WorldWideScience

Sample records for international economic institutions

  1. Institutional factor in international economic activity of region and its socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the impact of the institutional factor on the development of regional international economic relations. The scope of the study is regional international economic activity (IEA, the subject-matter is the role of the institutional factor in its development. The study purpose is to develop a scientific approach for the assessment of the institutional factor impact on the development of region’s international economic relations. The hypothesis is that the targeted efforts of all participants of IEA of the region (business, authorities, local community to strengthen of theese components of the institutional factor, which have a strong influence on the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach for the assessment of this influenceis developed. It includes determining three elements of IEA institutionalization—agreements, organizations, events. A three-dimensional model is proposed for the coordination of these elements with 3 groups of countries—developed, developing and CIS, including the Eurasian Economic Union, and also with basic indexes characterizing the qualitative and quantitative contribution of region’s IEA into its socio-economic development. This model is tested on the example of the Sverdlovsk region of Russia for 2003–2015. That has allowed to define various kinds of the effects from strenthening the IEA institutional component, which are expressed in the increase of the export of the region, improvement of its investment attractiveness, the diversification of regional economy as well as the the generation of additional jobs and tax flows increase.

  2. THE INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS’ IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

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    Iryna Prykhodko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper. In our study we try to assess the causality link between a number of the international economic integration politico-economic factors, institutions and basic production factors with the growth of the economy. We form a sample of 18 post-socialist countries, including Central and Eastern Europe (CEE countries-members the European Union, and the rest of CEE non-members countries and CIS countries, who have not acquired the membership in the EU, including Ukraine. The time period of our study is 23 years, starting from 1991 – the year of independence of Ukraine till 2013 – the last year for which statistics are published for our group of a corresponding list of indicators that make up our interest. In the estimating equation we use econometric analysis panel data by least squares method with fixed effects transformation to eliminate countries’ heterogeneity. In the study we use such determinant of the institutions quality as the Index of Economic Freedom (Heritage Foundation, and we investigate various components of the Index of Economic Freedom (freedom of ownership, freedom of trade, freedom from corruption, freedom of investment. We assume that institutions towards freedom of foreign trade and reducing corruption will have a greater effect on the economy of the investigated countries. It is advisable to attach to the international economic integration politico-economic factors the indicator of foreign trade taxation as a measure of tariff barriers, international aid programs of the foreign donors and the European institutions to assess their role for the economic growth of the countries surveyed, and we take into account the capital and the labor as the basic factors of production. Methodology. The methods of synthesis, logic, abstraction and analysis are used in the study. On a sample of 18 post-socialist countries (CEE and CIS for the period of 23 years (1991-2013 we had conducted the econometric panel analysis

  3. Review: Current Approaches to Business and Institutional Translation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Economic, Business, Financial and Institutional Translation

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    Miguel Tolosa Igualada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Gallego-Hernández (ed.. Current Approaches to Business and Institutional Translation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Economic, Business, Financial and Institutional Translation / Enfoques actuales en traducción económica e institucional. Actas del Congreso Internacional de Traducción Económica, Comercial, Financiera e Institucional. Suíça: Peter Lang, 2015, 254 páginas. ISBN 978-3-0343-1656-9.

  4. The International Environmental Institute: Leveraging the investment in Hanford for economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkin, S.D.; Schwenk, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    Billions of dollars are being invested to achieve environmental compliance at the Hanford Site. The 30-yr-plan for the Site calls for remediation and restoration followed by rampdown and closure of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) mission at the Site. The investment of the Federal government during this restoration period provides a real opportunity to go beyond the cleanup mission and convert the Site's assets to other uses that benefit the region, nation, and world. The International Environmental Institute (Institute) was created to help realize this opportunity. This is accomplished by utilizing the assets of the Site -- it's land, equipment, facilities, technologies, and people -- to achieve economic growth and worldwide spinoff benefits from the Hanford investment. The Institute is developing new ways of getting the private sector involved with the Hanford Site. We are working with local and state governments, academia, and the private sector, to jointly develop and commercialize environmental technologies and to redeploy, loan, or lease those assets that are no longer needed by the DOE. The Institute is also interacting with other communities around the world to assess models, issues, and performance measures for successful defense conversion. Through these various worldwide partnerships, the investment in Hanford can be successfully leveraged to help create the desired economic future for the Northwest and environmental industry for the world

  5. Narrative and Institutional Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V. Volchik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses a range of questions associated with the occurrence of a new field of study – narrative economics, which is considered in the context of modern institutionalism. Pioneering works of R. Shiller, G. Akerlof and D. Snower spotlighted the importance of analyzing narratives and narrative influence when studying economic processes. In this paper, a qualitative study of narratives is seen through the prism of an answer to the question: «How do prescribed narratives influence institutions and change them? ». Narratives have much in common with institutions since very often, explicitly or implicitly, they contain value judgements about social interactions or normative aspects shaping behavioral patterns. The identification of dominating narratives enables us to understand better how institutions influence economic (social action. Repeated interactions among social actors are structured through understanding and learning the rules. Understanding of social rules comes from the language – we articulate and perceive the rules drawing on common narratives. Narratives and institutions are helpful when actors gain knowledge about various forms of social communication. Digital technologies, mass media and social networking sites facilitate the spread of narratives, values and beliefs; this process is characterized by increasing returns. Studying narratives and institutions is crucial for modern economic theory because it helps to improve qualitative and quantitative methods of analyzing empirical evidence and enables researchers to understand complex economic processes.

  6. ECONOMIC MEASURES DESIGNED BY INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTION IN ORDER TO MACROSTABILIZE AND TO AUGUMENT ECONOMIC RECOVERY PROCESS

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    Anca\tMaria\tPARASCHIV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic crisis has affected the world economy in general, but the contagion degree for each member economy was different, depending on the specific economic situation existing at the crisis debut. Some European economies were very seriously affected, especially those who have expressed a number of internal and external imbalances in the pre-crisis period, and who did not take countermeasures. The economic crisis and the recession that followed were felt strong also in the USA, but the flexibility of the US economy and the measures taken since the onset of the crisis allowed a faster recovery than in European vulnerable economies. The accommodative US monetary policy permitted to avert liquidity crises and to clean the bank balance sheets, which was also a premise of resuming lending in order to get out of the recession. In this article we conducted an extensive analysis of management measures adopted in different states which are carrying out programs with IFIs, taking into account both short-term effects and implications of these economic policy measures in the medium and long term horizon.

  7. Internal Audit and Internal Control Institutions as Legal Prevention Means of Vialations in the Sphere of Economic Financial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lvova I. G.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of similarities and differences between the concepts of “internal control” and “internal audit”. The author analyzes the existing approaches in current legislation and current scientific literature, the approaches to the concepts of “internal control” and “internal audit” in respect to their goals, objectives and legal regulation at this stage

  8. International Institutions and Domestic Reform: Equal Pay and British Membership in the European Economic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frader, Laura Levine

    2018-03-01

    Despite having been overlooked in the standard histories of the UK and the European Community, gender politics and gender policies played a significant role in Britain's applications for membership in the EEC in the 1960s. Joining the European Community required that Britain comply with Article 119 on equal pay for equal work. A combination of domestic feminist and labour movement activism, the commitment of unions and parties, and the internationalization of formal commitments to women's rights constituted internal and external pressures for the passage of an Equal Pay Act in 1970. The article argues that the formal legislative commitment to gender pay equality, changing public attitudes towards women's employment, and European membership impacted further domestic social policy reform and slowly began to shift government attitudes towards gender equality.

  9. Economic Modelling in Institutional Economic Theory

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    Wadim Strielkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper is centered around the formation of theory of institutional modelling that includes principles and ideas reflecting the laws of societal development within the framework of institutional economic theory. We scrutinize and discuss the scientific principles of this institutional modelling that are increasingly postulated by the classics of institutional theory and find their way into the basics of the institutional economics. We propose scientific ideas concerning the new innovative approaches to institutional modelling. These ideas have been devised and developed on the basis of the results of our own original design, as well as on the formalisation and measurements of economic institutions, their functioning and evolution. Moreover, we consider the applied aspects of the institutional theory of modelling and employ them in our research for formalizing our results and maximising the practical outcome of our paper. Our results and findings might be useful for the researchers and stakeholders searching for the systematic and comprehensive description of institutional level modelling, the principles involved in this process and the main provisions of the institutional theory of economic modelling.

  10. Globalization, Inequality & International Economic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International law in general, and international economic law in particular, to the extent that either has focused on the issue of inequality, has done so in terms of inequality between states. Largely overlooked has been the topic of inequality within states and how international law has influenced that reality. From the perspective of international economic law, the inequality issue is closely entwined with the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, the proper meaning of development, and globalization. While international economic law has undoubtedly contributed to the rise of inequality, it is now vital that the subject of international economic law be examined for how it may contribute to the lessening of inequality. To do so will require a shift in the way that we think, in order to address inequality as a problem of an emerging global market society, and how best to regulate that society and its institutions.

  11. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  12. Ecological economics and institutional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Lisi; Klitgaard, Kent

    2011-02-01

    Ecological economics remains unfinished in its effort to provide a framework for transforming the economy so that it is compatible with biophysical limits. Great strides have been made in valuing natural capital and ecosystem services and recognizing the need to limit the scale of economic activity, but the question of how to effectively transform the economy to limit the scale of economic activity remains unclear. To gain clarity about the institutional changes necessary to limit the scale of economic activity, it is essential that ecological economics understands the limitations of its neoclassical roots and expands its theoretical framework to include how markets are embedded in social and institutional structures. This has long been the domain of institutional economics and heterodox political economy. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. International Environmental Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSibio, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The International Environmental Institute is being established at the Hanford Site to provide training and education in environmental restoration and waste management technologies and to serve as an interface for exchange of information among government laboratories, regional and federal governments, universities, and US industries. Recognized as the flagship of the nation's environmental management effort, the Hanford Site provides a unique living environmental laboratory that represents the most extensive, complex, and diverse cleanup challenges anywhere. An Environmental Institute director has been selected, the organizational structure has been established, and initial phases of operation have begun. The combined resources of the Hanford Site and the Environmental Institute offer unprecedented technological capabilities for dealing with the nation's environmental issues

  14. Institutions, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2016-01-01

    sample limitations, omitted variable biases, causality issues, and response heterogeneity. We argue that theories in management research, such as the resource-based view, transaction cost economics, and strategic entrepreneurship theory, can fill some of the conceptual and theoretical gaps.......We review the literature that links institutions, entrepreneurship, and economic growth outcomes, focusing in particular on empirical research. Most of the literature has an economics orientation, but we also review relevant literature from other social sciences, including management research...

  15. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: The Institute of Economic Affairs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: The Institute of Economic Affairs, Ghana ... the Institute of Economic Affairs' (IEA-Ghana) role as a credible public policy ... public policy, facilitate private sector-led economic growth, and strengthen democracy.

  16. A Realistic International Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Criticizes college textbooks for adopting a "party line" of laissez-faire economic doctrine which asserts the benefits of free trade. Offers an alternative interpretation of international trade, covering such topics as the effect of unregulated international trade on wage levels, and international lending. (JDH)

  17. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  18. The Importance of Authorized Economic Operator Institution for the Security of Supply Chain in the International Goods Turnover of Polish Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslawa Laszuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the growth of international exchange of goods also the number of threats increases that potentially may influence the security of functioning international supply chains. Currently, there is a need of developing solutions which aim at facilitating flow of goods, simultaneously ensuring security against the increasing number of threats related to e.g. terrorist attacks, illegal smuggling, thefts and tax frauds. The article presents institution of an authorized operator – Authorized Economic Operator (AEO, introduced on the territory of the European Union in 2008. The discourse demonstrates influence of functioning AEO certificates on security of international supply chains with the particular attention drawn on the importance of AEO institution for Polish operators.

  19. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  20. Bowett's law of international institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Sands, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Bowett's Law of International Institutions is the leading introduction to this complex, important and growing area of international law, with increasing significance for developments at the national level. Covering all the major global, regional and judicial institutions and all international organisations that regulate aspects of development and providing an introductory overview of the law of international organisations, including international courts and tribunals as a whole. The book offers a basic framework, insights into some of the more essential issues, and indications of where to find more detail. Bowett's is essential reading for students of international law and international relations and will also be of considerable interest to lawyers practising in the area.

  1. Canada and international financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; James Powell

    1996-01-01

    International financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Bank for International Settlements, are important players in the global financial system. This article provides an overview of the major international financial institutions to which Canada belongs. The paper highlights their activities and the nature of Canada's involvement, including that of the Bank of Canada. Recent initiatives coming out of the Halifax and Lyon Summits to improve the eff...

  2. International Aspects of Nigeria's Economic Reforms | Iyoha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to draw a relationship between Nigeria's previous failed economic reforms and external influences from international financial institutions, which had constantly resulted in chronic economic misfortunes. Now that homegrown economic programmes are currently being undertaken in Africa through ...

  3. Research in Institutional Economics in Management Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This report maps research in institutional economics in management science in the European Union for the 1995 to 2002 period. The reports applies Internet search based on a university listing, search on journal databases, key informants and an internet-based survey. 195 researchers are identified....... In (sub-)disciplinary terms, organization, strategy, corporate governance, and international business are the major areas of application of institutional economics ideas. In terms of countries, the EU strongholds are Holland, Denmark, UK, and Germany. There is apparently no or very little relevant...... research in Ireland, Portugal, Luxembourg and Greece. Based on the findings of the report, it seems warranted to characterize the EU research effort in the field as being rather dispersed and uncoordinated. Thus, there are no specialized journals, associations or PhD courses. This state of affairs...

  4. Economic institutions and economic growth: Empirical evidence from the Economic Community of West African States

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    Lazarus Z. Wanjuu

    2017-12-01

    Background: Economic institutions are considered as the fundamental cause of economic growth. Economic institutions affect economic growth through allocation of resources like physical and human capital. Unfortunately, there is dearth of empirical studies showing the impact of economic institutions on growth of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Aim: This study investigates the impact of economic institutions on economic growth of the ECOWAS. Setting and method: The study applied cause and effect relationship. The study used econometric research techniques of unit root and co-integration tests to establish the time series properties of the data; the vector error correction and co-integration regression models to estimate the population parameters. The research data comprised data obtained from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, the Transparency International (TI and Heritage Foundation databases. The variables employed were the real gross domestic product (GDP per capita (RGDPPC, corruption perception index (CPI, property rights protection (PROPRGT, private investment per capita (INVESPC, government expenditure per capita (GOEXPPC and trade openness (TRAOPN. Results: The results of the data analysed showed that economic institutions represented by the property rights index engender RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The CPI could not stimulate RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The results also show that all the other variables stimulated growth except trade openness. Conclusion: The study concludes that good economic institutions, private investments, and government intervention by providing security, economic and social infrastructural facilities are conducive for economic growth in the ECOWAS region. The study recommended that more efforts be made at curbing corruption in the region

  5. INSTITUTIONAL THEORY OF ECONOMIC REFORMS: BASIC IMPERATIVES

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    Oleg Sergeevich SUKHAREV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of institutional economic theory to explain various kinds of economic reforms (changes on the basis of theoretical ideas about the dysfunction of institutions and systems are investigated. A number of classifications of reforms and dysfunctions is introduced and kinds of institutional efficiency of economic systems are defined. Qualitative regularities of various reforms of the twentieth century in different countries are generalized. A number of criteria of effective institutional reforms, capable to lower the depth and the scale of dysfunctions of the functioning economic subsystems is formed. System approach to the analysis of economic systems reforming with underlining the importance of reform “management” factor which defines productivity of economic development is elaborated. Life cycle of institution and economic system in the process of its reforming is presented and correction of J. Hellmann’s model, describing the reforming logic of economy is made.

  6. Approaches to Identification of Institutions in Institutional Economics

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    Igor M. Shiriaev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the methodology for identification of institutions from institutional economics perspective. The differences between the perspectives provided by old and new institutional economics are highlighted. These differences are interpreted in the context of compared pragmatist and postpositivist methodologies. This paper applies to the post-positivist approach to the identification of institutions. One example of institution is provided by power-property institution. Identification of this institution in the historical and economic research is based on several theoretical generalizations and supported by array of historical facts. Another example is provided by identification of institution and institutional change in higher education based on discourse analysis and interviews with the main actors. In this paper, the regulatory institutions of higher education are analyzed as well. The concept of power-property institution is extended to the higher education by proposing hypotheses on the functioning of state governing-regulating institution in this sphere. This institution prescribes the actors to behave in accordance with the objectives of public policy, which can only be implemented in the form of bureaucratization of higher education. The paper describes the behavioral regularity generated by an identified institution. Functioning of the governing-regulating institution in higher education is illustrated by examples of behavioral regularities emerging from activities in accordance with this institution. The paper also shows the possibility of falsification of proposed hypothesis.

  7. Institutional Support : African Institute for Applied Economics (AIAE ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Institute for Applied Economics (AIAE), Nigeria, is an independent policy research organization created in 2000. The Institute's mission is to promote evidence-based decision-making in the area of economic and social development. AIAE's strength is research and advocacy in the area of business environment, ...

  8. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  9. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in

  10. The Institutional System of Economic Agents’ Social Responsibility

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    Frolova Elena, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it was made an attempt to analyse the main characteristics of the institutional system of economic agents social responsibility. The institutional system can be described as a complex of norms, rules, regulations and enforcement mechanisms in the context of interactions and communications of economic agents. The institutional nature of social responsibility allow to solve social dilemmas through the internalization of social responsibility norms and creating social value orientations, which are determine the prosocial behaviour of economic agents. The institutional system of social responsibility was described from the methodological institutionalism point of view. Analysing this phenomenon we are required to develop research on the objects of this system (norms, regulations, behaviour, on the subjects of this system (persons, business, government and on the institutional mechanisms (internalization of social responsibility norms, promoting prosocial behaviour, adaptation and transformation of the social responsibility norms aimed to ensure the understanding of origin and significance of social responsibility for modern society.

  11. Socio-Economic, Environmental and Personal Factors in the Choice of Country and Higher Education Institution for Studying Abroad among International Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the pull factors that influenced international students' choice of country and institution for their Master's education. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This qualitative study relied upon focus group interviews with 70 international students registered in taught Master programmes at a higher…

  12. Institutional Cognitive Economics: some recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Gigante, Anna Azzurra

    2013-01-01

    By investigating the connection between mind working and institutional processes, Institutional Cognitive Economics turns out to be the most appropriate in order to overcome some limits in New Institutional Economics. This leads us to develop further this approach. This paper integrates F. Hayek’s theory on knowledge production and A. Bandura’s social cognitive theory with the fertile contributions coming from Self-Organization approach and cognitive path-dependence, by considering also the r...

  13. Endogenous institutions and economic outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerriero, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relative importance of a "culture of cooperation," understood as the implicit reward from cooperating in prisoner's dilemma and investment types of interactions, and "inclusive political institutions," which enable voters to check the power delegated to their

  14. INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNANCE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE

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    Henri L.F. de GROOT

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ineffective institutions and bad governance increase transaction costs and reduce international transport flows. In this paper, we empirically investigate this basic notion, and we show that it can account for several, so far, somewhat puzzling results in the empirical literature estimating gravity equations of bilateral trade. More specifically, we show that differences in the quality and effectiveness of institutions offer an explanation for the tendency of OECD countries to trade disproportionately with each other, and with non-OECD countries, as well as for the positive effect of GDP per capita on bilateral trade.

  15. Institutional economics and economic organisation theory: An integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.A.; Slangen, A.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that

  16. Institutional economics and economic organisation theory : an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.; Slangen, A.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that

  17. Institutions, Technological Change and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corderí Novoa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories of economic growth try to explain variations in per capita income across countries by differences in capital accumulation and productivity. However, many scholars consider that integrating institutions into economic theory and economic history is an essential step in improving explanations of why some societies are richer than others. This paper develops the empirical and theoretical case that differences in institutions are the fundamental cause of differences in technological change (productivity, hence in economic growth. First, I give a definition of institutions and how they influence economic performance, from a New Institutional Economics point of view. Then, I introduce the theoretical framework based on the economics of ideas and endogenous growth models. Finally, I argue that R&D expenditures -a proxy for technological change- will vary across countries depending on some measures of institutional quality. In the end, this paper finds that stronger institutions (measured by an aggregate of institutional quality encourage greater R&D expenditures. At a disaggregate level, the rule of law is positively correlated and the regulatory burden is negatively correlated with R&D expenditures. Human capital level (measured by the tertiary and primary school enrolment rates has also a significant positive impact in R&D expenditures.

  18. Institutions and economic growth : summary and synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirmai, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a summary, overview and synthesis of the findings of the second phase of the AFD/Maastricht Graduate School of Governance research project on institutions and economic growth. The point of departure for this research project is that the diversity of longrun patterns of economic

  19. Institutional Support : Ethiopian Economic Association / Ethiopian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute (EEPRI) is the research wing of the Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA). EEA/EEPRI is professionally accomplished and well respected but it faces challenges that it seeks to alleviate with flexible, long-term support from IDRC's Think Tank Initiative (TTI). This grant will ...

  20. Inclusive Institutions for Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Miomir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent two decades, due to contributions of political macroeconomics, the focus of macroeconomics turned away from a narrow perspective based on market and privatisation (market fundamentalism towards a broader perspective based on institutions and values (institutionalism. Within the institutional paradigm, the emphasis nowadays is put on inclusive institutions. The main thesis of one of leading proponents of political macroeconomics, D. Acemoglu, is: “growth is much more likely under inclusive (economic and political institutions than extractive institutions.” Good institutions are characterized by three attributes: 1 they establish and protect property rights; 2 they restrict social elites which strive to expropriate income and property of others members of society; 3 they provide equal chances for employment, social security and civil rights to all individuals. Good institutions contribute to political stability, successful macroeconomic policy, and enhance initiatives. The key role of institutions is to secure stability and continuity. Extractive institutions can negatively affect entrepreneurship and entire economic development in two ways: a by increasing the opportunity cost, resulting in upward movement of the opportunity cost curve; and b by affecting return to entrepreneurship resulting in leftward movement of the return to entrepreneurship curve. Apart from independence and accountability of institutions what is needed is sufficient level of inclusion. Inclusion should encompass three dimensions: personal, financial, and political. The introduction of principles of independence, accountability, and inclusion is essential for emergence and performance of all institutions.

  1. Institutional overlap as a basis for international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Verbeke, Alain; Puck, Jonas; Tulder, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This chapter investigates the theoretical support for the distance metaphor that is widely used to capture the effects of institutional diversity in international business (IB) and management studies. It argues that neither new institutional economics (NIE) nor in neo-institutional sociology (NIS)

  2. International Security in the World Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna P

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the urgent topic of the evolution of international relations, the issue of establishing international security, and the development of international economic cooperation based on the principles of security. In order to analyze the current status of international security in the world and to identify key factors that hinder the way of establishing a positive global community, researches by the international analytical centers together with the institutes for international security and cooperation have been generalized. To this end, both the status of and changes in the Global Peace Index in the recent years has been disclosed, the position of Ukraine in the world according to this index has been examined. It has been proven that the main international security problems are related to the armed conflicts, civil wars, political violence, terrorism impacting the development of humanity as a whole, the status of international relations, the evolution of the world economy as well as national economies. Further researches should be focused on how the status of peace in the countries impacts their economic status and the status of international cooperation in other areas of economic cooperation, excluding the military. It should be answered particularly, how the above indicated status affects strengthening the Ukraine's position in the world.

  3. Institutional Support : Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) established in 1969 is a semi-autonomous university-based research centre located at the University of Ghana, Legon, Accra. ISSER has a strong track record of undertaking high-quality policy-relevant research. This grant - the largest being awarded under ...

  4. Institutional Support : Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA-Ghana ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Institute of Economic Affairs in Ghana (IEA-Ghana) was founded in 1989 during the twilight of the military dictatorship. At that time there were no independent policy centres in the country and hence little public policy dialogue. Still, IEA-Ghana succeeded in creating a platform for debate and made a strong case for major ...

  5. Institutional Support : Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER) is an established, semi-autonomous national policy research entity created in 1960. Affiliated with the National ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South.

  6. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: The Institute of Economic Affairs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will help strengthen the Institute of Economic Affairs' ... IEA-Kenya's research areas include social security, trade and competition policies, ... involving other think tanks as a cost-effective, learning-by-doing approach ... the results of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  7. Data Mining in Institutional Economics Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilyuk, Igor; Kuznetsova, Anna; Senko, Oleg

    2018-02-01

    The paper discusses problems associated with the use of data mining tools to study discrepancies between countries with different types of institutional matrices by variety of potential explanatory variables: climate, economic or infrastructure indicators. An approach is presented which is based on the search of statistically valid regularities describing the dependence of the institutional type on a single variable or a pair of variables. Examples of regularities are given.

  8. Economic development and the geography of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    To explain cross-country income differences, research has recently focused on the so-called deep determinants of economic development, notably institutions and geography. This article shows that it is not only absolute geography, in terms of for instance climate or being landlocked, but also

  9. Outsourcing in International Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Bilan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Entities from different countries interact through various forms of international cooperation, integration, subcontracting, outsourcing to ensure competitive advantage, reduce costs and increase economic efficiency. The article is an analysis and synthesis of existing approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing research and its application in international. The article deals with the prerequisites of outsourcing as a new form of organization of business processes. There are investigated and classified approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing. The hierarchy of objectives and motives based on organization of outsourcing is built. The practice of outsourcing during implementation of international economic relations is studied. Specifically examined the dynamics of development of the outsourcing market. Studied leader countries which provide outsourcing services and major consumers of these services.

  10. NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING AND IMPROVING AGRARIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate interdisciplinary New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics and suggest a framework for assessing efficiency of farms and agrarian organizations. Our new approach includes: study of farm and agrarian organizations as governing rather than production structure; assessment of comparative efficiency of alternative market, contract, internal, and hybrid modes of governance; analysis of level of transaction costs and their institutional, behavioral, dimensional, technological and natural factors; determination of criteria of farm efficiency and its effective boundaries; specification of economic role of government and needs for public interventions in agrarian sector; assessment of comparative efficiency of alternative forms of public involvement.

  11. International Security Institutions, Domestic Politics, and Institutional Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Terrence L.

    2007-01-01

    Scholars have devoted considerable attention to the informational role of international institutions. However, several questions about the informational aspects of institutional behavior remain underexplored: What determines how audiences respond to institutional decisions? Through what channels does information provision affect foreign policy? To…

  12. International financial institutes and multipolarity challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Vladimirovich Kuznetsov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is changing, moving towards multi-polarity. However, despite the explicit shifting of the center of economic gravity from the West to the East, the dominance of the West in establishing the rules of conduct in the global economy and global finance remain virtually immutable. The author argues that the widely-discussed reform of the IMF quota and governance has not led to a significant strengthening of the role of the most dynamically developing emerging economies in the Fund’s decision-making. Regional economic players (such as the BRICS have been actively involved in the international division of labor. However, the existence of institutional financial monopolies hinders the redistribution of global value added. Armed with the advanced information technologies and financial innovations, the leaders of financial globalization are redirecting scarce global resources in favor of the world-systemic core. The study is based on comparative methods and system analysis and aims to provide a comprehensive view on the way of involvement of global financial institutions in the control of the processes of financial globalization. US dominance in international financial institutions contribute to the further advancement of the global role of dollar as reserve currency of central banks, the currency of international settlements, deposits, loans and investments. It’s shown that the implementation of financial globalization is strongly correlated with the concept of the «center-periphery» model, on which the functioning of the global capital market is dependent. The features of the modern structure of the global currency market are summarized. The article reveals some legal aspects of global governance, in particular the role of the Anglo-American law in the global economy and global finance. It is concluded that for full participation of emerging markets, particularly the BRICS countries, in the processes of globalization, it is necessary to

  13. Establishment of the International Power Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Julius E.

    2000-04-29

    Building on the two previous trips to Central America last year, International Power Institute (IPI) and its partner Tennessee Valley Infrastructure Group (TVIG) have focused their attention this quarter on project sites in Honduras. TVIG's unit--an Integrated Infrastructure Platform or IIP--combines water and electricity production in a single integrated unit, thereby providing both products at a lower cost than could be attained for each one separately. Because of the unmet demand for clean drinking water and electricity in remote towns throughout the developing world, the need for such units is widespread. Previous visits to Honduras have resulted in strong in-country commercial interest, support in the form of memorandums of understanding by key government agencies, and identification of four prospective project sites for IIP installations. From March 5 to March 15 and with IPI support and participation, representatives from the TVIG, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), IPI, and market research firm International Business Initiatives (IBI) conducted an intensive survey of project opportunities in the four communities, to establish how IIPs might help these four communities enhance their economic development, A key aspect of the projects examined is the need to make them economically self-supporting so that they will be viable in the private sector. Summary of specific project site studies follow here, and feasibility studies for the four sites are included as attachments.

  14. Oil companies: institutional and economic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In the last century, experience in the oil industry, suggested that some particular conditions were functional to the success of big companies strategies when facing exogenous market conditions hold true even nowadays, in face of the energy market institutional and economic transformations which are in place since the start of the new century. In other ways, are the majors still able to anticipate the market shifts and changes and to profit of these in terms of growth opportunities and competitiveness? [it

  15. Internal Benchmarking for Institutional Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    Internal benchmarking is an established practice in business and industry for identifying best in-house practices and disseminating the knowledge about those practices to other groups in the organization. Internal benchmarking can be done with structures, processes, outcomes, or even individuals. In colleges or universities with multicampuses or a…

  16. Institutional Determinants of International Production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Volgina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses institutional determinants of foreign direct investment that substantially influences international production in Russia. Author pays special attention on the following determinants as legal infrastructure, protection property rights, including intellectual property, effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms, and corruption. Author comes to a conclusion that without development of proper institutions Russia would hardly expect dynamic development of international production.

  17. MAJOR TRENDS OF THE INTERNAL AUDIT FUNCTION IN CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Iulia ZINCA (VOICULESCU)

    2017-01-01

    Given that the economic landscape becomes more and more complex and dynamic, the internal audit plays an increasing role, being considered a pillar of the corporate governance structure of credit institutions. Failures of risk management have demonstrated the important role of internal audit and the need for it to evolve and to meet the multiple expectations of the stakeholders. Beyond the core assurance provided by internal audit relating to risk and controls, these expectations include p...

  18. Economic Foundations of International Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    The discipline of International Business, henceforth IB, is a child of the 1960s. It has developed into a respectable branch of the social sciences, with strong links to a number of disciplines such as marketing, strategy, organization, cultural studies and economics. All along it has been...... discussed if IB should be anchored in separate departments or integrated in other functional departments, reflecting the topic whether “internationalization” is sufficiently powerful to command its own strands of teaching, or it should be incorporated in finance, marketing, organization and strategy...... and on the top of it all the eclectic paradigm which attempts to catch most of the rest under a very wide umbrella. Entry, or operation modes and the organizational design of the international company still play significant roles, not least the multinational enterprise and its cross-border investments, FDI...

  19. FATF as international law institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Б. Кудас

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of creation, analysis of the legal bases of activity, forms of decision-making, control over their implementation, measures of impact on the national banking system «of the Task force on financial measures in the sphere of money laundering». In article also addressed the question of the modern status of international bodies in the system of subjects of international law.

  20. INFLUENCE OF RELATIONS WITH INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ON INSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyna POCHENCHUK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the impact of transitional countries cooperation with international financial institutions on institutional changes which take place in emerging market economies, on the base of Ukraine. Research is carried out from the standpoint of institutional theory. The main reforms that took place in emerging market economy countries were based on the Washington Consensus strategy recommended by international financial institutions. The results of implementing this strategy are varied in different countries. In Ukraine strict adherence to requirements in the early stages of reforms without internal institutional conditions and characteristics led to a deep and protracted crisis of forming a "transformational stability." The general formal institutions of the market economy have been created according to the neoliberal concept which is provided by IFIs. However, experience of transitive economies including Ukraine, confirms the ineffectiveness of many established formal institutions borrowed from the developed countries. The author reviews the basic theory of institutional changes, argues that the terms of cooperation circulated by international financial institutions not only affect economic development strategy, but also determine the role of the national government in relations with markets. Under present conditions prevailing in Ukraine, it is impossible to manage without assistance of international financial institutions. But we need to pay more attention to technical and advisory cooperation in realization of institutional reforms, and credits – to take as a required time for receiving the results of reforms.

  1. Coevolution of economic behaviour and institutions: towards a theory of institutional change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, economics has regarded institutions, notably norms and regulations, as fixed or exogenous. Surprisingly few insights on institutional evolution from natural and social sciences have made their way into economics. This article gives an overview of evolutionary theories of institutions

  2. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic Policy Research Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic Policy Research Centre ... the Economic Policy Research Centre's (EPRC) role as a credible public policy institution in ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  3. Resource Economics and Institutions in Ancient Athens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    Institutional development in ancient Athens ranged from banking and legally recorded and sustained private ownership of a variety of goods and services that enabled domestic and international trade to liturgical mechanisms for procurement of public goods. These institutions in turn provided...... agreements with Macedonia (IG I2 105). However, no regular channels of trade or transactions are identified before this Macedonian agreement (407/6). We know that some constructed ships were forcefully appropriated to one degree or another through hegemonic tribute or battle (through which they might also......, the “most silent and least recorded of the major ancient industries” (Meiggs). Aristotle highlighted both the threat of illegal forest use and the need for public intervention to curtail it by identifying forest wardens as one of the key items needing state provision for democratic governance (Aristot. Pol...

  4. INTERNAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila FRUMUSACHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control has a special role in the efficient organization of the entity’s management. The components of this control in the institutions of public health service are determined by the specific character of these institutions and National Standards of Internal Control in the Public Sector. The system of internal control in the institutions of public health service has the capacity to canalize the effort of the whole institution for the achievement of proposed objectives, to signalize permanently the dysfunctionalities about the quality of medical services and the deviations and to operate timely corrective measures for eliminating the noticed problems. In this regard the managers are obliged to analyse and to resize the system of internal control when in the organizational structure appear substantial changes.

  5. International institutional law unity within diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the law of public international organizations. This fifth, revised edition of International Institutional Law covers the most recent developments in the field. Although public international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the World Health Organization, ASEAN, the European Union and other organizations have broadly divergent objectives, powers, fields of activity and numbers of member states, they also share a wide variety of institutional problems. Rather than being a handbook for specific organizations, the book offers a comparative analysis of the institutional law of international organizations. It includes comparative chapters on the rules and practices concerning membership, institutional structure, decision-making, financing, legal order, supervision and sanctions, legal status and external relations. The books theoretical framework and extensive use of case-studies is designed to appeal to both academics ...

  6. Introduction to international economics. - 2nd ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Jepma, C.

    2011-01-01

    The second edition of Introduction to International Economics is a non-technical introduction to international economics that builds on the strengths of the first edition. It analyses in a practical way how the internationalization of economic activities influences companies, investors and

  7. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  8. MAJOR TRENDS OF THE INTERNAL AUDIT FUNCTION IN CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Iulia ZINCA (VOICULESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given that the economic landscape becomes more and more complex and dynamic, the internal audit plays an increasing role, being considered a pillar of the corporate governance structure of credit institutions. Failures of risk management have demonstrated the important role of internal audit and the need for it to evolve and to meet the multiple expectations of the stakeholders. Beyond the core assurance provided by internal audit relating to risk and controls, these expectations include providing a deeper insight and value, particularly in the areas of strategy achievement, emerging risks and use of advanced data analysis. This paper aims to identify the major challenges encountered by the internal audit function in credit institutions in the current period and the ways in which internal audit can respond to these challenges, to deliver according to the growing expectations on corporate governance and to actively support the organizations in achieving a steady and sound development.

  9. MAJOR TRENDS OF THE INTERNAL AUDIT FUNCTION IN CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Iulia ZINCA (VOICULESCU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that the economic landscape becomes more and more complex and dynamic, the internal audit plays an increasing role, being considered a pillar of the corporate governance structure of credit institutions. Failures of risk management have demonstrated the important role of internal audit and the need for it to evolve and to meet the multiple expectations of the stakeholders. Beyond the core assurance provided by internal audit relating to risk and controls, these expectations include providing a deeper insight and value, particularly in the areas of strategy achievement, emerging risks and use of advanced data analysis. This paper aims to identify the major challenges encountered by the internal audit function in credit institutions in the current period and the ways in which internal audit can respond to these challenges, to deliver according to the growing expectations on corporate governance and to actively support the organizations in achieving a steady and sound development.

  10. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Ethiopian Economics Association ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will help strengthen the Ethiopian Economics Association/Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute's (EEA-EEPRI) role as a credible public policy institution in Ethiopia by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Ethiopian Economic Policy Research ...

  11. An institutional investigation of international financial transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Piroska, Dóra

    2004-01-01

    The paper focuses on the foreign debt management of the Hungarian and Slovenian policy makers in the global financial markets. The proposed argument combines a theoretical refinement of international financial markets as locally embedded social relations with a domestically oriented institutional analysis of foreign debt management. I argue that in order to understand the differences between the two states’ debt management strategies, it is important to look at the institutional differences w...

  12. Where are the poor in International Economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carvalho; Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that a very significant proportion of the human population is living with financial difficulties and other constraints typical of poverty, scientific studies in the areas of Economics and especially in International Economics that address the issue of poverty and of poor countries are very few. Using bibliometric techniques, we measured the attention paid by authors from the field of International Economics to poverty and poor countries. To this end, we sorted and analyzed al...

  13. The Role of Home Economics in Higher Institutions in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... This review explores the role of Home Economics education in higher institutions in Nigeria. ... will contribute to global stability, economic, political, social development, and in fact, the world ...

  14. Feminist Development Economics : An Institutional Approach to Household Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); O. Odebode (Olasunbo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this chapter, we argue that an institutional approach to feminist development economics provides deeper understandings to how gender inequalities function in economic processes in developing countries. We do this in three ways. First, we distinguish between

  15. The possibility of behavioral new institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    菊沢, 研宗

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral economics has recently been the subject of considerable research with the consequence that theories in behavioral economics and finance have complementarily developed to comprise a research field known as 'behavioral finance'. Subsequent studies seeking to integrate game theory and behavioral economics come under the 'behavioral game theory' umbrella, while those wanting to integrate contract theory and behavioral economics fall under 'behavioral contract theory'. Given such circum...

  16. Institutional Support : Canadian International Council - National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The NCB has an ambitious program of work comprising research on current issues pursued through relationships with universities and other research bodies, and links with research institutions worldwide; building effective networks of scholars and practitioners; strengthening public discourse on international affairs; and ...

  17. Economic management model of nuclear power plant research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, O.

    1993-01-01

    Brief information about the development of economic management and processing of economic information in the Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Trnava is given in the paper. The existing economic management model of the Institute impacts positively the fulfillment of economic indicators. When applying this model, activities of individual divisions are emphasized and presentation of the Institute as a global professional capacity is suppressed. With regards to this influence, it will be necessary to look for such system elements that will impact the integrity of the Institute in the future period positively

  18. Institution, Financial Sector, and Economic Growth: Use The Institutions As An Instrument Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Albertus Girik Allo

    2016-01-01

    Institution has been investigated having indirect role on economic growth. This paper aims to evaluate whether the quality of institution matters for economic growth. By applying institution as instrumental variable at Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), quality of institution significantly influence economic growth. This study applies two set of data period, namely 1985-2013 and 2000-2013, available online in the World Bank (WB). The first data set, 1985-2013 is used to estimate the role of fin...

  19. Using institutional and behavioural economics to examine animal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A

    2017-04-01

    Economics provides a framework for understanding management decisions and their policy implications for the animal health system. While the neoclassical economic model is useful for framing animal health decisions on the farm, some of its assumptions and prescriptive results may be unrealistic. Institutional and behavioural economics address some of these potential shortcomings by considering the role of information, psychology and social factors in decisions. Framing such decisions under contract theory allows us to consider asymmetric information between policy-makers and farmers. Perverse incentives may exist in the area of preventing and reporting disease. Behavioural economics examines the role of internal and external psychological and social factors. Biases, heuristics, habit, social norms and other such aspects can result in farm decision-makers arriving at what might be considered irrational or otherwise sub-optimal decisions. Framing choices and providing relevant information and examples can alleviate these behavioural issues. The implications of this approach for disease policy and an applied research and outreach programme to respond to animal diseases are discussed.

  20. Economic Institutions and Stability : A Network Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilles, R.P.; Lazarova, E.A.; Ruys, P.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a network economy in which economic agents are connected within a structure of value-generating relationships. Agents are assumed to be able to participate in three types of economic activities: autarkic self-provision; binary matching interactions; and multi-person cooperative

  1. The Economic and Monetary Union's Institutional Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2002-01-01

    The chapters emphasise is on the EMU's institutions. The chapter contains i.a. a short review of the contents, objectives, developments from 1990-2002 of the EMU, the ESCB (structure & tasks) as well as interaction with other institutions incuding the Council of Ministers. An underlying issue...

  2. Institution, Financial Sector, and Economic Growth: Use The Institutions As An Instrument Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Girik Allo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Institution has been investigated having indirect role on economic growth. This paper aims to evaluate whether the quality of institution matters for economic growth. By applying institution as instrumental variable at Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, quality of institution significantly influence economic growth. This study applies two set of data period, namely 1985-2013 and 2000-2013, available online in the World Bank (WB. The first data set, 1985-2013 is used to estimate the role of financial sector on economic growth, focuses on 67 countries. The second data set, 2000-2013 determine the role of institution on financial sector and economic growth by applying 2SLS estimation method. We define institutional variables as set of indicators: Control of Corruption, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, and Voice and Accountability provide declining impact of FDI to economic growth.

  3. Establishment of the International Power Institute. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julius E. Coles

    2000-08-04

    The International Power Institute, in collaboration with American industries, seeks to address technical, political, economic and cultural issues of developing countries in the interest of facilitating profitable transactions in power related infrastructure projects. IPI works with universities, governments and commercial organizations to render project-specific recommendations for private-sector investment considerations. IPI also established the following goals: Facilitate electric power infrastructure transactions between developing countries and the US power industry; Collaborate with developing countries to identify development strategies to achieve energy stability; and Encourage market driven solutions and work collaboratively with other international trade energy, technology and banking organizations.

  4. Institutional Economic Reconstruction by Optimizing the Role of Middlemen

    OpenAIRE

    Sudrajat, Jajat; Arani, Norasari

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to analize the role of middlemen in rural economic institution and formulate the economic development model through optimalization the role of middlemen. This study was done by conducting literature research. Data were analized by using qualitative method. The results of study conclude that middlemen have strategic positions in rural economic development although their role has negative and positive side. In evolving the positive side, there must be other institution which...

  5. Adaptive institutions? Peasant institutions and natural models facing climatic and economic changes in the Colombian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feola, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    In the Colombian Andes, peasants have co-evolved with their environment for centuries, but it is uncertain whether traditional informal institutions and natural models are adapting to current and possibly unprecedented economic and climatic disturbances. This study investigated institutional

  6. Economic Education in an International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael; Walstad, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain the purpose and context for the 2009 International Symposium on Economic Education that was the source for articles on four nations with relatively developed systems for economic education: Australia, England, Japan, and Korea. The authors highlight several key comparisons from the four articles that appear in…

  7. Malaria eradication: the economic, financial and institutional challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne; Lubell, Yoel; Hanson, Kara

    2008-12-11

    Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices). More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities), the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between malaria control and economic

  8. Malaria eradication: the economic, financial and institutional challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices. More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities, the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: ∘ issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between

  9. Neo-classical economics, institutional economics and improved fisheries management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Tsjalle

    2000-01-01

    According to neo-classical economists, taxes and individual transferable quotas (ITQs) are the most efficient measures for dealing with the problem of overfishing. Institutional economists, however, criticise neo-classical economists for neglecting political problems, enforcement problems and

  10. Conceptual approaches to international cooperation between higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Obolenska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing conceptual and technological approaches to the organization and implementation of international cooperation between higher education institutions with the performance of international accreditation based on education quality system have been characterized in complex, considering the key trends of internationalization of higher education. Priority strategies of higher education internationalization and types of international academic cooperation between universities regarding education services were defined. It has been substantiated that the most important manifestation of higher education internationalization is international cooperation between universities regarding rendering education services, while the highest level of internationalization of this service is joint educational programs. A complex analysis of international accreditation requirements to joint education programs was made on the basis of the system of education quality improvement, its advantages were proven and its distinct features that influence the choice and substantiation of international cooperation, marketing and branding of individual programs were characterized. Technology of international accreditation for joint programs was detailed. Special attention was paid to the practical component of launching joint degree programs between Ukrainian and foreign higher education institutions. The experience of joint master’s degree programs of Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman and the University of Redlands Business School (California, USA was analyzed.

  11. THE IMPACT OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTION IN ECONOMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    has a significant impact on economic performance in Nigeria in the long run. Although ... 70% of adults live in rural areas with 51% male and 49% female. ... services that will enable them start up or run business ventures of their choice . In this ... Accordingto Ademola & Arogundade (2014), credit delivery is one of the most.

  12. Institutional Economic Reconstruction by Optimizing the Role of Middlemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajat Sudrajat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to analize the role of middlemen in rural economic institution and formulate the economic development model through optimalization the role of middlemen. This study was done by conducting literature research. Data were analized by using qualitative method. The results of study conclude that middlemen have strategic positions in rural economic development although their role has negative and positive side. In evolving the positive side, there must be other institution which has capability to substitute part of middlemen role. That is microfinance institution (MFIs which also play the role as an empowerment institution. In loan mechanism, the middlemen can be functioned as a credit guarantee institution. Credit guarantee from middlemen is not only as a contract in agriculture product marketing, but also as the supervision way to create obedience in loan repayment by farmers. The implementation of this pattern is purposed to nurture the social capital in rural economic system.

  13. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  14. Data Science for Institutional and Organizational Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, Jens; Prüfer, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    To which extent can data science methods – such as machine learning, text analysis, or sentiment analysis – push the research frontier in the social sciences? This essay briefly describes the most prominent data science techniques that lend themselves to analyses of institutional and organizational

  15. Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Assenova

    Full Text Available European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of settlement and accounting for colonies that were not independent as of 1900 undermines the causal effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development. Our findings run counter to the institutions hypothesis of economic development, showing instead that geography affected both historic mortality rates and present-day economic output.

  16. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  17. Development Economics between markets and institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Ruben, R.

    2007-01-01

    This volume in the Mansholt series presents state of the art discussions on a wide variety of topics in the field of (agricultural) development. More than 20 chapters have been prepared by internationally known scholars and policy analysts, providing a concise overview of a variety of recent debates

  18. International Interdisciplinary Research Institute Project in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Paul

    2010-02-01

    The project of an interdisciplinary research institute in Senegal was initiated in 1993 in Senegal (West Africa) and became a template for a similar project in the US in 1999. Since then, numerous meetings and presentations have been held at various national and international institutions, workshops and conferences. The current development of this partnership includes drafts for a full design of all systems at each facility, as well as the physics, applied health and educational programs to be implemented. The Senegal facility was conceived for scientific capacity building and equally to act as a focal point aimed at using the local scientific expertise. An anticipated outcome would be a contribution to the reduction of an ever-growing brain drain process suffered by the country, and the African continent in general. The development of the project led also to a strong African orientation of the facility: built for international collaboration, it is to be a pan-African endeavor and to serve primarily African countries. The facility received a presidential approval in a 2003 meeting and will develop an interdisciplinary program centered on a strong materials science research which will also allow for the establishment of an advanced analytical (physical chemistry) laboratory. A central part of the facility will be linked to state-of-the art accelerator mass spectrometry, cyclotron and low energy electromagnetic accelerator systems. )

  19. How do political and economic institutions affect each other?

    OpenAIRE

    Braunfels, Elias

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides evidence for the mutually reinforcing relation of political and economic institutions. To overcome problems of endogeneity I utilize lag instruments within a GMM framework for dynamic panel data. Employing recently developed tests, I show that limiting the number of lag instruments and collapsing the instru- ment matrix eliminates many and weak instrument biases. My major findings are that (i) improving economic institutions has a large positive effec...

  20. Socio-economic institutions in classical political economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Ushchapovskyy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary researches of socio-economic institutions by classical political economy are caused by the absence of social components in its methodological «core». The article concentrates on the ideas of institutionalism in the context of classical political economy formation. The author underlines the necessity to adapt the analysis of socio-economic institutions in the heritage of classical political economy in Ukraine of the 19-th century to the creation of an integral conception of genesis and evolution of institutionalism in Ukrainian economic thought. Following the traditions of European economic science, Ukrainian scientists tried to take into account social contradictions, the needs in democratic transformations of social relations in their works. In spite of absence of the category of «standard (rule» among Adam Smith’s followers, and Ukrainian economists paid attention to a social problematic in the context of traditional researches of classical political economy, there is the necessity to examine socio-economic institutions in their heritage and the possibility of its application to the formation of the paradigm of modern institutionalism. Michail Baludyanskiy considered that a state could limit the freedom of an economic activity only on the base of generally accepted standards, but in this case contributing to safety and freedom of an economic activity. National system of economy, its legislative and management systems must conceptually obey economic policy, Anthropocentrism defined the philosophical conception of Tihon Stepanov’s political economy. He followed methodological holism as he concluded the characteristics of an individual on the base of characteristics of institutions (society. Ivan Vernadskiy’s researches concerning behavior of an individual and his trials to characterize value from a consumer’s point of view don’t fully correspond to traditional classical political economy. To improve Adam Smith’s study

  1. How Strategic Entrepreneurship and the Institutional Context Drive Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2013-01-01

    The economics of growth has shown that countries grow by better allocating whatever resources are at their disposal and by introducing productivity-enhancing innovations. Strategic entrepreneurship plays a key role in this process by searching for, combining, trying out, etc., new resource......, and the Fraser Institute's economic freedom data. Copyright © 2013 Strategic Management Society....

  2. Slavery and Free Markets: Relationships between Economic Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an economic perspective of the institution of slavery in the context of world and American history. Slavery has existed on all continents and in many societies. Its existence has long been controversial and, in the case of the United States, ended only as the result of a long and destructive war. Slavery as an institution was…

  3. Institutions and development in Mexico. Are formal economic reforms enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Palma-Rangel

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines whether the current political arrangements framing the Mexican politics help in consolidating and advancing those economic reforms that have been implemented in Mexico since the 1982 severe economic crises. I will argue that these arrangements create impediments to the co-ordination required to sustain and advance those policy changes that are needed under the new economic model. Formal and informal institutional environments that do not provide for the adequate enforcemen...

  4. Economics and technology in international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume presents the main address, the lectures and the discussions of the symposium. The papers presented to the symposium were the following: the Draft Convention on the Law of the Sea and problems of the international deep seabed regime; developments in science and technology, as a challenge to international law; modern fishery engineering and its impact on international law; the EEC agricultural market - a case study of European Law; problems of international law in connection with a new system of the world economy; the GATT and a new world economic system; the Third World and UNCTAD; international disaster relief and mutual assistance in case of accidents, especially with a view to Atomic Energy Law; organisation, scope and limits of international co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  5. International and institutional aspects of reprocessing and plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Various institutional alternatives applicable to reprocessing, plutonium management and recycle are considered, not as a definitive analysis but rather as a basis for identifying the institutional approaches and measures which the Working Group might wish to examine more thoroughly. Seven alternatives arrangements for reprocessing are presented. These range from suspending the operation of existing reprocessing plants through placing national facilities under safeguards to limiting reprocessing to a few large facilities subject to plutonium management, multinational or international control. Finally, the comprehensive alternative of an International Nuclear Fuel Authority with worldwide responsibility for reprocessing and plutonium management is considered. Plutonium management alternatives to complement the reprocessing options, are then outlined. These include national discretion on the separation and disposition of plutonium under safeguards, an agreed Code of Practice for plutonium management at national facilities and the international storage of plutonium. The advantages and disadvantages of the alternative are discussed tentatively. It is recognised that the alternatives are presented in a simplified form and that their elements can be combined or separated in many ways. Although strengthening the institutions relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is imperative and can contribute to non-proliferation, such arrangements might open other proliferation risks through the spread of sensitive materials, facilities and technology. While there are risks with any fuel cycle, where plutonium in quantity is separated these risks are of a high order. Although these can be mitigated, they will have to be set against the energy and economic case for reprocessing and alternatives other than plutonium considered

  6. Survey of International Trade/Economics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews 14 international economics textbooks to help instructors with selection. Includes organization and structure, topics covered, and characteristics of the texts. Suggests considerations such as course length, level of abstraction desired, opinion of numerically based graphical analysis, extensiveness of examples and applications, and whether…

  7. What Factors Constitute Structures of Clustering Creative Industries? Incorporating New Institutional Economics and New Economic Sociology into A Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Ismalina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Creative industries tend to cluster in specific places and the reasons for this phenomenon can be a multiplicity of elements linked mainly to culture, creativity, innovation and local development. In the international literature, it is pretty well recognized that creativity is frequently characterized by the agglomeration of firms so that creative industries are not homogeneously distributed across the territory but they are concentrated in the space. Three theories are becoming the dominant theoretical perspectives in agglomeration economies theory and they are increasingly being applied in industrial clusters analysis to study the effect of clustering industries. The theories are Marshall’s theoretical principles of localization economies, Schmitz’s collective efficiency and Porter’s five-diamond approach. However, those have adequately theorized neither the institutionalization process through which change takes place nor the socio-economic context of the institutional formations of clustering creative industries. This text begins by reviewing three main theories to more fully articulate institutionalization processes of an economic institution. Specifically, this paper incorporates new institutional economics (NIE and new economic sociology (NES to explain the processes associated with creating institutional practices within clustering creative industries. Both streams of institutional theory constitute that economic organizations are socially constructed. Next, this text proposes the framework that depicts the socio-economic context better and more directly addresses the dynamics of enacting, embedding and changing organizational features and processes within clustering creative industries. Some pertinent definitions are offered to be used in a conceptual framework of research about how economic institutions like clustering creative industries constitute their structures.

  8. Investigation of international energy economics. [Use of econometric model EXPLOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Clement, M.; Foley, T.J.; Rao, S.A.

    1977-03-01

    The Division of International Affairs of the Energy Research and Development Administration is assessing the long-range economic effects of energy research and development programs in the U.S. and other countries, particularly members of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In support of this effort, a program was designed to coordinate the capabilities of five research groups--Rand, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The program could evaluate the international economics of proposed or anticipated sources of energy. This program is designed to be general, flexible, and capable of evaluating a diverse collection of potential energy (nuclear and nonnuclear) related problems. For example, the newly developed methodology could evaluate the international and domestic economic impact of nuclear-related energy sources, but also existing nonnuclear and potential energy sources such as solar, geothermal, wind, etc. Major items to be included would be the cost of exploration, cost of production, prices, profit, market penetration, investment requirements and investment goods, economic growth, change in balance of payments, etc. In addition, the changes in cost of producing all goods and services would be identified for each new energy source. PNL developed (1) a means of estimating the demands for major forms of energy by country, and (2) a means of identifying results or impacts on each country. The results for each country were then to be compared to assess relative advantages. PNL relied on its existing general econometric model, EXPLOR, to forecast the demand for energy by country. (MCW)

  9. Editorial: Contemporary Issues in International Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr STANEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International dimension is at the core of modern business activity and globalization processes tighten interconnectedness also at the macroeconomic level to unprecedented levels. This is clearly demonstrated by the first two issues of our review and expressed in editorial introductions (Wach, 2013; Klich, 2013. Thus, the third issue is explicitly devoted to contemporary issues in international economics. Obviously, tackling them in the way as complete as for example in Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy (Dicken, 2011 is impossible, taken into consideration limits of a journal issue.

  10. OPEC and the international oil market: can a cartel fuel the engine of economic development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noguera, Jose; Pecchenino, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2007), s. 187-199 ISSN 0167-7187 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : OPEC * International oil market * oil export Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2007

  11. Corruption, Institutional Failure and Economic Development in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptually, this paper considers corruption as the misuse of public office for private gain(s). Thus, the basic roles of institutions which include efficiency in service delivery are absolutely relegated to the background which by extension impacts negatively on economic performance in Nigeria. Unlike the widely held view ...

  12. Incentivizing afforestation agreements: Institutional-economic conditions and motivational drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.; Lienhoop, N.; Oosterhuis, F.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to estimate and compare farmer demand for afforestation agreements in the Netherlands and Germany under different institutional-economic contract design conditions. Farmers' responsiveness to financial and non-financial incentives to convert part of their land

  13. Institutional Support: Centre for Economic and Social Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institutional Support: Centre for Economic and Social Research, Education and Documentation (Burkina Faso). The Centre d'études de documentation et de ... innovations to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.

  14. International Academic Success: Institutional Planning & Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen; Kennedy, Matthew; Crespin-Mueller, Dorys

    2010-01-01

    This study was requested by the Senate International Affairs Committee. The research questions included: (1) What factors affect the cumulative GPA (CGPA) of International students at TRU?; (2) What factors affect the retention of International students at TRU?; and (3) Are Student Success Courses among the significant factors for GPA and…

  15. International Advisory Committee R Balasubramanian, The Institute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak Dhar, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India. Hendrik B Geyer, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Sanjay Jain, University of Delhi, India. S Kailas, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. P K Kaw, Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, India. Narendra Kumar, Raman Research ...

  16. STRATEGY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona DANILIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  17. Strategy of International Economic Cooperation: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Silvestru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  18. The influence of economic crisis on directions of estructuring of marketing in research institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Elżbieta Maślanka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On the eve of the third millennium the Polish economy is more and more subject to worldwide trends of globalization, which in a special way influences the scope and intensiveness of changes implemented in Research Institutes. It is accompanied by another more and more intensively transferred internationally and generally observed economic crisis, whose negative impulses cause the economic growth to slow down. The key determinant of the development of Research Institutes in the modern global economy is a skill to react on changes and a necessity to take restructuring actions within this range of marketing. Problems of a progressive global economic crisis and the influence of this process on restructuring of marketing in Research Institutes is an important research problem, requiring a deep and thorough analysis and research in this scope, hence this paper deals with all these important issues.

  19. Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional elements in fisheries policy and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Robert L.; Benson, Ashleen J.; Brooks, Kate

    2017-01-01

    While international agreements and legislation call for incorporation of four pillars of sustainability, the social (including cultural), economic and institutional aspects (the ‘human dimension’) have been relatively neglected to date. Three key impediments have been identified: a relative lack...... of explicit social, economic and institutional objectives; a general lack of process (frameworks, governance) for routine integration of all four pillars of sustainability; and a bias towards biological considerations. Practical integration requires a ‘systems’ approach with explicit consideration...... in fisheries to immediately take five practical steps toward integrating ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects: (1) Adopt the perspective of the fishery as a ‘system’ with interacting natural, human and management elements; (2) Be aware of both strategic and operational aspects of fisheries...

  20. The Institutional Canopy of Conservation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    based ... to natural resources, income diversification, and green economic development ... conservation practices in collaborative natural resource management; and ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  1. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 500 - Qualifying International Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pt. 500, App. A Appendix A to Part 500—Qualifying International Institutions Asian Development Bank (ADB) Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, the “World Bank”) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) International Development...

  2. People, Aid and institutions in socio-economic recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, Thea; Weijs, Bart; Haar, van der Gemma

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 2 billion people live in countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence. Extreme poverty is increasingly concentrated in these areas, and governments and international agencies seek avenues to enable socio-economic recovery and to support people as they try to rebuild their

  3. Institutional economic theory of assets privatization and nationalization: Basic imperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukharev Oleg S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic provisions, principles and criteria of institutional theory of privatization - nationalization and assets management in economy are introduced. Structural analysis of property, in the aspect of it s two basic elements, public and private property, is carried out and the model of interaction of public and private sectors is introduced. The main attention is focused on the efficiency estimation criteria of the functioning of property and to expediency substantiation of property privatization and nationalization. The optimum principle of property structure in economic system is suggested. peculiarities of privatization and nationalization in economic systems are analyzed proceeding from substantiation of theoretical criteria of privatization and nationalization in economy.

  4. The effect of institutions on Latin American economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfino Vargas Chanes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify relevant characteristics of institutions that have an effect on economic growth in selected Latin American countries. A multilevel model was used for this propose, the dependent variable is the real per capita gdp, and the explanatory variables are indicators of governance provided by the World Bank. The results show that the significant variables are regulatory quality and control of corruption. This implies the need to strengthen the institutions of the rule of law, voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, and government effectiveness.

  5. Coevolution of economic behaviour and instituions: towards a theory of institutional change.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Stagl, S.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, economics has regarded institutions, notably norms and regulations, as fixed or exogenous. Surprisingly few insights on institutional evolution from natural and social sciences have made their way into economics. This article gives an overview of evolutionary theories of institutions

  6. The prepossession of international institutions for energy. The example International Energy Agency (IEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the fact that large international energy agencies, which are advisory active in energy questions active, affect the world-wide policy. In particular, these are the International Atomic Energy Authority in Vienna (Austria) and the International Energy Agency in Paris (France). The International Energy Agency is considered world-wide as the most important institution for all energy questions. Nearly annually, it publishes the World Energy Outlook by summarizing the most important current energy data of the world, prognoses the future power supply and makes future energy prices. The reality of the International Energy Agency looks completely differently: It performs no own sciences, but consists of statisticians, who gather only statistical data without scientific analysis. The author of this contribution summarizes the work of the International Energy Agency in three points: (a) Promotion of the interests of companies in mineral oil, natural gas, coal and atomic energy; (b) Hindering the world-wide conversion of renewable energy; (c) Endangerment of the world economy and prevention of an effective climate protection. The International Energy Agency does not justice to its own goal of a reliable, economical and pollution free power supply

  7. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  8. Leadership and institutional factors in endogenous regional economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stimson

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that a virtuous circle for the sustainable developmentof a city or region is achieved through a process whereby proactive and strongleadership and effective institutions enhance the capacity and capability of a place tobetter use its resource endowments and gain an improved market fit in becomingcompetitive and being entrepreneurial. It is proposed that the performance of a city orregion at a point in time and the path of its economic development over time may berepresented by its position in a Regional Competitiveness Performance Cube. Thepaper proposes a new model framework whereby a city or region’s economic developmentand performance is an outcome dependent on how its resource endowmentsand market fit as quasi-independent variables are mediated by the interaction betweenleadership, institutions, and entrepreneurship as intervening variables. The experiencesof a number of case study cities from a variety of settings in the US, Europe,Asia and Australia are explored within that framework.

  9. INTERNATIONAL RESERVES, GUARANTEE THAT SUPPORTS ROMANIA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate demand in our country far exceeds the ability of the economy to produce goods and services. The gap between total demand for goods and services on the one hand and economic status, on the other hand stands out primarily by the continuing need for funds to cover the budget deficit. The Lack of foreign investors, poor development of capital market and non-involvement of credit institutions to support economic development leads the Romanian state to borrow regularly on international money market. Guarantor of the country for these loans is the reserve fund managed by the central bank of the state. Trade deficits and foreign borrowing are two components of the same problems. As the state borrows more from the international financial markets the higher is the trade deficit. A national initiative on facilities development companies with export production and aggregate demand for domestic products, can lead to lower imports. Increasing the fund's reserves and activation may be one of the solutions required to support economic development. Through this study we try to discover the role of the reserve fund and other sources of economic development.

  10. Conflict, Institutions, and Economic Behavior : Legacies of the Cambodian Genocide

    OpenAIRE

    KOGURE, Katsuo; TAKASAKI, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines potential long-term effects of the Cambodian genocide under the Pol Pot regime (1975-'79) on individual economic behaviors, taking into account underlying institutions. Combining spatial genocide data and census microdata, we examine effects of the genocide on subsequent parental investments in children's education of couples who had their first child during and after the Pol Pot regime. Under the state ownership of spouses and children, resulting from the complete denial ...

  11. Maritime Piracy: Socio-Economic, Political, and Institutional Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gries; Margarete Redlin

    2014-01-01

    Over the last twenty years piracy has become an increasing threat. Yet there are only very few econometric studies that examine under which conditions this phenomenon arises. As the number of maritime piracy and armed robbery incidents is characterized as count data and exhibits overdispersion, we apply random-effects negative binomial regressions for a panel dataset covering the period 1991-2010. Our results indicate that poor socio-economic, political, and institutional conditions in the ho...

  12. Australian Educational Institutions International Markets: A Correspondence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Timothy W.; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The global market for international students have become highly competitive and many institutions, particularly higher education institutions, rely heavily on fee income from overseas students. This study aims to examine the countries from which Australian education institutions draw such students and used this information to better…

  13. Institutional economic analysis of vegetable production and marketing in northern Philippines: social capital, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milagrosa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines vegetable production and marketing among indigenous communities in northernPhilippinesusing an institutional economics approach. It develops a framework that analyses the four levels of

  14. The economics of international coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-07-13

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  15. The economics of international coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  16. Democratic Legitimacy, International Institutions and Cosmopolitan Disaggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, David

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores Thomas Christiano’s conception of international legitimacy. It argues that his account fails to fully appreciate the instrumental constraints that international legitimacy imposes on national democracies. His model of Fair Voluntary Association articulates the transmission of political legitimacy through a double aggregation of political consent. First, it “pools” its authority from the foundational cosmopolitan claims of individuals involved in a deeply i...

  17. FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICY – PANEL DATA EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippidis Ioannis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market

  18. Political institutions as substitute for democracy: a political economy analysis of economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carlos; Teles, Vladimir Kühl

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript empirically assesses the effects of political institutions on economic growth. It analyzes how political institutions affect economic growth in different stages of democratization and economic development by means of dynamic panel estimation with interaction terms. The new empirical results obtained show that political institutions work as a substitute for democracy promoting economic growth. In other words, political institutions are important for increasing economic growth, ...

  19. What Is International about International Schools? An Institutional Legitimacy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Tristan; Fertig, Michael; James, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the number of International Schools around the world has increased rapidly largely as a result of growth of new forms of International Schools, which differ markedly from the traditional forms. These new forms: are often operated on a for-profit commercial basis; are usually for children from the local (indigenous), wealthy…

  20. Business opportunities with international financial institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, B.

    1994-12-31

    The marketing strategy developed for use in international markets by the S. M. Group International of Longueuil, Quebec, a company with interest and well-developed expertise in the environmental and energy sector, was described. The strategy is designed to aid in the selection of countries or regions of interest, in determining the sector of activity to be emphasized, in selecting a local partner or local business representatives, and in making contact locally with the people responsible for the development banks in the target countries in an effort to create awareness of the company. The company also tries, wherever possible, to promote its services to local governmental agencies through the industrial cooperation program of CIDA. Since development banks have a very conservative behaviour, past performances and constant provision of high quality services are of prime importance.

  1. The institutional economics of market-based climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the institutional barriers to implementing market-based climate policy, as well as to provide some opportunities to overcome them. The approach is that of institutional economics, with special emphasis on political transaction costs and path dependence. Instead of rejecting the neoclassical approach, this book uses it where fruitful and shows when and why it is necessary to employ a new or neo-institutionalist approach. The result is that equity is considered next to efficiency, that the evolution and possible lock-in of both formal and informal climate institutions are studied, and that attention is paid to the politics and law of economic instruments for climate policy, including some new empirical analyses. The research topics of this book include the set-up costs of a permit trading system, the risk that credit trading becomes locked-in, the potential legal problem of grandfathering in terms of actional subsidies under WTO law or state aid under EC law, and the changing attitudes of various European officials towards restricting the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms

  2. Gross Domestic Pizza. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiene, Irena; Venger, Anatoly; MacDonald, Rich; Davis, Debbie

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives; time…

  3. The Role of International Law: Formulating International Legal Instruments and Creating International Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    Using as a basis the threat of climatic change resulting from global warming, this article considers the functions that might be assigned to an international regime. For each function individually and collectively, the instruments and institutions that would be required for the various processes are examined. (SLD)

  4. How institutions matter for international business : Institutional distance effects vs institutional profile effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Andre; Maseland, Robbert

    Extant institutional research has failed to make a distinction between the effects of institutional profile and institutional distance on MNEs. The problem stems from the fact that, due to the use of a single reference country, variation in institutional distance between the reference country and

  5. Which Membership Matters? External vs. Internal Determinants of Institutional Change in Transition Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Drautzburg; Inna Melnykovska; Rainer Schweickert

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses potential internal and external determinants of institutional change as measured by the World Bank Governance Indicators (WBGI) based on a panel of 25 transition countries for the period from 1996 to 2005. We show that natural resources and capital inflows exert an insignificant or negative influence and that economic policy allows to break path-dependency. Most importantly, however, we are able to show that incentives provided by NATO membership are important for institut...

  6. Institutional Problems and Development Perspectives Innovative Entrepreneurship in Resource Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutskiy Vladislav, N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity to transit towards the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public. Innovation as a product of entrepreneurship permeate the system of relations from top to bottom – from more efficient ways of doing home Ho households, and to design mechanisms of state regulation of the economy. However, at the theoretical level, the relationship remains poorly studied in-novations as a function of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship as social phenomenon in the system of institutional relations "business-authorities-society". Modern Russian economy has features of "dual enclave economy" with isolated more productive export-oriented resource sector. Innovative entrepreneurs do not become actors of change because of weak protection of property rights, manipulated state, weak sanctions for rent-seeking. The transition from innovative system "technology push" (fundamental knowledge on demand of state towards innovation system "market pull" (innovations on demand of business is complicated within Y-matrix of competitive institutional environment. It could turn out to be more effective to transit to the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public in compliance with X-matrix of cooperative institutional environment of redistribution. This will allow to create the necessary mechanisms for the exchange of missing codified knowledge (for those who imitate innovations and tacit knowledge (for pure innovators in the cross-sectoral technological chains. The design of institutional change in compliance with real needs of participants of innovative processes requires formal analysis of the region economic development type through assessing its key spheres, revealing and modeling prevailing type of entrepreneurship as well as identifying the relationship between

  7. Economic growth and gender equality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And conversely, does gender equality impact economic growth? ... change and growth in the economy on women's employment opportunities and the type ... sectors and their overall effect on development outcomes, such as economic growth ...

  8. ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty ... new information and communication technologies (ICTs) as a lever for economic and social development. ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all people, without ...

  9. Institutions, regulatory role and economic growth of national economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Vedriš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present time, characterized by the rapid disturbances in all time more connected global economy, territorially as well as structurally, the role of the state’s influence and responsibility with the adequate institutional addresses and procedures, defined in larger context, becomes the essential point not only of the further growth but also of the existing relations viability. It is simply because the encirclement does not function on the principle of status quo situation any more. Therefore, the role and significance of institutions, adequate regulatory role of these addresses, in the context of demand of permanent and stable economic growth, are of particular interest in the creation of this model. This analysis gains in importance studying the realized accelerated economic growth of states from some parts of the world, notably in the period after WW II. This question turned out to be exceptionally essential during the analysis of national strategies of accelerated economic growth (catch up strategy. On the other side of analysis are the transition period and the processes realized on the territory of the East and Central European states up to 1990 that were under the strong influence of the USSR. The attempts and mistakes in the quest for adequate balance of the market role were initially indoctrinated and led by the predominant conviction that the principles of Washington consensus will lead up to accelerated and efficient change of the entire structure of national economies and new frames for future behaviour. The problems that appeared very soon led to the establishment of significantly more balanced first the understanding and then to establishing significantly, more appropriate concept of balance and complementarity of market development with the permanently present role and responsibility of the state in this process and on this road.

  10. International Financial Institution Policies of Conditionality and Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Scott; McGray, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Conditionalities are most broadly defined as the provisos that are to be met by a country when borrowing money from the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). Increasingly, they have proven to have far reaching consequences for countries entering into agreements with The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade…

  11. INTERNAL MARKETING STRATEGY IN A HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aléssio Bessa Sarquis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Internal marketing comprises the set of strategies to enable internally compliance of the organization's marketing promises. This study examines the use of internal marketing strategies in a higher education institution in the process of implementing a new educational model. This is one case study with qualitative and exploratory approach. The data collection techniques used were interviews and document analysis, interpreted through content analysis. The results show that the most commonly used strategies are: implementation of employee training programs; development of materials / guidance handouts; creating web blog; and the application of internal research. The testimonies indicate that the internal marketing strategies contributed to the implementation of new educational model, but there is dissatisfaction among managers with the internal marketing program of the institution.

  12. The Changing Nature of International Institutions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diez, Thomas; Manners, Ian; Whitman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    of enlargement. To remedy this, a comparison is suggested between the order of the EU as a regional international society and the order of the traditional, global international society as analysed by the English School of International Relations, and in particular by Hedley Bull. It is argued that the primary...... goal of the international order of the society of states, the preservation of states as its fundamental units, has been replaced by the goal of the preservation of peace in Europe. Consequently, the five core institutions of international order identified by Bull (balance of power, international law...... a regional international society that not only combines international and domestic elements, but transforms politics to such an extent that it should better be called a multiperspectival society, confounding Bull’s expectation that the European integration will either lead to a European state or falter...

  13. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Indra Juarsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multinational Corporation/MNC has a significant role to play in promoting sustainable development and alleviating global poverty. As a subject of International Economic Law, MNC has the rights to take profit from its business activities. In addition, it also has responsibility to protect sustainable environment through CSR program. This paper focuses on what more specific instrument sets CSR in international economic law, and how CSR can be implemented by the MNC. International (public law has been providing instruments to regulate MNC activities related to CSR, those are: OECD Guidelines, ILO Declaration and UN Global Compact. However, they are only “soft laws” that still require more specific instrument to be implemented. As a continuation of the general rules of public international CSR Instruments, the World Bank Group through the IFC and MIGA sets standard performances that must be met by every corporation that will get finance (IFC or guarantee (MIGA. Standard Performances are described further in the environmental, health and safety guidelines that are essential for every company to provide protection to stakeholders related to business activities including workers, communities, and environment. As the method of evaluation and enforcement, IFC and MIGA have institution namely Compliance Advisor Ombudsman serving to receive reports from the public, investigate and provide notification to the company activities that negatively affect the society. Ultimately CSR is not only seen as philanthropy (mandatory but also as guidelines and a code of conduct to be followed by the corporation in carrying out any business.   Key words: mandatory norm, obligatory norm, CSR

  14. Can green building councils serve as third party governance institutions? An economic and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, Sabine; Maier, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    Green Building Councils (GBCs) have been established in many different countries in recent years. This paper discusses the role such organizations can play in the respective construction and real estate industry and under what circumstances a GBC can contribute positively to the development of a “greener” or “more sustainable” stock of buildings. The paper investigates the main informational problem of the industry by looking at the relation between a developer and an investor from an economic point of view. We argue that the investor's uncertainty about the true quality of a building and the corresponding incentive for the developer to cheat may lock them into a prisoners' dilemma trap. The corresponding barriers for a transition toward a “greener” buildings market are analyzed. GBCs are described as institutions of economic governance that can assist the economy in overcoming these problems. They can act as third party institutions in transactions between developers and investors. By certifying the quality of a building, they can reduce the risk for the investor to be cheated by the developer and also increase the incentive to develop good quality buildings for the developer. This task, however, raises some severe management challenges for the GBCs. - Highlights: ► We focus on Green Building Councils and their economic role. ► The paper investigates the informational problem of the sustainable building market. ► Developers and investors are locked in a prisoner's dilemma. ► Can the councils act as third party institutions to certify quality of buildings? ► Credibility and reliability are key features for third party certification.

  15. INTERNAL CONTROLS IN ENSURING GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed factors that influence the internal controls in ensuring good corporate governance in financial institutions in developing economies with special reference to Zimbabwe. The research paper assessed how lack of internal controls affected good corporate governance and aimed to bring out elements of good corporate governance. It emerged that failure to effectively implement internal controls contributed significantly to poor corporate governance. The study discovered that internal control system overrides and the issue of “fact cat” directors also contributed to poor corporate governance. The study recommended that there is need for the board of directors to guarantee an organizational structure that clearly defines management responsibilities, authority and reporting relationships. There is also need to ensure that delegated responsibilities are effectively carried out to ensure compliance with internal controls of the financial institution concerned.

  16. NATURE OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the factors influencing the business environment in the economic relations of enterprises in national and international aspect are discussed. Global interdependencies have been explored and results have been drawn on the impact of international political and economic changes on the business environment of national and supranational companies.

  17. A Country Report Project for an International Economics Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Adil E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that international economics textbooks pay too little attention to the complexity of issues and problems facing individual nations. Describes a country report project included as part of a college-level international or development economics course. Provides two student instruction sheets and a sample country report. (CFR)

  18. Principles of International Economic Law, and the Right to Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Economics | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Read more about Improving childcare options to create better economic opportunities for women in Nairobi slums. Language English. Read more about Expanding the Canadian Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Scholarship Program to Advanced Scholars. Language English.

  20. International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy projects. Building on a similar model for the United States, I-JEDI was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the U.S. government's Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support partner countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector.

  1. International financial institutions and human rights: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Thomas; Kentikelenis, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Serving as lender of last resort to countries experiencing unsustainable levels of public debt, international financial institutions have attracted intense controversy over the past decades, exemplified most recently by the popular discontent expressed in Eurozone countries following several rounds of austerity measures. In exchange for access to financial assistance, borrowing countries must settle on a list of often painful policy reforms that are aimed at balancing the budget. This practice has afforded international financial institutions substantial policy influence on governments throughout the world and in a wide array of policy areas of direct bearing on human rights. This article reviews the consequences of policy reforms mandated by international financial institutions on the enjoyment of human rights, focusing on the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. It finds that these reforms undermine the enjoyment of health rights, labour rights, and civil and political rights, all of which have deleterious implications for public health. The evidence suggests that for human rights commitments to be met, a fundamental reorientation of international financial institutions' activities will be necessary.

  2. Economics | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The book is a bona fide crystal ball. It will be a must read for the next decade. David Bloom, Clarence James Gamble Professor of Economics and Demography and ... of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, USA.

  3. Economics | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the form of government, ethnicity and nationality, and other social factors. ... the context of globalization from several continents and a number of theoretical ... and for the promotion of cultural, political and economic diversity everywhere.

  4. Economics | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This pathbreaking book identifies the economic and social factors underlying the ... current beliefs about good practice in the provision of business development ... assessment of impact, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of such services.

  5. Global economic governance | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... In fragile political and economic environments, financial systems already are prone to ... Instability in one country can provoke instability in others, and when this .... Recognition that financial stability is a global public good has ...

  6. Management of International Institutions and NGOs. Frameworks, practices and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    E. Missoni; D. Alesani

    2014-01-01

    International Institutions (IIs), International NGOs (INGOs) and Transnational Hybrid Organizations (THOs) play a hugely important role in the modern world economy. Despite having been studied by scholars from a range of disciplines, these organizations have never before been approached from a management perspective. This ambitious book analyzes the management challenges associated with interna- tional cooperation and sheds light on how these organizations have evolved as the political, econo...

  7. Inauguration of the international Institute of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    On June 27, 2011 was inaugurated in Saclay (France) the I2EN (international Institute of the nuclear energy) and the Jannus platform. The I2EN has to particularly centralize and relay, at the international scale, the French formations offer in the field of nuclear energy. On the other hand, the Jannus platform is an example of cooperation between research organisms and universities. (O.M.)

  8. An overview of international institutional mechanisms for environmental management with reference to Arctic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Patricia E.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence is mounting of the environmental impact in the Far North of economic and industrial activity elsewhere in the world. While the sources of pollutants found in the Arctic are many and widespread, it is up to just a few countries - notably Canada, the former Soviet Union, Finland, Norway and Greenland - to assess the damage and deal with the impacts. This paper discusses the issue of Arctic pollution in the context of trends in world economic growth, globalization of economic activity, international trade and related institutional arrangements (such as trade and environmental agreements). The importance of tracing the sources of particular contaminants is stressed; this is a first step towards internalization of environmental costs of production, and is also politically a key in efforts to control emissions. Trade and investment agreements commonly discuss rules for cross-border flows of goods, services, personnel and investment capital, as well as matters specific to particular economic sectors. Cross-border flows of pollutants and other 'bads' also merit detailed sectoral attention. This linkage would make explicit the connections between production and pollution (making possible the 'polluter pays' approach), and also widen the scope for redistribution of economic resources to equilibrate the situation (via trade and investment measures, among others) if flows of goods are related directly to flows of 'bads'. The paper examines the outlook for addressing Arctic pollution via international environmental agreements (along the lines of the Basel Convention, the Montreal Protocol, CITES, etc.), existing and future trade agreements (such as GATT), or new institutional approaches

  9. World energy resources. International Geohydroscience and Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    World Energy Resources is an explanatory energy survey of the countries and major regions of the world, their geographic and economic settings, and significant inter-relationships. This book attempts to combine several interacting energy themes that encompass a historical development, energy issues and forecasts, economic geography, environmental programs, and world energy use. The main thrust of this book -World Energy Resources - is based on principles of energy science, applied geology, geophysics, and other environmental sciences as they relate to the exploration, exploitation, and production of resources in this country and throughout the world. This work is an analysis of the United States (USA) and world oil, gas, coal, and alternative energy resources and their associated issues, forecasts, and related policy. This book could not have been attempted without a broad geological exposure and international geographic awareness. Much information is scattered among federal and state agencies, schools, and other institutions, and this book has attempted to combine some of the vast information base. This attempt can only skim the information surface at best, but its regional and topical coverage is broad in scope. Part I introduces conventional energy resources and their historical developments, and includes chapters 1 to 7. The basic concepts and supporting facts on energy sources are presented here for the general education of energy analysts, policy makers, and scientists that desire a brief review of advanced technologies and history. Part II includes chapters 8 to 14 and provides discussions of the renewable energy sources and the available alternative energy sources and technologies to oil, gas, coal, and nuclear sources. Part III includes chapters 15 to 20 and provides an analysis of United States energy markets and forecasts through the first quarter of the 21st century, while including some world energy data. Widely-used energy forecasting models are

  10. THE ECONOMIC NATURE OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Gorcheva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialized literature does not provide a unanimously accepted definition of the term “tourism”. Regardless of the differences of approach and definition techniques, all definitions are generally based on the need for recreation and achievement of physical and emotional comfort, which are the driving forces for development and execution of various activities to meet those needs. Another approach used to clarify the essence of the term “tourism” allows not only for its social role, but also the economic logic for the development and the management of tourism as an economic activity. This approach, clarifying the essence of the term “tourism” from an economic point of view, allows for the creation of a number of hierarchically related concepts.

  11. Institutional Distance and Partner Selection in International Technological Alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krammer, Marius

    2013-01-01

    This study posits that institutional distance has a negative influence on partner selection in international technological alliances. Empirical results based on a dataset of firms in the global tire industry confirm that firms prefer technological partners from closer cognitive, normative and

  12. "Families" in International Context: Comparing Institutional Effects across Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Lynn Prince; Baxter, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    We review comparative evidence of institutional effects on families in Western societies. We focus on 2 key aspects of family life: gendered divisions of labor and people's transitions into, within, and out of relationships. Many individual-level models assume the effects are robust across countries. The international evidence over the past decade…

  13. Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) forest and nature reserve, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. ... was also sighted in the study site and several other birds which normally winter around the lake. Key words: Ecology, Distribution, Diversity, Forest, Nature Reserve, IITA, ...

  14. Proposal to Establish an International Solar Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1974-01-01

    This report was written by E. Broda and it is about a proposal to establish an international solar research institute. Broda emphasizes solar energy as the most important energy source alternatively to nuclear energy and he points out the advantages of solar energy over nuclear energy. This report was written for a symposium for science and peace in February 1974. (nowak)

  15. A Study of the Organizational Culture at a Higher Education Institution [Case Study: Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (PRUE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyakin, Bogdan S.; Ivleva, Marina I.; Pozharskaya, Yelena L.; Shcherbakova, Olga I.

    2016-01-01

    The article offers an analysis of the organizational culture at a higher education institution as in the case of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, conducted in order to study the students' involvement in this culture and to draw conclusions as to what organizational culture principles are internalized by the students. The study used…

  16. Evolution and Specificity of the Economic Institutions of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Faruarovich Islamutdinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the study of the evolution of economic institutions in the resource-producing region, to the investigation of their specificity and institutional traps. As the initial data, the legal framework, the experience of the functioning of economic institutions and statistical data were used. The subject matter of the research is the influence of regional specificity on the evolution of economic institutions. The research topic is the analysis of the evolution, specificity and institutional traps of the economic institutions of the resource-producing region on the example of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug—Yugra. The purpose of the research is to identify the relationship between the regional specificity and the direction of the evolution of economic institutions. The hypothesis of the study is that the regional specificity has an impact on the evolution of economic institutions and contributes to the formation of institutional traps. The framework methodology of the work is a comparative institutional analysis. As a result, the stages of the evolution of economic institutions are determined, their regional specificity and institutional traps are revealed. The scientific input is in the revealing of the specificity of institutional traps at the regional level as well as the influence of specificity on the evolution of economic institutions. The author came to the conclusion that the specificity of the region's economy affects the specificity of institutions as well as the formation of institutional traps. At the same time, some traps have a system-wide character and do not depend on the specificity of the region; this applies to the basic economic institutions. The most strongly the regional specificity is appeared in the evolution of the economic institutions for development, whose institutional traps are in many respects predetermined by the regional specificity. The results can be applied by the public administration at the

  17. Do international economic developments affect the South African economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Swanepoel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has opened economies more, exposing them to more international shocks and increasing the challenges to which domestic economic policies must respond. This paper provides a starting point for the analysis of the impact of international economic developments on the South African economy by means of graphical illustrations, correlations coefficients and in some cases a VAR analysis. Although this paper has shed some light on the importance of international economic developments on the South African economy, more rigorous econometric investigation is needed to validate the arguments and to address many of the unresolved questions.

  18. Economics | Page 20 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mitigating this problem is now one of governments' priority goals as part of a ... In the contemporary approach to the relationship between economic growth and ... Read more about Le développement face à la pauvreté: Réseau analyse ... Part I discusses basic fundamental issues of well-being and poverty measurement.

  19. Economics | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans leur livre, intitulé Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia: Size Structure and Economic Growth, Dipak Mazumdar et Sandip Sarkar proposent une interprétation des trajectoires de croissance économique de certains pays d'Asie, mise en corrélation avec la structure de la taille des entreprises manufacturières. Read more ...

  20. Economics | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Kenya's population is becoming increasingly urban; more than half of Nairobi's residents live in informal settlements (slums) plagued by cramped living conditions and poor access to basic services. Read more about IDRC-supported project influencing government policy in Kenya.

  1. Economics | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Building Businesses with Small Producers presents the findings and a comparative analysis of seven case studies that challenge current beliefs about good practice in the provision of business development services (BDS) to small and micro enterprises. The book also highlights ...

  2. Economics of Climate Change Adaptation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Literature on the economics of climate change adaptation - especially in developing countries - is generally scarce, and this weakens the premise on which adaptation decisions are made. Moreover, there is no standard framework or toolkit to guide researchers and policymakers in this kind of decision-making. This grant ...

  3. The Economics of International Differences in Educational Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 15949

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    An emerging economic literature over the past decade has made use of international tests of educational achievement to analyze the determinants and impacts of cognitive skills. The cross-country comparative approach provides a number of unique advantages over national studies: It can exploit institutional variation that does not exist within…

  4. The International Trade Policy for Technology Transfers: Legal and Economic Dilemmas on Multilateralism versus Bilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    In the book, the Researcher addresses the importance of international technology transfers for economic development, as well as the underlying causes for the different institutional arrangements that promote such activity. The work provides a systematic interpretation of the wide range of interests...

  5. The impact of international economic sanctions on Iranian cancer healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Shohreh; Fazlalizadeh, Hooman; Stedman, Jennifer; Chuang, Linus; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Ram, Regina

    2015-10-01

    In 2012, Iranian's economy collapsed under strain from sanctions instituted to stop Iran from violating the International Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Sanctions have indirectly led to serious healthcare concerns, specifically cancer treatment. This is the first report to evaluate Iranian cancer healthcare while under international economic sanctions. Data and information were identified by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using the search terms: "Iran", "health policy", "sanctions", "ethics", and "cancer". Articles published in the English language between 1966 and present were included, based on relevance to sanctions or the specific case of sanctions in Iran. The Program of Action for Cancer Therapy evaluated Iran's National Cancer Control Program (NCCP), reporting it has substantial deficits, including prevention, diagnosis/treatment, palliative care, monitoring, and technology, with a serious drug shortage for cancer care. Sanctions have exemptions for medicines and food, but lead to disruption of health services through complications in transportation, transferring currencies or lack of money. There is increasing evidence that sanctions harm vulnerable populations, while blocking globalization and not creating political or social change quickly. Improvement of Iran's NCCP is not feasible, and the health of cancer patients will continue to decline while the sanctions are in effect. The solution is complex, but a modern and innovative approach to diplomacy, which includes human rights, is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. International human cooperation in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Koreyuki; Kaieda, Keisuke; Makuuchi, Keizo; Takada, Kazuo; Nomura, Masayuki

    1997-01-01

    Rearing of talented persons in the area of nuclear energy is one of the important works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the present situations and future schedules of international human cooperation in this area wsere summarized. First, the recent activities of International Nuclear Technology Center were outlined in respect of international human cooperation. A study and training course which was started in cooperation with JICA and IAEA from the middle of eighties and the international nuclear safety seminar aiming at advancing the nuclear safety level of the world are now being put into practice. In addition, a study and training for rearing talented persons was started from 1996 to improve the nuclear safety level of the neighbouring countries. The activities of the nuclear research interchange system by Science and Technology Agency established in 1985 and Bilateral Co-operation Agreement from 1984 were explained and also various difficulties in the international cooperation were pointed out. (M.N.)

  7. A New Institutionalism? The English School as International Sociological Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schouenborg, Laust

    2011-01-01

    In this article I engage with the theoretical opening provided by Barry Buzan’s From International to World Society? I present an argument for five functional categories, which should be able to encompass all the institutions identified by English School scholars throughout history. Their introdu......In this article I engage with the theoretical opening provided by Barry Buzan’s From International to World Society? I present an argument for five functional categories, which should be able to encompass all the institutions identified by English School scholars throughout history....... Their introduction should point the way towards a sounder analytical framework for the study of what Buzan believes should be the new subject of the discipline of International Relations (IR). This subject is defined as second-order societies, meaning societies ‘where the members are not individual human beings...

  8. Economics | Page 32 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rather than simply analyzing the current functioning of the WTO, its problems and challenges, this volume is also a call to action. It lays out proposals that are likely to become a blueprint for reform of the WTO as an institution. Its contents are abundantly worthy of reflection and subsequent action. I recommend it highly to ...

  9. Economic sanctions and US international business interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic sanctions are seen as a foreign policy instrument less severe than military engagement but more potent than diplomacy. The assessment of the economic impact of sanctions invariably focuses on direct bilateral trade, with little regard to indirect costs. In the case of sanctions on Iran, the real cost to Iran and the U.S. is not so much due to reduced trade but to factors such as missed investment and joint venture opportunities, especially in the energy sector. The significant size of these costs for Iran will make it difficult for Iran to resume business as usual with U.S. companies whensanctions are lifted; and for U.S. energy companies, their long-term competitiveness in Iran and also globally will be reduced.

  10. Socio-Economic Determinants of International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav PRYTULA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since economic factors cannot fully explain the determinants of bilateral migration, this study explores the social and cultural determinants that influence an individual’s decision to migrate. Values, norms and interests in a given culture, may determine whether an individual’s intention to move translates into actual migration. Work values inherent in different cultures could explain why people move or do not move under the condition of perceived economic advantages of migration. A gravity type migration model is used to incorporate variables related both to economic indicators and work values. It is perhaps the first migration study to use the World Value Survey (WVS and the European Value Survey (EVS. We use 2000 stock bilateral migration dataset collected by the World Bank. Our findings indicate that if more aspects of work are valued in a country, this country sends more migrants. Also we show that countries with higher extrinsic work value orientation tend to send more migrants, while countries with higher intrinsic work value orientation tend to send fewer migrants. Our finding shows that the value of work and the level of job security in a country may significantly change migration decision.

  11. Constitutional Socio-Economic Rights and International Law: "You ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenauer Foundation and Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus) 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights.

  12. PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Lyasnikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic socio-economic development of Russia, the long-term competitiveness in the global economy involves the formation of a new socio-economic institute of management – an active subject of modern innovative economy.

  13. Is colonialism history? The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development : The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the claim that colonial history has left an enduring imprint on Africa's institutional and economic development. The literature following Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson (2001) and Sokoloff and Engerman (2000) maintains that different types of colonialism affected the

  14. NASA Virtual Institutes: International Bridges for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory K.

    2016-01-01

    NASA created the first virtual institute, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), in 2009 with an aim toward bringing together geographically disparate and multidisciplinary teams toward the goal of answering broad questions in the then-new discipline of astrobiology. With the success of the virtual institute model, NASA then created the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI) in 2008 to address questions of science and human exploration of the Moon, and then the NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) in 2012 which addresses key questions in the development of aeronautics technologies. With the broadening of NASA's human exploration targets to include Near Earth Asteroids and the moons of Mars as well as the Moon, the NLSI morphed into the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) in 2012. SSERVI funds domestic research teams to address broad questions at the intersection of science and human exploration, with the underlying principle that science enables human exploration, and human exploration enables science. Nine domestic teams were funded in 2014 for a five-year period to address a variety of different topics, and nine international partners (with more to come) also work with the U.S. teams on a variety of topics of mutual interest. The result is a robust and productive research infrastructure that is not only scientifically productive but can respond to strategic topics of domestic and international interest, and which develops a new generation of researchers. This is all accomplished with the aid of virtual collaboration technologies which enable scientific research at a distance. The virtual institute model is widely applicable to a range of space science and exploration problems.

  15. On the Relation Between Management and Economics from the Perspective of Institutional Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Every country's economic development affects all levels of its society and thus the results of its social science research. To make social science research better serve their economic development, many countries have established social science research institutes, among which are management research institutes more related to economic research institutes. Through comparative research of the locations and founding dates of the institutes in different countries, this article analyses the development trends and the relationship between economics and management research, providing us with the relevant experience and background for planning purposes.

  16. The 40th anniversary of the Economic Research Institute FEB RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Minakir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available July 2016 marks the 40th anniversary since the official founding of the Economic Research Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Khabarovsk. The author notes that over that 40 year period the Institute had four significant creative and organizational crises. They are the following: the first and the second crises (1978-1979 and 1986-1987 were associated with internal organizational problems and changes in administration and personnel of the Institute; the third crisis (1991-1995 was a reflection of the system-wide economic and social crisis; and the fourth one (since late 2013 is due to the «managerial cataclysm» enveloping the entire Academy. The question is, therefore, whether this crisis will be overcome with minimal damage or have irreversible effects which will jeopardize not only the further development of the scientific school, but also will be able to devalue the huge scientific and humanitarian potential accumulated in all prior years

  17. Institutional Structure and International Competitiveness Relationship in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Yıldırım

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of institutional structure on the international competitiveness of developed countries econometrically by employing a “Panel Data Analysis” with a sample of 21 developed countries and 23 institutional variables for the period 2000-2011. The results of the analysis indicate that while judicial independence, protection of intellectual property rights, integrity of the juridical system, marginal tax, political freedoms, black market exchange rate, restrictions on foreign investment, private sector’s share in the banking system, hiring-minimum wage, and hiring-dismissal have a positive effect; the nature of legal arrangements, government spending, transfers and subsidies, civil liberties, tariffs, regulations regarding trade barriers, collective bargaining, and military tutelage have a negative effect on the international competitiveness of developed countries.

  18. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  19. The Great Asian International School Gold Rush: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Denry

    2017-01-01

    The number of international schools is growing, especially in Asia. This presents competitive challenges; most obviously for student recruitment and retention. However, demand for places at these schools is also growing. As a result, while international schooling may feel competitive, aggregate economic data show that growing numbers do not…

  20. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Charl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education…

  1. Understading neoliberal politics by the mediation of institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Akansel, İlkben

    2014-01-01

    Neoliberalism, which cannot be described by a certain rule, includes a wide range of perspective. Therefore, it is a highly effective notion in terms of economics and politics. This efficiency has a mutual meaning in socio-cultural area. However, it is obvious that the most effective area of neoliberal politics is economics, because intended efficiency in politics and socio-cultural levels are provided through applicable economics politics. Although it has some certain notions derived from al...

  2. The impact of Oil Prices on the International Economic Arena: The Economic Factors and International Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history the new technologies and discoveries revolutionized the way we live. The discovery, the oil, has been critical for society, becoming the world’s most profitable and essential industry transforming itself from domestic to international business. The aim of this paper, above all is to analyze the role of oil and its price volatility in world economy. The ongoing changes and transformations in world oil industry tend to have a great effect not only on the oilimporting countries but also on oil-exporting nations. The demand or supply-triggered oil price volatility differ in its effects to world economic activity. Although it may have different effect for the oil importing nations in comparison to oil exporting nations, still inflationary pressure may be a common feature. A number of points relevant to the study are put forward highlighting pros and cons of issues discussed. The paper also elaborates the environmental concerns, deriving from the increase of oil consumption and the necessity (globally to increase efforts in finding a decent,(environmentally friendly replacement for oil.

  3. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF CREATION OF AN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CENTER AS IMPORTANT CIS AND EVRASES COUNTRIES INTERGATION FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Balabanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of forming in Moscow a regional (to be in future transformed into a global international Single Economic Space (SES financial center should become for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS and Euroasian Economic Community (EvrAsES countries an universal integration instrument to be used to create their common economic and commercial space. The international center along with SES national financial centers will form an internationally competitive polycentric financial network with single institutional (regulatory, law, customs, etc.agreements. A mechanism should be formed to attract countries outside Customs Union to participate in creation of the international financial center.

  4. AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT: INSTITUTIONS, ECONOMIC REFORMS AND GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Ajab Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the importance of relative prices, institutional quality and other factors which are regressed on the estimated total factor productivity (TFP. With panel data of 26 African countries for the period 1980-2011, the results show that relative prices have significant effects on TFP. Also the quality of institutions is an important determinant of non-input component of output growth. The macroeconomic measures to get “prices right” in sub Saharan Africa may also be constrained by the linkages of institutions to the macroeconomic variables. Thus, policies of getting prices right with establishing strong institutions are worth continuously pursuing with vigor.

  5. Institutional Distance and International Business Strategies in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionascu, Delia Simona; Meyer, Klaus E.; Estrin, Saul

    2004-01-01

    The concept of `distance' has been used by international business scholars to explain variations in international business strategies and operations across countries. The more distant a host country is from the organizational centre of a multinational enterprise (MNE), the more it has to manage...... for the investing MNE. Using a unique dataset of foreign direct investment in emerging economies that incorporates multi-host as well as multi-home countries, we find empirical support for our propositions, and provide an explanation for apparently inconsistent results in the previous literature....... on Hofstede's work on culture. However, these measures capture only very partially the dimensions of distance of concern to international business. In this paper, we show how the broader theoretical concept of institutional distance, which incorporates normative, regulatory and cognitive aspects, affects...

  6. The impact of microfinance institution in economic growth of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study show that microfinance loans have a significant positive impact on the short run economic performance in Nigeria. Microfinance loans enhanced consumption per capita in short run with an impressive coefficient, although these banks' loans do not have a significant impact on economic growth in ...

  7. International institutions for nuclear energy: issues of assessment and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Among the more attractive of candidate institutions and rules-of-trade for advanced fuel cycles are: extension of full-scope International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards as a condition of fuel assurances or technology transfer; international jurisdiction over spent fuel (custody or ownership); an IAEA remote near-real-time verification system for spent fuel remaining under national management; a convention on uniform nuclear fuel identification (tagging) designed to assist safeguards planners, trace diversionary pathways, assign liability, and enhance the credibility of fuel-cycle sanctions; international nuclear service centers for bulk processing operations (heavy water production, enrichment and reprocessing); and fuel-cycle specific regulations. Some risk-reduction measures, for example on internationally managed, remote shutdown and restart-delay system for bulk processing facilities, raise questions of acceptability. Despite uncertainties about international acceptability and hazards of enrichment technology transfer later in this century, it appears feasible to reduce proliferation risks associated with nuclear fuel cycles - existing ones and those under review within the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). 6 refereces

  8. Economic Efficiency of Selected Financial System Institutions of Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Rabiej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Functioning of local government units, as for as the economic sphere is concerned, is based on the financial law regulations. Those regulations aim at solving economic and social problems. The analysis of economic efficiency concerning implemented regulations is of particular importance for changing the EU’s attitude towards the influence, which EU has on functioning of the local governments. Implementing the local budgets, based on regulations which economic efficiency hasn’t been evaluated on the stage of legislation, may have a negative impact on local community and the economic situation of the country. Frequent changes of financial law cause actions, which financial effects cannot be predicted. What is more, those unstable regulations make it impossible to plan essential parts of a budget in a right way. That has a great importance in terms of correctness of long-term financial perspectives of the local government units.

  9. Market-oriented institutions and policies and economic growth : A critical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J; Lundstrom, S; Sturm, JE

    This paper surveys recent evidence suggesting that market-oriented institutions and policies are strongly related to economic growth, focusing on studies using the economic freedom (EF) indicator of the Fraser Institute. This index is critically discussed. Also various serious shortcomings of

  10. Essays in Institutional Economics, with special focus on Muslim-majority countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouda, Moamen

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to gain a better understanding of how institutions, whether formal or informal, influence individual- and societal-level economic choices, especially in the Muslim-majority countries. It consists of six research papers that contribute to the economic analysis of institutions. The first paper, published in the Journal of World Intellectual Property in 2011, investigates the relationship between intellectua...

  11. 75 FR 74077 - Information Collection for Native American Business Development Institute Funding for Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Business Development Institute Funding for Economic Development Feasibility Studies and Long-Term Strategic...), Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) seeks to spur job growth and sustainable economies on American Indian reservations. DED created the Native American Business Development Institute...

  12. The Buddhist Institute at Phnom Penh, the International Council of Women, and the Rome International Institute for Educational Cinematography: Intersections of Internationalism and Imperialism, 1931-1934

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the intersection of aspects of imperialism and internationalism in discussion of cinematography at the League of Nations, at the International Council of Women (ICW), and as they played out in the imperial, national and local flows around educational cinematography in the work of Suzanne Karpelès at the Institute of Buddhist…

  13. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic and Social Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The foundation aims to build capacity in economic and social policy analysis and development management. Its work ... -increase research staff retention rates ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  14. Relevance of Environmental, Institutional and Economic Developments for ASEAN-6

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhlaq, Muhammad Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Economic Growth is influenced by large number of factors and there is an ongoing debate on the extent to which some of these strong and more quantifiable variables are effective. In order to comprehensively discuss the mainstream determinants of Economic Growth explored through past literature, the study chose to focus on ASEAN-6 countries encompassing Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Vietnam. By considering three decades from 1985 to 2014 period and dividing it into ...

  15. Workshop in political institutions - institutional analysis and global climate change: Design principles for robust international regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, M.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific evidence suggests that human activities have a significant effect on the world's climate. Political pressures are growing to establish political institutions at the global level that would help manage the social and economic consequences of climate change. Disagreements remain about the magnitude of these effects, as well as the regional distribution of the detrimental consequences of climate change. In this paper we do not wish to enter into the complexities of these technical debates. Instead, we wish to challenge a seemingly widespread consensus about the nature of the political response appropriate to this global dilemma. Specifically, we question the extent to which the open-quotes answerclose quotes can be said to reside primarily in the establishment of the new global institutions likely to emerge from the first open-quotes Earth Summitclose quotes - the United Nations (UN) Conference on Environment and Development - scheduled for June of 1992 in Rio de Janeiro

  16. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl Wolhuter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education on the economy. In the interwar “factors and forces” stage of Comparative Education, the economy as a shaping force of national education systems came to the fore. In the social science phase of the 1960s the focus shifted to a study of the effect of education on the economy. This was reversed again in the 1970s, when socio-economic reproduction theories assigned a deterministic place to socio-economic stratification of society. In recent years neo-liberal economics dictated the research agenda of Comparative Education. In conclusion recommendations for a future research agenda in the field are made.

  17. Does the internet generate economic growth, international trade, or both?

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, Huub

    2012-01-01

    Recent cross country panel data studies find a positive impact of internet use on economic growth and a positive impact of internet use on trade. The present study challenges the first finding by showing that internet use does not explain economic growth directly in a fully specified growth model. In particular openness to international trade variables seems to be highly correlated with internet use and the findings in the literature that internet use causes trade is confirmed here, suggestin...

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility in the context of International Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gajdosova, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The term Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is becoming more and more often spelled out in various contexts of the academic and corporate life. The concept of CSR is rather broad and the term CSR could be defined in various ways, as there has been no unified definition established so far. Yet the word ‘corporate’ in the term could indicate that CSR is exclusive matter of private companies. However, as demonstrated in this paper, the non-corporate institutions, in particular the Internation...

  19. THE ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTARY OF THE "SOFT POWER" IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available "Soft power" is a complex instrument of international politics. It is an organized set of interactions and relationships predetermined to a large extent by the psychological element. Its core qualities are attraction, persuasion and legitimacy. The "soft power" acts in international relations through a complex instrumentation consisting of actions in the military, political, economic, cultural, sports, ideological, religious spheres, but all its manifestations must be supported by the economic instrument. To this end, many countries have set up special bodies. It is expected that "soft power" will be a major instrument of international politics in the coming epoch.

  20. International For-Profit Investments in Microfinance Institutions Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez Monroy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this document is to review the funding options for Microfinance Institutions (MFIs, define the size of the holdings of international investors in MFI equity and in particular the MFIs listed in stock exchanges, analyze the characteristics of these subset of the financial world and study the stock exchange evolution of some listed MFIs amid the financial crisis. Design/methodology/approach: Since academic literature on listed MFI equity is virtually inexistent, most of the information has been obtained from the World Bank, annual accounts of the listed MFIs, stock exchanges and from equity research documents. Findings and Originality/value: Microfinance Institutions share several common characteristics that make them a resilient business and the few MFIs that are listed in stock exchanges seem to have performed better in the financial crisis. Microfinance can be considered as one of the new frontiers of the expansion of the global banking industry. Practical implications: Presently, international for-profit investors have very few ways of investing in microfinance equity. Most of the equity of the MFI equity is funded locally or thanks to the local public sector. The stock exchange listing of the MFIs should drive MFIs towards a more professional management, more transparency and better governance. Social implications: Microfinance Institutions provide credit to microenterprises in poor countries that have no other alternative sources of external capital to expand its activity. If global investors could easily invest in the listed equity of the MFIs these institutions would expand its lending books and would improve its governance, part of the population living in poor areas or with lower income could ameliorate its standard of living. Originality/value: The number of Microfinance Institutions that are professionally run like commercial banks is still scarce and even more scarce are the MFI listed in public stock exchanges

  1. Transfer and Reception of New Institutional Economics: An Example of Two Universities in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jovanović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research “Transfer and Reception of New Institutional Economics: An Example of Two Universities in Serbia” was conducted in 2005/2006. In order to achieve the goals of the Serbian team of the DIOSCURI project, the main aim of the case study is analysis of the influence of Western institutions in the light of transfer and reception of new institutional economics in two academic institutions in Serbia: The Faculty of Law (The Department of Law and Economics of the University of Belgrade, and The Faculty of Management of BK University. The title of the case study illustrates the focus of the entire research: analysis of Western influence, namely transfer and reception of new institutional economics, on the two institutions and possible obstacles caused by old-fashioned stakeholders and informal institutions. Bearing in mind that the Department of Law and Economics is the leader in the reception of the new institutional economics (NIE in Serbia, the case study will be mostly about it. The Faculty of Management was chosen because of its “greenfield” character and the fact that from its very beginning it followed the experiences of North American universities. The research investigates whether and how the transfer and reception of the Western ideas and economic theory, particularly the NIE, is affected by the difference between an institution with a two-hundred-year tradition and a newly established one. The question is how a traditionalist institution like the Faculty of Law communicated Western economic thought and whether endurance in teaching the exclusively Marxian paradigm up until the 1990s, was an obstacle to the reception of Western economic thought, particularly NIE.

  2. Launching the Journal of International Economic Policy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soogil Young

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the phase when the World Economy takes its agitation, that is, characterized as the new initiative in the International economic order and the infinite competition of the borderless world market, as well as economic integration of all regions, the economy of Korea is facing an unprecedented challenge. After 1990s, when the Cold War came to an end, globalization officially started with the support of information and communications technology revolution. On the other hand, the economic hegemonism and the ideology of "economy-first" intentions was being widely spread in the World. Governments all over the world one after another appealed for foreign investments.

  3. Theories of International Economic Development (Case Study: Economic Development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Bardhok Bashota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper rightly says that “real starting point for each research is set based on assumptions of reality, not only based on the real facts”. The text below was prepared In accordance with this logic, where the Theories of International Development are treated especially focusing on International Economic Development. Therefore, theoretical reflections present assumption side, and study of many empirically measured data will correspond with real facts, because with ought these facts assumption would be useless. Technically this writing consists of two parts: in the first part are elaborated all theoretical and practical characteristics of overall international development, while in a second part as a case study will be Economic Development i Kosovo. From methodological point of view this is a comparative study and based on statistical data, while problem treating approach is critical and explanatory. As it will be understood later, development theories have been decisively influenced by economic thinking, and the focus on this dimension responds best to the nature of the term development. On the other hand the fact of unfolding economical development will reflect interference and the nature of it’s inter politics. Today economic development becomes a worldwide goal, having a considerable place in most of the literature with economic content. Also, here are presented as well examples from different practices that reflect economic development in different periods and places. Here is presented international economic development starting with a brief description of a genealogy of this development and ways of economic development back that time. It is of a special importance elaboration through theoretical approach on the creation of capital and economic development, as  mercantilist theory, classic and neo classic theory, than capitalization and Socialism-Marxism. To better understand the nature of economic development, the focus falls on

  4. INTERNAL GOVERNANCE AND ROLE OF INTERNAL AUDIT IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. CASE STUDY: RISK BASED PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis from 2008 was considered a trigger to reshape the financial systems and to enhance the risk management practices. Considering the developments and new guidelines that are now used it can be observed a “positive” effect of the crisis, in particular to strengthen the risk management culture and governance in all aspects. Comparing to 2008 year, the improvements that have been made to the risk management systems can be easily observed in the financial institutions. For the scope of the article, the subject of this review will be focused on the internal audit function. The main aspect is to capture the new practices that are now used in order to contribute to a performing internal governance system. A case study will be presented in order to better understand how the internal audit function is designed and acting as a “line” of defence in the internal governance system. Also, it is in the scope of the article to issue some recommendations for future developments of the audit function in order to better manage its mission and the objectives. A risk based model used in the planning activities is presented. The financial institutions improved significantly their internal governance system. The internal audit function is now better integrated in the internal structures and clear lines of communication were settled. As the conclusion of the article is illustrating, the internal governance was frequently not sufficiently developed causing a failure in the risk management systems from the systemically financial institutions. The content of the article has practical applicability, as the results and the recommendations could be used in the design of an audit function within a financial institution.

  5. The Institutional Component of the Efficient Economic Policy of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytas Viktoriia V

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity of institutional accompanying the economic policy of the State, establishing an efficient system of institutions. Challenges of the contemporary globalization require changes in the State influence on economy, redefining quality parameters and principles of an efficient economic policy. Complexity of the State policy in a global environment is determined not only by importance of the tasks of establishing an efficient market against the background of increasing influences of exogenous uncertainty, but also by seeking ways of entering the global space, thus implementing the best interests of national economic development. The article deduces parameters of the concept of «efficient institution». The author believes that institutions precisely should act as the link through which social and economic development would become unseparated in order to form a stable efficient socio-economic development

  6. Economic fluctuation affects vasectomy utilization: A single-institution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huei Chang

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: After accounting for reproductive history, partner, and demographic characteristics, education status, already having male children, and belonging to the middle class were factors associated with vasectomy acquisition. Further research is needed to identify causes for these differences. Additionally, economic fluctuations appear related to sterilization decisions within families.

  7. 40 Anniversary of Institute of International Studies: From a Problem Laboratory to The Institute of International Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonidovich Chechevishnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied foreign policy analysis is the hallmark of MGIMO-University. 2016 marks 40 anniversary of introduction of this element to the identity of our university in a form of Problem Research Laboratory. MGIMO development as a leading think tank took place in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in close cooperation with other key institutions that shape foreign policy and are responsible for ensuring the national interests of Russia in the world. Today MGIMO's priority is the development of political policy expertise and analytical development-oriented scientific and practical support of the activities of state bodies. Such studies are the main but not the only focus of the Institute of International Studies.

  8. 40th Anniversary of Institute of International Studies: From a Problem Laboratory to The Institute of International Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonidovich Chechevishnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied foreign policy analysis is the hallmark of MGIMO-University. 2016 marks 40th anniversary of introduction of this element to the identity of our university in a form of Problem Research Laboratory. MGIMO development as a leading think tank took place in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in close cooperation with other key institutions that shape foreign policy and are responsible for ensuring the national interests of Russia in the world. Today MGIMO's priority is the development of political policy expertise and analytical development-oriented scientific and practical support of the activities of state bodies. Such studies are the main but not the only focus of the Institute of International Studies.

  9. 7th International Summer Institute in Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, Russell

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains review articles which were written by the invited speak­ ers of the seventh International Summer Institute in Surface Science (ISISS), held at the University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee in July 1985. The form of ISISS is a set of tutorial review lectures presented over a one-week period by internationally recognized experts on various aspects of surface science. Each speaker is asked, in addition, to write a review article on his lecture topic. No single volume in the series Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces can possibly cover the entire field of modern surface science. However, the series as a whole is intended to provide experts and students alike with a comprehensive set of reviews and literature references, particularly empha­ sizing the gas-solid interface. The collected articles from previous Summer Institutes have been published under the following titles: Surface Science: Recent Progress and Perspectives, Crit. Rev. Solid State Sci. 4, 125-559 (1974) Chemistry and Physics of ...

  10. 8th International Summer Institute in Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, Russell

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains review articles written by the invited speakers at the eighth International Summer Institute in Surface Science (ISISS 1987), held at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in August of 1987. During the course of ISISS, invited speakers, all internationally recognized experts in the various fields of surface science, present tutorial review lectures. In addition, these experts are asked to write review articles on their lecture topic. Former ISISS speakers serve as advisors concerning the selection of speakers and lecture topics. Em­ phasis is given to those areas which have not been covered in depth by recent Summer Institutes, as well as to areas which have recently gained in significance and in which important progress has been made. Because of space limitations, no individual volume of Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces can possibly cover the whole area of modem surface science, or even give a complete survey of recent pro­ gress in the field. However, an attempt is made to pres...

  11. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Ethiopian Economics Association ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enhancing research, performance, and policy engagement. Through this support over the next 4.5 years, EEA/EEPRI is expected to -develop a competent team of full-time researchers -enhance its profile to encourage external collaboration and partnership -become a renowned training institute for academics and ...

  12. Influence Of International Financial And Economic Organizations On The Development Of Russian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy A. Pashencev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article characteristics and patterns of the impact of the international financial and economic organizations on the development of Russian law in the present-day conditions are described. It is noted, that the international financial and economic organizations firmly rooted in the world. They are based on international agreements, which participants could be also non-State structures. The role of international financial and economic organizations in the development of the negative effects of globalization and the production of global financial crisis is considered. The necessity to change the economic course of our country was proved because of the crisis and sanctions, as well as the need to find new ways of structuring the international financial and economic space, including the basis of the new inter-state unions and a new reserve currency. It is shown that the Russian domestic law should be the barrier against the destabilizing influence of transnational corporations. Legal acts of the Russian Federation defining the terms and scope of cooperation with international economic and financial organizations were analyzed. It is noted, that in accordance with applicable Russian legislation, international financial institutions have the right to invest in Russian companies, including and strategic. It is proved that the situation in the modern world and its negative manifestations determine the need for a number of effective measures and require changes in legislation. It is necessary to make changes in the current Russian legislation, first of all, investment, banking, trade, etc., to develop effective legal mechanisms for the protection of domestic producers and the national market from the expansion of multinational corporations.

  13. The law, economics and politics of international standardisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    In an era of increased reliance on private regulatory bodies and globalised economic activity, standardisation is the field where politics, technical expertise and strategic behaviour meet and interact. International standard-setting bodies exemplify the rise of transnational governance and the

  14. International business and economic geography : knowledge, time and transactions costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip

    This paper sketches out how the ways in which a combination of economic geography and international business approaches can shed light on the spatial behaviour of multinational companies. The emphasis of the argument here is on the nature of the knowledge content embedded in the transactions of the

  15. Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor…

  16. Trust, Reciprocity and Institutional Design: Lessons from Behavioural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Pelligra, Vittorio

    2006-01-01

    Trust and reciprocity are the bond of society (Locke), but economic agents are both self-interested and intrinsically untrustworthy. These assumptions impair severely economists' accounts of social relationships. The paper examines strategies to escape this paradox by enlarging our conception of rationality: the assumptions of self-interest and consequentialism are critically discussed as well as relational behavioural principles (e.g. trust and reciprocity). The implications of this enlarged...

  17. Wind power implementation in changing institutional landscapes: An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukers, Sylvia; Wolsink, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand diverging achievements in wind power implementation, the Netherlands, England, and the German state of North Rhine Westphalia are compared in a multiple cases study. The comparison addresses the extent to which wind power, as a new energy technology, has become embedded in existing routines and practices of society. The concept of institutional capacity building is adopted to qualify the trajectories followed, taking into account the interdependent and changing political, economic, environmental and planning conditions. Moreover, attention is focused on the conditions that affect the local planning contexts, because that is the level at which conflicts are eventually played out and where a lack of social acceptance becomes manifest. This comparison partly clarifies diverging achievements in terms of implementation. Local social acceptance is problematic-to various degrees-in all three cases. Policymakers and wind project developers do not sufficiently recognise the nature of tensions at the local level. Facilitating local ownership and institutionalising participation in project planning can help to arrive at a better recognition and involvement of the multiple interests (environmental, economic and landscape) that are relevant at the local level of implementation

  18. Institutional Motivation and Policy Change Associated with Land Grant Institutions' Involvement in Economic Development. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Lawrence S.; And Others

    A study investigated: (1) the degree of land grant institution involvement in economic development activity, defined in terms of 17 selected cooperative research and technology exchange activities; (2) changes in selected academic policies (patents, consulting, conflict of interest, conflict of commitment, and extra compensation); and (3) the…

  19. Economics of Philanthropic Institutions, Regulation and Governance in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Babacan, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This paper merges the literature on regulation, specifically private provision of public goods, and governance with the literature on philanthropic institutions (awqaf) in Turkey. Traditionally, awqaf (plural for the waqf) have been very functional regarding the socioeconomic realms in Muslim societies. On the other hand, the provision of public goods is one of the core discussions under the literature on regulation and governance, particularly the property rights. This paper analyzes the rol...

  20. The Institutional Basis of East Asia's Economic Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Lingle, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Restructuring and modernization of basic political institutions is the crucial key for longterm recovery of East Asia's crisis economies. These steps are necessary to restore confidence and allow for their economies to stabilize as the first step towards recovery. Then they must recapture or reengineer their respective competitive positions in the global economy. Long-term competitiveness will require gains in overall productivity embodied in advanced technical systems and greater in...

  1. The Emergence of Informal Institutions among Internal Migrants in Urban China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumin Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s dramatic economic development and urbanisation have led to an increase in its number of internal migrants. As of 2013, this group accounted for more than 20 per cent of the country’s population, and approximately 70 per cent of people in this group are working in the informal economy. This paper pays special attention to migrant-traders in the informal sector and the strategies they use in Shanghai. Migrants are doubly marginalised by the hukou (户口 and danwei (单位 systems in the megacity and have only limited access to social welfare. It is argued that the informal strategies of these marginalised actors develop in related patterns of social relationships and institutional constraints. Such strategies create new forms of informal institutions that are justified and gain legitimacy when countering unequal and hierarchical formal institutions and social arrangements. This paper empirically explores how informal institutions can act in parallel with or diverge from formal institutions, and how they might influence formal institutions in the long term.

  2. The Principle of National Treatment in international economic law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, A.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    This second volume in the European IP Institutes Network Series provides an exhaustive overview on the principle of national treatment that is enshrined in a number of international treaties. The non-discrimination principle ensures that foreign nationals, goods, services or investments are not

  3. International certification in developing countries: the role of internal and external institutional pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikru, Mahelet G

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the different internal and external institutional factors that affect the decision of businesses in developing countries to adopt international certification (IC). Past studies focus on pressure from international laws, the role of multinationals, and businesses mimicking practices of their counterparts in developed countries. This paper finds that, in addition to these external factors, internal factors may have a significant role. Even though environmental regulation is weak in developing countries, governments do not ignore industrial pollution and casualties. They respond by increasing bureaucratic regulations for businesses and this can affect the decision to adopt IC. Furthermore, internal pressure may come from workers' unions that push for a safe and healthy working environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Which theories can explain the emerging economic problems? Theories of the firm in the new institutional economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Matuszak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents basic assumptions and new theories of the firm connected with New Institutional Economics (NIE. NIE is regarded as a stream of research which enlarges and enriches the neoclassical economics. NIE focuses on the phenomena ignored by the traditional economics. The research field of NIE is very diversified but the adhesive which integrates all its streams is the idea that the main determinants of the development are institutions. The following part of the article contains a brief presentation of the notion, the significance and the types of institutions. It is stated that the market and its mechanisms depend on the characteristics of institutions which define its nature. Next the article presents briefly new theories of the firm related to NIE – the moral hazard or agency- theoretic approach, transaction cost economics approach and „capabilities” approach. The last part of the article examines the importance of institutions for creating the competitive advantage of a firm and of economies.

  5. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    Standard theoretical arguments suggest that republics ought to grow faster than monarchies and experience lower transitional costs following reforms. We employ a panel of 27 countries observed from 1820-2000 to explore whether regime types and institutional reforms have differential growth effects...... in monarchies and republics. A set of Barro-type regressions show that there are no significant growth differences between the two regime types and that the effects of incremental reforms do not differ between them, but that those of large-scale reforms do. Specifically, we find a strong "valley...

  6. Institutional and Socio-Economic Convergence in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi López-Tamayo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze convergence in institutional, social, and macroeconomic conditions between EU member states. Our analysis covers the period 1995-2013 and considers the potential impact of the Great Recession. With this aim, we use a composite indicator that combines information from 51 hard and soft indicators, and we estimate convergence equations for the composite indicator and its seven dimensions considering different country groups. The obtained results show evidence of conditional convergence among EU member states but limited evidence of unconditional convergence over the considered period.

  7. Institutions and Regulation for Economic Growth ? : public interests versus public incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Realizing institutions and regulations that foster economic growth is an essential asset for contemporary economies. This book investigates practices and options for steering individual and firm behaviour that prevents unacceptable externalities and boosts public interests. These multi-dimensional

  8. Market risk stress testing for internationally active financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Petar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a comprehensive framework for market risk stress testing in internationally active financial institutions. We begin by defining the scope and type of the stress test and explaining how to select risk factors and the stress time horizon. We then address challenges related to data gathering, followed by in-depth discussion of techniques for developing realistic shock scenarios. Next the process of shock application to a particular portfolio is described, followed by determination of portfolio profit and loss. We conclude by briefly discussing the issue of assigning probability to stress scenarios. We illustrate the framework by considering the development of a ‘worst case’ scenario using global financial market data from Thomson Reuters Datastream.

  9. Interactional competence in the institutional setting of the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    organization as multimodally constituted social action in interaction. Leading on from this, the analyses sought to explore whether situated embodied practices serve to enact-into-being the institution of the international university. Research into these dynamically multilingual and culturally hybrid settings......This project has investigated social practices in co-present encounters between administrative staff and students at an internationalizing university. The project utilized audiovisual data of interactions, recorded at a number of sites at a Danish university. These concerned service encounters...... has often emphasized the linguistic component of such encounters. The current project adds to this by considering participants’ interactional competencies, denoting their situated methods and interactive practices through which they are able to co-construct in situ their social world. The thesis...

  10. Special Issue: Aspects of Game Theory and Institutional Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Elsner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Classical economists from Adam Smith to Thomas Malthus and to Karl Marx have considered the importance of direct interdependence and direct interactions for the economy. This was even more the case for original institutionalist thinkers such as Thorstein Veblen, John Commons, and Clarence Ayres. In their writings, direct interdependence, interactions (or transactions among agents, with all beneficial and with all problematic consequences, took center stage in economic analysis. Why, for instance, do people adhere to a particular new fashion or trend? Because others do, after eminent people, wealthy people, the “leisure class” (T. Veblen, have made it a symbol for status. The new fashion, however, ceases to serve as such a symbol once too many people follow it. The constant effort put into following trends and adopting fashion turns out to be a social dilemma, driven by Veblenian instincts, such as invidious distinction in predatory societies, conspicuous consumption and emulation. [...

  11. The American Mortgage Crisis Implications on the international economics evolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia NISTOR

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Shock waves that produce large cracks deepen existing political, economic and social, and sometimes a new order replaces the old. In 2010, states across the world over blast, which invariably will lead to changing the current world order. Last twenty years have seen major changes in international economic context, the Soviet Union collapsed and centralized economies in Eastern Europe, reforms in China and India, export-based growth strategies in East Asia, all leading to the creation of a world economy market and also bringing 4 to 5 billion people.

  12. Editorial: New Developments in International Business and Economics in CEECs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Puślecki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The political and economic shift of early 1990s in Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEECs initiated a fundamental process of transformation of the region's economies and firms (Galgóczi, 2002. The formerly regulated economies gradually became an integral part of the global economy (Dayan & Gorynia, 2009; Szarucki, 2013. While the unprecedented scale of change provided then a unique research setting for international business and economics scholars, there have been recent discussions about the extent to which the CEE region is still a specific business environment (Schuh & Rossmann, 2010.

  13. The Roles of Higher Education in Economic Development: Challenges and Prospects of Nigerian Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Chimezie; Anyanwu, Jerome; Kaegon, Lies Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper was on the roles of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) especially universities in economic development, paying particular attention to the challenges and prospects of the Nigerian Universities. The role of higher education as a major driver of economic development is well established, and this role will increase as…

  14. Institutional Affiliation of Contributors to the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1973–83

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Simpson; John T. Steele

    1985-01-01

    History of reviews of contributions to the American Journal of Agricultural Economics are examined. Total pages, pages per capita all faculty, and per teaching research faculty of contributors to the American Journal of Agricultural Economics for 1979–83 are reported for land grant institutions. Rankings are provided. There are also averages for 1973–79 and 1980–83.

  15. Do weak institutions prolong crises? : On the identification, characteristics, and duration of declines during economic slumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluhm, R; de Crombrugghe, D.P.I.; Szirmai, A.

    2013-01-01

    This working paper is part of the research programme on ‘Institutions, Governance and Long‐term Economic Growth’, a partnership between the French Development Agency (AFD) and the Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (Maastricht University - UNU-Merit). The research builds on the Institutional

  16. The Role of Christian Educational Institutions in Improving Economic Self-Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Constance C.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that Christian educational institutions in Africa can play a major role in improving economic self-reliance within the continent, if those who establish Christian universities there take time to plan the programs and activities in those institutions. Specifically, it argues that with proper planning of quality education--the…

  17. Technical, institutional and economic factors important for developing a multinational radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Countries planning and implementing nuclear energy programmes should assume responsibility for the safe management and final disposal of radioactive waste from their programmes. However, there are countries whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository, and/or countries which do not have the resources or favorable natural conditions for waste disposal to dedicate to a national repository project. These countries would benefit from multinational co-operation for the disposal. Interest in the concept of a multinational repository for radioactive waste has been expressed by several Member States and the waste management community in the light of the potential benefit to the partner countries from the safety, technical and economic standpoints. However, such an approach involves many political and public acceptance issues and therefore a consensus among countries or regions concerned is a prerequisite. In this context, it was deemed appropriate that the IAEA access the technical, institutional, ethical and economic factors to be taken into account in the process of such consensus building. This report is intended to provide an assessment which can serve as a general basis for establishing a waste management policy and/or further assessing specific issues such as ownership and liability, institutional aspects and problems related to long term commitments. This report is divided into five sections where the first section gives background, objectives, scope and structure of the report. Section 2 discusses multinational repository concept in terms of needs and the role of a multinational repository, interaction between host and partner countries and formulation of a multinational repository. Section 3 identifies basic issues to be considered for establishing a multinational repository, and some specific issues relating to specific waste categories. Section 4 analyses potential benefits and challenges to be addresses in establishing a

  18. What does education have to do with the New International Economic Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerij, Louis

    1982-12-01

    Greater equality in the distribution of incomes, both nationally and internationally, and more intervention to achieve this, both by national governments and international agencies, are identified as the key ideas in the proposed NIEO. Both ideas have provoked a reaction of new conservatism, aided by the current international recession. At least in part, the power of this reaction is the result of a failure in the educational professions and institutions to respond to the requirements of an NIEO in both domestic and global terms. Although the independent effects of education on social change and income distribution have indeed been over-estimated, it remains true, nevertheless, that education does have social and economic effects. Within states, education might be reorganized so as to dissolve the current dichotomy between a `learning' childhood/adolescence and a `non-learning' adulthood. Rather, learning geared to economic activity, change and restructuring might assist both developing and industrialized states to increase incomes and adjust to the requirements of the NIEO. On the international plane, the growth of development studies and of institutions concerned with the domestic effects of international relations and commerce should facilitate a more informed understanding of the balance between self-reliance and interdependence.

  19. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The text of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - a high-class international document on the assurance and legal protection of the human rights - outlined a sum of principles regarding these rights, which fall within the broad range of legal doctrine on fundamental human rights. These principles are not contrary to the principles set out in the Charter of the United Nations and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, on the contrary, it were given an evident expression in its text content. That the authors of this Covenant wanted the assertion of these principle provisions, it is actually confirmed by the text of Article 24.

  20. Economic Sustainability in International Business: Peculiarities, Methods and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna Pavlivna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a contribution to the ongoing analysis of economic sustainability in international business. This study is presented with a view toward further understanding and agreement of the key concepts of sustainability. Approaches to sustainability are considered, important benchmarks and essential characteristics of sustainable development in international business are included. The article demonstrates how the concept of economic sustainability can be applied to the business level. The main ideas of the most widespread concepts on resource management are presented. Incorporation of ESG and financial factors in the concept of sustainable investing is considered. Emissions that are responsible for climate change, namely top emitters, key issues and figures are presented.

  1. Economic evaluation of technical, environmental and institutional barriers on biomass residue collection cost in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, P.; Tiangco, V.; Dee, V.; Simons, G.; Lee, Y.; Yomogida, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic impacts of the technical, environmental, and institutional barriers in the production, harvesting, and processing of various biomass fuels in California. For each biomass fuel, a base case scenario was developed to characterize the procedures of harvesting, processing and transporting. An economic model was utilized to project the biomass production costs supplied to direct-combustion power plants for each technical, environmental, and institutional barrier. These results will enable the California Energy Commission to identify the most significant barriers to economical biomass energy production (production, harvesting, and processing). (author)

  2. Reality and Contemporary Economic Classification of Expenditures of Public Institutions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Soroceanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In our daily existence, troubled and changing, economy occupies a large space. Increasingly, more economic concepts such as public budget and public expenditures enter within our daily language. Increasingly, we are assailed with data information about the sustainability of expenditure, about how and when budget allows us to make certain expenditures. Thus, an insight into the functional mechanism and a public institutional budget is always a topical issue. About the budget, as a financial and management tool of a public, we can not discuss without reference to economic classifiers public spending. Budget public institution acquires through economic classification of expenditure substance and reality.

  3. The G20, BRICS and APEC in the System of International Institutions:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larionova M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The rise of new institutions in response to systemic vulnerabilities, strategic power shifts in the world economy and the slow pace of reform of existing institutions generated heated discussions over the proliferation of institutions and the subsequent fragmentation of global governance. However, this fragmentation does not mean there has been a decline in demand for global governance or reduced efficiency. On the contrary, it can be beneficial, positive and creative [Acharya, 2016]. Though essentially different in their missions and collective identities, the Group of 20 (G20, the BRICS grouping of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC forum each has an important role to play in promoting the inclusiveness, legitimacy and efficiency of global governance. The distinctive features of these summit institutions include their volunteerism and their recognition of the role of major developing countries in world economic growth and global and regional governance. They are deeply embedded within the system of international institutions and are intensely engaged with international organizations (IOs. This engagement does not directly address the concerns over fragmentation. However, it does stimulate a division of labour which mitigates the risks of fragmentation and competition, facilitating coordination, coherence, accountability and effectiveness in global governance. This paper examines G20/BRICS/APEC engagement with international organizations in fulfillment of their global governance functions of deliberation, direction-setting, decision-making, delivery and global/ regional governance development. The study is carried out within the paradigm of rational choice institutionalism. It draws on quantitative and qualitative analysis of documents adopted by the G20, BRICS and APEC to trace dynamics and identify their preferred models of engagement with multilateral organizations. The article

  4. International Power Institute`s quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, J.E.

    1998-10-30

    The International Power Institute (IPI) at Morehouse College has organized a team to design and create a Short Term Training Program for ESKOM Union Leaders which will last four weeks and take place at a location in South Africa to be designated by ESKOM. This proposal envisions a group of no more than 25 union leaders to be trained at the same time but the program could be expanded to accommodate up to 40 trainees. The program is designed around interactive training with lectures followed by discussion, case studies, trainee work groups, homework assignments and two field study visits. Also, the program is designed to have a number of ESKOM management people join the course for one day in the second week and one day at the end, in each case after a half day of preparation in separate sessions from the union leaders, to share with the trainees expectations and, at the end of the program, their course experiences. In addition, IPI has prepared a follow on proposal for a Long Term Training Program. This LT program is specified in less detail but can be expanded based on future discussions with ESKOM management. The training program is designed with the following objectives: determine and identify the most pressing problems facing ESKOM Union Leadership in their relationship with management; instill in the union leadership a heightened sense of purpose and willingness to take ownership of a process that will increase effective outcomes of meaningful, good faith bargaining; develop skills and experience leading to improved union administration; enhance realistic expectations and improve process knowledge to facilitate future labor negotiations and grievance proceedings; and provide participants with enhanced skills and knowledge to develop and/or strengthen a functioning, democratic work culture and structure internal to the union.

  5. International Summer School on Mathematical Systems Theory and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Szegö, G

    1969-01-01

    The International Summer School on Mathematical Systems Theory and Economics was held at the Villa Monastero in Varenna, Italy, from June 1 through June 12, 1967. The objective of this Summer School was to review the state of the art and the prospects for the application of the mathematical theory of systems to the study and the solution of economic problems. Particular emphasis was given to the use of the mathematical theory of control for the solution of problems in economics. It was felt that the publication of a volume collecting most of the lectures given at the school would show the current status of the application of these methods. The papers are organized into four sections arranged into two volumes: basic theories and optimal control of economic systems which appear in the first volume, and special mathematical problems and special applications which are contained in the second volume. Within each section the papers follow in alphabetical order by author. The seven papers on basic theories are a rat...

  6. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE INSTITUTIONAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Dudchenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of socio-economic reform in Ukraine is the modernization of the structure of the national economy and its growth. An effective structure of the economy, which will correspond to a socially oriented model of economic growth and will be based on the use of both the country’s competitive advantages in the global division of labour and the economic benefits of cooperation, will guarantee the independence of any country and will be the key to its dynamic development. The development of economic theory is due to the emergence of fundamentally new ideas, sustainable accumulation of knowledge, intellectual and meaningful updating of established concepts and theories, the formation of new scientific schools. A new paradigm of economic theory should explain the real processes in real economies, which operate on the principles of complex systems of synergistic nature and the theory of nonlinear dynamics. There is a process of theoretical polystructuredness both of mainstream and heterodoxy. An important task is to form an interdisciplinary dialogue between economists and scientists, which stipulates the relevance of the research topic. The subject of the study is the theoretical and methodological foundations and approaches to state management of economic development in the context of the institutional theory. The purpose of the study is to determine the role and influence of public administration of the development of the economy in the context of institutional theory and to develop strategic goals of the state’s innovation policy. Methodology. Directions of correlation of the system of economic development of the country and the potential of the state development with the historical preconditions for the emergence and development of the institutional doctrine of economic theory are investigated. Based on the revealed interrelations, the necessity of using instruments of institutionalism for studying the economic development

  7. Cultural Dimension of International Relations During Interwar Period: International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation and the Scientific Study of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the past is highly influenced/leaded by the “lens” (readings, ideologies, etc. that have guided us through approaching realities of a specific period of time. In this article, we will discuss the cultural dimension of international relations characteristic for the interwar period , emphasizing , while tracing back on Romanian historiography, the aspects regarding the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had in organizing the scientifically study of IR and the specific participation of Romania within this League of Nations‘ body activity.

  8. The Development of International Law Through the Unauthorised Conduct of International Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan D van der Vyver

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The law, including international law, is subject to continuous change. It can be adapted to changing circumstances through formal amendments of or additions to existing norms and practices. It can also be changed through the conduct of international institutions that is not within their legally defined competencies, provided - it will be argued - that the unauthorised conduct (a is not expressly forbidden by existing rules of international law, and (b is accepted or condoned by a cross-section of the international community of states. The creation by the Security Council of the United Nations of ad hoc international criminal tribunals, for example, cannot even with a stretch of the imagination be justified on the basis of the powers of the Council stipulated in the UN Charter. However, their creation was applauded by the nations of the world as a feasible and practical way of responding to the atrocities of the early 1990's in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The creation of international criminal tribunals by the Security Council has thus come to be accepted as a new rule of international law. The same reasoning is applied to the newly acquired competence of NATO forces to intervene militarily on humanitarian grounds as exemplified by the NATO bombing campaign of 1999 in Serbia, while not one of the NATO countries was being attacked or under threat of an attack, and the competence of States to attack terrorist groups in a foreign country if the government of that country is either unwilling or unable to prevent the ongoing acts of terror violence.

  9. The economic impact of South Africa’s international airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is strongly linked to economic growth and plays a major role in providing greater mobility and choice, leading to an improvement in incomes and welfare. Transport infrastructure such as highways, bridges, ports, airports and railways is critical in achieving economic growth. If the supply of these facilities does not keep up with rising demand, the cost of moving goods will increase, and there will be a downward pressure on profits and growth. Airports play a critical role in generating employment within an economy, creating wealth, contributing to the tax base, stimulating tourism and contributing to world trade. While the latter two are less easily measured, it is possible to determine a base impact that an airport has on an economy by measuring the direct and indirect gross domestic product, employment and taxation impacts. This study quantifies these for the three main international airports in South Africa.

  10. Competition in electricity spot markets. Economic theory and international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Nils-Henrik von der; Harbord, David

    1998-09-01

    This publication gives a survey of economic theory and international experience connected to electricity spot markets. The main purpose is to consider the attempts that have been made to apply economic theory and empirical methods to the analysis of electricity markets, and to evaluate them in light of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence. The publication describes in simple terms the basic pool pricing mechanism, and experience with pools in a number of countries. It is worth emphasizing that it is not the purpose to treat in extensive detail the structure of electricity pools around the world. Key factors of the markets in England and Wales, Norway and Australia are described in order to allow for a comparison of design issues and evaluation of competitive performance. 80 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. The coordination aspect of institutions in the context of an evolutionary approach to economic dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Stefanovic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an insight into the dominant trends of contemporary evolutionary economics and outlines the important issues related to the articulation of this approach in thinking about the economy. The paper also affirms a proposition on institutions as carrier structures of socio-economic evolution, whose numerous effects at the societal level are decoded through the coordination function. In addition to the market, the process of coordination also employs other non-market institutional structures, whose profile and operational principles are the product of the trajectories of cultural and historical evolution, different among social orders. Projects aimed at the transformation of the economic system are to be sensitized to an objectively conditioned diversity of the institutional structures of the world economy, and in this sense, should be very careful in the installation of „universal” reform solutions.

  12. International economic association on production of nuclear instrumentation - ''INTERINSTRUMENT''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twardon, Z.

    1979-01-01

    History of establishment and development of the International economic association ''Interinstrument'' is stated. Structure of the Association is given and directions of its activity, as well as structure of its budget. List is given of organizations, performing works according to the agreements with the Association. Main directions are stated of activity of the Association in the field of specialization of production of items of nuclear equipment; co-ordination of activity in the sphere of foreign trade; information about new instruments. Activity is stated of the branch offices of the Association, engaged in maintenance of instruments and nuclear equipment [ru

  13. AUDITING INTERNAL CONTROLS IN FINANCING PRESCHOOL PUBLIC INSTITUTION: EVIDENCE FROM SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana HORVAT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public preschool educational institutions in Slovenia are mostly financed by public money, it means bay state and municipalities. They are also financed by parents. So, it is important that preschool institutions are using public money transparent and responsible, for this reason public preschool institution should have internal controls in financing. The internal auditor as independent professional should verify if internal controls works. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how internal controls in financing public educational institution works it means which internal controls are important in financing the preschool institution - on the selected institution to show and check how internal controls work. For this reason we divide internal controls in the financing in two phases: (1 internal controls in the preparation of the annual financial plan and financial planning of financial resources for institution’s programs and activities, (2 internal controls in obtaining financial resources. We used methods of internal auditing and research approaches as sampling, unstructured interviews and analysis of documents. The results showed that selected preschool institution should work on rules of recovery and monitoring of claims. The findings provide useful academic insight to setting internal controls as well as practical guidance for preschool institutions.

  14. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

  15. Energy policy under the aspect of international economic interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    A few introductory remarks on the status of and on prospects fo the world energy economy as well as on reasons given for the necessity of a world-wide coordination of energy policy and economic policy are followed by an explanation of the policy led by oil extracting countries and of the endeavour of western industrialized countries to reduce oil imports. Even if the state of utilizing nuclear energy does not yet present a sufficient alternative, the international nuclear energy continues to be directed towards this goal. Seen from an international viewpoint, relieving contributions are to be expected from energy-conservation-actions and from the development of regenerative energy sources. (UA) [de

  16. National Institute on Drug Abuse International Program: improving opioid use disorder treatment through international research training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Steven W; McCormally, Judy

    2018-07-01

    For more than 25 years, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has supported research-training programs, establishing a global research network and expanding the knowledge base on substance use disorders. International research to inform approaches to opioid addiction is particularly important and relevant to the United States, where opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose constitute an emerging public health crisis. This article summarizes the NIDA International Program and illustrates its impact by reviewing recent articles about treatment approaches for opioid use disorders (OUD). Studies in several countries have demonstrated the effectiveness of physician office-based opioid substitution therapies. Other research has demonstrated the effectiveness of different formulations and doses of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, as well as different approaches to providing naloxone to treat opioid overdose. Continuing research into implementation of evidence-based treatment in international settings with limited resources is applicable to US regions that face similar structural, legal, and fiscal constraints. The current review describes international research on OUD treatment and opioid overdose, most coauthored by former NIDA fellows. The findings from outside the United States have important implications for best practices domestically and in other countries that are experiencing increases in OUD prevalence and related overdose deaths.

  17. 76 FR 75599 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Meeting Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7659] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Meeting Cancellation The meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy... Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, and Business...

  18. Internal control as part of prevention irregularities in accounting of budgetary institution

    OpenAIRE

    O.М. Bunda; E.М. Guzenko

    2016-01-01

    The article researches the principles of internal control, the importance, the rationale for the essence of the system of internal control and the legislative building in budgetary institution. It describes the main challenges and problems of practical application of internal control in the normal course of business in modern enterprises. It reveals the following elements of the internal control of a budget institution as: control environment, risk assessment process of a budget institu...

  19. International institutions, global health initiatives and the challenge of sustainability: lessons from the Brazilian AIDS programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loup, G; Fleury, S; Camargo, K; Larouzé, B

    2010-01-01

    The sustainability of successful public health programmes remains a challenge in low and middle income settings. These programmes are often subjected to mobilization-demobilization cycle. Indeed, political and organizational factors are of major importance to ensure this sustainability. The cooperation between the World Bank and the Brazilian AIDS programme highlights the role of international institutions and global health initiatives (GHI), not only to scale up programmes but also to guarantee their stability and sustainability, at a time when advocacy is diminishing and vertical programmes are integrated within health systems. This role is critical at the local level, particularly when economic crisis may hamper the future of public health programmes. Political and organizational evolution should be monitored and warnings should trigger interventions of GHI before the decline of these programmes.

  20. Impact of international financial assistance on economic growth in Europe after the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchanov A.Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is devoted to studying the impact of international financial aid on economic growth in Europe after the Second World War. The aim of the investigation is the identification of regularities of post-war recovery of European economies in the second half of the twentieth century and the assessment of international financial aid’s role in the economic growth stimulation. The author summarizes domestic and foreign researchers’ achievements of studying the issue of the Marshall Plan and its importance for modern Ukraine, and differentiates the classic, capitalistic and modern stages of post-conflict reconstruction of the national economies. The relation between the amount of financial assistance from US government to 14 European countries and the growth of GDP in 1947–1952 is studied with the help of correlation and regression analysis and their significant linear dependence is determined. The issue of institutional support of international financing program of economic recovery of Europe has not been left without attention.

  1. Level of Farmers' Participation In The International Institute Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SproDell

    *Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology,. Ahmadu Bello ... just a certain rate of agricultural growth, but reduction in population growth ..... and lactating women; the elderly; and other marginal groups whose net incomes abruptly ...

  2. Level of Farmers' Participation In The International Institute Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SproDell

    Application of Action Research Methodology in Improving the. Processing Quality of Local Rice in ... Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension. School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Email:papaannor@yahoo.com; ...

  3. Indirect Evolution Versus Strategic Delegation : A Comparison of Two Approaches to Explaining Economic Institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufwenberg, M.; Güth, W.

    1997-01-01

    The two major methods of explaining economic institutions, namely by strategic choices or by (indirect) evolution, are compared for the case of a homogenous quadratic duopoly market. Sellers either can provide incentives for their agents to care for sales (amounts) or evolve as sellers who care for

  4. Economic Growth, Institutional Development and Personal Freedom: The Educational Needs of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    To sustain growth requires changes in the Chinese economy and society. The Asian financial crisis shows that independent institutions and individual freedoms are necessary to stimulate entrepreneurship and innovation. Conservative social values often promoted by the education and training system could hinder economic growth. (SK)

  5. Social and economic aspects of radioactive waste disposal: considerations for institutional management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Board on Radioactive Waste Management; Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    1984-01-01

    ... for Institutional Management Panel on Social and Economic Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management Board on Radioactive Waste Management Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1984 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative ...

  6. The Economic Impact of Higher Education Institutions in Ireland: Evidence from Disaggregated Input-Output Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiantao; Larkin, Charles; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    While there has been a long history of modelling the economic impact of higher education institutions (HEIs), little research has been undertaken in the context of Ireland. This paper provides, for the first time, a disaggregated input-output table for Ireland's higher education sector. The picture painted overall is a higher education sector that…

  7. Changes in the value chain of scientific information: economic consequences for academic institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Vet, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The economic impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the academic library and on the academic institution are discussed in terms of changes in the value chain of scientific information induced by the use of ICT. Argues that ICT is a very strong engine for change as it has the

  8. Population, internal migration, and economic growth: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, R S

    1982-01-01

    The role of population growth in the development process has received increasing attention during the last 15 years, as manifested in the literature in 3 broad categories. In the 1st category, the effects of rapid population growth on the growth of income have been studied with the use of simulation models, which sometimes include endogenous population growth. The 2nd category of the literature is concerned with theoretical and empirical studies of the economic determinants of various demographic rates--most usually fertility. Internal migration and dualism is the 3rd population development category to recieve attention. An attempt is made to synthesize developments in these 3 categories by estimating from a consistent set of data a 2 sector economic demographic model in which the major demographic rates are endogenous. Due to the fact that the interactions between economic and demographic variables are nonlinear and complex, the indirect effects of changes in a particular variable may depend upon the balance of numerical coefficients. For this reason it was felt that the model should be empirically grounded. A brief overview of the model is provided, and the model is compared to some similar existing models. Estimation of the model's 9 behavior equations is discussed, followed by a "base run" simulation of a developing country "stereotype" and a report of a number of policy experiments. The relatively new field of economic determinants of demographic variables was drawn upon in estimating equations to endogenize demographic phenomena that are frequently left exogenous in simulation models. The fertility and labor force participation rate functions are fairly standard, but a step beyong existing literature was taken in the life expectancy and intersectorial migration equations. On the economic side, sectoral savings functions were estimated, and it was found that the marginal propensity to save is lower in agriculture than in nonagriculture. Testing to see the

  9. Mutual Influence of Institutional and Transport Factors of Economic Development: Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Macheret

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies indicate that the transport factor significantly affects economic development and the development of market institutions. The history of mankind demonstrates that transport has always stimulated the socio-economic development of countries and regions, while changing the changing economic relations and people's needs, scientific and technological progress, in turn, contributed to the development of transport. In this regard, a special scientific interest is the study of the mutual influence of institutions and transport. Historical analysis has revealed a strong interdependence between transport and the establishment of institutions, primarily market ones. Water transport had been the catalyst for the market institutions development up to the time of industrial revolution. At the same time, the development of oceanic navigation in the XVI–XVII centuries had a different impact on the socio-economic development of the major maritime powers of that period (Portugal, Spain, Dutch republic, England. The industrial revolution strengthened the interdependence between transport and the factors of institutional development of advanced countries. The formation of the transport network and particularly the railway network as an innovative and the most «institutional» kind of transport in the most developed countries of that period (England, USA, France, has led these countries despite significant differences to very high positive economic results. This is explained by the essential coherence of the different variants of the capitalism existed in these countries, based on inclusive institutions. At the same time, private financing of the railway business required the consolidation of the efforts of many entrepreneurs. It stimulated the development of corporate institutions and the growth of joint-stock capital. Institutional features of the Russian Empire predetermined a special model of the railway network creation in the XIX century

  10. Differences in East Asian Economic Institutions: Taiwan in a Regional Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Csaba Moldicz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “developmental state” describes a very conscious, however, more or less market-friendly approach to economic development. The developmental states of the East Asian region can be characterized by a strong emphasis on diverse forms of state intervention generally; however, these sets of institutions differ in the Japanese, Taiwanese, and South Korean economies. The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative analysis of economic institutions and their alterations after the Asian financial crisis. The paper includes Taiwan, Japan and South Korea in the analysis. The paper seeks to define the peculiar features of Taiwanese economic institutions in contrast to Japan and South Korea. By doing so, the paper investigates different aspects of economic institutions in Japan, Taiwan and South Korea: firm structure, the ability of firms to shape and organize regional supply chains, the role of state and trade unions, the composition of GDP/GNP, economic openness (trade, exchange regimes and financial sectors’ capability to channel funds and encourage saving and investments. One of the findings of the paper is that Taiwan’s defining feature is its very close cooperation with Mainland China. However, the deep interconnectedness of the two economies, often called “Chiwan”, is going to be changed. The reason for this is not only a new economic policy, Taiwan’s “New Southbound Policy” of enhanced cooperation with countries of the Southeast Asia, South Asia and Oceania, but the upgrading of the Chinese economy, which is losing its place in the global supply chains as a cheap-labour country.

  11. Evolution of Law: Interplay Between Private and Public Rule-Making - A New Institutional Economics-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kirchner (Christian)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Whereas the New Institutional Economics (NIE) is interested in the process of institution-building and the evolution of institutions, legal scholars study law-making processes and their variations. The evolution of institutions and law-making are thus overlapping, but

  12. New international economic order and flow of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojko, B

    1979-12-01

    The role of science and technology in creating a new international economic order based on manpower and raw materials is examined. The traditional linkage of science and politics should end and emphasis be given to increasing productivity in order to expand employment opportunities and raise the world living standard. An indigenous research and development capability is seen as essential to counteract the effects of the time factor when technology is introduced into developing countries. Other considerations are risk of an illusory self-reliance, allocation of development sites in terms of labor substitution, ruthlessness of labor competition during modernization, variations of labor quality, and relationship of demography and unemployment. Competition between the capitalist and socialist countries is being redirected into cooperation in the area of technology transfer. 7 references. (DCK)

  13. Internal control as part of prevention irregularities in accounting of budgetary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.М. Bunda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the principles of internal control, the importance, the rationale for the essence of the system of internal control and the legislative building in budgetary institution. It describes the main challenges and problems of practical application of internal control in the normal course of business in modern enterprises. It reveals the following elements of the internal control of a budget institution as: control environment, risk assessment process of a budget institution, information systems, control procedures and control monitoring. The dependence between the effectiveness of accounting and internal control of a budget institution is determined. The paper highlights the methods of evaluation of internal control of a budget institution. This method is recommended for use in the preliminary assessment of control risk budget institution. The concept of «decision» as on the whole and also in particular in internal control is covered. The essential grouping indications of internal control decisions are defined and every type of decisions is characterized. The main directions of improvement of internal control to prevent violations in accounting of a budgetary institution is examined.

  14. Managing an Open Access, Multi-Institutional, International Digital Library: The Digital Library of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Brooke; Taylor, Laurie; Sullivan, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Developing an Open Access, multi-institutional, multilingual, international digital library requires robust technological and institutional infrastructures that support both the needs of individual institutions alongside the needs of the growing partnership and ensure continuous communication and development of the shared vision for the digital…

  15. Power Institutions and International Collaboration on the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Hønneland

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how international cooperative projects have contributed to increased interaction between civilian authorities and the military or other power agencies in Murmansk Oblast. The cases of fisheries enforcement, nuclear safety and the fight against communicable diseases, especially tuberculosis in prisons, are reviewed. The main lesson is that international collaboration ventures can sometimes provide arenas for initiating new coordination patterns that would otherwise not have evolved. Occasionally, the international project is simply the pretext necessary for changing a situation that both civilian and power agencies view as irrational. Whether these changes are fundamental and structural, however, remains to be seen.

  16. CONTRIBUTIONS OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS TO ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Chukwuemeka OBIKE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined contributions of microfinance institutions to economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Abia state, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in collecting cross sectional data on a sample size of 240 respondents (120 MFI beneficiaries and 120 non beneficiaries. Primary Data was collected by administering questionnaire on cassava farmers. The result showed that economic efficiency of MFI beneficiaries was influenced by wage rate, price of fertilizer and adjusted Y (output, while wage rate, price of fertilizer and price of cassava cutting s are variables that influenced economic efficiency of non beneficiaries. The t – test analysis confirmed that MFI beneficiaries had higher economic efficiency advantage compared with non beneficiaries. It is recommended that government agricultural policy should take positive steps to reduce interest rate to encourage MFI efforts in providing the necessary platform to encourage higher efficiency in cassava production in Abia state, Nigeria.

  17. Level of Farmers' Participation In The International Institute Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SproDell

    Evaluation of Women Farmers' Perception of the Impact of. Women-in-Agriculture ... Department of Agricultural Economics/Extension,. University of ... objectives of Women-in-Agriculture (WIA) programme are to increase women farmers‟ yield ..... Growth and Poverty Market Growth and State Planing in Asia and the. Pacific.

  18. Economic system as the basic object of study in the general educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Бурла

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the prevailing practice of studying the economies at different levels in schools of Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. The main attention is paid to the development of methods of studying modern conceptual device that describes the nature, composition, structure and parameters of economic systems in educational institutions. In modern textbooks that are currently used in general education institutions there are some basic concepts and indicators, which allow to fully understand the world economy, economy of states and regions. There are such categories as “economic system”, “model of the economy”, “structure of the economy”, “the branch of the economy”, “sphere of economy”, “sector of economy”. The analysis of school textbooks on geography and other subjects indicates the need for detailed assimilation of information concerning systems, their types, composition, structure and functions. The study of economic and social geography should be paid main attention to the economic system. This article presents the author’s version of the “economic system” concept’s interpretation with all its constituent elements, reveals the functions of economic systems, the types of economic products and services produced by them, examines the levels from global to local ones with specific examples. Various types of economic structures are shown: 1 sectoral, reflecting the relationship between industries; 2 interbranch, reflecting the relationship between interindustry complexes; 3 territorial, reflecting the share of individual regions in national indicators or the share of countries in global indicators, as well as the spatial location of production and non-production facilities; 4 tiered, reflecting the relationship between the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy; 5 two-sphere, reflecting the relationship between the production and non-production spheres; 6 organizational and legal, reflecting the

  19. Racism, Equity, and Quality of Education for International Students in South Korean Higher Education Institutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hee KIM

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand equity issues of international students' learning in Korean higher education institutions by engaging with the issue of racism and identifies how international students in Korea reshape their learning trajectory and how we could provide equitable and quality education for international students.Espousing a qualitative case study design,six students from different background were interviewed to examine features of perceived institutional racism based on their learning experience in Korea.Major findings showed that internationalization has not been fulfilled in terms of engaging with international students although Korean government and higher education institutions have developed relevant policy to attract international students.This study indicates that Korean universities need to reconstruct their social,cultural,and institutional systems to embrace equity,diversity and inclusiveness to empower international students' capacity.

  20. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: REPOA | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will help strengthen Research on Poverty Alleviation's (REPOA) role as a credible public policy institution in Tanzania by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About Research on Poverty Alleviation REPOA is a non-profit, non-governmental organization that ...

  1. Roles of Women's Higher Education Institutions in International Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Kristen A.

    2012-01-01

    Women's colleges and universities persist around the world, even as the vast majority of tertiary institutions are open to men and women. In nearly every nation, women can attend even the most elite formerly all-male universities, and in several nations women are the majority of all college students. Questions therefore arise about the continued…

  2. Level of Farmers' Participation In The International Institute Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SproDell

    ( X =2.68), while consumers had link with farmers ( X =2.72). The major ... objectives, motivation, extension approaches and sources of funding. This means ... actors and the organizational and institutional learning behaviors and practices .... more the consumers rice preference is satisfied, the stronger their link with farmers ...

  3. The Theoretical Foundations of the Organizational-Economic Mechanism for the Functioning and Development of the Internal Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakalova Kseniia O.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the theoretical foundations of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market. The essence of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market is highlighted. The main structural elements of the suggested mechanism have been characterized, including actors and facilities, factors and resources, regulation methods and institutions of the internal labor market, the main processes of staff management in the internal labor market (planning, promotion, development, and motivation of staff, as well as the nature of interactions with the external labor market and the features of the diagnostics of efficiency of the mechanism. The political, economic, social, and organizational groups of factors, influencing the internal labor market, have been provided. The regulation methods used by each actor in the internal labor market have been presented. Indicators for evaluating efficiency of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market have been defined.

  4. 76 FR 17180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... provides information and advice on the effective integration of economic interests into overall foreign... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7327] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy... Charter of the Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy. The Committee serves in a solely...

  5. A Rooster and a Bean Seed. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelyuk, Julia

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a description of the lesson; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives;…

  6. A Lesson about the Circular Flow. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfried, Janet

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate grade level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subjects; instructional objectives; time…

  7. Social and economic aspects of radioactive waste disposal: considerations for institutional management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Issues addressed in this book include: magnitude, characteristics, and trends of public concerns over radioactive waste; the issue of public trust and confidence in the institutions responsible for radioactive waste management; effects of the number and location of waste repositories on socioeconomic and institutional burdens associated with nuclear waste management; effects associated with interim storage facilities located at reactors or away from reactors; kinds and relative magnitudes of effects associated with the use of alternative forms of transportation (rail, truck, barge); participation by local citizens in identifying, assessing, and proposing ways to ameliorate social and economic siting effects; and potential options for resolving conflict at federal, state, and local levels over repository siting

  8. Principles of the institutional law of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Amerasinghe-Chittharanjan, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Dr Amerasinghe starts with a brief history of international organizations. In fourteen substantive chapters, he then deals with subjects such as interpretation, membership and representation, the doctrine of "ultra vires", responsibility, liability of members to third parties, internal law and employment relations, privileges and immunities, dispute settlement, and, finally, dissolution and succession. There is a full and detailed examination of the problems connected with each of these subjects. The primary object of the book is to discuss principles, but Dr Amerasinghe also studies the law and practice of different organizations, using a rigourous analysis of the material alongside his functional examination of the law.

  9. Institutional Issues of International Power Grid Development in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, Konstantin; Maksakova, Darya; Popov, Sergei

    2018-01-01

    With regard to the initiative of "International power interconnections in northeast Asia" here examines the challenges which may hinder the establishment of a common energy system in region. The analysis is based on the APERC methodology for international energy cooperation in the APEC region, and on historical approach to the development of pricing mechanisms and policy in the European common market of electricity trade and system services. Mechanisms for the prevention and overcoming of the revealed problems of regional cooperation in the power sector are proposed.

  10. Institutional Issues of International Power Grid Development in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korneev Konstantin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the initiative of “International power interconnections in northeast Asia” here examines the challenges which may hinder the establishment of a common energy system in region. The analysis is based on the APERC methodology for international energy cooperation in the APEC region, and on historical approach to the development of pricing mechanisms and policy in the European common market of electricity trade and system services. Mechanisms for the prevention and overcoming of the revealed problems of regional cooperation in the power sector are proposed.

  11. Evaluation as institution: a contractarian argument for needs-based economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Wolf H

    2018-06-13

    There is a gap between health economic evaluation methods and the value judgments of coverage decision makers, at least in Germany. Measuring preference satisfaction has been claimed to be inappropriate for allocating health care resources, e.g. because it disregards medical need. The existing methods oriented at medical need have been claimed to disregard non-consequentialist fairness concerns. The aim of this article is to propose a new, contractarian argument for justifying needs-based economic evaluation. It is based on consent rather than maximization of some impersonal unit of value to accommodate the fairness concerns. This conceptual paper draws upon contractarian ethics and constitution economics to show how economic evaluation can be viewed as an institution to overcome societal conflicts in the allocation of scarce health care resources. For this, the problem of allocating scarce health care resources in a society is reconstructed as a social dilemma. Both disadvantaged patients and affluent healthy individuals can be argued to share interests in a societal contract to provide technologies which ameliorate medical need, based on progressive funding. The use of needs-based economic evaluation methods for coverage determination can be interpreted as institutions for conflict resolution as far as they use consented criteria to ensure the social contract's sustainability and avoid implicit rationing or unaffordable contribution rates. This justifies the use of needs-based evaluation methods by Pareto-superiority and consent (rather than by some needs-based value function per se). The view of economic evaluation presented here may help account for fairness concerns in the further development of evaluation methods. This is because it directs the attention away from determining some unit of value to be maximized towards determining those persons who are most likely not to consent and meeting their concerns. Following this direction in methods development is

  12. Member States and International Legal Responsibility : Developments of the Institutional Veil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘institutional veil’ of international organizations is the linchpin for legal analysis and appraisal of the role and interrelation of international organizations, member States and organs. Through this lens the article examines in semi-broad strokes the position of international organizations’

  13. Higher Education Institutions: Satisfaction and Loyalty among International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, Audhesh K.; Ganesh, Gopala

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the relationship between satisfaction with educational service augmenters and consumer loyalty within the context of the international student market. An enhanced state of consumer satisfaction, also labeled as delight, is captured by focusing on service augmenters that fall outside the domain of the core…

  14. Co-Evolution: Law and Institutions in International Ethics Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Cheng, Philip Y.K.; Choi, Chong-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of the co-evolution approach in various branches of research, such as strategy, organisation theory, complexity, population ecology, technology and innovation (Lewin et al., 1999; March, 1991), co-evolution has been relatively neglected in international business and ethics

  15. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Grupo FARO | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For Grupo FARO, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  16. The economic impact of higher education institutions on regional development: the case of the Polytechnic Institute of Bragança

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Joana

    2010-01-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are considered, usually, important mechanisms for regional development. However, it is essential that they can quantify the impact that their activities have in surrounding communities and in regional economic development.

  17. Analysis of International Monetary Fund under conditions of globalization of economic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Ksendzuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization in the economy requires proper management of countries' financial resources as the regulation of international financial market is one of the most important tasks of the successful development of the world economy and individual national economies. The International Monetary Fund since the beginning of its creation was intended to regulate the financial situation in the post-war period in world space. In present conditions of information development of the world economic system the role and importance of international financial institutions are changing. Thus, the policies and activities of the IMF are increasingly criticized, that is substantiated and requires some restructuring and reforming areas of the Fund activity. During the research the basic aspects of IMF activities in 2015 have been analyzed and the suggestions for its further effective development have been presented. In particular, it is advisable to use the specific individual approach to the problems of particular economies and to view the sizes of quotas and their functional purposes that will allow to develop new funding mechanisms that are based on social and ecological needs of society. This, in turn, will reduce the impact of developed countries on the activities of the financial institution

  18. Relationships between Institutional Economics of Cooperation and the Political Economy of Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernandéz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between institutional economics of cooperation and the political economy of trust. Transactions costs, principal-agent theory, market power, increasing-returns theory and value creation, strategic management: competitive forces, resource-based theory, organisationtal knowledge and learning, strategic choice theory and collective efficiency theory are reviewed. Lastly, the political economy of trust is sustained.

  19. Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional elements in fisheries policy and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Robert L.; Benson, Ashleen J.; Brooks, Kate

    2017-01-01

    of explicit social, economic and institutional objectives; a general lack of process (frameworks, governance) for routine integration of all four pillars of sustainability; and a bias towards biological considerations. Practical integration requires a ‘systems’ approach with explicit consideration...... of strategic and operational aspects of management; multidisciplinary or transdisciplinary evaluations; practical objectives for the four pillars of sustainability; appropriate participation; and a governance system that is able to integrate these diverse considerations in management. We challenge all involved...... governance....

  20. Soutien institutionnel à l'African Institute for Applied Economics (AIAE)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Établi au Nigeria en 2000, l'African Institute for Applied Economics (AIAE) est un organisme indépendant voué à la recherche sur les politiques. Il a pour mandat de favoriser la prise de décisions fondées sur des données probantes en matière de développement économique et social. Ses forces sont la recherche et le ...

  1. U.S. International Agricultural Trade Policy: Interests, Institutions and Information in the Corn Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Forti Thomaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the U.S. international agricultural trade policy by focusing on instruments and institutional arrangements. Policy decision-making is analyzed by means of three variables: 1 how interests are mobilized; 2 how information is disseminated; and 3 how spaces are occupied in deliberation arenas. The study refers to the corn sector and observes how the National Corn Growers Association operated to ensure subsidies and incentives for this supply chain along the elaboration of the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bills, as well as from other laws pertaining to agricultural and energy incentives. This paper provides evidences in favor of four arguments: first, empirical studies on the formulation and implementation of foreign trade policy, especially when it comes to agricultural issues, would greatly benefit with a greater attention on understanding the role domestic actors play in the decision-making processes; second, interest groups play a key role in this decision-making process; third, they provide the rationale for the formulation and implementation of the U.S. international agricultural trade policy; and, fourth, when the economic sector coordinates complex and relevant supply chains in the U.S. economy, it is hardly possible to revert the U.S. protectionist position in the Legislative branch.

  2. Impacts of Institutional Characteristics on International Students' Choice of Private Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migin, Melissa W.; Falahat, Mohammad; Yajid, Mohd Shukri Ab; Khatibi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Malaysia has witnessed an influx of foreign students in the local higher education institutions with the aggressive support from the Malaysian government to build Malaysia as the educational hub within the region. This is in line with Malaysia's aspiration to be a global education hub by year 2020. Besides the country level…

  3. Improvement of social-economic partnership in the youth labor market segment: the institutional forms and implementation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheleznyak Maria, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper institutional features and forms of social-economic partnership as regulation institute of a youth segment of labor market are considered. Use of interdisciplinary approach in combination with methodology of institutionalism forms new opportunities for the solution of problems of youth employment through the directions of improvement of tools of social-economic partnership on a youth segment of labor market of the Rostov region. Classification offorms of social-economic partnership in its formal and informal aspects is considered, methods of realization of the mechanism of social- economic partnership at primary and secondary employment of youth are defined.

  4. Principles, Economic and Institutional Prerequisites for Fiscal Decentralization under Conditions of Post-Conflict Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnevsky Valentine P.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study principles, economic and institutional prerequisites for fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories. It is determined that fiscal decentralization is one of the main ways to solve problems of post-conflict areas. There justified principles, economic and institutional prerequisites of fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories with regard to the specificity of individual spheres of fiscal relations. Moreover, different spheres of fiscal relations require different approaches: the sphere of public revenues — providing economic efficiency with the formation of the tax structure contributing to the expansion of the tax base; the sphere of public spending — ensuring social justice and transparency in allocation of social cost at the local level; the sphere of subsidies — narrowing the scope of application of intergovernmental transfers with organizing the redistribution of financial resources under the principle of «center - post-conflict regions - post-conflict recipients»; the sphere of external assistance — ensuring proper coordination for cultivation of new co-operative institutions.

  5. The Social System Approach to Institutions: Examples from Western Economic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon I. Cohen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While there is a general acceptance of a broad definition of social institutions as accepted rules of conduct in agent interactions, there are overlapping views on how institutions come into being and develop. Different views see institutions as the result of evolution, contract, convention, game theory, political power, or legal necessity. Once created, institutions can live their own life and gain influence on the whole economy/society in respects beyond their intrinsic origins. The overlapping views give the impression of pursued piecemeal approaches in addressing the issues. Treating issues of institutional formation and development in the framework of social system theory and analysis can be shown to simplify the picture appreciably and bring more insight. This paper intends to do that. It will display and apply the social system perspective to understanding institutional formation and development. The paper falls in two sections. First, it develops an analytical framework that views the economy as a social system with interactive subsystems that initiate and maintain their own subsystem institutions. Some subsystems expand faster than others, gaining more influence. Interaction of agents across subsystems facilitates the dominance of the more influential subsystem and the spread of the subsystem’s allied institutions to the whole social system. Second, the paper illustrates the validity of the social system perspective via reviewing a timeline that highlights the changing and evolving dominance of the major subsystems and their attached institutions in the economic history of the western world, and in particular, the interactions between the firm subsystem and the state subsystem.

  6. Exploring the utility of institutional theory in analysing international health agency stasis and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2013-10-01

    Of recent interest is the capacity of international health agencies to adapt to changes in the global health environment and country needs. Yet, little is known about the potential benefits of using social science institutional theory, such as path dependency and institutional change theory, to explain why some international agencies, such as the WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, fail to adapt, whereas others, such as the World Bank and UNAIDS, have. This article suggests that these institutional theories can help to better understand these differences in international agency adaptive capacity, while highlighting new areas of policy research and analysis.

  7. The structure and institutions: a regional aspect of interaction in the economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Stepanovich Tarasevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article with the help of two-sector model of the economic system, the interaction of national and regional economy is investigated. This interaction is observed from the position of development of material structure and institutions. As the key structural parameter of an economy, the proportion between sector of excess resources and sector of scarce resources is taken. The situation when sector of excess resources prevails over sector of scarce resources forms structural conditions for the creation of the market institutions. If a sector of excess resources is smaller than a sector of scarce resources, the conditions for the emergence of institutions of government regulation are formed. Two cases are analyzed: the first one concerns the situation of a simple national economy consisting of 2 provisory regions. The second is the case of the national economy consisting of many regions. The authors show that material structure of a total combination of regions defines institutions of the market or state regulation for the national economy as a whole. The institutions formed at the level of the national economy, can support or resist the development of structure of the region. The conditions are observed under which united institutions of the national economy contradict a development of structure of the individual region.

  8. Do economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental degradation? Evidence from transitional economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bhaskara Rao, B. [School of Economics and Finance, University of Western Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Several studies have examined the relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth. However, most of them did not take into account financial developments and institutional quality. Moreover, Stern [Stern, D., 2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32(8): 1419-1439.] noted that there are important econometric weaknesses in the earlier studies, such as endogeneity, heteroscedasticity, omitted variables, etc. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature by investigating the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also financial development and institutional quality. We employ the standard reduced-form modelling approach to control for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity and GMM estimation to control for endogeneity. Our study considers 24 transition economies and panel data for 1993-2004. Our results support the EKC hypothesis while confirming the importance of both institutional quality and financial development for environmental performance. We also found that financial liberalization may be harmful for environmental quality if it is not accomplished in a strong institutional framework. (author)

  9. Linkages between Income Inequality, International Remittances and Economic Growth in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Ijaz; Ahmad Mahdzan, Nurul Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamic linkages between income inequality, international remittances and economic growth using time series data over the period of 1976-2006 in case of Pakistan. The cointegration analysis based on the bounds test confirms the existence of a long-run relationship between income inequality, international remittances and economic growth. Our results reveal that income inequality and international remittances enhance economic growth. The causality analysis based on innov...

  10. Corruption - a Relevant Factor in the International Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George DIMOFTE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is divided into small low-level corruption and high-level corruption. Small level little corruption is defined as the area of corruption which does not prejudice the interests of the majority of individuals. This category can be covered by a health care professional, the corruption of a clerk, etc through their decisions is an individual or group of individuals at the expense of others, but this kind of injustice is limited in time and space. Corruption, means high-level corruption of a dignitary, clerk, etc. This kind of corruption and the main effect over the entire State characteristic and the individuals who compose it. The consequences of this kind of corruption can translate into direct and indirect costs that will be supported in the end by all taxpayers. The objectives of corruption are double: profit and power. The international economic crisis has its origin in the manifestations of high level corruption in the governments of different countries. All the state now have to fight against corruption in order to settle new rules to avoid the effects af the crisis and to prevent a deepening of this crisis with devastating effects upon tha population. Here we try to emphasize the importance that we all should give corruption and measures had to be taken by everyone.

  11. Special considerations regarding indirect expropriation in international economic law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana Spătaru-Negură

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to property is a human right that has to be respected so that if the property of a natural or legal person is taken over, the respective person has to be compensated. The right of a state to control the economic business is one of the rights sustained and exercised by the states on a constant basis. This reflects the inherent sovereignty of a state to control its people, incidents and objects found on its territory. Between these rights, the situation of indirect expropriation appears which has been described in the doctrine as being very abstract and rigid, big lacunae existing. The sense of the indirect expropriation and of the international investors’ protection against the indirect expropriation is very ambiguous. Using different methods specific to scientific analyse of the legal phenomenon (e.g. the logical method, the comparative method, the historical method and the quantitative methods, we consider that through this paper we can reach certain results that could be interesting for any legal practitioner or theoretician, this paper intending to present the most relevant cases that could amount to indirect expropriation.

  12. China’s Institutional Architecture: A New Institutional Economics and Organization Theory Perspective on the Links between Local Governance and Local Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Krug (Barbara); H. Hendrischke (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe start our exploration of China’s institutional change by asking what the China experience can tell us about institutional economics and organization theory. We point to under-researched areas such as the formation of firms and the interplay between firms and local politics. Our

  13. Internal Contamination Program in hospital and biomedical research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez de Cepeda, M.; Macias, M.T.; Plaza, R.; Martinez Hidalgo, C.

    1992-01-01

    Program and the criteria for establishing such program to control the internal contamination from a point of view, not yet systematized and standardized in Hospital and Biomedical Research centers. The main purpose of this work is to review our own situation, to establish and systematize an operative program with variable means (instruments) and the use of external means if need. This program will be established taking into account the new recommendations of I.C.R.P. and the new criteria A.L.I. (author)

  14. Institutional delivery in rural India: the relative importance of accessibility and economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterton, Amy J; Cleland, John; Sloggett, Andy; Ronsmans, Carine

    2010-06-06

    Skilled attendance at delivery is an important indicator in monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. In addition to professional attention, it is important that mothers deliver their babies in an appropriate setting, where life saving equipment and hygienic conditions can also help reduce the risk of complications that may cause death or illness to mother and child. Over the past decade interest has grown in examining influences on care-seeking behavior and this study investigates the determinants of place of delivery in rural India, with a particular focus on assessing the relative importance of community access and economic status. A descriptive analysis of trends in place of delivery using data from two national representative sample surveys in 1992 and 1998 is followed by a two-level (child/mother and community) random-effects logistical regression model using the second survey to investigate the determinants. In this investigation of institutional care seeking for child birth in rural India, economic status emerges as a more crucial determinant than access. Economic status is also the strongest influence on the choice between a private-for-profit or public facility amongst institutional births. Greater availability of obstetric services will not alone solve the problem of low institutional delivery rates. This is particularly true for the use of private-for-profit institutions, in which the distance to services does not have a significant adjusted effect. In the light of these findings a focus on increasing demand for existing services seems the most rational action. In particular, financial constraints need to be addressed, and results support current trials of demand side financing in India.

  15. International environmental governance: Lessons learned from Human Rights Institutional Reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchald, Ole Kristian

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses on the possibility of establishing a High Commissioner for the Environment and transforming the UNEP Governing Council into a Council for the Environment. For this purpose, it considers the parallels between human rights regimes and environmental regimes. It provides a short-list of functions to be covered by a reformed environmental governance regime, and discusses how the reform can be coordinated with UNEP, as well as with the current and future institutional framework for sustainable development. The report also discusses how the reform can be related to fifteen core multilateral environmental agreements. Finally, the report considers how the reform can be carried out through a discussion of five separate options: a decision by the UN General Assembly, by the ECOSOC, or by the UNEP Governing Council, as well as through agreements between conferences of parties of environmental agreements, or directly between states. A main purpose of the report, which has been commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment, is to provide input to the preparations for the Rio+20 Conference in 2012.(auth)

  16. The Political Economy of the European Union: Institutions, Policy and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    ' may be avoided by strengthening the power of the EU Parliament at the expense of the EU Commission. The book also discusses issues surrounding policy design, international negotiations on climate change and renewable energy sources. Using an interdisciplinary framework, the author examines how....... Focusing in detail on international climate negotiations and wind energy, the author explores the way in which the design of a policy proposal can be affected by the interactions between interest groups and the institutions and bureaucrats of the EU. The case of greenhouse gas emissions trading is a unique...

  17. The conservation message of the rehabilitated facilities of the International Institute of Tropical Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel Lugo; J. Rullan

    2015-01-01

    Over a period of about 20 years, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) and its collaborators developed and implemented a facilities plan that included both new and restored facilities. Among the restored facilities, the historic Headquarters Building received a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certificate, and was...

  18. Institutional Design for Strategic Environmental Assessment on Urban Economic and Social Development Planning in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Guojun; Zhou Li; Zhang Lei

    2011-01-01

    The National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDPs) of cities in China, given their comprehensive, integrated and strategic nature, have significant and profound impacts on the development of cities and their embedded ecological environments. Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) on city NESDPs have the potential to improve environmental policy integration at strategic level and to safeguard the sustainable development of cities. However, these plans are normally exempted from the current SEA requirement in China. We argue that it is more feasible to apply SEAs on city NESDPs before SEAs are expanded to higher level NESDPs in China. This article attempts to propose a China-specific institutional design for SEAs on city NESDPs based on experiments in selected cities and within the current legal framework. To obtain a holistic view about the long-term development of cities, more qualitative and descriptive analysis-based assessment methods should be adopted to broaden participation, to encourage the exchange of information and to reach consensus. - Highlights: → National Economic and Social Development Plans for Cities (NESDPs) in China is a very popular and significant decision made by municipal government. → We propose a institutional framework to conduct strategic environmental assessment to NESDPs. → The key features of the institutional framework are the independent SEA approval committee and a professional consulting agency.

  19. International Trade and Economic Growth in the Polish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Gurgul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examinations of linear and nonlinear causalities performed for international trade involving the Polish economy and its economic growth. In order to infer the impact of the world crisis on the Polish economy, two samples have been studied (containing quarterly data – a full sample (Q1 1996–Q3 2009 and pre-crisis sample (Q1 1996–Q3 2008. The results of linear causality tests support the existence of feedback between the growth rate of exports and growth in gross domestic product (GDP irrespectively of the time period chosen. For both the samples examined, no direct causal links between the growth rates of GDP and imports were detected. One can only suppose the existence of indirect links before the crisis. Bidirectional causality was found for growth rates of exports and imports only for the pre-crisis sample. Some weak evidence of a causal link running from the growth rate of imports to the growth rate of exports was also found for the period that covers the crisis, which may be interpreted as a confirmation of the fact that growth in imports also precedes growth in exports in bullish periods. It results from our computations that, at the time of the financial crisis of 2008, the main factor that caused Polish GDP growth to remain positive was domestic demand. The results of nonlinear causality analysis provided only weak evidence for causality running from GDP to exports, from GDP to imports and from imports to exports. (original abstract

  20. THE MODEL OF MANAGEMENT OF THE INTERNAL MARKETING OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Viktorovna Naurazbaeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is the development of methods and models of management of the internal marketing of a higher education institute based on complex approach that includes strategic management methods and staff marketing and also technologies of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP.Method or methodology of the research. Adapted models and methods of Neuro-Linguistic Programming, strategic management and marketing to management of marketing of the university which are presented as a complex of models that are reveling through the interrelation «external labor-market – higher education instituteinternal labor-market».Results:1. The mechanism of management of the internal marketing of higher education institute based on the interrelation «external labor – market – higher education instituteinternal labor-market» is offered that assumes solving problem of miscomparison between market conditions, university’s opportunities and demands of an employee of this educational institute.2. Methodical bases of formation of NLP-model that coordinates the requirements of labor collective as internal consumers of the educational service and needs of higher education institute in order to provide high quality services at all stages of creation and realization of an educational service are developed.3. The infological model of construction and choosing the strategy of the internal marketing of educational institute is presented.Practical implications. The received results can be used in practical management of higher education institute when forming the strategy of the internal marketing taking into account the specific features of concrete university.

  1. Macroeconomic Determinants of Economic Growth: A Review of International Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirwa Themba G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper conducts a qualitative narrative appraisal of the existing empirical literature on the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth in developing and developed countries. Much as other empirical studies have investigated the determinants of economic growth using various econometric methods, the majority of these studies have not distinguished what drives or hinders economic growth in developing or developed countries. The study finds that the determinants of economic growth are different when this distinction is used. It reveals that in developing countries the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth include foreign aid, foreign direct investment, fiscal policy, investment, trade, human capital development, demographics, monetary policy, natural resources, reforms and geographic, regional, political and financial factors. In developed countries, the study reveals that the key macroeconomic determinants that are associated with economic growth include physical capital, fiscal policy, human capital, trade, demographics, monetary policy and financial and technological factors.

  2. Factors Related to the Acculturation Stress of International Students in a Faith-Based Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Liane Videres

    2012-01-01

    The number of international students attending American educational institutions is increasing annually. Based upon Maslow theory of needs, it was hypothesized that the acculturation process contributes to stress and anxiety among international students; therefore, it is important to understand some of the variables that influence this process for…

  3. Exploring Regional and Institutional Factors of International Students' Dropout: The South Korea Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun; Kim, Yangson

    2018-01-01

    With an increasing number of international students in South Korea, the issue of retaining these students and reducing their dropout rates has become important. This study explores the multilevel factors that affect the institutional dropout rate among international students in Korea. The research questions are as follows: (a) to what extent do…

  4. Three lines of defence model and the role of internal audit activities as the response to the global economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragičević Radičević, T.; Stojanović Trivanović, M.; Stanojević, Lj

    2017-05-01

    The existing framework of corporate governance has shown a number of weaknesses, and the result was a new economic crisis at the global level. The main problems were identified as: increased risk of investors, non-transparency of information, conflict of interest between corporation subjects. European Institute of Internal Auditors in response to the strengthening the trust in information, shareholders activism, better communication, which all will lead to the reduction of risks and restore investors confidence, proposed the Model Three Lines of Defence, where the key role has internal audit.

  5. Social, economic, institutional and political impact of the Chernobyl accident in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Petrica

    1997-01-01

    Romania is among the countries which was socially, economically, institutionally and politically affected by the Chernobyl accident. The entire Romanian society had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident because of the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania which exceeded considerably the local radioactive background, due to the inherent proximity of accident place and to elliptical and over-estimated official statements broadcast through radio and TV. At institutional level, changes have occurred constantly after 1989 regarding both legislation and administration. All the platforms of the relevant political parties have provisions that are favorable to nuclear field. There are stated diverse preoccupations and objectives for the protection and the safety of the industrial installations that have associated risk of accident. Radiation protection issues and nuclear safety culture have reached a satisfactory level in our society and thereby the political speeches do not annoy anyone when they are proposing poll taxes for activities of decommissioning and transport of radioactive waste. (author)

  6. Institutional models of Bunaken National Park (BNP management to ensure sustainability of ecological and economic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunaken Marine Park is one of the world's most beautiful marine tourism which has a unique coral reefs, turtles and diversity of pelagic fish. Currently Bunaken Marine Park has become an excellent tourist attraction for diving. Since the number of visitors and community activities around the park are continues to increase; there have been severe damages to coral reefs as well as polluting the environment around the marine park. Therefore, the sustainability of economic and social benefits is threatened. To avoid damage to coral reefs and pollutions, it is necessary the institute manager which can ensure the sustainability of he sustainability of the tourism attraction. Interpretative Method Structure Modeling (ISM was chosen to design the institutional model appropriate to the conditions surrounding the object, which is able to manage Bunaken Marine Park as a sustainable tourist attraction.

  7. Institutional and economic viability of Bahia State Gas Company: plan for carrying out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes Filho, F.A.; Abreu, G.O.F. de; Ribeiro, H.M.; Cabral, S.S.C.

    1988-01-01

    In formation of the Gas Distribution National Sector, the State of Bahia is singular by distribution facilities locally existent - presently operated by PETROBRAS, by the presence of big industrial consumers, as well as by the expressive natural gas reserves. In this context, besides the strictly technical-economical aspects that refer to the gas distribution, great importance is given for the political-institutional framework for the Gas Company set out into the entrepreneurial and public services ambience. As a result, the requirements for the Company setting up is put forward. (author)

  8. Soutien institutionnel à l'Institute for Economic Affairs - Ghana (IEA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Institute of Economic Affairs - Ghana (IEA-Ghana) a été fondé en 1989, vers la fin de la dictature militaire. Le pays n'ayant pas à l'époque de centre indépendant voué à l'étude des politiques, il y avait peu de dialogue sur les politiques publiques. L'IEA-Ghana a néanmoins réussi à créer un forum de discussion et à faire ...

  9. CHARITY INSTITUTION AS RUSSIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY FORMATION INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Goryatcheva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Broadly supported and actively functioning charity institution may essentially influence development of both the country economics and its civil society. Theoretical aspects of the impact of charity on the economy are discussed in detail. Brought about in the article is information that reflects activities of non-commercial organizations (NCO in Russia and abroad, global charity experience, ways of raising funds for NCO, methods of assessing feasibility of investment into non-commercial projects. Social entrepreneurship experience including that of running social projects is discussed.

  10. Movements and institutionally of international environmental policy: Genesis and conceptual bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez G, Luis Jair

    2001-01-01

    Environmental problems have gone, when it comes to their discussion, beyond the purely scientific arena, to being also discussed at a political stage, giving birth to what has been called political ecology. The dimensions of the problem, as well as its global nature, have created some sort of political institutionalism, which ranges from international organisms, UNO, World Bank; etc, to very local organizations. This approach has two conceptual positions al its base: environmentalism, which gives preeminence to man over nature, with its trends of Eco-development which leans on local ecology and culture; and sustainable development which leans on economic growth which should generate resources to alleviate environmental damage and social inequities. On the other hand all the unbreakable links with the other living beings and the physical surroundings. It also has two trends: Deep Ecology which advocates respect for nature as a systemic unit within which man is immerse; and Global Eco-ethics which stand for political action that departs from accepting current man's responsibility towards the forthcoming human societies, whose well-being will depend on our respect for natural dynamics

  11. 76 FR 4987 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Secretary of State for Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted... Subcommittee, the Economic Sanctions Subcommittee, and the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building is...

  12. Exploring the institutional perspective on international business expansion: Towards a more detailed conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lynch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While the general principles of the Institutional Perspective have been widely accepted, there has been only limited consideration to the present time of their in-depth application to the strategies of individual firms engaged in international business. The paper argues that companies engaged in such activities will find that there is a significant gap in precisely what aspects of the formal and informal institutional perspectives need to be identified and assessed for international expansion. The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical paradigm that allows organizations not only to compare different countries with regard to their potential for international business expansion from the perspective of Institutional Theory but also drawing on theories of International Business Strategy where relevant. The theoretical framework assumes that such organizations are engaged in analyzing the institutional arrangements and resources of their home and possible host countries. The paper then develops a conceptual framework that identifies five major components, namely people, power, performance, pathways to international expansion, and productivity, the latter being defined in terms of knowledge and innovation. It explores each of these areas in more depth with the aim of adding a more detailed structure to elements of Institutional Theory relevant to international business expansion.

  13. The International Decision Support Initiative Reference Case for Economic Evaluation: An Aid to Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Thomas; Sculpher, Mark J; Claxton, Karl; Revill, Paul; Briggs, Andrew; Cairns, John A; Teerawattananon, Yot; Asfaw, Elias; Lopert, Ruth; Culyer, Anthony J; Walker, Damian G

    2016-12-01

    Policymakers in high-, low-, and middle-income countries alike face challenging choices about resource allocation in health. Economic evaluation can be useful in providing decision makers with the best evidence of the anticipated benefits of new investments, as well as their expected opportunity costs-the benefits forgone of the options not chosen. To guide the decisions of health systems effectively, it is important that the methods of economic evaluation are founded on clear principles, are applied systematically, and are appropriate to the decision problems they seek to inform. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, a major funder of economic evaluations of health technologies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), commissioned a "reference case" through the International Decision Support Initiative (iDSI) to guide future evaluations, and improve both the consistency and usefulness to decision makers. The iDSI Reference Case draws on previous insights from the World Health Organization, the US Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health Care, and the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Comprising 11 key principles, each accompanied by methodological specifications and reporting standards, the iDSI Reference Case also serves as a means of identifying priorities for methods research, and can be used as a framework for capacity building and technical assistance in LMICs. The iDSI Reference Case is an aid to thought, not a substitute for it, and should not be followed slavishly without regard to context, culture, or history. This article presents the iDSI Reference Case and discusses the rationale, approach, components, and application in LMICs. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. INDICATOR SYSTEM FOR MEASUREMENT OF FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Dudnyk

    2015-11-01

    important parameters of financial, economic, and industrial activity in the company. It should be constructed using the data on the production potential of the company, its profitability and business activity, financial independence and financial status, etc. The rating score can be determined using additive convolution. Practical value. Thus, a comprehensive analysis of financial and economic performance of a company through dynamic analysis using reference matrices allows: to get a justified assessment of the financial position and financial results of the company; to identify the causes of changes in financial position and financial results; to calculate a comprehensive rating that takes into account the most important parameters of financial, economic, and production activity of the company; to provide well-reasoned managerial decisions in finance in order to improve the financial condition and financial results of the company and to increase the efficiency of its economic activity. Achieved results enable conducting a comprehensive analysis of the financial and economic state of public institutions.

  15. Institutional preconditions of socio-ecological-economic regulation of environmental management activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Plaksunova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to regulate environmental management activities of institutional entities arises when it affects the interests of third-party entities or threatened by the ongoing entity manufacturing practices its own resilience, to achieve the main goal. The complexity and diversity of the forms of socio-ecological and ecological-economic issues at different levels of the economic system leads to the development of many directions and views on the expansion of the management process of these levels (global, national, regional, local and techniques from rigid-deklorative state before combination with the market. In this respect, the neoclassical economic theory actively generated new analytical ideas and concept that enables to respond adequately to emerging economic realities. So we can distinguish the following approaches to regulate environmental management activities: T. Malthus and D. Ricardo, revealing issues of social, ecological and economic implications of limited natural resources in the context of the law of diminishing effectiveness and the need to regulate environmental management activities. John. St. Mill and George proved to be ineffective in addressing environmental problems in the industrial economy of the type of the imperfection of the institutions of society, justifying the occurrence of crises protohistoric speculation nature's benefits. A. Pigou developed the theory of externalities, which revealed the need for state regulation of the environmental management activities of economic entities, harmonization of individual and social interests. Research I. Kula, F. Khan and P. Samuelson identified a pattern about the formation of the system of regulation nature-safety activities, not only within individual States but also on a global level. R. Crows have shown that the methods of direct state regulation of nature economic activity is not as good as it seems at first glance and so you should not underestimate the role and potential

  16. The law of the international civil service institutional law and practice in international organisations

    CERN Document Server

    Ullrich, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Gerhard Ullrich provides an overall review of the employment law of international intergovernmental organisations. In the first part of the book, he explains the basics of employment law and provides statistical data. He comments extensively on the privileges and immunities of international officials. The core of the book is dedicated to the examination of the legal sources for international civil service law. Here, the international administrative tribunals' case law on the general principles of law occupies a particularly broad area. A second legal source are the structures and elements of the statutory employment in international organisations. The author finally comments on the system of legal protection for the staff of the international civil service.

  17. Institutional Means for Ensuring the Technological Leadership of Germany in the EU Economic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovgal Olеna A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of institutional means for ensuring the technological leadership of Germany in the economic system of the EU. The main idea of all the programs and strategies of the European Union is to ensure competitive and dynamic development. Germany occupies a leading position in many respects both in the European and global technology market, which is due to the country’s strong scientific potential and the high level of spending on R&D. The article compares the tasks of the national high-tech strategy of the FRG and the strategy of the EU Innovation Union. There generalized the functions of the main components of the system of scientific associations of the Federal Republic of Germany, which are an effective tool for implementing the state policy in the field of innovation investment. An approach to qualitative assessment of the level of information interaction of the subjects in the system of R&D institutes and the diffusion of technologies using the criterion of information communication is proposed. A prospect for further research on this issue is a comprehensive analysis of the main components of Germany’s innovation strategy in the EU economic system.

  18. Transformation of institute of a family in Ural in the conditions of socio-economic destructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeyevich Pavlov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of social risks and deviations related to family group in Ural, manifestations of these risks for a family way of life, socio-economic development of the region. The author emphasizes that today the dialectics of creation and destructions, risks and reliability, optimism and pessimism is illustrated in the various parts of the institute of family in Russia as a whole and, in particular, in the Ural region. In our modern age, there is no risk-free behavior. «Risk — safety» dichotomy means that there is no absolute reliability or safety. Whereas «risk — danger» dichotomy means that it is impossible to avoid risk, making any decisions. The author shows the identity of socio-economic health of the adult population of various regions of the Russian Federation throughout almost the whole quarter of a century on the basis of a number of research assignments conducted by sociologists of Institute of Economics of the UB RAS, in a monitoring mode. Division of the population on rather identical (on particular weight in the total number of the population groups of the Russian society referred to the category of «rich», «medium people» and «poor people» is observed. At the same time, according to the author, the social inequality in principle has both positive, and negative consequences for functioning and society development. The author made an attempt of the problem analysis of «family — children», «fathers — children» from a perspective social risks. The special relevance of these processes in relation to family policy in Russia seeking to pass from depopulation tendencies to a favorable treatment of nation-expanded reproduction is emphasized. Altogether, the level of family wellbeing, first of all, is defined by the quality of the relations in the system of «parents — children». The intra-familial conflicts conduct to family trouble and so for children. In article, the author’s position

  19. International Experiences with Economic Incentives for Protecting the Environment (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2001 report finds that over the last 20 years, and particularly during the past decade, economic incentives have been increasingly used to control pollution and improve environmental and health protection.

  20. Economic targets and loss-aversion in international environmental cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    İriş, Doruk

    2015-01-01

    In the standard emission problem, each country’s ruling party decides on an optimal level of emissions by analyzing the cost and benefit to the country. However, such policy decisions are often influenced by political parties’ incentives to be elected. Voters tend to give higher priority to economic issues than they do to environmental ones. As a result, political parties have additional incentives to reach a critical economic benefit level, at a cost of higher emission level, in order to sat...

  1. International symposium on energy, environment and economics: Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colville, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The conference deals with a comprehensive range of topics on energy sources and technologies, the economic impacts of energy use and production, and environmental issues. The papers are grouped into chapters covering environmental policy, environment education, environment economics, new and renewable energy sources, utilities, electricity and planning software, domestic energy, commercial energy, heat pumps and cogeneration, and transport. A number of un-presented papers and abstracts of contributions are included. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs. figs., refs

  2. A research on the spatial disparity of China's private economic capital : Based on an Institutional non-equilibrium approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate China’s private economic capital and its spatial disparity from the perspective of institutional non-equilibrium, and then we test the efficiency coefficient of the institutional change of a region and inter-regions,which is analyzed on a special cost-benefit model.The

  3. Economic Objects: How Policy Discourse in the United Kingdom Represents International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…

  4. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  5. International financial institutions and health in Egypt and Tunisia: change or continuity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sharif

    2013-01-01

    The revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia appeared to herald a re-casting of International Monetary Fund and World Bank policy across the region. Public pronouncements by the heads of both institutions in the months following February 2011 acknowledged flaws in their approach to macroeconomic advice, against a background of worsening socioeconomic indicators, widespread youth unemployment, and widening health inequalities. Evidence on the ground, however, suggests continuity rather than change in international financial institution policies in Egypt and Tunisia, notwithstanding the emergence of a powerful new player-the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In the long term, new electoral realities and hardening public opposition in both countries seem likely to force a fundamentally different relationship between regional governments and the major international financial institutions than existed before 2011.

  6. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INNOVATION CLUSTERS ON INCREASING ECONOMIC AGENTS SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ustymenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of enterprises integration into international innovation clusters on the increasing of enterprises, countries and regions economic sustainability under the global instability are explored. Potential sources of instability and threats of the integration into international cluster structures are defined. Author outlines the main benefits of international innovation cluster for enhancement of economic agents sustainability, such as: possibility for joint exploitation of market opportunities and efforts consolidation for overcoming market threats, cluster self-sufficiency, effective cluster internal reorganization and adaptation in response to external changes. Three clusters (engineering for agriculture production cluster (Hersonska oblast and German enterprises, IT cluster (Lvivska oblast and Poland enterprises, cluster for R&D commercialization (Slobodzanschina euroregion are examined to uncover the role of international innovation cluster formation on enhancement of economic agents' economic sustainability.

  7. Technical, economic and institutional aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    A particular challenge facing countries with small nuclear programmes is the preparation for extended interim storage and then disposal of their spent nuclear fuel. The costs and complications of providing for away-from-reactor storage facilities and/or geological repositories for relatively small amounts of spent fuel may be prohibitively high, motivating interest in regional solutions. This publication addresses the technical, economic and institutional aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities (RSFSF) and is based on the results of a series of meetings on this topic with participants from IAEA Member States. Topics discussed include safety criteria and standards, safeguards and physical protection, fuel acceptance criteria, long term stability of systems and stored fuel, selection of site, infrastructure aspects, storage technology, licensing, operations, transport, decommissioning, as well as research and development. Furthermore the publication comprises economic, financial and institutional considerations including organizations and legal aspects followed by political and public acceptance and ethical considerations. Approaches and processes for implementation are discussed, as well as the overall benefits and risks of implementing a regional facility. It is illustrated that implementing a RSFSF facility would involve simultaneously addressing a wide range of diverse challenges. The appendix to this report tabulates the numerous issues that have been touched upon in the study. It appears, however, from the discussions that the challenges can in principle be met; the RSFSF concept is technically feasible and potentially economically viable. The technical committees producing this report did not identify any obvious institutional deficiencies that would prevent completion of such a project. Storing spent fuel in a few safe, reliable, secure facilities could enhance safeguards, physical protection and non-proliferation benefits. The committee also

  8. Politics and economics to shape international oil and gas activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that political and economic events play unusually strong roles in shaping worldwide oil and gas activity levels this year. Developments in the former U.S.S.R. will be critical. As the now-independent republics adopt new economic systems, production and demand patterns will change, as will exports from what has been the world's leading oil producer. Changing conditions in the Middle East among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries also will affect the industry in the year following the brief Persian Gulf war. Unless worldwide demand surges unexpectedly, these substantial additions to supply will tend to weaken oil prices in 1992

  9. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Building Collaboration Through International Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, K. E.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on re-search at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. As part of the SSERVI mission, we act as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. This talk will describe the international partner re-search efforts and how we are engaging the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships.

  10. A cross-country analysis of electricity market reforms: Potential contribution of New Institutional Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores whether the question of why some countries are able to implement more extensive reforms is closely related to the question of why some countries have better institutions than others. We analyze this question by using an empirical econometric model based on Poisson regression with cross-section data covering 51 states in the US, 13 provinces in Canada and 51 other countries. In the course of the study, we check the validity of three important arguments of New Institutional Economics (NIE) for the power market liberalization process. The first argument is the “path-dependency”. To test its impact on the reform progress, we try to explain whether the background of the chairperson of the regulatory agency when reforms started or that of the governor/minister responsible for energy policy at that time has an impact on the subsequent reform progress. The second argument is the impact of “democracy” as an institution on the reform progress. We look at the effect of two important indicators of democracy (i.e., civil liberties and political rights) on the reform progress. The final argument of NIE is about transaction costs. We concentrate on the level of corruption in a country as one of the key factors that determine transaction costs and try to explore its impact on the reforms. The results show that the backgrounds of the chairperson and the minister/governor, the level of democracy and corruption in a country are significantly correlated with how far reforms have gone in that country. The negative relationship between reform progress and civil liberties may indicate that reforms may be limited in democratic countries with strong civil society institutions such as trade unions or other organized structures in the society that may consider reforms as ‘harmful’ to their self-interest. - Highlights: • We model impact of institutions on the electricity market reforms. • Dataset covers 51 states in the US, 13 provinces in Canada and 51

  11. International market orientation and stakeholder management in institutions of culture and art in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mihanović

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's post-industrial age, on the level of the EU, it is advocated to link the areas of culture and art with the business sector. The institutions of culture and art are also encouraged to participate in international activities/co-operate internationally and gain competitive advantage. However, in the international environment, they are exposed to new circumstances, as demands for specific market data (which should be collected, disseminated and addressed and the organizational complexity are becoming much higher. We believe that such constraints can be overcome only by those institutions, which include the marketing concept in their operations and more effectively manage their target groups. Therefore, this study analyzes the market orientation and the management of the target groups for the internationally active institutions of culture and arts. We apply an adapted behavioral approach model of marketing orientation, based multiple constituencies. The empirical results show that institutions, which do establish international cooperation, direct their marketing activities toward all their target groups. They also adopt the marketing concept to a larger extent, have a higher level of market orientation and manage their target groups more effectively.

  12. Economics of institutions and transaction costs: implementation of some elements of the analysis of small-scale agribusiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Gazolla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how family agribusiness reproduces in rural areas of the country (with emphasis in Southern Brazil, even in some cases, under conditions of social and economic difficulties. Thus, this paper discusses the main issues related to maintaining social and economic developments of small agro-industrial by addressing them under the theoretical framework of institutionalism (The New Institutional Economics - NEI and Cost Economics Transaction (ECT. The research methodology included the use of a structured questionnaire with closed questions, search through the CAAF (CAAF, 2006 and semi-structured interviews with owners of families agribusinesses, applied both in Northern Rio Grande do Sul (Upper East Region of Uruguay. The findings show that the ECT and institutionalism are theoretical approaches that are consistent and provide good support in understanding the processes of reproduction and social maintenance of small-scale agro-industrial family, even in the face of production problems, market, organization, legislation.

  13. Research Monograph on Federal International Economic Emergency Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-31

    rights to use such information in the form of licenses, patents, franchises , etc. I Accordingly, for purposes of this study, we shall define economics...existence of the Washington Metropolitan Area’s rapid transit system, U.S. production of subway cars U . has ended. Consumer products ranging from

  14. Investment Returns and Economic Fundamentals in International Art Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. We examine geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. We find (i) a close connection between the country of sale and the type (e.g., nationality) of artworks sold; (ii) substantial international variation in average returns to art investments over the period 1971-2007; (iii) an impact of both global a...

  15. International tourism and economic growth in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jaforullah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for the New Zealand economy. Using unit root tests, cointegration tests and vector error correction models, and annual data over the period 1972-2012 on international tourism expenditure, real gross domestic product (GDP) and the exchange rate for New Zealand, it finds that the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for New Zealand. The long-run elasticity of real GDP with respect to international tourism expenditure is estimate...

  16. Effective model development of internal auditors in the village financial institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsana, I. M. M.; Sugiarta, I. N.

    2018-01-01

    Designing an effective audit system is complex and challenging, and a focus on examining how internal audit drive improvement in three core performance dimensions ethicality, efficiency, and effectiveness in organization is needed. The problem of research is how the desain model and peripheral of supporter of effective supervation Village Credit Institution? Research of objectives is yielding the desain model and peripheral of supporter of effective supervation Village Credit Institution. Method Research use data collecting technique interview, observation and enquette. Data analysis, data qualitative before analysed to be turned into quantitative data in the form of scale. Each variable made to become five classificat pursuant to scale of likert. Data analysed descriptively to find supervation level, Structural Equation Model (SEM) to find internal and eksternal factor. So that desain model supervation with descriptive analysis. Result of research desain model and peripheral of supporter of effective supervation Village Credit Institution. The conclusion desain model supported by three sub system: sub system institute yield body supervisor of Village Credit Institution, sub system standardization and working procedure yield standard operating procedure supervisor of Village Credit Institution, sub system education and training yield supervisor professional of Village Credit Institution.

  17. The "institutional factor" in the theory of international trade: new vs. old trade theories

    OpenAIRE

    Parrinello, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The New Trade Theory presents novel perspectives compared to the Old Theories of international trade. Increasing returns and different institutional arrangements can explain the international specialization and trade flows even between countries which are identical in terms of factor endowments, technology and preferences for private goods. In this context the pattern of trade cannot be determined by a price/cost comparison of isolated countries. Comparative advantages can be affe...

  18. A Study of Factors Influencing International Students' Choice of Higher Education Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Akadu, Victor Abia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the factors that influence international students’ choice of higher education institutions. The research conducted using the international students in the University of Nottingham (Malaysia Campus) and Monash University (Malaysia Campus) and survey questionnaires were mainly used to gather primary data for the purpose of this study. Findings from this research indicated that product and university based factors, cost factors, promotion, location and social influences all ...

  19. A study on economic power dispatch grid connected PV power plant in educational institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldip; Kumar, M. Narendra; Mishra, Satyasis

    2018-04-01

    India has main concerns on environment and escalation of fuel prices with respect to diminution of fossil fuel reserves and the major focus on renewable Energy sources for power generation to fulfill the present and future energy demand. Installation of PV power plants in the Educational Institutions has grown up drastically throughout India. More PV power plant are integrated with load and grid through net metering. Therefore, this paper is an analysis of the 75kWp PV plant at chosen buses, considering the need of minimum demand from the grid. The case study is carried out for different generation level throughout the day and year w.r.t load and climate changes, load sharing on grid. The economic dispatch model developed for PV plant integrated with Grid.

  20. Romania’s Membership of International Financial Institutions – a Necessary Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doltu Claudiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available After a 17-year transformation process from a centralized economy to a functional market economy, Romania joined the European Union on January 1, 2007. Today, 11 years after the EU accession, Romania is still looking forward to achieve many of the real convergence conditions and also to join the euro zone. Independent of these, as an upper medium income country is now the time to evaluate its role, benefits and obligations as a shareholder in various international financial institutions – multilateral development banks and multilateral regional banks – as a first step in assuming an active and positive role in the development international community. At the EU level, international development is slowly but constant evolving to a coherent and common approach. However, individual member states still have a lot of space to maneuver to use specific individual approaches in pursuing their own interests. The objective of this paper is to signal that for Romania the right time has come to change its passive and reactive approach of its membership in various international financial institutions for a new dynamic and active approach. In terms of financial resources that can be mobilized and used for international development Romania cannot realistically aspire to stay along with the big traditional donors. However, its relatively small contribution can be leveraged by its membership in such multilateral and/or regional institutions so to maximize the benefits both for the international community and for the Romanian taxpayer.

  1. Blood, politics, and social science. Richard Titmuss and the Institute of Economic Affairs, 1957-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Philippe

    2002-09-01

    Long before his last book, The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy, was published in early 1971, Richard M. Titmuss (1907-1973), a professor of social administration at the London School of Economics, had been a major figure in the debates over the welfare state. The Gift Relationship was the culmination of an eventful relationship with the Institute of Economic Affairs, a think tank that advocated the extension of rational pricing to social services. By arguing that the British system of blood procurement and distribution, based on free giving within the National Health Service, was more efficient than the partly commercialized American system, Titmuss intended to signal the dangers of the increasing commercialization of society. What made for the impact of his book, however, was not merely its argument that transfusion-transmitted infections were much more common with paid than with voluntary donors, but also its reflections on what it is that holds a society together. And here Titmuss argued that a "socialist" social policy, by encouraging the sense of community, played a central role. The eclecticism of Titmuss's work, together with its strong ethical and political flavor, makes it a rich and original account of the "social" at a time when heated debated over social policy, both in Britain and in the United States, raised the question of the division of labor among the social sciences.

  2. Institutional Contexts and International Performances in Schooling : comparing patterns and trends over time in international surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Roelande H.; Gray, John M.; Hofman, Roelande

    15 European countries were classified into four types in an international comparative study. The country profiles are based on indicators of the key concepts' funding, governance and choice. This research attempts to answer the question of how the quality of schooling of these types of education

  3. Are new institutional economics enough? Promoting photovoltaics in India's agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulovic, Verena

    2005-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology can bring emissions-free electricity to rural areas without access to the grid. Currently, policymakers are seeking ways to expand markets for off-grid PV from solar home systems to productive uses in order to enhance income generation and contribute to social development. This paper explores the role of the state in promoting such market growth. As a start, the state must improve institutions, thus echoing popular recommendations based in new institutional economic theory (NIE) that are currently touted by the World Bank and other large development agencies. Yet, NIE's framework may be insufficient because it fails to offer viable solutions to overcoming political barriers that contribute to technological path dependency. A case study in Punjab, India, where an agricultural PV water pumping program showed promising signs of successful market penetration in its first 3 years of operation, illustrates how the NIE's shortcomings manifest themselves in practice. The program was beginning to penetrate market entry for PV pumps via competition between PV providers. However, the government of India achieved this feat by providing subsidies to wealthy farmers, a move that is frowned upon by the NIE school. Based on findings from the case study, states should look beyond NIE's framework to expand and improve PV markets in productive uses by accounting for political constraints, assessing how PV technology can improve development goals, and cultivating locally appropriate service delivery models

  4. Issues and Economic Role of Waqf In Higher Education Institution: Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farra Munna Harun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As early as 1980, the Malaysianfederal government’s spending on education, was the highest in East Asia andhigher than the OECD average of 3.4% of GDP. This demonstrates that theMalaysian Government has big expenses from educational sector and respectivelyis amenability for Malaysian economic budget. In other side Waqf in Malaysia isone of large financial source that has not been fully explored. By using qualitative methodology through content analysis this paper attempt to explore the issues andeconomic role of Waqf in Malaysia, especially in Higher Education Institution(HEI and attempt to study how Waqf fund empowering the education. Thisstudy found that taking the que from the institutions of Waqf, the explorationand development of waqf fund can be exalarate through the formation of formalorganizations at state and federal level and rearrange the Malaysian educationalbudget and policy to support the better quality of HEI.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i1.2514 

  5. International fuel cycle centres offer large economics and easier financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.

    1977-01-01

    The summary report of the IAEA study project on multi-national regional nuclear fuel cycle indicates that for facilities of reasonable size such projects offer very decisive advantages in fuel cycle costs and resource availability over national facilities in general, and more markedly over the other alternative of the open ended, non-recycle fuel route. The economic evaluation of alternative fuel cycle strategies, one of the basic studies summarised in the report, is considered. (author)

  6. Economic Analysis of Cleft Palate Repair in International Adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson-Hansen, Sandra; Paliga, J Thomas; Tahiri, Youssef; Paine, Kaitlyn M; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective cohort study. Major international tertiary care referral center for cleft palate repair. One hundred thirty-eight patients at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia who had palate repair performed between 2010 and 2013, excluding syndromic patients, patients undergoing palate revision, and patients with incomplete payment information. None. Fees and charges for procedures. Surgeon payment was significantly higher for international adoptees (Δ = $2047.51 [$128.35 to $3966.66], P = .038). Medicaid-adjusted surgeon payments averaged $1006 more for adoptees ([-$394.19 to $2406.98], P = .158). Hospital and anesthesiology costs for adoptee palate repair were highly variable but did not differ significantly from those for nonadoptees. Partly due to payer mix, surgeon reimbursement was somewhat higher for international adoptees. No difference in total payment was found.

  7. Teaching Business Classes Abroad: How International Experience Benefits Faculty, Students, and Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietti, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    International educational experiences can provide benefits for faculty members as well as higher education institutions and their students. The opportunity to lecture and conduct research with colleagues at universities in other countries can foster the globalization or internationalization of academic teaching, the advancement of knowledge, and…

  8. Structural Empowerment and Organizational Commitment of Lecturers in Private International Educational Institutions at Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to measure the level of structural empowerment and organizational commitment of lecturers at private international educational institutions at Thailand. Further to measure the relationship between structural empowerment and organizational commitment of lecturers. The target respondents of the study were lecturers…

  9. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Academic Staff in Higher Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Suleyman M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their important roles in organizational performance, internal marketing and organizational citizenship behavior have become more interesting subjects among researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research is limited in the literature, and the relationship between these two variables in higher educational institutions is not clear.…

  10. 25 October 2017 - Meeting on a South-East European International Institute for Sustainable Technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    Meeting on a South-East European International Institute for Sustainable Technologies at CERN, organised by the Ministry of Science of Montenegro, followed by a lunch hosted by CERN Director-General F. Gianotti and a site visit to CMS counting room and S'Cool LAB.

  11. International Study in the Global South: Linking Institutional, Staff, Student and Knowledge Mobilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Ashley; Raghuram, Parvati

    2018-01-01

    The international mobility of institutions, staff, students and knowledge resources such as books and study materials has usually been studied separately. This paper, for the first time, brings these different forms of knowledge mobilities together. Through a historical analysis of South African higher education alongside results from a…

  12. Competitive Universities? The Impact of International and European Trends on Academic Institutions in the "New Europe"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakowska, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    This contribution examines the domestic reinterpretations of international and European recommendations in Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs). It asks under what conditions these institutional recommendations, but also global processes such as the university rankings, affect domestic public policies. The countries of Central and…

  13. Poverty as human rights deficit : some implications for the international financial institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2003-01-01

    Following the World Bank’s World Development Report2000/2001: The attack on poverty and the voices of the poor studies on which that document had been based, this chapter explores Human Rights obligations of the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). In this connection poverty is approached as

  14. Institutionalisation of Internal Quality Assurance: Focusing on Institutional Work and the Significance of Disciplinary Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The study suggests that institutionalisation of a comprehensive and systematic approach to internal quality assurance of higher education institutions inspired by the Bologna Process has regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive dimensions. It includes development of structures and procedures for quality assurance, as well as boosting of the…

  15. Investment returns and economic fundamentals in international art markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.; Velthuis, O.; Baia-Curioni, S.

    Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. This chapter examines geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. The chapter finds (1) a close connection between

  16. Investment Returns and Economic Fundamentals in International Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. We examine geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. We find (i) a close connection between the country

  17. International migration, remittances and economic welfare in the source country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-batiz, F L

    1986-01-01

    "This article provides a formal framework for the analysis of the impact of international migration in the presence of remittances. The discussion differentiates between temporary and permanent migration and between the effects of remittances that raise investment and those that raise consumption spending in the source country. Changes in prices, income distribution and national welfare are examined." The geographic focus is worldwide. excerpt

  18. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  19. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS SYSTEM AS A FACTOR OF TRANSFORMATION OF NATIONAL CURRENCY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Oliinyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze theoretical and practical aspects of the features of the IFI influence on transformation of national currency systems of such organizations’ member states. Defining features of interaction policy among national economies and IFI in the monetary sphere, considering countries’ socio-economic parameters of development, will allow monetary authorities to achieve the optimum level of development of its economy. Methodology. Theoretical base of the study are the provisions of general scientific theory of knowledge studied phenomena and processes, in particular: methods of induction and deduction (in determining classification criteria of IFIs impact on national currency system, analysis and synthesis (in determining the features and priorities of national currency system, comparisons, associations and analogies (the justification of characteristics of advantages and disadvantages of IFI. The information base for scientific research is scientific papers and publications of domestic and foreign scientists-economists, materials of scientific-practical conferences, legislative and normative documents, the IMF, World Bank and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank materials. Results. Theoretical approaches to the definition of the national currency system and international financial organizations, including its classification, are proposed. It is proved that the IMF makes active impact on national currency policy formation through regulation and supervision, while the World Bank and AIIB are related in a passive way. The IFI regulation trends are to implement floating exchange regime, liberal currency transactions, cancel currency restrictions in member countries. Although it refers to all countries, some of them with large population, trading, underdeveloped institutions of democracy could avoid some IFI pressure. Practical implications. The study accents attention on the specifics of the IFI activity in terms of

  20. Fundamental economic irreversibilities influence policies for enhancing international forest phytosanitary security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Will Allen; Robert G. Haight; E. Carina H. Keskitalo; Mariella Marzano; Maria Pettersson; Christopher P. Quine; E. R. Langer

    2017-01-01

    National and international efforts to manage forest biosecurity create tension between opposing sources of ecological and economic irreversibility. Phytosanitary policies designed to protect national borders from biological invasions incur sunk costs deriving from economic and political irreversibilities that incentivizes wait-and-see decision-making. However, the...

  1. 77 FR 1548 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will examine a New Focus on Investment: Attracting Inbound Foreign Direct Investment to the United States, and will highlight the U.S.-Turkey Economic Partnership Commission. Subcommittee reports will be led by the Investment Subcommittee, the...

  2. 78 FR 2709 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... hosted by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and... Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy, and the Stakeholder Advisory Board on... Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is...

  3. 77 FR 57180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted Kassinger. The... on Women in International Economic Policy, and the Stakeholder Advisory Board on the U.S. National... Enterprises. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building is...

  4. 78 FR 24784 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted... Investment Subcommittee, the Sanctions Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic... public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building is controlled; to obtain pre...

  5. 77 FR 33014 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted Kassinger. The... Subcommittee, the Sanctions Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy, and the...://www.state.gov/e/eb/adcom/aciep/index.htm for updates. This meeting is open to public participation...

  6. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2008-01-01

    Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries' rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum's Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI).…

  7. The realities of nuclear power: international economic and regulatory experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The book is aimed at the energy industry, energy ministries, nuclear power organisations and national agencies. A description is given of a framework for evaluating nuclear power technology development, along with the economic evaluation of nuclear power. The contrasting records are examined of four of the major users of nuclear power - the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada and France, and factors are identified which have been important in determining the success or otherwise of each of the four nuclear power programmes. Finally the future of nuclear power is discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Discovering cooperation : a contractual approach to institutional change in regional international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    MARKS, Gary; LENZ, Tobias; CEKA, Besir; BURGOON, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a fresh perspective on institutional change drawing on recent advances in the economic theory of contracting. Contractual incompleteness enhances organizational flexibility, but only at the cost of perceptual ambiguity. We hypothesize that the willingness to engage in a highly incomplete contract depends on shared understandings which reduce the cost of perceptual ambiguity. These claims are evaluated using a new dataset on delegation of state authority to non-state actors i...

  9. The International School Industry: Examining International Schools through an Economic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James

    2006-01-01

    Based upon the results of a quantitative analysis of tuition revenues generated by international schools, it is argued that international schools can be examined in terms of a global multi-billion dollar industry and that business theory can be, and is being, applied in international schools today. This article proposes that international schools…

  10. Do democratic institutions and foreign direct investment affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do democratic institutions and foreign direct investment affect economic growth? Evidence from ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... The importance of sound democratic institutional structures and foreign direct investment for enhancing economic growth is well documentedin literature.

  11. How the Triangle of Bologna Quality Assurance, a National Legal Framework and Internal Quality Enhancement Supports Institutional Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kareva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Macedonia (RM has been a part of the Bologna process since 2003. The Ministry of Education, law and policy makers and higher education institutions have actively engaged with its main concepts. In parallel with this, since the adoption of the law on higher education in 2008 and the reform of the Accreditation and Evaluation Board, there have been numerous changes and amendments culminating in the fast-tracked adoption of a new law at the beginning of 2015. Some of its solutions created a huge debate among the academic community, other intellectuals and students themselves, resulting in the postponement of that law and a kind of legal vacuum. In such turbulent circumstances, individual higher education institutions had to consider how and to what extent to adopt and develop relevant standards and guidelines, comply with the legal framework and promote good practice. The aim of this paper is to present how these three aspects, Bologna standards and guidelines for Quality Assurance (QA, a national legal framework and an institutional approach are being reflected, merged and implemented at a relatively young higher education institution. It questions the impact of these three elements on each other and how one institution’s drive for improvement is affected. This is done through a qualitative analysis of the three-fold perspectives. The conclusions and recommendations are expected to be of use to policy makers in the country and region as they evaluate how international trends and good practice fit into the socio-economic and political conditions of RM and similar countries. At the same time, it can demonstrate how far institutional quality assurance and progress can be implemented and recognized in the country itself and by some international stakeholders. It can also prove that the South East European University (SEEU is a national leader in this field as RM has no functioning QA evaluation system, while SEEU has managed to

  12. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY PERTAINING TO USAGE OF AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORT FACILITIES WHILE EXECUTING INTERNATIONAL CARGO TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology for evaluation of economic efficiency pertaining to usage of automotive transport facilities while executing international cargo transportation on the basis of average internal norm calculation of automotive operational profitability of a specific model under conditions which are typical for the given market by an average carrier.

  13. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  14. 76 FR 33399 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will focus on issues relating to the advent of cloud computing as a new business model in international trade, the implications of... (Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986), as amended; Public Law 107-56 (USA Patriot Act...

  15. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  16. The Law and Economics of International Cooperation Against Maritime Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hallwood; Thomas J. Miceli

    2011-01-01

    Article 100 of the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea requires signatories to “cooperate” against maritime piracy, but “cooperate” is undefined. Enforcement is a public good – creating uncompensated benefits for others, so suffering from free-rider problems. Our analysis readily explains why more pirates captured are released than prosecuted; why the U.N. and International Maritime Organization are seeking to reduce enforcement costs; why some in the shipping industry want to apply the 198...

  17. The Trends in International Migration of Human Resources under Conditions of Geo-Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymanska Kateryna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the influence of geo-economic transformations on the trends in international migration of human resources as an element of the resource potential of countries and regions. The current state of geo-economic transformations is analyzed, and their influence on the processes of international migration of human resources is revealed. The relevance of analyzing international movement of human resources, not labor ones, in building the geo-economic strategy of a country or a regional grouping is justified. The connection between the international migration of human resources and the trends in development of individual countries and regions (oil exporting countries, newly industrialized countries and least developed agrarian countries is determined, the general patterns of migration flows in these countries are described. Furthermore, the topical issues in studying international migration of human resources in the context of the directions of geo-economics identified by scientists are formulated. It is determined that the regional migration policy should contribute to maximizing the benefits of migration of human resources for the development of the region and the use of immigrants in the countries of the region as an economic resource that becomes strategically important under conditions of geo-economic transformations.

  18. Summary of the 2015 International Paediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Karl, Tom R; Asante-Korang, Alfred; Everett, Allen D; Collins, Susan B; Ramirez-Correa, Genaro A; Burns, Kristin M; Cohen, Mitchell; Colan, Steven D; Costello, John M; Daly, Kevin P; Franklin, Rodney C G; Fraser, Charles D; Hill, Kevin D; Huhta, James C; Kaushal, Sunjay; Law, Yuk M; Lipshultz, Steven E; Murphy, Anne M; Pasquali, Sara K; Payne, Mark R; Rossano, Joseph; Shirali, Girish; Ware, Stephanie M; Xu, Mingguo; Jacobs, Marshall L

    2015-08-01

    In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children's Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children's Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary "think-tank". The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute, to describe the "state of the art" of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.

  19. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  20. Economic consequences of the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards: evidences in the research literature

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Doina Pãºcan; Ramona Neag

    2015-01-01

    Along with the economic globalization, the international accounting regulation bodies faced the need to issue internationally accepted global accounting standards. The effect was the issuance and the widespread of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). At European level, the IFRS gained legitimacy in 2002, when the European Parliament and Council have decided that all European publicly traded entities must prepare their consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFR...

  1. CHINA'S INTERNATIONAL TOURISM UNDER ECONOMIC TRANSITION: NATIONAL TRENDS AND REGIONAL DISPARITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen); Guo, Rong; Wang, Qingbin

    2003-01-01

    China's Tourism industry, especially international tourism, has expanded rapidly since its market-oriented economic reform started in 1978. There has been limited information regarding the trends and regional disparities. This paper examines the national trends of China's international tourism since 1982 and analyzes the changes in regional disparities since 1995. While the trend analysis suggests that China's international tourism is likely to keep growing at a significant rate, the analysis...

  2. SYSTEMATIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF ENSURING ECONOMIC SECURITY OF EXACERBATION OF THE THREATS AND CHALLENGES OF A NEW TYPE FOR NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Momot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to systematize the international experience of economic security both in terms of individual countries and the global economy as a whole. Setting such a goal it is associated with the growth of globalization and integration processes in the world economy, which are the new threat of economic security. Methods. Theoretical and methodological basis of the study were research and findings on issues of economic security at the level of the world economy as a whole and individual national economies in particular. We used such general scientific and special methods, such as analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, adaptation. The findings led to the conclusion that the protection of national interests and the formation of an economic security strategy – the most important functions of the state, the implementation of which is impossible without a system of self-regulation mechanisms and regulation. The government should implement a set of measures to promote economic growth, and that will guarantee the economic security of the country. These measures should cover all sectors of the economy. These measures include the implementation an active structural and social policies, enhancing the activity of the state in investment, financial, monetary and foreign economic sphere, the continuation of institutional reforms. The practical significance is to separate the differences used methodological approaches to ensure the economic security of the EU member countries and the CIS. This is explained by the fact that the first group of countries is focused on standards and borrows the experience of the leading EU countries (Germany, France, and the second group, located in the zone of influence of Russia (Moldova, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, – on the Russian developments and standards. In turn, Russia in their design focuses more on standards to ensure economic security, which have been made in the period of the Soviet

  3. The Institutional Arrangements in the Palm Oil Sector: Effort to Spur Economic Growth in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasdi Syahza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil is a fantastic plant for the people of Riau Province. It can be seen from the rapid development of plantations, in 2001 palm oil plantations covered an area of 1,119,798 ha and in 2010 it increased to 1,925,341 ha with a growth of 36.02%. Palm oil plantation activities brought economic impact on society, both for the people who are directly involved with the activities of plantations and for their surrounding community. To anticipate the rapid development, a model avoiding inequality of income among farmers needs to be designed, especially for self-supporting farmers in a partnership pattern. Institutional model aims to increase the welfare of rural farmers in the form of Palm Oil Based Agroestate (ABK. The concept of Palm oil Based Agroestate collaborates between farmers, cooperatives, and business enterprises. Through the ABK program, farmers will have an opportunity to buy/have shares of the Palm oil Factory (PKS. There are two main business activities of ABK model; first, business activities that build palm oil plantations and factories of the derivative industry; if necessary the settlement of participaing farmers will be established by the developers; second, managing plantations and participating farmers-owned factories as well as market the products carried out by a business enterprise or a cooperative formed by the participant farmers.

  4. Private Sector Investments from Small States in Emerging Markets: Can International Financial Institutions Help Handle the Risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The private sector plays an important role in the economic reconstruction of emerging market economies, and international financial institutions (IFIs increasingly work in partnership with the private sector to increase economic growth and reduce poverty in those economies. IFIs, for example, offer: (i equity financing and/or loans for private sector projects, (ii investment guarantees against political risks (or non-commercial risks, (iii technical assistance, and (iv advisory services, etc. This article will briefly discuss the services that IFIs offer the private sector in emerging markets and cases in which these services could be useful for Icelandic companies. The institutions discussed are (i the World Bank Group, (ii the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD, (iii the Asian Development Bank (AsDB, (iv the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB, and (v the African Development Bank (AfDB. A few Icelandic firms already have plans for relatively large projects in emerging market economies, especially in the energy sector, some of them in countries that could be classified as being risky. The ongoing economic crisis in Iceland will make project financing in emerging markets more problematic than before and therefore investments in partnership with international financial institutions could be an option that Icelandic firms will increasingly need to consider if they intend to invest abroad. However, increased private sector and IFI partnerships will not happen without government action. Iceland is a member of only two of the above-mentioned IFIs: the World Bank Group and the EBRD. The decision for Iceland to become member of the AsDB, IDB and AfDB rests solely with the government. Further government inaction in this area could become an impediment for foreign direct investment from Iceland to emerging markets and increase risks when the Icelandic private sector invests in those economies. Unnecessary risks might not only hurt

  5. The tenth CERI [Canadian Energy Research Institute] international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    At a conference on oil and gas markets, papers were presented on oil market instability and its impact on economic development, international energy policy, oil supply and demand, natural gas liquids sales, world gas trade, gas markets in Europe and Asia, petroleum industry activities and their relation to government, oil refining and product market developments, and the North American natural gas market. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 25 papers from this conference

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS ON THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Arakelova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the issues aggravation concerning internally displaced persons and the disproportions in the social and economic development of regions as a result of the antiterrorist operation in Ukraine, an analysis of social and economic transformations in regional development under the migration processes influence and the search for their overcoming mechanisms becomes relevant. The purpose of the article is to analyse the impact of internally displaced persons flows on the social and economic development of regions in order to improve the regional development mechanisms in Ukraine. The research methodology includes a set of scientific research methods that provide a systematic approach to investigating the impact of internally displaced persons on the social and economic development of Ukrainian regions, theoretical approaches to state regulation of internal migration flows in conditions of decentralization of power and reform of public administration in the country. In the course of investigations, the following methods are used: statistical analysis and synthesis while determining the indicators of the IDPs burden on the regional social and economic systems of Ukraine; analysis while studying the main problems of internally displaced persons and their directions; logical synthesis and synthesis while drawing conclusions. The information base for the study consists of the legislative acts of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, statistical and reporting information of the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, development of the UN Agency for Refugees, the UN ReliefWeb Specialized Service for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Inter-Agency Standing Committee, PROMAN, NGO “Labor and Health Social Initiatives”, Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union, research results of domestic and foreign scientists. Results. The article deals with the issues of effective reforming of regional development

  7. Technologies development for environmental restoration and waste management: International university and research institution and industry partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.; Kuperberg, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Institute for Central and Eastern European Cooperative Environmental Research (ICEECER) at Florida State University was formed in 1990 soon after the end of the Cold War. ICEECER consists of a number of joint centers which link FSU, and US as well as international funding agencies, to academic and research institutions in Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia, and the other countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. Areas of interest include risk assessment, toxicology, contaminated site remediation/characterization, waste management, emergency response, environmental technology development/demonstration/transfer, and some specialized areas of research (e.g., advanced chemical separations). Through ICEECER, numerous international conferences, symposia, training courses, and workshops have also been conducted on a variety of environmental topics. This paper summarizes the mission, structure, and administration of ICEECER and provides information on the projects conducted through this program at FSU

  8. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries......' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random...... Affluence Scale FAS) and two macro level measures on the country's economic situation: wealth measured by Gross National Product (GNP) and distribution of income measured by the Gini coefficient. RESULTS: There was a significant socio-economic variation in health complaints in 31 of the 37 countries...

  9. Christian Joerges and Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (eds., Constitutionalism: Multilevel Trade Governance and International Economic Law (Hart Publishing: Studies in International Trade Law, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalism, Multilevel Trade Governance and International Economic Law is a second issue of a 2006 text of the same name. It brings together an impressive collection of international scholarship exploring international economic law in light of constitutional theory with many well-established experts in the field alongside some relatively junior and highly promising scholars.

  10. Activating institutional innovations for hunger and poverty reduction : potential of applied international agricultural research

    OpenAIRE

    Kamanda, Josey

    2015-01-01

    The CGIAR system has made several attempts to improve its organizational structure, the latest being a reform process initiated in 2009. A key issue that has been debated over the years is how the CGIAR centres are best placed within the range of institutions involved in agricultural research and development. The CGIAR still faces the unresolved dilemma between a focus on upstream research that produces international public goods versus downstream activities that ensure impact. Therefore, the...

  11. Corporate governance and international business: Essays on multinational enterprises, ownership, finance and institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rygh, Asmund

    2016-01-01

    This is an article based doctoral dissertation. Due to copyright matters, the attached pdf file only contains the mantel. This Thesis contributes to the literature on corporate governance in international business, with a focus on corporate ownership, corporate finance and institutions. It consists of five theoretical and empirical studies. Three studies focus on corporate ownership and consider, respectively, whether state ownership shields multinational enterprises (MNEs) from host-c...

  12. The International Food Policy Research Institute: Sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Food Policy Research Institute(IFPRI) mainly works for sustainable food security and end of world hunger. The vision of this organization is to make the world free from hunger and malnutrition and where food policy decisions are transparent with participation of consumers and producers. This organization operates in five different regions including North Africa and Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Central Asia, East Asia and Southeast A...

  13. Techniques for Analyzing the Attractiveness of International Commodity Markets Under Conditions of Economic Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Pryhara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines existing techniques and proposes its own for analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in light of the globalization of world economic processes. Taking into account the supranational nature of the world economic environment when examining categories in the attractiveness of international commodity markets, the author introduces a multilevel system of indicators: market attractiveness at the mega-level – global level; market attractiveness at the macro-level national level; market attractiveness at the mezo-level – level of an individual sector. The attractiveness of international commodity markets is considered to be the degree of conformity between market environment factors and the mega-, macro- and mezo-levels of the economic interests of enterprises concerning the entry into and strategies for their activity on the international commodity markets in the short-, medium- and long-term. The author designs a stage-by-stage technique for strategically analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in order to frame efficient market strategies of enterprises. Relying on the proposed techniques, she rates the integrated indicators of market accessibility and the possibility of realizing the economic interests of enterprises in target markets, bringing the index data into a matrix of «market accessibility – opportunity for realizing the economic interests of enterprises.» The analysis of a country’s position in the matrix makes it possible to frame efficient market strategies for enterprises.

  14. The Role of Institutional Environment in International Trade. The Case of Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Márquez-Ramos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We move beyond the nation-state as the unit of analysis and use subnational spatial variation to study the effect of the institutional environment on international trade. Additionally, we address the heterogeneous effect of trade agreements on different regions within a country. Employing a gravity model approach, we use a region-to-country dataset to estimate the determinants of Spanish regional exports and we apply quantile regressions for panel data. We find that better institutional quality of trade agreements leads to an increase in both the intensive and the extensive margins of trade. The institutional quality of trade agreements exerts a differential effect on regional exports at different locations within a country, although differences across Spanish regions seem to be larger for the intensive margin than for the extensive margin. We do, however, find a common trend: for the relatively more important exporting regions, the institutional quality of TAs is less relevant for trade margins. Therefore, our results posit that subnational spatial variation should be added to the analysis of the determinants of international trade flows.

  15. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Smith, C.

    1995-01-01

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  16. Research and Collaboration Overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: A Bibliometric Approach toward Research Funding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN, which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.

  17. Research and collaboration overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: a bibliometric approach toward research funding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN), which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.

  18. Meta-analysis of institutional-economic factors explaining the environmental performance of payments for watershed services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.; Tesfaye, A.; Pauw, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are a relatively new economic policy instrument, and the factors that drive and explain their environmental performance are poorly understood. Here a meta-analysis of causal relationships between the institutional design and environmental performance of 47

  19. The Limits of International Adjudication: Authority and Resistance of Regional Economic Courts in Times of Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserta, Salvatore; Cebulak, Pola

    2018-01-01

    Integration System have all faced varied forms of resistance to their involvement and their general authority. By comparing these four case studies from across the globe, the article identifies institutional and contextual factors that explain the uneven resistance. While the regional economic courts...

  20. Internal and External Determinants of Economic Growth: A closer look at Pakistan’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jamil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of internal and external determinants of economic growth on the economic growth of Pakistan. Major internal determinants include stock of physical capital and developmental expenditures, while external determinants include trade openness and real effective exchange rate. In doing so, study utilizes the annual time series data from 1972 to 2011. Advanced Autoregressive Distributed Lag model (ARDL approach has been employed for co-integration and error correction model (ECM for short-run results. Empirical investigations indicate that developmental expenditures, physical capital and trade openness are positively correlated with economic growth in long run, while real effective exchange rate negatively and significantly affect economic growth in long run in case of Pakistan.

  1. Social Structures in the Economics of International Education: Perspectives from Vietnamese International Tertiary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lien

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings from in-depth interviews with Vietnamese international students studying at Australian universities, this article presents insights into the sociological influences that stem from international students' social networks, at home and abroad, and how they impact on students' aspirations and engagement in international…

  2. International Financial Integration and Economic Growth in India: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayia MAHAJAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study endeavors to estimate relationship between international financial integration and economic growth in India during 1981-2011. Apart from direct impact of international financial integration on growth, indirect impact (via financial development has also been studied empirically. Models of co-integration and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM have been applied to examine the relationships. The study observes that international financial integration affects the growth of the economy positively; and change in economic growth due to it through financial development is approximately 8.63 percent. The study also suggests that the structural reforms that took place in India in early nineties did not affect the existing relationship of global financial integration and economic growth significantly.

  3. INSTITUTIONAL APPROACHES OF MODERN SOCIO-ECOLOGO-ECONOMIC FORMS OF ECONOMY IN AGRARIAN SECTOR OF ECONOMY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Main problems of agrarian sector of economy of Ukraine are revealed. Main directions of development of agriculture of Ukraine are determined. The necessity of socio-ecologo-economic agrarian sector is proved. Tendencies of institutionalization of forms of economy in a system of agrarian relationship were investigated. The necessity of creation of effective system of institutions with an aim of functioning effective and rational forms of economy in agrarian sector of Ukraine, which could provide a balancing of economic, social and ecologic spheres, is confirmed. In the paper is proved the necessity of creation and function of social-ecologo-economic model of agriculture development, where a social-ecologo-economic development is characterized like economic development of rural territories, rural employment in agriculture, the efficiency of employment, ecologo-safe production focused on human needs and etc., on the one side and on the other side is a significant role of rural social capital. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, it's confirmed that development socio-ecologo-economical forms of economy are accompanied with modification of the institutional structure of regulation of agriculture. It's proved that the functioning of effective forms of economy promotes the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of the national economy.

  4. CYCLES AND CRISES: HISTORY AND MODERNITY (THE RESULTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL NOBEL ECONOMIC FORUM)

    OpenAIRE

    Borys I.KHOLOD; Anatoly O.ZADOYA

    2009-01-01

    The paper analysis the main features of crisis phenomena in the early 21st century taking into consideration the overlapping stages of different types of business cycle (short and medium terms). The authors evaluate different kinds of economic cycles from the viewpoint of both history and modernity on the basis of opinions formulated during the International Nobel Economic Forum ôWord Economy in the 21th Century: Cycles and Crisesö (held in September 2008 at Dnipropetrovsk, University of Econ...

  5. Creation of the Financial Ombudsman Institute: International Experience and Prospects for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britchenko Igor G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problems of introduction of the institute of financial ombudsman in Ukraine on the basis of studying international experience. The modern development of the banking system of Ukraine is characterized by the presence of significant losses, the outflow of deposit funds of individuals, the growth of inflationary pressures, the reduction in the number of banking institutions, and the decrease in the level of confidence in them among the population. These factors among others have led to a considerable number of litigations between banks and their clients. This situation forces the banks to find effective ways to solve the problem. In the world practice the institute of financial ombudsman serves this purpose. The conclusion is made that the activity of the institute of the financial ombudsman occurs within the framework of a clearly defined legislative field, which in a generalized form is represented by the British and German models. The main difference between these models of the financial ombudsman lies in the status of this institute in different countries. But their common characteristics are the respect for clients, the possibility of voluntary appeal to the ombudsman, a short period of considering the matter, the lack of payment for ombudsman services. The necessity of establishment of the institute of alternative resolution of disputes in the sphere of financial services in the form of financial ombudsman in Ukraine is justified. Its creation will improve the quality of financial market regulation, increase the level of public confidence in financial institutions, strengthen financial discipline, reduce the load on law courts, increase the transparency and openness of the financial market. The financial ombudsman should complement the work of other financial market regulators but at the same time remain an independent and free-standing body. In modern realities of development of Ukraine, a necessary task is

  6. Institutions of Catching-up Development (On the Project of a New Model for Economic Development of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Meerovich Polterovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that institutional trajectories of catching-up development in successful countries including similar interim institutions; this similarity is explained by common technological, institutional and cultural limitations which need to be taken into account and overcome. Corporatism, indicative planning, the availability of the “general” development agency with broad mandate, undervalued exchange rate – these and some other mechanisms provide the countries of the “economic miracle” with an opportunity to initiate and maintain rapid economic growth despite the low level of human capital, underdeveloped civic culture and market failures. Institutions of catching-up development contributed to the formation of collaborative relations between the government, business and society. They eased the limitations and were gradually modified, providing a transition to modern democracies with efficient market economy. The conducted analysis helps outline a plan for an institutional reform taking into account Russia’s institutional features. The principles of administrative reform are considered. The author also sets the objective of forming a “hybrid” system of national planning which includes indicative planning and program budgeting. A combination of public-private partnership and program financing is proposed for the financing of the planned projects. The author proposes to use Japanese experience of promoting temporary association of companies for the development of modernization projects. The principles of reforming the systems of state property and science management are discussed

  7. Carbon dioxide emission and economic growth of China-the role of international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Abdul-Rasheed, Alhassan Alolo; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the role of international trade in mitigating carbon dioxide emission as a nation economically advances. This study disaggregated the international trade into total exports and total imports. A multivariate model framework was estimated for the time series data for the period of 1970-2014. The quantile regression detected all the essential relationship, which hitherto, the traditional ordinary least squares could not capture. A cointegration relationship was confirmed using the Johansen cointegration model. The findings of the Granger causality revealed the presence of a uni-directional Granger causality running from energy consumption to economic growth; from import to economic growth; from imports to exports; and from urbanisation to economic growth, exports and imports. Our study established the presence of long-run relationships amongst carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, energy consumption, imports, exports and urbanisation. A bootstrap method was further utilised to reassess the evidence of the Granger causality, of which the results affirmed the Granger causality in the long run. This study confirmed a long-run N-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, under the estimated cubic environmental Kuznet curve framework, from the perspective of China. The recommendation therefore is that China as export leader should transform its trade growth mode by reducing the level of carbon dioxide emission and strengthening its international cooperation as it embraces more environmental protectionisms.

  8. Substance misuse prevention and economic analysis: challenges and opportunities regarding international utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyll, Max; Spoth, Richard; Cornish, Marilyn A

    2012-01-01

    Economic analyses of substance misuse prevention assess the intervention cost necessary to achieve a particular outcome, and thereby provide an additional dimension for evaluating prevention programming. This article reviews several types of economic analysis, considers how they can be applied to substance misuse prevention, and discusses challenges to enhancing their international relevance, particularly their usefulness for informing policy decisions. Important first steps taken to address these challenges are presented, including the disease burden concept and the development of generalized cost-effectiveness, advances that facilitate international policy discussions by providing a common framework for evaluating health care needs and program effects.

  9. Conceptualizing threats to tobacco control from international economic agreements: the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; McGrady, Benn; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Lencucha, Raphael; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-10-19

    Using the results of dozens of interviews with key actors involved in tobacco control policymaking, we examine these actors' perceptions of threats to tobacco control policy efforts from international economic policies on trade and investment. We also evaluate, from a legal perspective, the genuine threats that exist or potential challenges that economic policies may pose to the Brazilian government's public health efforts. We find that most actors did not perceive these economic policies as a major threat to tobacco control. Objectively, we found that some threats do exist. For example, Brazil's attempt to ban most tobacco additives and flavorings continues to met resistance at the World Trade Organization.

  10. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND IN PROMOTING GLOBAL ECONOMIC STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role that the International Monetary Fund performs in promoting global economic stability. Global economic and financial stability plays a key role in the financial system and the economy as a whole. The increase in the importance of the concept of financial stability by supervisors at both European and global level was concretized by defining a framework for the operationalization of macroprudential policy, together with the establishment of coordination bodies in this field, thus recognizing its role in the mix of established economic policies such as monetary, fiscal or competitive policy.

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBERS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURIST ARRIVALS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE ASEAN-8: PANEL DATA APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraeni, Garnis Nur

    2017-01-01

    In an open economy, economic growth is not only supported by international trade but may also be supported through the development of tourism. We can use international tourist arrivals as one of indicators of international tourism. This study aimed to examine the factors that influence international tourist arrivals as well as to analyze the relationship between the number of international tourist arrivals and economic growth in the Southeast Asian regions. This study uses panel data regressi...

  12. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN CREATING AND SUSTAINING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the global economy, one can easily notice that states that record economic growth are competitive, and that the competitive ones collect revenues of billions of dollars from trade, outsourcing and meeting the needs of their citizens. The role of private sector in creating and sustaining competitiveness it is well known. But what actions are undertaken by the international organizations and the public sector in this direction? The scope of this article is to offer a brief descript...

  13. Statement at Lowy Institute for International Policy, 4 October 2012, Sydney, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to address this distinguished audience. The Lowy Institute for International Policy has established itself in less than a decade as a major contributor to serious thinking on foreign policy. Coming, as I do, from Japan, I welcome your focus on issues that particularly affect the Asia-Pacific region. This region sometimes has a different perspective on global affairs from Europe and North America. The research programmes and events organized by the Institute help to focus fresh thinking on issues critical to this region, and indeed to the whole world. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been around quite a bit longer than the Lowy Institute - 55 years, in fact. I suppose that makes us middle-aged. But I can assure you that the Agency has lost none of its youthful vigour when it comes to tackling the challenging mandate entrusted to us by our 155 Member States. Our mission is manifold, but can be summarised very simply. We help to make nuclear science and technology available to all countries for peaceful purposes - especially to countries in the developing world. And we work to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons

  14. Research priorities in health economics and funding for palliative care: views of an international think tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Richard; Gomes, Barbara; Foley, Kathleen M; Higginson, Irene J

    2009-07-01

    At the conclusion of the November 2007 meeting, the assembled international expert group identified the research agenda. The adoption of this agenda would take forward health economic research in palliative care, and generate the necessary data for improved funding decision making, and resource allocation. Recommendations for study included international comparative research into the components of care and settings, evaluative studies, methodologic development and strategies to initiate studies, and make better use of data.

  15. Airports as Cityports in the City-region : Spatial-economic and institutional positions and institutional learning in Randstad-Schiphol (AMS), Frankfurt Rhein-Main (FRA), Tokyo Haneda (HND) and Narita (NRT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, M. van

    2007-01-01

    The thesis discusses the spatial-economic and institutional positions as well as institutional learning in the development process of airports as cityports in city-regions. Cityports are therein defined as urban centres where economic activities and infrastructure are at crossroads and are the

  16. The role of international institutions in the formation of international bioethical law: UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly attempt to govern human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppuswamy, Chamundeeswari

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the international governance of human reproductive cloning. Noting that bioethics is a new field of engagement for international lawyers, it recounts some of the institutional developments in bioethical law making. The role of UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly is scrutinized and the author discusses the relative merits of the institutions' governance of human reproductive cloning. The author suggests that some international institutions and mechanisms are better suited than others for bioethical law making. The 2005 General Assembly resolution on human cloning is analysed in this context.

  17. Manipulation and the grounds of institutional obligation: an argument for international equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W. Davis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to one influential argument on state-centered conceptions of justice, the domestic coercion inherent in state authority is illegitimate unless states ensure the equality of their citizens. In this paper, I argue that while state coercion is not present in international politics, there may still be phenomena that give rise to the political value of equality. I claim that morally objectionable manipulation may occur within international politics, and that this problem recommends an egalitarian solution. Manipulation occurs when one agent takes control of another agent's actions, either through impairing the other's capacity to act or through taking advantage of such impairment. I use the WTO as a case to illustrate how more powerful members of international institutions may sometimes manipulate less powerful members. Although political theory cannot settle empirical questions about such phenomena, it can raise questions that are intelligible through existing approaches to international politics. I argue that the prospect of manipulation introduces new relevance to political value of equality internationally.

  18. Faculty development projects for international health professions educators: Vehicles for institutional change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, William P; Friedman, Stacey R; Diserens, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Projects are an important tool in faculty development, and project emphasis may offer insights into perceived education priorities. Impact of projects has been focused on individuals, not institutions or health. Education innovation projects of Fellows in an international faculty development program were examined to better understand perceived needs in health professions education and institutional impact of projects. Four hundred and thirty-five projects were analyzed to identify focus areas. Fellows were asked to identify changes in their schools and communities resulting from their projects. New education methods and curriculum change were common project focus areas. Regional differences were evident with a higher percentage of education methods projects by Fellows residing in India (52%), compared with South Africa (25%) and Brazil (24%). Fifty-six percent of projects were incorporated into the curriculum and/or incorporated as institutional policy. One-third to two-thirds of respondents noted improved teaching quality, collaboration, education research interest, assessment, student performance, and curriculum alignment with community health needs. National differences in project focus may offer insight into local conditions and needs. High rates of diffusion of projects and impact on faculty, students, and curriculum suggest that faculty development projects may be a strategy for institutional change in resource limited environments.

  19. Beyond the internal dynamics of organizational responses to conflicting institutional demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Gutiérrez‐Rincón

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some reflections on strategic response models, in particular the models proposed by Pache, Santos and Oliver, and it evaluates their complementarity and differences, especially regarding the interactions between decision making and the possible strategic responses to institutional demands. It is argued that the theoretical contributions of Pache and Santos can be categorized under the dimension of utility, because they can enhance the potential to operationalize and test the model. However, the reflections made in this paper not only highlight the need to take into account other external and internal factors for the study of strategic responses, but also the integration of different linkages of the decision process with strategic responses to institutional demands.

  20. Proceedings of the second international symposium on fire economics, planning, and policy: a global view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán

    2008-01-01

    hese proceedings summarize the results of a symposium designed to address current issues of agencies with wildland fire protection responsibility at the federal and state levels in the United States as well as agencies in the international community. The topics discussed at the symposium included fire economics, theoretical and methodological approaches to strategic...

  1. Discipline-Specific Language Instruction for International Students in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trien T.; Williams, Julia; Trimarchi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL) tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory…

  2. Contribution to a Holistic Response to the International Financial and Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Boubacar

    2009-01-01

    The response to the ongoing international crisis is a holistic response due to the multiple effects impacting on the various segments of societies around the world. Since 1945, the world has to perform again, a new leap in terms of development process based on the pressing need for socio-economic reconstruction. The level of globalisation and…

  3. 1992 Environmental Summer Science Camp Program evaluation. The International Environmental Institute of Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the 1992 Westinghouse Hanford Company/US Department of Energy Environmental Summer Science Camp. The objective of the ``camp`` was to motivate sixth and seventh graders to pursue studies in math, science, and the environment. This objective was accomplished through hands-on fun activities while studying the present and future challenges facing our environment. The camp was funded through Technical Task Plan, 424203, from the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Technology Development,to Westinghouse Hanford Company`s International Environmental Institute, Education and Internship Performance Group.

  4. The control of nuclear proliferation: future challenges. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, 23 April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Swedish Institute of International Affairs in Stockholm on 23 April 1998. After a short presentation of the Agency's current verification activities, particularly in Iraq and Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Director General focuses on the present and future role of the IAEA in the control of nuclear proliferation through its strengthened safeguards system, in the prevention of nuclear terrorism, and future challenges of controlling nuclear proliferation from both political and technical point of view

  5. Interfacing a biosurveillance portal and an international network of institutional analysts to detect biological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo, Flavia; Shigematsu, Mika; Chow, Catherine; McKnight, C Jason; Linge, Jens; Doherty, Brian; Dente, Maria Grazia; Declich, Silvia; Barker, Mike; Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Donachie, Alastair; Mawudeku, Abla; Blench, Michael; Arthur, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project, launched in 2008, is aimed at improving global early alerting and risk assessment and evaluating the feasibility and opportunity of integrating the analysis of biological, chemical, radionuclear (CBRN), and pandemic influenza threats. At a time when no international collaborations existed in the field of event-based surveillance, EAR's innovative approach involved both epidemic intelligence experts and internet-based biosurveillance system providers in the framework of an international collaboration called the Global Health Security Initiative, which involved the ministries of health of the G7 countries and Mexico, the World Health Organization, and the European Commission. The EAR project pooled data from 7 major internet-based biosurveillance systems onto a common portal that was progressively optimized for biological threat detection under the guidance of epidemic intelligence experts from public health institutions in Canada, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The group became the first end users of the EAR portal, constituting a network of analysts working with a common standard operating procedure and risk assessment tools on a rotation basis to constantly screen and assess public information on the web for events that could suggest an intentional release of biological agents. Following the first 2-year pilot phase, the EAR project was tested in its capacity to monitor biological threats, proving that its working model was feasible and demonstrating the high commitment of the countries and international institutions involved. During the testing period, analysts using the EAR platform did not miss intentional events of a biological nature and did not issue false alarms. Through the findings of this initial assessment, this article provides insights into how the field of epidemic intelligence can advance through an

  6. Economic Rents and Legitimacy: Incorporating Elements of Organizational Analysis Institutional Theory to the Field of Business Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lima de Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Are sources of economic rent, as defined by the prevalent business strategy paradigm, sufficient to attain and maintain superior returns? The perspective developed within the conceptual framework of the Institutional Theory may offer managers a contribution towards understanding the strategy process and its potentialities,particularly by stressing the leading role played by legitimacy, the influence of many institutional spheres, the isomorphic pressures, ceremonial behavior and decoupling, among other elements, that mainstream business strategy fails to address directly, but which may have a significant effect on firm performance. We advance thatthese elements must be accounted for in the pursuit and acquisition of economic rents, even if the ability to articulate them purposefully is constrained by rationality, agency conditions and the manager's social embeddedness.

  7. Reforming economic institutions in transition economies: what determines the speed of reform?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomes, N.; in 't Veld, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies institutional divergence among two types of transition economies: (1) the former socialist economies of Central and Eastern Europe, which have gradually been converging to European levels of institutional quality, and (2) the countries of the Former Soviet Union, which have, on

  8. The Economic Impact of Ten Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the Salt Lake SMSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwi, David

    The impact of 10 cultural institutions on the Salt Lake City economy was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are Ballet West, Pioneer Memorial Theatre, Repertory Dance Theatre, Salt Lake City Art Center, Theatre 138, Tiffany's Attic, Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Utah Symphony, Utah Opera Company,…

  9. Institutional investor activism : Hedge funds and private equity, economics and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; Bratton, W.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in institutional ownership of recent decades has been accompanied by an enhanced role played by institutions in monitoring companies’ corporate governance behaviour. Activist hedge funds and private equity firms have achieved a degree of success in actively shaping the business plans of

  10. Vocational Home Economics Curriculum Guide for Occupational Home and Institutional Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, Margaret R.

    The training program outlined in this guide focuses upon the development of students for gainful employment through a two-year course of study in home and institutional services. Instructional topics are provided in nine areas: orientation to home and institutional services, cleaning supplies and equipment, cleaning surfaces, cleaning clothes and…

  11. The Lunar and Planetary Institute Summer Intern Program in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1977, the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) Summer Intern Program brings undergraduate students from across the world to Houston for 10 weeks of their summer where they work one-on-one with a scientist at either LPI or Johnson Space Center on a cutting-edge research project in the planetary sciences. The program is geared for students finishing their sophomore and junior years, although graduating seniors may also apply. It is open to international undergraduates as well as students from the United States. Applicants must have at least 50 semester hours of credit (or equivalent sophomore status) and an interest in pursuing a career in the sciences. The application process is somewhat rigorous, requiring three letters of recommendation, official college transcripts, and a letter describing their background, interests, and career goals. The deadline for applications is in early January of that year of the internship. More information about the program and how to apply can be found on the LPI website: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lpiintern/. Each advisor reads through the applications, looking for academically excellent students and those with scientific interest and backgrounds compatible with the advisor's specific project. Interns are selected fairly from the applicant pool - there are no pre-arranged agreements or selections based on who knows whom. The projects are different every year as new advisors come into the program, and existing ones change their research interest and directions. The LPI Summer Intern Program gives students the opportunity to participate in peer-reviewed research, learn from top-notch planetary scientists, and preview various careers in science. For many interns, this program was a defining moment in their careers - when they decided whether or not to follow an academic path, which direction they would take, and how. While past interns can be found all over the world and in a wide variety of occupations, all share the common bond of

  12. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

    2008-01-01

    The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period...

  13. Institutionalism and Economic Development in Peru: A Senior Executive’s View from the Application of Augmented Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Camilo Ortigueira-Sánchez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes key factors that have contributed to the growth and economic development of Peru during the last fifteen years. An augmented fuzzy cognitive map (FCM methodology has been applied to a sample of senior executives from top Peruvian companies. The results revealed a series of key aspects that explain the development achieved in the country and were compared with those of previous studies examining institutional influence over competitiveness.

  14. INSTITUTE OF SPEСIAL ECONOMIC ZONES: BASIC PROVISIONS AND THE WORLD PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Aleksandr Konstantinovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the operation of special economic zones ("SEZ" in the countries that feature different levels of economic development (including Ghana, China, Bulgaria, the USA and Russia, principal provisions and special entrepreneurial environment, as well as the variety of SEZ depending on the objectives of their setup. Problems of management of items of real estate within territories of SEZ are identified. The authors also analyze peculiarities of establishment and operation of SEZ in the Russian Federation and propose an economic mechanism to boost their competitiveness. The authors conclude that there is a pressing need for a qualitative reconsideration of approaches to the management of SEZ and their constituent elements that have to ensure a scalable and highly efficient application of SEZ as an instrument of innovative development in various fields and a solution to basic economic and social problems.

  15. THE CURRENT INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL SUPERVISION INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS EFFECTIVENESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA Ovidiu; CAPRARU Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The international financial turmoil rise challenges in evaluating and choosing the optimal financial supervision institutional arrangements in many countries. Our study focuses on the financial supervision institutional architecture and its effectiveness in the European Union during the international financial crisis.We evaluated the effectiveness of the financial supervisory framework by groups of countries, categorised according to the supervisory model. Our analysis demonstrates that the p...

  16. Transitional Forces in a Resource Based Economy: Phases of Economic and Institutional Development in Hawaii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Roumasset, James

    2014-01-01

    We illuminate several important aspects of the nature and causes of growth and institutional change. To do this, we focus on the role resource pressures have played in the historic development of Hawaii’s institutions. We discuss the Hawaiian story in the context of the natural co-evolution of pr......We illuminate several important aspects of the nature and causes of growth and institutional change. To do this, we focus on the role resource pressures have played in the historic development of Hawaii’s institutions. We discuss the Hawaiian story in the context of the natural co...... that funds management and governance through a non-productive elite class. We use both archeological and historical evidence from natural resource use during the settlement and modernization of the Hawaiian economy. Hawaii’s resources are first controlled by hierarchy, which intensifies over time...

  17. Efficiency Assessment of Economic International Cooperation in Development of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina V. Beresneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on efficiency assessment of economic cooperation in development of Arctic offshore oil and gas resources. The author developed an economic model based on cost-benefit analysis (CBA. CBA is used in some countries (EU, USA, Australia as an analytic tool to make public policy decisions. CBA is based on the method of discounting cash flows associated with costs and benefits of public policy. It is assumed that all public goals are equally important inter alia, hence public bodies should opt for those initiatives that maximize public benefits for every dollar spent from the state budget. There are five stages of economic modeling: 1 the definition of public benefits and costs associated with the public initiative; 2 monetary valuation of costs and benefits; 3 the definition of discounting period and discounting rate; 4 the calculation of net present value of cash flows; 5 the comparison of initiatives' net present values. The model is built with a number of hypotheses assumed. It allows making evaluation of investments into the technology to decrease the cost of Arctic offshore oil and gas development. Moreover, the model has two scenarios describing a public policy to support technology development with international economic cooperation and without it. Under given hypotheses both scenarios return positive net present value of policies which proves that governmental initiative to support Arctic technology development is economically justified. Also the model sows that the scenario with international cooperation is more efficient from economic point of view. It is explained by two factors: the higher speed of technology transfer (due W international cooperation and the opportunity to use financial leverage (attracting the funds from foreign partners. The model allows closing the existing scientific gap between the theory of CBA method and its practical use in public decision making.

  18. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware ....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  19. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2001-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware ....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  20. Impact of financial institution environmental guidelines on international power generation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macak, J.J. III; Schott, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Where financing is concerned, two major players for US based international power projects are The World Bank and the Export-Import Bank of the US (Ex-Im Bank). The concern for environmental protection is a global issue, yet many countries still have no enforceable environmental regulations for power generation facilities. In the past, many projects were developed with little or no environmental controls. However, designing a power generation project to meet The World Bank environmental guidelines is now generally regarded as standard practice for independent power projects in the developing world (Price et al, 1994). The World Bank standards are mandatory for projects financed by The World Bank, through the International Finance Corporation (IFC), or associated programs like the Expanded Cofinancing Program of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The Ex-Im Bank has recently established new environmental procedures and guidelines that went into effect on February 1, 1995. In order to avoid a competitive disadvantage for US exporters and still provide a means for global environmental protection, Ex-Im Bank has taken a leadership role in encouraging the adoption of common environmental procedures and standards by leading export credit agencies around the world. Until such procedures are established, Ex-Im Bank is seeking to establish common lines in specific cases with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on environmental standards for appropriate projects (Ex-Im, 1994)

  1. Comprehensive report on researches of the Institute of Energy Economics (1985-1995); Nihon Energy Keizai Kenkyusho kenkyu hokoku soran 1985-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-31

    This is a comprehensive report on researches made during 1986-1995 by the Institute of Energy Economics. The institute had the 30th anniversary of the founding in 1996, and the world economical and energy situation was greatly excited during the period by such as two oil shocks, the Gulf War, collapse of the former U.S.S.R. Notice is taken of the global environmental problem, the increase in energy demand in Asia, the increasing dependence on the Middle East, etc. Under these conditions, the report includes the following by content: 16 items in general energy, 11 in energy policy, 12 in energy utilization/energy conservation relation, 38 in energy supply/demand, and 13 in international cooperation relation. Moreover, the report includes the following by energy: 33 in petroleum, 5 in coal, 15 in electric power, 2 in nuclear power, 8 in gases like LNG and LPG, and 8 in new energy. In addition, there are 17 papers on economy/industry relation and 23 on environmental problems. As viewed by region, the report has 13 papers in the U.S., 19 in Europe, 6 in oil producing countries/OPEC, 6 in Russia/former U.S.S.R., and 20 in Asia.

  2. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. TIENKEN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries’ rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum’s Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI. The study investigated the existence of relationships between international test rankings from three different time periods during the last 50 years of U.S. education policy development (i.e., 1957–1982, 1983–2000, and 2001–2006 and 2006 GCI ranks. It extends previous research on the topic by investigating how GCI rankings in the top 50 percent and bottom 50 percent relate to rankings on international tests for the countries that participated in each test. The study found that the relationship between ranks on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic strength is stronger among nations with lower-performing economies. Nations with strong economies, such as the United States, demonstrate a weaker, nonsignificant relationship.

  3. A Comparative Study of International Student Engagement and Success Based on Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Institutional Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gareth Carlington

    2013-01-01

    The study examined international students' engagement and success using NSSE 2007 data. The sample consisted of 1996 first years and 2,158 seniors. These students were compared by race/ethnicity, gender, and institutional type. The study found that students' engagement differed by race/ethnicity as well as type of institution. The null hypotheses…

  4. The Role of Institutional Dual Embeddedness in the Strategic Local Adaptation of International Branch Campuses: Evidence from Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Farshid; Huisman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Past research revealed that International Branch Campuses (IBCs) are simultaneously under two types of isomorphic pressures. On the one hand, they are obliged to conform to the institutions of their host countries, which lead them towards homogenising with the local Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), hence deviate from their parent unit's…

  5. The Impact of Comparative Education Research on Institutional Theory. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David, Ed.; Wiseman, Alex, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of International Perspectives on Education and Society explores how educational research from a comparative perspective has been instrumental in broadening and testing hypotheses from institutional theory. Institutional theory has also played an increasingly influential role in developing an understanding of education in society. This…

  6. The Reasons of Differences in Dynamics of Economic Grown in Portugal and Holland in the XV-XVII Centuries: an Institutional Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Rozinskaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to comparative analysis of socio-economic development of Portugal and Holland – two small nations who during certain periods of their history obtained European leadership and played pivotal role in Europe’s transition from Middle Ages to Modernity. Analysis is performed on the basis of the institutional theory. Based to a large extent on theoretical concepts of D. North and D. Acemoglu-J. Robinson, the author notes substantial similarity of the initial conditions in both countries in the Middle Ages – their size in terms of territory and population, geographical location, long coastal lines, early successful development of navigation, fishing and construction of vessels, emergence of strong navy and trade fleet, non-fertile arable land, grain imports, etc. Following that the author then looks for “small disparities” which gradually and having been influenced by external shocks have led to different paths of socio-economic development. These shocks include climatic changes in Holland in XIV century and – in case of Portugal –foreign policy issues (struggle against Kingdom of Castile; and then – the Great Geographical Discoveries. The paper analyses in detail the impact of foreign (especially colonial trade on development of both countries. The process of gradual loss of leading positions in international trade first by Portugal and then by Holland is considered. Author states that as opposed to Portugal, who remained backward agrarian country until XX century, Holland preserved its position of one of the richest and most advanced countries in Europe even after having lost its monopoly position in international trade. In the final part of the paper the author analyses the reasons for divergence of Holland’s and Portugal’s development routes. In relation to it, the following concepts are considered: the concept of the cultural capital by L. Harrison; theory of limited/open access societies by D. North, J

  7. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN CREATING AND SUSTAINING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the global economy, one can easily notice that states that record economic growth are competitive, and that the competitive ones collect revenues of billions of dollars from trade, outsourcing and meeting the needs of their citizens. The role of private sector in creating and sustaining competitiveness it is well known. But what actions are undertaken by the international organizations and the public sector in this direction? The scope of this article is to offer a brief description of the role played by these actors taking into account that they must create the fundamental condition for competitiveness: macroeconomic stability.

  8. Methods of international health technology assessment agencies for economic evaluations--a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Tim; Jacobs, Esther; Morfeld, Jana-Carina; Pieper, Dawid

    2013-09-30

    The number of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies increases. One component of HTAs are economic aspects. To incorporate economic aspects commonly economic evaluations are performed. A convergence of recommendations for methods of health economic evaluations between international HTA agencies would facilitate the adaption of results to different settings and avoid unnecessary expense. A first step in this direction is a detailed analysis of existing similarities and differences in recommendations to identify potential for harmonization. The objective is to provide an overview and comparison of the methodological recommendations of international HTA agencies for economic evaluations. The webpages of 127 international HTA agencies were searched for guidelines containing recommendations on methods for the preparation of economic evaluations. Additionally, the HTA agencies were requested information on methods for economic evaluations. Recommendations of the included guidelines were extracted in standardized tables according to 13 methodological aspects. All process steps were performed independently by two reviewers. Finally 25 publications of 14 HTA agencies were included in the analysis. Methods for economic evaluations vary widely. The greatest accordance could be found for the type of analysis and comparator. Cost-utility-analyses or cost-effectiveness-analyses are recommended. The comparator should continuously be usual care. Again the greatest differences were shown in the recommendations on the measurement/sources of effects, discounting and in the analysis of sensitivity. The main difference regarding effects is the focus either on efficacy or effectiveness. Recommended discounting rates range from 1.5%-5% for effects and 3%-5% for costs whereby it is mostly recommended to use the same rate for costs and effects. With respect to the analysis of sensitivity the main difference is that oftentimes the probabilistic or deterministic approach is recommended

  9. Case Study in International Cooperation: Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Roswell Park Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Reid, Mary; Segal, Brahm; Abrams, Scott I; Lee, Kelvin

    2018-04-01

    In 1961, the USA severed diplomatic relations with Cuba, and in 1962 an embargo was imposed on trade and financial relations with that country. It was not until five decades later that the USA and Cuba would reestablish relations. This opened the way for the New York State Trade Mission to Cuba in April 2015, during which Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Buffalo, New York's Roswell Park Cancer Institute signed a formal agreement that would set in motion biotechnology research collaboration to address one of the most important causes of death in both countries. Significant research from Cuba led to this groundbreaking collaboration. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this cooperation, from the Molecular Immunology Center's initial investigations, through the opening of a phase I clinical trial at Roswell Park Cancer Institute with therapies developed at the Center. This cooperation was responsible for the first clinical trial for CIMAvax-EGF involving advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients in the USA. A license was also approved by the US Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control authorizing a commercial partnership for development of biotechnology products, combining the cancer research efforts of both institutions. This unusual collaboration between Cuba and the USA-the US economic embargo and travel restrictions not withstanding-opens good prospects for expanded medical research between the two countries. While political and logistical challenges remain, the shared mission and dedication of these Cuban and US scientists points the way towards relationships that can lead to development, testing, approval and use of promising new therapies for cancer patients. KEYWORDS Biotechnology, clinical trials, cancer vaccines, cancer immunotherapy, non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC, Cuba, USA.

  10. Blessing of dimensionality in forecasting real house price growth in the nine census divisions of the US: 57th International Statistical Institute Conference 2009

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Das2_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 12610 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Das2_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Motivation Models Data Results...), University of Pretoria, Pretoria 3Senior Lecturer (Economics), University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 57th International Statistical Institute Conference, Durban, 2009 Das, Gupta and Kabundi Motivation Models Data Results Conclusion Main question...

  11. User Guide for the International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) model is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, and geothermal energy projects for several different countries. Building on the original JEDI model, which was developed for the United States, I-JEDI was developed under the USAID Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector. I-JEDI estimates economic impacts by characterizing the construction and operation of energy projects in terms of expenditures and the portion of these expenditures made within the country of analysis. These data are then used in a country-specific input-output (I-O) model to estimate employment, earnings, gross domestic product (GDP), and gross output impacts. Total economic impacts are presented as well as impacts by industry. This user guide presents general information about how to use I-JEDI and interpret results as well as detailed information about methodology and model limitations.

  12. Solidarity and its limits for economic integration in the EU’s internal market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2018-01-01

    Solidarity is applicable to multiple strands of Union law, including in the fostering of an internal market. Whereas the internal market has always held constitutional status, the objects that underlie it came about much later. The question of how solidarity, as a principle, value, and concept...... of the internal market, but also for the purposes of economic integration. The article demonstrates that solidarity in law can be a reason or justification for measures to promote the treaty-based aim of the internal market. Yet simultaneously, it finds that solidarity is not an all-encompassing principle, value......, or concept in absolute terms, and has limits for utilisation in the spirit of European integration. Conclusively, by demonstrating the limits of solidarity as a ‘legal’ principle, value, or concept, the article asks whether it is time to reassess the role that solidarity should play in Union law...

  13. Preparation of International Business Contracts in Facing the ASEAN Economic Community Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlan Sahlan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the preparation for composing and formulating the international business contracts in facing the ASEAN Economic Community era. The study used the normative approach by collecting the materials related to the international business contracts. The outcomes of the research indicate that constitutionally, the Indonesian government must provide protection and equitable legal certainty for Indonesian citizens who intend to conduct business transactions within the framework of AEC. Format and writing techniques of international business contracts is compulsory known by the business people and their legal consultants that they do not suffer losses due to errors in the preparing of contract that violates the rules and provisions of international business contract.

  14. ISSUES REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERNAL CONTROL/ MANAGERIAL AND COMBATING SOME NEGATIVE EFFECTS IN ROMANIAN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS' ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stegaroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the importance and impact of the management of internal control/ managerial in Romanian public institutions, as well as the consequences arising as a result of not implementing it. It also analyzed the legal framework governing the internal control/managerial and the main conclusions issued by the Romanian Court of Accounts on the status of its implementation in Romanian public institutions. At the same time, it is stressed the role of management carried out by heads of public institutions in terms of combating the negative effects that have a direct impact on their activity.

  15. Real estate capitalization of Public Administration Institutions - a chance to stimulate investment and increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Constantin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The divide in the development of the different European space regions, is exemplified by the different ability to attract investments between rural and urban areas. Urban areas usually assure to investors a broad availability of structures and services that rural areas cannot offer. Another limiting factor for rural areas is the difficulty the enterprises which want to localize their structures outside the urban area meet when they try to find information about the quantity and the quality of the available structures. This penalization affects also the unused real estates of the public administration institutions; these real estates could represent for the investors an important opportunity to improve area’s resources, meeting some forms of converging collaboration with the public administration institutions. POLYINVEST project aims at improving conditions for investment in the rural areas, directly tackling the development gap between the regions of the South East Europe and to develop an information system useful for those public administration institutions.

  16. Institutional Framework for Economic Re-Industrialization in the Mechanism of Industrial Policy Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra S. Shitova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to substantiate the institutional structure aimed at the effective progressive development of the production sphere as the basis of the national economy oriented towards the qualitative development of social capital, which is the key goal of transforming the modern Russian economy. The achievement of that goal is possible through the implementation of reindustrialization strategy based on the conceptual platform of regional institutionalism, the determinant of which is also the possibility of implementing the potential of the regions as a priority source of development and reproduction as a result of building sustainable local relationships in the regional economy. Institutional design of reindustrialization and forcing the industrial development of the Russian economy are becoming particularly relevant in the context of the need to connect Russia to the concept of "Industry 4.0" and the fourth industrial revolution.

  17. An International Orientation on Institutional Strategies and Governmental Policies for the Use of ICT in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wende, Marijk; Beerkens, Eric

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an international comparative overview of institutional strategies, collaboration patterns and governmental policies related to the use of ICT in higher education. It has been produced as part of an international comparative study on the use of ICT in higher education. A study

  18. Argument in the greenhouse. The international economics of controlling global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Hall, S.; Smith, C.; Gupta, S.

    1997-01-01

    This book adds a significant new contribution to the crucial climate change/global warming debate. Incorporating the key political and legal considerations into 'real world' applied economic analysis, the authors provide a unique focus on the wider political economy of the problem. All the key issues of controlling climate change (costs, timing and degree of stabilisation, ecological tax reform, developing countries, and evolution of international agreements), are placed firmly within the current legal and political economy context, with state-of-the art economic techniques introduced to analyse different policy proposals. Covering both the developing and developed world, this book identifies important new policies to foster effective agreements on emissions and prevent global warming - realistic policies, likely to receive support at both international and domestic levels. (Author)

  19. Economic approaches to measuring the significance of food safety in international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, J A

    2000-12-20

    International trade in food products has expanded rapidly in recent years. This paper presents economic approaches for analyzing the effects on trade in food products of the food safety requirements of governments and private buyers. Important economic incentives for companies to provide improved food safety arise from (1) public incentives such as ex ante requirements for sale of a product with sufficient quality and ex post penalties (liability) for sale of products with deficient quality, and (2) private incentives for producing quality such as internal performance goals (self-regulation) and the external (certification) requirements of buyers. The World Trade Organization's Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement facilitates scrutiny of the benefits and costs of country-level regulatory programs and encourages regulatory rapprochement on food safety issues. Economists can help guide risk management decisions by providing estimates of the benefits and costs of programs to improve food safety and by analyzing their effect on trade in food products.

  20. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1993-11-01

    "This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries." excerpt