual water flows between

  14. Crimea And The Politics Of Legitimacy In International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vlasov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that four years have passed since the accession of Crimean peninsula, an active polemic continues in the academic community. Obviously, it somehow sets a certain political discourse not only of the present, but also of the future. Therefore, one cannot ignore the existence of serious arguments from those who criticize legitimacy of the Russia’s actions. However, on the other hand, there are enough legal and legitimate reasons to recognize the reunification of Crimea and Russia as fully justified. The analysis of the relationship between the legal and political aspects of legitimacy is crucial in this matter. In the post-Soviet period, the Ukrainian government, setting a course for rapid Ukrainianization and building (almost not taking in consideration its own realias a state of the European type, proved unable to change the pro-Russian identity of the Crimeans. On the contrary, its policies only increased people’s discontent with Ukrainian reality. As a result, the pro-Russian orientation of the majority of Crimean residents has become both Russian legitimacy and legality. In addition, the issues of national security were an important circumstance of the Russian leadership actions during this period. Russia was forced to consolidate its high traditional legitimacy on the peninsula legally, when it sensed a threat to it from the expanding NATO because of the coup d’état and the ouster of the legitimate authority. Introducing the blockade of the peninsula, the Kiev authorities finally undermined the Ukrainian legitimacy among the population of the Crimea. The blockade, first by non-state actors, and then by state structures of Ukraine in water supply, access to electricity, restriction of freedom of movement and in other areas, led to the violation of human rights in the Crimea. Today, the Ukrainian state in every possible way reneges on international law norms in relation to the Crimeans, arguing that the Russian

  15. Acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on effort-related decision-making and reward learning: an evaluation of the cannabis 'amotivational' hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Will; Freeman, Tom P; Pope, Rebecca A; Joye, Alyssa; Harvey, Lisa; Hindocha, Chandni; Mokrysz, Claire; Moss, Abigail; Wall, Matthew B; Bloomfield, Michael Ap; Das, Ravi K; Morgan, Celia Ja; Nutt, David J; Curran, H Valerie

    2016-10-01

    Anecdotally, both acute and chronic cannabis use have been associated with apathy, amotivation, and other reward processing deficits. To date, empirical support for these effects is limited, and no previous studies have assessed both acute effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as well as associations with cannabis dependence. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine acute effects of cannabis with CBD (Cann + CBD) and without CBD (Cann-CBD) on effort-related decision-making and (2) to examine associations between cannabis dependence, effort-related decision-making and reward learning. In study 1, 17 participants each received three acute vaporized treatments, namely Cann-CBD (8 mg THC), Cann + CBD (8 mg THC + 10 mg CBD) and matched placebo, followed by a 50 % dose top-up 1.5 h later, and completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). In study 2, 20 cannabis-dependent participants were compared with 20 non-dependent, drug-using control participants on the EEfRT and the Probabilistic Reward Task (PRT) in a non-intoxicated state. Cann-CBD reduced the likelihood of high-effort choices relative to placebo (p = 0.042) and increased sensitivity to expected value compared to both placebo (p = 0.014) and Cann + CBD (p = 0.006). The cannabis-dependent and control groups did not differ on the EEfRT. However, the cannabis-dependent group exhibited a weaker response bias than the control group on the PRT (p = 0.007). Cannabis acutely induced a transient amotivational state and CBD influenced the effects of THC on expected value. In contrast, cannabis dependence was associated with preserved motivation alongside impaired reward learning, although confounding factors, including depression, cannot be disregarded. This is the first well powered, fully controlled study to objectively demonstrate the acute amotivational effects of THC.

  16. What contribution can international relations make to the evolving global health agenda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sara E

    2010-01-01

    This article presents two approaches that have dominated International Relations in their approach to the international politics of health. The statist approach, which is primarily security-focused, seeks to link health initiatives to a foreign or defence policy remit. The globalist approach, in contrast, seeks to advance health not because of its intrinsic security value but because it advances the well-being and rights of individuals. This article charts the evolution of these approaches and demonstrates why both have the potential to shape our understanding of the evolving global health agenda. It examines how the statist and globalist perspectives have helped shape contemporary initiatives in global health governance and suggests that there is evidence of an emerging convergence between the two perspectives. This convergence is particularly clear in the articulation of a number of UN initiatives in this area - especially the One World, One Health Strategic Framework and the Oslo Ministerial Declaration (2007) which inspired the first UN General Assembly resolution on global health and foreign policy in 2009 and the UN Secretary-General's note "Global health and foreign policy: strategic opportunities and challenges". What remains to be seen is whether this convergence will deliver on securing states' interest long enough to promote the interests of the individuals who require global efforts to deliver local health improvements.

  17. The Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP) and the JEFF-3.3 radioactive decay data library: Combining international collaborative efforts on evaluated decay data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Mark A.; Bersillon, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    The Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP), is an international collaboration of decay data evaluators formed with groups from France, Germany, USA, China, Romania, Russia, Spain and the UK, mainly from the metrology community. DDEP members have evaluated over 220 radionuclides, following an agreed upon methodology, including a peer review. Evaluations include all relevant parameters relating to the nuclear decay and the associated atomic processes. An important output of these evaluations are recommendations for new measurements, which can serve as a basis for future measurement programmes. Recently evaluated radionuclides include: 18F, 59Fe, 82Rb, 82Sr, 88Y, 90Y, 89Zr, 94mTc, 109Cd, 133Ba, 140Ba, 140La, 151Sm and 169Er. The DDEP recommended data have recently been incorporated into the JEFF-3.3 Radioactive Decay Data Library. Other sources of nuclear data include 900 or so radionuclides converted from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), 500 from two UK libraries (UKPADD6.12 and UKHEDD2.6), the IAEA Actinide Decay Data Library, with the remainder converted from the NUBASE evaluation of nuclear properties. Mean decay energies for a number of radionuclides determined from total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy (TAGS) have also been included, as well as more recent European results from TAGS measurements performed at the University of Jyväskylä by groups from the University of Valencia, Spain and SUBATECH, the University of Nantes, France. The current status of the DDEP collaboration and the JEFF Radioactive Decay Data Library will be presented. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  18. Provisions relating to Nuclear Energy. II - International Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book published by the Portuguese Junta de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Energy Commission) reproduces in Portuguese and in the original language (English or French), texts of a series of international conventions in the nuclear field and the Statutes of international nuclear organisations and undertakings. The following are among the texts included: the Statutes of the IAEA, NEA, Eurochemic; the Euratom Treaty; the Tlatelolco Treaty; the co-operation agreement between Portugal and the United States on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. (NEA) [fr

  19. Contract Administration of the Ice Delivery Contract between International American Products, Worldwide Services and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers during the Hurricane Katrina Recovery Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Culp, Deborah L; Wan, Bobbie S; Dutton, Gary B; Steinbauer, Jeffrey L; Herman, Rachel L; Kistler, Jonathan M; Johnson, Meredith H

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Principal Assistant Responsible for Contracting requested a review on the administration of the ice delivery process between International American Products, Worldwide Services and the U.S...

  20. The Libyan Rebellion: With Media as a Weapon : A study of a modern insurgency’s effort to influence international media

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Amund Bakke

    2012-01-01

    During the spring of 2011 thousands of international journalists entered rebel-held eastern Libya to report on the popular uprising that rapidly developed into a full-blown civil war. The revolutionary insurgency was in need of both international legitimacy and support for their struggle, and they got what they wanted: Support from the western public, and military support in form of a UN certified air based bombing campaign against their adversary, Muammar Gaddafi. This qualitative study exam...

  1. All projects related to colombia | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Private funding - including out-of-pocket expenditure - is a considerable source of health financing in Latin America, where families can face economic ruin from ... The Entra 21 program was created in 2001 by the International Youth Foundation (IYF) with support from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and a ...

  2. All projects related to | Page 155 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South Asia, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, South Africa. Program: Think Tank Initiative. Total Funding: CA$ 692,000.00. Southern Voice on Post-Millennium Development Goals. Project. As 2015 approaches, the international ...

  3. All projects related to | Page 273 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-10

    The Fifth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD2012) will take place 12-15 March 2012 at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) in Atlanta, USA. Start Date: January 10, 2012. End Date: January 10, 2013. Topic: RESEARCH RESULTS ...

  4. All projects related to Indonesia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-07-19

    International labour migration is a salient feature of regional economic integration and an integral component of development among countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Start Date: July 19, 2009. End Date: December 20, 2011. Topic: MIGRANT WORKERS, FOREIGN WORKERS, WORKING ...

  5. All projects related to | Page 616 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ 232,973.00. Connecting Disadvantaged Youth to Quality Employment using ICTs (Latin America). Project. The Entra 21 program was created in 2001 by the International Youth Foundation (IYF) with support from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and a number ...

  6. All projects related to morocco | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 2,500,000.00. Arab Democracy Barometer. Project. The joint Arab Democracy Barometer constitutes the second wave of surveys for both the Arab Barometer (University of Michigan) and the Arab Reform Initiative (ARI).

  7. All projects related to | Page 540 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, Economic and social development. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, India. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 1,003,000.00. Impact of China on sub-Saharan Africa : Country Case Studies. Project. China is ...

  8. All projects related to | Page 610 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... against Women (CEDAW) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) are legally bound to put their provisions into practice. ... Region: Argentina, South America, Iran, Middle East, Kenya, Pakistan, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, Far East ...

  9. All projects related to | Page 609 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-09-14

    Countries that have ratified or acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) are legally bound to put their provisions into practice. Start Date: September 14, 2006. End Date: August 13 ...

  10. All projects related to Canada | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: LIVESTOCK FEEDING, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, IMMUNOLOGY, ANIMAL HEALTH, VACCINES. Region: Kenya, Canada. Program: Canadian International Food Security Research Fund. Total Funding: CA$ 4,900,000.00. Novel Livestock Vaccines for Viral Diseases in Africa toward Improved Food Security ...

  11. All projects related to south africa | Page 13 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-01-23

    Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad Programs. Project. For several decades, a variety of Canadian academic and nonacademic programs have enabled young Canadians to undertake international practicums through volunteer and work abroad programs. Start Date: January 23, 2007. End Date: ...

  12. All projects related to | Page 586 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-01-01

    Partnership Africa Canada (PAC) undertakes research and policy dialogue on priority issues affecting Africa, in collaboration with partner organizations in Africa and internationally. Start Date: January 1, 2007. End Date: June 30, 2010. Topic: DIAMONDS, MINING DEVELOPMENT, MINING POLICY. Region: North of Sahara ...

  13. All projects related to | Page 393 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Global Knowledge Partnership (GKP) is a multi-stakeholder partnership that seeks to advance the use of information and communication technology for development (ICT4D). Start Date: March 15, 2009. End Date: January 15, 2010. Topic: Evaluation, ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE, International cooperation, RESEARCH ...

  14. All projects related to | Page 318 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: International cooperation, POLICY MAKING, TRAINEES, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Poverty alleviation. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Sri Lanka, Peru, South Africa. Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ ...

  15. All projects related to | Page 115 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: POLICE, RESEARCH, POLICY MAKING, ASIA ... Through case studies in Uganda, this project will test dominant international and government ... This project addresses the lack of quantitative and qualitative employment data for ... The coastal area of Cartagena, an important tourist destination in Colombia, is home to ...

  16. International market segmentation based on consumer-product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M

    With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain

  17. All projects related to | Page 346 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: BIOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, ECOLOGY. Region: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Kenya, Peru, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Mexico, Canada. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 2,158,187.00. International Barcode of Life Project : Engaging ...

  18. All projects related to | Page 345 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: BIOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, ECOLOGY. Region: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Kenya, Peru, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Mexico, Canada. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 2,158,187.00. International Barcode of Life Project : Engaging ...

  19. All projects related to | Page 493 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    Women, Migration and Rights in Mali and Sénégal. Project. In West Africa, notably Mali and Sénégal, the flow of women's migration takes place mainly within and between countries. Start Date: February 15, 2008. End Date: August 26, 2011. Topic: INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, RURAL URBAN MIGRATION, MIGRANT ...

  20. All projects related to | Page 434 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-03-05

    In the 1980s, as recommended by the international organizations, almost all African countries adopted direct payment for healthcare services as the principal means of financing their health systems. Start Date: March 5, 2009. End Date: November 26, 2012. Topic: Evaluation, HEALTH FINANCING, FEES, ACCESS TO ...

  1. All projects related to | Page 592 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-26

    In March 2007, IDRC's Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) hosted an Inter American workshop on tobacco control in Colonia, Uruguay, for approximately 30 participants active in tobacco control in the region. Start Date: February 26, 2008. End Date: June 1, 2013. Topic: TOBACCO, SMOKING, TOBACCO ...

  2. All projects related to canada | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Previous IDRC-funded research, as well as the relevant literature, indicates that ... to support Canada's role in the multilateral peace process in the Middle East ... in key agenda-setting bodies if international governance mechanisms are to be ...

  3. All projects related to | Page 651 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture and the Exercise of Decision Making by Women in West Africa. Project. This research is grounded in the phenomenon of the simultaneous existence of a legal arsenal of national and international dispositions favorable to the integration of women in economic, political and social decision-making, and weak ...

  4. All projects related to | Page 446 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-06-30

    International Lawyers and Economists against Poverty (ILEAP) is an initiative that aims to help African and Caribbean countries derive full benefit from integration into the global economy. Start Date: June 30, 2008. End Date: April 30, 2011. Topic: TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, TRADE AGREEMENTS, REGIONAL INTEGRATION.

  5. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  6. 'For good and for bad': the relations between universal obligations and particular efforts in the field of nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassen Van, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The world has 'nuclear non-proliferation' on its lips. Presidents, politicians, journalists and others refer to it as the number one peril in our times. This may be right or wrong but irrespective of the real salience of 'nuclear dangers' it has a grip on our minds and wallets. A long range of states now make active investments in the improvement of nuclear security; not only at home as they used to do, but even abroad in other places and countries where there is concern with regard to how safe nuclear and materials are kept and stored. This development is surely an expression of a shared broadening of our sense of responsibility beyond the narrow confines of statehood and borders, and therefore this development should please us. On the other hand, the truly universal measures and instruments of the NPT and the regime round it are in trouble. It is being stated in some quarters that the NPT is inadequate in a new era with new threats from sub-state actors. Nevertheless, the NPT is the only legal instrument that is a framework that either by itself or as a starting-point can serve as a tool box for long-term storage of the proliferation risks. The reason for this is that the NPT is an expression of fairness in terms of rights and balances for all states committed to non-proliferation. And its foundations are those of international law. To the extent the NPT is being questioned will there also be a risk that non-proliferation efforts in the framework of cooperative threat reduction and for instance global partnership will lose legitimacy; simply for the reason that only a small number of the non-proliferation concerns are given attention. This relationship between cooperative threat reduction efforts on the one hand and universal legal instruments for non-proliferation on the other is a double-edged sword. While the two can reinvigorate and strengthen each other, there is also a risk that the one - cooperative threat reduction - when given preference over

  7. International Food Security: Insufficient Efforts by Host Governments and Donors Threaten Progress to Halve Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    AIDS human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome IEHA Initiative to End Hunger in Africa (A U.S. Presidential Initiative...term agricultural development have not been successful. The United States’ Presidential Initiative to End Hunger in Africa ( IEHA ...Africa, but these efforts are not integrated into IEHA . Given this fragmented approach to food security, the U.S. government is likely missing

  8. THE CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL LAW. A RELATION BETWEEN HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEANNETTE IRIGOIN BARRENE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During an armed conflict, a change in the application of the human right regulations and international humanitarian law can be observed in the practice of contemporary international law. It is possible to observe at UN and International Courts’ levels an interesting trend in the sense of considering the application of both systems simultaneously in cases of international crisis as well as in internal conflicts. This innovation in contemporary international law can be observed initially in the change experimented by the legislation of the Human Rights’ European Court and specially and clearer in the Human Rights’ Inter American Court, which in cases against Honduras, Colombia, Paraguay and other countries, states that the State, being warrantor of the efficient protection of civil population, must apply and honor not only the Human Rights’ American Convention, but also the articles 13th and 14th of the II protocol of the Geneva Conventions of 1949. The convergence of both branches of the Law, and its application may help to achieve a better defense and efficiency of the fundamental rights of the human being.

  9. The role of theory of international relations in explicating global political events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Bardhok Bashota

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is rather obvious that different developments in the international relations scene are so dynamic that a theory of international relations cannot elaborate alone the ways they begin, develop and eventually end. Therefore, one must underline that using a theoretical framework of wi-der extent becomes almost indispensable. In this sense, one must underli-ne that IR theories are paths or means used by scholars to provide expla-nation on these developments. Among numerous IR theories, those app-lied the most are the three key ones: liberalism, realism and rationalism. These three theories, depending on the manner and logic of approach and effort in trying to elaborate an IR event, they gain labels in a specific form, for instance – positivist theories. They are called positivist, because they aim to pursue the example of natural science to be more accurate in their work, at least in a metaphorical sense. Therefore, the contents of this paper provide an example of physics, to adapt to the nature of theory elaborated herein. The reason and objective of this paper is to argue our thesis that “li-beral theory alone cannot elaborate on all IR developments, and more theories are required”. The two other theories, realism and ratio-nalism help build a more wholesome understanding of IR developments. Also, the two other theories are used to support or counter the arguments of liberals and liberalism in relation to interpretation, explication and forecast of IR developments, which are tasks of an IR theory. This research is realized in a temporal context of post Cold War. This period is more suitable for study, and has attracted our interest. Otherwise, the three theoretical traditions had existed even before, and any effort to elaborate in details would be historical. Also, the focus in only three main IR theories, Liberalism, Realism and Rationalism, narrow down the field of study and make it more tangible. Nevertheless, to have an easier job in

  10. International legislation relative to nuclear pollution of the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birot, Chantal.

    1973-01-01

    The part played by various competent international bodies in the establishment of international rules concerning the nuclear pollution of oceans is analysed. As it stands this legislation distinguishes clearly between pollution caused by peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy. In studying the former type of pollution the problems of radioactive wastes, sea transport of radioactive substances, ships propelled by nuclear energy and isotopic generators in a marine environment are considered in turn. From the military viewpoint the legislation seems more complicated and the problems are of two kinds: that of nuclear armaments in a marine environment and the consequent risks, and that of fall-out from experimental atmospheric explosions carried out in peace time but for military purposes [fr

  11. The politics of inter-regionalism: relations between international regional organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, J.M. van der; Ribeiro Hoffman, A.; Reinalda, B.

    2013-01-01

    As the development of relations between international regional organizations, inter-regionalism denotes a relatively recent phenomenon. Largely due to systemic bipolarity, inter-regional relations remained limited to 'dialogue partnerships' between the European Community (EC) and other regional

  12. Third International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Rubin, Morton H. (Editor); Shih, Yan-Hua (Editor); Zachary, Woodford W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of these workshops is to bring together an international selection of scientists to discuss the latest developments in Squeezed States in various branches of physics, and in the understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics. At the third workshop, special attention was given to the influence that quantum optics is having on our understanding of quantum measurement theory. The fourth meeting in this series will be held in the People's Republic of China.

  13. The impact of international service on the development of volunteers' intercultural relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Benjamin J; Sherraden, Margaret Sherrard; McBride, Amanda Moore; Xiang, Xiaoling

    2014-07-01

    Approximately one million people from the United States perform international volunteer service each year, representing a significant flow of ideas, people, resources, and aid across international borders. This quasi-experimental study assesses the longitudinal impact of international volunteer service on volunteers' intercultural relations, international social capital, and concern about international affairs. Using linear mixed regression models that control for a counterfactual comparison group of individuals that did not travel abroad, international volunteers are more likely to report significant increases in international social capital and international concern two to three years after returning from service. Results indicate that intercultural relations may also continue to increase years after returning from service. International service may be a useful approach to helping people gain skills and networks that are needed in an increasingly global society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dopaminergic modulation of effort-related choice behavior as assessed by a progressive ratio chow feeding choice task: pharmacological studies and the role of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Mesolimbic dopamine (DA is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats can lever press on a PROG schedule reinforced by a preferred high-carbohydrate food pellet, or alternatively approach and consume the less-preferred but concurrently available laboratory chow. Rats pass through each ratio level 15 times, after which the ratio requirement is incremented by one additional response. The DA D(2 antagonist haloperidol (0.025-0.1 mg/kg reduced number of lever presses and highest ratio achieved but did not reduce chow intake. In contrast, the adenosine A(2A antagonist MSX-3 increased lever presses and highest ratio achieved, but decreased chow consumption. The cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist and putative appetite suppressant AM251 decreased lever presses, highest ratio achieved, and chow intake; this effect was similar to that produced by pre-feeding. Furthermore, DA-related signal transduction activity (pDARPP-32(Thr34 expression was greater in nucleus accumbens core of high responders (rats with high lever pressing output compared to low responders. Thus, the effects of DA antagonism differed greatly from those produced by pre-feeding or reduced CB1 transmission, and it appears unlikely that haloperidol reduces PROG responding because of a general reduction in primary food motivation or the unconditioned reinforcing properties of food. Furthermore, accumbens core signal transduction activity is related to individual differences in work output.

  15. All projects related to | Page 254 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-02-10

    related Violence in Mexico. Project. Violent conflict related to drug trafficking in Mexico has had a profound impact on the quality of life and health of affected communities. Start Date: February 10, 2012. End Date: May 10, 2014. Topic: NARCOTICS ...

  16. All projects related to Mexico | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    State and Community Responses to Drug-related Violence in Mexico. Project. Violent conflict related to drug trafficking in Mexico has had a profound impact on the quality of life and health of .... Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  17. Fuzzy histogram for internal and external fuzzy directional relations

    OpenAIRE

    Salamat , Nadeem; Zahzah , El-Hadi

    2009-01-01

    5 Pages; Spatial relations have key point importance in image analysis and computer vision. Numerous technics have been developed to study these relations especially directional relations. Modern digital computers give rise to quantitative methods and among them fuzzy methods have core importance due to handling imprecise knowledge information and vagueness. In most fuzzy methods external directional relations are considered which are useful for small scale space image analysis but in large s...

  18. Toward More Emphasis in International Public Relations Research and Education: A USA Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    International public relations continues to be a rare experience in most public relations curriculums, but courses are found in journalism and business. The emphasis, however, is slightly different. Business departments emphasize international economic principles to be supported by public relations, whereas journalism stresses issues management…

  19. Formation of UAE State and Factors for Development of International Relations between UAE and African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Voronkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of formation of UAE state and features formation of international relations between UAE and African countries including low level of political and economic ties between UAE and African countries and dominant role of economic and humanitarian assistance in their relations provided both through international organizations and on bilateral basis by Abu Dhabi Fund for Development. Islam and traditional values of Arab culture are considered defining factors for formation of such structure of international relations.

  20. Cost related to nuclear power plants: the international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This report about the international costs of nuclear electricity generations is divided in two distinct parts: the first one shows the competitiveness of the main sources of electricity generation for base load operation according to studies carried on by OECD and UNIPEDE since 1983; the second one discusses the most recent OECD study about the different types of power plants to be constructed in its number states, based on the experience of each country and the technology evolution of the different fuels used. (F.E.). 4 refs, 2 figs, 27 tab

  1. All projects related to | Page 212 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... lack of basic services, unplanned built environments, and relatively weak governments. ... PLANNING, RISK MANAGEMENT, GENDER ANALYSIS, SOUTHEAST ASIA ... Upgrading Women's Food Product Value Chains in Northern Ethiopia.

  2. All projects related to | Page 597 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, YOUTH, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED ... SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR, Disease control, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ... a different way of doing business related to information, knowledge and culture, in which ...

  3. All projects related to | Page 667 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... disempowering and empowering effects on women and gender relations. ... African Transitional Justice Research Network ... Topic: DECENTRALIZATION, LOCAL GOVERNMENT, Civil society, SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, SOCIAL EQUITY.

  4. All projects related to | Page 666 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... disempowering and empowering effects on women and gender relations. ... African Transitional Justice Research Network ... Topic: DECENTRALIZATION, LOCAL GOVERNMENT, Civil society, SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, SOCIAL EQUITY.

  5. A Neural Circuit Mechanism for the Involvements of Dopamine in Effort-Related Choices: Decay of Learned Values, Secondary Effects of Depletion, and Calculation of Temporal Difference Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Dopamine has been suggested to be crucially involved in effort-related choices. Key findings are that dopamine depletion (i) changed preference for a high-cost, large-reward option to a low-cost, small-reward option, (ii) but not when the large-reward option was also low-cost or the small-reward option gave no reward, (iii) while increasing the latency in all the cases but only transiently, and (iv) that antagonism of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors also specifically impaired selection of the high-cost, large-reward option. The underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that findings i–iii can be explained by the dopaminergic representation of temporal-difference reward-prediction error (TD-RPE), whose mechanisms have now become clarified, if (1) the synaptic strengths storing the values of actions mildly decay in time and (2) the obtained-reward-representing excitatory input to dopamine neurons increases after dopamine depletion. The former is potentially caused by background neural activity–induced weak synaptic plasticity, and the latter is assumed to occur through post-depletion increase of neural activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus, where neurons representing obtained reward exist and presumably send excitatory projections to dopamine neurons. We further show that finding iv, which is nontrivial given the suggested distinct functions of the D1 and D2 corticostriatal pathways, can also be explained if we additionally assume a proposed mechanism of TD-RPE calculation, in which the D1 and D2 pathways encode the values of actions with a temporal difference. These results suggest a possible circuit mechanism for the involvements of dopamine in effort-related choices and, simultaneously, provide implications for the mechanisms of TD-RPE calculation. PMID:29468191

  6. The Role of International Juridical Process in International Security and Civil-Military Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    judged, although under domestic criminal law provisions, certainly in the light of the Nuremberg principles, e.g. the Eichmann case by the District...Court of Jerusalem in 1961, and the case of Klaus Barbie in France. Until today the application of international rules of war remains generally

  7. The international politics of climate engineering : A review and prospectus for international relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horton, Joshua B.; Reynolds, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Proposed large-scale intentional interventions in natural systems in order to counter climate change, typically called “climate engineering” or “geoengineering,” stand to dramatically alter the international politics of climate change and potentially much more. There is currently a significant and

  8. U.S. international trade in transportation-related goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Trade in motor vehicles and parts makes up three : of every four dollars that the U.S. trades in : transportation-related goods. : Canada is the United States' leading trade partner : in transportation-related goods, followed by : Japan and Mexic...

  9. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients.

  10. Characterizing multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation via internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.

  11. All projects related to | Page 612 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to ... Competitiveness on the part of Egyptian enterprises is regarded as one of the key factors in the country's economic development. ... Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in Dynamic Markets.

  12. All projects related to | Page 606 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... enables young people to use information and communication technologies ... Topic: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, YOUTH, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED ... is a different way of doing business related to information, knowledge and culture, ...

  13. All projects related to | Page 605 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... enables young people to use information and communication technologies ... Topic: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, YOUTH, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED ... is a different way of doing business related to information, knowledge and culture, ...

  14. All projects related to | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Building momentum in West Africa ... the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) concluded with a wide ... Beyond Access: promoting gender transformative finance for Zambian ...

  15. All projects related to Malaysia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Food, Environment, and Health ... Topic: SOUTHEAST ASIA, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, POLICY MAKING, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, TRADE ... Nam is mandated to review drafts of legislation related to economic management, ...

  16. All projects related to Lebanon | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic Governance in Transition ... Region: Egypt, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, United States ... Region: Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Israel.

  17. All projects related to | Page 71 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Opening Access to Economic Data to Prevent Tobacco and Alcohol Related Diseases in Africa ... Tax solutions for optimal reduction of tobacco use in West Africa ... South of Sahara, Central Asia, South Asia, Far East Asia, West Indies, North ...

  18. All projects related to | Page 66 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet ... Opening Access to Economic Data to Prevent Tobacco and Alcohol Related Diseases in Africa ... Tax solutions for optimal reduction of tobacco use in West Africa.

  19. All projects related to | Page 81 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet ... Opening Access to Economic Data to Prevent Tobacco and Alcohol Related Diseases in Africa ... Tax solutions for optimal reduction of tobacco use in West Africa.

  20. All projects related to | Page 303 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project is a joint initiative between the University of Nairobi, Kenya, and the ... grants and related support services, including short courses, workshops and supervision of research projects. ... Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  1. All projects related to South Africa | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research network on global administrative law (GAL network) was ... Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display ... SOCIAL PLANNING, SOCIAL SERVICES, POVERTY MITIGATION, SOCIAL ...

  2. All projects related to | Page 413 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display some of the most youthful age structures in the world. ... SOCIAL PLANNING, SOCIAL SERVICES, POVERTY MITIGATION, SOCIAL SECURITY.

  3. All projects related to | Page 412 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display some of the most youthful age structures in the world. ... SOCIAL PLANNING, SOCIAL SERVICES, POVERTY MITIGATION, SOCIAL SECURITY.

  4. All projects related to | Page 176 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia ... assumed that the cost of tobacco-related disease to national economies and households is ... An investigation into the determinants of business performance in Francophone Africa.

  5. All projects related to | Page 634 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS, MEDICAL RESEARCH, MEDICAL EDUCATION, PUBLIC HEALTH, ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH. Region: North and ... Topic: POLITICAL REFORM, Governance, GOVERNMENT MILITARY RELATIONS, POLICE, HUMAN RIGHTS, Civil society. Region: ...

  6. All projects related to Colombia | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most research on armed conflict in Colombia has focused on the narcotics trade. ... Topic: METHODOLOGY, Evaluation, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, HEALTH ... Open business is a different way of doing business related to information, ...

  7. All projects related to colombia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a ... goals and reforms will shed light on the neglected field of law and development. ... experience injustice and how they exercise their agency to demand justice.

  8. All projects related to Kenya | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / Kenya ... Poor understanding of policy processes tends to reduce the value of research results and the ... Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display ...

  9. All projects related to bolivia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The city of Cochabamba produces 400 tons of solid waste per day, which is ... Over the past 15 years, the Andean countries - Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and ... Bolivia has gone through a long and conflictive process related to land redistribution.

  10. All projects related to | Page 389 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    Project. The Association for Progressive Communication (APC) is repositioning itself in relation to information and communication technology (ICT) policy research. Start Date: March 1, 2010. End Date: July 1, 2012. Topic: APPLIED RESEARCH, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, INFORMATION SOCIETY, POLICY MAKING.

  11. All projects related to | Page 665 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Historically, the cooperative sector in Latin America has contributed to job ... Topic: COOPERATIVES, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, Globalization, POLICY MAKING ... promote domestic trade and orient economic relations toward other countries ...

  12. All projects related to Canada | Page 12 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Planning and Evaluation by Canadian Civil Society Organizations : Bridging Gaps ... of legislation related to economic management, business activity and monetary affairs ... Region: Far East Asia, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Malaysia, ...

  13. All projects related to | Page 337 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Far East Asia, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Malaysia, Canada, ... of legislation related to economic management, business activity and monetary ... to supervise the implementation of state plans for socioeconomic development.

  14. All projects related to | Page 339 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Far East Asia, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Malaysia, Canada, ... of legislation related to economic management, business activity and monetary ... to supervise the implementation of state plans for socioeconomic development.

  15. All projects related to Canada | Page 14 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Planning and Evaluation by Canadian Civil Society Organizations : Bridging Gaps ... of legislation related to economic management, business activity and monetary affairs ... Region: Far East Asia, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Malaysia, ...

  16. All projects related to tanzania | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Africa, epidemic malaria is an emerging climate-related hazard that urgently needs ... Free and Open Source Management Information Systems and Microfinance ... Integrated Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Management in Small Urban ...

  17. All projects related to bangladesh | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ATTITUDES, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER RELATIONS, ... Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in Developing Countries ... been subject to policies that are geared toward eradicating the system altogether, ...

  18. All projects related to bolivia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to bolivia ... Topic: AQUACULTURE, FISH CULTURE, FISH PRODUCTION, FISHERY PRODUCT PROCESSING, FISH UTILIZATION, ... Project. This grant will support a study of the factors (aspects, instruments, sectors and ...

  19. All projects related to | Page 573 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Microfinance and reducing poverty in Central Africa ... multistakeholder initiative that is top-down in its approach to technological connectivity but bottom-up in relation to content and knowledge management. ... Program: Networked Economies.

  20. All projects related to | Page 574 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Microfinance and reducing poverty in Central Africa ... multistakeholder initiative that is top-down in its approach to technological connectivity but bottom-up in relation to content and knowledge management. ... Program: Networked Economies.

  1. All projects related to China | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to China ... crop improvement and natural resource management are under stress. ... The vast majority of workers in India, and an increasing share of the labour force in China, work under conditions described as informal.

  2. All projects related to Brazil | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to Brazil ... Cellular senescence is a programmed response to oncogenic (tumour-causing) stress that aims to halt the expansion of cells ... Tackling online inequality: Making digital platforms work for inclusive development.

  3. All projects related to peru | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to peru. Keyword ... Local practices pertaining to biodiversity conservation, crop improvement and natural resource management are under stress. ... Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad Programs.

  4. All projects related to Argentina | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC THEORY, DEVELOPMENT THEORY, Economic and social ... is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic ... part related to deficient functioning of the labour market in developing countries.

  5. International Relations and Diplomatic Service: Retrospective Analysis and Prospects of The New World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii V. Ohotskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presented as a review to the textbook of the Doctor of History Shakhalilov Shamansur, The History of International Relations: Driving Forces, Global Tendencies. Moscow State University Press, 2015. The author focuses readers attention on the regularities of formation, development and peculiarities of legal regulation of international relations, considers these relations as an ongoing, highly controversial and multidirectional developing process of the formation of the world system of States and international relations, explores the driving forces, events and phenomena, who had in his time, and many still have a decisive influence on international policy the leading powers of the world in the framework of nonlinear processes of globalization and the current, seriously flawed by today's standards, world order and system of international law. The article draws readers attention to everything presented in the tutorial main substantial characteristics and patterns of international relations in their historical context. Emphasizes the inadmissibility of violations of principles and norms of functioning of the traditional system of international law; analyses the factors of influence on the world trends of globalization processes is the gradual destruction of the boundaries between national and international levels of government and governance, the increasing role of supranational political actors. Attention is drawn to the increasing importance in international Affairs information and communication technologies and social networks, expanding the access of citizens to discuss government decisions on international issues. Article will help not only students, but all interested in the patterns, principles and features of international practices in different historical periods and in different civilization. Will foster in the reader a holistic view of the system of international relations and diplomatic activities, to learn, to understand the

  6. Priorities in public relations research: An international Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A Delphi study on the priorities for public relations research, conducted in 2007 amongst\\ud academics, practitioners and senior executives of professional and industry bodies in five\\ud continents, has ranked the ten most important topics for research and proposed the associated\\ud research questions. This is the first completed Delphi study into public relations research since\\ud Synnott and McKie (1997) which was itself a development of earlier studies of this type by\\ud McElreath (1980, 1...

  7. The Role of Parenting Styles in the Relation Between Functions of Aggression and Internalizing Symptoms in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Casey A; Rathert, Jamie L; Fite, Paula J; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric inpatient hospitalization is a costly intervention for youth. With rates of hospitalization rising, efforts to refine prevention and intervention are necessary. Aggression often precedes severe internalizing behaviors, and proactive and reactive functions of aggression are differentially associated with internalizing symptomatology. Thus, further understanding of the links between functions of aggression and internalizing symptomatology could aid in the improvement of interventions for hospitalized youth. The current study examined parenting styles, gender, and age as potential moderators of the relations between proactive and reactive aggression and internalizing symptoms. Participants included 392 children, 6-12 years of age admitted consecutively to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Reactive aggression was uniquely associated with anxiety symptoms. However, proactive aggression was associated with internalizing problems only when specific parenting styles and demographic factors were present. Although both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression were associated with internalizing symptoms, differential associations were evident. Implications of findings are discussed.

  8. All projects related to Brazil | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open business is a different way of doing business related to information, ... play the role of being either the primary incentive or the primary source of remuneration. ... tobacco companies claim that such policies will have a negative impact on ...

  9. All projects related to South Africa | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Shaping Social Protection in Africa : National Transfer Accounts. Project. Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display some of the most youthful age structures in the world. Start Date: December 15, 2008. End Date: March 21, 2012. Topic: DEMOGRAPHIC MODELS, SOCIAL ...

  10. All projects related to Senegal | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Partnership for adapting Vulnerable Populations to Soil Salinization resulting from ... Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display some of the most youthful age structures in the world. ... SOCIAL PLANNING, SOCIAL SERVICES, POVERTY MITIGATION, SOCIAL SECURITY.

  11. All projects related to | Page 669 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-09-26

    Since the inception of the first Agrarian Reform Law in 1953, Bolivia has gone through a long and conflictive process related to land redistribution. Start Date: September 26, 2007. End Date: December 27, 2008. Topic: AGRICULTURAL LAND, LAND REFORM, LAND TENURE. Region: Bolivia, South America, North and ...

  12. Income-related inequalities in health: some international comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Wagstaff (Adam); H. Bleichrodt (Han)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents evidence on income-related inequalities in self-assessed health in nine industrialized countries. Health interview survey data were used to construct concentration curves of self-assessed health, measured as a latent variable. Inequalities in health favoured the

  13. All projects related to | Page 218 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Promoting Innovation in the Services Sector: Toward Productivity and Competitiveness. Project. The services sector is increasingly important to the economies of Latin America and the Caribbean, but productivity remains relatively low. Start Date: April 1, 2012. End Date: March 12, 2014. Topic: LATIN AMERICA, SERVICE ...

  14. All projects related to | Page 221 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total Funding: CA$ 2,972,900.00. Neglected Issues Relating to African Health Systems: An Incentive for Reform. Project. Inequalities in access to and quality of health services result in poorer health for disadvantaged groups. Topic: WEST AFRICA, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, RESEARCH CAPACITY, HEALTH ...

  15. All projects related to chile | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a per-capita basis and high coverage of water supply services, there is ample evidence that water scarcity is affecting the daily lives of millions. ... Impact of Prices and Taxes on Tobacco Product Use in Argentina,Bolivia,and Chile. Project.

  16. A Study in Historical Materialism and International Relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historical materialism as a discourse assumes that the economic determines the political and other dimensions of society. Nigeria had set specific conditions for renewed relations with apartheid South Africa. These were yet to be met and the intensity that characterised Nigeria's pursuance of an aggressive anti-apartheid ...

  17. Public relations research: European and international perspectives and innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfass, A.; van Ruler, B.; Sriramesh, K.

    2008-01-01

    This volume is a major contribution to the trans-national debate on public relations research and communication management. It presents dominant concepts and findings from the scientific community in Germany in English language. At the same time, the compilation contains a selection of the most

  18. All projects related to Peru | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-06-30

    Health systems in sub-Saharan Africa face a “triple” burden: a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition, an increase in diet-related chronic diseases, and an HIV epidemic that disproportionately affects women. Start Date: June 30, 2009. End Date: July 1, 2014. Topic: Gender. Region: Ghana, Peru, Canada. Program: ...

  19. All projects related to | Page 454 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project was prompted by the perception that partnerships between Canadian research organizations and their counterparts in Africa - in contrast to partnerships between Canadian research organizations and their counterparts in Latin America and the Caribbean - have remained relatively limited and probably fall short ...

  20. 9th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutzer, E.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 3 presents the abstracts of the following discussion groups: Quantization about classical background metrics (36 abstracts); Supergravity, renormalization program (8 abstracts); Classical gauge type theories of gravity (23 abstracts). 14 abstracts not related to any discussion group and 5 later submitted abstracts are also included. An alphabetic author index is given

  1. All projects related to | Page 180 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-27

    In developing countries like Cambodia, it is often assumed that the cost of tobacco-related disease to national economies and households is low, despite a high number of male smokers. Start Date: September 27, 2013. End Date: December 31, 2015. Topic: HEALTH EXPENDITURE, SMOKING, TOBACCO, RESPIRATORY ...

  2. All projects related to | Page 559 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Mission 2007 through Demonstration of Social Enterprise Models, Products ... in its approach to technological connectivity but bottom-up in relation to content and knowledge management. ... IDRC has invested in the development of three regional networks focused on issues ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  3. All projects related to | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This pilot project is one of four pilots exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, a prospective program that would support evidence-based policy engagement on the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Region: South Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

  4. All projects related to | Page 621 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-09-14

    Open Business Models (Latin America) - Phase II. Project. Open business is a different way of doing business related to information, knowledge and culture, in which intellectual property does not play the role of being either the primary incentive or the primary source of remuneration. Start Date: September 14, 2008.

  5. All projects related to india | Page 19 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. India's "Mission 2007 : Every Village Knowledge Centre" is a multistakeholder initiative that is top-down in its approach to technological connectivity but bottom-up in relation to content and knowledge ... ECONOMIC LEGISLATION, SOCIAL LEGISLATION, Poverty alleviation ... Program: Employment and Growth.

  6. All projects related to | Page 244 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-02-07

    Research aimed at policymakers in Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus will highlight how tobacco taxation policies can serve public health goals and reduce the burden of tobacco-related diseases and deaths. Start Date: February 7, 2012. End Date: March 12, 2013. Topic: TOBACCO, SMOKING, TAXATION, PUBLIC HEALTH.

  7. All projects related to | Page 314 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    ... located at the University of Pretoria, endeavors to increase capacity for research and policy analysis in environmental and resource economics in Africa through a program of research grants and related support services, including short courses, workshops and supervision of research projects. Start Date: January 1, 2011.

  8. All projects related to | Page 620 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Colombia, North and Central America. Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ 849,800.00. Open Business Models (Latin America) - Phase II. Project. Open business is a different way of doing business related to information, knowledge and culture, in which intellectual ...

  9. Australian Applied Linguistics in Relation to International Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.; Kaplan, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Applied Linguistics is a diverse field, comprising a substantial number of sub-fields, sub-specialisations and related fields. To see that this is the case one need only examine the various handbooks and encyclopaedic references that have been published in the last ten years to see the wide range of topics that have been covered. As with many…

  10. Global Risks as Factors that Affect the Current system of international Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Zaitseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the globalization of risks is examined in this article. Based on the World Economic Forum (WEF report on global risks 2015-2017, the impact of global risks on the social and economic development of countries is examined. Economic, social, environmental, geopolitical, technological risks are analyzed in a coordinated fashion. The article notes that the main risks are in the field of environment and ecology. Anthropogenic pressure amplification, scientific and technological advance have an influence on the natural environment. The risks of infrastructure and environmental damage in danger zone are increased because of the growth of the frequency of extreme weather events. The measures for the protection of the environment are examined. The unilateral approach to solving international issues, instead of the collective efforts of the international community; the deployment of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical, biological and technologies for the production of radioactive materials; escalation of economic and resource nationalization (the desire of States to expropriate or restrict the export of important for the world economy of resources, etc. promote the increasing geopolitical risks.Economic risks include the risk in terms of their likelihood their impact on the macroeconomic, as from the financial systems and infrastructure to price volatility and regulatory issues. Social risks are the risks relating to instability of population dynamics, social crises and human survival.Technological risks include such problems as software defects, failure of important information systems, upon which today industrial production is depended, the services and communications sector; the escalation of large-scale cyber-attacks; theft of electronic information and the illegal usage of personal data. The trends that can intensify the global risks or to change the correlation between them are analyzed in this article.

  11. Progress in Research and Theory: Eleven Years of International Public Relations Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, W. Timothy

    Public relations has been caught up in the drive to internationalize business. Organizations are now dealing with global constituencies on a more frequent basis, which increases the demand for international public relations. One concern raised by this development is whether or not theory and research are keeping pace with the international needs…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE FRANCHISE RELATIONS IN THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Мазуренко, Валентина Петрівна

    2013-01-01

    The article is about the functioning patterns and modern development tendency of franchise system of the leading company relations of the economically developed countries under conditions of the globalizing business; the comparative analysis of the sectorial distribution of the franchising in U.S., Europe and Ukraine. Also in this article singled out the main factors that hinder the development of a national franchise service market and an improvement of the franchising in Ukraine. 

  14. Public Relations: The Route to Success and Influence. Public Relations for Your Library: A Tool for Effective Communications; Tooting Your Own Horn: Web-Based Public Relations for the School Media Specialist; Bookmarks as a Teaching Tool; Customers and Culture: The Who and What of Library Public Relations Efforts; Strategies for Successful Job Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Linda; Silverstein, Roberta; Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann; Hegel, Claudette; Miller, Donna; Moyer, Mary

    2002-01-01

    This special section includes five articles that discuss public relations strategies for school librarians. Highlights include effective communication, including measuring and evaluating the success of public relations efforts; Web-based public relations; giving bookmarks to students; customers and cultural contexts; and successful job…

  15. A comparison of the additional protocols of the five nuclear weapon states and the ensuing safeguards benefits to international nonproliferation efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, Eva C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, M Analisa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Marisa N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leitch, Rosalyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    With the 6 January 2009 entry into force of the Additional Protocol by the United States of America, all five declared Nuclear Weapon States that are part of the Nonproliferation Treaty have signed, ratified, and put into force the Additional Protocol. This paper makes a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the five Additional Protocols in force by the five Nuclear Weapon States with respect to the benefits to international nonproliferation aims. This paper also documents the added safeguards burden to the five declared Nuclear Weapon States that these Additional Protocols put on the states with respect to access to their civilian nuclear programs and the hosting of complementary access activities as part of the Additional Protocol.

  16. International Education Management: Implications of Relational Perspectives and Ethnographic Insights to Nurture International Students' Academic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, S. M. Riad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: International students, who have a non-English speaking background (NESB), encounter many difficulties, in comparison to their local fellows of an English-speaking country. Literature demonstrates that leveraging various relational perspectives in a multicultural teaching environment has favourable implications to manage the NESB…

  17. Emergency surgery and Limitation of therapeutic effort in relation to neurologic deterioration in elderly patients – a survey of European surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Păduraru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. In emergency surgery, a very heterogeneous approach is required in the decision making process, especially when considering the patient’s postoperative quality of life as well as medical, ethical, and legal factors. In some cases, the presence of an Advance Directive (AD form may potentially help resolve the surgeon’s dilemma. Objectives. The primary objective of this survey was to investigate the opinions of surgeons across a representative cross-section of European countries regarding the decision making process using a specific case scenario so as to identify similarities and differences in practice. A secondary objective was to identify the possibility of establishing a more uniform approach and best practice. Method. A survey was conducted of surgeons from a range of European countries. Questionnaires were designed to obtain an overview of decision making in relation to the Limitation of Therapeutic Effort (LTE using a specific case study and the level of awareness and practical use of ADs. Surveys were distributed via email to the members of the ESTES (European Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery and AEC (Association of Spanish surgeons, with voluntary, anonymous participation. Conclusions. Clear and additional support in the form of legal and ethical guidance with clinical protocols for surgical practice in such case scenarios is necessary. Wider use of ADs, together with education about their role and support for patients and relatives, would benefit the type of patient described in our scenario. A multidisciplinary team should play a more active role in decision making in order to avoid surgical procedures that are potentially futile. The concepts of LTE and Quality of life need a broader understanding among surgeons as well as more consistent application.

  18. International migration and related policies in europe 1950 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Rinus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a its particular development in time; b the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in these three basic migration-related factors. Migration outcomes are not haphazard nor are these the result of unhindered economic push and pull factors in a free market. Immigration policies of receiving countries do greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Regulations on conditions of residence and integration do furthermore influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination, among others by setting conditions for their stay (residence rights and access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines the migration and integration regimes that have been developed by states of different parts of Europe and by the European Union. In conclusion, immigration has become a relevant phenomenon in all EU countries. However, as a consequence of different timing of immigration, different socio-economic contexts and varying governmental migration and integration policies, European countries are confronted with different forms migration (immigration, emigration, transit migration and with different types of migrants. European states have also developed different governmental policies of migration and integration. Historically, a common denominator in the framing of European policies is that countries do not see themselves as immigration countries; they are immigration countries against their will. In recent times, such framing is reinforced by populist and nationalist movements that see immigrants not only as economic competitors, but also as a threat to the national "culture and world views". The more Europe needs immigrants for economic and

  19. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  20. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  1. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  2. [The cynical game of the tobacco industry. Many years' efforts to deny or cover-up the negative effects of tobacco are revealed by the forced publication of internal documents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Mats; Hallhagen, Erika; Boëthius, Göran

    2002-06-13

    Scrutiny of internal tobacco industry documents, now available on the Internet, reveals that Sweden and Finland were classified as "priority 1" areas in which to intensify efforts to resist tobacco control measures. In the late 1980s Philip Morris increased its activities in Scandinavia in order to counteract penal taxation threats and marketing restrictions. Swedish scientists were engaged by the tobacco industry in the "White Coat" project, a program expected to shed doubt on research linking passive smoking to health risks. The Swedish tobacco company Swedish Match collaborated with Philip Morris in challenging measures to limit tobacco use, including the new, stricter tobacco law proposed in the early 1990s.

  3. The effects of scaffolding in the classroom : support contingency and student independent working time in relation to student achievement, task effort and appreciation of support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Janneke; Volman, Monique; Oort, Frans; Beishuizen, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Teacher scaffolding, in which teachers support students adaptively or contingently, is assumed to be effective. Yet, hardly any evidence from classroom studies exists. With the current experimental classroom study we investigated whether scaffolding affects students’ achievement, task effort, and

  4. [Comparison between the risk of mobbing at work and conditions of job strain and effort-reward imbalance in relation to stress-related disorders: a study in the public administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, C; Fraccaroli, E

    2013-01-01

    A limitation of previous research on mobbing at work was that the individual consequences of the phenomenon were often assessed on 'clinical' samples of victims. Studies in organizations are less numerous and those available rarely evaluated the potential effect of mobbing over and above that of other psychosocial factors which provided robust evidence of adverse health effects. The relationship between exposure to mobbing and stress-related psychophysical conditions was investigated taking in consideration the possible concomitant exposure to job strain and effort-reward imbalance. Cross-sectional study on public administration administrative employees (No. = 538, 48% women). The psychosocial factors considered were assessed by means of well known and validated scales. The four health outcomes considered were psychological caseness (as operationalized by means of the general health questionnaire-12-item version), depression, gastritis and colitis/irritable colon syndrome as indicated by having reported a medical diagnosis of such conditions. Covariates: gender, age, body mass index, smoking habits and experience of a traumatic event in the last year. Analysis consisted of a series of logistic regressions. Exposure to mobbing was significantly associated with all the outcomes considered over and above the covariates. The inclusion in the models of job strain and effort-reward imbalance did not substantially alter the results. The relationship between mobbing at work and health outcomes is not confounded by concomitant exposure to job strain and effort-reward imbalance. These results offer further confirmation of the uniqueness of mobbing as a psychosocial risk factor.

  5. Differences in the size-internal velocity relation of galactic and extragalactic HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the size-internal velocity relation in extragalactic HII regions is examined in order to improve their use as distance determinants. The relation between the linear size and the internal velocity was compared for HII regions in the Galaxy and in external galaxies. Data for the former are from the researcher's own studies at high spatial resolution, while the latter have been the subject of spectroscopy that includes almost the entire objects. The Galactic HII regions are corrected to values of the internal velocity that would be observed if they were at extragalactic distances. A very different size-internal velocity relation was found for the two types of objects in the sense that the extragalactic objects are some ten times larger at the same internal velocity. This is interpreted to mean that the extragalactic HII regions are actually complexes of small HII regions comparable in size to their Galactic counterparts

  6. Is International Relations still an American social science discipline in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Duarte Villa

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last 40 years, investigations have shown the discipline of International Relations to reproduce the American influence on its methods, paradigms, and institutional dynamics. This article explores the case for the Latin American community, based on the survey data from the Teaching, Research, and International Politics project (TRIP 2014 developed by the Institute for the Theory and Practice of International Relations of the College of William and Mary, Virginia (USA. TRIP evaluated International Relations communities in 32 countries around the world. The article aims to answer two main questions: (i is American influence still dominant over epistemological, methodological, paradigmatic, and institutional representative terms in Latin American International Relations communities, as has been considered in the past? (ii Is there in the region any contestation to this supposed influence? Primarily, the present article shows an affirmative answer for the first issue. Therefore, and most importantly, the data analysis shows upcoming local pressures rooted in American influence, especially on its epistemic and paradigmatic terms. The data strengthens the miscegenation tendency on its epistemological and paradigmatic aspects, which underlines a lack of consensus over the structure of American dominance over the discipline of International Relations in Latin America, especially if one observes the most numerous and structured group in the region: the Brazilian International Relations community.

  7. Government Publications as Bibliographic References in the Periodical Literature of International Relations: A Citation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Margaret S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study that used citation analysis to identify the government publications cited in international relations journals for 1964, 1974, and 1984. U.S. government, foreign government, and international organization publications and documents are compared by citation rate; implications for collection development in libraries are discussed;…

  8. Post-cold war international relations and foreign policies in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that international relations in Africa have changed especially in content since the abatement of the Cold War. These changes have been accelerated by the pressures unleashed by the international environment, including the reality of Africa's marginalisation and the forces of globalisation. These, along ...

  9. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of…

  10. Understanding Social Learning Relations of International Students in a Large Classroom Using Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Héliot, YingFei; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in higher education is that international students find it difficult to develop learning and friendship relations with host students. When students are placed in a student-centred environment, international students from different cultural backgrounds are "forced" to work together with other students, which allows…

  11. African American Career Aspirations: Examining the Relative Influence of Internalized Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…

  12. Engaging actively with issues in the responsible conduct of science: lessons from international efforts are relevant for undergraduate education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, John D; Connell, Nancy D; Dirks, Clarissa; El-Faham, Mohamed; Hay, Alastair; Heitman, Elizabeth; Stith, James H; Bond, Enriqueta C; Colwell, Rita R; Anestidou, Lida; Husbands, Jo L; Labov, Jay B

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies are demonstrating that engaging undergraduate students in original research can improve their achievement in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and increase the likelihood that some of them will decide to pursue careers in these disciplines. Associated with this increased prominence of research in the undergraduate curriculum are greater expectations from funders, colleges, and universities that faculty mentors will help those students, along with their graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, develop an understanding and sense of personal and collective obligation for responsible conduct of science (RCS). This Feature describes an ongoing National Research Council (NRC) project and a recent report about educating faculty members in culturally diverse settings (Middle East/North Africa and Asia) to employ active-learning strategies to engage their students and colleagues deeply in issues related to RCS. The NRC report describes the first phase of this project, which took place in Aqaba and Amman, Jordan, in September 2012 and April 2013, respectively. Here we highlight the findings from that report and our subsequent experience with a similar interactive institute in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our work provides insights and perspectives for faculty members in the United States as they engage undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral fellows, to help them better understand the intricacies of and connections among various components of RCS. Further, our experiences can provide insights for those who may wish to establish "train-the-trainer" programs at their home institutions.

  13. USSR Report, World Economy and International Relations, No. 12, December 1986

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    This report is a Translation of the Russian-language monthly journal MIROVAYA EKONOMIKA I MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA published in Moscow by the Institute of World Economy and international Relations...

  14. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 4, April 1989

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    This report is a translation of the Russian-language monthly journal MIROVAYA EKONOMIKA I MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA published in Moscow by the Institute of World Economy and International Relations...

  15. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 2, February 1989

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    This report is a translation of the Russian-language monthly journal MIROVAYA EKONOMIKA I MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA published in Moscow by the Institute of World Economy and International Relations...

  16. Private public diplomacy. The end of public hegemony over international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Melgar

    2014-09-01

    We could be witnessing a completely new model: a private public diplomacy that would be based on a sovereign states definitive withdrawal from their monopoly on international relations in favour of the private sector.

  17. U.S. Public Relations from an International Perspective: Curricular Issues and Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.; Ogbondah, Chris W.

    This paper establishes a rationale for international public relations courses in the curricula of university public relations education in the U.S. and outlines the content of such courses. Disagreements between practitioners and educators on a blueprint for public relations education are documented. Developments pointing to a crucial need for…

  18. Public relations ve firmě LUMEN INTERNATIONAL a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    DICHTLOVÁ, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Goal of the thesis was to assess current significance and usage of public relations in LUMEN INTERNATIONAL a.s. company and to create plan of another development. The author analysed development and current situation of public relations in LUMEN holding. There are a few suggestions in this thesis how to improve public relations in whole LUMEN holding.

  19. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Imada, Mihoko

    2013-09-22

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects' contributions to health system strengthening. The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas.

  20. Making sense of the study of international relations: Seeking a guide for perplexed

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnell, John

    2010-01-01

    Patrick Jackson’s book on The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations offers graduate students, younger scholars, and, indeed, many specialists a useful map for charting the often inhospitable terrain of scholarship in the field of International Relations (IR). This is particularly the case as far as illuminating the awakening to issues in the philosophy of science that has taken place in IR during the last two decades. Jackson presents a typology for sorting the debates about the natur...

  1. The conduct of inquiry in international relations: The view from graduate school

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, David; O'Mahoney, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Jackson’s book, The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations, is most likely to be assigned or recommended in graduate classes addressing the philosophy of science, qualitative methodology, and research design. It might then be useful to ask two graduate students whether this is a good idea. How helpful is yet another book on the meta-theoretical status of International Relations? Our answer to this question has four parts. First, we ask whether and how Jackson’s ordering scheme clarifie...

  2. Individual differences in components of impulsivity and effortful control moderate the relation between borderline personality disorder traits and emotion recognition in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Emanuele; Richetin, Juliette; Suttora, Chiara; Pisani, Alberto

    2016-04-30

    Dysfunctions in social cognition characterize personality disorders. However, mixed results emerged from literature on emotion processing. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) traits are either associated with enhanced emotion recognition, impairments, or equal functioning compared to controls. These apparent contradictions might result from the complexity of emotion recognition tasks used and from individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. We conducted a study in a sample of undergraduate students (n=80), assessing BPD traits, using an emotion recognition task that requires the processing of only visual information or both visual and acoustic information. We also measured individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. Results demonstrated the moderating role of some components of impulsivity and effortful control on the capability of BPD traits in predicting anger and happiness recognition. We organized the discussion around the interaction between different components of regulatory functioning and task complexity for a better understanding of emotion recognition in BPD samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The relational underpinnings of quality internal auditing in medical clinics in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Abraham; Zisu, Malka

    2009-03-01

    Internal auditing is a key mechanism in enhancing organizational reliability. However, research on the ways quality internal auditing is enabled through learning, deterrence, motivation and process improvement is scant. In particular, the relational underpinnings of internal auditing have been understudied. This study attempts to address this need by examining how organizational trust, perceived organizational support and psychological safety enable internal auditing. Data collected from employees in medical clinics of one of the largest healthcare organizations in Israel at two points in time six months apart. Our results show that organizational trust and perceived organizational support are positively related to psychological safety (measured at time 1), which, in turn, is associated with internal auditing (measured at time 2).

  4. The Interaction between Negative Emotionality and Effortful Control in Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lyndsey R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between reactive and regulatory dimensions of temperament may be particularly relevant to children's adjustment but are examined infrequently. This study investigated these interactions by examining effortful control as a moderator of the relations of fear and frustration reactivity to children's social competence, internalizing, and…

  5. Relative political and value proximity in mediated public diplomacy: The effect of state-level homophily on international frame building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheafer, T.; Shenhav, S.R.; Takens, J.H.; van Atteveldt, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    This article applies the homophily thesis to public diplomacy and offers an empirical examination of a country's success in its mediated public diplomacy efforts. It analyzes international frame building, the process of creating or changing media frames in the international communications arena, by

  6. Relational aggression and victimization in gay male relationships: the role of internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M; Robertson, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents two studies that are the first to examine relational aggression and relational victimization in gay male peer relationships. A qualitative pilot study provides a strong rationale for a subsequent empirical investigation of 100 young adult, self-identified gay males. Results of both studies demonstrate that relational aggression and relational victimization are common experiences in gay male relationships. They also reveal forms of relational aggression and victimization that appear to be unique to gay males (e.g., outing). Results of the empirical study found significant relations between engaging in relational aggression against gay males and experiencing relational victimization and between experiencing relational victimization and internalized homophobia. However, there was no significant correlation between internalized homophobia and engaging in relational aggression. A multiple regression analysis found that experiencing relational victimization was correlated more strongly with the combination of engaging in relational aggression and internalized homophobia together than with relational aggression alone. Results are discussed within the framework of Allport's "traits due to victimization" theory and Meyer's theory of "minority stress." Implications for the prevention of relational aggression/victimization in gay male relationships are offered. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Bridging international relations and disaster studies: the case of disaster-conflict scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Simon

    2018-01-01

    International relations and disaster studies have much to gain by thinking critically about their respective theoretical and epistemological assumptions. Yet, few studies to date have sought to assess the potential value of linking these two disciplines. This paper begins to address this shortfall by examining the relationship between disasters and conflict as a research sphere that intersects international relations and disaster studies. Through an analysis of whether or not disasters contribute to intra-national and international conflict, this paper not only provides a review of the state of the art, but also serves to invite scholars to reflect on related concepts from other fields to strengthen their own approaches to the study of disasters in an international setting. An evaluation of the conceptual and theoretical contributions of each subject area provides useful heuristics for the development of disaster-conflict scholarship and encourages alternative modes of knowledge production through interdisciplinarity. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  8. Cognitive performance after mild traumatic brain injury: the impact of poor effort on test results and its relation to distress, personality and litigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, M.; Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Brauer, J.M.; Vos, P.E.; Werf, S.P. van der

    2007-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To compare consecutive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) patients with and without adequate effort on cognitive performance, litigation status, fatigue, distress and personality. RESEARCH DESIGN: (Neuro)psychological assessment was done 6 months post-injury in 110 patients from a

  9. Vagal cardiac control throughout the day : the relative importance of effort-reward imbalance and within-day measurements of mood, demand and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, E.; Godaert, G.L R; Maas, C.J.M.; Meijman, T.F.

    The effects of variables derived from a work stress theory (the effort-reward imbalance theory) on the power in the high frequency (HF_HRV) band of heart rate (0.14-0.40 Hz) throughout a work day, were determined using multilevel analysis. Explanatory variables were analysed at two levels: at the

  10. Do Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Math and Reading Related Ability and Effort Predict Children's Self-Concept of Ability in Math and Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadyaya, Katja; Eccles, Jacquelynne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent primary school teachers' perceptions of their students' ability and effort predict developmental changes in children's self-concepts of ability in math and reading after controlling for students' academic performance and general intelligence. Three cohorts (N?=?849) of elementary school children and their…

  11. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Edouard

    ... Surgeons' Association. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ... lately, it has been reported in countries such as Colombia and Peru in Latin America [1]. ... cost for the provision of resulting services. With local swelling ...

  12. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk...

  13. Host-Country Related Risk Factors in International Construction: Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güzin AYDOGAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization has been on the agenda of construction firms as a strategic option in global competition. Due to globalization every sector including the construction industry has faced with high levels of competitiveness, uncertainty, and risk. International construction involves common risks to domestic construction, as well as risks that are related to the host country. These risks have serious effects on the performance of international projects. Since the sustainable competitiveness of international contractors depends largely on the effective management of these risks, their assessment becomes vital for the success of international contractors. The main aim of this study is to analyse the risks for international construction projects that are related to the host country. Meta-analysis technique is used in order to determine these risks. This paper, therefore, reviews the literature that has been published in four most respected construction and management journals, these being; Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Journal of Management in Engineering, Construction Management and Economics, and International Journal of Project Management for the period of 2000-2010. International construction risk assessment models are also reviewed within the context of this study, since host country related risk factors were found to have serious effects on the profitability of international contractors due to literature review. As a result; political stability, law and regulations, exchange rate risk, cultural differences, inflation, expropriation, tax discrimination, language barrier, bribery and corruption, force majeure, and societal conflicts in the host country are found to be the most important risk factors in international construction. Findings of this study can be used in risk assessment models for international construction projects.

  14. The Development of Network Relations of MNC Subsidiaries : How Internal MNC and External (Local) Relations Evolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drogendijk, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Managing relations is a complex task for internationalizing firms and their subsidiaries: MNC subsidiaries are not only part of the MNC network but they also develop relations with network actors in their local environment.This paper investigates conceptually how MNC subsidiaries established through

  15. Scientific Meetings Database: A New Tool for CTBT-Related International Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapik, Jerzy F.; Girven, Mary L.

    1999-08-20

    The mission of international cooperation is defined in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Ways and means of implementation were the subject of discussion during the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna in November 1998, and during the Regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation held in Cairo, Egypt in June 1999. In particular, a database of ''Scientific and Technical Meetings Directly or Indirectly Related to CTBT Verification-Related Technologies'' was developed by the CTBTO PrepCom/PTS/International Cooperation section and integrated into the organization's various web sites in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy CTBT Research and Development Program. This database, the structure and use of which is described in this paper/presentation is meant to assist the CTBT-related scientific community in identifying worldwide expertise in the CTBT verification-related technologies and should help experts, particularly those of less technologically advanced States Signatories, to strengthen contacts and to pursue international cooperation under the Tredy regime. Specific opportunities for international cooperation, in particular those provided by active participation in the use and further development of this database, are presented in this paper and/or presentation.

  16. A Study of Sino-Russian Energy Cooperation from the Perspective of Theories of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyue Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy cooperation is an important component in the Sino-Russia relationship. After more than a decade of efforts, China and Russia have made great progress in their cooperation in the area of oil and natural gas, which has not only promoted the economic developments in both countries, but also expanded their common interests to a large extent, resulting in a tremendous improvement of the two countries’ international strategies towards each other. Nevertheless, constrained and influenced by the evolution of contemporary international politics and economies, the Sino-Russia energy cooperation is facing some problems and barriers. Therefore, the aim of this article is to analyze the multiple elements affecting the Sino-Russia energy cooperation through the prism of Neo-realism, Neo-liberalism and Social Constructivism, hence a clear account of the opportunities and challenges that constitute this cooperation will be gained.

  17. The Importance of Localized Related Variety for International Diversification of Corporate Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettmann, Eva; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Günther, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The importance of localized related variety for international diversification of corporate technology, Regional Studies. Internationalization of research and development has increased substantially in recent years. This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign technologi......The importance of localized related variety for international diversification of corporate technology, Regional Studies. Internationalization of research and development has increased substantially in recent years. This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign...... technological activities across 96 regions in Germany. It identifies foreign technological activities by applying the cross-border ownership concept to patent applications. The main proposition is that regions with higher related variety of technological activities between sectors attract more foreign...

  18. Challenging Assumptions of International Public Relations: When Government Is the Most Important Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maureen; Kent, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores assumptions underlying Malaysia's and the United States' public-relations practice. Finds many assumptions guiding Western theories and practices are not applicable to other countries. Examines the assumption that the practice of public relations targets a variety of key organizational publics. Advances international public-relations…

  19. Ethnic Differences in Relations between Family Process and Child Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendlinski, Matthew; Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lane, Tonya J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family process variables have been linked to child problem behavior, but recent research suggests that child ethnicity may moderate relations between family process and child outcomes. The current study examined how ethnicity moderates relations between parent conflict, parent-child relationship quality, and internalizing problems.…

  20. International research collaboration as social relation: an Ethiopian-Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Amy; Guruge, Sepali; Aga, Fekadu; Hailemariam, Damen; Hyman, Ilene; Tamiru, Melesse

    2011-06-01

    International collaboration in nursing and other health disciplines is vital for addressing global health issues. While the results and processes of such collaborations have been reported, few publications have addressed their philosophical or theoretical underpinnings, particularly with respect to collaboration between those in low- and high-income countries. Piaget's notion of social relations of cooperation and constraint and Habermas's notion of "lifeworld" provide a theoretical lens through which to examine international collaboration as a construction of knowledge. This article is an exploration of these ideas as seen in the collective experience of Canadians and Ethiopians organizing an interdisciplinary forum on intimate partner violence in Ethiopia. The project is presented as a case study for reflecting on international collaboration as a manifestation of social relations. Such re-visioning of international collaboration may be useful for improving collaborative processes and their outcomes.

  1. World of Warcraft™ and the State of Territory in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    According to conventional knowledge, the realist tradition in International Relations has maintained the world of International Politics in a perpetual state of ‘warcraft’ between sovereign territorial states. Since the early 1990s arguments associated with Historical Sociology have sought...... and transformative effect on the political role of territory. This is key to understand to spatial nature of the modern state and thus, also, the transformative possibilities within international relations...... to counter such a timeless image of states and politics. Yet, while this has done much to historicise state institutions and the international system, one of the fundamental features of the modern state remains poorly understood: that of territory. This is because, I argue, that the concept of space remains...

  2. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  3. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - 35 Years of Global Efforts to Ensure That International Trade in Wild Animals and Plants Is Legal and Sustainable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnstekers, W

    2011-01-01

    CITES is a 35-year-old convention with a current total of 175 signatories, or parties. It regulates international trade in live specimens and products of more than 30,000 animal and plant species under three different trade regimes. CITES has clearly proved its importance for nature conservation, but its regulations often are difficult to implement and enforce, leading to unacceptably high levels of unsustainable and illegal trade in many wildlife species. There are ways, however, to improve the situation and to make compliance with CITES regulations both easier and more attractive. Copyright © 2011 Central Police University.

  4. Third Level of International Relations: Characteristics of Sub-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Arteev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is in the genre of the review for textbook O. V. Plotnikova and O. Y. Dubrovina International relations of the regions States: characteristics and features (Moscow: Norma; INFRA-M, 2016. 192 p.. Textbook on international activities of sub-state/subnational actors in international relations. Under the sub-state/subnational actors refers to the regions of the States. The authors propose an along with interstate relations (first level and supranational organizations (second level to distinguish a third level of international relations - international relations of the regions in Federal and unitary States. The topic is very relevant due to the ongoing restructuring of the architecture of international relations and world politics. In addition, these processes lead to involvement in international relations new actors. The resulting configuration and the role of traditional players. In addition to long-term evolutionary processes, we should not forget about the position of Russia in the last few years. It is obvious that the current tensions around the Russian Federation may not be fully resolved with the old methods. At the same time, sub-state/ subnational actors as subjects of a combined nature, the role played by regions of the Russian Federation, able to combine harmoniously in its international activities as the techniques characteristic of the traditional actors - States and developments in the tools of non-traditional actors - international non-governmental and non-profit organizations etc. As a result of positive results can be achieved faster and at the interstate level. The review considers the subject and the relevance of the topic, presents the analysis of the content of the work. Marked strengths of the textbook, including those associated with the consideration of the diagonal ties and the political components in the international activities of the regions. In addition to the advantages, attention is paid to the analysis of

  5. THE ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTARY OF THE "SOFT POWER" IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available "Soft power" is a complex instrument of international politics. It is an organized set of interactions and relationships predetermined to a large extent by the psychological element. Its core qualities are attraction, persuasion and legitimacy. The "soft power" acts in international relations through a complex instrumentation consisting of actions in the military, political, economic, cultural, sports, ideological, religious spheres, but all its manifestations must be supported by the economic instrument. To this end, many countries have set up special bodies. It is expected that "soft power" will be a major instrument of international politics in the coming epoch.

  6. Enhanced relative biological effectiveness of proton radiotherapy in tumor cells with internalized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polf, Jerimy C.; Gillin, Michael; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2011-01-01

    The development and use of sensitizing agents to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy have long been sought to improve our ability to treat cancer. In this letter, we have studied the relative biological effectiveness of proton beam radiotherapy on prostate tumor cells with and without internalized gold nanoparticles. The effectiveness of proton radiotherapy for the killing of prostate tumor cells was increased by approximately 15%-20% for those cells containing internalized gold nanoparticles.

  7. Enhanced relative biological effectiveness of proton radiotherapy in tumor cells with internalized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polf, Jerimy C.; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Gillin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The development and use of sensitizing agents to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy have long been sought to improve our ability to treat cancer. In this letter, we have studied the relative biological effectiveness of proton beam radiotherapy on prostate tumor cells with and without internalized gold nanoparticles. The effectiveness of proton radiotherapy for the killing of prostate tumor cells was increased by approximately 15%–20% for those cells containing internalized gold nanoparticles. PMID:21915155

  8. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effects of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol on effort-related decision making in a T-maze cost/benefit procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Allison M; Nunes, Eric J; Collins, Lyndsey E; Port, Russell G; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-05-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Research involving choice tasks has shown that rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A(2A) antagonism can reverse the effects of the DA antagonist haloperidol in an operant task that assesses effort-related choice. The present work used a T-maze choice procedure to assess the effects of adenosine A(2A) and A(1) antagonism. With this task, the two arms of the maze have different reinforcement densities (four vs. two food pellets), and a vertical 44 cm barrier is positioned in the arm with the higher density, presenting the animal with an effort-related challenge. Untreated rats strongly prefer the arm with the high density of food reward and climb the barrier in order to obtain the food. Haloperidol produced a dose-related (0.05-0.15 mg/kg i.p.) reduction in the number of trials in which the rats chose the high-barrier arm. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), but not the A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), reversed the effects of haloperidol on effort-related choice and latency. Adenosine A(2A) and D2 receptors interact to regulate effort-related decision making, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing or anergia that can be observed in depression, parkinsonism, and other disorders.

  9. A Dynamic Approach to the Analysis of Soft Power in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses soft power in international relations and the soft power of China’s foreign policy in recent years. After presenting a critique of the soft power theory developed by Joseph S. Nye, the paper provides an alternative interpretation of soft power. The author proposes a dynamic analysis of soft power in international relations, and argues that whether a power resource is soft or hard depends on the perceptions and feelings of various actors in specific situations. Due to the varying degrees of acceptance, power can be divided into hard power, soft power and bargaining power. An analysis should look at the soft or hard effectiveness of a power resource from three perspectives–horizontally, vertically and relatively. Recently, the soft power of China’s foreign policy and international behavior has mainly been manifested in multilateralism, economic diplomacy and a good-neighborly policy.

  10. Fifteen years of international trade in wood and forest-related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desclos, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Little is generally known about international trade in forest-related products in spite of the fact that a significant portion of world production is exported. Two irreversible trends underlie international trade in forest-related products. One is globalization while the other is adding as much value as possible locally by processing the materials to the greatest extent possible in the country of origin. Some of the more surprising recent developments are the growth in trade in wood as a source of energy and the dependency of Europe on its massive imports in this area. International trade in forest-related products is a continually changing sector that follows developments in the technical, economic, social and political spheres. Its growth has been spectacular and will remain strong in coming years. The greatest potential for development will come from environmental management, improved logistics and innovation. (authors)

  11. The Golden Horde State in the System of International Relations »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.М. Mirgaleev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the place of the Golden Horde in the system of international relations of the 13th–14th centuries as well as directions of its foreign policy. To determine the place of the ulus of Jochi in the international system the author suggests to disclose the subject through illumination of such important issues as: – the Mongol conquests and creation of the Chingisid state entities, the establishment of a new international order. – formation of the ulus of Jochi as an independent State and its role in the Chingisid States’ relations, the kurultai of 1269. – international activities of the Golden Horde State during the period of its might. – interstate coalitions in the global geopolitics and national interests of the ulus of Jochi in international systems. – The role and place of the Golden Horde in the international life of the second half of the 14th – early 15th centuries. The program activity of the Jochids in a new geopolitical situation of the late 14th – early 15th centuries. The author believes that the establishment of the Golden Horde State occurred in three phases (1207–1241, 1242–1259, 1260–1269. The Jochids’ policy towards their neighbors and other Chingisid states formed during this time. Both the Distemper of the 1360–70’s in the ulus of Jochi and destruction of all other Chingisid States resulted in the Golden Horde’s loss of its place in the system of international relations. Therefore, the program activity of the Jochids in a new geopolitical situation of the late 14th – early 15th centuries, was aimed at restoring the international authority of the State. The author considers the directions of the Golden Horde foreign policy, which were laid down during the reign of Berke khan and remained a priority until the end of the 14th century.

  12. Pubertal Timing and Youth Internalizing Psychopathology: The Role of Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Hayley; Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Winer, Jeffrey P

    2017-02-01

    The current study examined relational aggression as a potential mechanism that explains the association between off-time pubertal development and internalizing problems in youth. Youth gender was also examined as a moderator for the association between these variables. It was hypothesized that early pubertal maturation would be associated with higher levels of relationally aggressive behavior which, in turn, would be associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems. Parents of 372 children between the ages of 8 and 17 were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Parents responded to demographic information about themselves, as well as information about their child's pubertal timing, relationally aggressive behavior, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Findings indicated that early pubertal timing was associated with higher levels of anxiety directly, and higher levels of both anxiety and depressive symptoms indirectly through higher levels of relational aggression. In all but one of the pathways examined, gender was not found to moderate the associations between the study variables of interest. This study is the first to examine relational aggression as a mechanism by which early pubertal timing leads to internalizing problems. The findings suggest that relational aggression could be a target for intervention among early developing youth who are at risk for internalizing problems.

  13. An International Relations perspective on the global politics of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Coninck, H. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Policy Studies, Radarweg 60, 1043 NT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baeckstrand, K. [Department of Political Science, Lund University, P.O. Box 52, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    With the publication of the IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS), CCS has emerged as a focal issue in international climate diplomacy and energy collaboration. This paper has two goals. The first goal is to map CCS activities in and among various types of intergovernmental organisations; the second goal is to apply International Relations (IR) theories to explain the growing diversity, overlap and fragmentation of international organisations dealing with CCS. Which international organisations embrace CCS, and which refrain from discussing it at all? What role do these institutions play in bringing CCS forward? Why is international collaboration on CCS so fragmented and weak? We utilise realism, liberal institutionalism and constructivism to provide three different interpretations of the complex global landscape of CCS governance in the context of the similarly complicated architecture of global climate policy. A realist account of CCS's fragmented international politics is power driven. International fossil fuel and energy organisations, dominated by major emitter states, take an active role in CCS. An interest-based approach, such as liberal institutionalism, claims that CCS is part of a 'regime complex' rather than an integrated, hierarchical, comprehensive and international regime. Such a regime complex is exemplified by the plethora of international organisations with a role in CCS. Finally, constructivism moves beyond material and interest-based interpretations of the evolution of the institutionally fragmented architecture of global CCS governance. The 2005 IPCC Special Report on CCS demonstrates the pivotal role that ideas, norms and scientific knowledge have played in transforming the preferences of the international climate-change policy community.

  14. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrea M; Johnston, Carol S; Swan, Pamela D; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Sears, Barry

    2007-10-01

    Ketogenic diets have been associated with reductions in free-living physical activity, a response that can be counterproductive in individuals trying to lose weight. To explore whether popular low-carbohydrate diets might impact the desire to exercise by raising blood ketone concentrations, fatigue and perceived effort during exercise were compared in untrained, overweight adults adhering to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate diet or to a control diet low in carbohydrate, but not ketogenic (5%, 65%, and 30% or 40%, 30%, and 30% of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively). In this prospective, randomized, 2-week pilot study, all meals and snacks were provided to subjects, and energy intake was strictly controlled to provide approximately 70% of that needed for weight maintenance. At baseline and at the end of week 2, exercise testing was conducted in fasting participants. Weight loss and the reductions in fat mass did not differ by group during the trial. At week 2, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 3.6-fold greater for the ketogenic vs nonketogenic group (P=0.018) and correlated significantly with perceived exercise effort (r2=0.22, P=0.049). Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate was also significantly correlated to feelings of "fatigue" (r=0.458, P=0.049) and to "total mood disturbance" (r=0.551, P=0.015) while exercising. These pilot data indicate that ketogenic, low-carbohydrate diets enhance fatigability and can reduce the desire to exercise in free-living individuals.

  15. Internal quality control practice of thyroid disease related tests and imprecision analysis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Tao; Wang, Zhi-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) has a long and well-established role in clinical laboratories and the quality of laboratories has achieved great improvement in China. However, the practice of IQC varies significantly between institutions and many problems still exists. Consequently, the Chinese National Center for Clinical Laboratories has been undertaking monthly nation-wide surveys of current IQC practice of tests since 2010 to monitor laboratory quality. Thyroid disease related tests were chosen for this research. Different numbers of laboratories in China participating national external quality assessment (EQA) schemes of Total Thyroxine (TT4), Total Triiodothyronine (TT3), Free Thyroxine (FT4) and Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) tests, and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) measurements, were required to report the IQC information though the national external quality assessment (EQA) network platform. Survey data showed significant variability in all aspects of IQC practice. More than half of the laboratories are using a single concentration level of IQC material and up to 28.6% of the laboratories only use 1(2s) or 1(3s) to monitor IQC results for FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4, and TSH. The medians of the average time intervals of two control tests for FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4, and TSH are 33.6, 35.4, 33.6, 35.4, and 33.6 hours, respectively, more or less 1.4 days. When quality specifications based on biological variation are applied to imprecision evaluation, only 46.3%, 52.1%, 31.3%, 12.8%, and 5.86% laboratories meet the minimum performance for FT3, TT3, FT4, and TT4, 24.5%, 23.6%, 12.8%, and 5.86% of the all meet the desirable performance, and 4.4%, 3.9%, 2.5% and 3.0% of the all meet the optimal performance. While it shows a higher percentage of acceptable laboratories (98.1%, 87.9% and 39.0% meeting the minimum, desirable and optimal performance, respectively) for TSH. Not-well-designed IQC practices may affect the effectiveness of laboratory IQC and, thus, the adequacy of a

  16. CTBT verification-related technologies for peaceful purposes: the French experiences of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massinon, B.

    1999-01-01

    The French experience concerning CTBT verification-related technologies for peaceful purposes as well a the international cooperation in this field are presented. Possible objectives and cooperation program needs are cited. French experience in international cooperation is related to seismology and seismic hazards in Bolivia, Madagascar, Nepal and Indonesia and is considered as very constructive, meaning that technical experience is developed, consistent scientific results are obtained, and a considerable yield to the CTBT task is achieved. Large scientific benefits are expected from the CTBTO

  17. How Relational Capabilities Matter? Organizational Context and Performance of Internationally Oriented SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Ciszewska-Mlinarič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article sheds light on the organizational context enhancing development of relational capabilities and examines the significance of relational capabilities for SMEs’ financial and non-financial performance. The firm relational capability is measured separately in customers’ and suppliers’ networks. The research results reveal that fostering internal social capital coupled with the usage of economic motivators augment a firm relational capability in a supplier network, which in turn is associated with better performance results, both financial and non-financial. The results on relational capability in a customer network with respect to performance are less conclusive, indicating that vertical ties that internationally oriented SMEs develop (with suppliers and customers are not of equal importance.

  18. Inspection of the coupling part material degradation. Some experiences and results from SKODA JS related to internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynda, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation some experiences and results from SKODA JS, related to internals, are reported. Sketches of the construction of WWER 440 RPV and internal's materials, including chemical composition are given. The results of hardness tests on internal parts are reported as well as some changes in the construction of internal parts which were made to improve their crack and fracture properties

  19. Estimation of inspection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; Wincek, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    An overview of IAEA inspection activities is presented, and the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of an inspection is discussed. Two models are described - an effort model and an effectiveness model. The effort model breaks the IAEA's inspection effort into components; the amount of effort required for each component is estimated; and the total effort is determined by summing the effort for each component. The effectiveness model quantifies the effectiveness of inspections in terms of probabilities of detection and quantities of material to be detected, if diverted over a specific period. The method is applied to a 200 metric ton per year low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. A description of the model plant is presented, a safeguards approach is outlined, and sampling plans are calculated. The required inspection effort is estimated and the results are compared to IAEA estimates. Some other applications of the method are discussed briefly. Examples are presented which demonstrate how the method might be useful in formulating guidelines for inspection planning and in establishing technical criteria for safeguards implementation

  20. Relations of Parenting to Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Distress Moderated by Perception of Neighborhood Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Jonathan S; Quimby, Dakari; Richards, Maryse H; Zakaryan, Arie; Miller, Steve; Dickson, Daniel; Chilson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Parental monitoring and warmth have traditionally been studied in the context of White, middle-class families. This article explores optimal levels of these parenting behaviors in preventing adolescent psychopathology in impoverished, urban high-crime areas while accounting for child perceptions of neighborhood danger. In this study, data were collected longitudinally at 2 time points 1 year apart from a sample of 254 African American young adolescents (T1: M age = 12.6 years, 41% male) and their parents. Parental monitoring and warmth, child perception of neighborhood danger, and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured using questionnaires. Child internalizing behaviors were also measured using a time sampling technique capturing in vivo accounts of daily distress. Findings indicated associations between parental monitoring and children's externalizing behaviors along with linear and quadratic associations between parental monitoring and internalizing behaviors. Monitoring and warmth were differentially related to symptoms depending on neighborhood danger level. When children perceived less danger, more monitoring related to less externalizing. When children perceived more danger, more warmth related to less internalizing. In addition, adolescents' perceptions of neighborhood danger emerged as equally strong as monitoring and warmth in predicting symptoms. This study underscores the influence of carefully considering parenting approaches and which techniques optimally prevent adolescents' externalizing, as well as prevent internalizing difficulties. It also highlights how context affects mental health, specifically how perceptions of danger negatively influence adolescents' psychopathology, emphasizing the importance of initiatives to reduce violence in communities.