WorldWideScience

Sample records for international economic cooperation

  1. STRATEGY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona DANILIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  2. Strategy of International Economic Cooperation: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Silvestru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  3. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  4. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  5. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  6. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  7. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  8. Economic targets and loss-aversion in international environmental cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    İriş, Doruk

    2015-01-01

    In the standard emission problem, each country’s ruling party decides on an optimal level of emissions by analyzing the cost and benefit to the country. However, such policy decisions are often influenced by political parties’ incentives to be elected. Voters tend to give higher priority to economic issues than they do to environmental ones. As a result, political parties have additional incentives to reach a critical economic benefit level, at a cost of higher emission level, in order to sat...

  9. The Law and Economics of International Cooperation Against Maritime Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hallwood; Thomas J. Miceli

    2011-01-01

    Article 100 of the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea requires signatories to “cooperate” against maritime piracy, but “cooperate” is undefined. Enforcement is a public good – creating uncompensated benefits for others, so suffering from free-rider problems. Our analysis readily explains why more pirates captured are released than prosecuted; why the U.N. and International Maritime Organization are seeking to reduce enforcement costs; why some in the shipping industry want to apply the 198...

  10. Efficiency Assessment of Economic International Cooperation in Development of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Resources

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    Polina V. Beresneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on efficiency assessment of economic cooperation in development of Arctic offshore oil and gas resources. The author developed an economic model based on cost-benefit analysis (CBA. CBA is used in some countries (EU, USA, Australia as an analytic tool to make public policy decisions. CBA is based on the method of discounting cash flows associated with costs and benefits of public policy. It is assumed that all public goals are equally important inter alia, hence public bodies should opt for those initiatives that maximize public benefits for every dollar spent from the state budget. There are five stages of economic modeling: 1 the definition of public benefits and costs associated with the public initiative; 2 monetary valuation of costs and benefits; 3 the definition of discounting period and discounting rate; 4 the calculation of net present value of cash flows; 5 the comparison of initiatives' net present values. The model is built with a number of hypotheses assumed. It allows making evaluation of investments into the technology to decrease the cost of Arctic offshore oil and gas development. Moreover, the model has two scenarios describing a public policy to support technology development with international economic cooperation and without it. Under given hypotheses both scenarios return positive net present value of policies which proves that governmental initiative to support Arctic technology development is economically justified. Also the model sows that the scenario with international cooperation is more efficient from economic point of view. It is explained by two factors: the higher speed of technology transfer (due W international cooperation and the opportunity to use financial leverage (attracting the funds from foreign partners. The model allows closing the existing scientific gap between the theory of CBA method and its practical use in public decision making.

  11. The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    scheduled throughout the year. Effectiveness of the G-20 Some analysts say that while the G-20 was instrumental in coordinating the response to the...Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations. They also maintain that the G-20 as a group is too heterogeneous to achieve real...as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ), the World Bank, and the World Trade

  12. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  13. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  14. System aspects of managing international scientific and technical as well as manufacturing economic cooperation in the nuclear power field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahny, M.

    1988-01-01

    International scientific and technical cooperation in nuclear power is discussed from the angle of systems control aspects. Integration benefit and the development stages of the integration process are mainly treated. The researcher-user relations are analysed in detail in scientific and technical cooperation and its links to economic cooperation. In nuclear power within COMECON countries, the most important field of cooperation currently is the complex program of scientific and technical progress of the COMECON member countries till the year 2000, especially its third priority trend called Accelerated Development of Nuclear Power. The following new quality should be thereby provided for the participating states: the achievement of the world peak standards of technical and economic parameters; the reflection of scientific and technical and economic cooperation in a complete innovatory cycle Science-Technology-Production-Application; the achievement of direct labor relations of the participating research, development, production and end user organizations. (Z.M.). 1 fig., 16 refs

  15. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: Opening for Debate and Contestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…

  16. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  17. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  18. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ITALY: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR COOPERATION WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Agapov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis in Italy after 2008 fully revealed the complexity of the socio-economic model of the country, which in our time is formed not only at national level but also at European and global levels. All these factors should also be taken into account in the analysis of Russian-Italian relations. Italy has traditionally been considered one of the main partners / allies of Russia in Europe / the West, which emphasizes the active economic ties.Socio-economic diffi culties in Italy, creating both challenges and opportunities for the world, Europe and Russia. One of the major challenges for the global economy is the impact of the crisis in Italy for the EU, as one of the world's economic centers.The challenge for the EU crisis in Italy can be the stability of the EU, the challenge for Russia could be the eff ect of reducing the role of the traditional economic and political partner of the EU. Regarding the new features are: the global level – the transformation of one of the major economies of the West and building relationships with updated economic leader of the Mediterranean on a new basis, the regional level - the further development of one of the other German centre’s of the EU, which could serve as a new "stimulus" for the further integration of the Union , national - improve the socio-economic standards of living of citizens in Italy, as well as creating additional opportunities for the development of mutually benefi cial cooperation with other countries, particularly with Russia. The article discusses the causes of the Italian crisis and the challenges and opportunities that are opened at the same time for the world, the EU and Russia. Subject articles relevant due to the perception of the impact of the crisis in Italy for the world economy, the economy of the EU and Russia.The goal / task. The main purpose of the presentation material in this article is to analyze the causes of the crisis in Italy using a three-level model of

  19. Global climate change. Economic dimensions of a cooperative international policy response beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the economic implications of a range of international abatement strategies and to identify the most cost effective approaches to achieve given environmental objectives. International responses to concerns about global warming are discussed and trends in sectoral and global patterns of production, consumption and trade are examined with a view to providing a business as-usual scenario for carbon dioxide emissions to the year 2020. The study uses a dynamic general equilibrium model of the world economy, MEGABARE. Simulation results for alternative stabilisation and emission reduction targets are also presented. Policy options are evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in stabilizing carbon dioxide emissions and impact on economic welfare in various countries and regions, including an analysis of the feedhack effects of policies on developing countries. Equity principles and rules, and joint implementation issues are also considered. The focus is on designing approaches to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the same amount as stabilisation policies, but at lower cost to the international community and with more equitable sharing of costs. An analysis of tradable carbon dioxide emission quota schemes is provided and some broad policy conclusions are noted in the final chapter on the economic impacts of emission abatement policies. 84 refs., 22 tabs., 50 figs

  20. International cooperation on breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.; Kratzer, M.B.; Leslie, K.E.; Paige, H.W.; Shantzis, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    In March 1977, as the result of discussions which began in the fall of 1976, the Rockefeller Foundation requested International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) to undertake a study of the role of international cooperation in the development and application of the breeder reactor. While there had been considerable international exchange in the development of breeder technology, the existence of at least seven major national breeder development programs raised a prima facie issue of the adequacy of international cooperation. The final product of the study was to be the identification of options for international cooperation which merited further consideration and which might become the subject of subsequent, more detailed analysis. During the course of the study, modifications in U.S. breeder policy led to an expansion of the analysis to embrace the pros and cons of the major breeder-related policy issues, as well as the respective views of national governments on those issues. The resulting examination of views and patterns of international collaboration emphasizes what was implicit from the outset: Options for international cooperation cannot be fashioned independently of national objectives, policies and programs. Moreover, while similarity of views can stimulate cooperation, this cannot of itself provide compelling justification for cooperative undertakings. Such undertakings are influenced by an array of other national factors, including technological development, industrial infrastructure, economic strength, existing international ties, and historic experience

  1. National cultural values: reflections on the formation process of future leaders in international economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA NIKOLIC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards foreign investments in Serbia has been in rapid progress in recent years. The biggest and most valuable numbers of investments are coming from Italy. The authors’ expectation is that the trend of Italian investments in future will continue; therefore it is of high importance for the representatives of both countries’ business sectors to understand and accept differences and similarities to the other country’s business culture. Research of cultural differences between two nations , which are considered like a frame of business culture, helps avoiding possible misunderstandings and improving business cooperation between two countries. Having in mind students of economics and management, on one hand like future leaders of Italian and Serbian business and on other like representatives of the current education value system in the field of economics and management, this study consists of an application of the 7-D Hofstede Model. The application of the model takes place through the administration of two surveys done by students of Serbian Megatrend University, in Belgrade, and Italian Università degli Studi Gabriele d’Annunzio, in Pescara.

  2. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  3. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities in international co-operation carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. Professionality of the Bohunice NPPs staff was highly appreciated by inviting them to be the OSART team members

  4. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  5. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  6. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  7. A Review of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's International Education Surveys: Governance, Human Capital Discourses, and Policy Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle: international market, international constraints and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the constraints on the nuclear fuel cycle are ones arising from economic and financial reasons, those caused by uranium resources and their distribution, those arising from technical reasons, issues of public acceptance, and those quite independent of normal industrial considerations, but caused by elements of international politics. The nuclear fuel cycle and the international market, matters of nuclear non-proliferation, and international cooperation are discussed

  9. International cooperation and coordination of activities to rehabilitate the population, ecology and economic development of Semipalatinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrstock, H.

    1998-01-01

    It is in this context that international cooperation and coordination took important steps forward in 1997 and 1998. At the last session of the United Nations General Assembly in December 1997, a Resolution was submitted with nearly 50 co-sponsors and adopted unanimously which called for an assessment to be conducted of the humanitarian effects of the nuclear testing in the Semipalatinsk region. It requested the United nations Secretary General, U N organizations and agencies, with the support of the international community, to collaborate in carrying out this assessment and to report back to the General Assembly at its next regular session which shall begin later this month in New York. This was a remarkable turning point in the global awareness about Semipalatinsk. The resolution also implicitly drew attention to the fact that Kazakstan and its populations, as victims of an extraordinary chapter of the nuclear era, should have the knowledge and the benefits that might come from an appropriate assessment of the consequences and the needs resulting from 40 years of nuclear testing, as well as the rise and fall of the Polygon. The total package of priority needs includes some $43.2 million dollars of projects: $33.7 are deemed to be relatively highest priority, but many could be effectively implemented in phases or stages and would still make a most significant contribution and impact. The breakdown is - health diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation - $24 million; - urgent humanitarian needs - $3.3 million; - ecological stabilization and environmental protection - $7.8 million; - economic rehabilitation - $6.6 million; - information dissemination - $1.3 million

  10. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  11. Keynote address: International nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    These meetings provide an important opportunity for the nuclear community to assess the scope and direction of its wide-ranging activities. Nuclear technology has given us the tools to understand and shape our physical environment in ways which can solve ancient problems of health, food supply, energy, and many others which affect the quality of our lives. International cooperation is necessary to secure the peaceful benefits of nuclear technology. Meeting global energy needs must be high on any priority list of issues for the coming decade and the 21st century. The satisfaction of energy needs is today and will increasingly be a crucial factor in international stability. Hand in hand with the need to assure energy sufficiency is the need to assure the long-term protection of the environment. Three key elements that give a useful framework for approaching the future of nuclear cooperation are technological factors, economic issues, and political acceptability. Technological avenues to greater safety must be vigorously pursued. Economic alternatives must be identified and objectively weighed. Most important of all, the framework of public confidence must be strengthened

  12. International cooperation in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of international co-operations, co-ordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency, are presented. These co-operations are related to international safety standards, to the safety of the four hundred existing reactors in operation, to quick help and information in case of emergency, and to the already valid international conventions. The relation between atomic energy and environmental protection is also discussed briefly. (K.A.)

  13. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  14. International Economic Association on organization of co-operative production and development of equipment and providing technical assistance in construction of nuclear power plants - ''INTERATOMENERGO''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    History is stated of foundation of the International Economic Association ''Interatomenergo''. Structure is given of the Association and the list of main problems to be solved by it. Project is given of the programm of co-operation in the field of scientific and technical works as well as of design and projecting works in creation of new types of equipment for nuclear power plants, in particular, creation of serial power units with improved WWER-1000 reactor. Directions are stated of activity of the Association in the field of providing assistance in construction and exploitation of nuclear power plants as well as in training of operational personnel [ru

  15. International Cooperation and Energy/Environment crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    2009-01-01

    A combination of old and new tensions led to a new energy crisis. This crisis is very difficult to solve due to the multiple interests and the global and sovranational nature of its interdependent dimensions (economic, political and environmental). In a deep global economic crisis context, the challenges posed to the modern world by energy and the environment have to be faced with the international cooperation and dialogue, as it was in the past. [it

  16. Basic contradiction of the international production cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinas V. Kashbraziyev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the contradictions of international industrial cooperation as a driving force for its development. Methods identification and analysis of contradictions in international cooperation were carried out using systematic approach based on general scientific methods of theoretical and empirical research analysis synthesis scientific observation measurement and comparison. On the basis of generalization and analysis of the information contained in the statistical system of the Organization for economic cooperation and development and the global competitiveness reports of the world economic forum the author presents assessment of the level of technological and knowledgeintensity of the economies of certain developed and developing transition countries investment efficiency in science and research their influence on the technological level of production and the degree of technological sovereignty of the mentioned countries. Results the study of the industrialized countriesrsquo experience has shown that the production of hightech products is impossible without integration into a global cooperative network of industrial companies and research institutes. However being included into the global production chains and attracting advanced technologies of production marketing and management the national companies inevitably fall into dependence on foreign import supply. An economic axiom is formulated modern hightech production requires a dramatic expansion of international production cooperation. The main ontological contradiction of international industrial cooperation is revealed characterized by the impact on the improvement of the technological level of production and innovativeness of the national economy on the one hand and simultaneous strengthening of its dependence on foreign partners on the other hand. Scientific novelty on the basis of systematic approach the article reveals contradictions in international cooperation in the

  17. Teaching Economics: A Cooperative Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caropreso, Edward J.; Haggerty, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to introductory economics based on a cooperative learning model, "Learning Together." Discussion of issues in economics education and cooperative learning in higher education leads to explanation of how to adapt the Learning Together Model to lesson planning in economics. A flow chart illustrates the process for a…

  18. Internal and external dynamics of regional cooperation in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzokhid Rakhimov

    2010-07-01

    Challenges of the 21-century require a broader partnership and cooperation. Future prospects of multilateral regional and international cooperation in Central Asia will depend on correlations of national, regional and global interests. It is necessary first of all strong dialogs between Central Asian republics itself. Central Asian geopolitical, economic and security challenges are connected and solution could come jointly. Future regional cooperation, strong international partnership would promote more stability, economic reforms and democratization to region and beyond.

  19. International cooperation in production inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limousin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear pressure equipment, like the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators, are manufactured in many countries all around the world. As only few reactors were built in the 90's, most of the nuclear safety authorities have lost part of their know how in component manufacturing oversight. For these two reasons, vendor inspection is a key area for international cooperation. On the one hand, ASN has bilateral relationships with several countries (USA, Finland, China...) to fulfill specific purposes. On the other hand, ASN participates in international groups like the MDEP ( Multinational Design Evaluation Program). A MDEP working group dedicated to vendor inspection cooperation enables exchanges of informations (inspection program plan, inspection findings...) among the regulators. Join inspections are organized. International cooperation could lead in the long term to an harmonization of regulatory practices. (author)

  20. International relations and co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the international relations and co-operation of the UJD are presented. International community is aware of the fact that nuclear energy shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and on condition of high standard of nuclear safety. Therefore, the long-term aim of UJD in the area of international relations is to maintain and develop internationally recognised system of state supervision upon the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to reach internationally accepted level of nuclear safety in the Slovak Republic. There are many important international treaties (Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Convention on Nuclear Safety, etc.) to which slovakia is a party. In order to meet the obligations of these treaties UJD has the main aim for contribute to the process of international disarmament, and to a mutually advantageous co-operation. By means of the most important international organisations (e.g. International Atomic Energy Agency) the Slovak Republic actively participates in the international co-operation. Under the leadership of UJD, Slovak institutions participate in many projects and activities which have the aim to improve the safety of nuclear international obligations. In addition, UJD actively participates in the integration process of the Slovak Republic into European and Trans-Atlantic structures. Since 1993 the co-operation with the European Commission and the Nuclear Energy Agency of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD/NEA) has been successfully implemented. Besides multilateral co-operation UJD attaches extraordinary importance to bilateral co-operation, in particular with neighbouring countries. Regular meetings of senior Slovak experts with foreign experts are organised, with the aim to exchange the newest experiences and information on peaceful use of nuclear energy. Also in

  1. Some aspects of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera A, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with some aspects of International cooperation which are directly related with Science and Technology in general, but which have total validity in Nuclear Science and Technology. It is meant particularly for Latin-American countries as a whole. Some ideas meant to review the factors that act on the development of Science and Technology are briefly developed; the number of positive achievements reached in Sc. and T.; is recounted; the problems to be overcome in Sc. and T. are numbered and, finally, some propositions for increasing international cooperation in Science and Technology are exposed. (Author)

  2. International cooperation workshop. Regional workshop for CTBTO international cooperation: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Pursuant to the 1999 programme of work, and following the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna, Austria, in 1998, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO (Prep Com) held a regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation in Cairo. The purpose of the workshop was to identify how and by what means the Africa region can promote international cooperation in CTBT verification related technologies, and how the region can benefit from and contribute to Prep Com activity. PTS staff briefed the 40 participants from 22 African States who attended the Workshop on general aspects, including costs, of the establishment and operation of the CTBT verification system, including its four monitoring technologies. Participants were informed on opportunities for local institutions in the establishment of monitoring stations and on possible support for national and regional data centres. National experts presented their research and development activities and reviewed existing experiences on bi/multi-lateral cooperation. The main points of the discussion focused on the need to engage governments to advance signature/ratification, and further training opportunities for African states

  3. Internal control in non - agricultural cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda García Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of formation of non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba, has been a step forward for the Cuban economy, provide primary care represents economic sustainability for the country. A necessary tool for achieving quality in the provision of services and products, it represents the audit process. In this sense the present work was aimed in the Council of the Provincial Administration, in order to strengthen the functioning of non-agricultural cooperatives. Theoretical and empirical methods, techniques, surveys and interviews with leaders and workers, aimed to assess the knowledge, applications for the creation of cooperatives, processing, approval, establishment and operation, based on guidelines established in internal control were applied; and descriptive statistics for processing information, which identified the important work that developed the organization, which was able to promote the operation of non-agricultural cooperatives, as well as the tools necessary for the production of income and consequently improve the quality of services. The diagnosis made it possible to identify the point in the process, so disruption to the operation. Undoubtedly, every experiment needs time to mature and gain experience, besides confirming Waste Disposal workers cooperatives and agencies to jump-start this process. Improvement measures were implemented in order to increase the economic efficiency of each process, in response to various guidelines of Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution, adopted at the Sixth Party Congress and Conference Objectives.

  4. International Business : cooperation within networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne van Delft

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking

  5. ENHANCING EU-TAIWAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-hung Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s 2015 new trade strategy: Trade for all: toward a more responsible trade and investment policy, highlights its key role in keeping markets open worldwide and lists the Asia-Pacific region as the priority party for signing Regional Trade Arrangements (RTAs with the EU. The new strategy allows the EU and its member states to initiate talks on economic cooperation agreement (ECA with Taiwan. This article takes the EU-Asia interregional cooperation as a case study while exploring the role of Taiwan in the region. The first section describes the shift in EU’s trade policies and the special features of the types of interregionalism between the EU and Asia. The second section explores the bilateral trade relations. The third section evaluates the opportunities and the internal and external challenges and limitations of an EU-Taiwan ECA, emphasizing the factor of mainland China. The final section provides conclusions on the influence of an EU-Taiwan ECA on the relations of EUTaiwan considering economic and non-economic factor

  6. Evolution of international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Bertrand

    1978-01-01

    The various stages of the history of the International Cooperation in nuclear matters are reviewed: isolationism period at the end of the war with the anglosaxon monopoly; opening period with the 1955 Geneva Conference and the creation of organisms within the framework of Euratom (the six European countries), of OCED (NEA) and of UNO (IAEA); industrial realizations period with Euratom research centres (Ispra, Geel, Karlsruhe and Petten) and the NEA enterprises (Halden, Dragon project, Eurochemic). The international industrial accords in the domains of exploitation and uranium enrichment are recalled and the program for the international evaluating of the fuel cycle (INFCE) is mentioned [fr

  7. International cooperation for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engfeldt, Lars-Göran; Kjellén, Bo; Liefferink, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    global environmental conference, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, was convened on 5 June 1972 in Stockholm. This day in June is now yearly celebrated as the World Environment Day. The motto of the Conference “Only One Earth,” was a revolutionary concept for its time, but is today...... go on without concern for the environment. The international agenda for the environment influences the life of everyone: it determines the price for gasoline, where we can build summer houses, and what food we can buy. This chapter will describe how international cooperation for the environment has...

  8. A Realistic International Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Criticizes college textbooks for adopting a "party line" of laissez-faire economic doctrine which asserts the benefits of free trade. Offers an alternative interpretation of international trade, covering such topics as the effect of unregulated international trade on wage levels, and international lending. (JDH)

  9. Outsourcing in International Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Bilan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Entities from different countries interact through various forms of international cooperation, integration, subcontracting, outsourcing to ensure competitive advantage, reduce costs and increase economic efficiency. The article is an analysis and synthesis of existing approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing research and its application in international. The article deals with the prerequisites of outsourcing as a new form of organization of business processes. There are investigated and classified approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing. The hierarchy of objectives and motives based on organization of outsourcing is built. The practice of outsourcing during implementation of international economic relations is studied. Specifically examined the dynamics of development of the outsourcing market. Studied leader countries which provide outsourcing services and major consumers of these services.

  10. International cooperation in the framework Inter ASUugol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejckova, J

    1982-01-01

    Results are described of the cooperation in 1981 of the USSR, People's Republic of Bulgaria, Bulgarian People's Republic, GDR, Polish People's Republic, Socialist Republic of Romania and CSSR to implement the program ''creation and introduction of ACS in the coal industry.'' The program includes three main trends: 1) general questions of the system of automated control; 2) automated system of economic control; 3) automated control of production and economic activity of the enterprises. In the framework of the first trend, specialists of the USSR, Polish People's Republic and CSSR finished compiling in seven volumes the international terminological dictionary on automation of control and international catalog of the devices for automation. Studies have been completed on the topics ''predicting the development of ACS and main trends for cooperation up to 1990 and 2000,'' and ''systems of information support at different levels of control.'' In the framework of the second trend, each country solves problems of control and different stages of development depending on specific conditions. In the topic ''control of the content, repair and reliability of the equipment of mines, quarries and enrichment plants'' only problems of mines are solved. The module system of data processing makes it possible to have bilateral and multilateral cooperation. In conducting work in the third trend, a solution was found for the problems associated with control of production and production processes in mines, quarries and enrichment plants. In all trends of work techniques and algorithms were compiled and problems were defined for the future period of study.

  11. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  12. The Regulatory Cooperation Forum, an Opportunity to Strengthen International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaume, J.L.; Mamoru, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Regulatory Cooperation Forum (RCF) is a member-driven forum of nuclear power regulators created in 2010 that promotes the sharing of regulatory knowledge and experience through international cooperation and collaboration using the IAEA Safety Standards as its basis. The RCF involves countries with advanced nuclear power programmes, countries embarking on nuclear power for the first time and countries with smaller programmes considering expansion. The primary objectives of the RCF are: • To promote collaboration and cooperation among RCF members to improve coordination of support for regulatory infrastructure development; • To contribute to achieving and sustaining a high level of nuclear safety, consistent with the IAEA Safety Standards and Guidance; • To optimize resources among RCF members and avoid unnecessary support duplication through improved coordination. Membership of the RCF is open to all Member States of the IAEA. Participants in RCF activities will normally be senior representatives from regulatory bodies in Member States and from other providers, including the IAEA, European Commission (EC) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). So far, more than 30 countries are members of the RCF. The RCF has developed Action Plans to support Jordan, Vietnam, Belarus and Poland. The IAEA’s Nuclear Safety Action Plan urges Member States to strengthen the effectiveness of national regulatory bodies as well as base the development of their nuclear infrastructures on IAEA Safety Standards. The RCF assists Member States in implementing both of these actions for embarking, existing and expanding nuclear programmes. (author)

  13. The Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, C.; Parsons, D.

    1994-01-01

    The MEF-4 conference convened to discuss mineral and fuel supplies with specific attention toward the relationship of energy technologies to the latter. Liquefied natural gas and coal were discussed in light of their prospects as majority fuels. Economic and policy aspects of the minerals industry were presented in several of the sessions. Petroleum refining issues in several Asian countries were discussed

  14. Does Studying Economics Inhibit Cooperation?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Frank; Thomas Gilovich; Dennis T. Regan

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether exposure to the self-interest model commonly used in economics alters the extent to which people behave in self-interested ways. First, we report the results of several empirical studies—some our own, some by others—that suggest economists behave in more self-interested ways. By itself, this evidence does not demonstrate that exposure to the self-interest model causes more self-interested behavior, since it may be that economists were simply more self-inte...

  15. International Economic Co-operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1945-01-01

    textabstractSeries ‘Elseviers Economische Bibliotheek’, No.4, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1945, 208 p. In Spanish: La Cooperación Económica Internacional, Biblioteca de la Ciencia Económica, Madrid, 1952, 186 p. 2nd, complete revised edition, 1954, Elsevier, 191 p.

  16. Economics and sociology: Between cooperation and intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Božo

    2007-01-01

    In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialization and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticeable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an increasingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be...

  17. ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY: BETWEN COOPERATION AND INTOLERANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Božo Stojanović

    2007-01-01

    In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialisation and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an incresingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be i...

  18. International Security in the World Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna P

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the urgent topic of the evolution of international relations, the issue of establishing international security, and the development of international economic cooperation based on the principles of security. In order to analyze the current status of international security in the world and to identify key factors that hinder the way of establishing a positive global community, researches by the international analytical centers together with the institutes for international security and cooperation have been generalized. To this end, both the status of and changes in the Global Peace Index in the recent years has been disclosed, the position of Ukraine in the world according to this index has been examined. It has been proven that the main international security problems are related to the armed conflicts, civil wars, political violence, terrorism impacting the development of humanity as a whole, the status of international relations, the evolution of the world economy as well as national economies. Further researches should be focused on how the status of peace in the countries impacts their economic status and the status of international cooperation in other areas of economic cooperation, excluding the military. It should be answered particularly, how the above indicated status affects strengthening the Ukraine's position in the world.

  19. Nuclear exports and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCardle, J.J.

    1981-06-01

    Canada's nuclear export policy together with its non-proliferation and safeguards policy embrace both the country's desire to promote international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and its effort to minimize the risk of further proliferation of nuclear weapons. This policy reflects the belief that only if Canadian parliamentary and public opinion can be convinced that Canada's nuclear exports will not contribute to nuclear proliferation will the long-term health of the country's nuclear industry be assured. Canada requires a political commitment to non-proliferation from its nuclear partners, and looks to the IAEA to administer safeguards on nuclear material of Canadian origin to guarantee that commitment. Agreements reached with its nuclear partners are in accordance with provisions of the non-proliferation treaty and include a contingency provision for fall-back safeguards if the other state should withdraw from the NPT. Provision is made for mutual agreement on reprocessing and enrichment of nuclear material. Agreements have been reached with some twenty nuclear partners, and efforts are continuing to come to new international understanding on reprocessing, enrichment, and plutonium storage

  20. Nuclear fusion and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Taijiro

    1987-01-01

    Work for design, research and development is expected to start in 1988 for a new nuclear fusion reactor called ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor), which is to be constructed and operated through cooperation among Japan, U.S., Soviet Union and EC. Many talks and discussions concerning the work have been made on various occasions, including the Reagan-Gorbachev talks at Geneva in November 1985, 5th Fusion Working Group meeting in Germany in January 1986, extraordinary FWG meeting at Tokyo in February-March 1986, 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Control held under IAEA at Kyoto in November 1986, and first formal four-party (Japan, U.S., Soviet Union, EC) meeting at the IAEA headquarters in March this year. The ITER Technical Working Group was established and its first meeting was held on May 21 - 23, 1987. It was concluded in the meeting that the operation of ITER will be performed in two phases intended for nuclear combustion plasma physics studies and stationary operation, respectively. Major research and development activities carried out in the U.S., Europe, the Soviet Union, Japan and IAEA in connection with the development of ITER are outlined. (Nogami, K.)

  1. International Military Cooperation: From Concepts to Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Vito

    2013-01-01

    International cooperation on issues of security is a central concept in many theoretical debates in international relations. This dissertation is an attempt to lay the foundation for measuring military cooperation and understanding the forces brought forth through its expansion. The central notion is that the set of policies related to military…

  2. International cooperation on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, V de [Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Interfaculty Dept. of Environmental Science

    1993-01-01

    For centuries there has been international trade, but since the enormous growth in production, the goods we produce have begun to pollute the global environment. Feed for Dutch cattle is grown in South-East Asia, leading to a manure surplus here and soil erosion there. To provide the Dutch with aluminium for their beer cans, large areas of Brazilian rainforest have been cleared, while the waste mountain grows ever larger in Netherlands. It has been clear since the 1970s that the countries of the world are working in tandem to pollute the environment we all rely on. Similarly, we have to work together to clean it up. Although we are nowhere near a solution, many forms of cooperation have seen the light of day, from global agreements like Agenda 21 to simple declarations by the governments of two countries. The Netherlands has entered into thirteen such small-scale environmental agreements, or memoranda of understanding as they are known. The aim of these agreements is to reinforce each others' environmental management structure. In practice, this modest approach has been found to suit ambitious aims like redistribution of environmental space. The motto is 'small is beautiful'.

  3. International cooperation on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, V. de

    1993-01-01

    For centuries there has been international trade, but since the enormous growth in production, the goods we produce have begun to pollute the global environment. Feed for Dutch cattle is grown in South-East Asia, leading to a manure surplus here and soil erosion there. To provide the Dutch with aluminium for their beer cans, large areas of Brazilian rainforest have been cleared, while the waste mountain grows ever larger in Netherlands. It has been clear since the 1970s that the countries of the world are working in tandem to pollute the environment we all rely on. Similarly, we have to work together to clean it up. Although we are nowhere near a solution, many forms of cooperation have seen the light of day, from global agreements like Agenda 21 to simple declarations by the governments of two countries. The Netherlands has entered into thirteen such small-scale environmental agreements, or memoranda of understanding as they are known. The aim of these agreements is to reinforce each others' environmental management structure. In practice, this modest approach has been found to suit ambitious aims like redistribution of environmental space. The motto is 'small is beautiful'

  4. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  5. CTBT and the international technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lixing

    1999-01-01

    Having in mind the basic aim of the CTBTO this presentation covers the fields of international co-operation as one of the most important and the cooperation of China and some International research and development institutions concerning the related subjects. One of the most important among international organizations being the IAEA, detailed list of general circumstances in the Chinese cooperation with IAEA is presented. It covers nuclear power plants construction and operation, safety of nuclear facilities, nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection and waste management, industrial application, agricultural application, human health, fundamental research and information dissemination

  6. International nuclear cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yong-Kyu

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power project traditionally involve huge financial investment, highly sophisticated technology, and long lead time. Many countries, particularly developing ones, find it impossible to implement their nuclear power programs without technical cooperation and assistance from advanced countries. In this Asia and Pacific Region, seven countries have commercial nuclear power units in operation and/or under construction. Korea has six nuclear power units in operation, and three under construction. Active nuclear cooperation has been instrumental in implementing her abmitious nuclear power programs successfully. Nuclear cooperation is one of the widely recognized necessities, which is quite often talked about among the countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. But the differences in nuclear maturity and national interests among those in the region seem to be standing against it. Given the constraints, it is not easy to select appropriate areas for cooperation. There is no doubt, however, that they should include the nuclear policy, nuclear safety, radwaste management, radiological protection, and the management of nuclear units. In order to effectively promote nuclear cooperation in the Region, the scope of RCA activities must be expanded to include the nuclear power area. The Regional Nuclear Data Bank, the Regional Training Center and the Nuclear Emergency Response Center, for example, would be the effective tools for cooperation to meet the demands of the countries in the Region. In view of the technological gap between Japan and all others in the region, we cannot speak of a regional nuclear cooperation without heavily counting on Japan, the most advanced nuclear state in the region. For these reasons, Japan is expected to share an increasing portion of her nuclear technology with others. (author)

  7. Internal Control Good Cooperative Governance And Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Arifian Rachman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of internal control and good cooperative governance partially and simultaneously to the performance of cooperatives in West Java Province. The research method used in this research is descriptive and verification. The sample in this research is 22 boards as manager of cooperative in West Java Province. The data used in the research is the primary data through questionnaire collection. Validity and reliability testing is performed before hypothesis testing. This research uses multiple regression analysis technique. Based on hypothesis testing obtained 1 internal control has no significant effect on performance 2 good cooperative governance has a significant effect on performance and 3 internal control and good cooperative governance have a significant effect on performance.

  8. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  9. The international cooperation for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Francisco; Soto, David

    1998-02-01

    This article notices the importance of the environmental issue for the international cooperation and the legislative progress about it in Colombia. Also, it study the changes in the cooperation system, from one based in quotas to other based in the demand, and the adjustments required in developing countries to adapt to the new scheme

  10. Economics and sociology: Between cooperation and intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialization and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticeable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an increasingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be inspiring for the research in other sciences, particularly sociology and political science. Applying the results he got by analyzing the logic of collective action, Olson managed to attain significant insight concerning the functioning of economics and society as a whole.

  11. DoD International Armaments Cooperation Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, William

    1997-01-01

    .... In the evolving environment of coalition warfare, limited resources, and a global industrial and technology base, it is DoD policy that we utilize International Armaments Cooperation to the maximum...

  12. International co-operation. Key issue paper no. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    In accordance with guidance provided by the Steering Group, this report assesses the adequacy and effectiveness of international co-operation relating to the nuclear fuel cycle, with a view toward identifying any needed new forms or arrangements for co-operation. In more specific terms, the Steering Committee`s guidance identified the following questions: Is the existing international framework sufficient for: the safe and secure operation of the fuel cycle; the economic and orderly development of the world`s nuclear energy systems (or their phase-out should this take place); international co-operation in R and D; international co-operation in industrial activities? Are there places where these requirements overlap or interact so as to impede activities which are desirable? Can new forms of co-operation be foreseen which would make it easier to implement any of the fuel cycle options in a safe, secure and responsible way? Are there other new forms of international co-operation which would affect the fuel cycle, e.g. regional institutions; international plutonium management regime and/or storage? Finally: What is the appropriate role of IAEA in any of these?.

  13. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) - Center for Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the leading economic forum in the Asia-Pacific region, APEC facilitates economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region through trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation.

  14. Thermonuclear controlled fusion: international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conscience, J.-F.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the current worldwide status of research in the field of thermonuclear controlled fusion as well as the international research programme planed for the next decades. The two main projects will be the ITER facility (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) that should produce 10 times more energy than the energy injected, and the IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) designed to study the reactions of materials under intense neutron fluxes. The future of the pioneering JET facility (Joint European Torus) is also discussed. The engagement of the various countries (USA, Japan, Germany, Russian Federation and Canada) and international organisations (EURATOM and IEA) in terms of investment and research is described. Switzerland is involved in this program through an agreement with EURATOM and is mainly dedicated to experimental studies with the TCV machine in Lausanne and numerical studies of plasma configurations. It will participate to the development of the microwave plasma heating system for the ITER machine

  15. [Ethics and esthetics in international cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aranzabal Agudo, Maite; Hermana Tezanos, María Teresa

    2011-09-01

    Although more optimistic, the new report by the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to cast horrifying statistics on inequalities, not only in life expectancy but in many areas. Many Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) related to medicine seek to address this imbalance. To cooperate does not in any way appeal to the call of sentimentality. Cooperation moves money and is accountable. It requires a strong background in both professional and human values. It requires research on vaccines and diseases foreign to our society. To cooperate means "operate with" local counterparts, according to their needs and global health project. And finally, cooperation implies the demand for change in certain aspects of the global economic order. We reflect on these questions and describe the different ethical frameworks for the population and NGOs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Conceptual approaches to international cooperation between higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Obolenska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing conceptual and technological approaches to the organization and implementation of international cooperation between higher education institutions with the performance of international accreditation based on education quality system have been characterized in complex, considering the key trends of internationalization of higher education. Priority strategies of higher education internationalization and types of international academic cooperation between universities regarding education services were defined. It has been substantiated that the most important manifestation of higher education internationalization is international cooperation between universities regarding rendering education services, while the highest level of internationalization of this service is joint educational programs. A complex analysis of international accreditation requirements to joint education programs was made on the basis of the system of education quality improvement, its advantages were proven and its distinct features that influence the choice and substantiation of international cooperation, marketing and branding of individual programs were characterized. Technology of international accreditation for joint programs was detailed. Special attention was paid to the practical component of launching joint degree programs between Ukrainian and foreign higher education institutions. The experience of joint master’s degree programs of Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman and the University of Redlands Business School (California, USA was analyzed.

  17. Emotions and cooperation in economic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselhuhn, Michael P; Mellers, Barbara A

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we examine decisions to cooperate in economic games. We investigate which payoffs give players the greatest pleasure and whether the pleasure they feel about payoffs predicts their decisions to cooperate. To do this, we modify the ultimatum and dictator games by asking players to consider a fixed set of offers and report their preferences over all offers. Players also report the pleasure they imagine feeling from each possible payoff. Results show that players differ in the extent to which they derive pleasure from fairness or greediness. They also differ in the extent to which their choices depend on what we call "strategic" and "non-strategic" pleasure. Strategic pleasure is the expected pleasure of offers, whereas non-strategic pleasure is the pleasure of accepted payoffs. Players whose pleasure primarily depends on larger payoffs tend to make fair offers in the ultimatum game and selfish offers in the dictator game. They maximize strategic pleasure in the ultimatum game and non-strategic pleasure in the dictator game. Players who derive greater pleasure from fairness tend to act fairly in both games. These players maximize non-strategic pleasure. Brain imaging studies should address the question of whether the observed differences in pleasure and preference are systematically linked to differences in neurological activation.

  18. The importance of international cooperation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    NASR, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited R&D budgets Marginal growth Increased R&T with international institutes & academia Intra-African market Center of gravity has changed Global supply sourcing Local Servicing of products Airbus Global Footprint May 2017 Airbus... 31% Europe 69% Non-Europe Other countries 11,575 (9%) Non-European Workforce 20% (in 2020) PHILOSOPHY OF INTERNATIONALIZATION Airbus Footprint in Africa May 2017 Airbus Corporate Presentation 4 Addis Ababa Nairobi Abuja Algiers Cairo...

  19. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ionita COCHINTU; Laura TUTUNARU; Narcisa Mihaela STOICU; Daniela Cristina VALEA

    2011-01-01

    Trafficking in human beings, a phenomenon with global dimensions constitutes a serious violation of human rights, dignity and freedom, a social phenomenon with negative consequences for the entire society. Countries have been concerned over the time to find the most effective policy measures to combat and prevent human trafficking, and in this regard the United Nations, the European Union and the Council of Europe have developed a series of international documents which established an interna...

  20. Development Internal Problems of Shanghay Cooperation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Y. Kolegova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main internal problems of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Particular attention is paid to the conflict of interests of the participating countries, as well as identifying obstacles to strengthen the organization and increase its influence in the international arena. The international organizations are created by the states to meet mutual problems in the course of interstate relations requiring regular cooperation mechanism. Given the background of the Organization, it is important to emphasize that the main reason for the establishment of the Shanghai organization was the need for the united front against the strengthening of the region at the turn of centuries against dangerous trends of terrorism, extremism, separatism, the growth of organized crime. Despite the conflict of interests and the internal and external development challenges thirteen-year history of evolution of the SCO, to some extent proves its effectiveness, moreover, there are the preconditions for its consistent transition to a more comprehensive organization.

  1. Globalization, Inequality & International Economic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International law in general, and international economic law in particular, to the extent that either has focused on the issue of inequality, has done so in terms of inequality between states. Largely overlooked has been the topic of inequality within states and how international law has influenced that reality. From the perspective of international economic law, the inequality issue is closely entwined with the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, the proper meaning of development, and globalization. While international economic law has undoubtedly contributed to the rise of inequality, it is now vital that the subject of international economic law be examined for how it may contribute to the lessening of inequality. To do so will require a shift in the way that we think, in order to address inequality as a problem of an emerging global market society, and how best to regulate that society and its institutions.

  2. Petroleum prospects and the need for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, C.

    1991-01-01

    A review of the world energy situation prior to the Persian Gulf War of 1990-91 shows that periods of oil price instability have distorted the decision-making process. During periods of high prices, investments were made in uneconomic energy sources and in periods of low prices few investments were made at all. To create a rational investment climate, international cooperation between consumers and producers of petroleum is essential. Such cooperation in the form of a forum could help to stabilize prices and assure that the economic decisions needed to meet future demand would be made in a secure framework. (author). 3 refs

  3. International assistance and cooperation for access to essential medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Emily A

    2010-06-15

    Access to essential medicines is a critical problem that plagues many developing countries. With a daunting number of domestic constraints - technologically, economically, and otherwise - developing countries are faced with a steep uphill battle to meet the human rights obligation of providing essential medicines immediately. To meet these challenges, the international human rights obligations of international assistance and cooperation can play a key role to help developing countries fulfill the need for access to essential medicines. This article seeks to highlight and expand upon the current understanding of international assistance and cooperation for access to essential medicines through a review of obligations identified in international human rights law and a synthesis of official guidance provided on the matter.

  4. International cooperation in the field of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, O. von

    1983-01-01

    Following a definition of the concept of international cooperation, this paper discusses existing and possible legal and institutional arrangements in the reprocessing field, with particular reference to the legal framework set up for the European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels (Eurochemic). (NEA) [fr

  5. A strategy study on international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hong Rae; Kim, Kyung Pyo; Kim, Young Min; Shin, Kyung Hye; Yoon, Sung Won; Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Jong Hee; Hong Young Don

    1995-12-01

    The implementing methodologies suggested from this study cover the following: 1) strategies for the promotion of the nation's leading roles in such international organizations as the IAEA and OECD/NEA; 2) strategies for the implementation of national nuclear policy, positively coping with international nuclear trends; 3) strategies for the promotion of technical cooperation with the Russian Federation to introduce essential nuclear technology by utilizing its new environment of science and technology. 39 tabs., 28 figs., 64 refs. (Author)

  6. Nuclear Safety through International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flory, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident was the worst at a nuclear facility since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. It caused deep public anxiety and damaged confidence in nuclear power. Following this accident, strengthening nuclear safety standards and emergency response has become an imperative at the global level. The IAEA is leading in developing a global approach, and the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety is providing a comprehensive framework and acting as a significant driving force to identify lessons learned and to implement safety improvements. Strengthening nuclear safety is addressed through a number of measures proposed in the Action Plan including 12 main actions focusing on safety assessments in the light of the accident. Significant progress has been made in assessing safety vulnerabilities of nuclear power plants, strengthening the IAEA's peer review services, improvements in emergency preparedness and response capabilities, strengthening and maintaining capacity building, as well as widening the scope and enhancing communication and information sharing with Member States, international organizations and the public. Progress has also been made in reviewing the IAEA's safety standards, which continue to be widely applied by regulators, operators and the nuclear industry in general, with increased attention and focus on accident prevention, in particular severe accidents, and emergency preparedness and response.

  7. IHY - An International Cooperative Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Davila, J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Thompson, B.

    2007-05-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) in 2007/2008 involves thousands of scientists representing over 70 nations. It consists of four distinct elements that will be described here. Taking advantage of the large amount of heliophysical data acquired routinely by a vast number of sophisticated instruments aboard space missions and at ground-based observatories, IHY aims to develop the basic science of heliophysics through cross-disciplinary studies of universal processes by means of Coordinated Investigation Programs (CIPs). The second component is in collaboration with the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) and consists of the deployment of arrays of small, inexpensive instruments such as magnetometers, radio antennas, GPS receivers, etc. around the world to provide global measurements. An important aspect of this partnership is to foster the participation of developing nations in heliophysics research. IHY coincides with the commemoration of 50 years of the space age that started with launch of Sputnik on October 4, 1957 and it is on the brink of a new age of space exploration where the Moon, Mars and the outer planets will be the focus of the space programs in the next years. As a result, it presents an excellent opportunity to create interest for science among young people with the excitement of discovery of space. The education and outreach program forms another cornerstone of IHY. Last but not least, an important part of the IHY activities, its forth component, is to preserve the history and memory of IGY 1957.

  8. Economics and technology in international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume presents the main address, the lectures and the discussions of the symposium. The papers presented to the symposium were the following: the Draft Convention on the Law of the Sea and problems of the international deep seabed regime; developments in science and technology, as a challenge to international law; modern fishery engineering and its impact on international law; the EEC agricultural market - a case study of European Law; problems of international law in connection with a new system of the world economy; the GATT and a new world economic system; the Third World and UNCTAD; international disaster relief and mutual assistance in case of accidents, especially with a view to Atomic Energy Law; organisation, scope and limits of international co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  9. MONJU AS AN INTERNATIONAL ASSET: INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND COOPERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Wisner, R.S.; Stuart, R.

    2004-01-01

    The role of the fast breeder reactor prototype Monju has expanded to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Today instead of being merely a demonstration of an economical, safe, environmentally responsible source of energy, as originally designed, it has also the capability to be transformed into a unique International Irradiations Test Facility. The potential for Monju's role in the Generation IV nuclear energy systems development, and fast reactor research and development area is clear. Its incomparable fast neutron spectrum density will be a major interest not only for Sodium Fast Reactor but for all the Generation IV concepts. As Monju's potential future role is laid out, plans for future tests can be made. Tests of advanced fuels and materials in support of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, as well as Minor Actinide Burning can be envisaged. Tests planned on transmutation of minor actinides have the objectives of an industrial demonstration of the reduction of toxic wastes and the stewardship burden of the long-lived wastes. Tests and demonstrations carried out at Monju will provide a bridge from existing Generation III fast reactor systems, now in the later stages of their projected operational lifetimes, to Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The JNC founded the International Cooperation and Technology Development Center and the International Research Fellowship program to facilitate this international effort. The Center exists specifically to formulate and perform projects ensuring the maximum technical benefit from Monju. The staff includes physicists, engineers and nuclear industry leaders from around the world. Research Fellowships center is based on several technical areas: advanced instrumentation, inspection techniques, plant reliability and safety, nucleonics, sodium handling technologies, irradiation and experiment management and coordination and advanced post-irradiation examination capabilities and techniques. This paper describes the recent

  10. Education, ethics, and solidarity in international cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Lima de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes an experience in technical cooperation between Brazil and Andean countries in the form of the International Course in the Management of Human Resource Policies in Health. This exploratory documental study encompassed a number of Latin American countries whose institutions of higher education had partnerships with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, mediated by the Pan American Health Organization Representation in Brazil. The course experience shows that fundamental values like ethics and solidarity are determinant to the success of technical cooperation processes.

  11. [International cooperation on aging: areas and players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, A V; Mikhaĭlova, O N

    2014-01-01

    This review article is devoted to the issues of international cooperation on ageing. It aims at describing the basic areas of cooperation and introducing its major players. Within the limited length of a journal article it is hardly possible to offer an exhaustive presentation of all available information; thus the article strives to provide a general orientation within the selected themes. The authors are hopeful that the presented materials will be of interest to the policy oriented researchers, policy makers and professionals working in the field of ageing and related areas such as social security, health and social services etc., as well as to the activists of non-governmental organizations.

  12. Education, ethics, and solidarity in international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Janete Lima de; Vilar, Rosana Lucia Alves de; Germano, Raimunda Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes an experience in technical cooperation between Brazil and Andean countries in the form of the International Course in the Management of Human Resource Policies in Health. This exploratory documental study encompassed a number of Latin American countries whose institutions of higher education had partnerships with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, mediated by the Pan American Health Organization Representation in Brazil. The course experience shows that fundamental values like ethics and solidarity are determinant to the success of technical cooperation processes.

  13. Hydroacoustics and infrasound: Possibilities for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The data provided by the International Monitoring system and the Products generated by the International data Center will be a unique source not only for CTBT verification but also for other activities. Although the utility of hydro acoustic and infrasonic data for such purposes is less obvious than that of seismic and radionuclide data, there are several possible applications for hazard and disaster warning purposes, and many potential long-term benefits for research and development. Such wider benefits from the monitoring system will best be realized through open international cooperation

  14. International Cooperation in Physics - Opportunities and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, James P.

    2000-03-01

    The rapid advances in high speed digital communications are making new scientific achievements feasible. This presents a new opportunity for all scientists, especially those in developing countries, to participate in world-class science at a reasonable cost. ``Virtual Laboratories" or ``Collaboratories" provide promising mechanisms to bridge geographical boundaries and infrastructure disparities. While science and technology are recognized as engines of economic development, they are also keys to addressing societal problems and fostering peace. Following the historical precedent of CERN founded after World War II, an initiative organized by UNESCO to create a world-class research institute in the Middle East is underway. A synchrotron light-source is being offered by Germany as the key experimental facility. This project called ``Synchrotron Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East" or ``SESAME" offers a special opportunity for basic and applied science in the Arab nations of the Middle East to take a giant leap forward. I will review the current status of this initiative and indicate the opportunities and challenges for countries of the Middle East. An emerging mega-science project in Astronomy is the ``Southern Africa Large Telescope" or ``SALT" which, when completed, will be the Southern Hemisphere's largest single telescope. University partners in the US are pledging support for SALT’s construction and operation. SALT promises to become a focal point of world-class basic science in Sub-Saharan Africa. The primary obstacles to international cooperation involving scientists in developing countries stem from scarce financial resources needed to allow potential collaborators to meet and explore where the win-win opportunities reside. Follow up support is a second major obstacle.

  15. Economic game theory for mutualism and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István; Hoffman, Moshe; Frederickson, Megan E; Pierce, Naomi E; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-12-01

    We review recent work at the interface of economic game theory and evolutionary biology that provides new insights into the evolution of partner choice, host sanctions, partner fidelity feedback and public goods. (1) The theory of games with asymmetrical information shows that the right incentives allow hosts to screen-out parasites and screen-in mutualists, explaining successful partner choice in the absence of signalling. Applications range from ant-plants to microbiomes. (2) Contract theory distinguishes two longstanding but weakly differentiated explanations of host response to defectors: host sanctions and partner fidelity feedback. Host traits that selectively punish misbehaving symbionts are parsimoniously interpreted as pre-adaptations. Yucca-moth and legume-rhizobia mutualisms are argued to be examples of partner fidelity feedback. (3) The theory of public goods shows that cooperation in multi-player interactions can evolve in the absence of assortment, in one-shot social dilemmas among non-kin. Applications include alarm calls in vertebrates and exoenzymes in microbes. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Importance and Necessity of International Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domnica Doina Parcalabu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of human society as a whole, the states and nations of the world has been possible due to international relations have been established and settled in time. In bilateral or multilateralinternational relations, countries have developed cooperative activities in a variety of areas, focusing on economic, cultural, environmental, political, military and legal. Progress in all areas in the past century haveimposed structural changes in the architecture world, something which inevitably led to the creation of a new international order, with the intensification of political dialogue that promoted peace, the need to respecthuman rights and fundamental freedoms, the principles of democracy and the rule of law. International cooperation is based on the principle of the permanent status and thus independence and sovereignty of theirdomestic law, held in legal rules produced. Over time, cooperation of states was carried out under bilateral or multilateral legal instruments, resulting in agreements, conventions, treaties etc. These legal instruments havea regional, regional or universal, against the interests of the signatories, the magnitude and importance of the areas addressed. Concerns in the direction of international cooperation have existed since ancient times(particularly in military and commercial, developing and diversifying them into permanent, over time, according to the existing common interests at a time between different states.

  17. 'Economic' and 'Political' cooperation in various climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    Cooperation in the economic sense considers efficiency issues. Cooperation in the political sense, like the Kyoto Protocol, considers other issues like equity and historical responsibility. The environmental and economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol and other scenarios are thus examined. The US pullout may then be viewed, among others, as the result of not untying 'economic' and 'political' cooperation; and since the Protocol will be much less effective without the US, it is shown that an external economic stimulus should and may theoretically be found for retaining their participation

  18. International cooperation in cold forging technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Lange, K

    1992-01-01

    International cooperation in the field of cold forging technology started in 1961 by formation of the OECD Group of Experts on Metal Forming. In 1967 this group was transformed into the International Cold Forging Group, ICFG, an independent body which has now been operative for 25 years. Members...... of the ICFG are personally elected by the Plenary as experts within the field, often representing national groups within cold forging. The main work within the ICFG is carried out in its subgroups which are established by the Plenary to collect, compile and evaluate data and eventually also produce data...... by cooperative activities or by instigating national research. These subgroups have produced 9 data sheets and 7 guidelines on subjects such as materials, tool design and construction, calculation methods for cold forging tools, manufacture of slugs, lubrication aspects and small quantity production. Plenary...

  19. The benefit of sustainable industrial cooperation. Study on the economical and ecological benefits of industrial cooperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, D.H.J.M.; Lavrijsen, T.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2005-01-01

    From scientific literature and policy memoranda it appears that sustainable industrial cooperatives result into economical and ecological benefits. However, little empirical data on practical results is available. Therefore, recently, an analysis has been carried out determining the benefit of industrial cooperation. The economical and ecological offer businesses a cost-effective option to reduce the environmental burden. Still, real implementation of such cooperatives is only realized yet by forerunners in the field of environmental management [nl

  20. NEA international co-operative projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This text is consecrated at the international co-operative projects of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of reactor safety (Halden reactor project, Loft project, studies on the damaged Three Mile Island unit-2 reactor, inspection of reactor steel components, incident reporting system) and in the field of radioactive waste management (Stripa project, geochemical data bases, Alligator river project, seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste, decommissioning of nuclear facilities)

  1. International cooperation and amateur meteor work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggemans, P.

    Today, the existing framework for international cooperation among amateur meteor workers offers numerous advantages. However, this is a rather recent situation. Meteor astronomy, although popular among amateurs, was the very last topic within astronomy to benefit from a truly international approach. Anyone attempting long term studies of, for instance, meteor stream structures will be confronted with the systematic lack of usable observations due to the absence of any standards in observing, recording and reporting, any archiving or publishing policy. Visual meteor observations represent the overall majority of amateur efforts, while photographic and radio observing were developed only in recent decades as technological specialties of rather few meteor observing teams.

  2. International ties. [international cooperation in the space sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of NASA's participation in international activities in space science is given. The Ariel, Alouette, Isis, and San Marco satellite programs are addressed along with sounding rocket and ground based projects. Relations and cooperation with the Soviet Union are also discussed.

  3. An information economic rationale for cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We consider how to organise the processing and marketing of an agricultural product when farming costs are known only by the individual farmers. We show that when marginal costs are uncorrelated, the market for final goods is competitive, and the market for processing is non-competitive, the soci......-competitive, the socially optimal production levels are sustained by a cooperative and a cooperative only. We show also that the cooperative form is particularly useful when the cost uncertainty is large and the net average revenue product is small....

  4. Socio-Economic Analysis Of Cooperative Business Management In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groups. Given the high relevance of cooperatives as instruments of economic self reliance and empowerment, policy initiatives that would strengthen these groups are recommended.. Keywords: Economic rationality, Socio-economic differential, Group formation. Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences Vol. 5 (1) 2007: pp.

  5. Practices on nuclear security and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ning

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear terrorism has been a great threat against the safety and security of the world. It has been reached the consensus by international community to strengthen the nuclear security regime to protect the nuclear and other radiological materials and related facilities. Protection of the security of nuclear and other radiological materials in use, storage and transport and related facilities is always a important issue faced by each country and it depends on the technologies, funds and human resources can be utilized. As nuclear technology has been widely used in different area, China competent authorities have issued a series of regulations, implementation rules and guidelines on security of nuclear and radioactive materials and related facilities. China supports and has taken an active part in the international efforts to strengthen the international nuclear security regime to combat nuclear terrorism. China has paid great importance on international cooperations on nuclear security with IAEA and other countries. More than 10 various national workshops and training courses on nuclear security and physical protection were delivered per year, which provided a communication platform for Chinese facility operators and managers to know the international technology-development and share the research achievements. In cooperation with the IAEA, China has held a great number of regional and national training courses on physical protection and nuclear security since 1998. Different types of training, such as training on awareness, Design Basis Threat (DBT), physical security system design, equipments operation and vulnerability analysis, benefited the administrators, facility operators, engineers and technical staff in charge of physical security system design, operation and maintenance from China and regional countries. Under the framework of the bilateral agreement on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Technology (PUNT), China and U.S. jointly conducted a Technical Demo

  6. Globalization: prospects for future international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, I.P.

    2000-01-01

    When I say 'globalization', I think to that golden beginning when President Eisenhower gave his historical speech, 'Atomic Power for Peace,' to the General Assembly of U.N.O. in 1953. He proposed, for the first time, an international cooperation for sustaining the peaceful application of nuclear energy. Years later, the global nuclear dream was shaken by Chernobyl. Humankind had seen the reverse of globalization: any lack in project, execution, or operation of an NPP has global consequences. Still, why globalization? Globalization because global urbanization trends are an important factor for energy planners and this debate is vital for fueling the bigger cities of tomorrow. (author)

  7. Canadian involvement in international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, Jon.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1945 Canada has been actively involved in the development of an international consensus on measures to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In parallel with this involvement, Canada has entered into cooperation agreements with several countries under which nuclear materials, equipment and facilities have been supplied in connection with the medical, industrial, agricultural and electrical power applications of nuclear energy. This paper summarizes the actions taken by Canada to encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons [fr

  8. Canadian involvement in international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1945 Canada has been actively involved in the development of an international consensus on measures to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In parallel with this involvement, Canada has entered into cooperative agreements with several countries under which nuclear materials, equipment and facilities have been supplied in connection with the medical, industrial, agricultural and electrical power applications of nuclear energy. This paper summarizes the actions taken by Canada to encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons. (author)

  9. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTEMENTS FLOWS IN BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU-MARCEL JOIA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in a time when the world’s economy is in a constantly change. Foreign direct investments flows are in actual economy one of the most dynamic and prospective part of the world’s economy being in a continuous globalization. These international financial flows determine the traders who take part at the world’s economy to know to adopt a specific management in the international affairs field. We are viewers of an unprecedented expansion of foreign direct investments. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the foreign direct investments flows in Black Sea Economic Cooperation. This study is based on UNCTAD reports and on an econometrical model which gives us the possibility to create different analysis concerning FDI flow in this cooperation. So we defined a simple regression model, in which the dependent variable is represented by Nominal and real GDP, total and per capita, variable explicated by FDI flows, using as method the Least Squared, including 19 observations. Through this paper, we tried to illustrate the relation between the FDI flows and the economic growth rate in the past years inRomania, member of Black Sea Economic region. In line with a general upward trend in FDI to Central and Eastern Europe, inward FDI to the Russian Federation held steady between 1998 and 2001, at an annual average of $2.8 billion. In Black Sea Economic region, Russian average is the biggest one, Russia being a leader country in warding FDI. The Russian Federation is by far the leading investor country in the region, accounting for more than 75% of its annual outflows. Inward and outward direct investments flows in Russia have reached in 2009 an amount of $38,722 billion. In Romania, following years of stagnation at very low levels, 1991 to 1997, FDI flows reached $1.1 billion in 2002. Inflows to Bulgaria peaked at $1 billion in 2000; the surge is largely due to flows from developed countries. Inward and outward direct investments flows in

  10. Alternative Forms of International Cooperation: Comparing Their Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan

    1978-01-01

    The author, an economist, discusses nine forms of international cooperation according to their strengths, and invites representatives of other disciplines to comment on international cooperation. Discusses relevant concepts and the estimation of optimal procedures for cooperation. Available from: Unipub, Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York, New…

  11. Town gas business and international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Eiji (Japan Gas Association, Tokyo, (Japan))

    1989-07-01

    It is effective to exchange marketing know-how between gas undertakers beyond the frame of countries and to hold technically developed results such as fuel cells and gas engine heat pump in common. The papers which were presented by Japan in the international conference of the World Gas Union, increased step by step and arrived at 25% of all in 1989. About 2/3 of raw materials utilized by Japanese gas industry is LNG, of which total amount is imported. Further, 90% or more LNG is imported from Asian district. Therefore, it ia very important to make the positive correspondence by building-up the basic conditions such as stable supply of raw materials through forming excellent social and human relations exceeding the simple commercial transaction via the international cooperation with these countries. For this reason, it is firstly important to cooperate the upbringing of capable men who have powerful and wide knowledge and technique required to promote gas business with Asian countries. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Organizational choices for international cooperation: East-West European cooperation on regional environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Barbara Mary

    This dissertation applies theoretical insights from transaction cost economics to explain and predict the organizational form of cooperative agreements between Eastern and Western Europe in areas of regional environmental and political concern. It examines five contracting problems related to nuclear power safety and acid rain, and describes the history of international negotiations to manage these problems. It argues that the level of interdependence in a given issue area, or costly effects experienced in one state due to activities and decisions of other states, along with the level of transactional vulnerability, or sunk costs invested in support of a particular contractual relationship among these states, are key determinants of the governance structures states choose to facilitate cooperation in that issue area. Empirically, the dissertation traces the evolution of three sets of institutional arrangements related to nuclear safety: governance for western nuclear safety assistance to Eastern Europe, negotiations of a global convention on safety standards for nuclear power plants, and contracts among utilities and multilateral banks to build new nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe. Next it studies European acid rain, chronicling the history of international acid rain controls within the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and the European Union, and finally examining institutional arrangements for burden-sharing to promote European bargains on emissions reduction, including bilateral aid transfers and proposals for multilateral burden sharing. Political actors have a wide range of choice among institutional arrangements to facilitate international cooperation, from simple market-type exchanges, to arbitration-type regimes that provide information and enhance reputation effects, to self-enforcing agreements such as issue-linkage, to supranational governance. The governance structures states devise to manage their cooperative

  13. International cooperation in the field of radiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shoichi

    1993-01-01

    Bilateral and multilateral research cooperations have been implemented at TRCRE, JAERI, producing favourable results in the field of radiation application. Frameworks and some achievements are described and the significance of the international cooperation is discussed. (Author)

  14. Proceedings of International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This proceedings are for the International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North-East Asia, organized by Korea Energy Economics Institute, Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, held on June 2001 at Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel in Seoul, Korea. The major themes discussed are following: 1.Energy Profile, Outlook and Perspectives on Regional Co-operation in Northeast Asia 2.Future Challenges in the Energy Sector in Northeast Asia 3.Perspectives of Energy Co-operation in Northeast Asia.

  15. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  16. A project in support of international nuclear cooperation activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongkong; Kim, Myungro; Choi, Pyunghoon; Kim, Kyungpyo; Jung, Sunghyon; Park, Jiyeon; Eom, Jaesik; Kim, Wangkeun; Chung, Byungsun

    2011-12-15

    This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U. S. A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an effective way.

  17. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2009-01-01

    ... and emerging economies. While all of the member countries are considered to be economically advanced and collectively produce three-fourths of the world's goods and services, membership is limited only by a...

  18. Ukraine’s trade and economic priorities in the Black sea economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Goncharuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of trade and economic priorities of Ukraine’s integration into the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC. The country’s integration options have been analyzed including the Western European vs. pro-Russian integration vector, the bidirectional gravity model, and an alte — native subregional cooperation direction. Ukraine’s sectoral priorities for deepening economic cooperation with the BSEC member countries in the context of implementation of the national interests have been identified, in particular in the field of goods, transport and tourism services, and energy trading. The ways of and instruments for improving Ukraine’s trade activities within the framework of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation have been offered for the various working groups of the Organization that are focused on such areas of cooperation as macroeconomics, policy and law, finance and economics, science and technology, culture and society, infrastructure, and institutional renewal.

  19. International pollution control: Cooperative versus noncooperative strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dockner, E.J.; Van Long, N.

    1993-01-01

    International pollution control involving two neighboring countries is modeled as a simple two-player dynamic game. Each country produces a good that is consumed by domestic households. Production of each consumption good results in emissions of pollutants. Households in each country derive utility from the consumption of the domestically produced good but incur costs through the total stock of pollution (stock externality). In this setting we characterize cooperative as well as noncooperative pollution control strategies of the governments of the two countries that maximize the discounted stream of net benefits of a representative consumer. It turns out that when the governments are restricted to use linear strategies noncooperative behavior results in overall losses for both countries. If, on the contrary, governments use nonlinear Markov-perfect strategies and the discount rate is small enough a Pareto-efficient steady-state pollution stock can be supported as a differentiable subgame-perfect equilibrium. Thus, the emergence of first-best solutions (cooperative outcomes) does not require any institutional arrangements (threats, retaliation, etc.) but can be brought about through the use of nonlinear Markov-perfect equilibrium strategies. 20 refs., 1 tab

  20. Spacelab - Ten years of international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignier, M.; Harrington, J. C.; Sander, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The history, current status, and future plans of the Spacelab program are reviewed, with a focus on the cooperative relationship between ESA and NASA. The initial decision to undertake the program and the three agreements signed to begin its implementation are examined, and the division of responsibilities and financial contributions is discussed insofar as it affected the management structure. Consideration is given to the major facilities, the 50-mission operational cycle, communications, the currently scheduled activities (through 1985), the prospective later uses, and the ten dedicated discipline laboratories. The importance of continuous mutual support during the planning and development phases is stressed. The program so far is considered a success, in terms of the goals set by the participants and in terms of the resolution of the problems inherent in international technological endeavors.

  1. Enhancing R&D in Nuclear Malaysia Through International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Muin Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia is mandated by the Government of Malaysia, inter alia, to spearhead Research and Development (R&D) in nuclear and related technology. Technically, nuclear technology is a highly specialised subject in which expertise are thinly spread over the globe with concentration in mainly developed countries. Nuclear technology also tends to be politically sensitive and handling of radioactive materials and equipment needs high level of skills and knowledge for the safe and secured uses of this technology and needs to be regulated. Hence international cooperation and multilateral approach is of vital importance for the development and sustainability of peaceful uses of nuclear technology and to provide assurance that the interests of all parties are safeguarded and remains in check. In this context, the International Atomic Energy Agency or the IAEA, a UN agency, plays a vital role where international cooperation in nuclear technologies is centred. Malaysia also contributed a fair amount of financial resources to the IAEA as part of its international obligations to keep the Agency afloat. This paper provides an insight into various services and facilities offered or available at the IAEA in which researchers in Nuclear Malaysia could utilize in order to expand and enhance their R&D activities in nuclear and related technologies, as mandated by the Government of Malaysia, as well as ensuring that the investments will provide good returns in terms of socio-economic benefits, both tangible and intangible. (author)

  2. Cooperation, social capital and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernandes Gonçalves da Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define social capital as social infrastructure and to try to include this variable in an economic growth model. Considering social capital in such a way could have an impact on the productivity of production factors. Firstly, I will discuss how institutional variables can affect growth. Secondly, after analyzing several definitions of social capital, I will point out the benefits and problems of each one and will define social capital as social infrastructure, aiming to introduce this variable into an economic growth model. Finally, I will try to open the way for subsequent empirical studies, both in the area of measuring the stock of social infrastructure as well as those comparing economies, with the idea of showing the impact of social infrastructure on economic growth.

  3. A note on cooperative versus non-cooperative strategies in international pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, Santiago J.; Casino, Begona [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Valencia, Avda. de los Naranjos s/n, Edificio Departamental Oriental, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    In this note, we evaluate the scope of Dockner and Long's [Journal of Environment Economics and Management 24 (1993) 13] conclusion on the efficiency of the non-cooperative outcome in a differential game of international pollution control. We also complete the study of the different equilibria the differential game can present. Our results show that their conclusion requires that the initial value of the stock of pollution be higher than the Pareto-efficient pollution stock so that the equilibrium path of emissions involves a decreasing stock of pollution. Our results also show that the application of the procedure proposed by Tsutsui and Mino [Journal of Economic Theory 52 (1990) 136] to construct a Markov-perfect equilibrium using non-linear strategies is problematic when the initial pollution stock is lower than the Pareto-efficient pollution stock.

  4. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    India , Indonesia, and South Africa with a view toward possible membership. The member countries rely on the OECD Secretariat in Paris to collect...science and technology, internet, tax and anti-bribery standards, gender , green growth; public management; and globalization and development. One... inequality that arises from necessary economic adjustments. In addition, the initiative will address the needs and issues of developing countries

  5. A Project in Support of International Nuclear Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Ro; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Jung, Sung Hyon; Shim, Jae Sun

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the strategies of international cooperation in order to promote our nation's leading role in international community, to lay the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing in the international nuclear communities. This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U.S.A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an effective way

  6. A Project in Support of International Nuclear Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Ro; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Jung, Sung Hyon; Shim, Jae Sun

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this study is to establish the strategies of international cooperation in order to promote our nation's leading role in international community, to lay the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing in the international nuclear communities. This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U.S.A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an

  7. A Project in Support of International Nuclear Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Ro; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Jung, Sung Hyon; Shim, Jae Sun

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study is to establish the strategies of international cooperation in order to promote our nation's leading role in international community, to lay the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing in the international nuclear communities. This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U.S.A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an

  8. Scientific and technical aspects of international cooperation in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligalo, V.M.; Nosovs'kij, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2000: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  9. Cooperative Security: New Horizons for International Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Richard; Mihalka, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Both are controversial. Richard Cohen presents a compelling and highly original model of Cooperative Security -- a term that once was applied almost exclusively to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE...

  10. International co-operation in the management of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Changsun [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    The use of nuclear energy faces with the problem of radioactive waste disposal. The public simply abhors radioactive wastes without rightful cause. Hence, the immediate concern is to overcome this hostile preconception of the public, and to come up with safe and economic ways of disposal which are acceptable to the public. Without it, the public may not accept the idea of further use of nuclear energy. Some have concern about safeguards of fissile plutonium with respect to proliferation while others have concerns regarding protection beyond national borders related to movement of radioactive wastes for foreign disposal. Now, the disposal of radioactive waste is a global problem rather than a problem for individual nation. In this aspect, close international cooperation is recently being brought up more than ever in jointly: improving public acceptance, minimizing waste generation, eliminating the burden on future generations, developing internationally acceptable practices, exploring disposal concepts, and collaborating on R and D. (author)

  11. International co-operation in the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Changsun

    1998-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy faces with the problem of radioactive waste disposal. The public simply abhors radioactive wastes without rightful cause. Hence, the immediate concern is to overcome this hostile preconception of the public, and to come up with safe and economic ways of disposal which are acceptable to the public. Without it, the public may not accept the idea of further use of nuclear energy. Some have concern about safeguards of fissile plutonium with respect to proliferation while others have concerns regarding protection beyond national borders related to movement of radioactive wastes for foreign disposal. Now, the disposal of radioactive waste is a global problem rather than a problem for individual nation. In this aspect, close international cooperation is recently being brought up more than ever in jointly: improving public acceptance, minimizing waste generation, eliminating the burden on future generations, developing internationally acceptable practices, exploring disposal concepts, and collaborating on R and D. (author)

  12. RUSSIA RETURNS TO AFGHANISTAN: PROSPECTS OF BILATERAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н Асеф

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available He article discusses the dynamics of the development of the economic situation in the Is-lamic Republic of Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, and the current state and prospects of development of Russian-Afghan trade and economic relations. Russia and Afghanistan have a long history of cooperation. In the XX century, the Soviet Union provided economic assistance to Afghanistan, including the financing and construction of objects of industry and infrastructure, which are now in need of rehabili-tation and modernization. The accumulated experience of cooperation makes Russia may be one of the major players in Afghani-stan and participate in reconstruction of the country. The relevance of this article stems from the fact that at the present time in conditions of economic sanctions and the deterioration of relations with countries of the West, Russia intends to renew and develop relationships with long-term partners. Today Afghanistan is trying to recover from the devastating effects of years of civil war, and invite Russia to join this process. This means that Russia had a unique chance to return and gain a foothold in the market of Afghanistan, which will be an advantage for the development of cooperation between the two countries. The task of the article is analysis of the economic situation in Afghanistan, in order to study the possibilities of deepening and development of Russian-Afghan trade and economic cooperation. The analysis of Russian-Afghan relations showed that to date, despite the existence of certain problems faced by our country, the development of trade and economic relations is a promising direction of bilateral cooperation.

  13. International Cooperation of Payload Operations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Tina; Onken, Jay

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide an orbiting laboratory to be used to conduct scientific research and commercial products utilizing the unique environment of space. The ISS Program has united multiple nations into a coalition with the objective of developing and outfitting this orbiting laboratory and sharing in the utilization of the resources available. The primary objectives of the real- time integration of ISS payload operations are to ensure safe operations of payloads, to avoid mutual interference between payloads and onboard systems, to monitor the use of integrated station resources and to increase the total effectiveness of ISS. The ISS organizational architecture has provided for the distribution of operations planning and execution functions to the organizations with expertise to perform each function. Each IPP is responsible for the integration and operations of their payloads within their resource allocations and the safety requirements defined by the joint program. Another area of international cooperation is the sharing in the development and on- orbit utilization of unique payload facilities. An example of this cooperation is the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The hardware was developed by ESA and provided to NASA as part of a barter arrangement.

  14. Economic Foundations of International Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    The discipline of International Business, henceforth IB, is a child of the 1960s. It has developed into a respectable branch of the social sciences, with strong links to a number of disciplines such as marketing, strategy, organization, cultural studies and economics. All along it has been...... discussed if IB should be anchored in separate departments or integrated in other functional departments, reflecting the topic whether “internationalization” is sufficiently powerful to command its own strands of teaching, or it should be incorporated in finance, marketing, organization and strategy...... and on the top of it all the eclectic paradigm which attempts to catch most of the rest under a very wide umbrella. Entry, or operation modes and the organizational design of the international company still play significant roles, not least the multinational enterprise and its cross-border investments, FDI...

  15. International human cooperation in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Koreyuki; Kaieda, Keisuke; Makuuchi, Keizo; Takada, Kazuo; Nomura, Masayuki

    1997-01-01

    Rearing of talented persons in the area of nuclear energy is one of the important works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the present situations and future schedules of international human cooperation in this area wsere summarized. First, the recent activities of International Nuclear Technology Center were outlined in respect of international human cooperation. A study and training course which was started in cooperation with JICA and IAEA from the middle of eighties and the international nuclear safety seminar aiming at advancing the nuclear safety level of the world are now being put into practice. In addition, a study and training for rearing talented persons was started from 1996 to improve the nuclear safety level of the neighbouring countries. The activities of the nuclear research interchange system by Science and Technology Agency established in 1985 and Bilateral Co-operation Agreement from 1984 were explained and also various difficulties in the international cooperation were pointed out. (M.N.)

  16. Enhancement of international cooperation and experience exchange - international and regional cooperation in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper will explore methods that have been effective in accomplishing broad-based technology transfer relationships between international commercial nuclear organizations, and have enhanced the benefits from such relationships through mutual participation in the development of new technology. The factors involved in accomplishing technology transfer will be examined based on the 25 years of Westinghouse experience in establishing successful nuclear technology relationships with over 20 different associates world-wide. This will include information pertaining to organization, training, consultation, technical information transmission, and other important aspects of technology transfer. Additionally, the methodology of enhancing and increasing the benefits of technology transfer through cooperative development programs as produced and promoted by Westinghouse with its associates will be examined. This will include reviews of several significant cooperative programs, such as the programs for the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor and the Integrated Protection and Control Systems for future plants

  17. Recommendations for Optimizing Internal Management Mechanism of Farmers’ Specialized Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingxiao; CHEN

    2016-01-01

    Based on the survey of 38 farmers’ specialized cooperatives in Hubei Province,this paper analyzed existing problems in internal management mechanism of cooperatives,including widespread problem of centralized control,imperfect supervision mechanism,lack of effective incentive mechanism,insufficient specialized personnel,and limited participation of cooperative members in management. It elaborated causes for these problems from the perspective of practice. Finally,it came up with recommendations for optimizing farmers’ specialized cooperatives: building democratic decision making mechanism with coordination of cooperative members and able personnel,establishing supervision mechanism suitable for self demands,improving internal incentive mechanism,establishing talent introduction and cultivation mechanism in proper time,and strengthening internal member management of cooperatives.

  18. COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF ECONOMICS, OF SCIENCE AND MEDICINE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina-Consuela FORNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of medical cooperation raises many questions current and controversial, which are the focus of interest in socio-political and legal, such as debates on instruments to combat the high costs, the public health system, legislation aimed at ensuring health, tobacco consumption, alcohol, obesity and others. Public health legislation deals with the framework conditions, legal and social aspects of public health, protection and deployment the law of public health on tobacco. The aim of this study is to identify the degree to which economic freedom correlates with indicators of development, health and economic cooperation in medicine field. In this regard, we consider useful to investigate how the correlation indicators of policy Health – 2020 with global and European economic development. Research methods are located in estimating the degree of international cooperation in the medicine field through statistical methods, comparison, graphics, deduction or induction.The results allow to formulate a whole picture regarding international cooperation in the field of medicine, combating different diseases but human vices as obesity, tobacco use, alcohol etc. Facilitation of cooperation in research and innovation is the key to bridging the gap between research and demand in different countries and regions.

  19. Links between internal and external cooperation in product development : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B; Biemans, WG

    While there is an overwhelming amount of publications on cooperation in product development projects, they mainly,focus on cooperation between business functions within an organization (internal cooperation) or on cooperation between organizations (external cooperation). Yet the relationship between

  20. The evolution of international cooperation up to the present time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Bertrand

    1978-01-01

    This paper delivered at the Symposium organised on the XXth anniservary of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recalls the historical background of nuclear cooperation which went through three stages : European collaboration, U.S. isolationist policy and finally, openness. Cooperation took place at three levels: bilateral and multilateral technical cooperation; creation of joint multinational undertakings; trade relations. The paper then examines three particular areas which illustrate the evolution of international nuclear cooperation, i.e., organisation of the uranium market, uranium enrichment and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. (NEA) [fr

  1. International cooperation in planetary exploration - Past success and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of the ways in which the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has participated in international efforts to explore the solar system. Past examples of successful international cooperative programs are described. Prospects for future cooperative efforts are discussed with emphasis placed on current events, issues, and trends which are likely to affect possibilities for cooperation over the next 5 to 10 years. Key factors which will play a major role in shaping future prospects for cooperation include the move towards balancing the budget in the United States and the impact of the Challenger accident on the NASA program.

  2. The advantage of international fiscal cooperation under alternative monetary regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    We consider the strategic interplay between international monetary and fiscal cooperation in a world of interdependent economies. Motivated by the ongoing discussion of monetary unification of Europe, focus is on monetary cooperation, and in particular how its performance is altered by the introd......We consider the strategic interplay between international monetary and fiscal cooperation in a world of interdependent economies. Motivated by the ongoing discussion of monetary unification of Europe, focus is on monetary cooperation, and in particular how its performance is altered...

  3. A Study of Sino-Russian Energy Cooperation from the Perspective of Theories of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyue Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy cooperation is an important component in the Sino-Russia relationship. After more than a decade of efforts, China and Russia have made great progress in their cooperation in the area of oil and natural gas, which has not only promoted the economic developments in both countries, but also expanded their common interests to a large extent, resulting in a tremendous improvement of the two countries’ international strategies towards each other. Nevertheless, constrained and influenced by the evolution of contemporary international politics and economies, the Sino-Russia energy cooperation is facing some problems and barriers. Therefore, the aim of this article is to analyze the multiple elements affecting the Sino-Russia energy cooperation through the prism of Neo-realism, Neo-liberalism and Social Constructivism, hence a clear account of the opportunities and challenges that constitute this cooperation will be gained.

  4. COULD THE CORPORATIONS BECOME ENGINES FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Costea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the international market is crossed by complex operations and relations proving a large variety activity of companies. From all of them, the transnational corporation behaviors have caught the specialists’ interest, with their challenging particularities that enable for to designating the keyentities of global economic activity. The transnational corporations, the core of a creative and strong super network is worth becoming the engagement and devotion for a large proportion of global resources claimed to sustaining the sound growth processes. The organization and development of transnational corporations could also be considered as a boost in promotion international retailing companies in particular inter-trade. Traders have subsequently developed new techniques that revealed on the one hand the capital from developed countries, the mother country of transnational corporation, and on the other hand the resources from the host countries. As the world crisis has affected the large corporations through insufficient liquidity, the moment could help in developing those techniques to apply them for stimulating the emergence of alternative methods of financing business operations and cooperation in production and sales. Our paper is developed on research documentation and intends to bring some new contribution to the above mentioned topics, sustaining the sound farther development based on alternative tools and techniques that could give a lift face to the efforts incorporated and another image to the big economic communities.

  5. Introduction to international economics. - 2nd ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Jepma, C.

    2011-01-01

    The second edition of Introduction to International Economics is a non-technical introduction to international economics that builds on the strengths of the first edition. It analyses in a practical way how the internationalization of economic activities influences companies, investors and

  6. Business Networks and Cooperation in International Business Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Desirée Blankenburg Holm; Kent Eriksson; Jan Johanson

    1996-01-01

    Cooperative relationships between firms can be better understood if they are examined in the context of a network of connected business relationships. Based on research on business relationships and business networks, this paper formulates a LISREL model that analyses cooperation in international business relationships between suppliers and customer firms. Theory suggests that cooperation can raise the value of business relationships, and that business network connections have an impact on co...

  7. The Impact of International Cooperation for the Development of Democracy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Prado Lallande

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Cold War, the developed countries agreed that democracy and human rights would be top priority goals of the international cooperation for development. However, nearly two decades after those official commitments, these goals have not been relevant elements of the international agenda, since political, economic and security issues still prevail over both values. This paper analyzes the existing situation, in reference to the U.S. and European Union experiences. The article includes some considerations for the improvement of the international cooperation ability to promote democracy and human rights in third world countries.

  8. Distributed Economic Dispatch in Microgrids Based on Cooperative Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weirong; Zhuang, Peng; Liang, Hao; Peng, Jun; Huang, Zhiwu; Weirong Liu; Peng Zhuang; Hao Liang; Jun Peng; Zhiwu Huang; Liu, Weirong; Liang, Hao; Peng, Jun; Zhuang, Peng; Huang, Zhiwu

    2018-06-01

    Microgrids incorporated with distributed generation (DG) units and energy storage (ES) devices are expected to play more and more important roles in the future power systems. Yet, achieving efficient distributed economic dispatch in microgrids is a challenging issue due to the randomness and nonlinear characteristics of DG units and loads. This paper proposes a cooperative reinforcement learning algorithm for distributed economic dispatch in microgrids. Utilizing the learning algorithm can avoid the difficulty of stochastic modeling and high computational complexity. In the cooperative reinforcement learning algorithm, the function approximation is leveraged to deal with the large and continuous state spaces. And a diffusion strategy is incorporated to coordinate the actions of DG units and ES devices. Based on the proposed algorithm, each node in microgrids only needs to communicate with its local neighbors, without relying on any centralized controllers. Algorithm convergence is analyzed, and simulations based on real-world meteorological and load data are conducted to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  9. UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AS A MEANS FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia DONCHENKO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Programs of international cooperation in higher education claim to promote peace and intercultural understanding, contribute to development of efficient human resources as well as research and innovation. For centuries, universities were centers of progress that ensure community’s development. Processes of globalization, internationalization, rapid development of information technology transform the mission of university, challenging modern universities to join forces to meet growing needs of knowledge society. The European Higher Education Area is continuously working to reduce mismatch of skills between the workforce and labor market. International cooperation in education has fundamental potential for reducing economic disparity. Ukrainian government views higher education as a means of growth and development and considers international activity pivotal in responding to global and regional change and achieving world quality standards of education. The aim of this paper is to explore potential of international cooperation in higher education in globalized world by examining selected international projects and their outcomes.

  10. Strengthening international health co-operation in Africa through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are the pillars of the African Union (AU), and have been recognized by the AU as the key vehicles for economic integration and cooperation in Africa. The 2003 Session of the AU Conference of African Ministers of. Health (CAMH) considered and adopted, inter alia, ...

  11. The atom in international co-operation. Peace and progress through co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This issue describes the role of the IAEA in the context of international cooperation in bringing the benefits of atoms or nuclear energy in energy production, public health, water resources management and agriculture

  12. COOPERATION AND COORDINATION BETWEEN INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL AUDITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA DUMITRESCU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between external and internal auditors it is necessary to be a good cooperation and coordination; both professionals have to be involved in building a good working relationship. Objectives of the external and internal auditors are different from the company point of view, but in the achievement of the specific goals, there are interactions and work cooperation. If the internal auditors work together with the external auditors the results will be an increasing of the quality and the effectiveness of the organization`s systems and activities. If the external auditors work together with the internal auditors will result a decreasing of the amount of the testing they do, and as consequences’ a reducing of the fees. Because there are many benefits of the cooperation between external and internal auditing it is important to find out how could be coordinated these two professional activities. This study has the purpose to examine the most important provisions that promote such kind of cooperation and work like necessary tools for coordination and to identify the Romanian`s internal and external auditors perceptions regarding that cooperation and coordination. The objective of the study is to identify the nature of the relationship between the internal audit function and the organizations’ external auditors regarding their interactions and their cooperation.

  13. The economic and social significance of RCA regional co-operative projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    The regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) is an established and valuable instrument between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Member States in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific or Far East for assisting in the transfer of modern technology to areas having economic and social importance to the region. The purpose of this review is to identify on-going or planned work which is designed to help achieve this goal. Currently approved RCA Regional Co-operative Research Projects are listed

  14. Strenghtening local curricular capacity in international development cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, C.K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Many curriculum development interventions carried out in international development cooperation lack sustainable outcomes, often as a result of a too narrow focus on curriculum and its development. Implementation of effective and encompassing approaches with an aligned focus on capacity development

  15. Social Constructivism and International Cooperation in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Elif

    2006-01-01

    International cooperation in Distance Education which is a very popular phenomenon today can be explained by the rise of social constructivism in social sciences, namely Education and International Relations, for the purpose of this paper. Social constructive approach in International Relations with its emphasis on building social bridges via…

  16. India's energy needs and areas of international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazir, S. N.

    1980-03-15

    India's energy position is poor because of relatively large imports of oil, and poor reserves. In the impending energy crisis, developing countries will suffer (whether or not it is oil-rich) unless international cooperation is forthcoming. Energy consumption patterns in India are shown in tables. Energy reserves are also analyzed, including nonconventional sources (geothermal, solar, etc.). Possible areas for international cooperation are explored. (DLC)

  17. Nuclear power and international cooperation - perceptions of the third world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The views of the Third World that need to be given consideration in international nuclear policy-making are presented in the following topical sections: background summary of developing countries energy needs and sources, incentives for nuclear power development in developing countries, the need for nuclear cooperation, the Non-proliferation Treaty, erosion of confidence of the recipient states in the reliability of international cooperation agreements, and perceptions of the Third World regarding energy and proliferation

  18. Creating a Pan-Asian model for international cooperation in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenhaber, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    The author stressed that as southeast Asian countries expand their participation in nuclear technology, a time has come for new forms of cooperation between nations. Cooperation will accelerate the entry of nations into the nuclear era, especially where a well developed industrial and technical base may not yet be available. By sharing the challenges of the technology and working together, nations may more quickly and economically afford the benefits of nuclear energy. Activities range from basic engineering to manufacturing and assembly of advanced modularized plants. Focus on nuclear requirements will help to build an indigenous industrial and technical base. Several models for international cooperation are presented

  19. The Impact of the Depth of Cooperation in Establishing Regional Economic Cooperatives in Szekelyland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Ilyés

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of the research: The apparition and operation of regional economic partnerships is a precondition of regional cooperation. In the society of our age it is of major importance to strengthen the communities’ values, which represent belonging, standing and last but not least financial security. This supposition can be taken as a general statement, but it is essential from the point of view of Szekely people’s picture about future, and has its part in finding ourselves. Building a community does not only mean sharing the same values and thoughts, but can also mean a common resource management in case the participants would like a joint utilization of values. A condition for this is cooperation, depending on the attitude of people with different behavior and value system. The topic has been dealt with by several researchers in the last few years, thus substantially contributing to the development of communities by highlighting those problematic areas, which supposingly influence contribution in each community. To get to know these areas I have conducted a study in the region of Udvarhely, from the results of this I have stated real conclusions, which are preconditions of the appearance of the cooperation and operation of economical cooperation in Szekelyland.

  20. Enhancement of international cooperation and experience exchange: international and regional cooperation in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will explore methods that have been effective in accomplishing broad-based technology transfer relationships between international commercial nuclear organizations, and have enhanced the benefits from such relationships through mutual participation in the development of new technology. The factors involved in accomplishing technology transfer will be examined based on the 25 years of Westinghouse experience in establishing successful nuclear technology relationships with over 20 different associates world-wide. This will include information pertaining to organization, training, consultation, technical information transmission, and other important aspects of technology transfer. Additionally, the methodology of enhancing and increasing the benefits of technology transfer through cooperative development programs as produced and promoted by Weatinghouse with its associates will be examined. This will include reviews of several significant copperative programs, such as the programs for the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor and the Integrated Protection and Control Systems for future plants. (author)

  1. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  2. Regional dimensions of international scientific and technical cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Chernytska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article has examined a phenomenon of international scientific and technical cooperation within individual regions, conditions and factors of its formation. It has been analyzed the evolution, basic essential features, models and trends of development of local innovation alliances, their participation in international scientific and technical cooperation. It has been proposed the priorities of formation of a quality mechanism to improve this form of cooperation in Ukraine and establishment of prerequisites for its expansion with European organizational structures that operate in innovation field (technology parks, technology clusters, innovation centers, etc..

  3. Nuclear power needs international solidarity and cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A report by Dr. Blix, director-general of IAEA, to the General Assembly of the United Nations is summarized. Some 15% of the world's entire power requirements are produced from nuclear energy. Thorough inspections, carried out at regular intervals, have not detected removal of any of this nuclear material for military purposes. Cooperation between governments is essential to prevent accidents and improve the safety of nuclear technology. (J.S.)

  4. International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability: Disability Inclusive Development and International Development Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozue Kay Nagata

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a historical momentum for disabled persons and their associates, as well as ODA workers in the development cooperation field all over the world. For the last two decades, persons with disabilities, their associates and professionals working in this field have promoted their human rights, equality, nondiscrimination and full participation. This Convention is beyond the concept of non-discrimination, and it is very comprehensive in its structure, scope and coverage, promoting developmental activities too in order to realize disabled people’s socio-economic rights. Furthermore it calls for international and regional development cooperation. Prior to its adoption, in September 2000 at the Millennium Summit the Member States of the Untied Nations issued the Millennium Declaration, committing themselves to a series of development targets, most of which are to be achieved by 2015. Known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, they represent a framework for achieving sustainable and "just" human development through broadening the benefits of development for all categories individuals, women and men, the poor and the rich, the disabled and the non-disabled. The very first goal of the MDG is the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. Poverty is both a cause and consequence of disability. Poverty and disability reinforce one another. Thus, it is necessary to ensure that persons with disabilities be an integral part of efforts to achieve MDGs, particularly in the areas of poverty alleviation, primary education, gender, employment and international development cooperation. In the Asian and Pacific region, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP has proclaimed two decades of disabled persons 1993-2002, and 2003-2013 (to which Iran became a signatory in 1994, and promoted the inclusive, barrier-free and rights

  5. Maintaining outer space for peaceful purposes through international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, George E.; Thacher, David J.; Kupperman, Helen S.

    1988-01-01

    NASA activities in support of international cooperation in space exploration and exploitation are briefly reviewed, with a focus on their compatibility with UN treaties. Particular attention is given to the provisions of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 and other applicable legislation, the over 1000 bilateral and international agreements NASA has entered into since 1958, international participation in currently ongoing NASA projects (Hubble Space Telescope, Galileo, Ulysses, Rosat, the D-2 Spacelab mission), and plans for the International Space Station.

  6. Cooperative biogas plants. Economic results and analyses. Status report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjort-Gregersen, K.

    1998-11-01

    The years 1995 - 1998 have been characterised by stabilisation of operation and economy of the Danish co-operative biogas plants. Most of the plants have obtained increasingly better economic results although the increase has been less significant than during earlier periods. There are several reasons for the increase. Most of the plants have been able to increase the sales income because of larger amounts of biomass available resulting in an increased biogas production. Furthermore it has been possible to contain the income level for biomass receipt. Several plants have established gas collection in storage tanks, which has resulted in increased gas yield. The operational stability related to both technique and processes have improved. The operational costs have been stabilised and are under control at most of the plants. The improved economic results have resulted in most of the plants having a satisfactory operation and economy. However, it must be stressed that some of the oldest plants have not been able to settle the investment dept at normal conditions. Also some, even rather new plants, still are in a difficult economic situation. Most of the plants established in the 90'ies have had a good start both operationally and economically. Thus the economic risk of establishing a plant has been reduced compared to earlier years. Generally the prerequisites for establishing a biogas plant are favourable economic conditions and quality assurance of the project. (LN)

  7. International Aspects of Nigeria's Economic Reforms | Iyoha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to draw a relationship between Nigeria's previous failed economic reforms and external influences from international financial institutions, which had constantly resulted in chronic economic misfortunes. Now that homegrown economic programmes are currently being undertaken in Africa through ...

  8. Successful international cooperation : The influence of cultural similarity, strategic differences, and international experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, JP; van der Zee, KI

    2002-01-01

    Cooperation between companies increasingly exceeds national borders. In the present study 78 international cooperation cases were examined. It was shown that similarity in national and corporate culture is associated with successful cooperation. On the other hand, with respect to corporate strategy,

  9. Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation '99. Changing economic environment and energy cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-16

    Compiled in this publication are the papers delivered at the above conference held in Tokyo on February 16-17, 1999. Presented in Session 1, entitled 'economic reforms and energy situation in Asian countries,' are the causes and lessons of economic and financial crisis in the Asian countries and the prospect of restoration; the outlook of energy supply and demand in the Asia Pacific region; and a message from APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) Okinawa Energy Ministers' Meeting. Discussed in Session 2, entitled 'energy security in the Asia Pacific region,' are the outlook for world oil prices; and the stable supply of oil and gas in the Asia Pacific region. Discussed in Session 3, entitled the 'deregulation of the energy sector in the Asia Pacific region,' are the deregulation of the power sector, progress and problems; and the privatization of the oil and gas sectors. Many papers are presented also in Session 4, entitled the 'energy and environment in the Asia Pacific region, and in Session 5 entitled 'pacific energy cooperation in the changing economic and energy environment.' (NEDO)

  10. Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation '99. Changing economic environment and energy cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-16

    Compiled in this publication are the papers delivered at the above conference held in Tokyo on February 16-17, 1999. Presented in Session 1, entitled 'economic reforms and energy situation in Asian countries,' are the causes and lessons of economic and financial crisis in the Asian countries and the prospect of restoration; the outlook of energy supply and demand in the Asia Pacific region; and a message from APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) Okinawa Energy Ministers' Meeting. Discussed in Session 2, entitled 'energy security in the Asia Pacific region,' are the outlook for world oil prices; and the stable supply of oil and gas in the Asia Pacific region. Discussed in Session 3, entitled the 'deregulation of the energy sector in the Asia Pacific region,' are the deregulation of the power sector, progress and problems; and the privatization of the oil and gas sectors. Many papers are presented also in Session 4, entitled the 'energy and environment in the Asia Pacific region, and in Session 5 entitled 'pacific energy cooperation in the changing economic and energy environment.' (NEDO)

  11. Progress of international cooperation of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Sadaaki; Ishikawa, Hidetaka; Eda, Hisao; Noda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kawahara, Akira; Nagano, Akira

    1999-01-01

    International cooperation on nuclear power technology under promotion of the Japan Electric Power Information Center can be divided roughly to two items: one is an assistant project of Japan Keirin Association and another is an international training of operation management and so forth on nuclear power plant trusted by Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Among upgrading needs of technical cooperation on nuclear power to the developing nations, the electric companies were received a request on private cooperation by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. In 1985, it was decided that the nuclear power technical cooperation through an subsidy project of the Japan Keirin Association was advanced mainly by every electric companies as a window of the Japan Electric Power Information Center in Japan Electric Industry Association. And, by receiving another request, the Japan Electric Power Information Center began an international training on operation management and so one of the nuclear power plant since October, 1992. Here were introduced outlines of both technical cooperation on nuclear power and international training on operation management. (G.K.)

  12. Where are the poor in International Economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carvalho; Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that a very significant proportion of the human population is living with financial difficulties and other constraints typical of poverty, scientific studies in the areas of Economics and especially in International Economics that address the issue of poverty and of poor countries are very few. Using bibliometric techniques, we measured the attention paid by authors from the field of International Economics to poverty and poor countries. To this end, we sorted and analyzed al...

  13. [International cooperation at Public Health: proposals to a debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Maria Andréa; Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Guimarães, Eduardo Ribas De Biase

    2010-07-01

    In the available literature, there is no study devoted to international cooperation in public health. This paper aims to partly fill this gap, raising and examining the state of art in this area as well as how it interferes in the evaluation of post-graduate programs. The study used secondary data available at CAPES "Indicators Journals", during the years of 1998 to 2006. It also analyzes foreign scholarships and special programs of cooperation of CAPES from 2005 to 2009 through a quantitative descriptive methodology. It shows that international cooperation in the area is relatively developed in a variety of themes and diverse partnerships, focusing in the United States. It is observed a positive correlation between the number of international cooperation and a high-concept program into the evaluation of CAPES, the last triennium of evaluation. The sub-areas where there is more cooperation are, in order: epidemiology; planning, and others. There is a variety of institutions, themes and subareas involved in international cooperation that could be a positive indicator in the evaluation, but as far as was possible to infer, no significant correlation in this direction was found.

  14. Space Station - Opportunity for international cooperation and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with his announcement regarding the development of a permanently manned Space Station, President Reagan invited the United States' friends and allies to join in the Space Station program. The President's invitation was preceded by more than two years of interaction between NASA and some of its potential partners in Space Station planning activities. Attention is given to international participation in Space Station planning, international cooperation on the Space Station, the guidelines for international cooperation, and the key challenges. Questions regarding quid pro quos are considered along with aspects of technology transfer, commercial use, problems of management, and the next steps concerning the Space Station program.

  15. Necessity of international cooperation for the prevention from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayatullah, M.

    1988-01-01

    The lessons learnt from nuclear accidents (Chernobyl and T.M.I.) and atomic bombs effects (Hiroshima, Nakasaki) have served to establish international conventions that insist on regional and international cooperation and on protection of workers and the public against the radiological effects. (author)

  16. International cooperation for Mars exploration and sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Eugene H.; Boynton, William V.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Carr, Michael H.; Kitchell, Jennifer H.; Mazur, Peter; Pace, Norman R.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Solomon, Sean C.; Wasserburg, Gerald J.

    1990-01-01

    The National Research Council's Space Studies Board has previously recommended that the next major phase of Mars exploration for the United States involve detailed in situ investigations of the surface of Mars and the return to earth for laboratory analysis of selected Martian surface samples. More recently, the European space science community has expressed general interest in the concept of cooperative Mars exploration and sample return. The USSR has now announced plans for a program of Mars exploration incorporating international cooperation. If the opportunity becomes available to participate in Mars exploration, interest is likely to emerge on the part of a number of other countries, such as Japan and Canada. The Space Studies Board's Committee on Cooperative Mars Exploration and Sample Return was asked by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to examine and report on the question of how Mars sample return missions might best be structured for effective implementation by NASA along with international partners. The committee examined alternatives ranging from scientific missions in which the United States would take a substantial lead, with international participation playing only an ancillary role, to missions in which international cooperation would be a basic part of the approach, with the international partners taking on comparably large mission responsibilities. On the basis of scientific strategies developed earlier by the Space Studies Board, the committee considered the scientific and technical basis of such collaboration and the most mutually beneficial arrangements for constructing successful cooperative missions, particularly with the USSR.

  17. International solar energy research co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Peippo, K.; Konttinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Finland has participated in several IEA activities during 1996-97. HUT coordinates the activities, but practical participation in collaborative actions take place both in industrial companies and research organisations. Neste Ltd has directly participated in several tasks and information of results has been disseminated more widely to Finnish industries and organisations. Co-operation projects covered here are: (1) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 1 `Information dissemination`, (2) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 3 `Use of Photovoltaic systems in Stand Alone and Island Applications`, (3) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 7 `Photovoltaics in built environment`, (4) IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 16 `Photovoltaics in buildings` and (5) IEA Working Group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors`

  18. NEANSC Working Group on international evaluation cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.C.; Nordborg, C.; Dunford, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    In the last three years, several newly evaluated nuclear data libraries have been released. Japan completed JENDL-3 in late 1989, JEF-2/EFF-2 was completed by Europe in 1991, and ENDF/B-VI was completed by the US in 1989. With the support of the NEACRP and the NEANDC, (recently combined into the NEA Nuclear Science Committee NEANSC), a Working Group was formed in 1989 to promote cooperative activities among the evaluation groups in OECD countries. Technical activities of the Working Group are carried out by subgroups formed to carry out specific investigations. Seven subgroups are currently active, with four more initiated by the Working Group at its meeting in May 1991. Brief descriptions of current subgroup activities are given

  19. Global Health Cooperation: International Relations' New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This issue of MEDICC Review appears in the wake of a media splash on the reopening of the Cuban and US embassies in Washington and Havana, signaling the renewal of full diplomatic relations between the two governments. Although the US embargo is still law and one of the thorniest bilateral issues remaining, the Obama administration's bold opening towards Cuba is being echoed in the chambers of Senate committees, calling for an end to the policy in place since 1962. Meanwhile, people from the United States have begun to travel to Cuba in droves, and for the first time in many years, we perceive real hope that cooperation may replace hostility-at least in the sectors that most matter to ordinary people in both nations.

  20. SSI's International Development Co-operation (SIUS). Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szendroe, G.; Grapengiesser, S.; Johansson, Gunnar

    1999-04-01

    SSI's International Development Co-operation (SIUS), the Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe, has since its start in 1992 been granted SEK 109 million by the Swedish government. The projects are accessed, planned and performed in close co-operation with partner organisations in Eastern Europe. This report presents the financial status and a summary of the projects, their status and distribution over the countries and project areas. The presentation is updated as of December 1998

  1. New United States policies regarding international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, H.R. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the United States policy on international nuclear power development in the light of the priorities established by President Reagan in the guidelines for his Administration's nuclear co-operation policy. The aim is to establish a framework allowing for co-operation in peaceful nuclear development while remaining committed to the objective of preventing the further spread of nuclear weapons, in particular by supporting the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the IAEA Safeguards System and the Tlatelolco Treaty (NEA) [fr

  2. International cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatkin, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    Main forms of international cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy are described. IAEA represents the organization called to establish the cooperation. For the purposes of wide nuclear power usage IAEA provides technical assistance to developing countries, conducting of meetings and conferences, accomplishes wide publishing activity and nuclear information exchange with the use of different data bases, including the INIS system, and coordinates the operating group activity through the INTOR program. Cooperation of socialist countries is accomplished in the framework of the CMEA. JINR, intimately connected with scientific organization of other countries including CERN, represents the center of nuclear investigations in socialist countries

  3. The value of international cooperation for abating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammitt, James K.; Adams, John L.

    1996-01-01

    Because abatement of global climate change is a public good, independent national actions may not produce the efficient quantity. Using a numerical integrated-assessment model, abatement costs and damages induced by climate change are compared at the cooperative and noncooperative solutions to a set of two-party dynamic games between the industrialized and developing countries. Games with perfect and imperfect information about climate and economic factors are considered. Across 144 games with perfect information, incorporating different values of climate and economic parameters, the noncooperative solution usually yields global benefits comparable to those of the cooperative solution. In about one-fifth of these games, however, a second noncooperative solution exists which yields none of the benefits of the cooperative solution. In a game with imperfect information, where the state of nature is uncertain in the first but known in the second of two periods, the expected benefits of the noncooperative solution are 98% of the expected benefits of the cooperative solution. In contrast to single-agent studies which show little cost to delaying abatement, the benefits of cooperation are usually lost if cooperation is delayed 20 years

  4. International cooperation in good tax governance

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Brodzka

    2013-01-01

    In times of crisis and uncertainty the countries look for solutions that will protect tax revenues from tax base erosion. In attempts of increasing the level of tax collection they try to fight tax avoidance and tax evasion. Among the difficult challenges faced by governments, there are also aspects of maintaining their competitive position and keeping measures to stimulate countries’ economic development. Among the issues related to fiscal policy there are also the matters of good tax govern...

  5. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  6. The Duty to Cooperate in International Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Thomas

    principles and the connection to good faith. Furthermore, the conditions for applying the exemption rule and the legal consequences of application are clarified to the benefit of any practitioner. A chapter on homeward trends points out some of the challenges that Article 80 poses to international uniformity...

  7. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  8. International co-operation through scientific and technical nuclear societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning Muntzing, L.

    1983-01-01

    As an international organization the American Nuclear Society (ANS) has played an active role in international co-operation of nuclear technology exchange since its establishment in 1954. The ANS has a membership of over 13,000 individuals, of whom approximately 1200 live overseas in forty countries. To carry out the goals of the Society, local sections have been established. Currently the ANS maintains 48 local sections in the United States of America and 8 overseas local sections in Africa, Asia, Europe and South America. The ANS also has formal agreements for co-operation with The Asociacion Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear (AATN), the Israel Nuclear Society (INS), and the Chinese Nuclear Society (CNS). In 1977 the Japan Atomic Energy Society (JAES), the European Nuclear Society (ENS), and the ANS co-operation in sponsoring the First International Conference on Transfer of Nuclear Technology (ICONTT I) in Tehran, Iran. In 1982, the Second International Conference on Transfer of Nuclear Technology (ICONTT II), Buenos Aires, Argentina, was sponsored through the co-operation of the AATN, the ENS and the ANS. The ANS and its overseas sections sponsor the Pacific Basin Conference approximately every three years to discuss nuclear matters of concern to the countries around the Pacific Ocean. In 1981 the ANS held a Nuclear Technology Exhibit in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. In addition to meetings, the ANS is extensively involved in the co-operative exchange of applied nuclear research information through its publications. Nuclear Technology, a technical journal, is published monthly under joint ownership of the ENS and the ANS. The ANS has been a leader in voluntary standards development since 1958. In its dedication to the co-operation of international nuclear technology the ANS maintains a comprehensive international exchange of nuclear standards

  9. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto

  10. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto.

  11. International Innovation Cooperation with a View to Innovative Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramarenko Ruslan M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently the process of globalization in the field of scientific, technical and industrial activity continues to grow. Countries conclude bilateral and multilateral agreements to facilitate cooperation in scientific research and co-financing of capital-intensive innovation projects. Combining competitive advantages of companies is motivated by the government’s policy with respect to attracting foreign direct investments and entering new markets. Despite some discomfort of countries of the world caused by the outflow of knowledge abroad and disturbance of the equilibrium of the trade balance, most of the countries of the OECD have scientific and economic benefits from these transactions. The processes associated with innovations are constantly in the focus of attention of local and foreign experts and are reflected in their works. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of international integration interaction of countries of the world on innovative development. The forms of internationalization of innovation activities have been analyzed. The main vector of the modern global competition based on scientific and technological achievements and innovations has been determined. The main directions of the internationalization of innovation activities have been revealed and justified

  12. International cooperation on methanol-based fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    An international agreement on co-operation to study the use of cars powered by methanol-based fuel cells was signed in September 2000. This indicates that gas will have to compete on the future fuel market. According to the agreement, measures will be taken to ease the introduction of such cars when they are commercialized. Methanol represents a fuel that can be distributed throughout most of the world within realistic economical bounds by means of the existing infrastructure. A global market analysis based on the assumption that there will be a billion cars in the world by 2020 shows the great potential for the use of fuel cells. In addition, they are environmentally sound. Technological developments of fuel cells during the latest decade may render traditional combustion engines obsolete. Methanol is a liquid at room temperature and can be stored in the fuel tank just like ordinary fuels. Petrol, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, ethanol and methanol can all be used in a fuel cell engine, but since the technology is based on chemical energy conversion, the most suitable fuel is one that is hydrogen-rich and easily stored. Many experts favour liquid hydrogen. However, liquid hydrogen has many problems in common with liquefied natural gas or cooled liquid natural gas: about 25% of the energy is used in keeping the fuel in the liquid state

  13. Importance of International Cooperation for Emergency Preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, M.; Grlicarev, I.

    1998-01-01

    The paper contains a brief review of reactor accidents and their consequences. The bilateral, regional and interregional agreements on early exchange of information and mutual assistance in case of a nuclear and radiological accident are presented in a table and discussed. The international projects in emergency preparedness are briefly outlined and the situation in the field of emergency preparedness in Slovenia is given for the comparison. (author)

  14. International cooperation in the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, William P.

    1987-01-01

    The principles and policies governing participation in the International Space Station are examined from a NASA perspective. The history of the program is reviewed; the most important aspects of the partnership concept (functional allocation, shared access, and interface commonality) are considered in detail; and the ongoing outfitting studies are briefly characterized. Major issues remaining to be negotiated include (1) the overall management structure; (2) the division of responsibilities for system design, integration, operation, and utilization; and (3) the sharing of operating costs.

  15. [Strategy Development for International Cooperation in the Clinical Laboratory Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yoshiko; Osawa, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The strategy of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field was analyzed to improve the quality of intervention by reviewing documents from international organizations and the Japanese government. Based on the world development agenda, the target of action for health has shifted from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases (NCD). This emphasizes the importance of comprehensive clinical laboratories instead of disease-specific examinations in developing countries. To achieve this goal, the World Health Organization (WHO) has disseminated to the African and Asian regions the Laboratory Quality Management System (LQMS), which is based on the same principles of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) 15189. To execute this strategy, international experts must have competence in project management, analyze information regarding the target country, and develop a strategy for management of the LQMS with an understanding of the technical aspects of laboratory work. However, there is no appropriate pre- and post-educational system of international health for Japanese international workers. Universities and academic organizations should cooperate with the government to establish a system of education for international workers. Objectives of this education system must include: (1) training for the organization and understanding of global health issues, (2) education of the principles regarding comprehensive management of clinical laboratories, and (3) understanding the LQMS which was employed based on WHO's initiative. Achievement of these objectives will help improve the quality of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field.

  16. Geopolitics, economy and international solidarity in the new South-South cooperation: the case of Bolivarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele BENZI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show an overview of the energy cooperation scheme called PETROCARIBE, proposed in 2005 by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela to the Caribbean and Central American countries. It argues that the emergence of this project, like other South-South cooperation initiatives, is clearly linked to several strategic foreign policy goals, which basically refer to geopolitical, economic, security and, last but not least, international solidarity parameters. The first section outlines some general characteristics of South-South cooperation and current trends and debates. The following presents the peculiar features of the Bolivarian foreign and energy policies. The next presents a general description of the PETROCARIBE framework, working mechanisms and its most important projects. Finally, after a discussion on PETROCARIBE as a South-South cooperation initiative, by highlighting its scopes, problems and vulnerabilities, some conclusions are drawn.

  17. Overview of cooperative international piping benchmark analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an effort initiated in 1976 by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to evaluate detailed and simplified inelastic analysis methods for piping systems with particular emphasis on piping bends. The procedure was to collect from participating member IAEA countries descriptions of tests and test results for piping systems or bends (with emphasis on high temperature inelastic tests), to compile, evaluate, and issue a selected number of these problems for analysis, and to compile and make a preliminary evaluation of the analyses results. Of the problem descriptions submitted three were selected to be used: a 90 0 -elbow at 600 0 C with an in-plane transverse force; a 90 0 -elbow with an in-plane moment; and a 180 0 -elbow at room temperature with a reversed, cyclic, in-plane transverse force. A variety of both detailed and simplified analysis solutions were obtained. A brief comparative assessment of the analyses is contained in this paper. 15 figures

  18. OCRWM International Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.; Levich, R.; Strahl, J.

    2002-01-01

    With the implementation of nuclear power as a major energy source, the United States is increasingly faced with the challenges of safely managing its inventory of spent nuclear materials. In 2002, with 438 nuclear power facilities generating electrical energy in 31 nations around the world, the management of radioactive material including spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, is an international concern. Most of the world's nuclear nations maintain radioactive waste management programs and have generally accepted deep geologic repositories as the long-term solution for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Similarly, the United States is evaluating the feasibility of deep geologic disposal at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project is directed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), which has responsibility for managing the disposition of spent nuclear fuel produced by commercial nuclear power facilities along with U.S. government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much of the world class science conducted through the OCRWM program was enhanced through collaboration with other nations and international organizations focused on resolving issues associated with the disposition of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

  19. Economic Education in an International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael; Walstad, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain the purpose and context for the 2009 International Symposium on Economic Education that was the source for articles on four nations with relatively developed systems for economic education: Australia, England, Japan, and Korea. The authors highlight several key comparisons from the four articles that appear in…

  20. Seeing power in international development cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Axelsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    is proposed, combining a governmentality perspective with Stewart Clegg's theory of circuits of power. The framework is applied in a case study of experimentation by the World Bank with a new tool for Environmental Policy Integration (EPI). Rather than conceptualising the EPI tool as a governmental technology......The aim of this paper is to sharpen the ways in which power dynamics can be analytically ‘seen’ in complex governance contexts where particular ways of governing, and their associated horizons of thought, shape and are in turn shaped by intricate interactions between actors. A theoretical approach...... through which the World Bank could promote its favoured vision of political culture in a local setting (here urban planning in Dhaka, Bangladesh), an alternative account is generated that reveals a will to power among the international development community, realised through the construction of knowledge...

  1. NanoSPD activity in Ufa and International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetnikova, N; Salakhova, M

    2014-01-01

    This report presents main achievements of R and D activities of the Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials of Ufa State Aviation Technical University (IPAM USATU, Ufa, Russia) with a special attention to innovative potential of nanostructured metals and alloys produced by the severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques. Several examples of the first promising applications of bulk nanostructured materials (BNM) as well as potential competing technologies are considered and discussed. The authors would like to focus special emphasis on international cooperation in view of numerous emerging projects as well as different conferences and seminars that pave the way to close and fruitful cooperation, working visits and exchange of young scientists. The possibilities of international cooperation through various foundations and programs are considered

  2. International cooperation for promotion of nuclear science and engineering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Kazusuke; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Katoh, Toshio; Kimura, Itsuro.

    1993-01-01

    For promotion of nuclear science and engineering research, examinations were made on the possibilities and necessary measures to extend joint research at international level. The present article is a summary of the reports of investigations performed during FY 1986 through 1991 by the Special Committee of the AESJ for Feasibility Study on International Cooperation for Promotion of Nuclear Science and Engineering Research, under contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan. Background information was collected on the present status of scientific research facilities in US, European and Asian countries on one hand, and on the expectations and prospects of Japanese scientists on the other hand. Based on the analysis of these data, some measures necessary to expand the international cooperation were proposed. It was emphasized that international joint research on a reciprocal basis would be effective in order to strengthen the technological basis of peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Problems to be solved for the new development were also discussed. (author)

  3. The Spirit of Solidarity in Children and International Cooperation (1931)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaget, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The modern ideal of international cooperation, which it is desired to incorporate in the future education of the young, is based on the two main principles of solidarity and justice. In this essay, the author discusses two aspects on the problem of solidarity: (1) moral aspect; and (2) intellectual aspect. In connection with the moral aspect, the…

  4. International Cooperation and Environmental Manpower Development for the Asean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowland, Will

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the potential for human development, intraregional, and international cooperation in environmental and natural resource management in Southeast Asia (ASEAN). Identifies the current and future needs for environmental professionals in this region. Reviews management training options, pointing out the constraints facing environmental…

  5. Research on international cooperation for nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the importance and related requirements of international cooperation on nuclear and radiation safety, analyzes the current status, situation and challenges faced, as well as the existing weakness and needs for improvement, and gives some proposals for reference. (author)

  6. Leveraging International Cooperation Acquisition Opportunities for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Comparative and cost/ benefit and risk analysis and SWOT  Research Needed: Examples of U.S. DOD domestic projects and programs that have included...for International Cooperation and how that will benefit or deter the domestic program offices system acquisition efforts. Our research and analysis ...38 2. SWOT Analysis ..................................................................................39

  7. Assuring nuclear energy's future through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upson, P.

    1999-01-01

    It is invited lecture as the introduction to the sixt international meeting entitled Nuclear Energy in Central Europe. Good commercial operation, public information and education are needed to win the confidence of the public, and to attract young people to take over the industry's founding generation. Stimulating international co-operation and transfer of best practices can assure this happens across the whole of the Europian nuclear industry

  8. 78 FR 14306 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...]; (Formerly Docket No. 00D-1631)] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for... for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for... regulatory authorities and industry associations to promote the international harmonization of regulatory...

  9. 76 FR 57060 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration... regulatory authorities and industry associations to promote the international harmonization of regulatory...

  10. 75 FR 18507 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... guidance has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of... associations to promote the international harmonization of regulatory requirements. FDA has participated in...

  11. 77 FR 20406 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical... industry associations to promote the international harmonization of regulatory requirements. FDA has...

  12. 75 FR 18505 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration... promote the international harmonization of regulatory requirements. FDA has participated in efforts to...

  13. 76 FR 57057 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration... undertaken by regulatory authorities and industry associations to promote the international harmonization of...

  14. 76 FR 57058 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical... been undertaken by regulatory authorities and industry associations to promote the international...

  15. 78 FR 14308 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical... regulatory authorities and industry associations to promote the international harmonization of regulatory...

  16. 75 FR 18508 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of... promote the international harmonization of regulatory requirements. FDA has participated in efforts to...

  17. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  18. Coordination vs. voluntarism and enforcement in sustaining international environmental cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott

    2016-12-20

    The fates of "transboundary" environmental systems depend on how nation states interact with one another. In the absence of a hegemon willing and able to coerce other states into avoiding a "tragedy of the commons," shared environments will be safeguarded if international cooperation succeeds and degraded or even destroyed if it fails. Treaties and related institutions of international law give form to these efforts to cooperate. Often, they implore states to act in their collective (as opposed to their national) interests. Sometimes, they impel cooperating states to punish free riders. A few agreements coordinate states' behavior. Here, I present simple game-theoretic models showing whether and how treaties and related institutions can change incentives, aligning states' self-interests with their collective interests. I show that, as a general matter, states struggle to cooperate voluntarily and enforce agreements to cooperate but that they find it relatively easy to coordinate actions. In some cases, the need for coordination is manifest. In other cases, it requires strategic thinking. Coordination may fall short of supporting an ideal outcome, but it nearly always works better than the alternatives.

  19. Theoretical and historical bases of formation of social and economic nature of consumer cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алла Іванівна Мілька

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of cooperation and cooperative approaches to address these concepts and the importance of social and economic component at different stages of development of the cooperative movement and the theory of cooperation are described in the article. Opinions of the scientists about the non-profit nature of the cooperative are considered and researched. Based on the study the main conceptual provisions of cooperation are highlighted and proposed the author's definition of consumer cooperatives is proposed on the basis of the research 

  20. Population aging: opportunity for business expansion, an invitational paper presented at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) International Workshop on Adaptation to Population Aging Issues, July 17, 2017, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensberg, Mary Beth

    2018-04-10

    A longer life brings opportunities for older adults and their families as well as for their communities. Commercial businesses can be successful in innovating on these opportunities and achieving business expansion when they better understand the market dynamics and spectrum of older adults as consumers and view them more as assets rather than as burdens to society. While there is no "typical" older adult consumer, some traits, characteristics, and physical realities may be more common, including those related to family and community, the shopping experience, brand marketing and packaging, food and nutrition, and health. The opportunities of longer life are impacted by health and underscore the importance of positive, healthy aging-related behaviors like good nutrition and active lifestyles. Healthy aging also requires a sustained commitment and action from country leaders to formulate evidence-based polices--like systematic nutrition screening and intervention-and healthcare workforce training and education that can strengthen and support an active aging population. In addition, governments should consider engaging commercial businesses to help set sustainable policies that can advance products for older adults. Finally, governments should set national and local goals to incentivize commercial business development and investment in public-private partnerships to improve quality of care, promote healthy aging, and impact outcomes for noncommunicable diseases, ultimately benefitting population health for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) countries.

  1. Establishment of International Cooperative Network and Cooperative Research Strategy Between Korea and USA on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Won Pil; Song, Chul Hwa; Jeong, Jae Jun; Choi, Ki Yong; Kang, Kyoung Ho

    2004-07-01

    1. Scope and Objectives of the Project - Successful holding of the NURETH-10 - Analysis of the international trends in technology development and applications for nuclear thermal-hydraulics - Establishment of the international cooperative network and cooperative research strategy between Korea and USA on nuclear thermal-hydraulics 2. Research Results - Successful holding of the NURETH-10 - Analysis of the international trends in technology development and applications for nuclear thermal-hydraulics: - Establishment of international cooperative network and cooperative research strategy focused between Korea and USA on nuclear thermal-hydraulics: 3. Application Plan of the Research Results - Utilization as the basic data/information in establishing the domestic R and D directions and the international cooperative research strategy, - Application of the relevant experiences and data bases of NURETH-10 for holding future international conferences, - Promote more effective and productive research cooperation between Korea and USA

  2. Attitudes of Economics and Sociology Students towards Cooperation. A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dzionek-Kozlowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of university education on the learners’ attitudes remains uncertain. Nevertheless, the Economics students’ unwillingness to cooperate is frequently attributed to the content of economic courses, and the theories of profit maximization. This article contributes to the discussion on students’ attitudes towards cooperation based on the survey of 341 Polish and Romanian students. Since these countries differ in terms of collectivism/individualism dimension, we focus on tracing the influence of cultures on cooperativeness. Specifically, we investigate three variables. First, the impact of culture on the willingness to cooperate, secondly, the influence of gender on collaboration, and finally, the differences in attitudes among the students of Sociology and Economics. We find significant differences between Polish and Romanian students’ attitudes towards cooperation, we also observe higher level cooperation among females than males. We detect a drop in cooperation from the first year to the subsequent years of undergraduate studies in Economics.

  3. International Cooperation of Izmail State University for Humanities in 2015-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kapliienko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the state and perspectives of international cooperation of Izmail State University for Humanities with academic partners abroad. Special attention is given to the participation of the University in European research networks for educational and curricula quality promotion, as well as to improvement of academic staff professional qualification in view of social and regional needs for sustainable economic and social development.

  4. International co-operation in the nuclear field - past, present and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1978-01-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of its creation, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD) held a symposium in Paris on 1 and 2 February 1978. Some 200 participants from the 23 Member countries of the NEA as well as representatives of the Commission of European Communities, FORATOM and the IAEA attended the symposium. At a panel discussion at the symposium, led by Dr. Sigvard Eklund, Director General of the IAEA, the future of international co-operation between advanced nations in the nuclear field was discussed. While recognizing that nuclear energy is at present going through a period of uncertainty pending resolution of the intertwined problems of gaining public confidence and of non-proliferation, the panel expressed its strong confidence in the future of nuclear power, and the vital contribution it would make, particularly between now and the end of the century. During the meeting, a critical review was made of the way in which international co-operation has evolved since the early stages of peaceful nuclear development, and of the influence on this co-operation of the changing relationship between government and industry. The contribution of international co-operation - and its limitations - was carefully scrutinized, notably in the crucial area of the nuclear fuel cycle

  5. Regional cooperation based on multilateral international agreements in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Multilateral international agreements have defined the framework of behavior and cooperation in various fields and aspects of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Thus, obligations have been defined in the following areas: nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, physical protection of nuclear material, liability for nuclear damage, nuclear safety, early notification about a nuclear accident and assistance in case of nuclear accident. Obligations regarding radioactive waste management should be defined soon. This paper gives a review of obligations from particular agreements with a special emphasis on those which are being realized through mutual cooperation of concerned countries and are important for safe use of nuclear energy. (author)

  6. International co-operation in nuclear data evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordborg, C.

    2003-01-01

    The NEA Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation serves as a forum for the exchange of information on required improvements to evaluated nuclear data libraries used in all nuclear application areas. The main objective is to identify the major discrepancies in existing evaluated data libraries and to resolve these discrepancies in specifically established expert groups. The long-term goal is to have converging evaluated data libraries. This co-operative effort is very successful. It has resolved a number of outstanding nuclear data problems and has issued 15 reports in support of the studies undertaken jointly. (author)

  7. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  8. The exploration of Halley's comet - An example of international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahe, Jurgen H.; Newburn, Ray L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The history of international cooperation in studies of comets started with observations in 1577 and 1680, when Tycho Brahe and Newton, respectively, collected position measurements made in different countries to determine the paths of the comets observed. In the fall of 1979, a worldwide Comet Halley watch was proposed. As a result of international cooperation, Comet Halley was explored during its recent appearance from the ground, earth orbit, Venus orbit, interplanetary space, and from within the comet itself. The various activities in space were coordinated by the ESA, the USSR Intercosmos, the Japanese ISAS, and NASA, through the Inter-Agency Consultative Group. The activities of the ground-based observers were coordinated by the International Halley Watch.

  9. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM and INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif TOPRAK

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available International cooperation in Distance Education which is a very popular phenomenon today can be explained by the rise of social constructivism in social sciences, namely Education and International Relations, for the purpose of this paper. Social constructive approach in International Relations with its emphasis on building social bridges via learning common values and social constructivism in education highlighting learning communities, pave the way for institutionalization of cooperation in Distance Education. Multicultural, multilingual models that adopt educational materials according to local cultures and demands, serve as a good mean of meeting educational needs globally. Information and Communication Technologies ease interactions and lead to a global flow of information, some advantages of which are emphasized in this paper.

  10. Measuring macro-level effects of the global economic recession on university-industry research cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azagra-Caro, J.M.; Tijssen, R.J.W.; Yegros-Yegros, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 2007/2008 financial crisis, and ensuing economic recession, had a direct negative effect on university-industry research cooperation in the OECD countries and other economies – it diminished the number of university-industry co-authored research publications (UICs) during the period 2008-13 by 7%. It also changed the relationship between national business expenditure on R&D and UIC output levels. Before the recession the relationship was negative, but became positive during the years 2008-2013. The few countries where business expenditure on R&D increased during recession saw UIC numbers rise. This moderating effect of the recession applies only to ‘domestic UICs’, where universities cooperated with business companies located in the same country. Micro-level research is needed to assess the contributing effects on large university-industry R&D consortia on both domestic and international collaboration patterns. (Author)

  11. VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, Fernando; Masegosa, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Biological and other natural processes have always been a source of inspiration for computer science and information technology. Many emerging problem solving techniques integrate advanced evolution and cooperation strategies, encompassing a range of spatio-temporal scales for visionary conceptualization of evolutionary computation. This book is a collection of research works presented in the VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO) held in Canterbury, UK. Previous editions of NICSO were held in Granada, Spain (2006 & 2010), Acireale, Italy (2007), Tenerife, Spain (2008), and Cluj-Napoca, Romania (2011). NICSO 2013 and this book provides a place where state-of-the-art research, latest ideas and emerging areas of nature inspired cooperative strategies for problem solving are vigorously discussed and exchanged among the scientific community. The breadth and variety of articles in this book report on nature inspired methods and applications such as Swarm In...

  12. EPA's Role with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) brings together the governments of countries committed to democracy and the market economy from around the world to support sustainable economic growth.

  13. International medical cooperation project for State of Libya using international medical tourism system in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    奥寺, 敬; 坂本, 美重

    2013-01-01

    International medical cooperation project for State of Libya is reported. The concept of this project is to treat Libyan injured people using international medical tourism system in Thailand. Management of patient, including evaluation, domestic and international transportation arrangement of hospital, is supported by Normeca International Co., Ltd, (Pattaya, Thailand). Treatment of Libyan patient in two international hospitals (Bangpakok 9 Hospital and Navamin 9 Hopsital) in Bangkok was succ...

  14. International Harmonization and Cooperation in the Validation of Alternative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, João; Ahn, Il Young; Caldeira, Cristiane; Carmichael, Paul L; Casey, Warren; Coecke, Sandra; Curren, Rodger; Desprez, Bertrand; Eskes, Chantra; Griesinger, Claudius; Guo, Jiabin; Hill, Erin; Roi, Annett Janusch; Kojima, Hajime; Li, Jin; Lim, Chae Hyung; Moura, Wlamir; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Park, HyeKyung; Peng, Shuangqing; Presgrave, Octavio; Singer, Tim; Sohn, Soo Jung; Westmoreland, Carl; Whelan, Maurice; Yang, Xingfen; Yang, Ying; Zuang, Valérie

    The development and validation of scientific alternatives to animal testing is important not only from an ethical perspective (implementation of 3Rs), but also to improve safety assessment decision making with the use of mechanistic information of higher relevance to humans. To be effective in these efforts, it is however imperative that validation centres, industry, regulatory bodies, academia and other interested parties ensure a strong international cooperation, cross-sector collaboration and intense communication in the design, execution, and peer review of validation studies. Such an approach is critical to achieve harmonized and more transparent approaches to method validation, peer-review and recommendation, which will ultimately expedite the international acceptance of valid alternative methods or strategies by regulatory authorities and their implementation and use by stakeholders. It also allows achieving greater efficiency and effectiveness by avoiding duplication of effort and leveraging limited resources. In view of achieving these goals, the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM) was established in 2009 by validation centres from Europe, USA, Canada and Japan. ICATM was later joined by Korea in 2011 and currently also counts with Brazil and China as observers. This chapter describes the existing differences across world regions and major efforts carried out for achieving consistent international cooperation and harmonization in the validation and adoption of alternative approaches to animal testing.

  15. Selected excerpts from the proceedings of the international symposium on safety cases for deep disposal of radioactive waste: where do we stand? 23-25 January 2007, Paris, France, Organised by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) with the co-operation of the European Commission (EC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, Claudio; ); Ruiz, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Claudio Pescatore from NEA summarised the main results of a workshop organised by the Regulator's Forum in 2006 on Regulating for the Long-Term Safety of Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Workshop participants demonstrated the diversity of regulatory processes and policies across nations, which can be attributed primarily to the diversity of the socio-economic context. It was recommended that instead of focusing solely on the regulator, it is the regulatory system (i.e. a multi-actor societal decision-making process), which should be internationally compared. It was acknowledged that active institutional control cannot be maintained for the lifetime of long-lived waste, and no verifiable guarantee of safety can be provided for times when controls are no longer in place. Therefore, licensing of a geological disposal facility may be seen as an act of trust in the technology and the regulatory system, taken by the current generation on behalf of future generations. Mr Pescatore set forth further conclusions of the workshop, regarding safety indicators, timescales, and overall approaches. Since quantitative indicators characterising the effectiveness of radiological protection, including dose and risk, are no longer good measures of detriment and are subject to high uncertainty in the long-term, emphasis has been shifted to qualitative process/system indicators, for example, indicators related to the Best Available Techniques (BAT). Concerning timescales, workshop participants viewed that our duty to protect future generations does not weaken over time. Our capacity, however, to fulfil this duty is weaker with respect to far future generations. This discrepancy can be handled by recent generations' carrying out duties that can be reasonably performed, while transferring others to subsequent generations, along with resources needed to fulfil them. Since it seems likely that implementing a disposal facility may involve several generations, stepwise decision making

  16. [Child health and international cooperation: A paediatric approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Toro, M; Riaño Galan, I; Bassat, Q; Perez-Lescure Picarzo, J; de Aranzabal Agudo, M; Krauel Vidal, X; Rivera Cuello, M

    2015-05-01

    The international development cooperation in child health arouses special interest in paediatric settings. In the last 10 10 years or so, new evidence has been presented on factors associated with morbidity and mortality in the first years of life in the least developed countries. This greater knowledge on the causes of health problems and possible responses in the form of interventions with impact, leads to the need to disseminate this information among concerned professional pediatricians. Serious efforts are needed to get a deeper insight into matters related to global child health and encourage pediatricians to be aware and participate in these processes. This article aims to provide a social pediatric approach towards international cooperation and child health-related matters. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Introduction to the special issue 'unintended effects of international cooperation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Dirk-Jan; Schulpen, Lau

    2018-06-01

    The 'Evaluation and Program Planning' journal has contributed to the launch of an academic discussion of unintended effects of international cooperation, notably by publishing in 2016 articles by Bamberger, Tarsilla, & Hesse-Biber and by Jabeen. This special issue aims to take up the academic challenges as laid down by those authors, by providing among others a clear typology and applying it, by outlining various methodological options and testing them, and elaborating on suggestions on how to deal with the barriers that prevent unintended effects being taken into account. This special issue makes clear that it is possible to reduce the share of unforeseen effects of international cooperation. Turning the spotlight on unintended effects that can be anticipated, and aiming to make progress on uncovering those that are particularly difficult to detect and debunking those that are exaggerated is the task that lies ahead of us. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The activity of the international cooperation of BIOMOVS I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyar, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Biospheric Model Validation Study (BIOMOVS) is an international cooperation study on testing of models to predict the distribution and accumulation of radioactive and other toxic substances in the biosphere. The main objectives of the study are to compare and test the predictions, recommend priorities for future development concerning the improvement of the models. The international cooperation initiated in 1985 by the Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection (NIRP), Stockholm is involved in two kinds of approaches. Approach A means to test model predictions against independent sets of real data. Approach B, on the other hand, aims to compare model predictions obtained from the different models for specific test scenarios. The first phase of the BIOMOVS lasted until 1990, the BIOMOVS II should begin in 1991

  19. Handbook for Home Economics Cooperative Education Teacher-Coordinators in Texas. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The instructor-coordinator's handbook is for Home Economics Cooperative Education programs, those which are designed to prepare students for the world of work or for advanced education. The guide lists terms related to home economics cooperative education and covers the following subjects in separate chapters: (1) vocational homemaking education…

  20. Kazakhstan's economic soft balancing policy vis-à-vis Russia: From the Eurasian Union to the economic cooperation with Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyailya Nurgaliyeva

    2016-01-01

    When Russia started asserting its economic and political power over the Central Asian and Caspian regions, Nazarbayev once again resorted to the economic soft balancing policy, but this time by relying on outside players. Part 2 of this article discusses two cases of such external economic soft balancing efforts: participation in the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC pipeline project, and the economic cooperation with Turkey as part of a free trade zone. The BTC pipeline project and the close economic cooperation with Turkey ended up being a more productive soft balancing effort than the earlier Eurasian Union initiative.

  1. International co-operation in developing the GT-MHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Bar, M.P.; Simon, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the Fall of 1995, driven by budget constraints and anti-nuclear sentiments, the US government decided to discontinue financial support of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). At that time, significant work was underway with participation of several vendors with specialized expertise in various aspects of the GT-MHR. Fortunately the US government provided for documenting the design and development status through an orderly close-out program. Concurrent elimination of government restrictions opened the door for broader international cooperation. Discussion between General Atomics and the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM), in the summer of 1994, led to an agreement on a jointly funded design and development program for the GT-MHR. The program is initially focused on the burning of weapons plutonium that becomes available from dismantled nuclear weapons. The long term goal is to utilize the same design for commercial applications - using uranium fuel. This program took advantage of existing technologies and facilities in the US and Russia, but right from the beginning left the door open for broader international cooperation. Accordingly, in January 1996, FRAMATOME has joined the ongoing effort. Discussions are underway with other international entities to join this program. The program is proceeding well. Several Russian laboratories/design organizations are participating with GA and FRAMATOME. Significant improvements in the power conversion system design are a clear example of the benefit of the cooperative effort. Further work needs to be done to confirm fuel and components prior to full deployment, etc., providing ample opportunities for international cooperation in many areas

  2. International cooperation for rational use of energy in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Papers discussed the experiences of OLADE, IEA and EEC member countries in the field of rational use of energy in a number of industrial sectors, such as textiles; generation, transmission and distribution of electricity; iron and steel; non-ferrous metals; cement; and sugar. Instruments and technologies for rational use of energy in industry were also discussed as well as possibilities for international cooperation in this field.

  3. The Economic Contribution of North Dakota Cooperatives to the North Dakota State Economy

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperatives are a vital component of the North Dakota economy. Owned by their customers or by privately-held firms, cooperatives provide a variety of goods and services to North Dakota. Based on data provided by the North Dakota Secretary of State, 332 businesses operating in North Dakota identified themselves as cooperatives in 2010; 256 are headquartered in the state. The economic contribution of the North Dakota cooperatives reaches beyond the local communities where they are headquartere...

  4. Current status of international cooperation on nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragi, Satoru

    1984-01-01

    JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), as a representative organization in Japan, has been participating in many international cooperations on nuclear safety research. This report reviews the recent achievement and evolution of the international cooperative safety studies. Twelve projects that are based on the agreements between JAERI and foreign organizations are reviewed. As the fuel irradiation studies, the recent achievement of the OECD Halden Reactor Project and the agreement between Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Battelle Memorial Institute, and JAERI are explained. As for the study of reactivity accident, the cooperation of the NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) project in Japan with PBF, PNS and PHEBUS projects in the U.S., West Germany and France, respectively, are now in progress. The fuel performance in abnormal transient and the experiment and analysis of severe fuel damage are the new areas of international interest. The OECD/LOFT project and ROSA-4 projects are also explained in connection with the FP source term problem and the analysis codes such as RELAP-5 and TRAC. As the safety studies associated with the downstream of the nuclear fuel cycle, the BEFAST project of IAEA and the ISIRS project of OECD/NEA are shortly reviewed. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Economic responses to global warming: Prospects for cooperative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelling, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    At the outset, any cooperative approach to global warming will have to reach some rough consensus on two sets of magnitudes and the marginal trade-off between them. One set of magnitudes relates to CO 2 production and abatement. It is the cost and difficulties of reducing energy use by households, farms, and industry, and of switching to cleaner fossil fuels or converting to nonfossil energies. These are the kinds of things that economists and engineers, sometimes sociologists and architects, have been working on with special motivation since 1973. The uncertainties remain great, and they increase many-fold when projected to the middle of the next century. But these estimates do receive attention. The other set of magnitudes has to do with the impact of changing climate on economic productivity, on health and comfort, on the quality of life in general, and on the differential rates of progress among countries. These estimates, on which virtually no work was done until recently, are doubly uncertain. In this study the author offers a judgment about the magnitude of the consequences of failing to reduce CO 2 emissions drastically below what they would be in the absence of such an effort. The author takes 'drastic' to mean anything between an emissions growth rate half of what it would otherwise be and an emissions growth rate of zero beginning one or two decades from now - that is, annual emissions leveling off within a decade or two. That level would still leave emissions growing at the maximum achieved rate

  6. OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    Econometric response surfaces for nine different world oil models are estimated for aggregate oil demand with in the developed countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The estimates are based upon scenario results reported for the 1989-2010 period in a recent model comparison study. The response surface approach provides a parsimonious summary of model responses. It enables one to estimate long-run price elasticities directly rather than to infer such responses from 20-year cross-scenario results. It also shows more directly the significant effect of initial demand conditions (in 1988) on future oil demand growth. Due to the dynamic nature of the oil demand response, past prices exert a strongly positive effect on future oil demands in some models, but little or even negative effect in other models. On the basis of this finding, we urge demand modellers to be much more explicit about what their systems reveal about the extent of disequilibrium embedded in their model's starting oil demand conditions. (author)

  7. Reducing Seismic Hazard and Building Capacity Through International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, E. S.; Arakelyan, A.; Babayan, H.; Durgaryan, R.; Elashvili, M.; Godoladze, T.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Kalogeras, I.; Karakhanyan, A.; Martin, R. J.; Yetirmishli, G.

    2012-12-01

    During the last 50 years, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Caspian Sea regions have experienced several devastating earthquakes. While each country in the region has worked with its neighbors on small, ad-hoc projects to improve preparedness, deeply ingrained political and ethnic rivalries, and severely stressed economies have severely hindered sustained regional cooperation. Future damaging earthquakes are inevitable and without proper planning the negative impact on public safety, security, economics and stability in these regions will be devastating. We have, through twelve years of international scientific cooperation, focused on the development of an expanded skill base and infrastructure, through the installation of new, modern, digital seismic monitoring networks, building of historic databases, sharing seismic, geologic and geophysical data, conducting joint scientific investigations utilizing the new digital data and applying modern techniques, as well as the development of regional hazard models that the scientists of the region share with their governments and use to advise them on the best ways to mitigate the impact of a damaging earthquake. We have established specialized regional scientific task-force teams who can carry out seismological, geological and engineering studies in the epicentral zone, including the collection of new scientific data, for better understanding of seismic and geodynamic processes as well to provide emergency support in crisis and post-crisis situations in the Southern Caucasus countries. "Secrecy" in crisis and post-crisis situations in the former Soviet Union countries, as well as political instabilities, led to an absence of seismic risk reduction and prevention measures as well as little to no training of scientific-technical personnel who could take action in emergency situations. There were few opportunities for the development of a next generation of scientific experts, thus we have placed emphasis on the inclusion

  8. 76 FR 57054 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... (MRK),'' (VICH GL46). This guidance has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH...

  9. 75 FR 32798 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... cosmetics' industry trade associations. Currently, the ICCR members are Health Canada; the European... for International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public meeting entitled ``International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations (ICCR)--Preparation for ICCR...

  10. 78 FR 20662 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... authority members will enter into constructive dialogue with their relevant cosmetics industry trade...] Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public meeting entitled, ``International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation (ICCR)--Preparation for ICCR...

  11. 76 FR 18767 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... cosmetics' industry trade associations. Currently, the ICCR members are Health Canada; the European...] Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... announcing a public meeting entitled ``International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations (ICCR)--Preparation...

  12. Nuclear education in Russia. Status, peculiarities, perspectives and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, Eduard F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper is devoted to analysis of Russian nuclear education system: its current status, specific features, difficulties and prospects. Russian higher education system in nuclear engineering has been created simultaneously with development of nuclear industry, and the system completely satisfied all industrial demands for the specialists of different qualification level. The specific features of PhD level (doctoral program) of education in Russia are discussed. The paper underlines particularly a special role of international collaboration in the field of nuclear education for further development of nuclear education all over the world. Some examples of international cooperation in the frames of new educational programs development are considered. (author)

  13. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME IN INDONESIA: THE NEED FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mitchell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the growing infuence of transnational organised crime on the nations of South East Asia. Human trafficking, maritime piracy, terrorism and wildlife trafficking are major transnational crimes that cause significant harm to both individuals and national economies. This article examines the continuing domestic and international legislative, law enforcement and policy efforts of South East Asian nations to address transnational organised crime. it is concluded that to effectively counter transnational organised crime there is a need to employ international cooperation that is focused on addressing the unique factors of each crime.

  14. The US planetary exploration program opportunities for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Opportunities for international participation in US-sponsored interplanetary missions are discussed on the basis of the recommendations of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration of the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board. The initial core missions suggested are a Venus radar mapper, a Mars geoscience/climatology orbiter, a comet-rendezvous/asteroid-flyby mission, and a Titan probe/radar mapper. Subsequent core missions are listed, and the need for cooperation in planning and development stages to facilitate international participation is indicated.

  15. Survey of International Trade/Economics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews 14 international economics textbooks to help instructors with selection. Includes organization and structure, topics covered, and characteristics of the texts. Suggests considerations such as course length, level of abstraction desired, opinion of numerically based graphical analysis, extensiveness of examples and applications, and whether…

  16. The profile of the international cooperation university manager in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Geremias Leal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of internationalization has been used in higher education as a measure of quality and resource for universities to respond to the challenges of a complex global context. Despite the dominant discourse that internationalization has transformed university structures, there are few studies that deal with internationalization management in academic institutions and international cooperation university managers. This paper contributes to the beginning of this discussion in Brazil by studying international cooperation managers of Brazilian federal universities. The sample included 46 universities associated with the Brazilian Association of International Education (Faubai. Documentary research was carried out using the websites of the offices for international affairs and the Lattes curriculums  of their managers. The results point to positive aspects, such as the positioning of these offices in university structures and the personal experience of current managers with international activities. They also indicated problems such as the turnover of managers; accumulation of tasks; education in areas not related to internationalization; and a lack of participation in education programs related to their responsibilities. In general, the scenario shows a need for investments in these universities so that institutional internationalization is more active.

  17. International cooperation and guarantee of nuclear safety in the implementation of national nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-01-01

    The provisions against damage to be made in accordance with the state of the art as a precondition for licensing under Sec.7, Para.2, No.3 of the German Atomic Energy Act more than ever relate to international findings and practice in science as well as technology. In view of the peaceful use of nuclear power worldwide, together with the manifold institutionalized international and European schemes for cooperation within IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), OECD/NEA (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency), and within the framework of EURATOM, these can be gleaned only from the global state of the art. In addition, there are informal associations and bilateral cooperation schemes of countries within which knowledge is exchanged and, in part, even specific measures ensuring nuclear safety are agreed upon. Also existing international rules and regulations are important. It is for the national enforcement authorities in the nuclear field to determine and assess the bandwidths of scientific opinions and theoretical as well as practical technical availabilities with regard to all tenable scientific findings and technical developments known on the international horizon. (orig.)

  18. International co-operation and the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    di Primio, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The transfer of technology from developed countries is usually done through industrial enterprises. The local industrialization of imported technology does not necessarily imply that full benefit is extracted from its application. A pre-established scientific and technical infrastructure is needed to understand and incorporate it, and to develop methods for improvement and use at the industrial level, in the frame of national conditions. The transference of nuclear technology has recently shown new concepts for implementation. It is becoming a rule that massive industrial nuclear technology transfer to developing nations is tied to a requirement for simultaneous assistance in creating or promoting the infrastructure. An example of international co-operation to meet this requirement is the Argentine-German Agreement for the Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy. Since 1971 this has been used to strengthen the scientific and technical programmes of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission in the relevant fields of industrial applications. The objectives and implementation of the agreement are described: co-operative actions were initially directed to the infrastructure needed to support the nuclear fuel cycle industry. The results achieved during the period 1971-1976 are critically analysed. This analysis has influenced the selection of future co-operative projects as well as the extension of the co-operation to other nuclear fields of common interest. (author)

  19. Taxation of cooperatives from the perspective of international expansion and sustainable development of social economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Patón García

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has created a major concern in developedcountries for control of social risks with negative effects on growth and this problem can be approached from the perspective of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Thus, CSR is seen as an entrepreneurial attitude aimed at promoting social, economic and environmental purposes while guarantying competitiveness in the international market. Thus, social economy can contribute to sustainable development, economic and social cohesion, to promote productive and income distribution, to ensure employment and equality of opportunities. The purpose of this study is to have an influence onthe role that taxation plays in the area of incentive policies related to social economy and very prominently manifested in the legal status of cooperatives. The approach aims to provide proposals on tax regulation of cooperatives taking the perspective of the international context and the size of the sector in countries like Spain and Peru in order to encourage cooperative social responsibility. Indeed, the importance of providing a legal and fiscal framework to promote their internationalization connects providentially with the principles that govern the cooperative action. We consider that it is essential, from the perspective of sustainable development and cooperatives’social responsibility, to take into account in the tax regime applicable criteria that can be justified on constitutional principles, the general interest of society or internationalization economic activity. Also, there could be other positive effects in the area of Latin America, such as decreasing tax evasion and the formalization of at least a portion of the informal sector of the economy, including the real impulse to CSR.

  20. A new approach towards the enhancement of northeast Asian economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jae Lee

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the formation of the Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation Council (NAECC to discuss comprehensive economic cooperation and major economic issues between Korea, Japan and China. In order to meet the challenge of risign regionalism and to prevent another Asian economic crisis, it is imperative for the central governments of the region to involve themselves more actively in Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation. Given the diversity of Northeast Asian countries, it seems to be more realistic to vegin with the central governments of the three major countries in terms of economic size. However, even amongst these three countries, the prospects for reaching a regional trade agreement such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, let alone a more advanced economic integration type like the EU, are quite dim in the foreseeable future. Thus, Korea, Japan and China must try to get as many benefits of economic integration as possible through a non-traditional approach.

  1. Unmanned solar systems exploration - An arena for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, D. H.; Pacault, R.

    1974-01-01

    Mission profiles for a Mars Surface Sample Return (MSSR) mission are considered. A profile using separate launches for a lander/ascent module and an orbiter/return system could use present technology and is appropriate for international cooperation. The achievement of clean interfaces between major building blocks and ease of controlling back contamination are advantages offered by the concept. A spatially distributed surface sample could be obtained by using multiple landers delivering samples to a common orbiter. The Pioneer Venus program, originally planned as a cooperative NASA-ESRO project, resulted in development of a standardized spacecraft bus yielding benefits at minimized cost. The first joint US-European planetary mission now planned is the launch of a Pioneer class orbiter to Jupiter in 1980. Feasibility studies are being conducted.

  2. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking

  3. International cooperation and competition in space - A current perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    International cooperative efforts undertaken by NASA are evaluated and consideration is given to the proposed space station. The Shuttle RMS and Spacelab were constructed through efforts of Canadian and European companies and the ESA. Landsat, with its widely dispersed technology and data, has encouraged international access to its capabilities and start-up of follow-on programs in other countries. Space station planning is proceeding with a view to worldwide utilization of space and to the commitment and resources other nations are willing to place in the station. It is conceded that administrative difficulties will arise if the space station is a completely international effort guided by NASA. Additionally, concern will be present for technology leaks, national security implications on the space station, and reasonably fulfilling the benefits expected by those who become partners in the construction and operation of the station.

  4. Co-operation and Competition in Regional Economic Development Associated with Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webler, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Competition and co-operation appear in many different social venues. The author gives a variety of examples of co-operative behaviour in economics, politics, research, and everyday life activities such as sports. These four diverse examples illustrate the variety of forms that co-operation may take such as tacit co-operation, incremental co-operation, deep co-operation, etc. The links with the form of democracy (adversary democracy or consensual democracy) are also pointed. However, as with so many other things in life, the key is to the question of co-operation or competition is balance. Co-operation and competition are dialectical opposites. They create and maintain and define each other; they each are incomplete without the other

  5. Towards an International Code for administrative cooperation in tax matter and international tax governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Andrés Aucejo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is not a “Global Code” that encodes the duty of cooperation between tax authorities in the world, concerning the global tax system. This article addresses this issue by proposing a global Code of administrative cooperation in tax matters including both tax relations: between States, and between States, taxpayers and intermediary’s agents. It follows a wide concept of tax governance. The findings of this research have highlighted several practical applications for future practice. article analyses, firstly, the State of the question, starting with the legal sources (international and European sources of hard law and soft law reviewing the differences with the Code as here proposed. It also examines some important Agents who emit relevant normative in international administrative tax cooperation and the role that these agents are developing nowadays (sometimes international organizations but also States like the United States, which Congress enacted the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, FATCA. Overlapping and gaps between different regulations are underlined. Finally, the consequences of this “General Code” lack for the functioning of a good international governance, are described. Hence, the need to create an International Cooperation Code on tax matters and international fiscal governance is concluded. That Code could be proposed by any International Organization as the World Bank nature, for instance, or the International Monetary Fund or whichever International or European Organization. This instrument could be documented through a multilateral instrument (soft law, to be signed by the States to become an international legal source (hard law. Filling this Code as Articulated Text (form could be very useful for the International Community towards an International Tax Governance.

  6. Editorial: Contemporary Issues in International Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr STANEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International dimension is at the core of modern business activity and globalization processes tighten interconnectedness also at the macroeconomic level to unprecedented levels. This is clearly demonstrated by the first two issues of our review and expressed in editorial introductions (Wach, 2013; Klich, 2013. Thus, the third issue is explicitly devoted to contemporary issues in international economics. Obviously, tackling them in the way as complete as for example in Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy (Dicken, 2011 is impossible, taken into consideration limits of a journal issue.

  7. The OPRC framework for international cooperation in R ampersand D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, B.

    1992-01-01

    Immediately in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez incident in March 1989, work commenced on developing a new international framework for cooperation in oil pollution preparedness and response. That work culminated in the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-Operation, 1990 or OPRC. My presentation today will discuss the development of this new Convention, the meaning of its provisions, and what opportunities might exist. Long before the Exxon Valdez grounded, the need for countries to offer mutual assistance to each other was recognized by virtually anyone who had been involved in a major pollution event. That a single country could not open-quotes go it aloneclose quotes was an established fact. Oil pollution was recognized as an international problem, especially when an incident occurred in waters marking the boundary between countries or in enclosed bodies of water. But cooperation in oil pollution response was marked by bilateral agreements between neighboring countries, or at most, regional agreements among countries sharing a common shoreline. The Exxon Valdez, as unfortunate an occurrence as it was, acted as the catalyst to change that. The United States, arguably the most prosperous country in the world, could not cope with a spill the size of the Exxon Valdez with the resources it had on hand. Assistance was requested from virtually any government known to have or thought to have oil spill recovery equipment. Like few other incidents before, the Exxon Valdez showed the need for the open-quotes internationalizationclose quotes of oil pollution response beyond the traditional approach

  8. Does China and Africa South-South cooperation lead to economic development in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonfodji, P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since a few decades now Chinese enterprises’ investments abroad have seen a continuous and steady ascension. At first cautious and just across the Chinese national borders, these investments, slowly but surely, spread like a sheet of water that seeps into the heart of each continent on the globe. This global infiltration of Chinese companies coincides with the popularity in the use of the expression “South-South Cooperation” to characterize a type of relations between countries categorized as being “developing”. Accordingly this paper seeks to examine the role of the use of this concept as a “channel to achieve common development” in the context of Chinese enterprises’ outward direct investments in Africa adopting insights from international business production theories combined with an historical analysis of the notion of South-South Cooperation. Drawing on primary data gathered during my fieldwork in China in the period stretching from December 2011 to February 2012 and secondary data sources, it is argued that these Chinese investments supported by the Chinese government rhetoric on South-South cooperation, cannot lead to significant economic development in Africa like it has happened in China in the eighties. Rather and at most Chinese investments in Africa show some “trickle-down” effects characterised by very limited economic development in scattered localities throughout the African continent.

  9. IAEA and International Science and Technology Center sign cooperative agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA and the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) today signed an agreement that calls for an increase in cooperation between the two organizations. The memorandum of understanding seeks to amplify their collaboration in the research and development of applications and technology that could contribute to the IAEA's activities in the fields of verification and nuclear security, including training and capacity building. IAEA Safeguards Director of Technical Support Nikolay Khlebnikov and ISTC Executive Director Adriaan van der Meer signed the Agreement at IAEA headquarters in Vienna on 22 October 2008. (IAEA)

  10. International Scientific Cooperation in the Field of Spatial Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Minakir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the existing structure of international cooperation of scientific organizations in the field of regional studies in different parts of the world. The authors define current major organizations that coordinate the work of scientific subdivisions in the field of regional studies in the whole world and also in Europe, North and South America and the Asia-Pacific region. The researchers offer the new term - ‘public-scientific partnership’ (PSP - and discuss PSP mechanisms and its implementation ways that may strengthen regional scientific research in Russia. The authors also debate the idea of creation of the Russian Association of Regional Science

  11. UNO contribution to attract energy investments in transition economy countries in cooperation with international organizations, banks, and the business community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, L.

    1996-01-01

    Limited financial resources hamper the ability of transition economy countries to take advantage of recent technological progress in energy production, distribution, and consumption. Increased cooperation within and outside the UN system imposed new approaches and action programs to identify financing channels in view of implementing the economic development projects. Since the CNE'94 round table discussions on the role of the UN Economic Commission for Europe in energy cooperation for sustainable development and assistance for transition economy countries, new actions initiated by UN are supported by international organizations, banks, and the business community. The paper is based on recent UN documents, data, and information after six years of reforms. (author). 14 refs

  12. New Initiatives for International Cooperation for Nuclear Education in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strikhanov, M.

    2014-01-01

    Final remarks: Planned activities under the IAEA/MePhI cooperation - Assistance in implementing the IAEA initiative on Virtual Nuclear Management University; • Collecting and preserving information on peaceful use of nuclear science and technology through the Russian International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Center; • Assistance in implementing the educational laboratories of Virtual Nuclear laboratories for CLP4NET and T urbine-installation of NPP with VVER-1000 reactor“ simulator; • Develop and implement the selected courses using the CLP4NET or other suitable platform (3 Master’s degree programs on Nuclear Engineering, Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Nonproliferation); • Assistance in implementing the IAEA/ICTP School of NKM, August 2014 ; • A set of regional workshops on “The role of computer-based educational laboratories in Nuclear Engineering University Programmes”. New possible activities under the IAEA umbrella - • Cooperation with regional networks; • Establish a new network for Nuclear Education (CIS, EvrAzES, …) and develop together with other countries curricula, training programs and training materials on nuclear power and non-power applications; • Build public awareness of the benefits of nuclear technology and its applications; Support the IAEA in implementation of the selected courses in Member States. • Cooperation with foreign nuclear universities and training organizations for development of master and bachelor programs and postgraduate training

  13. The Economic Role and Limitations of Cooperatives: An Investment Cash Flow Derivation

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, H. Christopher

    1992-01-01

    The economic role and limitations of cooperatives are derived using an approach based on investment cash flows and net present value. Cooperatives are viewed as an option for member investment as well as an option for member patronage. The investment approach yields results similar to the traditional paradigms that focus on patronage. In addition, the approach makes more explicit the impact of member investment on cooperative existence, valuation, performance measurement, and strategy options.

  14. International cooperation in the commercial era of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allnutt, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    NASA plans permitting international participation in space activities are reviewed, with an emphasis on the increasing commercialization of these endeavors. The potential indicated by the recent success of the STS, long-term and large-scale Soviet missions, and the Ariane launcher is discussed; the development of the Space Station concept is traced; the increasing use of remote-sensing and telecommunications satellites is documented; currently planned space science missions are listed; and the NASA policy on international cooperation (full payment by the second nation, clean payload-spacecraft interfaces to prevent technology transfer, and open availability of scientific results) is outlined. It is argued that space activity, having passed through first and second phases dominated by exploration and military goals, respectively, will now soon enter a primarily commercial phase, with competition in telecommunications and remote-sensing services and private investment in space processing, manufacturing, and even launchers.

  15. West German nuclear politics: a study of international cooperative behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation of the motivations behind West German policies and behavior in the area of nuclear politics. It examines and attempts to explain this behavior using a taxonomy built around the factors of vulnerability, power, domestic support, and autonomy. These are called international cooperative behavior factors. Chapters I and II develop the taxonomy and define the factors in terms of the Federal Republic. Chapter III covers the period up through the functioning of the Nuclear Planning Group, while Chapter IV analyzes NATO's December 1979 modernization decision. The presentation is less chronological and more selective: it focuses on the four international cooperative behavior factors as explanatory concepts. Chapter V examines the utility of the taxonomy. It concludes that the factors of autonomy, domestic support and vulnerability appear to be key in understanding and predicting West German nuclear behavior. The chapter then studies the potential applicability of the taxonomy to other nations or issues. It concludes that the factors are very nation-specific, but they do in fact provide a useful classification and explanatory scheme

  16. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in the Era of International Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, Yosef

    2017-01-30

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Improved understanding of its pathogenesis has led to international cooperation in clinical studies. Multicenter, international collaborations and research facilitate rapid enrollment of enough patients to enable a variety of studies, including those of epidemiology, diagnostic and classification criteria, genetic disease predisposition, pathogenesis, outcomes, and treatment protocols. In the last 20 years, the vision of the Pediatric Rheumatology International Trial Organization (PRINTO) has become a reality of worldwide collaboration in pediatric rheumatology research, including North American and European research groups. Major advances have been made in treating systemic JIA and its main complication, macrophage-activating syndrome (MAS). Single Hub and Access Point to Pediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) is a project of the European Society of Pediatric Rheumatology with the goal of improving clinical care. Based on evidence in the scientific literature, position papers regarding optimal clinical approaches and care have been published. Formal, validated assessment tools to evaluate response to treatment have been developed. Recommendations have been established to encourage international research collaborations, especially in light of major advances achieved in the genetics of pediatric rheumatologic diseases and the need to share biological samples among different countries and continents. Every participating country has disease information available for patients and families. Additionally, educational programs and updated syllabi for pediatric rheumatology have been written to promote similar, high-level academic training in different countries. These efforts have resulted in significant improvements in treatment and in patient prognosis. However, improved cooperation is needed to enhance research with biological and genetic samples. The Israeli Research Group for

  17. Hydropolitical Complexes and Asymmetrical Power: Conflict, Cooperation, and Governance of International River Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny R. Kehl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydropolitical complexes are emerging to negotiate water-sharing policies that promote politicalstability, regional security, economic prosperity, and environmental sustainability. Yet interstatedisputes are occurring within most hydropolitical complexes, and weak riparians are oftencoerced to agree to water-sharing policies that adversely affect them. This research examines thestrategies weak riparians use to assert leverage in international river basins with asymmetricalpower, and the success of those strategies in achieving cooperation versus conflict. Grounded inthe theoretical framework of hydro hegemony, hard power, and soft power, this study uses crossnational analysis to test the effects of geographic, military, political, economic, technological,and external influence on water governance in eight international river systems. The resultsdemonstrate that weak riparians mobilize the assets and capacities of external actors, such asdonor countries and the World Bank, to increase their leverage within hydropolitical complexes.The study finds that strategies to balance hard power are largely ineffective; they fail to achievecooperative water-sharing arrangements and often exacerbate conflict. In contrast, strategies tobalance economic power and soft power, such as market access and political legitimacy, aremore successful in promoting cooperation and preventing conflict in hydropolitical complexes.

  18. Nuclear data standards - International Evaluation Co-operation volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.; Shibata, K.; Vonach, H.; Hambsch, F.J.; Chen, Z.; Hofmann, H.M.; Oh, S.Y.; Badikov, S.A.; Gai, E.V.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Smith, D.L.; Hale, G.M.; Kawano, T.; Larson, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries) and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries is organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by Subgroup 7, which was in charge of producing new evaluated neutron cross-section standards. When starting the project, there was a general consensus on the need to update these standards, as significant improvements had been made to the experimental database since 1991 when the last evaluation of these standards was performed. The present work was accomplished through efficient collaboration between a task force of the US Cross-section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Subgroup 7 of the Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. Work is reported on the results of an international effort to evaluate the neutron cross-section standards. The evaluations include the H(n,n), 6 Li(n,t), 10 B(n,α), 10 B(n,α1γ), 197 Au(n,γ), 235 U(n,f) and 238 U(n,f) standard reactions. Evaluations were also produced for the non-standard 238 U(n,γ) and 239 Pu

  19. State and business co-operation in settling socio-economic issues: forward to sustainable development of ecologically unfavorable regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkirova, N. N.; Lessovaia, S. N.

    2018-01-01

    The complexity of socio-economic issues of mono-cities located in the ecologically unfavorable regions of Eurasia was disclosed. The economically strategic role of city-forming mining enterprises and their impact on ecological situation was revealed. The general conception of settling the socio-economic problems of mono-cities located in ecologically unfavorable regions was worked out. Various approached to the concentration of financial resources for economic and ecological sustainable development of the regions located on the north of Eurasia holding nature protection actions were submitted. Based on performed critical analysis of the positive international experience of ecological taxation some approaches to reforming current Russian system of ecological taxation were suggested. It was revealed that increasing the social responsibilities of business in the field of waste recycling, environmental protection and monitoring of ecological conditions of territories and state and business co-operation are the most efficient opportunities in settling socio-economic issues of ecologically unfavorable regions.

  20. Literature review on recent international activity in cooperative vehicle-highway automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This literature review supports the report, Recent International Activity in Cooperative VehicleHighway Automation Systems. It : reviews the published literature in English dating from 2007 or later about non-U.S.-based work on cooperative vehicle...

  1. Priorities in the field of international cooperation with the aim of solving global environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrat' ev, K.YA.

    1993-08-01

    Considerations on priorities are presented in connection with the broad development of bilateral and multilateral international cooperation to solve global environmental problems. Emphasis is placed on the problem of global climate change, on optimizing the global climate observation system, and on substantiating the (1) inadequacy of the 'greenhouse' stereotype of global climate warming which has long predominated in Russian cooperation programs, and (2) the need to realize real climatic prorities (the role of biosphere dynamics, the interaction of atmosphere and ocean, cloud cover and radiation, the colloidal nature of the atmosphere, etc.). The thermal balance of the earth and the dynamics of the biosphere are considered as the key problems of global ecodynamics. Particular attention is given to socio-economic aspects of ecology. 62 refs.

  2. The cooperative a road for the economic and social development in the Cuban pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alberto Rivera Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work has as purpose, to evaluate the antecedents, development, current situation and perspectives of the cooperative in the Cuban economic pattern. In the article, they are studied, from the antecedents of the emergence of the agricultural cooperative, until their stages, making emphasis in the problems that affect the normal development in these ways of property and administration in the objective and subjective order. Finally he/she is carried out a brief analysis of the emergence of the cooperatives in other sectors of the economy, evaluating the premises and importance of this transformation in the economic, productive and social order.

  3. New international economic order and flow of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojko, B

    1979-12-01

    The role of science and technology in creating a new international economic order based on manpower and raw materials is examined. The traditional linkage of science and politics should end and emphasis be given to increasing productivity in order to expand employment opportunities and raise the world living standard. An indigenous research and development capability is seen as essential to counteract the effects of the time factor when technology is introduced into developing countries. Other considerations are risk of an illusory self-reliance, allocation of development sites in terms of labor substitution, ruthlessness of labor competition during modernization, variations of labor quality, and relationship of demography and unemployment. Competition between the capitalist and socialist countries is being redirected into cooperation in the area of technology transfer. 7 references. (DCK)

  4. 78 FR 54370 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Yemen Dated: August 26, 2013. Danielle Rolfes, International Tax Counsel, (Tax Policy). [FR Doc. 2013... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an [[Page 54371

  5. Cooperation, networks and emotions: Three essays in behavioral economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, B.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays that study how people behave in a social context. The first two essays are on cooperation and networks. Chapter 2 investigates a mechanism to facilitate public good provision in networks. It relies on the idea that people compete for attractive network positions (or

  6. International cooperation experiences of Korea in nuclear education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, In-Suk

    1996-01-01

    Man power development is an essential key to success in implementing nuclear projects, especially when maximum local participation is an important issue in every sector of nuclear industry. Bearing this in mind, the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) founded the Nuclear Training Center (NTC). The Center began to train technical personnel in the fields of radioisotope utilization and radiation protection in 1960s. During the first stage of nuclear power project in ROK in 1970s, the main effort was exerted to the training of those in nuclear power and nuclear engineering sectors. During the stage of increased technical self-reliance in 1980s, its training role was extended to the implementation of more specific training courses on nuclear power and safety fields. As of the end of 1995, about 23,000 people received the training courses. In an attempt to upgrade the nuclear technology, the advanced training courses at the NTC by invited foreign experts and by IAEA technical cooperation program have been implemented. Also the training under IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement in Asia Pacific Region has been offered. The change of the NTC to the International Training Center is recommended. (K.I.)

  7. Human resources for health: global crisis and international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Gustavo Zoio; Fehn, Amanda Cavada; Ungerer, Regina Lucia Sarmento; Poz, Mario Roberto Dal

    2017-07-01

    From the 1990s onwards, national economies became connected and globalized. Changes in the demographic and epidemiological profile of the population highlighted the need for further discussions and strategies on Human Resources for Health (HRH). The health workforce crisis is a worldwide phenomenon. It includes: difficulties in attracting and retaining health professionals to work in rural and remote areas, poor distribution and high turnover of health staff particularly physicians, poor training of health workforces in new sanitation and demographic conditions and the production of scientific evidence to support HRH decision making, policy management, programs and interventions. In this scenario, technical cooperation activities may contribute to the development of the countries involved, strengthening relationships and expanding exchanges as well as contributing to the production, dissemination and use of technical scientific knowledge and evidence and the training of workers and institutional strengthening. This article aims to explore this context highlighting the participation of Brazil in the international cooperation arena on HRH and emphasizing the role of the World Health Organization in confronting this crisis that limits the ability of countries and their health systems to improve the health and lives of their populations.

  8. International co-operation in the field of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1988-10-01

    Operational safety in nuclear power plants is without doubt a field where international co-operation is in constant progress. Accounting for over 80 per cent of the 400 reactors in service throughout the world, the menber countries of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) are constantly striving to improve the exchange and use of the wealth of information to be gained not just from power plant accidents and incidents but from the routine operation of these facilities. The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) helps the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy to meet the NEA's objectives in the safety field, namely: - to promote co-operation between the safety bodies of member countries - to contribute to the safety and regulation of nuclear activities. The CSNI relies on the technical back-up of several different working groups made up of experts appointed by the member countries. For the past three years I have had the honour of chairing Principal Working Group 1 (PWG 1), which deals with operating experience and human factor. It is in this capacity that I will attempt to outline the group's various activities and its findings illustrated by a few examples

  9. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  10. Dialogues on cancer survivorship: a new model of international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Kevin; Mattioli, Vittorio

    2013-06-01

    The authors describe the rationale and background of the present supplement to Cancer intended to stimulate a dialogue among researchers from Europe and North America regarding important issues faced by cancer survivors. Through jointly written articles addressing various aspects of cancer survivorship, each manuscript reports on the similarities, disparities, and problems viewed from the point of view of each author's respective continent. The supplement is meant to create a springboard for increased collaboration and aid in the development of a shared care model to improve the quality of cancer care, both during and after the completion of primary treatment. We hope that this effort may represent a new model of international cooperation, which is fruitful not only for the field of scientific research but also for identifying and sharing new approaches to the care and management of cancer survivorship issues, ultimately bringing improvements to quality of life of the growing population of cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  11. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Niemeyer, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. (author)

  12. SAC-C mission, an example of international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, F.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Nollmann, I.

    In comp liance with the objectives established in the National Space Program, Argentina in Space 1997-2008 ((Plan Espacial Nacional, Argentina en el Espacio 1997-2008), the National Commission on Space Activities (Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales - CONAE) undertook the design, construction, and launching of the SAC-C satellite in close collaboration with NASA. The purpose of this Mission is to carry out observations of interest both for the USA and Argentina, thus contributing effectively to NASA's Earth Science Program and to CONAE's National Space Program. The SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. Ten instruments on board the SAC-C perform different studies related to the ground and sea ecosystems, the atmosphere and the geomagnetic field. There are also technological experiments for determination of the satellite attitude and velocity as well as for the studies of the influence of space radiation on advanced electronic components . The inclusion of SAC-C in the AM Constellation, jointly with NASA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1 and Terra, is another example of important international cooperation which synergies the output of any single Mission. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken including several jointly sponsored technical workshops and collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments. A flight campaign of the NASA AVIRIS instrument was performed in Argentine during January and February 2001, for calibration of SAC-C and EO 1 cameras and the development of joint scientific works. In Cordoba Space Center a jointly operated ground GPS reference

  13. The accounting cooperative society in a process of countable international harmonization. The case of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Polo Garrido, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Cooperatives meet differentiated purposes since their origins. In the same way as other economic units, they need to make use of accounting. So the study of cooperative accounting arouse interest from distant time, as it is shown by the fact that in Spain a monograph book about cooperative accounting came out in 1925. The present work studies the cooperative accounting in Spain from the beginnings until nowadays. Currently we are living a process of accounting reform, for this reason we analy...

  14. Enlightenment on international cooperation for nuclear safety in China in light of Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jie; Feng Yi; Luan Haiyan; Meng Yue; Zhang Ou

    2013-01-01

    This thesis elaborates on the impact of Fukushima nuclear accident on global nuclear power development and subsequent international activities carried out by major countries. It analyses significance of international cooperation in ensuring nuclear safety and promoting nuclear power development and makes some suggestions to further strengthen the international cooperation on nuclear safety in China. (authors)

  15. 76 FR 5250 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  16. Local Foods and Food Cooperatives: Ethics, Economics and Competition Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Katchova, Ani L.; Woods, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Consumer interest in locally produced foods marketed through local food networks has been increasing. Local food networks utilize local supply chains such as direct market sales to consumers through CSAs, farmers markets, farm stands, and other alternative outlets. Our goal is to examine the role of food cooperatives in strengthening the local food networks and distributing locally produced products. We utilize data from a national study which includes case studies with three leading food co-...

  17. Geopolítica, economía y solidaridad internacional en la nueva cooperación Sur-Sur: el caso de la Venezuela bolivariana y petrocaribe Geopolitics, economy and international solidarity in the new South-South cooperation: the case of Bolivarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele BENZI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se muestra un panorama del esquema de cooperación energética propuesto en 2005 por la República Bolivariana de Venezuela a los países centroamericanos y caribeños denominado PETROCARIBE. Se plantea que la emergencia de esta propuesta, al igual que otras iniciativas de cooperación Sur-Sur, está claramente vinculada a objetivos estratégicos de política exterior que remiten básicamente a parámetros geopolíticos, económicos, de seguridad y, por último, de solidaridad internacional. En la primera sección se reseñan algunas de las características, debates y principales tendencias de la cooperación Sur-Sur. Se presentan a continuación los rasgos específicos de la política exterior y energética bolivariana. Se ofrece sucesivamente una descripción general de la estructura, mecanismos de funcionamiento y principales proyectos en marcha de PETROCARIBE. Finalmente, tras discutir esta experiencia de cooperación Sur-Sur a la luz de sus alcances, problemas y vulnerabilidades, se esbozan algunas conclusiones.This article aims to show an overview of the energy cooperation scheme called PETROCARIBE, proposed in 2005 by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela to the Caribbean and Central American countries. It argues that the emergence of this project, like other South-South cooperation initiatives, is clearly linked to several strategic foreign policy goals, which basically refer to geopolitical, economic, security and, last but not least, international solidarity parameters. The first section outlines some general characteristics of South-South cooperation and current trends and debates. The following presents the peculiar features of the Bolivarian foreign and energy policies. The next presents a general description of the PETROCARIBE framework, working mechanisms and its most important projects. Finally, after a discussion on PETROCARIBE as a South-South cooperation initiative, by highlighting its scopes, problems

  18. GREEN DIPLOMACY-A NEW TYPE OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We mention our attempt in a broader context reserved to a generous theme, of a great complexity and of a strict actuality that aims the planet’s health, of human and of other forms of living and nonliving forms of life. Particularly insisting on legal international coordinates of environmental protection and conservation, through which are being accomplished the valences of human’s right to a prosperous, healthy and ecologically balanced environment. This right occupies a central place among human rights, one of those essential gifts of nature to which no one should be detrimental to. It is considered to be a law of human solidarity consecrated by international and internal regulations, which involves in its content: the right to live in an unpolluted environment, which is not degraded by activities that can affect the environment, health, human welfare, sustainable development of society; the right to the highest medical care, unaffected by environmental degradation; right to a healthy working environment; right to benefit of durable usage of nature and its resources, the right to adequate water resources and food. This valences exercise of this right in the context of each state’s internal affairs, but especially in the life of international community, involves a new type of international cooperation suggestively called green diplomacy. It is a special form of the classical diplomacy, adapted to the specific and universality of environmental problems, particularly in the second half of the second century onwards. A diplomacy that seeks to harmonize the interests of a state and other’s interests along with the interests of every human being on the Planet, concerning the conservation and development of natural conditions of life. The major objective of this modern type of diplomacy is highlighted to empower the human beings, the micro and macro human community towards protecting, conserving and sustainable development of the Earth

  19. The economics of international coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-07-13

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  20. The economics of international coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  1. The IRIS consortium: international cooperation in advanced reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.; Petrovic, B.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Besides its many outstanding technical innovations in the design and safety, the most innovative feature of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), is perhaps the international cooperation which carries on its development. IRIS is designed by an international consortium which currently numbers 21 organizations from ten countries across four continents. It includes reactor, fuel and fuel cycle vendors, component manufacturers, laboratories, academia, architect engineers and power producers. The defining organizational characteristics of IRIS is that while Westinghouse has overall lead and responsibility, this lead is of the type of 'primus inter pares' (first among equals) rather than the traditional owner versus suppliers/contractors relationship. All members of the IRIS consortium contribute and expect to have a return, should IRIS be successfully deployed, commensurate to their investment. The nature of such return will be tailored to the type of each organization, because it will of course be of a different nature for say a component manufacturer, university, or architect engineer. One fundamental tenet of the consortium is that all members, regardless of their amount of contribution, have equal access to all information developed within the project. Technical work is thus being coordinated by integrated subgroups and the whole team meets twice a year to perform an overall review of the work, discuss policy and strategy and plan future activities. Personnel from consortium members have performed internships, mostly at Westinghouse locations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Windsor, Connecticut, but also at other members, as it has been the case for several graduate students. In fact, more than one hundred students at the various universities have been working on IRIS, most of them conducting graduate theses at the master or doctoral level. The IRIS experience has proved very helpful to the students in successfully landing their employment choice

  2. Economic analysis of land regeneration programmes through rural cooperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B.S.; Srinivasan, P.V.; Parikh, K.S.; Parikh, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An economic analysis of land regeneration programmes is given combining the criteria of financial as well as economic feasibility and sustainability applied to a wood plantation of Mallanahlly TGCS in Karnataka, India. Feasibility is measured in terms of economic benefits to the stakeholders and sustainability through optimal rotation of trees as well as continuous annual income to the stakeholders from such rotations. The plantation programme is evaluated at the perspectives of both TGCS and the society as a whole and it is found that benefit cost ratios are high in both the cases. (K.A.)

  3. The value of superpower-submitted INDCs in cooperative and non-cooperative action scenarios: economic impact, dynamic risk, and temperature rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the 2015 Paris climate talks near, policy discussions are focused on "intended nationally determined contributions" (INDCs) submitted in advance of the discussions. As the major global emitters - specifically the United States and China - have already submitted their INDCs, we have a point of comparison for evaluating the relative potential impacts of the proposed targets. By applying integrated assessment models to robust, publicly available data sets,we aim to evaluate the interplay between climate change and economic development, comment on emissions reduction scenarios in cooperative and non-cooperative situations, and assess the dynamic risks of multiple regional emissions scenarios. We use both the RICE model and the C-ROADS model to examine alternative regional outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages,under different reduction scenarios, including a scenario where geo-engineering plays a prominent role. These simulators allow us to vary emissions, population, and economic levels in China and the United States specifically to comment on the international climate risk impact of actors working jointly - or not - toward a global climate goal. In a complementary piece of analysis we seek to understand the value judgments, trade-offs, and regional policies that would lead to favorable climate finance flows. To reach an international sample of industry decision-makers, we propose a novel application of a standard discrete-choice survey methodology. A conjoint analysis requires a participant to chose between combinations of attributes and identify trade-offs while allowing the researcher to determine the relative importance of each individual attribute by mathematically assessing the impact each attribute could have on total item utility. As climate policy negotiations will consist of allocation of scarce resources and rejection of certain attributes, a conjoint analysis is an ideal tool for evaluating policy outcomes. This research program seeks to

  4. Model for prioritization of regional strategies within the technical cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Pedro Maffia da

    2017-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Cooperation Program is the main mechanism through which services are provided to its member states to help them build, strengthen and maintain their capabilities in the safe use of nuclear technology in support of socio-economic development. The technical cooperation program operates in four geographical regions, each regional program helps Member States to meet their specific needs, taking into account existing capacities and different operating conditions. The technical cooperation regions are Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. Developing activities together with the technical cooperation program we have the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL), which involves the majority of the members of the International Atomic Energy Agency of that region, for Technical Cooperation. All ARCAL's work is guided by the Regional Strategic Profile, which identifies the needs and problems of the region that require support projects. In the technical meeting of the Regional Strategic Profile, the needs and problems that are analyzed through indexes associated with severity, urgency, extension, relevance and difficulty are listed by different thematic areas. To these indexes, values are established by the technical staff on a continuous scale between 1 and 5. From these values an expression is used to arrive at a priority number for the needs and problems. In the face of many criticisms associated with similar approaches, such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and Timing, Trend and Impact Matrix, the aim of this thesis is to propose a methodological approach that can assist in the prioritization of investments of technical cooperation projects and programs that take into account the budget available and the technical and strategic visions of the parties involved. For this, the Probabilistic Composition

  5. LMS Moodle: Distance International Education in Cooperation of Higher Education Institutions of Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimbayev, N.; Kultan, J.; Abdykarimova, S.; Akramova, A.

    2017-01-01

    The development of international cooperation requires cooperation in the sphere of education. An enhanced sharing of experience in the sphere of practical teaching activities implies the increase of the quality of teaching process and of scientific cooperation. Sharing of experience in educational activities implies understanding among…

  6. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  7. International judicial cooperation by means of direct aid in the fight against international abduction of children in Brazil and Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuta, Alessandra; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Hendges, Carla Evelise Justino; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of international judicial cooperation by the direct assistance. It reflects on the impact of globalization on the state, the law and the legal systems. Contextualize the reduction of the effectiveness of the rights and the crisis of the process. Adresses the international judicial cooperation as a tool to promote integration of various judicial systems, necessary in a complex and interconnected world in judicial cooperation, there is the direct assistance as a m...

  8. Geoscience in Developing Countries of South Asia and International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K.

    2007-12-01

    Earth Science community in developing countries of South Asia is actively engaged in interdisciplinary investigations of the Earth and its envelopes through geological, geophysical and geochemical processes, for these processes are interconnected. Interdisciplinary interaction will continue to grow since problems pertaining to the solid earth, with its core-mantle-crust, and fluid envelops can be solved only with contributions from different Science disciplines. The expanding population and revolution in data handling-and-computing have now become a necessity to tackle the geoscientific problems with modern techniques and methodologies to meet these new challenges. As a future strategy, geo-data generation and handling need to be speedier and easier and hence demands a well- knit coordiantion and understanding amongst Governments, Industries and Academic organizations. Such coordination will prove valuable for better understanding of the Earth's processes, especially mitigating natural hazards with more accurate and speedy prdictions, besides sustaining Earth's resources. South Asian geoscience must, therefore, seek new directions by way of strategies, policies, and actions to move forward in this century. Environmental and resource problems affecting the world population have become international issues, since global environmental changes demand international cooperation and planning. The Earth is continually modified by the interplay of internal and external processes. Hence we need to apply modern geophysical techniques and interpret the results with the help of available geological, geochronological and gechemical informations It is through such integrated approach that we could greatly refine our understanding of the deep structure and evolution of the Indian shield. However, the inputs into multi-disciplinary studies necessary to know the crustal structure and tectonics in the adjoining regions (Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka etc.) still remain

  9. An evaluation of technical and economic capacity of farmers of Rural Production Cooperatives. Case Study: Neishabour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hadizadeh Bazaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to investigate the impact of cooperatives on the technical and economical empowering of farmers and agricultural development in the villages of Neishabour. The method of this research is analytical – descriptive and it has been carried out in 2013.  The statistical society is composed of 4685 members and non-members of cooperatives in twenty villages of Neishabour. The sample size via the Cochran formula and stratified sampling technique has been calculated to be 252.  Data collection has been performed through documentation and field study. For data analysis, the SPSS software package and the T-Student Test have been employed. The results of statistical analysis based on 13 economic indicators revealed that the average economic stability of the members is 2.64 which is slightly higher than 2.47; that is the average economic stability of non-members. Independent samples T-Test results between members and non-members revealed that the probability value is 0.004 which indicates that there exists a significant difference between average economic stability of members and non-members. The T-Test results with hypothetical mean of 3 and 4 showed that the majority of indicators are less than the average. Therefore, the impact of cooperatives in economic development is evaluated to be below the average limit and cooperatives could not play an important role in increasing the economic empowerment of farmers.

  10. Energy policy, economic cooperation, and sustainable development in Central Asia: the case of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djakhangir, S

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise efficiency, create

  11. Review for the Korean Health Professionals and International Cooperation Doctors Dispatched to Peru by the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongyoung

    2015-04-01

    South Korea dispatches Korean nationals to partner developing countries as an Official Development Assistance (ODA) project through the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). In the health sector, KOICA dispatches international cooperation doctors (ICDs), nurses, physical therapists, radiologic technologists, nutritionists, medical laboratory technologists, occupational therapists, and dental hygienists. A total of 216 ICDs were dispatched over 19 times from 1995 until 2013. There were 19 areas of specialties among the ICDs. The most common specialty was internal medicine (61/216, 28.2%), the second most common specialty was general surgery (43/216, 19.9%), followed by oriental medicine (27/216, 12.5%), pediatrics (17/216, 7.9%), orthopedics (16/216, 7.4%), family medicine (16/216, 7.4%), and odontology (14/216, 6.5%). The ICDs have worked in 21 countries. KOICA dispatched the highest number of ICDs to Asia (97/216, 44.9%), followed by Africa (50/216, 23.1%), Latin America (34/216, 15.7%), the commonwealth of independent states (31/216, 14.4%), and Oceania (4/216, 1.9%). Nobody was dispatched to the Middle East. A total of 134 KOICA health professionals were dispatched to Peru from 1996 until October 1, 2014. Of these, 19.4% (26/134) were ICDs, 44.8% (60/216) were nurses, 20.1% (27/134) were physical therapists, 6.7% (9/134) were radiologic technologists, 2.2% (3/134) were nutritionists, and 6.7% (9/134) were medical laboratory. ICDs' specialties comprised internal medicine (13/26, 50%), family medicine (8/26, 30.8%), pediatrics (2/26, 7.7%), otorhinolaryngology (1/26, 3.8%), orthopedics (1/26, 3.8%), and oriental medicine (1/26, 3.8%). Most of the dispatched health professionals worked at institutions that were supported by KOICA. For this reason, the proportion of health professionals who worked at public health centers (PHCs) was the highest (58.2%, 78/134) when classified by workplace type. Other KOICA health professionals worked at hospitals

  12. Japan's international cooperation programs on seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Akira

    1997-01-01

    MITI is promoting many international cooperation programs on nuclear safety area. The seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a one of most important cooperation areas. Experts from MITI and related organization join the multilateral cooperation programs carried out by international organization such as IAEA, OECD/NEA etc. MITI is also promoting bilateral cooperation programs such as information exchange meetings, training programs and seminars on nuclear safety with several countries. Concerning to the cooperation programs on seismic safety of NPPs such as information exchange and training, MITI shall continue and expand these programs. (J.P.N.)

  13. International co-operation in the nuclear field. Europe and OCDE countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1981-05-01

    This report highlights the political factors underlying nuclear cooperation in the European context. It analyses the institutional structure for such cooperation and describes the different vocations of international organisations in the nuclear field (NEA, IAEA, Euratom). Finally the report gives concrete examples of international nuclear cooperation, with an emphasis on its legal aspects. (NEA) []Le present expose fait ressortir les facteurs politiques de la cooperation nucleaire notamment dans le contexte europeen. Il analyse la structure institutionnelle de cette cooperation et evoque les differentes vocations des organismes internationaux dans le domaine nucleaire (AEN, AIEA, Euratom). Il donne enfin des exemples concrets en mettant l'accent sur ses aspects juridiques

  14. Japan`s international cooperation programs on seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Akira [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    MITI is promoting many international cooperation programs on nuclear safety area. The seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a one of most important cooperation areas. Experts from MITI and related organization join the multilateral cooperation programs carried out by international organization such as IAEA, OECD/NEA etc. MITI is also promoting bilateral cooperation programs such as information exchange meetings, training programs and seminars on nuclear safety with several countries. Concerning to the cooperation programs on seismic safety of NPPs such as information exchange and training, MITI shall continue and expand these programs. (J.P.N.)

  15. International cooperation for the cure and prevention of severe hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Lawrence B; Uderzo, Cornelio; Masera, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Thalassemia major (TM) is the most frequent life-threatening noninfectious disease of childhood in the Middle East, South Asia, and Pacific Islands where it accounts for a significant proportion of childhood mortality, morbidity, and related health care expenses. In spite of major advances in supportive care during the last decade, many patients in low-income and middle-income countries still fare poorly because of high treatment costs and lack of accessible multidisciplinary teams, not to consider the risk of blood-borne infections, primarily hepatitis C. In selected low-risk patients with a compatible sibling, TM is highly curable by bone marrow transplantation (BMT), which also improves the quality of life and is cost-effective. Starting in 2008, the Cure2Children Foundation (C2C), an Italian Non-Governmental Organization, has supported a BMT network in Pakistan, which during 2012 was extended to India. The primary aim of this project was to assess feasibility, outcomes, and costs of matched-related BMT for thalassemia in young low-risk children using a well-established and tolerable strategy. A total of 100 matched-related BMTs have been performed to date by partner institutions within this C2C-supported network; in the 50 low-risk cases with TM, over 90% disease-free survival was obtained with procedure expenses within 10,000 USD/BMT, that is, an outcome comparable to that obtained in affluent countries but with a fraction of the expenses. This cure rate was also obtained in start-up BMT centers (1 in Pakistan and 1 in India) within a structured and intensive cooperation program. Twinning and other international cooperation strategies based on shared principles and a common vision may substantially facilitate access to BMT.

  16. Some Aspects of the Economic-Industrial Cooperation in the Romanian-West German Relationships from the Second Half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Fedor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When it started the controversial process of alienating our country from the Soviet Union’s directives in the second half of the 6th decade, Romania tried, among others, to build an independent national economy and to develop political-diplomatic and economic relationships with the developed western countries. At the beginning of the 6th decade, the Western-Germany looked, among other projects relating to the west European region, for the approach of the Eastern capitals and the cooperation with these ones. Within the bilateral relationships, Romania set out a clear series of objectives or economic initiatives (the industrial cooperation and the technical-scientific cooperation and the Federal Germany intended to develop the commercial field and to put across cultural relationships. The first official instruments stating the economic cooperation between the two countries were represented by the Agreement for the technical-economic cooperation in August 1967 and by the Long term Agreement for the economic, industrial and technical collaboration in June 1973. The industrial production cooperation between S.R. of Romania and F.R. of Germany knew several forms – international sector bilateral specialization of production, co-production concept, co-production in the mixed companies, the loan, the work with equipments and machineries on credit payable in products.

  17. The present status of International Nuclear Cooperation of Korea and the expectations from PNC's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    The international cooperation activities for peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Korea started with the cooperation and assistance provided by advanced countries in the early 1960s when a feasibility study for a nuclear power reactor was carried out for its introduction into the Korean power system. Currently, we have 9 nuclear energy cooperation agreements concluded with foreign governments and also maintain cooperation relations with power companies, research institutes, A/E companies, manufacturers, etc. in 15 countries. The international cooperation activities cover a wide range of nuclear industries from design of nuclear power plant to nuclear fuel cycle, but need to expand into exchange of co-operation for noncommercial nuclear safety and cultural aspects. It is relatively simple and easy to realize international nuclear cooperation on commercial base such as nuclear reactor procurement contract, but unfavorable result can be expected from noncommercial transactions

  18. International cooperation to conquer global inequities in reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The effect of population growth is not limited to national boundaries. Indeed the inability of people in developing countries to control their own fertility has repercussions on global security and on the balance between population and environment as well a on their health and welfare. All nations need to take steps to slow down rapid population growth now, otherwise we will suffer serious consequences. The different between 2 UN projections of world population equals current world population size. Almost 90% of the increase of the larger projection would occur in developing countries, yet they are the least capable of managing big populations. Further major inequalities in reproductive health between developed and developing countries, as well as between men and women exist. The infant mortality rate in developed regions is around 6 times lower than it is in developing regions, child mortality is 7 times lower, and maternal mortality is 15 times lower. International collaboration to rid the world of these inequalities is need to improve reproductive health. Specifically, political and health leaders should mobilize necessary international and national resources. Even though there is more than US $50,000 million in official development assistance funds available annually, the level of population related funding has decreased to less than 1.1% of these funds for 1993-1994. Developed countries could reduce the debt burden to free funds for population activities and to reverse the flow from the poor countries in the Southern Hemisphere to the rich countries in the Northern Hemisphere. Besides developing countries spend much of their money on the military (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa spends US$ 10,000 million). International cooperation leading to peace would make significantly more money available for the social and health sectors, especially reproductive health care.

  19. Features of the International Cooperation in Nuclear Power at the Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Panteley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: in article the author raises the aspects of the international cooperation in nuclear power. The author wants to analyse the multiplefactor analysis of the international regulation in the field of peaceful use of atomic energy and to reveal competitive advantages of the Russian Federation in this area.Methods: the methodological base of the research was made by set of general scientific methods and methods of the economic analysis. In particular, such methods of the scientific analysis were used as system approach, method of the comparative analysis, synthesis and analysis. From economic methods was used the method of the analysis of the branch competitiveness.Results: the author, raises the aspects of the international cooperation in nuclear power, comes to the conclusion that the specifics of branch cause need of comprehensive and close international interaction for prevention of distribution of dual-use technologies, for ensuring global and regional ecological and energy security, for ensuring the rights to use peaceful atom for needs of national economies and for observance of rules of the free market competition in such a complex branch of the world economy.Conclusions and Relevance: nuclear power is a high-tech and innovative branch of the Russian economy. Today it is one of the most dynamically developing in the country, and also plays a significant role in the world energy. Among the competitive advantages of the national nuclear power industry is the development of new technologies, flexible price offers in foreign markets, etc. The development of the branch and the sustainability of Russia's competitive position in this area on foreign markets require the development of new proposals for different regional markets and the implementation of planned measures to support the level of competitiveness.Сonclusions can be used as recommendations for developing programs to increase the competitiveness of the Rosatom State Corporation

  20. Enhancing nuclear emergency response through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugletveit, F.; Aaltonen, H.

    2003-01-01

    perspective however, there are probably substantial resources available for response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The problem is that during an emergency, these resources are not where they are needed. Most resources are under authority control in the respective countries, but if all countries would commit themselves to contribute to such assistance arrangements between countries and invoke all resources available and efficiently co-ordinate and route them to where they are mostly needed, the international community and individual States would achieve a better and more efficient response to emergencies. Resources could in this respect be everything that is needed to respond to an emergency, e.g. equipment, expertise, assessment capabilities or other services. These arrangements should be global arrangements as bi-lateral or regional arrangements are only adequate for some scenarios. The Convention an Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention an Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency established in 1986 are at present acceded by approx. 85 IAEA Member States. These conventions constitute the framework of international co-operation on response to nuclear and radiological emergencies between States and describe the obligations and mechanisms of international notification and assistance. The conventions recognize the need for a co-ordinating and facilitating body in this co-operation and the IAEA has been given this role. The conventions an Assistance and Early Notification provide a good framework for achieving international co-operation an nuclear emergency response. It has however been recognised that the implementation of these conventions needs to be improved. This is the responsibility of acceding states. To efficiently share information between many states, it is necessary to establish a standard international communication platform for information exchange with a communication strategy and standardization

  1. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. It remains an association of active practitioners of nuclear forensics underwritten by funding from sponsoring countries and organizations. While the primary mission of the ITWG continues to be advancing the science and techniques of nuclear forensics and sharing technical and information resources to combat nuclear trafficking, recently the ITWG has focused on improvements to its organization and outreach. Central is the establishment of guidelines for best practices in nuclear forensics, conducting international exercises, promoting research and development, communicating with external organizations, providing a point-of-contact for nuclear forensics assistance, and providing mutual assistance in nuclear forensics investigations. By its very nature nuclear trafficking is a transboundary problem; nuclear materials

  2. Gross Domestic Pizza. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiene, Irena; Venger, Anatoly; MacDonald, Rich; Davis, Debbie

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives; time…

  3. Analysis of the Factor Endowments and Agricultural Trade for Economic Cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myong Keun Eor

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production factors, productivity and trade structures of China, Japan and Korea were analyzed. Their agriculture has mutual complementarity arising from differences in factor endowments as well as mutual competitiveness caused by similarities in production structure. Although agriculture of the three countries can be characterized by small-scale farming in common, the capital/labor ratio and the labor/land ratios are much different by country. As a result, Japan and Korea have advantages in producing labor saving and capital intensive products while China has advantages in labor intensive and capital saving products. Since agricultural productivity of factors such as labor, land and capital showed huge differences by country, mutually beneficiary development might be possible through the agricultural cooperation in the Northeast Asian region. Agricultural products of China, Japan and Korea can be classified into two groups of mutually competitive and complementary products. Regional cooperation in agriculture can be vitalized by combining production of mutually competitive products at certain levels in each country with internalizing trade of mutually complementary products. Unfortunately, however, agricultural exports are more and more competitive as the export similarity indices are high and degree of export competition is increasing in the region. For the regional agriculture, sharing markets in the region through establishing complementary systems of utilizing production factors would be better than seeking monopolistic rent or market domination through unlimited competition with each other. Price competition based on the concept of comparative advantage assumes production specialization. However, such kind of competitive advantage is likely to disappear when relative factor prices change as the national economy grows. Consequently, agricultural markets in the region might be dominated by any competitor outside the region. China

  4. Challenges of the International Criminal Court in the cooperation with the States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available International cooperation is one of the main pillars on which the performance of the International Criminal Court is based. The experience, in particular, in the situ- ations referred by the Security Council of the United Nations, allows seeing the dif- ficulties derivates from the denial of States to cooperate with the Court. This paper analyzes the causes for which this breach occurs and what measures are proposed to strengthen cooperation with the Court as a precondition for effective action.

  5. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  6. PROBLEMATIC ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON THE FIGHT AGAINST CYBERCRIME

    OpenAIRE

    MAKUSHEV DMITRY IVANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to topical issues of international cooperation of the Russian Federation and foreign countries in combating cybercrime. The author offers measures in international law on the improvement of cooperation between law enforcement agencies of foreign countries in the fight against computer crimes.

  7. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  8. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award Lecture: Managing Nuclear and Biological Risks: Building Resilience through International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregenzer, Arian

    2012-03-01

    International technical cooperation has long been an important nonproliferation strategy, especially since the 1990s when cooperative threat reduction (CTR) to prevent theft or illicit transfer of nuclear weapons, material and expertise in the former Soviet Union became a keystone of U.S. policy. The CTR approach expanded to include engagement with scientists and engineers with expertise relevant to biological and chemical weapons, and continued in the 2000s with efforts in Iraq and Libya, and cooperation with a wide range of countries on export control and nuclear and biological security. In general, the goal of such efforts has been to prevent proliferation or WMD terrorism. In most cases, the United States (or the West) defines the threat, and then funds partner countries to implement solutions. This presentation will argue that the future requires a new approach. Nuclear capabilities are more widely available than ever before, repercussions of the A.Q. Khan network continue to unfurl, and countries such as the DPRK engage in illicit cooperation. In addition, there has been a global boom in biotechnology with many nations, particularly across South and East Asia, investing in the biotech industry as a source of fuels, food, and materials for their rapidly expanding populations. Compared to the 1990s, today's threat is more diffuse, and the line between legitimate and illegitimate technical capability is no longer so clear. In addition, the West has many fewer resources to invest due to the global economic downturn. In this environment, full commitment of all countries that benefit from nuclear and biological advances will be required to assure the safety and security of all. Technical cooperation can continue to play an important role, but with some significant changes: First, challenges should be defined from a local perspective to ensure full commitment and participation. Second, the goal of cooperation should shift from preventing specific threats to building

  9. International sources of financial cooperation for health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L M

    1983-01-01

    By direct consulation and review of published sources, a study of 16 selected official sources of international financial cooperation was conducted over the August 1979 to August 1980 period in order to assess the policies, programs, and prospects for support of established international health goals. This study demonstrated that approximately 90% of the external health sector funds are provided via development oriented agencies. The major agencies providing such assistance concur that no sector, including health, should be excluded "a priori," providing that the requesting nation conveys its proposals through the appropriate national development planning authority. The agencies in the study also were found to be supporting health related programs in all the geographic regions of the World Health Organization (WHO). An associated review of 30 external funding agencies revealed that only 5 reported providing health assistance in more than half of the countries where they provided assistance for general development purposes. Interviewed sources attributed this to the limited manner in which health proposals have been identified, prepared, and forwarded (with national development authority approval) to international agencies. In 1979 concessional development financing totaled approximately US$29.9 billion, US$24.2 billion being provided by 17 major industrial nations, US$4.7 billion by Organization of Petroleum Exporting (OPEC) countries, and less than US$1 billion by the countries of Eastern Europe. Approximately 2/3 of such concessional financing is administered bilaterally, only 1/3 passing through multilateral institutions. UN agencies receive only 12% of these total concessional development financing resources. In 1979, concessional funding for health totaled approximately US$3 billion, approximately 1/10 of which was administered by WHO and its regional offices. It is anticipated that future international funding for health in developing countries will continue

  10. Transfer of knowledge in international cooperation: the Farmanguinhos - SMM case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Samuel Araujo Gomes da; Duarte, Roberto Gonzalez; Castro, José Márcio de

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the influence of four mechanisms of knowledge transfer (training, technical visits, expatriation, and standard operating procedures) on the different dimensions (potential and realized) of absorptive capacity in international technical cooperation. We examine the case of implementation of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos. Data have been collected using semi-structured interviews (applied to 21 professionals of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos, Farmanguinhos, FIOCRUZ, and Itamaraty) and official documents. The data of the interviews have been submitted to content analysis, using the software NVivo. Training and technical visits directly influenced the acquisition and, partly, the assimilation of knowledge. Expatriation contributed with the transformation of this knowledge from the development and refinement of operational routines. Finally, the definition of standard operating procedures allowed the Mozambican technicians to be the actors of the transformation of the knowledge previously acquired and assimilated and, at the same time, it laid the foundations for a future exploration of the knowledge. Training and technical visits mainly influence the potential absorptive capacity, while expatriation and standard operating procedures most directly affect the realized absorptive capacity.

  11. Promotion of international nuclear cooperation: Need, problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    In this panel discussing nonproliferation and international cooperation, the point of view of developing countries, both signatories and nonsignatories to the NPT, is presented. The slow-down in the growth of nuclear trade and industry has adversely affected the economy of energy deficient developing countries, depriving them of the benefits of atomic energy in agriculture and health as well as in power sector. Among 26 countries using nuclear energy for electricity generation, there are just half a dozen developing countries, and their share in the installed nuclear power capacity in the world is only 2 %. Besides the overall slow-down of global economy, the inflexible framework of treaties and quidelines is an important factor of the slow-down. The gradual erosion of mutual confidence between supplier states and recipients has arisen. The greatest threat to world peace is the growing nuclear arsenals of superpowers rather than nuclear proliferation. The role of the IAEA, the setting up of the Committee on Assurance of Supplies, the economy of developing countries and others are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  12. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  13. An Integrated Strategy for Promoting Geoscience Education and Research in Developing Countries through International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2007-12-01

    Geoscience education and research in Developing countries should aim at achieving food, water and environmental security, and disaster preparedness, based on the synergetic application of earth (including atmospheric and oceanic realms), space and information sciences through economically-viable, ecologically- sustainable and people-participatory management of natural resources. The proposed strategy involves the integration of the following three principal elements: (i) What needs to be taught: Geoscience needs to be taught as earth system science incorporating geophysical, geochemical and geobiological approaches, with focus (say, 80 % of time) on surficial processes (e.g. dynamics of water, wind and waves, surface and groundwater, soil moisture, geomorphology, landuse, crops), and surficial materials (e.g. soils, water, industrial minerals, sediments, biota). Subjects such as the origin, structure and evolution of the earth, and deep-seated processes (e.g. dynamics of the crust-mantle interaction, plate tectonics) could be taught by way of background knowledge (say, 20 % of the time), (ii) How jobs are to be created: Jobs are to be created by merging geoscience knowledge with economic instruments (say, micro enterprises), and management structures at different levels (Policy level, Technology Transfer level and Implementation level), customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, and (iii) International cooperation: Web-based instruction (e.g. education portals, virtual laboratories) through South - South and North - South cooperation, customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, with the help of (say) UNDP, UNESCO, World Bank, etc.

  14. Cooperation of Ukraine and Republic of Poland: Economic and Diplomatic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Poland in viewed by Ukraine as a reliable economic and political partner supporting Ukraine’s intention to integrate in Europe. Therefore, facts, documents and statistical data reflecting qualitative and quantitative aspects of relations between Ukraine and Poland need to be subject to non-stop monitoring and analysis, to help in finding timely solutions for problematic issues that may occur in these countries’ relations. The article’s objective is to analyze the performance and perspectives of economic and diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Republic of Poland. The analysis of documents on diplomatic and economic cooperation of the two countries after they gained political independence, and statistical data on trade in goods and services (by category and investment flows (by data on direct investment from Ukraine to Poland and from Poland to Ukraine shows that both countries have immense potentials for cooperation in various fields. As regards diplomatic dimension, Republic of Poland is the strongest promoter and lobbyist of the Euro-integration and Euro-Atlantic course of Ukraine. Regarding the economic cooperation, while mutual trade in goods declined in 2014 due to the economic and political crisis in Ukraine, it grew in 2016 with the recovery processes in the Ukrainian economy. Mutual trade in services is less intensive than trade in goods. Analysis of the investment cooperation shows the large asymmetry in favor of Polish investors in Ukraine and the reducing investment in both directions in the latest years.

  15. North-south cooperation in international atmospheric programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, J. G.

    The study of the inner workings of the atmosphere and how it links biosphere, oceans, soil, rocks, human systems and near-earth space into one single whole is one of the most difficult and ambitious endeavors of humankind. The biggest challenge is to identify and separate natural from human-induced changes and provide scientific information to allow governments formulate and implement policies that reconcile regional development with global environmental protection. Developing countries have a crucial role to play: they can offer much- needed human talent, labor and geographic coverage for the daunting task of monitoring and interpreting the complex, non-linear and chaotic system under study. Researchers engaged in the study of the atmosphere are confronted with scientific questions whose answers can have tremendous economic and political implications. This paper will discuss some of the organizational, political and psychological hurdles that must be considered and overcome in the planning of international programs of atmospheric research.

  16. Soil conservation in Burkina Faso: is international cooperation effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Coviello, Velio; Grimaldi, Stefania; Vezza, Paolo; Koussubé, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Challenges related to Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) have been documented in Burkina Faso for many decades so far. The ever-growing population of this country, a landlocked desertification-prone one, is daily facing the visible impact of increasingly intense rainfall and concentrated rainy days. Agricultural soil erosion and reservoir siltation are two of the main issues affecting Burkina Faso subsistence agriculture sector, whose revenues largely contribute to people's income. From the sixties onwards locally-developed SWC techniques (e.g. permeable rock dams and gabion check dams) have been widely, though geographically variably, employed in the country. The effectiveness of these techniques in locally increasing soil moisture and reducing soil erosion is well proven, while their long term effect in decreasing the reservoir siltation is still under debate and shall be addressed with a whole-catchment approach often overlooked by international donors. This research aims to analyze the history of the use of these techniques by reviewing the results of several cooperation projects that dealt with the implementation of nearly 200 conservation works. These case studies are representative of 5 out of 12 regions of Burkina Faso and span over two decades. Local people levels of (i) awareness, (ii) technique appropriation, (iii) involvement and the degree of (iv) effectiveness and (v) maintenance of these SWC works have been taken into account. The analysis of the afore-mentioned five indicators let the authors draw a list of features that are needed for this kind of projects to be successful in the SWC domain. Moreover the differences that exist between the approach to the community-works, normally employed for SWC realizations, of different ethnical groups is highlighted. The degree of degradation of the environment also plays an important role in the involvement of the local community together with the familiarity of the population with these techniques. For

  17. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, C.; Sgobba, T.; Larsen, A.; Rose, S.; Heimann, T.; Ciancone, M.; Mulhern, V.

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998 the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre- existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and ISS. The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be considered when establishing the ESA PSRP. The paper will expound upon the detailed franchising model, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The paper will then address the resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date. Additionally, the paper presents ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  18. Enhancing international technology cooperation for climate change mitigation. Lessons from an electromobility case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhasin, Shikha

    2014-07-01

    As a global agreement on climate mitigation and absolute emissions reductions remains grid-locked, this paper assesses whether the prospects for international technology cooperation in low-carbon sectors can be improved. It analyses the case of international cooperation on electric vehicle technologies to elaborate on the trade-offs that cooperation such as this inherently attempts to balance- national growth objectives of industrial and technology development versus the global goods benefit of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It focuses on bilateral German-Chinese programmes for electric vehicle development, as well as multilateral platforms on low-carbon technology cooperation related to electric vehicles. Based on insights from these cases studies, this paper ultimately provides policy recommendations to address gaps in international technology cooperation at a bilateral level for ongoing German-Chinese engagement on electric vehicles; and at a multilateral level with a focus on the emerging technology cooperation framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  19. Enhancing international technology cooperation for climate change mitigation. Lessons from an electromobility case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    As a global agreement on climate mitigation and absolute emissions reductions remains grid-locked, this paper assesses whether the prospects for international technology cooperation in low-carbon sectors can be improved. It analyses the case of international cooperation on electric vehicle technologies to elaborate on the trade-offs that cooperation such as this inherently attempts to balance- national growth objectives of industrial and technology development versus the global goods benefit of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It focuses on bilateral German-Chinese programmes for electric vehicle development, as well as multilateral platforms on low-carbon technology cooperation related to electric vehicles. Based on insights from these cases studies, this paper ultimately provides policy recommendations to address gaps in international technology cooperation at a bilateral level for ongoing German-Chinese engagement on electric vehicles; and at a multilateral level with a focus on the emerging technology cooperation framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  20. Economic growth and gender equality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And conversely, does gender equality impact economic growth? ... change and growth in the economy on women's employment opportunities and the type ... sectors and their overall effect on development outcomes, such as economic growth ...

  1. ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty ... new information and communication technologies (ICTs) as a lever for economic and social development. ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all people, without ...

  2. Mindfulness training increases cooperative decision making in economic exchanges: Evidence from fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ulrich; Gu, Xiaosi; Sharp, Carla; Hula, Andreas; Fonagy, Peter; Montague, P Read

    2016-09-01

    Emotions have been shown to exert influences on decision making during economic exchanges. Here we investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of a training regimen which is hypothesized to promote emotional awareness, specifically mindfulness training (MT). We test the hypothesis that MT increases cooperative economic decision making using fMRI in a randomized longitudinal design involving 8weeks of either MT or active control training (CT). We find that MT results in an increased willingness to cooperate indexed by higher acceptance rates to unfair monetary offers in the Ultimatum Game. While controlling for acceptance rates of monetary offers between intervention groups, subjects in the MT and CT groups show differential brain activation patterns. Specifically, a subset of more cooperative MT subjects displays increased activation in the septal region, an area linked to social attachment, which may drive the increased willingness to express cooperative behavior in the MT cohort. Furthermore, MT resulted in attenuated activity in anterior insula compared with the CT group in response to unfair monetary offers post-training, which may suggest that MT enables greater ability to effectively regulate the anterior insula and thereby promotes social cooperation. Finally, functional connectivity analyses show a coupling between the septal region and posterior insula in the MT group, suggesting an integration of interoceptive inputs. Together, these results highlight that MT may be employed in contexts where emotional regulation is required to promote social cooperation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Innovative nuclear reactor development. Opportunities for international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    A number of countries wish to expand their use of nuclear energy or keep open the option of doing so in the future. Any new nuclear generating capacity will be built in the context of increasingly privatized and de-regulated energy markets coupled with heightened public concern over nuclear power. New nuclear power plants must maintain or exceed current levels of safety and must be economically competitive with alternative ways of generating electricity. They must address other challenges as well, among them waste disposal and nonproliferation concerns. This report reviews how some of the innovative nuclear-fission technologies being developed today attempt to address the challenges facing nuclear energy. It suggests some areas for collaborative research and development that could reduce the time and cost required to develop new technologies. The report is a product of the 'Three-Agency Study', a joint project among the International Energy Agency (IEA), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (authors)

  4. Cooperation Agreement. The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  5. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [fr

  6. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  7. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [es

  8. Development of nuclear technology through International Technical Cooperation programme: Malaysian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud

    1997-01-01

    In the advent of new technologies and knowledge, countries need to rely on one another for progress and development. At the same time, new challenges to development, which are beyond the competence of any country to approach individually, have emerged. These have led to greater need for international co-operation, particularly among the developing countries. In Malaysia, international technical co-operation has contributed significantly towards the development of nuclear technology. Malaysia has received technical assistance through the multilateral, regional and bilateral co-operation. This assistance complements the efforts of the government to meet the primary objectives of science and technology programme, which are; intensification of R and D capacity and applications of technologies, both acquired and developed, in national development. Over the last one and a half decade, more than 70 projects valued almost USD 15 millions, were implemented under the Technical Assistance Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Bilateral Technical Assistance Programme of Japan and Australia. Malaysia also has benefited from the regional technical co-operation programme such Regional Co-operative Agreement for Asia and Pacific Region, United Nation Department Programme, International Nuclear Co-operation in Asia. While receiving assistance, Malaysia continues to assist other developing countries in their development efforts in the fields of nuclear technology, through the various international co-operation programmes. This report reviews the technical assistance received through the international co-operation and its contributions towards the development of nuclear technology in Malaysia for period 1980 - 1996

  9. Economic cooperation between Russia and North Korea: New goals and new approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Zakharova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For many years the Soviet Union was the key economic partner of North Korea. After the USSR broke up, Russia has not played such an important role in the DPRK's economic development. In 2013, its share in the foreign trade of North Korea accounted for a mere 1%. However, in the second decade of the 21st century bilateral, contacts have intensified significantly. Judging by the recent developments, the Russian leadership has made a political decision to expand economic cooperation with North Korea and stimulate Russia's business interests with the DPRK. Russia has set a goal of growing the volume of its trade with North Korea by a factor of ten by 2020. Moreover, Moscow is currently developing a number of investment projects in the DPRK and Russian companies are also looking at developing more of them. Another important aim for Russia is the implementation of big infrastructure projects with both Koreas. The article examines the current position and future prospects for economic cooperation between Russia and North Korea and analyses main forms and potential opportunities for developing bilateral economic relations. Particular attention is paid to the expanding cooperation mechanisms and joint economic projects between Russia and the DPRK and also the potential participation of the Republic of Korea.

  10. Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2014 recipient is Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper. Cooper is active in global cooperation in psychology for the public and the discipline's benefit so that psychology can truly serve all of humanity. The first psychologist from outside the West to lead the International Union of Psychological Science, he is the driving force behind the Pan-African Psychology Union and continues to ensure that less-developed psychology dispensations play meaningful roles in international psychology." Cooper's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper draws on British Nuclear Fuels' (BNFL) wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement, are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as management, financial R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by BNFL in the co-operation with other organizations over several years in both major and much smaller agreements, illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the present status of these organizations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for international co-operation to succeed. (author)

  12. International co-operation in use of computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, T D [Medical Computing Centre, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1966-06-15

    National and international co-operation takes on concreteness in the exchange of programmes and research results . On a practical level and for the exchange of actual techniques the diversity between computers and computer languages may offer almost overwhelming obstacles which can be overcome but not without considerable effort. If computing centres have similar constellations of hardware, then the exchange of programmes is of course routine. We were able to exchange programmes with the Cancer Institute Board at Melbourne, Australia. It turned out that our programmes, although developed for a {sup 60}Co teletherapy beam unit (Model Eldorado A), could be fitted to the dose distribution from the Melbourne 4-MeV linear accelerator with the change of a few constants. The work of fitting the equations themselves was done by the Melbourne group. Once the new constants were found it was a simple matter of transcribing our programme on a reel of magnetic tape and returning it to Melbourne. Treatment centres may have access to different computers. However, it is becoming increasingly true that different computers will be able to accept programmes written in many languages. Language compatibility makes it possible t o take programmes and to rewrite them, at a very small cost, to fit another computer. Very often the only changes that have to be introduced are of 'input-output' instructions . If this is the case , then a copy of the flow diagram and a print-out of the source programme is usually all that is needed to make a programme operational on a different machine. But even here we have found it desirable t o send a programmer along so that resolution of detailed problems may be expedited. In this way we exchanged programmers with the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at St. Louis, Missouri to make our own external beam methods compatible with their computer and to make their interstitial and intracavitary programmes operational on ours.

  13. Russian Federal Nuclear Center VNIIEF - possibilities of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaburov, V.M.; Mozharov, R.V.

    2000-01-01

    The Russian Federation Nuclear Center - the All-Russian Experimental Physics Research Institute (RFNC-AREPRI; VNIIEF) is a major scientific-technical center of Russia capable of solving the most difficult problems in the interests of defense, science and the national economy. There was a time when the RFNC-AREPRI played a decisive role in liquidating the U.S. monopoly on nuclear weapons and ensuring half a century of world civilization without global political and military conflicts. Today, RFNC-AREPRI specialists are entrusted with the mission of maintaining and perfecting Russia's nuclear shield that ensures its security and independence. As well as defense-oriented projects, the Institute is busy developing and implementing a number of projects in the most diverse fields of science and technology. At present, the Institute possesses an experimental and testing base that includes: a gas dynamic complex for testing manufactured products and explosives, irradiation facilities, nuclear reactors, laser systems, complexes for mechanical, temperature and climatic testing of specific manufactured products and instruments, and an aero-ballistic testing complex. The Institute's material base, with its mathematical support, is one of the most powerful in Russia. The RFNC-AREPRI employs about 20,000 workers, including 9,500 scientists and engineers. Today, the RFNC-AREPRI is engaged in activities in the following principal directions: - properties of material under extreme pressure and temperature; - gas dynamics; - nuclear physics; - radiation physics; - laser physics and equipment; - super-powerful magnetic fields; - high-temperature plasma physics; - development of physical models of complex physical processes and the creation of mathematical methodologies and software based on these models; - energy; - medicine; - ecology; - progressive technologies for various sectors of the economy. International cooperation of the RFNC-AREPRI is reviewed. (authors)

  14. International cooperation for biodiversity conservation : an economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarado Quesada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity decline poses significant threats to current and future generations. Although species extinction has been a natural process since the formation of Earth, recent rates of extinction are estimated to be from 100 to 1000 times larger when compared to fossil records. Almost all of the

  15. A COMPARISON OF ASTRONOMY IN 15 MEMBER COUNTRIES OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERKRUIT, PC

    1994-01-01

    Various data are collected for 15 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that have to do with the practising of astronomy: (1) using the report of the Astronomy expert meeting of the Megascience Forum of the OECD, the level of astronomy funding, size of

  16. Occupational safety and health in nanotechnology and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, Vladimir; Engel, Stefan; Savolainen, Kai; Fullam, Brian; Lee, Michelle; Kearns, Peter

    2009-10-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental organization, is playing a critical global role in ensuring that emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, are developed responsibly. This article describes OECD activities around occupational safety and health of nanotechnology and provides state-of-the-science overview resulting from an OECD workshop on exposure assessment and mitigation for nanotechnology workplace.

  17. 78 FR 32011 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ..., 2013. Danielle Rolfes, International Tax Counsel, Tax Policy. [FR Doc. 2013-12415 Filed 5-24-13; 8:45... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  18. 76 FR 49836 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... the Department of the Treasury. Dated: August 1, 2011. Michael J. Caballero, International Tax Counsel... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  19. 78 FR 10690 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ..., 2013. Danielle Rolfes, International Tax Counsel (Tax Policy). [FR Doc. 2013-03339 Filed 2-13-13; 8:45... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  20. 76 FR 27377 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... the Department of the Treasury. Dated: May 2, 2011. Michael J. Caballero, International Tax Counsel... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  1. 78 FR 71038 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ..., 2013. Danielle Rolfes, International Tax Counsel, (Tax Policy). [FR Doc. 2013-28490 Filed 11-26-13; 8... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  2. 75 FR 22679 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Department of the Treasury. Dated: April 23, 2010. Manal Corwin, International Tax Counsel (Tax Policy). [FR... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  3. 75 FR 44842 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Department of the Treasury. Dated: July 20, 2010. Manal Corwin, International Tax Counsel (Tax Policy). [FR... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  4. 77 FR 7660 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Treasury. Dated: February 3, 2012. Michael J. Caballero, International Tax Counsel (Tax Policy). [FR Doc... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  5. 75 FR 74769 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation with an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... the Department of the Treasury. Dated: November 23, 2010. Manal Corwin, International Tax Counsel (Tax... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  6. 77 FR 49864 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ..., 2012. Danielle Rolfes, Acting International Tax Counsel, Tax Policy. [FR Doc. 2012-20182 Filed 8-16-12... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  7. 76 FR 67791 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Department of the Treasury. Dated: October 25, 2011. Michael J. Caballero, International Tax Counsel (Tax... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  8. 77 FR 68886 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ..., 2012. Danielle Rolfes, International Tax Counsel, (Tax Policy). [FR Doc. 2012-27737 Filed 11-15-12; 8... International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the...

  9. International cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacke, S.; Stein, G.

    1988-01-01

    The article in hand reviews the scenario and organisation of the conference together with the results achieved (non-proliferation strategies with regard to technological cooperation in the nuclear field, feasible means of cooperation), saying that judged by the non-favourable conditions at the start, the fruitful dialogue between developing countries and highly industrialised countries that has set in at this conference will have to be filed on the credit side. Another important result is that one came to realize that the transfer of know-how must be very carefully prepared and accompanied by very close cooperation right from the start. (orig./DG) [de

  10. The health migration crisis: the role of four Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Bob; McPake, Barbara

    2006-04-29

    The crisis of human resources for health that is affecting low-income countries and especially sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed, at least in part, to increasing rates of migration of qualified health staff to high-income countries. We describe the conditions in four Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) health labour markets that have led to increasing rates of immigration. Popular explanations of these trends include ageing populations, growing incomes, and feminisation of the health workforce. Although these explanations form part of the larger picture, analysis of the forces operating in the four countries suggests that specific policy measures largely unrelated to these factors have driven growing demand for health staff. On this basis we argue that specific policy measures are equally capable of reversing these trends and avoiding the exploitation of low-income countries' scarce resources. These policies should seek to ensure local stability in health labour markets so that shortages of staff are not solved via the international brain drain.

  11. CERN-LHC accelerator superconducting magnet. Development and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sasaki, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    CERN-LHC accelerator superconducting magnets and a cooperative work for interaction region quadrupole magnets are introduced. The accelerator commissioning and the incident happened during the commissioning in 2008 is also briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Cooperation in International Strategic Alliances and Impact on Host Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that linkages between multinational enterprises entering developing countries and local firms can promote knowledge upgrading in local firms. Alliances are a particularly intense type of linkage, and this study investigates how the construct of cooperation, which...

  13. Recent international activity in cooperative vehicle-highway automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the current state of the art in cooperative vehiclehighway automation systems in Europe and Asia : based on a series of meetings, demonstrations, and site visits, combined with the results of literature review. This review c...

  14. International Cooperation for Creation of Closed System SMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Kuharkin, N. E.; Stukalov, V.A.; Subbotin, S. A.; Schepetina, T. D.; Udyanskiy, Yu. N.

    2008-01-01

    electric systems, also directly connected to introduction of SMR. The functions 'of an internal' part of SMR system should be ensured with specially created combine - regional base plant CRRB, taking place on Russia territory and ensuring complete spectrum 'of services' for nuclear reactors at IPTF, located in the different countries of region (for example, Far East-Pacific ocean). SMR of small power capacity should be transportable in complete factory readiness, work 5-10 and more years without fuel reloading at operation site, that relieves the owner of problems with change of fuel and electric power cost in the world market, decommissioning of SMR and handling of RW. At such reactors a safety potential is much higher; there is an opportunity of a flexible combination of various reactors types, turbine-force cycle, cooling systems and their parameters with reference to needs of region and consumers. The creation of such integral NP system of small powers will require essential capital expenses, excessive within the framework of one state. It is offered on the basis of interstate cooperation for power-deficit places to develop system 'of cells' - IPTF with nuclear power source in a complex with creation of CRRB. It is possible to believe, that the given arguments prove enough urgency of study a wide complex of problems connected with SMR, and allocation of this NP direction to independent section of power researches for the international cooperation. (author)

  15. Cultural Dimension of International Relations During Interwar Period: International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation and the Scientific Study of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the past is highly influenced/leaded by the “lens” (readings, ideologies, etc. that have guided us through approaching realities of a specific period of time. In this article, we will discuss the cultural dimension of international relations characteristic for the interwar period , emphasizing , while tracing back on Romanian historiography, the aspects regarding the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had in organizing the scientifically study of IR and the specific participation of Romania within this League of Nations‘ body activity.

  16. NATURE OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the factors influencing the business environment in the economic relations of enterprises in national and international aspect are discussed. Global interdependencies have been explored and results have been drawn on the impact of international political and economic changes on the business environment of national and supranational companies.

  17. A Country Report Project for an International Economics Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Adil E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that international economics textbooks pay too little attention to the complexity of issues and problems facing individual nations. Describes a country report project included as part of a college-level international or development economics course. Provides two student instruction sheets and a sample country report. (CFR)

  18. Propping up dictators? Economic cooperation from China and its impact on authoritarian persistence in party and non-party regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how China's economic cooperation affects authoritarian persistence elsewhere. For the period 1998-2008, the article assesses quantitatively whether the effects of economic cooperation from China vary, conditioned by the regime type of the recipient. The analysis finds that

  19. 75 FR 6006 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Cooperative Civic Education and Economic Education Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Cooperative Civic Education and Economic Education Exchange Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.304A. ACTION... the Cooperative Civic Education and Economic Education Exchange Program. The notice stated that a list...

  20. Principles of International Economic Law, and the Right to Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Non-transboundary pollution and the efficiency of international environmental co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kox, Henk L.M.; Van der Tak, Casper M.

    1996-01-01

    The standard view is that situations where no transborder environmental externalities occur are most efficiently dealt with by national environmental policies rather than by international co-operation. Though this may be the general case, non-coordinated national policies do not always produce the most efficient international allocation. This paper presents four cases in which the allocative outcome of non-coordinated domestic policy choices can be improved upon by international environmental co-operation. The first case refers to the use of environmental policy as a strategic trade instrument. The other cases refer to the existence of discrete technologies, set-up costs and increasing returns to scale. The form of international environmental co-operation should be adapted to the situation. Formal international agreements between countries are characterised by high transaction costs and may not always be the most efficient form of co-operation

  2. Gratitude as moral sentiment: emotion-guided cooperation in economic exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSteno, David; Bartlett, Monica Y; Baumann, Jolie; Williams, Lisa A; Dickens, Leah

    2010-04-01

    Economic exchange often pits options for selfish and cooperative benefit against one another. Decisions favoring communal profit at the expense of self-interest have traditionally been thought to stem from strategic control aimed at tamping down emotional responses centered on immediate resource acquisition. In the present article, evidence is provided to argue against this limited view of the role played by emotion in shaping prosociality. Findings demonstrate that the social emotion gratitude functions to engender cooperative economic exchange even at the expense of greater individual financial gains. Using real-time inductions, increased gratitude is shown to directly mediate increased monetary giving within the context of an economic game, even where such giving increases communal profit at the expense of individual gains. Moreover, increased giving occurred regardless of whether the beneficiary was a known individual or complete stranger, thereby removing the possibility that it stemmed from simple awareness of reciprocity constraints. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The economical contracting management in Agricultural Cooperatives: tools for evaluating their performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Enrique Viña Echevarría

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic and management contracts involve strategic actions, legal and operational purposes that make possible to convert the goal of an organization on results that express the fulfillment of the mandates and satisfies customers on the basis of the duties and obligations set out in the negotiating document. This article aims to get inside into the performance evaluation of the management of the recruitment of Agricultural Cooperatives and to reflex about the insufficiencies evidenced in this process. To which we developed a theoretical valuation and economic procurement praxiological showing a group of deficiencies that have impacted in the contracts management The study was able to obtain, process, analyze, interpret and argue the problems associated with economic contracting and justify the need to propose a system of indicators to assess recruitment management Agricultural Cooperatives in the province of Sancti Spiritus, the results revealed the ineffectiveness of the process and the negative impact on the productive base.

  4. Economics | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Read more about Improving childcare options to create better economic opportunities for women in Nairobi slums. Language English. Read more about Expanding the Canadian Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Scholarship Program to Advanced Scholars. Language English.

  5. Energy policy, economic cooperation, and sustainable development in Central Asia: the case of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djakhangir, S.

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise

  6. Antisemitism, “Economic Emancipation” and the Lithuanian Co-operative Movement before World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Richter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The idea of having to liberate the Christian peasants from the harmful economic and moral influence of Jewish merchants was an essential element of the political agenda of both the secular intelligentsia and the Catholic clergy. Activists of both political camps started founding cooperative shops, which were seen as the most promising tool to “emancipate” the peasants and the founding of which became legally possible after a streak of reforms shortly before the Russian Revolution of 1905/06. The article thus poses the questions of what role antisemitism played in the cooperatives, what tasks these cooperatives were supposed to fulfill and whether they were a success or not. The article comes to the conclusion that after the Revolution, there was a significant dissent between the two groups mentioned: While priests argued that cooperatives needed to be antisemitic in order to be successful, the liberal intelligentsia countered that antisemitism deterred cooperative shops from being economically successful. Both groups, however, celebrated the founding of such shops as a means for Lithuanians to gain foot in the Jewish dominated towns.

  7. Scientific Meetings Database: A New Tool for CTBT-Related International Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapik, Jerzy F.; Girven, Mary L.

    1999-08-20

    The mission of international cooperation is defined in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Ways and means of implementation were the subject of discussion during the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna in November 1998, and during the Regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation held in Cairo, Egypt in June 1999. In particular, a database of ''Scientific and Technical Meetings Directly or Indirectly Related to CTBT Verification-Related Technologies'' was developed by the CTBTO PrepCom/PTS/International Cooperation section and integrated into the organization's various web sites in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy CTBT Research and Development Program. This database, the structure and use of which is described in this paper/presentation is meant to assist the CTBT-related scientific community in identifying worldwide expertise in the CTBT verification-related technologies and should help experts, particularly those of less technologically advanced States Signatories, to strengthen contacts and to pursue international cooperation under the Tredy regime. Specific opportunities for international cooperation, in particular those provided by active participation in the use and further development of this database, are presented in this paper and/or presentation.

  8. The Role of Multi Purpose Cooperative in Developing Economic Independence or SME’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partono Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperatives are seen as one of the important instrument to improve economic and social conditions of societies, to arouse the spirit of initiative and improving the general knowledge and technical skills of the society. On the present cooperatives members are business people of small medium scale enterprises (SMEs which need a guidance or development. The purpose of this study is to describe the role of cooperatives in small medium scale enterprises (SMEs development. The method used is descriptive qualitative. Data collection techniques used are observation, documentation and interview.The results of research showed that KSU Padurenan Jaya is a multi-purpose cooperatives that has five business units i.e. save loan, store, embroidery service, marketing, research and development. KSU Padurenan Jaya was instrumental in developing the small medium scale enterprises (SMEs embroidery and convection consists of (1 aspects of the market, by following the events of the exhibition or expo, online marketing, providing material needs in the cooperative store, and create innovative products according to consumer taste. (2 the aspect of technology, by socialization and demonstration of the use technology of embroidery machines, embroidery design with computer programs, internet information technology for promoting and marketing product, And to optimize the use of the machine by provide services embroidery using advanced machine in cooperation so that can improve the productivity and efficiency of the business. (3 the aspect of the capital, by providing save loan service with simple procedures, mentoring to access other sources of financing.

  9. The principle of open and voluntary membership. Legal and enforcing economic consequences practice, in the Costa Rican cooperative movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Roxana Sánchez Boza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The basis of the cooperative principle of free adhesion or voluntary adherence is found in the constitutional rules, which define the Right of Association. The legal and regulatory development of these rules is done through cooperative laws, acts of constitution and other rules of affiliation and disaffiliation of cooperatives. The application of the principle in the study must be interdependent with the rest of the Cooperative Principles as well as the Values of the Cooperatives, in order to ensure adequate protection for both the associate and the associated cooperative. In this paper of the principle in the study is made through the election of a cooperative, in most cases, credit unions. These cooperatives, for reasons of their economic activity, have more legal and regulatory regulations compared to the other types of cooperatives, according the effects of affiliation and disaffiliation.Received: 01 June 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  10. International co-operation in safety matters within the framework of the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Balz, W.; Essler, W.; Tolley, B.; Gabolde, J.

    1981-01-01

    European Community (EC) countries realize that their energy demand cannot be met without a nuclear component, which is almost a necessity owing to its major economic advantages. Two typical areas where the Commission has stimulated intense international co-operation are as follows: The first broad area deals with efforts towards a gradual harmonization of regulatory health and safety practices and requirements for reactors of an industrially developed type, more specifically (light) water-cooled reactors. The second area concerns joint research programmes and co-ordination activities in research on nuclear safety (LWRs and LMFBRs). These two broad areas are closely interconnected. Information is also given on the existing network of bilateral and multilateral arrangements for the exchange of information of interest to the EC. In conclusion, some problems are highlighted where improvements could be made or where it seems crucial that increased international co-operation and especially agreement should come about. (author)

  11. [International cooperation in combatting illicit drugs in Mozambique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvana, Flávia; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2011-06-01

    Countries from Southern Africa have formed a Development Community (SADC) to stimulate common actions in several areas, among them illicit drugs combat. In this context, the goal of this qualitative study was to identify information and perception about the cooperation set up between Mozambique and other SADC members in combatting illicit drugs. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with public employees developing actions directed at the implementation of the Protocol to Combat Drugs in SADC. After transcriptions, the interviews were analyzed by content analysis and resulted in the categories: "Mozambique as a drugs corridor", "Cooperation Initiatives on Drugs among African countries", "Cooperation Difficulties in Africa", "Problems in Protocol Implementation" and "Difficulties to implement a control policy". As a consequence, there is a need to review and update the policies and strategies in the drugs area, as they are not contextualized in the country's current reality.

  12. International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy projects. Building on a similar model for the United States, I-JEDI was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the U.S. government's Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support partner countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector.

  13. Economics | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The book is a bona fide crystal ball. It will be a must read for the next decade. David Bloom, Clarence James Gamble Professor of Economics and Demography and ... of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, USA.

  14. Economics | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the form of government, ethnicity and nationality, and other social factors. ... the context of globalization from several continents and a number of theoretical ... and for the promotion of cultural, political and economic diversity everywhere.

  15. Economics | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This pathbreaking book identifies the economic and social factors underlying the ... current beliefs about good practice in the provision of business development ... assessment of impact, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of such services.

  16. Global economic governance | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... In fragile political and economic environments, financial systems already are prone to ... Instability in one country can provoke instability in others, and when this .... Recognition that financial stability is a global public good has ...

  17. Energy strategies for the world. A case for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundtland, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with policy aspects on environmental protection. The conclusion of the paper goes on the cooperation between the Government and industry to lay the foundation for a common, cooperative energy future. To achieve security of energy supplies and environmental protection, there is a need of developing stable market and framework conditions. According to the author, a good example is development of gas where long term commercial relations are needed to develop production and markets. This should also be acknowledged by governments in their policy making

  18. International Cooperation of the Republic of Croatia in the Field of Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Rosandic, L.

    2010-01-01

    International cooperation of the Republic of Croatia in the field of nuclear safety can be divided in two parts - political part, for which the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration is responsible, and technical part, for which the State Office for Nuclear Safety is responsible, in cooperation with other state administration bodies, where applicable. According to the Nuclear Safety Act (OG 73/2003) the State Office for Nuclear Safety: 'coordinates technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency for all participants from the Republic of Croatia'; 'fulfills the obligations which the Republic of Croatia has assumed through international conventions and bilateral agreements concerning nuclear safety and the application of protective measures aimed at the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons' and 'cooperates with international organizations and associations in the area of nuclear safety, and appoints its own expert representatives to take part in the work of such organizations and associations or to monitor their work'. In this paper various aspects of the technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as international conventions and bilateral agreements in the field of nuclear safety, will be presented. Also, cooperation with other international organizations and associations in the nuclear area, such as Nuclear Suppliers Group, Zangger Committee, Wassenaar Arrangement, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Euratom and certain civil expert groups of NATO, will be described.(author).

  19. Implementation of a study material for economic culture from cooperative education issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Gámez Iglesias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the process of updating the Cuban economic model, our country has decided to articulate a serie of transformations directed, among other issues, to the strengthening of the cooperative sector, therefore forming human capital with knowledge and skills for this achievement is a challenge that has today higher education, therefore contributing to the learning of the contents related to cooperatives and its transformations in Cuba from the Agricultural Economics subject in the Degree in Education. Economy that is developed in the Faculty of Economic and Business Sciences of the University of Pinar del Río is a priority to respond to this challenge. In this sense, the main objective of the research is to develop a support material to contribute to the economic culture from the issues of cooperative education in the third year students of this career. The experience was applied in the educational practice with satisfactory results, in addition it was submitted to the criterion of the specialists and they consider it is viable.

  20. Construction of International Cooperation strategies: An inquiry into the learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabeza-Pulles, D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research is the product of a collection of primary information in the context of the formulation of the International Cooperation strategy of the Municipality of Pasto, for the purpose of determining the path of construction of this process, its impact and challenges and, above all, the learning achieved through the participatory formulation of the International Cooperation strategy. The methodology of the research is of a qualitative interpretative study, which allowed to rebuild from the sight of actors the participatory formulation of the strategy of International Cooperation, rescuing the importance of participation in all levels, recognizing the team working and the generation of partnerships, trust and commitment in the pursuit of strengthening and sustainability of the process of internationalization of the Municipality. Finally, the research concluded with a series of reflections concerning the formulation of strategies for International Cooperation.

  1. 27 October 2014 - L. Pistelli Vice Minister at Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Italian Republic

    CERN Multimedia

    Guillaume, Jeanneret

    2014-01-01

    Mr Lapo Pistelli Vice Minister at Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Member of the Italian Parliament (Chamber of Deputies), Italian Republic, signing the Guest Book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer ; Physics Department Head L. Mapelli also present

  2. Korean views on needs for international cooperation in development and development of advanced nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Ku; Lee, Byong Whi; Shim, Chang Saeng.

    1993-01-01

    Korea methodology and experience in international cooperation in the field of construction and operation of nuclear power plants as well as Korean views on development and deployment of advanced nuclear nuclear power systems are presented

  3. Capacity development or new learning spaces through municipal international cooperation: policy mobility at work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, E.; Baud, I.; Bontenbal, M.; Hordijk, M.; van Lindert, P.; Nijenhuis, G.; van Westen, G.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of strengthening local governments is widely recognised as local governments face new challenges against the backdrop of global decentralisation processes. Municipal International Cooperation (MIC) contributes strategically to such processes by peer-to-peer learning within existing

  4. Capacity development or new learning spaces through municipal international cooperation : Policy mobility at work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, E.; Baud, I.; Bontenbal, M.; Hordijk, M.; van Lindert, P.; Nijenhuis, G.; van Westen, G.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of strengthening local governments is widely recognised as local governments face new challenges against the backdrop of global decentralisation processes. Municipal International Cooperation (MIC) contributes strategically to such processes by peer-to-peer learning within existing

  5. [Experience of international cooperation among Baltic countries in occupational health and security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloutka, E V; Andronova, E R; Dedkova, L E

    2013-01-01

    The article covers longstanding experience of international cooperation in occupational health and security with Baltic countries. The authors describe history of information network creation, its structure, objectives, importance for occupational health services and safety in the region.

  6. Cooperation at different scales: challenges for local and international water resource governance in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mirumachi, N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available . This paper examines how the cooperative principle has influenced stakeholder interaction at the local and international scales of water governance in South Africa. Water policies and initiatives have been set up to promote multi-level governance...

  7. The French nuclear program: national prospects, international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.; Joint-Lambert, V.; Breard, G.; Jolly, B.; Durret, L.F.; Capus, G.; Lebastard, G.; Ouzounian, G.; Bouteille, F.; Appell, B.; Peyran, J.C.; Monnet, F.; Caoul, A.

    1998-01-01

    This issue, with a foreword by Christian Pierret, the French Secretary of State of Industry, is bilingual (French/English). It gives a thorough overview of the French nuclear industry: present situation, expected evolutions; some typical cooperations with others countries throughout the world. It contains a leaflet in which advertisers give some information about their products and services. (author)

  8. On the edge of fluidity: international cooperation in turbulent times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umans, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reflects the results of action-research carried out in development cooperation, policy development and diplomacy. Research was conducted in three communities in Bolivia as well as in the offices of development practitioners, policy makers and diplomats. The research focuses on

  9. Update on International Cooperative Groups Studies in Thoracic Malignancies: The Emergence of Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Navika D; Salahudeen, Ameen A; Taylor, Gregory A; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Vokes, Everett E; Goss, Glenwood D; Decker, Roy H; Kelly, Karen; Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Mok, Tony S; Wakelee, Heather A

    2018-03-17

    Cancer cooperative groups have historically played a critical role in the advancement of non-small-cell lung cancer therapy. Representatives from cooperative groups worldwide convene at the International Lung Cancer Congress annually. The International Lung Cancer Congress had its 17th anniversary in the summer of 2016. The present review highlights the thoracic malignancy studies discussed by presenters. The included studies are merely a sample of the trials of thoracic malignancies ongoing globally. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Future of international cooperative activity for graduate school education in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Toru

    2008-01-01

    Further improvement of graduate school education in nuclear field is one of the important issues in universities in nuclear field. The COE-INES program has performed international cooperative activities for graduate school education with foreign universities in nuclear field. There are a lot of possibilities in international cooperation with foreign universities for graduate school education. The use of Internet can be a strong tool for the activities. (author)

  11. International cooperation in the Space Station programme - Assessing the experience to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The origins and framework for cooperation in the Space Station program are outlined. Particular attention is paid to issues and commitments between the countries and to the political context of the Station partnership. A number of conclusions concerning international cooperation in space are drawn based on the Space Station experience. Among these conclusions is the assertion that an international partnership requires realistic assesments, mutual trust, and strong commitments in order to work.

  12. India's energy needs and areas of international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazir, S.N.

    1980-03-15

    India's energy position is poor because of relatively large imports of oil, and poor reserves. In the impending energy crisis, developing countries will suffer (whether or not it is oil-rich) unless international cooperation is forthcoming. Energy consumption patterns in India are shown in tables. Energy reserves are also analyzed, including nonconventional sources (geothermal, solar, etc.). Possible areas for international cooperation are explored. (DLC)

  13. THE ECONOMIC NATURE OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Gorcheva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialized literature does not provide a unanimously accepted definition of the term “tourism”. Regardless of the differences of approach and definition techniques, all definitions are generally based on the need for recreation and achievement of physical and emotional comfort, which are the driving forces for development and execution of various activities to meet those needs. Another approach used to clarify the essence of the term “tourism” allows not only for its social role, but also the economic logic for the development and the management of tourism as an economic activity. This approach, clarifying the essence of the term “tourism” from an economic point of view, allows for the creation of a number of hierarchically related concepts.

  14. The Changing Role of International Cooperation in Developing Countries (as They Develop): A Case Study of Skills Development Policies in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    A focus on the changes in the relationship between international cooperation and local actors in the skills development field in Peru as the country strengthened its financial position in the last two decades allows us to examine the role of the economic factor in these changes. The paper argues that indeed there is an association between the two.…

  15. Yerel Ekonomik Kalkınma Yaklaşımı ve Uluslararası Organizasyonlar(Local Economic Development Approach and International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÇETİN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Belief in traditional economic development practices has started to be breached as a result of the accelaration of globalization tendency since 1980s, thus making local economic development approach subject matter. In this study, after having this approach been dealt with, local economic development experiences carried out by such international organizations as the International Labor Office, the European Union and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development are comparatively examined. The common features of these practices are their appreciation of local initiatives, participation and cooperation, and having an integrated, decentralized and innovative structure.

  16. Cooperation of international Research Infrastructures to address environmental global challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet García, Francisco J.; Suárez-Muñoz, María; Conchubhair, Diarmuid O.; Dohna, Tina; Lo Bue, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Human impact on the planet is causing a set of global environmental problems that threaten the wellbeing of current and future generations. Examples of these environmental problems include climate change, decline of biodiversity, alteration of biogeochemical cycles, ocean acidification, etc. These environmental Global Challenges (GCs) are transnational and complex, combining elements of both natural and social factors. Providing solutions for these challenges can be significantly enhanced through the collaboration of various related institutions, governments and stakeholders. A deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of GCs, as well as the processes which control them is required. Environmental Research Infrastructures (DANUBIUS-RI) are key players in this learning process. Covering many fields of research, it is through RIs collaboration that GCs can be more fully addressed. However, the collaboration among environmental RIs is still limited nationally as well as internationally. Although contact is encouraged and interactions are common practice, there are few cases where RI managers initiate and foster transnational collaborations in order to address specific problems. The COOP+ project aims to explore and strengthen cooperation among global RIs by bringing various RIs together and working on the identification of requirements, strengths, knowledge gaps and other relevant items in regard to the selected GCs. For this purpose, 13 GCs have been selected: coral bleaching, marine debris, noise impact on marine fauna, Arctic sea ice melting, pollinators decline, threatened species, agriculture pollutants, nitrogen cycle, carbon and GHG, geohazards and extreme events, estuaries, global urbanization process, and ozone depletion. These GCs are being analysed and described by multidisciplinary teams of experts composed of scientists, RIs operators and other stakeholders. This assessment will derive a list of tasks and requirements to be fulfilled by the

  17. CTBT verification-related technologies for peaceful purposes: the French experiences of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massinon, B.

    1999-01-01

    The French experience concerning CTBT verification-related technologies for peaceful purposes as well a the international cooperation in this field are presented. Possible objectives and cooperation program needs are cited. French experience in international cooperation is related to seismology and seismic hazards in Bolivia, Madagascar, Nepal and Indonesia and is considered as very constructive, meaning that technical experience is developed, consistent scientific results are obtained, and a considerable yield to the CTBT task is achieved. Large scientific benefits are expected from the CTBTO

  18. The international cooperation using the example of the reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molitor, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The explosion of the reactor unit 4 of the NPP Chernobyl and the subsequent fire was up to now the most severe accident in the civil nuclear industry. The consequences of the accident far outside the Ukraine and the former Soviet Union demonstrated that nuclear safety is a trans-border challenge. The mitigation of the accident consequences and the recovery of safety for the public, the workers and the environment required outstanding efforts and the international cooperation was of significant importance. The contribution discusses experiences and practical aspects of the international cooperation and implications for future cooperation options for the long-term removal of accident consequences.

  19. Do international economic developments affect the South African economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Swanepoel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has opened economies more, exposing them to more international shocks and increasing the challenges to which domestic economic policies must respond. This paper provides a starting point for the analysis of the impact of international economic developments on the South African economy by means of graphical illustrations, correlations coefficients and in some cases a VAR analysis. Although this paper has shed some light on the importance of international economic developments on the South African economy, more rigorous econometric investigation is needed to validate the arguments and to address many of the unresolved questions.

  20. Theoretical component of national financial, economic and cooperative education in Western Ukraine (second half of XIX-XX centuries and its role in economic management of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holubka M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the theoretical components of the development of national financial and economic as well as cooperative education in the Western territories of Ukraine in the second half of the XIX-the beginning of the XX century and its role in economic management in the region were covered. The methodology and the general essence of the financial and economic as well as cooperative education, and its significant influence on the community were analyzed. Importance and significance of financial and economic as well as cooperative education for realizing the opportunities for the self-understanding of a human as an economically active member of the nation was identified. The development of the financial and economic as well as cooperative education of the population that has proved a key role in these processes and various institutions of self-education partnerships was analyzed. The broad functionality of such associations and the transformation of the main goal of its activities from educational proper to educational, financial and economic was revealed. The basic achievements of associations and associates in terms of the support for the establishment of various organizations for the business purposes, cooperatives, educational institutions, professional courses, publishing, organization of specialized events, financial institutions and their importance to financial, economic and cooperative education were described.

  1. Economics | Page 20 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mitigating this problem is now one of governments' priority goals as part of a ... In the contemporary approach to the relationship between economic growth and ... Read more about Le développement face à la pauvreté: Réseau analyse ... Part I discusses basic fundamental issues of well-being and poverty measurement.

  2. Economics | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans leur livre, intitulé Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia: Size Structure and Economic Growth, Dipak Mazumdar et Sandip Sarkar proposent une interprétation des trajectoires de croissance économique de certains pays d'Asie, mise en corrélation avec la structure de la taille des entreprises manufacturières. Read more ...

  3. Economics | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Kenya's population is becoming increasingly urban; more than half of Nairobi's residents live in informal settlements (slums) plagued by cramped living conditions and poor access to basic services. Read more about IDRC-supported project influencing government policy in Kenya.

  4. Economics | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Building Businesses with Small Producers presents the findings and a comparative analysis of seven case studies that challenge current beliefs about good practice in the provision of business development services (BDS) to small and micro enterprises. The book also highlights ...

  5. Economics of Climate Change Adaptation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Literature on the economics of climate change adaptation - especially in developing countries - is generally scarce, and this weakens the premise on which adaptation decisions are made. Moreover, there is no standard framework or toolkit to guide researchers and policymakers in this kind of decision-making. This grant ...

  6. The Forum of the International HCH and Pesticides Association--a platform for international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijgen, John; Aliyeva, Gulchohra; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The unsustainable life cycle management of pesticides in the last 60 years has created large pesticide stockpiles. The two major working areas of the International HCH and Pesticide Association (IHPA; www.ihpa.info ) address a part of these legacies and are shortly introduced here: (1) The assessment and support of the management of the worlds single largest POPs stockpile: the globally dumped 4 to 7 million tonnes hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) wastes from lindane production, and (2) the support for the management of the obsolete pesticides legacy in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) countries of ~240,000 t, leaving these pesticides in unregulated storages without adequate safety control being a huge risk to the environment and human health. The integrative approach IHPA takes-promoting international cooperation and the exchange of knowledge and experiences-is shortly explained. IHPA has developed various supporting tools for its work: the IHPA web page and newsletter informing on the threats and challenges, but also on the progresses of managing pesticide stockpiles; the joint GIZ-PAN-IHPA exhibition on awareness of the pesticide stockpile challenge; and the 'International HCH and Pesticides Forum' as most important tool to progress the integrative work and mission of IHPA. Finally, a summary of the 11th International HCH and Pesticides Forum held in Gabala, Azerbaijan is given which brought together more than 120 scientists, policy-makers, non-governmental and international organisations, industry and students from more than 40 countries to progress the obsolete pesticides and hazardous chemical waste challenge in EECCA countries. The event finished with adoption of 'Gabala Declaration', which aims to mobilise efforts of all stakeholders for prevention and elimination of POPs, obsolete pesticides, and hazardous chemical waste in the region.

  7. Relationships between Institutional Economics of Cooperation and the Political Economy of Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernandéz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between institutional economics of cooperation and the political economy of trust. Transactions costs, principal-agent theory, market power, increasing-returns theory and value creation, strategic management: competitive forces, resource-based theory, organisationtal knowledge and learning, strategic choice theory and collective efficiency theory are reviewed. Lastly, the political economy of trust is sustained.

  8. The Gulf Cooperation Council countries – economic structures, recent developments and role in the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Sturm; Jan Strasky; Petra Adolf; Dominik Peschel

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of high and rising oil prices since 2003, the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have seen dynamic economic development, enhancing their role in the global economy as investors and trade partners. Real GDP growth has been buoyant, with non-oil activity expanding faster than oil GDP. Macroeconomic developments have also been characterised by large fiscal and current account surpluses as a result of rising oil revenues, notwithstanding fiscal expansion and rapid imp...

  9. International co-operation on decommissioning - Achievements of the NEA Co-operative programme 1985-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is attracting a growing interest in all countries where an increasing number of plants are reaching the end of their operational life and will have to be decommissioned in the next few years. In response to this interest, the NEA set up in 1985 an international programme of technical co-operation between decommissioning projects in eight OECD countries. This report describes the programme and the participating projects, reviews the experiences accumulated during the first five-year term of this international undertaking, and discusses what remains to be done

  10. Sharing International Responsibility for the Protection of Poor Migrants? An Analysis of Extraterritorial Socio-Economic Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the possible legal bases for or the existence of extraterritorial socio-economic human rights obligations on the part of wealthier European ‘Destination Countries’ vis-à-vis poor migrants. In particular, the paper considers whether obligations of international cooperation and

  11. SSI's International Development Cooperation (SIUS). Status report, October 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szendroe, G.; Grapengiesser, S.; Johansson, Gunnar

    1998-12-01

    Until now the Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe, has since its start in 1992 been granted SEK 109.1 million by the Swedish government. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close co-operation with partner organisations in Eastern Europe. This report presents a summary of the projects, their status, allocated funds and distribution over the countries and project areas. The presentation is updated as for October 1998

  12. International Cooperation of the Republic of Croatia in the Field of Radiological and Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.

    2011-01-01

    International cooperation of the Republic of Croatia in the field of radiological and nuclear safety can be divided in two parts - political part, for which the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration is responsible, and technical part, for which the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety is responsible. According to the Radiological and Nuclear Safety Act (OG 28/10) the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety: ''coordinates technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency for all participants from the Republic of Croatia''; ''fulfils the obligations which the Republic of Croatia has assumed through international conventions and bilateral agreements concerning protection against ionising radiation, nuclear safety and the application of protective measures aimed at the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'' and ''cooperates with international and domestic organisations and associations in the area of protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety, and appoints its own expert representatives to take part in the work of such organisations and associations or to monitor their work''. In this paper various aspects of the technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as international conventions and bilateral agreements in the field of radiological and nuclear safety, are presented. Also, cooperation with other international organizations and associations in the area of radiological and nuclear safety, such as Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Zangger Committee, the Wassenaar Arrangement, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Euratom and certain civil expert groups of NATO, is described. (author)

  13. An example of successful international cooperation in rocket motor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Russell A.; Berdoyes, Michel

    2002-07-01

    The history of over 25 years of cooperation between Pratt & Whitney, San Jose, CA, USA and Snecma Moteurs, Le Haillan, France in solid rocket motor and, in one case, liquid rocket engine technology is presented. Cooperative efforts resulted in achievements that likely would not have been realized individually. The combination of resources and technologies resulted in synergistic benefits and advancement of the state of the art in rocket motors and components. Discussions begun between the two companies in the early 1970's led to the first cooperative project, demonstration of an advanced apogee motor nozzle, during the mid 1970's. Shortly thereafter advanced carboncarbon (CC) throat materials from Snecma were comparatively tested with other materials in a P&W program funded by the USAF. Use of Snecma throat materials in CSD Tomahawk boosters followed. Advanced space motors were jointly demonstrated in company-funded joint programs in the late 1970's and early 1980's: an advanced space motor with an extendible exit cone and an all-composite advanced space motor that included a composite chamber polar adapter. Eight integral-throat entrances (ITEs) of 4D and 6D construction were tested by P&W for Snecma in 1982. Other joint programs in the 1980's included test firing of a "membrane" CC exit cone, and integral throat and exit cone (ITEC) nozzle incorporating NOVOLTEX® SEPCARB® material. A variation of this same material was demonstrated as a chamber aft polar boss in motor firings that included demonstration of composite material hot gas valve thrust vector control (TVC). In the 1990's a supersonic splitline flexseal nozzle was successfully demonstrated by the two companies as part of a US Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) program effort. Also in the mid-1990s the NOVOLTEX® SEPCARB® material, so successful in solid rocket motor application, was successfully applied to a liquid engine nozzle extension. The first cooperative

  14. Economic sanctions and US international business interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic sanctions are seen as a foreign policy instrument less severe than military engagement but more potent than diplomacy. The assessment of the economic impact of sanctions invariably focuses on direct bilateral trade, with little regard to indirect costs. In the case of sanctions on Iran, the real cost to Iran and the U.S. is not so much due to reduced trade but to factors such as missed investment and joint venture opportunities, especially in the energy sector. The significant size of these costs for Iran will make it difficult for Iran to resume business as usual with U.S. companies whensanctions are lifted; and for U.S. energy companies, their long-term competitiveness in Iran and also globally will be reduced.

  15. Socio-Economic Determinants of International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav PRYTULA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since economic factors cannot fully explain the determinants of bilateral migration, this study explores the social and cultural determinants that influence an individual’s decision to migrate. Values, norms and interests in a given culture, may determine whether an individual’s intention to move translates into actual migration. Work values inherent in different cultures could explain why people move or do not move under the condition of perceived economic advantages of migration. A gravity type migration model is used to incorporate variables related both to economic indicators and work values. It is perhaps the first migration study to use the World Value Survey (WVS and the European Value Survey (EVS. We use 2000 stock bilateral migration dataset collected by the World Bank. Our findings indicate that if more aspects of work are valued in a country, this country sends more migrants. Also we show that countries with higher extrinsic work value orientation tend to send more migrants, while countries with higher intrinsic work value orientation tend to send fewer migrants. Our finding shows that the value of work and the level of job security in a country may significantly change migration decision.

  16. International cooperative research with Japan for the establishment of cooperation structure and technology for dynamic neutron radiography using HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, I. C.; Sim, C. M.; Lee, B. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Baek, W. P.; Cha, J. E.; Yoon, B. J.; Chu, I. C.

    2007-07-01

    DNR is the technique to obtain radiography image continuously using a imaging system and Japan is the leading country in this field. Considering that no research has been performed to obtain quantitative parameters using DNR in Korea, it was necessary to establish a cooperative structure with Japanese experts and to develop the DNR technique throughout this project. The objectives of the project were to conduct 4 cooperative experiments using the HANARO BNCT facility and to establish a relationship with Japanese experts which makes it possible to maintain continuous communication. 4 experiments such as the void fraction and flow pattern measurement in a channel simulating HANARO fuel channel, observation of flow field in Pb/Bi field and the observation of cavity in a diesel engine nozzle were successfully completed. Also, the continuos communication and cooperation between the experts of two countries will be made. In this sense, this project is believed as a model project to use the mega research facility such as HANARO for the international cooperation

  17. Constitutional Socio-Economic Rights and International Law: "You ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenauer Foundation and Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus) 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights.

  18. Carbon dioxide emission and economic growth of China-the role of international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Abdul-Rasheed, Alhassan Alolo; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the role of international trade in mitigating carbon dioxide emission as a nation economically advances. This study disaggregated the international trade into total exports and total imports. A multivariate model framework was estimated for the time series data for the period of 1970-2014. The quantile regression detected all the essential relationship, which hitherto, the traditional ordinary least squares could not capture. A cointegration relationship was confirmed using the Johansen cointegration model. The findings of the Granger causality revealed the presence of a uni-directional Granger causality running from energy consumption to economic growth; from import to economic growth; from imports to exports; and from urbanisation to economic growth, exports and imports. Our study established the presence of long-run relationships amongst carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, energy consumption, imports, exports and urbanisation. A bootstrap method was further utilised to reassess the evidence of the Granger causality, of which the results affirmed the Granger causality in the long run. This study confirmed a long-run N-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, under the estimated cubic environmental Kuznet curve framework, from the perspective of China. The recommendation therefore is that China as export leader should transform its trade growth mode by reducing the level of carbon dioxide emission and strengthening its international cooperation as it embraces more environmental protectionisms.

  19. The Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Geo-Economic Relationships between China and ASEAN Countries: Competition or Cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufang Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, China’s economic power has experienced great changes and has brought about a profound impact on the world economy. This led us to ask a question: do changes in China’s economic power shift the geo-economic relationships between China and its neighboring countries? To answer this question, we researched the evolution of geo-economic relationships between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN countries. Using the Euclidean distance method, we explored the changes in these geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries from 1980 to 2014. Our findings resulted in five conclusions: (1 Over time, geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries remained relatively stable. (2 Geographically, the main geo-economic relationships between China and continental ASEAN countries were complementary, while the main geo-economic relationships between China and island ASEAN countries were competitive. (3 Geopolitics and geo-culture were attributed to the changes in geo-economic relationships. (4 The evolution of geo-economic relationships was characterized by path dependence. (5 Geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries could be classified into four types: game type, with high cooperation and competition; complementary type, with high cooperation and low competition; fight type, with low cooperation and high competition; and loose type, with low cooperation and competition. Our findings contribute to improving the understanding of geo-economic relationships.

  20. Influence Of International Financial And Economic Organizations On The Development Of Russian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy A. Pashencev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article characteristics and patterns of the impact of the international financial and economic organizations on the development of Russian law in the present-day conditions are described. It is noted, that the international financial and economic organizations firmly rooted in the world. They are based on international agreements, which participants could be also non-State structures. The role of international financial and economic organizations in the development of the negative effects of globalization and the production of global financial crisis is considered. The necessity to change the economic course of our country was proved because of the crisis and sanctions, as well as the need to find new ways of structuring the international financial and economic space, including the basis of the new inter-state unions and a new reserve currency. It is shown that the Russian domestic law should be the barrier against the destabilizing influence of transnational corporations. Legal acts of the Russian Federation defining the terms and scope of cooperation with international economic and financial organizations were analyzed. It is noted, that in accordance with applicable Russian legislation, international financial institutions have the right to invest in Russian companies, including and strategic. It is proved that the situation in the modern world and its negative manifestations determine the need for a number of effective measures and require changes in legislation. It is necessary to make changes in the current Russian legislation, first of all, investment, banking, trade, etc., to develop effective legal mechanisms for the protection of domestic producers and the national market from the expansion of multinational corporations.

  1. Role of international cooperation in treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kaname

    1984-01-01

    The necessity of international cooperation in the treatment and disposal or management of radioactive wastes has been recognized more strongly recently, and the IAEA held the international congress in May, 1983. The safety techniques for this problem are likely to be resolved, but the public acceptance has become the factor hindering the development of nuclear power. It is important to advance international cooperation, aiming at the early establishment of the internationally common guide line to obtain the international consensus. In Japan, effort has been exerted to device to limit the quantity of waste formation, and the treatment of volume reduction and solidifying stabilization has been applied to the wastes formed. Thus, 490,000 drums of 200 l were stored in respective nuclear facilities as of September, 1983. The high level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing of spent fuel reached only 154 m 3 and is stored in the reprocessing plant. The bilateral cooperation of Japan with USA, FRG, Australia and the People's Republic of China, and the multinaional cooperation in the NEA of OECD and IAEA regarding this problem are reported. Japan must exert efforts to obtain the understanding and cooperation of local society and international consensus to resolve the problem. (Kako, I.)

  2. Ignalina plant licensing process, international co-operation and assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystedt, P.

    1999-01-01

    The challenge for Lithuania as a country with regained independence was to perform a licensing review in a way never done before in the country and in a time schedule that was extremely short. The work included establishing of the licensing base, strengthening the regulatory authority and organising the technical support, establish and implement a safety improvement program, production of the safety case and review of the safety case, and to derive a conclusion regarding whether to issue a licence or not. This was to be done together with other tasks, such as implementation of modifications included in the safety improvement programme at Ignalina, implementation of a new storage for spent fuel and, most important of all, to manage the operational safety at the plant. The achievements are impressive seen in view of the point of start and in view of the time and resources that have been available. Lithuania has put forward a unique safety documentation of an RBMK reactor and presented an in-depth safety evaluation in full openness to Western experts, giving the unique possibility to compare the safety of the Ignalina reactors to Western standards. The co-operation that has been established between Lithuania and Western experts through different assistance programmes is of outmost value, for all involved parties. Co-operation should continue as one element of the challenges for the future

  3. The socio-economic power of renewable energy production cooperatives in Germany: Results of an empirical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Debor, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects the socio-economic power of renewable energy production cooperatives for a wider energy system transformation in Germany. Energy cooperatives have turned into important supporters of renewable and decentralised energy structures, due to their strong growth since the year 2006, their participation in local renewable energy projects and their democratic awareness. The cooperative form of coordinating regional energy projects applies to a decentralised energy system that is m...

  4. OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency. 25 years of international cooperation within the framework of the NEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadie, Klaus B. [OECD, Paris (France). Safety and Regulation

    2015-11-15

    The nuclear atomic association NEA of the OECD, to which 23 western industrial countries belong to, was established 25 years ago (1959) as ''Nuclear Energy Agency'', almost simultaneously with other large international nuclear energy organisations. The NEA undertook special tasks during the international cooperation, which have shifted over time. A special feature today is the cooperation by means of international committees, which are supported by a small own staff of the organisation. The focus points lie within the area of safety and regimentation and on chosen scientific and technical studies.

  5. A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.J.; Ji-zehn, Q.

    2004-01-01

    Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE (ISSN 1009-3095, Monthly) 2004 Vol. 5 No. 3 p.358-364 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and educationDE BOER Sirp J.1, QIU Ji-zhen 2(1International

  6. Realizing Conflict, Negotiation, and Cooperation Concepts in the Context of International Water Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinar, Ariel; McKinney, Daene

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we offer a negotiation and cooperative game theory application to international water in the classroom. A simulation game was developed for the Aral Sea water dispute as part of a textbook prepared for teaching a diverse group of students a graduate-level International Water course. A condensed version of the Aral Sea Basin water…

  7. Civil Society Involvement in International Development Cooperation: In Search for Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peels, Rafael; Develtere, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Participatory decision making seems to be the new development paradigm in international cooperation. It is still a long way, however, to achieve the objectives that are formulated by the international development actors. Non-state actors are only limitedly involved in the policy decision-making. In this paper, we argue that when these actors take…

  8. International cooperation in supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievering, N.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In the face of costlier, decreasingly available oil and a desire to achieve a higher degree of self-sufficiency, nuclear power has become an increasingly important ingredient in the mix of energy options looked to by a growing number of industrialized and developing states. One of the central concerns of states that are placing greater reliance on nuclear energy is the assurance that adequate nuclear fuels will be available on a timely basis and on economically acceptable terms. Greater emphasis on nuclear energy and on self-sufficiency entails greater potential risks as sensitive facilities and technologies associated with the nuclear fuel cycle threaten to proliferate. This paper explores the juxtaposition of the spread of nuclear technology and facilities in support of legitimate desires to achieve greater energy self-sufficiency and economic and social progress, on the one hand, and the implications of widely disseminated nuclear fuel cycle capacity for the objective of non-proliferation, on the other hand. It examines the recent evolution of nuclear fuel cycle activities including the scope of cooperation both among nuclear supplier states and between supplier and non-supplier states; explores the arenas in which common efforts are, can and should be undertaken (e.g., in terms of the nuclear resource base, the provision of essential services such as enrichment, and the management of nuclear waste), and identifies means by which national aspirations and international security concerns can be effectively accommodated. Particular attention is given to the methods by which the dissemination of sensitive technologies at facilities can be controlled without sacrificing the legitimate interests of any state, as well as to methods by which controls over potentially dangerous materials such as plutonium can be strengthened. The paper concludes that there are significant opportunities to achieve a high degree of international cooperation in the arena of fuel cycle

  9. Cost Efficiency Implications of International Cooperation (Implications de rentabilite de la cooperation internationale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    student throughput. As can be seen in the figure, the cost 5 Based the International Labour Organization (ILO) Key Indicators of the Labour Market ...International Labour Organization JPO US F-35 Joint Program Office LS Learning Slope MATC Czech Republic-led Multinational Aviation...meeting in November 2010 in Paris. The participating members have been Canada, the Czech Republic, Italy, Norway (chair) and the United Kingdom. The

  10. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  11. The Great Asian International School Gold Rush: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Denry

    2017-01-01

    The number of international schools is growing, especially in Asia. This presents competitive challenges; most obviously for student recruitment and retention. However, demand for places at these schools is also growing. As a result, while international schooling may feel competitive, aggregate economic data show that growing numbers do not…

  12. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Charl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education…

  13. Economic trade-offs amongst production diversification strategies in Brazilian coffee cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellipe Silva Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian agricultural cooperatives have seen an unprecedented growth in production in the last decade which has led to several different product diversification strategies. Almost all studies in Brazil focus on the financial outcome of these strategies but few empirical studies have addressed them properly. Even fewer researches have dealt with the causes and possible strategies for the diversification of such cooperatives and their impact on their strategic planning. Hence, this paper aims at comprehending the different strategies in operations management for production diversification in coffee-producing cooperatives in south-eastern Brazil. This was done through a multi-case analysis comprising 6 coffee-producing cooperatives. The research analysed both verbal (through interviews and non-verbal (multi-criteria decision analysis responses to the causes of their diversification behaviours. It was possible to find out that most of the cooperatives’ rationale for diversifying is their pre-emptive response to financial crisis followed by increasing the number of associates as a strategy to overcome this economic struggle.

  14. Analysis of Behavioral Economics in Crowdsensing: A Loss Aversion Cooperation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing incentive mechanisms of crowdsourcing construct the expected utility function based on the assumption of rational people in traditional economics. A large number of studies in behavioral economics have demonstrated the defects of the traditional utility function and introduced a new parameter called loss aversion coefficient to calculate individual utility when it suffers a loss. In this paper, combination of behavioral economics and a payment algorithm based on the loss aversion is proposed. Compared with usual incentive mechanisms, the node utility function is redefined by the loss aversion characteristic of the node. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can get a higher rate of cooperation with a lower payment price and has good scalability compared with the traditional incentive mechanism.

  15. The Spanish decentralised international cooperation in Central America in the area of municipalism and decentralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Haedo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to link the international dimension with the local one, this article lays out an approach to the situation of Spanish decentralised international cooperation in the area of municipalism and decentralisation in the countries of Central America. In the firstplace, it offers a characterisation of the current state of Spanish decentralised cooperation in order to thus frame the cooperation actions carried out by the Barcelona Provincial Council; the UIM (Unión Iberoamericana de Municipios together with CEMCI (Centro de Estudios Municipales y de Cooperación Internacional; and the Confederación de Fondos de Cooperación y Solidaridad. Finally, it describes bankruptcies and it recovers some of the achievements ofthis kind of cooperation specifically in reference to the field of municipalism.

  16. The impact of Oil Prices on the International Economic Arena: The Economic Factors and International Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history the new technologies and discoveries revolutionized the way we live. The discovery, the oil, has been critical for society, becoming the world’s most profitable and essential industry transforming itself from domestic to international business. The aim of this paper, above all is to analyze the role of oil and its price volatility in world economy. The ongoing changes and transformations in world oil industry tend to have a great effect not only on the oilimporting countries but also on oil-exporting nations. The demand or supply-triggered oil price volatility differ in its effects to world economic activity. Although it may have different effect for the oil importing nations in comparison to oil exporting nations, still inflationary pressure may be a common feature. A number of points relevant to the study are put forward highlighting pros and cons of issues discussed. The paper also elaborates the environmental concerns, deriving from the increase of oil consumption and the necessity (globally to increase efforts in finding a decent,(environmentally friendly replacement for oil.

  17. The process of learning from emergency preparedness cooperation in international schools

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hanh

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Risk management and societal safety The cooperation between schools and organizations can encourage schools to learn about safety procedures and preparation for emergencies to improve the school emergency preparedness. In the international schools in Stavanger, learning from emergency preparedness cooperation can be optimized when knowledge creation contributes to improve the school capability and update or change the school emergency preparedness activities. However, de...

  18. The role of international cooperation regarding safety assessment development in the SKB research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Ahlstrom, P.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperation and exchange of information with organizations in foreign countries regarding nuclear waste management constitutes an important part of the overall research and development activities of SKB. In the safety assessment of a repository for spent nuclear fuel natural phenomena have to be described with different kinds of models based on both general and site specific data. The international cooperation efforts to achieve models and methods for this type of descriptions, and where SKB are largely part, is summarized in this paper

  19. Feasibility survey on international cooperation for high efficiency energy conversion technology in fiscal 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Following cooperative researches on fuel cell jointly conducted by NEDO and EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand), the survey on international cooperation relating to high efficiency energy conversion technology was carried out for the ASEAN countries. The paper summed up the results of the survey. The study of the international cooperation is made for the following three items: a program for periodical exchange of information with EGAT, a project for cooperative research on phosphoric acid fuel cell in Indonesia, and a project for cooperative research with EGAT on electric power storage by advanced battery. In Malaysia, which is small in scale of state, part of the Ministry of Energy, Telecommunication and Posts is only in charge of the energy issue. Therefore, the situation is that they cannot answer well to many items of research/development cooperation brought in from Japan. The item of medium- and long-term developmental research in the Philippines is about the problems which are seen subsequently in the Manila metropolitan area where the problem of outage is being settled. Accordingly, it is essential to promote the cooperative research, well confirming policies and systems of the Ministry of Energy and the national electricity corporation.

  20. International cooperation on wind energy for rural areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengfei, Shi

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the recent wind energy activities in China is given. China has a long history in harnessing the wind; modern development started during the late seventies. The Chinese wind potential is mainly in the coastal regions (North East and South East) and in Inner Mongolia. The actual total installed wind power is estimated to be 15 MW. For low lift (within 2 meters), high volume applications, e.g. salt making in salt pans along the coast, of mechanical windmills coupled to screw pumps have been developed. In Inner Mongolia, small portable wind generators (50-200 MW) charging car batteries are supplying some 100,000 farmer and herdsman families with electricity for television and lighting. The average energy consumption is between 200 and 300 kWh per year and the corresponding kWh price 0.40 to 0.50 US$. Since 1988 the demand for small wind generators declined due to the lower wool prices on the world market, affecting the income of the herdsman, and due to the fact that the machines have to be marketed in remote, less accesible rural areas. Various demonstration projects have been set up, f.e. a decentralized energy system on Dachen Island, including a wind diesel hybrid system. On Kongdon Island a 60 kW wind turbine and a 60 kW diesel generator were installed. With several foreign wind turbine manufacturers cooperations have been set up for licensed production in China. Also wind farms have been installed. The largest Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 meter diameter, 200 kW machine. Western organizations or manufacturers are involved in most of the cooperatives. For the next five years the focus is on development of a large 150 and 200 kW machine and a windmill coupled to a centrifugal pump for lifting heads between 2 and 5 meter. 1 fig., 3 refs

  1. The advantages and impediments in fostering Republic of Moldova- the European Union economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts and funding, the reform implementation process in the Republic of Moldova meets important difficulties especially in the areas of strategic significance including the fields of public administration, justice and banking sectors. The initiatives implemented in these sectors by the Moldovan authorities under European supervision proved to be inefficient as they did not reach the expected results. This situation leads to dragging down the pace of European integration of the country, as the trust of the population and of foreign partners regarding European future of Moldova was negatively affected. Thus, this research intends to identify the most important impediments of bi-lateral cooperation between the Republic of Moldova and the European Union. Also, some recommendations are provided to increase the actual status-quo and are specified main Moldovan economic advantages which have been registered since the acceleration of cooperation with the EU.

  2. Developing economic cooperation in modern conditions. The case of Ukraine and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya CHERNENKO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine and People's Republic of China (PRC are cooperating in some areas like: machinery, transportation etc. China is interested in partnering with Ukraine for selling Chinese consumer goods. Ukraine is interested in selling raw materials to China. To study this possible cross-border cooperation and commercial relationship, the current paper uses the "intensity of interaction" (namely, the depth of integration model, which is based upon the existing “gravity model”. The index for existing model has been obtained by adding a “dummy variable” in the standard "gravity model" which reflects the influence of regional nuances upon the level and direction of trade flow. The strategic partner relationship must be based on: "complementing" the economic structure of the partners, which means equality in the relationship and lack of significant disparities.

  3. Planning Report for Establishment and Management of IAEA Designated International Cooperation Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Cheol Hun; Noh, Yong Chang

    2006-05-01

    Establishment of research infrastructure and assistant of industry renovation is needed to achieve technology level-up in the all industry areas including plant engineering, material engineering, polymers, nondestructive tests, radioisotope tracer application, environment engineering, medical science, agriculture, sterilization, sprouting, biotechnology and aerospace, which would be the core motivation of our future industry. Early settlement of research environment is needed for the new RT-specialized national institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTi) in Jeongup, Chonbuk, Korea. From the early settlement, development of user program, technical assistance, and trendy information can be rapidly initiated by an industry-university-institute network. As a result, a RT hub in the northeast Asia will be founded with upgrade of international level of Korea. For this purpose, an intensive system construction is demanded. Establishment of a basic and advanced analysis system should be set up to analyze and evaluate the research products scientifically and industrially produced by using the RT-based research facilities. Establishment of a collaboration network in R and D among industry, university and institutes related to RT or RFT as well as development of an advanced RT industry system is demanded for the assistance of technology transfer. From the clarification of project details, comparisons of domestic/international technology levels and the demand of project in technical and economical aspects, and the prospect of development tendency of related technology, it is expected the effect and possible utilization after completion of the project. Especially, we proposed the direction for development of IAEA appointed international cooperation center with a long term development plan for the national radiation technology. This project report was consistently prepared with a long term development plan and consisted of establishments of training system for

  4. International Cooperation for the Training of Water Managers from Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2007-12-01

    Water is the key to the well being of a community. On one hand, water security is linked to food security, as food cannot be grown without water. On the other hand, water security is linked to environmental security, as water is needed to maintain the health of a community. International cooperation is proposed for the training in Hyderabad, India, with international faculty, of ~ 300 water managers from the developing countries at an estimated cost of ~USD 3300/- per candidate (including ~ USD 1800/- for international travel), through ten interactive and customized training programmes during the period of five years, to enable them to address two crucial issues affecting the poor in the developing countries, namely, access to affordable water and coping with water scarcity. Ways of Good governance and geographical targeting of poverty alleviation programmes are built into each training programme. Each training programme will be for about three weeks (inclusive of field work). Each course will have a component common to all, plus a component customized to the biophysical and socioeconomic situation in a candidate's country. Ten course manuals will be produced. which can later be published commercially as low-cost volumes, for the benefit of the readership in the Developing countries . Each candidate will be provided his own computer, and software, and individual faculty adviser. On the basis of the training received, a candidate should be able to carry with him at the end of the course a draft outline of techno-socio-economic action plan for his country/area in respect of the theme of the course, prepared by himself/herself. A copy of this outline would be provided to the World Bank, and relevant organizations for follow- up activity

  5. International cooperative initiatives and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key ...... efforts under the UNFCCC is uncertain, but believed to be quite large. •The UNFCCC is arguably ill suited to coordinate and strengthen the accountability of international cooperative initiatives.......International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key...... transparent performance monitoring and reporting mechanisms. The article concludes with two considerations. Firstly, it advocates for the United Nations Environment Programme as one entity that could bring much-needed coordination among ICIs, and between ICIs and national government-led efforts to mitigate...

  6. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper draws on B.N.F.L.'s wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as managmenet, financial, R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by B.N.F.L. in co-operation with other organisations over several years in operating both major and much smaller agreements illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the current status of these organisations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for internation co-operation to succeed

  7. International cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by technical means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbillon, J; Koch, L; Mason, G; Niemeyer, S; Nikiforov, N

    1999-01-01

    A consensus has been emerging during the past several years that illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a problem that needs a more focused international response. One possible component of a program to combat illicit trafficking is nuclear forensics whereby intercepted nuclear materials are analyzed to provide clues for answering attribution questions. In this report we focus on international cooperation that is specifically addressing the development of nuclear forensics. First we will describe the role of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) in developing nuclear forensics, and then we will present some specific examples of cooperative work by the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission with various European states. Recognizing the potential importance of a nuclear forensics capability, the P-8 countries in 1995 encouraged technical experts to evaluate the role of nuclear forensics in combating nuclear smuggling and possibly developing mechanisms for international cooperation. As a result, an International Conference on Nuclear Smuggling Forensic Analysis was held in November, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate technical cooperation on nuclear forensics. The International Conference provided a unique mix of scientists, law enforcement, and intelligence experts from 14 countries and organizations. All participants were invited to make presentations, and the format of the Conference was designed to encourage open discussion and broad participation

  8. International cooperative analysis of standard substance, IAEA-0390

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Keizo; Takada, Jitsuya; Moriyama, Hirotake; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    1999-01-01

    Three kinds of algae (IAEA-0391, IAEA-0392 and IAEA-0393) were defined as the biological standard substance to monitor environmental pollution by Analytical Quality Control Service of IAEA (IAEA-AQCS). In this study, analysis of these standard substances were made using ICP-MS to compare with the results of simultaneously conducted radioactivation analysis (INAA). The respective cultures of the three algae were cooperatively prepared by IAEA-AQCS and microbial Institute of Czechoslovakia. After drying and sterilizing by Co-60 exposure, these samples were sent to KURRI. When the results from the experiment in KURRI were compared with the values recommended through statistical treatment of the data obtained by IAEA, these values of 5 elements, Fe, Cr, Mg, Mn and Na were well coincident for either of IAEA-0391, IAEA-0392 and IAEA-0393 and the values of As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K and Zn were nearly coincident between them. Regarding Hg and La, the data from INAA and ICP-MS were very different from the recommended values of IAEA for either of samples. (M.N.)

  9. National and international cooperation for public acceptance of nuclear power in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, I.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Current status of public acceptance of nuclear power and efforts for enhancing the acceptance are briefly reviewed. Discussion is made of the needs for, and ways of, cooperation among related national institutions and agencies. Need of inter-disciplinary approach is also stressed. Desirable participants in activities for gaining public acceptance of nuclear power are identified, where - in the participation of women in PA efforts receives particular importance. In dealing with the needs for and ways of international cooperation, roles of, and coordination among, international organizations/associations concerning public acceptance of nuclear power are discussed

  10. European cooperation in the field of security and defence. International Relation theories perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Czaputowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various theoretical explanations of the European cooperation in the field of security and defence. According to realist explanations this cooperation was a response to external evolutions in the international system, i.e. changes in polarity and distribution of power. Liberals say that it was rather due to internal factors. Constructivists argue that it was a result of elites’ socialisation, while according to Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, it was caused by civil servants and military staff at the policy implementation level. The paper argues that external factors underlined by realists were decisive, i.e. America’s decreasing involvement in European security.

  11. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl Wolhuter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education on the economy. In the interwar “factors and forces” stage of Comparative Education, the economy as a shaping force of national education systems came to the fore. In the social science phase of the 1960s the focus shifted to a study of the effect of education on the economy. This was reversed again in the 1970s, when socio-economic reproduction theories assigned a deterministic place to socio-economic stratification of society. In recent years neo-liberal economics dictated the research agenda of Comparative Education. In conclusion recommendations for a future research agenda in the field are made.

  12. Does the internet generate economic growth, international trade, or both?

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, Huub

    2012-01-01

    Recent cross country panel data studies find a positive impact of internet use on economic growth and a positive impact of internet use on trade. The present study challenges the first finding by showing that internet use does not explain economic growth directly in a fully specified growth model. In particular openness to international trade variables seems to be highly correlated with internet use and the findings in the literature that internet use causes trade is confirmed here, suggestin...

  13. Scientific and technical aspects of international cooperation in Chernobyl; Naukovyi ta tekhnyichnyi aspekti myizhnarodnogo spyivrobyitnitstva v Chornobilyi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gligalo, V M; Nosovs' kij, A V [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2000: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'.

  14. [Resource allocation analysis for international cooperation program for HIV/AIDS prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Xue, Hui; Liu, Hui; Guo, Hao-yan; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jiang-ping

    2008-12-01

    To provide evidence for resource allocation and cooperation between domestic and international HIV/AIDS programs in China by analyzing the needs and current levels of resource input in provinces. National and provincial international cooperation program investment and allocation data from 2000 to 2006 were collected. Several factors in each province were analyzed through multiple regression analysis in order to determine whether they had a statistical correlation to the distribution of international HIV/AIDS program resources in China, including: the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the number of accumulated people living with HIV/AIDS, and the number of accumulated people living with AIDS. Then the Z values were calculated at each provincial level and compared with related international investment. The resource allocation in different program areas were compared with the level of resource input by international and central government HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs through Chi-square test. The international cooperation program investment at local level from 2000 to 2006 were 4893, 24 669, 50 567, 52 950, 112 143, 363 396 and 247 045 thousand RMB respectively, and at national level were 3007, 19 726, 29 035, 37 530, 77 500, 105 786 and 77 035 thousand RMB respectively. There was a statistical correlation between international HIV/AIDS program resource input and the accumulated number of people living with AIDS (R is 0.56 and 0.69 accordingly, and P international resource input and the GDP of each province. International HIV/AIDS cooperation programs did not invest in each province according to its practical needs (R = 0.066, P = 0.725). The international cooperation program investments and needs in different province could not meet completely. The ranks of Z value in Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu were 3, 5 and 6, but the ranks of international cooperation program in those provinces were 18, 13 and 28 respectively. The investment proportion for national

  15. The Theoretical Prerequisites for the Emergence of Interactive Marketing in the System of Management of Cross-Border Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gegedosh Kristian V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to characterize the basic theoretical aspects of marketing in cross-border cooperation. It has been found that, in the current context of the IT sector development, it is of substantial relevance to apply the benefits of online marketing together with integrating it into the international regional cross-border economic relations. The author’s own conception of the use of interactive marketing to further improve interaction of the entities of neighbouring countries in various areas of cross-border cooperation (CBC has been proposed. A layout of web site interface of the interactive cross-border business center has been developed on the example of the euroregional formation of member countries in the Interregional Association «Carpathian Euroregion». One of the main challenges to the development of the CBC today is the lack of a well-functioning mechanism of interaction of «local authorities – regional development agencies – business structures». However, after building a model for development of a cross-border economy based on interactive marketing principles, the border areas on both sides will be able to better develop the regional economy and, consequently, the social well-being of the territory as a whole.

  16. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H 2 +CO 2 ) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000 0 F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH 4 + H 2 O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR

  17. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H/sub 2/ +CO/sub 2/) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000/sup 0/F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR.

  18. [International development cooperation from the D. Orem self-care theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo Higueras, María; Fajardo Galván, Darío; Cruces González, Marta; Sánchez Merino, Begoña; Santos Muñiz, Ana

    2013-05-01

    This article aim is to analyze the performance of Spanish cooperation from the perspective of Orem self-care theory, from the next hypothesis: the Spanish international cooperation programs works as total compensation systems. cross sectional and descriptive study in which qualitative analysis was performed 3 African countries: Mozambique, Angola and Namibia. The variables were management, focused area and resources used. All countries have a shared management of the cooperation. Mozambique has developed training activities (72%), management support (38%) and direct health care (27%), focused on the area of the fight against infection and tropical diseases. In Angola, the activities are based in training (37%), management support (37%) and health care (75%) in the area of basic health services (25%), fighting against tropical diseases (50%) and improving maternal and child health (25%). Namibia focuses on the health care area (100%) through direct assistance activities and management support. Health cooperation programs developed by the Spanish state have probed to work as partial compensation system.

  19. International Cooperation for the Dismantling of Chooz A Reactor Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenouillet, J.J.; Posivak, E.

    2009-01-01

    Chooz A is the first PWR that is being decommissioned in France. The main issue that is conditioning the success of the project is the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) segmentation. Whereas Chooz A is the first and unique RPV and RVI being dismantled in France, there are many similar experiences available in the world. Thus the project team was eager to cooperate with other teams facing or being faced with the same issue. A cooperation programme was established in two separate ways: - Benefiting from experience feedback from completed RPV and RVI dismantling projects, - Looking for synergy with future RPV dismantling projects for activities such as segmentation tools design, qualification and manufacturing for example. This paper describes the implementation of this programme and how the outcome of the cooperation was used for the implementation of Chooz-A RPV and RVI segmentation project. It shows also the limits of such a cooperation. (authors)

  20. International cooperation and shortage of doctors: an analysis of the interaction between Brazil, Angola and Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sandra Mara Campos; Oliveira, Felipe Proenço de; Matos, Mateus Falcão Martins; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Delduque, Maria Celia

    2017-07-01

    The shortage of doctors, especially in remote areas, is a critical issue for the development of national health systems and has thus been the focus of a number of international cooperation projects. An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted to examine cooperation between Brazil, Angola and Cuba. A nonsystematic literature review was conducted of selected open access articles and official documents addressing relevant health cooperation initiatives. Previously selected characteristics of actions designed to redress the shortage of doctors were compared. It was concluded that the interactions between the three countries were fruitful and potentially beneficial for the health of the population of these countries. South-South cooperation between these countries showed positive results in the educational and regulatory dimensions and adopted a non-dependence perspective that seeks to strengthen endogenous capacity, which are important factors for evaluating the structural components of health systems.

  1. THE ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTARY OF THE "SOFT POWER" IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available "Soft power" is a complex instrument of international politics. It is an organized set of interactions and relationships predetermined to a large extent by the psychological element. Its core qualities are attraction, persuasion and legitimacy. The "soft power" acts in international relations through a complex instrumentation consisting of actions in the military, political, economic, cultural, sports, ideological, religious spheres, but all its manifestations must be supported by the economic instrument. To this end, many countries have set up special bodies. It is expected that "soft power" will be a major instrument of international politics in the coming epoch.

  2. Launching the Journal of International Economic Policy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soogil Young

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the phase when the World Economy takes its agitation, that is, characterized as the new initiative in the International economic order and the infinite competition of the borderless world market, as well as economic integration of all regions, the economy of Korea is facing an unprecedented challenge. After 1990s, when the Cold War came to an end, globalization officially started with the support of information and communications technology revolution. On the other hand, the economic hegemonism and the ideology of "economy-first" intentions was being widely spread in the World. Governments all over the world one after another appealed for foreign investments.

  3. An international cooperative verification agenda for arms reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderstein, C.

    2013-01-01

    The biggest challenge to the overall verification and monitoring agenda for future arms reductions may be that posed by uncertainties regarding the quantities of existing stocks of fissile material and nuclear weapons. We must develop strategies to reduce the residual uncertainties regarding completeness of initial declarations as all declared weapons-related inventories go to zero. Establishing this confidence in countries' initial baseline declarations will likely be a key point in all states' decisions to move to very low numbers, much less zero. The author reviews the questions and challenges that need to be addressed if there is to be significant progress in negotiating and implementing a verifiable fissile material cutoff treaty (FMCT) and a policy of nuclear weapon dismantling. In support of greater security as the world works towards the elimination of nuclear weapons, individual States could begin immediately by increasing the transparency of their nuclear activities. The International Verification Project is designed to bring experts from a wide array of related backgrounds together to build capacity for verification internationally in support of arms control goals (and in support of the larger objective of a world without nuclear weapons), build confidence between nuclear and non-nuclear-weapon states, promote freer flow of information among governments and between governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and solve technical problems that could be barriers to progress. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  4. [INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN PEDIATRIC RHEUMATOLOGY: THE SHARE PROJECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, Yosef

    2017-07-01

    The SHARE initiative is a project initiated by the European Society of Pediatric Rheumatology for the purpose of improving clinical care in the field of pediatric rheumatology. Towards this goal numerous working plans and surveys were conducted. All pediatric rheumatology centers were mapped in terms of staff members, quality and types of treatments in each country, in order to improve and plan the best way for the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic disease in children. After termination of the optimal clinical approach and care, position papers were written including all recommendations based on the scientific literature in the field. In addition, recommendations were set regarding the encouragement of international research, especially in light of the major advances achieved in the genetic aspects of pediatric rheumatology diseases, and the need for sharing biological samples between researchers from different countries and continents. Information for patients became more available regarding the diseases and the medical centers in each country. Futhermore, educational programs for interns and young fellows were written for the promotion of higher and identical academic levels in different countries.

  5. [International cooperation with the neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiyama, Tomoki

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this paper are to grasp the current status of an endemic disease, known as Buruli ulcer (BU), in the Republic of Togo and the expansion of international assistance in the field. By adopting the explicit support model, this paper also compares the obtained research results with those of the Republic of Ghana and Benin, to clarify the primary functions played among respective governments, WHO, and NGO. Under the auspices of the WHO Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative (GBUI, 1998-), National Buruli Ulcer Control Programme (NBUCP) in the Togo was initiated in 1999. However, due to the shortage of national budget and politico-economic instabilities of the nation, the actual implementation of NBUCP proved to be problematic. It was after 2007 that the programme began to move forward with the interventions of NGOs like DAHW and Handicap International. Currently, major players involved in the implementation of the policies provided by the GBUI are WHO, NGOs and the targeted governments. In other words, the organizations involved in BU treatment work together by fulfilling their functions. Unlike the neighboring countries, the Togolese government encountered much difficulty in materializing its national programme. Largely due to the political instability and the severe shortage of national budget, stronger assistances from NGOs were required at various levels of the national health measures from formulating to implementing the programme. As the programmes in Togo and Ghana/Benin expanded over the years, the respective support model revealed to be unique and different. In Ghana and Benin, intimate cooperation among WHO, government and NGOs has been established. In Togo, strengthening of collaboration among the three players is expected.

  6. Theories of International Economic Development (Case Study: Economic Development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Bardhok Bashota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper rightly says that “real starting point for each research is set based on assumptions of reality, not only based on the real facts”. The text below was prepared In accordance with this logic, where the Theories of International Development are treated especially focusing on International Economic Development. Therefore, theoretical reflections present assumption side, and study of many empirically measured data will correspond with real facts, because with ought these facts assumption would be useless. Technically this writing consists of two parts: in the first part are elaborated all theoretical and practical characteristics of overall international development, while in a second part as a case study will be Economic Development i Kosovo. From methodological point of view this is a comparative study and based on statistical data, while problem treating approach is critical and explanatory. As it will be understood later, development theories have been decisively influenced by economic thinking, and the focus on this dimension responds best to the nature of the term development. On the other hand the fact of unfolding economical development will reflect interference and the nature of it’s inter politics. Today economic development becomes a worldwide goal, having a considerable place in most of the literature with economic content. Also, here are presented as well examples from different practices that reflect economic development in different periods and places. Here is presented international economic development starting with a brief description of a genealogy of this development and ways of economic development back that time. It is of a special importance elaboration through theoretical approach on the creation of capital and economic development, as  mercantilist theory, classic and neo classic theory, than capitalization and Socialism-Marxism. To better understand the nature of economic development, the focus falls on

  7. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-Economic Development in Kenya's Cooperative Sector: An Empirical Analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyongesa, D.J.W.; M'mboyi, F.

    2002-01-01

    A lot of stigma is attached to HIV/AIDS pandemic in Kenya. Many organizations have tried and continue trying to educate the public on this scourge. However, none of these organizations has thought of the cooperative sector. This research is unique because it examines the Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-economic Development of Kenya's Cooperative sector. It is an empirical analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province with special reference to the Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOS). It was a joint research that examined HIV/AIDS from a multidisciplinary approach. The general objective was to identify and quantify the effects of HIV/AIDS on the performance of cooperative societies, particularly the impact of HIV/AIDS on savings, share capital, age groups and gender. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of cooperative societies in the province. PCGIVE computer package was used to run regressions on simultaneous and recursive models. The findings clearly show that between 1991 and 2000 cooperatives in Nairobi province lost approximately USD 479 million due to HIV/AIDS pandemic. Besides, though savings, share capital and assets increased significantly, the scourge was negative the gains. Of the dead and the infected, females and ages between 18-48 were more affected by the epidemic. Policy specify recommendations vital for containment of HIV/AIDS in the cooperative sub sector of the Kenyan economy are made. These are with a view to classifying the appropriate roles of both public and private sectors in fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic within the cooperative sector. Last but not least further areas of research are suggested

  8. Pillars of cooperation: Honesty-Humility, social value orientations, and economic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbig, B.E.; Zettler, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    The current work explores the predictive power of the recently proposed sixth personality dimension, Honesty-Humility, with respect to economic and cooperative behavior. It was expected that this factor should explain how decision makers allocate a valued good to themselves vs. another in the dic......The current work explores the predictive power of the recently proposed sixth personality dimension, Honesty-Humility, with respect to economic and cooperative behavior. It was expected that this factor should explain how decision makers allocate a valued good to themselves vs. another...... in the dictator and the ultimatum game. More importantly, we predicted that Honesty-Humility would explain differences between these games in which the power of the recipient to retaliate is varied. Both conjectures were corroborated in a semi-experimental study with N = 134 participants: individuals low...... in Honesty-Humility made more selfish decisions and only shifted towards a more fair allocation whenever the other was empowered to punish defection. Those high in Honesty-Humility, on the other hand, displayed a stable tendency for choosing a more fair solution - even when they could have defected without...

  9. International co-operation towards development through fellowship training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Annunziata, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The IAEA provides support to projects which can have an important impact on the technological and/or economic development of the recipient Member State. Projects selected by each Member State are those to which their Government is committed and to which the Government places a high priority in its development programme. Recipient Governments request support of the IAEA, therefore, only for projects to which they are already committed and to which assistance from the IAEA would provide the input needed to launch and sometimes strengthen the programme to become self-sustaining whenever the assistance is discontinued. More than 400 projects with over 80 Member States are approved for IAEA support each year. These projects contain three components, namely experts, equipment, and fellowships. The technical assistance furnished to recipient countries as fellowships in 1987 amounted to US $9.3 million. Of this amount, the gift-in-kind fellowships provided by 16 donor countries was valued at US $2.5 million

  10. International co-operation for safe radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    As a specialised inter-governmental body, NEA pursues three main objectives for its radioactive waste management programme: - The promotion of studies to improve the data base available in support of national programmes. - The support of Research and Development through co-ordination of national activities and promotion of international projects. - An improvement in the general level of understanding of waste management issues and options, particularly in the field of waste disposal. The management of radioactive waste from nuclear activities covers several sequences of complex technical operations. However, as the ultimate objective of radioactive waste management is the disposal of the waste, the largest part of the work programme is directed towards the analysis of disposal options. In addition, NEA is active in various other areas of waste management, such as the treatment and conditioning of waste, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the institutional aspects of the long term management of radioactive waste

  11. International cooperation for integrated management of coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosc, E.; Houlbreque, F.; Boisson, F.; Scholten, J.; Betti, M.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal zones which comprise < 20% of the earth surface are one of the most dynamic areas of the world. Housing more than 50% of the earth's population, the coastal zones are affected by natural and anthropogenic induced pressures which challenge the sustainability of the coastal environment and its resources. Most of the environmental pressures originate from outside the coastal zones thus requiring an inter-regional approach for coastal environmental assessments. It is one of the missions of the Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist Member States in coastal zone management by applying nuclear and isotopic techniques. These techniques are used in many ways at MEL to enhance the understanding of marine ecosystems and to improve their management and protection. The article gives an overview of MEL's current marine coastal projects and research activities. (author)

  12. New Directions in Land Remote Sensing Policy and International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    Recent changes to land remote sensing satellite data policies in Brazil and the United States have led to the phenomenal growth in the delivery of land imagery to users worldwide. These new policies, which provide free and unrestricted access to land remote sensing data over a standard electronic interface, are expected to provide significant benefits to scientific and operational users, and open up new areas of Earth system science research and environmental monitoring. Freely-available data sets from the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites (CBERS), the U.S. Landsat satellites, and other satellite missions provide essential information for land surface monitoring, ecosystems management, disaster mitigation, and climate change research. These missions are making important contributions to the goals and objectives of regional and global terrestrial research and monitoring programs. These programs are in turn providing significant support to the goals and objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC), the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), and the UN Reduction in Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) program. These data policies are well-aligned with the "Data Democracy" initiative undertaken by the international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), through its current Chair, Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, or INPE), and its former chairs, South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Thailand's Geo Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA). Comparable policies for land imaging data are under consideration within Europe and Canada. Collectively, these initiatives have the potential to accelerate and improve international mission collaboration, and greatly enhance the access, use, and application of land surface imagery for environmental monitoring and societal adaption to changing

  13. International cooperation in accident analysis of RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliatka, A.; Isag

    2005-01-01

    Chouha Michel (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), D'Auria Francesco (Institute of Pisa), Kaliatka Algirdas (Lithuanian Energy Institute), Uspuras Eugenijus (Lithuanian Energy Institute). The safety of nuclear power plants is a primary concern of the European Union (EU) and its Member States. In the early 1990s, the European Union decided to take a prominent role in international efforts to help the New Independent States (NIS) and countries of central Europe to ensure the safety of their nuclear reactors. The Commission's approach to nuclear safety in central and Eastern Europe and the NIS is based on two main objectives, which are fully in line with the policy of the international community as decided by the G7 in 1992: 1) In the short term, to improve operational safety; to make near term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessments and to enhance regulatory regimes; 2) In the longer term, to examine the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and more efficient use of energy and to examine the potential for upgrading plants of more recent design. In this paper the safety concerns, related to RBMK type reactors (Russian acronym for 'Channelized Large Power Reactor) are discussed. These reactors were not exported and were built exclusively in the territory of the former Soviet Union. There are presently plants at Saint Petersburg (Sosnovy Bor), Kursk, Chernobyl and Smolensk. A total of 17 such reactors have been built and 12 are currently in operation. Two international projects: TACIS project 'Development of a code system for severe accident analysis in RBMK reactors' and PHARE projects 'Support to VATESI for Important Tasks Relevant to the Licensing Activities of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant' are presented. The aim of the TACIS project is to help the Russian Authorities to build such capabilities, for their RBMK nuclear power plants (NPPs). The drawing of the Tacis nuclear

  14. International Fund of Aral Sea rescue: the way to regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In this book scientists consider Aral Sea ecology problems, international cooperation on using of water resources in Aral sea basin, national plans of actions in decision of regional problems of Aral Sea basin, the Aral Sea crisis-the problems and objectives to future

  15. Language Equality in International Cooperation. Esperanto Documents, New Series, No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Ralph; Mandel, Mark

    The policies of the United Nations with regard to the six official languages have left holes in the fabric of international cooperation. Maintaining language services in all six languages has proved to be an impossibility because of the scarcity of trained interpreters and translators between, for instance, Chinese and Arabic. English, French, and…

  16. Internal and external force-based impedance control for cooperative manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, D.J.F.; Kostic, D.; Denasi, A.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    An asymptotically stable cascaded control algorithm is proposed for cooperative manipulation of a common object. This algorithm controls motion and internal forces of the object, as well as the contact forces between the object and environment. The motion of each manipulator is controlled using an

  17. Emerging natural gas markets in the East Asian countries - Challenges for market development and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    Energy and natural gas demand as well as the natural gas market in East Asia is analyzed. Gas distribution and long distance gas transmission pipelines are considered. International cooperation is outlined for meeting the market challenges in the region. (R.P.)

  18. An outline of military technological dynamics as restraints for acquisition, international cooperation and domestic technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Renato Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The expectation that technological returns from defense expenditure through acquisition, international cooperation and domestic research would further national development underappreciates the different technological dynamic of the armed services. This paper outlines the technological dynamic the stems from fighting in the air, at sea and on land, exemplifying consequences for the case of acquisition.

  19. Incentives to strengthen international co-operation in R and D for advanced nuclear power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balthesen, E.; Bakunyaev, A.D.; Gibson, I.H.; Hosemann, J.P.; Tavoni, R.; Versteegh, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the need for International Co-operation in R and D for Advanced Reactors in order to maintain options for the future deployment of nuclear power against the current background of declining R and D capability in Europe

  20. Legal Aspects of international cooperation in the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, L.W.

    1981-10-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of developments in the number field having led the IAEA to promote international cooperation in ensuring adequate physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. This work resulted in the establishment of recommendations and guidelines in this respect and culminated in the development of the 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. (NEA) [fr