WorldWideScience

Sample records for international economic competition

  1. Competition in electricity spot markets. Economic theory and international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Nils-Henrik von der; Harbord, David

    1998-09-01

    This publication gives a survey of economic theory and international experience connected to electricity spot markets. The main purpose is to consider the attempts that have been made to apply economic theory and empirical methods to the analysis of electricity markets, and to evaluate them in light of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence. The publication describes in simple terms the basic pool pricing mechanism, and experience with pools in a number of countries. It is worth emphasizing that it is not the purpose to treat in extensive detail the structure of electricity pools around the world. Key factors of the markets in England and Wales, Norway and Australia are described in order to allow for a comparison of design issues and evaluation of competitive performance. 80 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN CREATING AND SUSTAINING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the global economy, one can easily notice that states that record economic growth are competitive, and that the competitive ones collect revenues of billions of dollars from trade, outsourcing and meeting the needs of their citizens. The role of private sector in creating and sustaining competitiveness it is well known. But what actions are undertaken by the international organizations and the public sector in this direction? The scope of this article is to offer a brief descript...

  3. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN CREATING AND SUSTAINING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the global economy, one can easily notice that states that record economic growth are competitive, and that the competitive ones collect revenues of billions of dollars from trade, outsourcing and meeting the needs of their citizens. The role of private sector in creating and sustaining competitiveness it is well known. But what actions are undertaken by the international organizations and the public sector in this direction? The scope of this article is to offer a brief description of the role played by these actors taking into account that they must create the fundamental condition for competitiveness: macroeconomic stability.

  4. International University Research Ventures: Implications for U.S. Economic Competitiveness National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-31

    NTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY RESEARCH VENTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR US ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY The views, opinions and/or findings...UNIVERSITY RESEARCH VENTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR US ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY Report Term: 0-Other Email: mzak@gatech.edu...expected to inform political and economic theories about technology transfer, innovation, economic competitiveness, and democratization/civil

  5. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  6. The Role of Culture, Competitiveness and Economic Performance in Explaining Academic Performance: A Global Market Analysis for International Student Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Chris; Hamin

    2011-01-01

    A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…

  7. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  8. Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability : Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The changing manufacturing environment requires more responsive and adaptable manufacturing systems. The theme of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production (CARV2011) is “Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability”. Leading edge research and best implementation practices and experiences, which address these important issues and challenges, are presented. The proceedings include advances in manufacturing systems design, planning, evaluation, control and evolving paradigms such as mass customization, personalization, changeability, re-configurability and flexibility. New and important concepts such as the dynamic product families and platforms, co-evolution of products and systems, and methods for enhancing manufacturing systems’ economic sustainability and prolonging their life to produce more than one product generation are treated. Enablers of change in manufacturing systems, production volume and capability scalability and man...

  9. International network competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerås, Thomas P.; Tåg, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    We analyse network competition in a market with international calls. National regulatory agencies (NRAs) have incentives to set regulated termination rates above marginal cost to extract rent from international call termination. International network ownership and deregulation are alternatives to combat the incentives of NRAs to distort termination rates. We provide conditions under which each of these policies increase efficiency and aggregate welfare. Our findings provide theoretical suppor...

  10. China’s steel industry as a driving force for economic growth and international competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Gh. H.; Nica, E.; Nicolăescu, E.; Lăzăroiu, G.

    2016-01-01

    The theory that we shall seek to elaborate here puts considerable emphasis on technological features of China’s steel production, its emergence as the world’s most significant steel producer and main manufacturing base, and the transitory decline in steel demand related to the international financial crisis. The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the global incorporation of China’s steel enterprises, its portion of worldwide steel consumption, and its industrial poli...

  11. Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Malagoni

    Full Text Available The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention.For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000 and post (2001-2007 the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015, were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase.The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

  12. Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagoni, Anna Maria; Lamberti, Nicola; Carrabre, James E; Litmanen, Hannu; Jeannier, Pierre; Zhukovskaja, Larisa; Dal Follo, Donatella; Zambon, Christel; Resch, Nicole; Manfredini, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention. For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance) were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget. The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase. The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

  13. Economic competitiveness of windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapin, E E

    1977-01-01

    The conditions under which windmills become competitive with the generation of electric power from fossil fuels are examined. The influence of cost of construction, financing arrangements, and the future cost of fuels is shown. Energy storage and network arrangements for mills are considered briefly, as are alternate uses for mills, e.g., the utilization of mill output directly for heating or for the production of a fuel.

  14. Pollution taxes and international competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout the industrialized world policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the potential gains in economic efficiency and environmental quality to be reaped in certain areas of pollution control by switching from direct regulation to market-oriented policy instruments such as pollution taxes. However, concern about the impact on the international competitiveness of domestic producers seems to make governments in many countries hesitant to introduce pollution taxes. As a result, several observers have called for international agreements on harmonized pollution taxes among larger groups of countries such as the member states of the European Community. This paper argues that policy makers should be less concerned about the effects of pollution taxes on international competitiveness and more conscious about their effects on economic efficiency and equity. If pollution taxes improve the allocation of resources, it would be possible to compensate those citizens who might lose from their introduction and still leave the rest of society better off. The openness of the economy only means that a given improvement of environmental quality can be achieved through a lower level of pollution tax rates than would be necessary in a closed economy, because a given pollution tax rate will cause a greater contraction of output in polluting industries, the more these industries are exposed to foreign competition. (EG)

  15. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, R.

    1981-01-01

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics

  16. Local economic development and globalisation : the international competitiveness of certain South African municipalities / Vincent Monti Malebo Mongake

    OpenAIRE

    Mongake, Monti Malebo Vincent

    2004-01-01

    In today's global competitive environment, a city or a town more than ever needs a strategy that articulates how its international competitiveness is to be improved. Since 1994, following its first democratic elections, South Africa started processes of significant local government reform, as well as fast integration into the global economy. These processes will place significant challenges in the way of South Africa's local government (municipalities) since they now not only h...

  17. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A competitive structure of a national economy is influenced by the competitiveness of each of the actors made the national economy. In other words, to achieve competitive economic structure shall contribute all sectors of the national economy and hence all branches of the national economy, all organizations within each branch. Thus, the productive sectors of the economy contribute by increasing their competitiveness, GDP growth, added value, while other branches making a contribution through activity, increased quality of life (health, culture, social in training skilled labor (education to ensure effective functioning of the judiciary, protection of private property and citizen safety, lower crime rate (police, reducing the risk of political instability, increasing social cohesion, social disparities (richness and extreme poverty, and discrimination against women and minority groups. Human resources are probably the most important factor determining the competitiveness of an area. The ability of a country to move up the value chain is closely related to human resource capability. In understanding the competitive evaluation is important to assess not only in terms of education, improvement, skills and work experience, but also in terms of other attributes, more difficult to measure, as entrepreneurial relationships, creativity and risk tolerance. Secondly, we must accept that individual productivity is determined by external factors. Latent potential of the individual can develop when the person moves to another environment that provides better and more opportunities. Currently structural changes to remain competitive obtaining essential parameters of the Romanian economy to cope with competitive pressures of the single European market.

  18. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  19. Banking Competition and Economic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Fischer; Nicolás Inostroza; Felipe J. Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    We consider a two-period model of a banking system to explore the effects of competition on the stability and efficiency of economic activity. In the model, competing banks lend to entrepreneurs. After entrepreneurs receive the loans for their projects, there is a probability of a shock. The shock implies that a fraction of firms will default and be unable to pay back their loans. This will require banks to use their capital and reserves to pay back depositors, restricting restrict second per...

  20. Competitiveness in the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The first challenge is to analyze the concept of "competitiveness" given the fact that in the centre of the great economic analystes' concerns lays from some time the phenomenon of competitiveness, along with the generation of competitive advantage at the organization level and, moreover, at country level. The economic science will have to be rethought, meaning that competitiveness will have to adapt to the new prospects launched today by the global economic crisis.

  1. Socio-Cultural Factors and International Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara Apsalone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural factors – shared values, norms and attitudes are significant, but less acknowledged sources of international competitiveness. Previous studies have found socio-cultural factors positively affecting various aspects of international competitiveness – entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and international cooperation. These factors are more sustainable and less affected by external environment changes in comparison with the traditional factors. Socio-cultural factors provide an opportunity to develop competitiveness strategies based on unique advantages. This research aims to explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on international competiveness in small, open economies. Analysing relationship between 400 socio-cultural indicators and competitiveness indicators such as productivity, economic development, business and government efficiency, innovation capacity and infrastructure in 37 countries, six socio-cultural factors have emerged: Collectivism and Hierarchy; Future, Cooperation and Performance Orientation, Self-expression, Monochronism and Rationality, Economic Orientation and Social structure. The first factor – Collectivism and Hierarchy – tends to reduce the international competitiveness; the other five affect it positively.

  2. International Competitiveness in Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This assessment continues the Office of Technology Assessment's (OTA) exploration of the meaning of industrial policy in the United States context, while also examining the industrial policies of several U.S. economic rivals. The major focus is on electronics, an area which virtually defines "high technology" of the 1980's. The…

  3. Cyberinfrastructure for international competitiveness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Happy M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available to international science projects such as the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN. Benefits are being realised through efficient connectivity and decrease in the cost of bandwidth. In this presentation, Sithole will provide...

  4. COMPETITIVENESS IN SERVICES, DRIVING FORCE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    RAMONA PÎRVU; MARIA DANATIE ENESCU

    2012-01-01

    The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability beca...

  5. Pedagogy for Economic Competitiveness and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Oldroyd, David

    2010-01-01

    Accelerating threats to a sustainable relationship between economic growth and the capacity of the global social-ecological system to support it require that the implications of competitiveness be reassessed. Today, the capacities that underlie economic competitiveness must also be brought to bear on policy and pedagogy to prepare the coming…

  6. Economic competitiveness of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chuanwen

    2005-01-01

    Development of nuclear power in China has made a good progress. Currently, economic competitiveness of nuclear power compared to fossil-fuelled power plants is one of the major problems which hamper its development. This article presents the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in China with two-level analyses. First, levelized lifetime cost method is adopted for electricity generation cost comparisons. Important factors influencing economic competitiveness of nuclear power are described. Furthermore, a broad economic evaluation of the full fuel chain of nuclear power and fossil-fuelled plants is discussed concerning macro social-economic issues, environmental and health impacts. The comprehensive comparative assessment would be carried out for decision making to implement nuclear power programme. In consideration of external costs and carbon value, the economic competitiveness of nuclear power would be further improved. Facing swift economic growth, huge energy demand and heavy environmental burden, nuclear power could play a significant role in sustainable development in China. (authors)

  7. Competitiveness of Slovakia and the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ručinská

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of financial crisis in the beginning of this year have also been felt by the Slovak economy. It could be argued that the competitiveness of Slovakia is under the influence of the world economic crisis, as it is a small, open and pro-export oriented economy, hence influenced by foreign markets. Because of limited extent of domestic market, the foreign demand plays a key role in economic growth, a role that depends on the development of international economic affairs. As the biggest Slovak trade partners are in a deep recession, it induces a slowdown in the domestic economy as well. Financial problems of numerous banks in these countries, in combination with the growing lack of trust in the performance of the economies have resulted in a decline in demand and consumption, which had its effects on Slovakia as well. Based on our analysis of the manifestations and consequences of the financial crisis we show the effects on competitiveness of Slovakia, as well as on public policy.

  8. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the ... the scope of operations of private sector enterprises in the West Bank and Gaza. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  9. Economic Development and "National Competitive Advantage"

    OpenAIRE

    J.T., Goode

    2002-01-01

    Despite the preponderance of economic theory and research which argues to the contrary, the notion that national economies stand in a fundamentally competitive relationship with one another remains surprisingly widespread. In recent years, some of the most influential impetus for this misperception has come from Michael Porter's conceptualization of "the competitive advantage of nations" in relation to economic development and date theory. It is argued that Porter neither proposes nor demonst...

  10. A Realistic International Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Criticizes college textbooks for adopting a "party line" of laissez-faire economic doctrine which asserts the benefits of free trade. Offers an alternative interpretation of international trade, covering such topics as the effect of unregulated international trade on wage levels, and international lending. (JDH)

  11. Moving targets. Economic competitiveness of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.

    2000-01-01

    Most world electricity markets are now moving towards greater competition, driven in part by technology, low fuel prices, and experience that competitive markets are more self-sustaining. Electric power is being sold in a number of markets in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for around US $0.02 per kilowatt-hour (kWh). Can nuclear generation match such prices? If not, can it be made to do so? Electricity companies are now in the business of selling a commodity (kWh) and commercial services instead of a strategic good. Excess capacity, low demand growth and lower product prices in major industrialized countries have forced power generators and their suppliers to be more concerned with the costs of their operations and profitability of their investments. These companies increasingly need a commercial, profit-oriented approach if they are to survive and prosper. Even more, they will need to make substantial cost reductions over the next few years. The nuclear industry is no exception. How does nuclear power stack up in this environment? The IAEA Planning and Economic Studies Section is doing a series of studies on precisely these questions, divided into issues affecting the near, medium and long-term future of nuclear power. This corresponds roughly to matters affecting existing plants, upgrades and life extensions, or new plants. In general, the studies find that nuclear power has the potential to be competitive in all three markets. But realizing that potential will require significant changes on the part of the industry and its regulators. This article focuses on the prevailing market situation in many industrialized countries. Several lessons also are applicable to developing countries, particularly in cases where the financing of electric power projects is expected to come from international capital markets. The overall situation is distinctly different for developing countries. Typically the capacity there for

  12. Outsourcing in International Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Bilan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Entities from different countries interact through various forms of international cooperation, integration, subcontracting, outsourcing to ensure competitive advantage, reduce costs and increase economic efficiency. The article is an analysis and synthesis of existing approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing research and its application in international. The article deals with the prerequisites of outsourcing as a new form of organization of business processes. There are investigated and classified approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing. The hierarchy of objectives and motives based on organization of outsourcing is built. The practice of outsourcing during implementation of international economic relations is studied. Specifically examined the dynamics of development of the outsourcing market. Studied leader countries which provide outsourcing services and major consumers of these services.

  13. Clusters and the new economics of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M E

    1998-01-01

    Economic geography in an era of global competition poses a paradox. In theory, location should no longer be a source of competitive advantage. Open global markets, rapid transportation, and high-speed communications should allow any company to source any thing from any place at any time. But in practice, Michael Porter demonstrates, location remains central to competition. Today's economic map of the world is characterized by what Porter calls clusters: critical masses in one place of linked industries and institutions--from suppliers to universities to government agencies--that enjoy unusual competitive success in a particular field. The most famous example are found in Silicon Valley and Hollywood, but clusters dot the world's landscape. Porter explains how clusters affect competition in three broad ways: first, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation; and third, by stimulating the formation of new businesses within the cluster. Geographic, cultural, and institutional proximity provides companies with special access, closer relationships, better information, powerful incentives, and other advantages that are difficult to tap from a distance. The more complex, knowledge-based, and dynamic the world economy becomes, the more this is true. Competitive advantage lies increasingly in local things--knowledge, relationships, and motivation--that distant rivals cannot replicate. Porter challenges the conventional wisdom about how companies should be configured, how institutions such as universities can contribute to competitive success, and how governments can promote economic development and prosperity.

  14. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  15. Competition in generation: The economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper sets out the economic foundations that underlie competitive markets in electricity generation. It moves from a general formulation of a competitive market to discuss traditional models of optimal electricity pricing. It shows how an auction market can produce the same results and discusses the option of bilateral trading. Models of market power, which can lead to higher prices and reduced efficiency, are then discussed. The final part of the paper deals with network effects

  16. Polish and Estonian Economic Competitiveness. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalska

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the study has been a survey of indices developed by international economic organizations. Such indices tend to encompass a number of qualitative/quantitative variables relating to economic viability, e.g. economic liberties, budgetary balance, judiciary, technical sophistication, social factors and innovation. Basing on the aforementioned data, the study has focused upon the comparison of both countries competitive stances and permitted the formulation of certain economic policy guidelines with regard to Poland, which has underperformed Estonia in most of the rankings.

  17. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, and their extreme dependence on foreign assistance and Israeli-controlled customs revenues, had led to the conclusion that the Palestinian ...

  18. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the ... Impact of implementing the Palestinian banking law on the performance of the private sector [Arabic language]. Documents. Impact of the commercial agents law ...

  19. ECONOMIC CRISIS AND THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TRANSNATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In crisis situations, the competitiveness of transnational companies becomes a particularly complex concept, due to the fact that said business entities are continuously moving within the context of internationalization and increasing use of global strategies. Given the current economic context, one cannot merely assess the competitiveness level of any given transnational company from a static standpoint, depending on the turnover, sales volume or number of employees of said company, but such assessment needs to be made from a dynamic standpoint, in close connection with the internal and international business environment in which that company carries out its activity.

  20. THE STATE OF ECONOMIC FREEDOM IN UKRAINE AND ITS IMPACT ON COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mytsiuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The place of Ukraine in the world rankings, the level of economic freedom in Ukraine and its impact on competitiveness are considered in the article. The analysis of tendencies of development of Ukraine in the international arena is carried and competitiveness of the national economy is defined. The indices of global competitiveness and economic freedom are investigated. The basic components of these ratings are analyzed and correlation between economic freedom of the country and its competitiveness is proved. The macroeconomic and institutional factors of Ukraine's competitiveness increase on the world stage are identified. It has been found out that reduction of the competitiveness of Ukraine in the international rankings is connected with the political instability and foreign aggression. Since military confrontation in the Donbas region lead to a steady decline in general economic indicators, destruction of infrastructure, lower production, it has a negative impact on future international competitiveness ranking of Ukraine.

  1. Competitiveness and Economic Growth in Romanian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that Romanian economy competitiveness is not based on innovation and investment in human capital, this study makes an empirical evaluation of the impact of occupation and unemployment in Romanian counties on the economic growth. The approach based on panel vector-autoregressive (panel VAR models indicated a negative impact of occupation and activity rate in 42 Romanian counties on the economic growth during 2006-2014. On the other hand, the real economic growth was achieved at high unemployment rates. These results are contrary to previous studies in literature and are due to a structural economic crisis and to lack of labour productivity and investment in human capital. Further policy measures should focus on structural unemployment decrease, more skilled labour force according to labour market needs, lifelong learning, higher performance and quality of education system, promotion of social inclusion, poverty control.

  2. Fuel modelling and its economical competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, A.C.; Savino, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to reasons of economical competitiveness, there is at present a strong need in the nuclear industry to improve fuel performance under more demanding operating conditions, such as those resulting from an extended burnup. This requires a good understanding of the properties of fuel rod materials and their in-service performance. As it can be easily foreseen, thermal, mechanical and microstructural irradiation effects are strongly interrelated while the fuel is at reactor operating conditions. (author). 7 refs., 16 figs

  3. COMPETITIVENESS IN SERVICES, DRIVING FORCE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA PÎRVU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability because they configure firms’ selling prices, production costs and investments needed to be competitive in the field. The threat of new competitors limits the potential profit since they involve new production units and the opportunities for market expansion. Economic strength of the buyers and bidders attracts profits to them. Rivalry among existing competitors erodes profits by increasing costs of competition (like advertising, selling expenses or those required for research and development. The presence of substitutive goods or services limits competitors’ prices through buyers’ transfer phenomena limiting and eroding market share of industry / firm in the total production output.

  4. International Trade Logistic Services Competitiveness in the Pacific Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América Ivonne Zamora Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficient logistics plays a crucial role in national trade competitiveness. The present study aims to determine Mexico´s foreign trade logistics competitiveness with respect to the largest economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation in 2012. The study considers three key variables: customs, international transport and logistics services. It uses a principal components analysis to compute a foreign trade logistics competitiveness index. The results indicate that the three variables have a direct and significant impact on international trade logistics competitiveness. According to the analyzed variables, the most competitive countries are, in descending order, Panama, China, Singapore, Korea and Thailand. The study identifies improvement opportunities for Mexico on the logistics and customs factors.

  5. Labor market flexibility, international competitiveness and patterns of trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzagalieva, Ainura; Cukrowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2006), s. 225-246 ISSN 0012-981X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market regulations * competitiveness * international trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  6. Disciplinary competitiveness analysis in international stomatology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ping; Hong, Xiao; Zhu, Lu; Zhang, Linglin; Gu, Xuekui; Gao, Zhihua; Chen, Qianming

    2013-11-01

    With economic and cultural globalization, the trend of globalization of higher education becomes inevitable. Using the concept of competitiveness, the authors established a principal component analysis (PCA) model to examine disciplinary competitiveness in stomatology of various higher education institutions worldwide. A total of forty-four universities entered the final list according to these calculations. Possible reasons for their selection were explored and explained at macro and micro levels. The authors further accessed various sources of data and summarized several suggestions for enhancing disciplinary competitiveness for other universities in pursuit of promoting their position in the global spectrum.

  7. Competitiveness on the International Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper comes to present and analyse the features of tourism in the main countries in Central and Western Europe, as well as the different strategies these countries adopt in order to maintain the competitiveness of the field.In the beginning, we have defined competitiveness, as the prerequisite of market success, we have analysed its components and the main factors that determine it, as well as the competitivenesscompetitive advantage relation.During the last years, competitiveness has turned into one of the common concepts used in order to approach and describe the sustainable development of the tourism and travel industry. Expert literature has defined concepts such as tourism and travel competitiveness or touristic destinations competitiveness, suggesting not only the significance of the concept but also the emphasis that touristic organizations should lay on this aspect.The competitiveness of touristic destinations and, generally speaking, the global competitiveness of the tourism industry became vital for the survival and growth of the touristic organizations on the international market, provided by the growth of spare time and the growth of the level of income that is available for spending the time.

  8. The Great Asian International School Gold Rush: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Denry

    2017-01-01

    The number of international schools is growing, especially in Asia. This presents competitive challenges; most obviously for student recruitment and retention. However, demand for places at these schools is also growing. As a result, while international schooling may feel competitive, aggregate economic data show that growing numbers do not…

  9. How Do National Economic Competitiveness Indices View Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadie, Jesus Alquezar; Johansen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    "Economic competitiveness" is at the top of national, regional and global political and economic agendas. Several countries in all regions of the world have established policies and institutions devoted to economic competitiveness, including in developing and transition countries. This leads to the question of how to define national economic…

  10. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...

  11. Globalization, Inequality & International Economic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International law in general, and international economic law in particular, to the extent that either has focused on the issue of inequality, has done so in terms of inequality between states. Largely overlooked has been the topic of inequality within states and how international law has influenced that reality. From the perspective of international economic law, the inequality issue is closely entwined with the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, the proper meaning of development, and globalization. While international economic law has undoubtedly contributed to the rise of inequality, it is now vital that the subject of international economic law be examined for how it may contribute to the lessening of inequality. To do so will require a shift in the way that we think, in order to address inequality as a problem of an emerging global market society, and how best to regulate that society and its institutions.

  12. Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong

    2010-09-01

    The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: “Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?”

  13. Balancing economic freedom against social policy principles: EC competition law and national health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Lear, Julia

    2012-07-01

    EU Health policy exemplifies the philosophical tension between EC economic freedoms and social policy. EC competition law, like other internal market rules, could restrict national health policy options despite the subsidiarity principle. In particular, European health system reforms that incorporate elements of market competition may trigger the application of competition rules if non-economic gains in consumer welfare are not adequately accounted for. This article defines the policy and legal parameters of the debate between competition law and health policy. Using a sample of cases it analyses how the ECJ, national courts, and National Competition Authorities have applied competition laws to the health services sector in different circumstances and in different ways. It concludes by considering the implications of the convergence of recent trends in competition law enforcement and health system market reforms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monopolistic competition and international trade theory

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    2000-01-01

    Almost twenty-five years after the appearance of Dixit and Stiglitz’s paper on monopolistic competition and optimum product diversity, I try to take stock of the progres which has been made in applying their approach to international trade theory. I review the principal applications to trade theory and present a new one: by embedding DS preferences in a specific-factors framework, I sketch a model which shows how multinational corporations can emerge even between countries with similar factor...

  15. ECONOMIC RECESSION A CALL FOR COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Marius IVANOV

    2011-01-01

    Global recession brought about a significant growth in competition, stressing the need for relevant and reliable intelligence as a support for making efficient strategic decisions. The recent circumstances draw the attention far more earnestly this time on the need for an intelligence structure within companies to be ready for sustaining business management endeavours in line with increasing competitiveness, protection and promotion of their interests.

  16. Exploratory studies into strategies to enhance innovation-driven international competitiveness in a port context : Toward ambidextrous ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.A. Hollen (Rick)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractResearch has highlighted that firms competing in dynamic environments have to balance exploitative (efficiency-directed) activities with explorative (innovation-directed) ones in order to remain internationally competitive. In economically advanced countries, whose competitiveness is

  17. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arabic language]. Documents. Strengthening the role of the Palestine securities exchange in attracting foreign investment [Arabic language]. Documents. Impact of infrastructure costs on the competitiveness of the Palestinian industrial sector ...

  18. THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR IN DEVELOPING AND SUPPORTING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-01-01

    In the actual context of economic globalization, the competitiveness has a crucial importance for all the countries. But due to which factors and to what extent takes place the creation and improvement of it? This paper traces the role of the private sector in creating and sustaining international competitiveness, it summarizes three determinants of international competitiveness (productivity, innovation and clusters) and traces their impact on it. The main argument of this paper is that thes...

  19. Globalization, Competitiveness, International Trade, Industrial Policy and Employement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Novella

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is presented as a variable key in the present context of a worldwide economy and extends its influence over the international trade tendencies, industrial policies and employment.The variations which trade relations at international level have undergone throughout the second half of the twentieth century have been accompanied by successive theoretical contributions, which have evolved from the traditional theories of the nineteenth century concerning comparative advantages and which introduce more complex factors.The product cycle model expounded by Vernon offers an explanation for the continual flow of sectors at international level as well as the characteristics of the most adequate industrial policy and the commercial patterns of each State revealing the importance of technology, human capital and international marketing as key factors for international competitiveness.This article explains the appearance of news procedures of international competitiveness based on product diferentiation, quality and brand image which, nowadays, coexist with traditional models such as costs and prices reductions.At every stage of a country’s development, a sectorial production structure together with some specific demand characteristics, salary and productivity levels correspond to it. All these latter aspects are interelated and should be analysed all together. With globalization, the speed with which a product passes from one phase to another has accelerated as well as the time it travels from the central countries to those intermediate ones and from there successively to those in the South, in such a way that these sectorialswings in international trade should be considered as a normal effect of it. Competition via salary reductions and social security benefits is not the only nor the most recommendable solution given that, in the long term, it affects the quality of production and social stability degrading as it does the standard of

  20. ECONOMIC MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF INTEGRAL COMPETITIVENESS OF AUTOMOTIVE ENTERPRISES (AE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zubritsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to evaluation of competitiveness of automotive enterprises in the field of international consignments. An economic model for determination of the integral AE competitiveness is proposed in the paper and the model permits to substitute an expert estimation in respect of some factors by their qualitative calculation on the basis of data on enterprise activity in the international consignment market.

  1. Impact of technology diffusion on economic growth and international competitiveness. Empirical evidence for four East Asian countries; Gijutsu hakyu no koka to Asia keizai no seichoryoku, yushutsu kyosoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Y.; Sakurai, N.

    1999-06-01

    Asian economies hit by the currency crisis in 1997 are still in struggle to recover their growth and to boost again their exports. Although several short-term policy measures to stimulate the demand- side of the economy is certainly necessary, in a longer-term perspective, the key to real recovery would exist in their ability to absorb foreign technologies through trade and/or FDI, as stressed by recent new theories of growth and trade. This paper examines empirically the role of technology diffusion from advanced countries to total factor productivity (TFP) and export competitiveness in four major East-Asian countries: Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, three of which were seriously damaged by the currency crisis. Our major findings are summarized as follows. First, we found that technology acquisition from abroad is quite important for TFP growth of most industries in Asia, in particular for two ASEAN countries (Malaysia and Indonesia), while such productivity impact from foreign technology was relatively small for Korea and Singapore. Second, the impact of technology diffusion was much larger in that through trade than in that through foreign direct investment. Some FDI practices to preclude technology access for developing countries might explain such weaker role of FDI on TFP. Third, the nexus between TFP and export competitiveness was surely positive, in particular for industries of high export performance. However, the magnitude of impact was relatively small in Korea, in spite of its overwhelming productivity performance. (author)

  2. Environmental Economics Research Competition for the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , to extend its work in environmental economics by supporting a series of small research projects in the Middle East and North Africa. Project proposals will be solicited through two competitions: one with and one without a specific theme.

  3. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support capacity building, research studies and policy outreach with a focus on the following areas: the dynamics of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and their potential for job creation; enhancing the inclusiveness of export-led growth through innovation, technology and competitiveness; balancing ...

  4. Factors Affecting Competitive Strategies in International Construction Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğçe ERCAN; Almula KÖKSAL

    2013-01-01

    Due to rising competition in the international construction market, competitive strategies are becoming ever more important. This study aims to identify the level of importance of a variety of competitive strategies in construction companies to create a theoretical framework for competitive strategies in international construction business. In the questionnaire titled: ‘Identifying the Parameters of Strategic Performance Comparison Tool in International Construction Companies’, professionals ...

  5. Retail competition in electricity markets. Expectations, outcomes and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In 'Retail competition in electricity markets' (Energy Policy, 37(2), February 2009, Pages 377-386) it is argued by Defeuilly that the introduction of retail competition into electricity markets gave rise to great expectations that it failed to meet, and that this was primarily the fault of Austrian economic thinking. The main purpose of this note is to explain why both of these propositions are incorrect. A few further comments challenge his subsequent suggestion that the competitive process in electricity is so constrained by the limitations of consumer decision-making and electricity technology as to cast doubt on the policy of opening the retail market to competition

  6. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... gain; and new theoretical frameworks for studying the determinants of economic diversification. ... Enter the dragon : policies to attract Chinese investment. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Selective review of foreign direct investment theories.

  7. Competition Research for Economic Development | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and disseminated by means of a high-profile communications program. ... Fiscalía Nacional Económica. Institution Country. Chile. Institution Website ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth solutions.

  8. Structural policy in the context of international competition aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bodrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article researches the essence and peculiarities of the structural policy, performs classification of its models and determines possibilities of their use in the context of increasing international competition. It discovers the main components of the economic structure and trends of the state policy regarding their modernization. Measures on improvement of state regulation instruments are offered, factors of influence upon improvement of the Ukrainian economy structure are analyzed and priority goals are systematized which require urgent implementation in the terms of competitive struggle aggravation at the global markets. The article also researches the matter of importance of performing a complex of state functional and selective measures in the form of matrix policy for the purpose of protecting national interests of the country in the context of global challenges

  9. Collective management societies against free economic competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Abello Monsalvo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The collective management of copyright is presented as a mechanism for the administration of the collection for the use of the patrimonial rights of copyright holders. The Collective Management Companies (SGC act as the appointed representative of the holders of the mentioned rights. The management of copyright through the SGC generates certain efficiencies and, in some cases, it is indispensable. Nonetheless, benchmarking for each case may identify the existence of dominance position of the sgc. It is necessary to propose minimum guidelines so that the SGC in the execution of its management do not incur in anti-competitive practices.

  10. The GBR reactor an economically competitive Breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chermanne, J.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the design is described of a 1200 MWe fast breeder, gas-cooled reactor (GBR-4), prepared by a group of experts of the Gas Breeder Reactor Association and used as a reference system for economical and safety evaluations, as well as for defining the research and development program focussed on such concept and the specifications of the prospective demonstrative plant

  11. Competitive economics: Nuclear and coal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, R.

    1984-01-01

    An extraordinary aspect of nuclear power is the fact that until 1974 no competent and authoritative study of its economics had been published, in or out of government. Yet well over $100 billion of orders have been given. Another extraordinary characteristic of the industry is prematurity. Light water reactors operate at about half the temperatures, a fourth the steam pressures and half the turbine speeds of fossil fuel units. They therefore must move 3.5 times the cubic feet of steam per hour to get the same power output, and this requires piping, valves, pumps, boilers, etc. which are so much bigger as to create serious technological problems of manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance. Instead of following normal sequences of test and proof, the industry rushed massive orders prematurely -- and this for a technology with enormous problems of radioactivity and economic unknowns

  12. Competitive economics: nuclear and coal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, R.

    1984-01-01

    Ignorance of the comparative economics and prematurity in adopting light water reactors characterize the nuclear industry, which has defied the laws of logic for learning. The absence of valid authoritative data to determine the economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant is what leads to the methodological problems in making comparisons with coal. The author's solution adjusts the four most authoritative studies to reality: by the Atomic Energy Commission in 1975, a team of TRW and Mitre Corp. for ERDA in 1976, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1979, and by Exxon. The adjustments, which include original costs adjusted for lifetime; capital adjustments for sufflation, construction time, unit life, and capacity factor; fuel adjustments, and other adjustments involving management, replacement, maintenance, fuel prices, waste disposal, etc.) show that the total busbar cost per kWh from nuclear power units is 2.2 times that of coal. 7 references, 1 table

  13. Economics of Sustainable Development. Competitiveness and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AILENEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is one of the most important issues of humanity. Both in national economies and world economy, recession and prosperity periods are regularly succeeding with different amplitudes. But beyond these fluctuations and their effects, the results are important: performance and economic growth. Because of the problematical issue of economic growth, the authors are trying to critically reflect on the economic growth concept and on its implications on the praxis area. Although there is a large literature about economic growth modeling, it is intriguing that there still are some serious obstacles for conceptualization and praxis. Only the simple fact that the economic growth process needs serious thinking on the time dimension is sufficient for understanding the real difficulties of this problematical issue. As for the economic growth praxis, a clear analysis of the interests system within an economy is needed. Without trying to find miraculous solutions for the economic growth issue, the authors suggest a clear and correct analysis of this important subject.

  14. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  15. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asia's international production networks : will India be the next assembly centre? Rapports. Multilateralism in crisis. Rapports. Thailand's 2011 flooding : its impact on direct exports and global supply chains. Rapports. Trade concentration and crisis spillover : case study of transmission of the subprime crisis to Thailand ...

  16. The economic policy as factor of competitiveness in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan González García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article consists of establishing the relation between competitiveness and economic policy in the case of the People’s Republic of China in the period from 1948 to 2008. The hypothesis that is demonstrated throughout the presentation maintains that more than the macroeconomic stability, the economic growth is directly related to the type of economic policy that applies a nation, as it is the case of China. The historical antecedents (1948-1978, the economic policy in the days of the reform of the economy (1978-1998 and the present time in which the past and the present are crossed, constitute the huge landmarks of the work. The economic policy is analyzes in “sub political” such as the agriculturist, industrialist, prices, foreign trade, foreign affairs, fiscal, monetary, exchange and investment, competitiveness etc., taking the work to planes of better concretion.

  17. A Global Talent Magnet: How a San Francisco/Bay Area Global Higher Education Hub Could Advance California's Comparative Advantage in Attracting International Talent and Further Build US Economic Competitiveness. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.9.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John; Edelstein, Richard; Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    During the 2009-10 academic year international students generated more than $18.8 billion in net income into the US economy. California alone had nearly 100,000 international students with an economic impact of nearly $3.0 billion. In this paper, we outline a strategy for the San Francisco/Bay Area to double the number of international students…

  18. Cross-Border Higher Education: Global and Local Tensions within Competition and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Taya L.; Lane, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors explore various types of cross-border higher education, considering equity and quality issues within these developments. With a particular focus on international branch campuses, the authors discuss the ways in which global competition for knowledge and economic development interact with tensions at the local level.

  19. INNOVATION AND INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS OF A COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Georgeta Bugnar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of economies or firms has been explained in the recent decades by the degree of innovation they have. Companies innovate to conquer markets through new products and services, to reduce production costs, to have an effective management system. It has been statistically demonstrated that there is a direct link between performances, profit level and degree of innovation. The ranking of countries by their degree of innovation prompted the reassessment of how innovation is quantified. The pillars that measure the degree of innovation do no longer refer strictly to research and development costs or number of patents and inventions. There are institutions, human and research capital, infrastructure, market environment, business environment, knowledge and technology outputs as well as creative outputs when we speak about the assessment of the degree of innovation of companies / countries. More and more indicators measuring innovation are focused on items that are not necessarily related to the number of patents or inventions obtained. The developed countries of the world have understood that their success on the international market is related to the degree of novelty and innovation their economy has. Due to globalization, companies and emerging countries are under pressure to engage continuously in innovation: R & D, software, design, engineering, human resources, marketing, etc. - all play an increasingly important role in what we call international competitiveness. We can also state that innovation has evolved along with the development of the human society, from a simple concept of invention or technological novelty to a very complex concept that takes all forms and sectors of economy. Innovation has become a fundamental factor in the whole value chain. Social changes, both in the developed and in the emerging countries, have recognized lately the importance of innovation, and therefore tried to introduce development policies that bring

  20. International competitiveness : Empirical findings from SME service firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coviello, NE; Ghauri, PN; Martin, KAM

    1998-01-01

    This article extends Buckley, Pass, and Prescott (1988, 1990, 1992) by using case research to examine factors contributing to international competitiveness, in the context of SME software developers and engineering consultants. The results indicate that universal prescriptions of international

  1. Modularization as an avenue to economic competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, J H [Avondale Industries, Inc., Rumson, NJ (United States)

    1990-07-01

    There are many features of the emerging next generation of nuclear power which impact the competitiveness of the facilities. We will focus on the equipment fabrication and erection phase of the work. Utility plants, like other complex facilities, require comprehensive program management skills. While any project is sensitive to cost, schedule and quality control, nuclear plants have strict and regulated requirements associated with quality control, and its associated materials source and record keeping. The industry has developed an increasing interest in the adaptation of prefabrication, or modularization, to the design, engineering and construction of power plants. Avondale Industries has been actively involved for the past several years with the DOE/EPRI sponsored Westinghouse design for an advanced passive 600 MWe PWR nuclear power plant (the AP-600). The Westinghouse team is currently working on the detailed design and NRC licensing/design certification phase. This program is a part of the current industry advanced light water (ALWR) efforts aimed at re-establishing the nuclear power option to meet U.S. electric generation needs in the 1990s and beyond. The Westinghouse program has the objective of developing the conceptual design of a greatly simplified 600 MWe pressurized water reactor plant with major improvements in safety, licensing certainty, life cycle cost, and construction schedule. One of the major tasks of the program is the development of an optimized plant arrangement and construction approach using modular construction to assist in achieving a short construction schedule and cost-effective plant configuration. Although the finite effect of modularization has yet to be tested in the dynamics of the erection of a commercial nuclear power plant, we feel that there is sufficient evidence from experience in other major manufacturing areas to warrant its application to future construction programs. In order to focus on the potential for modular

  2. Modularization as an avenue to economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    There are many features of the emerging next generation of nuclear power which impact the competitiveness of the facilities. We will focus on the equipment fabrication and erection phase of the work. Utility plants, like other complex facilities, require comprehensive program management skills. While any project is sensitive to cost, schedule and quality control, nuclear plants have strict and regulated requirements associated with quality control, and its associated materials source and record keeping. The industry has developed an increasing interest in the adaptation of prefabrication, or modularization, to the design, engineering and construction of power plants. Avondale Industries has been actively involved for the past several years with the DOE/EPRI sponsored Westinghouse design for an advanced passive 600 MWe PWR nuclear power plant (the AP-600). The Westinghouse team is currently working on the detailed design and NRC licensing/design certification phase. This program is a part of the current industry advanced light water (ALWR) efforts aimed at re-establishing the nuclear power option to meet U.S. electric generation needs in the 1990s and beyond. The Westinghouse program has the objective of developing the conceptual design of a greatly simplified 600 MWe pressurized water reactor plant with major improvements in safety, licensing certainty, life cycle cost, and construction schedule. One of the major tasks of the program is the development of an optimized plant arrangement and construction approach using modular construction to assist in achieving a short construction schedule and cost-effective plant configuration. Although the finite effect of modularization has yet to be tested in the dynamics of the erection of a commercial nuclear power plant, we feel that there is sufficient evidence from experience in other major manufacturing areas to warrant its application to future construction programs. In order to focus on the potential for modular

  3. Economic Foundations of International Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    The discipline of International Business, henceforth IB, is a child of the 1960s. It has developed into a respectable branch of the social sciences, with strong links to a number of disciplines such as marketing, strategy, organization, cultural studies and economics. All along it has been...... discussed if IB should be anchored in separate departments or integrated in other functional departments, reflecting the topic whether “internationalization” is sufficiently powerful to command its own strands of teaching, or it should be incorporated in finance, marketing, organization and strategy...... and on the top of it all the eclectic paradigm which attempts to catch most of the rest under a very wide umbrella. Entry, or operation modes and the organizational design of the international company still play significant roles, not least the multinational enterprise and its cross-border investments, FDI...

  4. Theoretical and methodological approaches to economic competitiveness (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macari Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on study of several representative bibliographical sources,it is tried to examine, to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological understandings of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, haracteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  5. Theoretical and methodological approaches to economic competitiveness (part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macari Vadim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article, on the basis of the study of many representative bibliographic sources, examines and tries to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological treatments of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, characteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  6. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim MACARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article, on the basis of the study of many representative bibliographic sources, examines and tries to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological treatments of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, characteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  7. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim MACARI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on study of several representative bibliographical sources,it is tried to examine, to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological understandings of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, characteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  8. Factors Affecting Competitive Strategies in International Construction Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe ERCAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to rising competition in the international construction market, competitive strategies are becoming ever more important. This study aims to identify the level of importance of a variety of competitive strategies in construction companies to create a theoretical framework for competitive strategies in international construction business. In the questionnaire titled: ‘Identifying the Parameters of Strategic Performance Comparison Tool in International Construction Companies’, professionals were asked the level of importance of parameters in acquiring a competitive edge in international markets for construction companies. 82 people who currently work for international construction companies responded the questionnaire. The Relative Importance Index (RII of competitive strategies in construction companies was calculated using the survey results. The construct was redesigned through the Pearson Correlation and principal components analysis (PCA. The results of the PCA denoted that the construct of competitive strategies in construction companies can be explained by three main factors in sync with Porter’s three generic competitive strategy types: F1 Cost Leadership in Construction, F2 Specialization and Focus and F3 Differentiation in Construction and Company Resources. The analysis results show that the competitive strategies related to “Differentiation in Construction and Company Resources” have a greater importance level, while the diversification strategies have a lower importance level. Which means specialization in some type of construction activity and focus on a specific group of customers is more effective than diversification strategies in gaining a competitive advantage in the market.

  9. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF INCREASING COMPETITIVENESS OF UKRAINIAN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Modern business conditions and comprehensive economic globalization put the banking institutions at the forefront of the task of achieving and maintaining a high level of competitiveness both on the domestic and on the external financial markets, as banks serve as the main intermediaries in the whole complex of relationships between different economic subjects. To achieve and maintain the competitiveness of banks it is important to create an effective management mechanism, which determines the relevance of the chosen topic. Purpose. The purpose of the work is to summarize the existing theoretical aspects concerning the competitiveness of banks and develop organizational and economic approaches to its enhancement and implementation in banking practice. Results. The article generalizes the notion of competitiveness as an economic category and defines the main approaches of scientists to its interpretation. The role and importance of foreign capital in the banking system and its impact on the competitiveness of banks are considered, and the share of foreign capital in the authorized capital of banks for the period of 2008-2017 is calculated. On the basis of the comparative analysis, the impact on the competitiveness of the largest banking institutions of Ukraine on the performance indicators, such as volumes of assets, liabilities of banks and capital adequacy, was investigated. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of the mechanism of ensuring competitiveness according to the process approach is outlined. By means of the Microsoft Office Visio software system, the Bank’s own Banking Business Management business process was built to ensure the bank’s viability and its structural analysis according to the IDEF0 standard of the SADT methodology. Conclusions. The relationship between the analysis of the bank’s position and the development of its development strategy is important for the understanding and effective management

  10. Improving the economics and competitiveness of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Chunning; Tian Jiashu

    2005-01-01

    A cost structure of nuclear power plant is introduced in this paper. Various factors that influence the nuclear power economics are discussed in detail. A preliminary study is carried out for the short-term new nuclear power plants in China. Focusing on the Chinese nuclear power development strategy, the short term and mid-long term economics of nuclear power in China is analyzed. Based on analysis and comparison, suggestions and proposals for improving the economics and competitiveness of nuclear power in China are provided. (authors)

  11. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  12. Competitive and rivalry behaviors in international business exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medlin, C. J.; Ellegaard, Chris

    In this paper we explore competition as a process between firms; rather than as a background economic variable. We consider past competitor research on structured contexts and socially constructed competition, and develop a research model based on the priority of firm’s line of action: whether pr...

  13. ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN TERMS OF: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulita BIRCA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important condition for achieving a sustainable economic growth and for improving living standards of the population of the Republic of Moldova is the active involvement of the national economy in the international exchange of goods, services, knowledge, technology, etc., and also strengthening its positions on the international market. Therefore, to achieve and maintain competitiveness has become a fundamental economic policies issue in the context of globalization. In the contemporary world, national economic competitiveness is determined by a wide variety of features and important factors. In this article, the authors will focus their attention on the part of science, technology and innovation as being one of the key tools in the modern future of any modern state.

  14. EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL.COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OR ECONOMIC HANDICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovitu Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available “Corporative social responsibility” (CSR represents equally a very actual debate, but also an appraisal criteria of the dynamic of eco-social integration quality process at European level. Especially that the protection need is demanded by the current economic crisis. This concept is meant to combine the position, attitude and behaviour of the trade-unions with the interests of employer’s organisations in search of possible influential mechanisms of the competitive advantage at European level. Due to the current economic crisis, the implications on the labour force market are causing an explainable anxiety. The attention of the decision takers is oriented towards joining the objectives “social well being with economic well being” in view of an expected economic come back. This approach proves a significant change at the level of economic and social policies within the European Union.

  15. COMPETITIVENESS OF INDONESIAN TEA IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Samudera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Indonesian tea has experienced a lot of problems such as land use change of plantation, lower selling prices, and low productivity. The objectives of this study are to analyze the competitiveness of tea in Indonesia and formulate priority improvements that can support the increasing competitiveness of Indonesian tea. The methods used to analyze the competitiveness were the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA and the Export Product Dynamics (EPD, and to formulate strategies to increase competitiveness, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA was applied. Based on RCA, the types of Indonesian tea which have strong competitiveness are HS 090 210 and HS 090240. The EPD analysis showed that only tea of HS 090210 is in the rising star position, while the HS 090220, HS 090230 and HS090240 tea types are on the retreat position. Based on IPA, sub-determinants which are priority to improve are in quadrant A (under act consisting of five sub-factors, namely the availability of human resources with the capbility of production management, marketing and possess an entrepreneurial spirit; availability and ease of access to capital; strengthening of the structure of Indonesian tea agribusiness; the government policies in improving domestic demand conditions and in encouraging the development of tea processing industry.Keywords: competitiveness, tea, RCA, EPD, IPA

  16. Economic requirements for competitive laser fusion power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    An economic model of a laser fusion commercial power plant is used to identify the design and operating regimes of the driver, target and reaction chamber that will result in economic competitiveness with future fission and coal plants. The authors find that, for a plant with a net power of 1 GW/sub e/, the cost of the driver must be less than $0.4 to 0.6 B, and the recirculating power fraction must be less than 25%. Target gain improvements at low driver energy are the most beneficial but also the most difficult to achieve. The optimal driver energy decreases with increasing target technology. The sensitivity of the cost of electricity to variations in cost and performance parameters decreases with increasing target technology. If chamber pulse rates of a few Hz can be achieved, then gains of 80-100 are sufficient, and higher pulse rates do not help much. Economic competitiveness becomes more difficult with decreasing plant size. Finally, decreasing the cost of the balance of plant has the greatest beneficial effect on economic competitiveness

  17. Comparative study of economic competitive for nuclear seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing

    2001-01-01

    The method of levelized discounted production water cost and the new desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP1.1) are used. Many cases of seawater desalination by nuclear energy or fossil energy combined with reverse osmosis (RO), Multi-effect distillation (MED) or multi-stage flash (MSF) technology in south-east Asia is performed and their economic competitive is analyzed. Their results indicate, the nuclear desalination plants have stronger economic competitive comparing to the fossil in the RO, MED and MSF technology. The desalination water cost is very changeable depending on the difference of desalination technology and water plant size. Its range is 0.56 dollar · m -3 - 1.89 dollar · m -3 , the lowest desalination water cost is product by RO and the highest is by MSF. The sensitive factors of the economic competitive are orderly the discounted rate, desalination plant size, seawater temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS), fossil fuel price and specific power plant investment. The highest rate of water cost is about 19.3% comparing to base case

  18. The Role for Competition Policy in Economic Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    promoted by major donors and international organisations as part of the ... ownership and control in the South African economy. The new ... The effects of competition policy in South Africa, and selected .... costs and multiproduct firms. ..... While consistent with profit maximisation, import parity pricing is inefficient in terms.

  19. Social responsibility of the state and business as a factor of competitiveness and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fylyppova Iryna H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of social factors in economic development of countries and nations cannot be ignored today. However, the goal of this article is not a proof of this already evident fact; the main hypothesis of the article is that the level of social responsibility of the state and business is directly reflected in competitiveness of the national economy and prospects of economic growth. The authors proceed from three quite evident assumptions: first – development of entrepreneurship is the basic factor of competitiveness in the market economy; second – competitiveness is a condition of export oriented economic growth; third – all the above listed “ingredients”, including economic growth, “close” on one key indicator – labour productivity, and the main problem lies in clear identification of the cause-effect relations between them. Thus, labour productivity is the nucleus of the “competitivenesseconomic growth” system. The authors consider labour productivity as a function of three arguments: physical, human and social capital. Moreover, the first two arguments are a passive potential of the economic system and characterise the level of development of productive forces and only the social capital, which reflects the level of development of production relations, characterises real possibilities of the economic system with respect to realisation of its passive potential, that is, is the active potential of the system. The production function of social labour, identified in such a way, is, in fact, a characteristic of the social method of production. While studying influence of social factors upon development of entrepreneurship, competitiveness and economic growth, the authors reveal internal contradiction of the existing social method of production.

  20. ADVANCING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS AS A FACTOR OF DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yarosh-Dmytrenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of advancing the international competitiveness of industry has been highlighted in the context of the impact on getting out the crises in the country and forming preconditions for economic growth. The study is based on an empirical basis of metallurgical industries of Ukraine, which has traditionally focused largely on international markets. The advancing international competitiveness of these enterprises is particularly topical and important for getting over the crisis and forming a trajectory of economic development of the country. The system of the factors has been represented and analysed, the priorities for advancing the international competitiveness of metallurgical industryJSC "Zaporizhstar.Recommendations to improve the competitiveness of the analysed enterprise have been formulated and common priorities for improving the international competitiveness of steel companies determining the possibility of positive impact on getting over the crisis and economic development at the level of companies, as well as at the level of Ukraine’s economy have been identified.

  1. Introduction to international economics. - 2nd ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Jepma, C.

    2011-01-01

    The second edition of Introduction to International Economics is a non-technical introduction to international economics that builds on the strengths of the first edition. It analyses in a practical way how the internationalization of economic activities influences companies, investors and

  2. Economic intelligence and intellectual capital in agriculture competitiveness: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization in the last few decades conditioned the many technological, economic and social changes which have transformed the world market of agricultural products and the impact on the competitive environment. In the modern world, creating material value in agricultural production more and more the result of the intangible factors and production is increasingly based on knowledge, skills and innovation of employees. In the industrial age the necessary resources to achieve competitive advantages were capital, natural resources and work, while in today's knowledge-based economy the importance is on the information, innovation, knowledge, intellectual capital and intellectual property - that have become the foundation of creating all other values. These values are, because of their great importance in achieving the modern competitive advantages, very often the target of economic intelligence and therefore require all available forms of protection. The sector of agricultural production can make a significant contribution to improving the overall national competitiveness if it is based on intellectual capital as evidenced by the country with highly developed agriculture. However, by observing global changes can be concluded that Serbia in this sector has unused potential for growth and development.

  3. ANALYSING ROMANIAN INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVENESS REGARDING THE RECENT DYNAMICS OF THE INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIAL TRADE BALANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Felea Adrian Ioan

    2015-01-01

    The industry remains the most important sector of the national economy, although in the other member states the services have a more important share of GDP. In this context, the level of industrial competitiveness is essential for the national competitiveness. This is a characteristic feature for Romania, where the industry has an important share in the GDP, in comparison with the other member states. The international trade balance is an important indicator for measuring the economic competi...

  4. Economic competitiveness of seawater desalinated by nuclear and fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2001-01-01

    The levelized discounted production water cost method and the new desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP1.1) were used to compare the economics of desalination using nuclear or fossil energy. The results indicate that nuclear desalination is more economic than fossil desalination with reverse osmosis (RO), multi-effect distillation (MED) and multi-stage flash (MSF). The desalination water cost varies depending on the desalination technology and the water plant size from 0.52-1.98 USD·m -3 with the lowest water price by RO and the highest by MSF. The sensitivity factors for the economic competitiveness increases in order of the discounted rate, desalination plant scale, fossil fuel price, specific power plant investment, seawater temperature and total dissolve solid (TDS). The highest water cost is about 22.6% more than the base case

  5. ASEAN Economic Community Implementation and Indonesian Textile Industry Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo, Yuvensius Sri

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThis study aims to analyze the impact of ASEAN Economic Community implementation in 2015 on the competitiveness of Indonesian textile and textile products industry. It uses simulations with the GTAP model to answer the proposed research questions. The GTAP simulation results suggest that Indonesian textile industry would gain the largest trade surplus followed by Thailand and Malaysia. For apparel, Vietnam would benefit the most, followed by Indonesia and Thailand. The ratio of domest...

  6. ASEAN Economic Community Implementation and Indonesian Textile Industry Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo, Yuvensius Sri

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the impact of ASEAN Economic Community implementation in 2015 on the competitiveness of Indonesian textile and textile products industry. It uses simulations with the GTAP model to answer the proposed research questions. The GTAP simulation results suggest that Indonesian textile industry would gain the largest trade surplus followed by Thailand and Malaysia. For apparel, Vietnam would benefit the most, followed by Indonesia and Thailand. The ratio of domestic to im...

  7. ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY IMPLEMENTATION AND INDONESIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo, Yuvensius Sri

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThis study aims to analyze the impact of ASEAN Economic Community implementation in 2015 on the competitiveness of Indonesian textile and textile products industry. It uses simulations with the GTAP model to answer the proposed research questions. The GTAP simulation results suggest that Indonesian textile industry would gain the largest trade surplus followed by Thailand and Malaysia. For apparel, Vietnam would benefit the most, followed by Indonesia and Thailand. The ratio of domest...

  8. Quasivariational Inequalities for a Dynamic Competitive Economic Equilibrium Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Vitanza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to consider a dynamic competitive economic equilibrium problem in terms of maximization of utility functions and of excess demand functions. This equilibrium problem is studied by means of a time-dependent quasivariational inequality which is set in the Lebesgue space L2([0,T],ℝ. This approach allows us to obtain an existence result of time-dependent equilibrium solutions.

  9. THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Radu Ion

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has given the opportunity for the world to reconsider the use of resources, so the subject of competitive advantage has became actual. There are several relevant papers on national competitiveness, but we consider that there are still important issues to discuss in order to identify the economic sectors in Romania that have the potential to create successful products for the global market. The paper applies modern competitivity models on the features of our country, and concludes about the best use of our resources, in terms of increased productivity and optimal results. The goal is to encourage exporters to extend on several international markets and multinational companies to invest in developing new businesses in Romania.

  10. Competitive Grant Projects (2008) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... This 2008 study distills some of IDRC's corporate learning on competitive grants processes. ... The study raises some of the main options and issues that IDRC staff face when ... Related articles. Gender Evaluation Methodology (GEM). The Association for Progressive Communications Women's Networking ...

  11. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TERMS OF THE LEVEL OF ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mihaela ILIESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that from a qualitative point of view, human activity in general, has recorded a significant leap along with the debut of entrepreneurial activities, from the “creative destruction” perspective through competition of Joseph Scumpeter until present, entrepreneurial theory and practice reveals a generally accepted point of view: entrepreneurship, regardless of the form under which it is carried out, represents the engine for the market economy system, the determining factor of competitiveness growth and sustainable economic growth. Once aware of the positive impact it has on the economy and society, entrepreneurship has and is being promoted at a national level, European and global by creating, coordinating and implementing a strategic framework, legislative and financially favorable. However, the socio-economic data analysis shows that, economies having an analog development level, record different entrepreneurial rates, that similar entrepreneurial activities have a different impact on economic development or that, as the economies record a higher development level, the interest for initiating new businesses declines. From this perspective, the purpose of this paper is to underline and promote the entrepreneurship’s role as a fundamental source for increasing growth potential and national and regional development in the long term, and to highlight, based on empirical data, the interdependency, the qualitative and quantitative correlation between the entrepreneurial rate and the competitiveness level of a country.

  12. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2008-01-01

    Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries' rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum's Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI).…

  13. Student Intern Lands Top Prize in National Science Competition | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Student intern Sam Pritt’s interest in improving geolocation led him to develop a project that won a top regional prize at the Siemens Competition in Math, Science, and Technology in November. Pritt was awarded a $3,000 college scholarship, and he competed in the national competition in early December.

  14. The economics of international coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-07-13

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  15. The economics of international coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  16. Restoring international competitiveness in Croatia: The role of fiscal and monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has joined the European Union as a country with several substantial structural problems, of which the most important is weak competitiveness. Although competitiveness can be viewed from the ‘institutional’ perspective, which includes World Development Indicators (WDI and Doing Business reports, in this paper the authors focus on the more standard view of competitiveness based on unit labour costs (ULC and real effective exchange rate (REER. As a small, open and highly dollarized/euroised economy that has to coordinate its economic policy with the EU policy framework, Croatia has limited space for increasing international competitiveness using monetary policy measures aimed at (nominal devaluation of the national currency. Therefore economic policy stakeholders should focus on decreasing unit labour costs and real effective exchange rate mainly through the process of internal devaluation, which is based on adequate fiscal policy measures. In this paper the authors analyse the role of monetary and fiscal policy in the deteriorating real effective exchange rate and unit labour costs since 2000, and their current capabilities and restrictions in restoring international competitiveness. The Structural VAR model (SVAR is used to estimate the effects of foreign (banking capital, credit growth, and current public expenditure on REER and ULC. The preliminary hypothesis of the paper is that monetary policy should continue to support bank lending activities and the role of fiscal policy is to achieve an internal devaluation, which will increase the competitiveness of the Croatian economy. Restoring international competitiveness is necessary due to its impact on net exports and consequently the economic recovery of the national economy, which has faced recession conditions for five years in a row. Also, restoring competitiveness is one of the most important preconditions for the success of a small country joining the single European market.

  17. Modeling the international competitiveness of Botswana's coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichani, Khaulani

    Botswana has vast proven deposits of steam coal, which for a long time it has wanted to develop but without much success. The main objectives of this study are: (1) to analyze the time schedule of coal exports likely to be forthcoming from Botswana and the land routes for these exports; (2) to determine the competitiveness of Botswana's coal in the world steam coal markets and (3) to make recommendations on the appropriate policy for the exploitation of this coal. To accomplish these objectives, we construct a model of the seaborne steam coal trade consisting of exporters and importers with a substantial share in this trade. We econometrically estimate the long run marginal cost functions for net exporters and employ these to construct a spatial and dynamic model of the world steam coal trade with elastic supply and inelastic demand. This model is applied to simulate Botswana's competitiveness in this trade over the period 1995 to 2010 from a 1990 base year with a decision criterion that minimizes the sum of discounted capital costs of mine development, variable supply costs, rail and maritime transportation costs. Finally, we employ the model to forecast the likely optimal size of mine, timing of production capacity and choice of export port for Botswana's coal for the years 2005 and 2010. The base year for the forecast is 2000. The simulation results indicate that Botswana's coal would have been competitive in the steam coal markets of Western Europe and Asia. The forecast results indicate that Botswana's coal would also be competitive in these markets in the future. These results are least sensitive to changes in rail transportation and variable supply costs but are sensitive to capital costs for mine development.

  18. First International Diagnosis Competition - DXC'09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, tolga; Narasimhan, Sriram; Poll, Scott; Garcia, David; Kuhn, Lukas; deKleer, Johan; vanGemund, Arjan; Feldman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    A framework to compare and evaluate diagnosis algorithms (DAs) has been created jointly by NASA Ames Research Center and PARC. In this paper, we present the first concrete implementation of this framework as a competition called DXC 09. The goal of this competition was to evaluate and compare DAs in a common platform and to determine a winner based on diagnosis results. 12 DAs (model-based and otherwise) competed in this first year of the competition in 3 tracks that included industrial and synthetic systems. Specifically, the participants provided algorithms that communicated with the run-time architecture to receive scenario data and return diagnostic results. These algorithms were run on extended scenario data sets (different from sample set) to compute a set of pre-defined metrics. A ranking scheme based on weighted metrics was used to declare winners. This paper presents the systems used in DXC 09, description of faults and data sets, a listing of participating DAs, the metrics and results computed from running the DAs, and a superficial analysis of the results.

  19. Launching the Journal of International Economic Policy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soogil Young

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the phase when the World Economy takes its agitation, that is, characterized as the new initiative in the International economic order and the infinite competition of the borderless world market, as well as economic integration of all regions, the economy of Korea is facing an unprecedented challenge. After 1990s, when the Cold War came to an end, globalization officially started with the support of information and communications technology revolution. On the other hand, the economic hegemonism and the ideology of "economy-first" intentions was being widely spread in the World. Governments all over the world one after another appealed for foreign investments.

  20. Competitive advantage for differentiation of Pereira International Free Trade Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Echeverri Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The best way to know if a company is at the heart of success is by determining its competitive advantage. For Pereira International Free Trade Zone, foreign trade platform and recent project implementation, it is important to identify its competitive advantage, so it can develop strategies for entering and staying in the market. In this research, an analysis of the five forces industry free zones was performed, the value chain of the Pereira International Free Trade Zone was defined, finally the factors that influence their competitive advantage was determined.

  1. Exchange Rate Effects on International Commercial Trade Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant to be an evaluation sustained by theoretical and empirical considerations of the exchange rate impact on international commercial trade competitiveness. In this respect, the study aims to find how the exchange rate influences Romanian competitiveness through assessing the effects generated on exports and imports. The main purpose of the study is to assess the complex action of the exchange rate on international commercial trade competitiveness in contemporaneity and the connections between these variables. The empirical part contains a regression analysis where exports and imports are dependent variables influenced by a series of determinants.

  2. Trade Liberalization and the Degree of Competition in International Duopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashournia, Damoun; Hansen, Per Svejstrup; Hansen, Jonas Worm

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes how a reduction in trade costs influences the possibility for firms to engage in international cartels, and hence how trade liberalization affects the degree of competition. We consider a particular intra-industry trade model amended to allow for firms producing differentiated...... products. Our main finding is that trade liberalization may have an anti-competitive effect. We find that there is no unique relation between a reduction in trade costs and the degree of competition. When products are differentiated, a lowering of trade costs is pro-competitive if trade costs are initially...... high, but anti-competitive if trade costs initially are low. Hence, trade policy is not necessarily a substitute for competition policy...

  3. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  4. "A strong competition" | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Each scholar has been guided by at least one Chinese and one international mentor, who work closely with them as they produce a paper of original scholarship, written in English for international audiences. In all cases, the young scholars either address new research questions or take a fresh approach to familiar topics ...

  5. The Competitive status of the U.S. civil aviation manufacturing industry: a study of the influences of technology in determining international industrial competitive advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seitz, Frederick; Steele, Lowell W

    1985-01-01

    ... A Study of the Influences of Technology in Determining International Industrial Competitive Advantage Prepared by the U.S. Civil Aviation Manufacturing Industry Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering and the Commission on Engineering and Techni...

  6. The Competitive status of the U.S. auto industry: a study of the influences of technology in determining international industrial competitive advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Automobile Panel of the Committee on Technology; National Research Council Staff

    ... International Industrial Competitive Advantage Prepared by the Automobile Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering and the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council William J. Abernathy, Chairman Kim Clar...

  7. ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY IMPLEMENTATION AND INDONESIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuvensius Sri Susilo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims to analyze the impact of ASEAN Economic Community implementation in 2015 on the competitiveness of Indonesian textile and textile products industry. It uses simulations with the GTAP model to answer the proposed research questions. The GTAP simulation results suggest that Indonesian textile industry would gain the largest trade surplus followed by Thailand and Malaysia. For apparel, Vietnam would benefit the most, followed by Indonesia and Thailand. The ratio of domestic to import prices analysis suggests that Indonesian textile products have higher competitiveness than the other ASEAN’s. For the apparel products, Indonesia is as competitive as both Malaysia and the Philippines.Keywords: AEC 2015, Competitiveness, Textile dan Textile Products Industry, IndonesiaJEL Classification: C68, F15AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dampak penerapan Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN pada 2015 pada daya saing industri tekstil dan produk tekstil Indonesia. Alat analisis yang digunakan deskriptif dan simulasi dengan model GTAP. Hasil simulasi GTAP menyarankan bahwa industri tekstil Indonesia akan memperoleh surplus perdagangan terbesar, diikuti oleh Thailand dan Malaysia. Untuk produk pakaian, Vietnam memperoleh manfaat terbesar diikuti Indonesia dan Thailand. Berdasarkan rasio harga domestik terhadap harga impor, daya saing produk tekstil Indonesia relatif lebih tinggi dibandingkan negara-negara ASEAN lainnya. Untuk produk pakaian, Indonesia kompetitif, sejajar dengan Malaysia dan Filipina.Kata kunci: AEC 2015, Daya Saing, Tekstil dan Produk Tekstil JEL Classification: C68, F15

  8. Competitiveness and tourism: scientific study of international production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Celina Carmona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness and tourism are becoming increasingly an emerging theme, occupying more space in the international arena, due to the growing importance of tourism as an economic sector, with several challenges and possibilities. This study aimed to identify and analyze the state of the art of the theme through the verification of the profile of international and national scientific articles published in academic journals, considering authorship, co-authorships, citations and co-citations, and social networks. In total, in the database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI Web of Science (WoS, 200 articles were identified, published from 1994 to 2012. Using bibliometric and sociometric techniques, it was observed that the theme gained prominence since 2008, having been published especially in tourism journals, and with the six most significant being responsible for almost 40% of the publications. Most articles are anchored in the large field of social and applied sciences and are mainly from Spain and the United States. Only five papers featured prominently in the references used by the authors, indicating the incipient nature of research in this area and the potential for development of new research.

  9. EMPLOYEES COMPETITIVENESS ASSESSMENT ON INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL LABOUR MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ismailova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of foreign and domestic research to the approaches of employees assessment in terms of their competitiveness. Based on the experience of large industrial enterprises the dominant elements that form employee competitiveness were determined. A different methodology that takes into account the impact of economic globalization was given. Its validity is based on mathematical calculations and use of software.

  10. Can harmful tax competition be curbed at the international level?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjersti, Per O. [Finans- og Tolldepartementet, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    This presentation discusses the following issues: (1) Good vs harmful tax competition?, (2) How to identify harmful competition?, (3) What is the economic and social impact of harmful tax competition?, (4) What can be done about harmful tax competition? There are three levels, the EU level, the OECD level and the global level. Existing measures to counteract harmful tax practices are insufficient because action by one country merely shifts activity to another country and puts its tax payers at a competitive disadvantage and because coordination action eases political pressure. The EU code of good conduct and the OECD guidelines for dealing with harmful preferential tax regimes are compared, with respect to general features, with respect to key factors to identify harmful measures, and with respect to general scope.

  11. Economic competitiveness requirements for evolutionary water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R.; Bertel, E.; Paik, K.H.; Roh, J.H.; Tort, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the necessary economic conditions for evolutionary water cooled reactors to be competitive. Utilising recent national cost data for fossil-fired base load plants expected to be commissioned by 2005 -2010, target costs for nuclear power plants are discussed. Factors that could contribute to the achievement of those targets by evolutionary water cooled reactors are addressed. The feed-back from experience acquired in implementing nuclear programmes is illustrated by some examples from France and the Republic of Korea. The paper discusses the impacts on nuclear power competitiveness of globalisation and deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the electricity sector. In addition, issues related to external cost internalisation are considered. (author)

  12. Ensuring innovation competitiveness and economic sustainability of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru A. GRIBINCEA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing major economic and environmental change. Climate change, demographic issues, global urbanization pose challenges and constraints over the last decades. International bodies are worried about population growth, including urban over 7 billion, of which about 60% live in urban areas. More than 76% of Europe’s energy consumption is in the urban environment. Effective measures are needed to reduce emissions of gases and harmful substances in order to avoid the worst scenarios coming. The aim of the research is to investigate the real situation in the economic sector aiming at sustainable development and the experience of promoting economic development with the protection of the oikumene.

  13. Advanced manufacturing: Technology and international competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-02-01

    Dramatic changes in the competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing have been most evident since 1988. All three countries are now facing similar challenges, and these challenges are clearly observed in human capital issues. Our comparison of human capital issues in German, Japanese, and US manufacturing leads us to the following key judgments: Manufacturing workforces are undergoing significant changes due to advanced manufacturing technologies. As companies are forced to develop and apply these technologies, the constituency of the manufacturing workforce (especially educational requirements, contingent labor, job content, and continuing knowledge development) is being dramatically and irreversibly altered. The new workforce requirements which result due to advanced manufacturing require a higher level of worker sophistication and responsibility.

  14. International Aspects of Nigeria's Economic Reforms | Iyoha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to draw a relationship between Nigeria's previous failed economic reforms and external influences from international financial institutions, which had constantly resulted in chronic economic misfortunes. Now that homegrown economic programmes are currently being undertaken in Africa through ...

  15. International Education Hubs: Collaboration for Competitiveness and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of education hubs, a recent phenomenon in international higher education. Three models of hubs are examined in relation to the forces, risks, and opportunities of globalization and how local and international collaborations are essential for both global competitiveness and sustainability.

  16. International Competition for Foreign Multinational Investment,

    OpenAIRE

    Jan I. Haaland; Ian Wooton

    1998-01-01

    We examine the economic justification for providing investment subsidies to foreign-owned multinationals. These provide employment opportunities and generate demand for domestic intermediate inputs, produced by domestic workers with increasing returns to scale. Offering subsidies to multinationals may be in the national interest if the investment raises the net value of domestic production. When agglomerative forces are sufficiently strong, a subsidy that attracts the first foreign firm may i...

  17. Where are the poor in International Economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carvalho; Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that a very significant proportion of the human population is living with financial difficulties and other constraints typical of poverty, scientific studies in the areas of Economics and especially in International Economics that address the issue of poverty and of poor countries are very few. Using bibliometric techniques, we measured the attention paid by authors from the field of International Economics to poverty and poor countries. To this end, we sorted and analyzed al...

  18. Unit labour costs, productivity and international competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ark, Bart van; Stuivenwold, Edwin; Ypma, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides international comparisons of relative levels of unit labour costs (ULC) for several OECD countries relative to the United States. The estimates are based on the Total Economy Database and the 60-Industry Database of the Groningen Growth and Development Centre (GGDC), and are also

  19. On the Intensity of International Subsidy Competition for FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš HAVRÁNEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to empirically assess the recently introduced models of subsidy competition based on the classical oligopoly theories. Three crucial scenarios (coordination, weak competition, and fierce competition are tested employing iteratively re-weighted least squares, fixed effects, and dynamic Blundell-Bond estimator on the data from the World Competitiveness Yearbook. The results suggest that none of the scenarios can be strongly supported – although there is some weak support for cooperation –, and thus that empirical evidence is not in accordance with the tested models. There is no evidence for a significant international competition for FDI. It seems that, however, by means of FDI incentives, governments try to compensate foreign investors for high wages and low productivity of their countries’ labor force.

  20. Economic efficency and competitive position of nuclear energy today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the relaxation making itself felt at the moment on the world energy markets, the competitive position of nuclear power from either existing or shortly to be connected power plants remains safe. Any attempt at doing without this extraordinarily convenient vehicle of power generation would mean to severely force up costs and expenses. The competitive position of existing nuclear power plants is assumed to remain untouched through the coming decade. In spite of the presently very low world market prices imported coal is especially affected by, even abstract economic analyses show nuclear energy to come out superior to all other alternatives providing for the electric power supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. Once the over-capacity is reduced and under control, a longer-term superior competitive position of nuclear power, however, presupposes a rise in prices full level with those of the neighbor countries. At any rate and for the time being, the divergence of electric power from imported coal prices which was even obvious in the mean load range has diminished. The superior position of nuclear power in the base load range can be maintained through avoiding further rises in operating costs by gradual rationalization and standardization. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Irrelevance of competitive advantage for the benefits of international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Siggel, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    International competitiveness is often regarded as crucial for the attainment of gains from trade, which may lead policy makers to subsidize exports. This view is based on confusion between the concepts of competitive and comparative advantage. The paper argues that when comparative advantage is defined and measured appropriately, not limiting it to the Ricardian and Heckscher-Ohlin models, it becomes a necessary condition for the attainment of gains from trade and it applies to all forms of ...

  2. Three Studies in Industrial Economics: Competition and Industry Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Jan

    Chapter 1 reviews alternative theories of competition - the standard Neoclassical view, the contribution of the Chicago School as well as the two dynamic lines of thought which are part of Austrian economics and Classical Political Economy. The latter is presented as a consistent alternative to the other existing theories. Of special interest is the question if and how industry structure matters in these approaches, how profitability differentials are explained and what role market share concentration and mobility barriers play. Their predictions and implications for empirical research are compared. Ways to test and evaluate these different approaches are described. Chapter 2 investigates econometrically how industry and micro level variables determine persistent differentials in the rate of return on assets in the U.S. The analysis is the first to use business segment data to explain long term profitability differentials. It presents new market concentration indicators that are superior to concentration ratios and allow to analyze an unpreceded amount of concentration and other data back to 1977. Critical concentration levels, non-linearities, interaction effects and previously ignored important control variables like industrial unionization are being considered. Concentration is found to have significant negative effects on profitability differentials. Barrier indicators are insignificant while market shares are positively correlated with long-run profitability. Concentration thus increases, not diminishes the degree of industrial competition. This is interpreted as evidence in support of Classical Political Economic competition theory. Chapter 3 presents a costs of production based industry analytical study that aims at consistency with Classical Political Economic thought. It investigates how growth of renewable electricity in Germany forces conventional power plants to shift towards more flexible operating regimes. The simulation of individual power plant load

  3. Nuclear energy and economic competitiveness in several normative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2009-01-01

    The serious challenge imposed by the necessity of reducing the gases emission of greenhouse effect in the electric generation sector, it has renovated the interest in the new plants construction of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, since the use of the nuclear energy began to descend ago more of 25 years, it is has speculated continually about the possible nuclear rebirth. Are such predictions based in solid basis or are mere groundless prognostics? The objective of the present document is to analyze the economic aspects of the nuclear energy, to identify the key factors that they allow to determine its competitiveness and to sound the possible markets for the new plants of nuclear energy. To achieve this, it is divided in the following sections: Revision of the current state of the nuclear energy, including the location, the type and capacity of the plants; Identification of the variables that determine the economic situation of the nuclear energy; Revision of the recent predictions and of the economic aspects of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant of Finland; A revision by market of the possible future of the new nuclear facilities in the coming decade. (Author)

  4. Climate and competitiveness: An economic impact assessment of EU leadership in emission control policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeeva-Talebi, V.; Boehringer, C.; Moslener, U. [Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The European Council has recently claimed to consider ambitious emission reduction targets (15 to 30 percent by 2020 as compared to 1990 levels) to limit global climate change. In light of the coexistent EU priorities under the Lisbon process, the authors analyze alternative unilateral EU emission control policies against their effects on EU (sectoral and economy-wide) competitiveness using a multi-sector, multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model framework. For a given emission reduction target, the simulations show that alternative implementation rules (uniform versus sectorally differentiated carbon taxes) induce ambiguous impacts on sectoral competitiveness: For a uniform tax, relatively carbon-intensive EU industries face competitiveness losses, while carbon-extensive sectors improve their ability to compete internationally. Losses and gains are reinforced by the stringency of unilateral emission reduction targets. Thus, the implementation of an (economically efficient) uniform carbon tax induces structural change which inevitably goes at the expense of carbon-intensive industries. Vice versa, the authors find that more pronounced tax differentiation in favor of carbon-intensive industries can largely neutralize the negative impacts of emission constraints on their competitiveness, but goes at the expense of overall efficiency. In this case, adjustment costs of emission abatement will to a large extent be born by energy-extensive sectors in terms of a deteriorated ability to compete. As a middle course, moderate tax differentiation allows to sectorally balance competitiveness effects of emission control policies and at the same time limit overall efficiency losses. The authors find also that the level of tax differentiation to balance sectoral competitiveness effects and to limit overall efficiency losses is independent of the emission reduction target. Furthermore, the results indicate that the magnitude of sectoral competitiveness effects is

  5. Economic goals and requirements for competitive fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Future economic competitiveness, coupled to and constrained by environmental and safety characteristics, continues to provide a central strategic motivation and concern for fusion research. Attention must also be paid to the evolving cost projections of future fusion competitors, with appropriate consideration of externalized impacts, insofar as they establish the eventual market-penetration context and also influence the near-term funding climate for fusion R and D. With concept optimization and selection in mind, tradeoffs among system power density, recirculating power, plant availability (reflecting both forced and planned outages), complexity, and structural materials and coolant choices are best monitored and resolved in the context of their impacts on capital and operating costs, which, together with low fuel costs and financial assumptions, determine the projected life-cycle product cost of fusion. Considerations deriving from deregulation and privatization are elucidated, as are possible implications of modern investment-analysis methods. (orig.)

  6. Design considerations for economically competitive sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Mousseau, Vincent; Szilard, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    The technological viability of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) has been established by various experimental and prototype (demonstration) reactors such as EBR-II, FFTF, Phenix, JOYO, BN-600 etc. However, the economic competitiveness of SFR has not been proven yet. The perceived high cost premium of SFRs over LWRs has been the primary impediment to the commercial expansion of SFR technologies. In this paper, cost reduction options are discussed for advanced SFR designs. These include a hybrid loop-pool design to optimize the primary system, multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle for the power conversion system and the potential for suppression of intermediate heat transport system. The design options for the fully passive decay heat removal systems are also thoroughly examined. These include direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) and the newly proposed pool reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) in the context of the hybrid loop-pool design. (author)

  7. Enhancing the economic competitiveness of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, M.

    1996-01-01

    The two 710 MWe BWRs at Olkiluoto in Finland have been running for the past ten years with a capacity factor of over 90%. The success of these reactors in being competitive with various forms of fossil fuel power production is attributed to a number of key factors. Of these, the most important is that the staff of the utility and contractors and suppliers personnel are well trained, committed and able to learn new things. Strict safety regulations contribute to competitiveness because the good practice required and the need to keep the plant in mint condition lead to fewer production interruptions and to lower operational costs in the long run. Continuous investment in updating the plant is necessary to maintain high productivity throughout its lifetime. A long-term operational plan coupled with carefully prepared maintenance outages and high quality workmanship also helps to ensure good performance. Better fuel designs and high quality have enabled the plant output to be increased while stabilising or reducing fuel costs. Money for waste management has been reserved since the start of plant operation so that economic production can be ensured during the latter part of the plant lifetime. (UK)

  8. Economic Education in an International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael; Walstad, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain the purpose and context for the 2009 International Symposium on Economic Education that was the source for articles on four nations with relatively developed systems for economic education: Australia, England, Japan, and Korea. The authors highlight several key comparisons from the four articles that appear in…

  9. Evolution of strategies and competition in the international airline industry: a practical analysis using porter's competitive forces model

    OpenAIRE

    Zannoni, Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis describes the evolution of the competition and strategies in the international airline industry. It studies the industry before and after deregulation, using the competitive forces model.

  10. Standards: The Keys to Domestic and International Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of standards for the competitiveness of U.S. companies and for international trade. The value of standards in research and development, marketing, design, purchasing, manufacturing, installation, and service is explained. Examples of specific standards and their application to the computer industry are included. (10…

  11. International Timetabling Competition 2011: An Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Matias; Kristiansen, Simon; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm based on Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) for solving the generalized High School Timetabling problem in XHSTT-format (Post et al (2012a)) is presented. This algorithm was among the nalists of round 2 of the International Timetabling Competition 2011 (ITC2011). For problem...

  12. Systematization of the Methods for Evaluating the International Competitiveness of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtal Tetyana V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying methods for evaluating competitiveness, identifying their practical relevance to domestic enterprises on example of the ОАО «Zavod «Yuzhkabel». A system of methods for evaluating international competitiveness of enterprises has been analyzed, the most frequently encountered in the economic literature methodologies for estimation have been considered. As a result, weaknesses of the individual elements of the system have been identified. Practical significance of the study has been disclosed, the most effective methods for evaluating the international competitiveness of enterprises have been identified. Using methods such as the method of rating estimation, the «4Р» matrix, the «McKinsey» matrix, the HirfindahlHirschman index and the polygon of competitiveness model, international competitiveness of the ОАО «Zavod «Yuzhkabel» has been evaluated. Conclusion about the extent of enterprise's presence at the international market has been made.

  13. The economic competitiveness and emissions of battery electric vehicles in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xin; Doering, Otto C.; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate the life-cycle cost and emissions of BEVs in China. • BEVs are not economically competitive compared with ICEVs in the Chinese market. • The value of emission reductions is small compared with the subsidy on BEVs. • The CO 2 emission reduction from BEVs is relatively constant over the time. • BEVs likely will not be economically competitive in China before 2031. - Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) have high energy efficiency and low pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). This study examines the economic competitiveness of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in the Chinese market. BEVs are compared with ICEVs using benefit-cost analyses from the perspectives of consumers, society and GHG emissions. A life-cycle cost model is developed to evaluate the lifetime cost of a vehicle. The results show that, with central government subsidies, the BEV life-cycle private cost (LCPC) is about 1.4 times higher than comparable ICEVs. Central government subsidies on BEVs will not be cost effective and efficient unless the annual external cost reduction from using BEV reaches $2500 for a compact vehicle or $3600 for a multi-purpose vehicle. That total cost level would imply a carbon cost of more than $2100 per ton. The current life-cycle external cost reductions from using BEV are around $2000–$2300, which are smaller than government subsidies or LCPC differences between BEV and ICEV. Further projections show that BEVs likely will not be economically competitive in the Chinese market before 2031

  14. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  15. International Security in the World Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna P

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the urgent topic of the evolution of international relations, the issue of establishing international security, and the development of international economic cooperation based on the principles of security. In order to analyze the current status of international security in the world and to identify key factors that hinder the way of establishing a positive global community, researches by the international analytical centers together with the institutes for international security and cooperation have been generalized. To this end, both the status of and changes in the Global Peace Index in the recent years has been disclosed, the position of Ukraine in the world according to this index has been examined. It has been proven that the main international security problems are related to the armed conflicts, civil wars, political violence, terrorism impacting the development of humanity as a whole, the status of international relations, the evolution of the world economy as well as national economies. Further researches should be focused on how the status of peace in the countries impacts their economic status and the status of international cooperation in other areas of economic cooperation, excluding the military. It should be answered particularly, how the above indicated status affects strengthening the Ukraine's position in the world.

  16. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  17. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIEKHOVA L. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the presented research is to explore the potential of international energy management standards to increase competitiveness of industrial enterprises under conditions of Ukrainian transitional economy. The study had the following objectives: to trace the evolution of fundamental energy efficiency standards; to discuss experience in their use in various countries; to identify factors that are key to achieving competitive advantage under the implementation ISO 50001. Methodology. This article presents a historical overview of the standardisation of principles and approaches for the purpose of the energy-efficient management. The research was carried out by studying the international documents, voluntary standards and national practices in the field of energy efficiency. Conclusions. The study examines the experiences of different countries in the field of energy management systems. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the ISO 50001 with the other basic standards for the organisation of management. The system approach enables to identify the main factors and their impact on capacity to achieve competitive advantages, which are possible to obtain after certification to ISO 50001. Originality. The study reviewed and analysed the energy management penetration within its dynamics at time and country level. After analysing the statistical data and the results of the interviews, the authors identified 20 key factors affecting the competitiveness of enterprises that are certified to ISO 50001. All of these factors were divided into four groups, two groups represent external environment – opportunities and threats, and two groups – internal capacity – strengths and weaknesses of enterprises. Practical value. The proposed system of factors may be useful for the planning of actions towards strengthening the capacity of energy management systems in the context of the formation competitive advantages on the industrial

  18. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  19. Institutional Structure and International Competitiveness Relationship in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Yıldırım

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of institutional structure on the international competitiveness of developed countries econometrically by employing a “Panel Data Analysis” with a sample of 21 developed countries and 23 institutional variables for the period 2000-2011. The results of the analysis indicate that while judicial independence, protection of intellectual property rights, integrity of the juridical system, marginal tax, political freedoms, black market exchange rate, restrictions on foreign investment, private sector’s share in the banking system, hiring-minimum wage, and hiring-dismissal have a positive effect; the nature of legal arrangements, government spending, transfers and subsidies, civil liberties, tariffs, regulations regarding trade barriers, collective bargaining, and military tutelage have a negative effect on the international competitiveness of developed countries.

  20. Essential Inputs and Antitrust Barriers in the Mexican Economic Competition Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Pavon-Villamayor

    2014-01-01

    According to the new law, a barrier to competition and free entry is also, literally, anything that limits or distorts the process of competition and free entry. Víctor Pavón-Villamayor (Oxford Competition Economics)

  1. Unemployment and welfare consequences of international outsourcing under monopolistic competition

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A. Brecher; Zhiqi Chen

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional academic view that international outsourcing is just another form of gainful trade. Contrary to that view, we show that labourservice outsourcing can reduce the highwage country's welfare even when productmarket trade is beneficial, within a model that combines involuntary unemployment and monopolistic competition. Outsourcing's impact on welfare is worsened by a definite loss of jobs and a possible contraction in the range of varieties produced worldwid...

  2. International Competition and Small-Firm Exit in US Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M Feinberg

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes both the determinants of small firm exit rates in US manufacturing over the 1989–2004 period, especially the reaction of domestic firms to the nature of foreign competition as measured by industry-specific real exchange rate movements (interacted with import penetration by industry). These international pressures seem to lead to increased rates of smallest-firm exit in manufacturing, though the magnitudes of these effects are smaller than sometimes discussed. However, high...

  3. International Comparison of the Export Competitiveness of Chinese Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lunjiao

    2009-01-01

    Honey production and trade in the world are introduced. Total output of honey shows an increasing trend while the output of Chinese honey always ranks the first in the world. China, Argentina, Mexico are the major exporters of honey. In the year 2006, honey exports of China, Argentina and Mexico occupy 49.9% of the world's total export volume. International competitiveness of the three honey export countries are calculated, compared and analyzed by adopting the indices such as export price, i...

  4. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  5. Enhancing the Teaching of Introductory Economics with a Team-Based, Multi-Section Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Laura; Berdiev, Aziz N.; Kaminaga, Allison Shwachman; Mirmirani, Sam; Tebaldi, Edinaldo

    2017-01-01

    The authors describe a unique approach to enhancing student learning at the introductory economics level that utilizes a multi-section, team-based competition. The competition is structured to supplement learning throughout the entire introductory course. Student teams are presented with current economic issues, trends, or events, and use economic…

  6. Economics and technology in international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume presents the main address, the lectures and the discussions of the symposium. The papers presented to the symposium were the following: the Draft Convention on the Law of the Sea and problems of the international deep seabed regime; developments in science and technology, as a challenge to international law; modern fishery engineering and its impact on international law; the EEC agricultural market - a case study of European Law; problems of international law in connection with a new system of the world economy; the GATT and a new world economic system; the Third World and UNCTAD; international disaster relief and mutual assistance in case of accidents, especially with a view to Atomic Energy Law; organisation, scope and limits of international co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  7. New international economic order and flow of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojko, B

    1979-12-01

    The role of science and technology in creating a new international economic order based on manpower and raw materials is examined. The traditional linkage of science and politics should end and emphasis be given to increasing productivity in order to expand employment opportunities and raise the world living standard. An indigenous research and development capability is seen as essential to counteract the effects of the time factor when technology is introduced into developing countries. Other considerations are risk of an illusory self-reliance, allocation of development sites in terms of labor substitution, ruthlessness of labor competition during modernization, variations of labor quality, and relationship of demography and unemployment. Competition between the capitalist and socialist countries is being redirected into cooperation in the area of technology transfer. 7 references. (DCK)

  8. Economic sanctions and US international business interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic sanctions are seen as a foreign policy instrument less severe than military engagement but more potent than diplomacy. The assessment of the economic impact of sanctions invariably focuses on direct bilateral trade, with little regard to indirect costs. In the case of sanctions on Iran, the real cost to Iran and the U.S. is not so much due to reduced trade but to factors such as missed investment and joint venture opportunities, especially in the energy sector. The significant size of these costs for Iran will make it difficult for Iran to resume business as usual with U.S. companies whensanctions are lifted; and for U.S. energy companies, their long-term competitiveness in Iran and also globally will be reduced.

  9. Survey of International Trade/Economics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews 14 international economics textbooks to help instructors with selection. Includes organization and structure, topics covered, and characteristics of the texts. Suggests considerations such as course length, level of abstraction desired, opinion of numerically based graphical analysis, extensiveness of examples and applications, and whether…

  10. Factors influencing food choice of athletes at international competition events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona E; Burkhart, Sarah J; Dunn, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Although the nutrient requirements and dietary intake of athletes have been thoroughly investigated, little is known about the influences on their food choice, particularly prior to and during competition. This study sought to investigate factors that influence food selection of athletes at two similar international competition events: the Melbourne 2006 and Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. A secondary aim was to explore differences in these factors between at each event given the culturally diverse locations. A survey developed for this study was distributed to athletes in the village dining hall at both events. Athletes scored a selection of factors influencing food choice on a scale of 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). A total of 769 individuals completed the questionnaire in total, with 351 (46%) from Delhi and 418 (54%) from Melbourne. Overall, athletes rated nutrient composition (M = 4.22), stage of competition (M = 4.09), time of day (M = 4.02) and familiarity of the food (M = 4.07) higher than sensory properties (smell M = 3.88; visual appearance M = 3.22) when making a food selection. Visual appearance (p = 0.01), stage of competition (p food (p motives for food section of athletes from a range of sports and cultures is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. International perspectives on work-family policies: lessons from the world's most competitive economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Mokomane, Zitha; Heymann, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The United States does not guarantee families a wide range of supportive workplace policies such as paid maternity and paternity leave or paid leave to care for sick children. Proposals to provide such benefits are invariably met with the complaint that the costs would reduce employment and undermine the international competitiveness of American businesses. In this article, Alison Earle, Zitha Mokomane, and Jody Heymann explore whether paid leave and other work-family policies that support children's development exist in countries that are economically competitive and have low unemployment rates. Their data show that the answer is yes. Using indicators of competitiveness gathered by the World Economic Forum, the authors identify fifteen countries, including the United States, that have been among the top twenty countries in competitiveness rankings for at least eight of ten years. To this group they add China and India, both rising competitors in the global economy. They find that every one of these countries, except the United States, guarantees some form of paid leave for new mothers as well as annual leave. And all but Switzerland and the United States guarantee paid leave for new fathers. The authors perform a similar exercise to identify thirteen advanced countries with consistently low unemployment rates, again including the United States. The majority of these countries provide paid leave for new mothers, paid leave for new fathers, paid leave to care for children's health care needs, breast-feeding breaks, paid vacation leave, and a weekly day of rest. Of these, the United States guarantees only breast-feeding breaks (part of the recently passed health care legislation). The authors' global examination of the most competitive economies as well as the economies with low unemployment rates makes clear that ensuring that all parents are available to care for their children's healthy development does not preclude a country from being highly competitive

  12. A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam's garment and textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thanh; Pham, Lam Cat

    2016-01-01

    Garment and textile (G&T) industry has been playing as a driving force for the socio-economic development of Vietnam. With the international integration process and rising challenges from the global market, there is a need to examine international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry to find out what Vietnam should focus on to enhance its position in the global market place. This paper, by using the Generalized Double Diamond Model (GDDM), analyzed international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry and compared it with China. The results showed that Vietnam was less competitive than China in all four attributes of the GDDM. The lowest competitiveness of Vietnam in comparison with China was Related and Supporting industries, followed by Factor Conditions. Therefore, the paper argued that although Vietnam should improve all of the four attributes in the long term, Vietnam must put a high priority on developing Related and Supporting Industries and then enhance Factor Conditions while maintaining its strengths over China in terms of G&T export growths and favorable business context.

  13. The Formation of a Positive International Image of Country as a Means of Enhancing Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova Ludmyla V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the essence of the concept of «image of the state» and substantiating the conceptual model of forming a positive international image of country as a means of enhancing competitiveness in the international market. The essence of the concept of «image of the State» has been defined. The factors influencing the formation of the international image of country have been distributed and systematized. The principles on which the process of formation of country image of modern format, receiving public recognition and adequate international estimation, have been allocated. A conceptual model of formation of positive international image of country, based on the hypothesis of influence of positive image on creation of significant competitive advantages in the international market of goods and services, has been proposed. The key features of the model are defined as: clear distribution of the roles of the stakeholders of national image – subjects of the global economic system, level of their involvement in the process of formation and integration of the State economy into the system of international institutions.

  14. Fog harvesting on the verge of economic competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, K. J.; Lummerich, A.

    2010-07-01

    Water scarcity is the bottleneck for agriculture and development of Peru’s coast and subject to aggravation due to climate change. Until present day, Peru’s coast in general and the Lima Metropolitan Area (LMA) in particular have enjoyed to a great extend the effect of the country’s high altitude glaciers that serve as a buffer for the capital’s water demand during the highland dry season. However, climate models predict the disappearance of this buffer system below 5.500 masl by 2015, leaving one of the driest places on earth with yet another decrease in freshwater supply (Zapata 2008). The deviation of water resources from the highlands has led already to allocation conflicts. Peru is in urgent need of new concepts for water management. Fog harvesting was introduced to South America in the 1980s and has since been implemented at various locations in North and Central America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. The Standard Fog Collector (SFC) as described by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1994) has proven to be a successful instrument for this purpose. Apart from a number of small scale investigations, the design of the collector has barely been changed over the past three decades (e.g. Gioda et al. 1993). Within the framework of the presented project, financed primarily by the Global Exploration Fund of the National Geographic Society and Bayer AG, new fog collectors were designed at pilot and full scale. Best results in terms of simplicity of construction and water yield were obtained by a metal frame structure called Eiffel. While covering the same amount of space as an SFC and using the same Raschel 65% shadow net, the Eiffel collector harvested up to 2.650 liters of water within a frame of 8x4m compared to up to 600 liters of water harvested by a SFC at the same location. In combination with a simplified maintenance concept, our collectors present an economically competitive alternative to water supply by truck delivery in a region that is not likely to

  15. Editorial: Contemporary Issues in International Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr STANEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International dimension is at the core of modern business activity and globalization processes tighten interconnectedness also at the macroeconomic level to unprecedented levels. This is clearly demonstrated by the first two issues of our review and expressed in editorial introductions (Wach, 2013; Klich, 2013. Thus, the third issue is explicitly devoted to contemporary issues in international economics. Obviously, tackling them in the way as complete as for example in Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy (Dicken, 2011 is impossible, taken into consideration limits of a journal issue.

  16. International Alliance of Green Hotels to Reach Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hufei Ge

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Under increasing environmental pressure, hotel firms need to improve their ability to access international alliances while maintaining good performance for sustainable development. This paper uses survey data from 784 hotels running at different levels of service in China to test the hypothesis in an integrated analytical model, and the findings show that the impact of international alliances varies with different levels of green hotels. Despite operating in the same sector, hotels running at different levels of service vary their respective tactics to gain sustainable competitive advantage and achieve significantly different results. This study intends to inform hotel managers in obtaining specific performance goals by developing absorptive capacity, and by choosing the most suitable alliance for their level of operation.

  17. Will Australia's low cost uranium be internationally competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.

    1978-01-01

    Australian uranium deposits are of a high grade, and direct mining costs should be low. However, other factors may play the determining role in the price of Australia's uranium. Some are peculiarly Australian such as the geographical isolation of the deposits, aboriginals' land rights, and the final marketing arrangements. Other factors stem from the position of uranium in the international marketplace, and are both political and economic in nature. (author)

  18. Developing an economic performance system to enhance nuclear power plant competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 about 16% of the world's electricity was produced by nuclear power, and the total worldwide operating experience of nuclear power plants was over 9200 reactor-years. Some 16 countries are dependent on nuclear power for more than 25% of their electricity generation. In some countries deregulation of the electricity market has either happened or is currently ongoing, while in others it is planned for the future. Nevertheless, many countries are already facing open electricity markets and operating costs are under unprecedented pressure, with competition expected to come soon to the nuclear industry worldwide. To a certain extent, however, the industry has already prepared or is currently preparing to face competition. This report is primarily intended for nuclear power plant and utility managers. It discusses the means and principal issues for the development of the nuclear economic performance international system (NEPIS), which should enhance nuclear power plant competitiveness. The following issues are addressed: The major transformations occurring in the electricity generation industry that require reductions in operations and maintenance costs at nuclear utilities; The methods that nuclear plant management use to identify and justify the economic optimum level of a plant and its use of resources; The value of collecting cost and performance data and the analysis techniques that use that data; The cost data required to be collected; The difficulty of collecting data with existing cost accounting systems; The new cost accounting and collection systems that will be required, The cost effectiveness of the overall process. This report also presents the preliminary results of a pilot project that was established to collect cost data on a few nuclear power plants and was used to verify the adequacy of the definitions and terminology set for NEPIS

  19. It's about time : investing in transportation to keep Texas economically competitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This current report, It's About Time: Investing in Transportation to Keep Texas : Economically Competitive, updates the February 2009 report by providing : an enhanced analysis of the current state of the Texas transportation system, : determining th...

  20. Economic Reform, Firm Survival and Competitiveness (Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During the 1980s, it was thought that liberalizing trade and exposing industries ... of some firms but a more productive and competitive industrial sector as a whole. ... to stimulate higher firm-level productivity in the Middle East and North Africa.

  1. Economic Competitiveness and the Human-Capital Investment Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, Jeff

    Educational performance has become a crucial element in the United States' capacity to prosper in a new global economy of fierce competition. In addition to the traditional question of how the educational system contributes to students' intellectual growth, a new question is being asked: How does the educational system contribute to national…

  2. STRATEGY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona DANILIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  3. Strategy of International Economic Cooperation: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Silvestru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  4. LESSONS LEARNED Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition (Summer 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Christine F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henry, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corley, Courtney D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of the lessons learned document for the BEOWulf Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition is to capture the project’s lessons learned in a formal document for use by other project managers on similar future projects. This document may be used as part of new project planning for similar projects in order to determine what problems occurred and how those problems were handled and may be avoided in the future. Additionally, this document details what went well with the project and why, so that other project managers may capitalize on these actions. Project managers may also use this document to determine who the project team members were in order to solicit feedback for planning their projects in the future. This document will be formally communicated with the organization and will become a part of the organizational assets and archives.

  5. COMPETITIVE DYNAMICS AND EARLY MOVER ADVANTAGES UNDER ECONOMIC RECESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vassolo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the recent macroeconomic instability in global markets, we examine the evolution of competitive dynamics and firm profitability when industries are subject to recessions. Although ordinary intuition leads most to view recessions as harmful, we highlight conditions under which they enhance the relative value of industry-level supply-side isolating mechanisms, thereby affording early movers significant and sustainable profit advantages vis-à-vis laggards. We observe that the distribution of firm size within the industry switches from a bi-modal distribution (i.e., one dominated by both small and large firms to a right-skewed one (i.e., dominated mostly by large firms in these contexts, thereby signaling the rise of important opportunities in the form of less rivalrous competitive contexts for survivors of recessions. We derive our results from formal modeling and multiple simulation runs.

  6. Technological innovation as a mean to increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VASILE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporations must be able to adapt and evolve if they wish to survive. Businesses operate with the knowledge that their competitors will inevitably come to the market with a product that changes the basis of competition. The ability to change and adapt is essential to survival.(1 European Union and its member states set several frameworks to support companies to acquire knowledge and strengthen their competitiveness, as follows:- National Programs for R & D funding which support national actors;- Sectorial Operational Programs (either at national or regional level, in full compliance with national rules;- EU programs (e.g. Competitiveness and Innovation Program – CIP, R&D Framework Programs – FP;- Pan-European programs (e.g. EUREKA.Romania is participating to all programs and pan-European R & D frameworks. Furthermore, its innovation program within the National Plan for research facilitates company participation to knowledge development and technology development. Nevertheless Romania’s Innovation performance is still at one of the lowest level in Europe(2. The followings present how companies are considering their participation to R & D programs and the impact of an R & D project in a company.

  7. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  8. The Effect of Competitive Rivalry on Internal Communication in Private Healthcare Organizations: Evidence from Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gültekin Altuntas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Both competitive rivalry and internal communication play a crucial role for a business to position itself in a favourable manner in order to succeed particularly in a hostile environment. While numerous studies present the importance of competitive rivalry and of communication, even internal communication separately, little is known about the specific linkage of how competitive rivalry affects communication in the literature. Within the framework of internal communication, this study focuses on the notion that competitive rivalry is related to the path and style of communication as well as to the usage of internal communication tools but not to quality of communication. Thus, our research presents the linkage and the interaction between competitive rivalry and internal communication, of which the results indicate that, overall, competitive rivalry has a significant direct positive influence on internal communication dimensions in terms of path, style and quality of communication, as well as usage of communication tools in healthcare organizations.

  9. Trade policy under imperfect competition: The economics of Russian roulette

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractNeo-classical economic theory shows that managed trade or protectionism is (almost) always welfare decreasing. However, measurements of the welfare costs of protectionism based on neo-classical models seem to suggest that these costs are quite small. We discuss general new insights and

  10. Trade policy under imperfect competition : The economics of Russian roulette

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, S; vanMarrewijk, C

    Neo-classical economic theory shows that managed trade or protectionism is (almost) always welfare decreasing. However, measurements of the welfare costs of protectionism based on neo-classical models seem to suggest that these costs are quite small. We discuss general new insights and developments

  11. Strategies for Urbanization and Economic Competitiveness in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This report argues that urbanization brings significant opportunities for both rural and urban areas and that Burundi needs to prioritize issues of economic growth and job creation. Based on a diagnostic evaluation of the current urbanization and spatial growth, GDP, and job potential, the report highlights the importance of prioritizing policies and investments to address deficiencies in ...

  12. A HUMANISING ECONOMIC APPROACH ON COMPETITION POLICY OR HOW THE BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS BLENDS WITH “TRADITIONAL ECONOMICS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral are crucial for understanding both the consumer’s attitude and firms’ attitude as well as for understanding the market outcomes. The past ten years brought a lot of attention from researchers and policy-makers on the behavioral economics issue. Classical, traditional economic models rely on the assumptions of rationality and ordered preferences. Behavioral economics explores interactions between demand and supply including information framing, the use of heuristics in decision-making and time-inconsistent preferences. The research on behavioral economics has led to an extensive debate about the relative merits of both traditional and behavioral economics. First of all we propose to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of behavioral economics versus traditional economics on a very sensitive issue: the competition policy. Then we address market issues that can be solved by means of behavioral economics afterwards turning out attention to the remedies of behavioral economics and ,last but not least, the United Kingdom successful model on the matter of competition policy.

  13. THE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVENESS IN THE TOURISM SECTOR IN THE ACTUAL CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile ROBU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed many storms in the Tourism sector. Under the influence of an extremely volatile world economy (financial crisis, commodity and oil price rises, sharp exchange rate fluctuations, increase terrorism acts in several region with tourism potential Tourism demand slowed significantly. Yet, despite the current difficulties, the Tourism sector remains a critical economic sector worldwide and one that provides significant potential for economic growth and development internationally. A growing national Tourism sector contributes to raises national income, employment, and can improve a country's balance of payments. The sector is thus an important driver of growth and prosperity and,  within developing countries, it can play a leading role in poverty reduction. Despite the overall importance of developing the Tourism sector, many obstacles at the national level continue to hinder its development. This analysis aims to serve two purposes. First, we intend to provide useful comparative information for making decisions related to business and tourism development. Second, and more importantly, we hope that the analysis provides an opportunity for the Tourism industry to highlight the obstacles to Tourism competitiveness.

  14. Infrastructure-friendly vehicles to support Texas economic competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The researchers reviewed and extended the work done under Project 0-6736, Rider 36 OS/OW Vehicle Fees : Study, and other similar efforts currently underway in Texas and other states and at the federal and international : level to evaluate the effects...

  15. Gross Domestic Pizza. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiene, Irena; Venger, Anatoly; MacDonald, Rich; Davis, Debbie

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives; time…

  16. EPR design: A combined approach on safety and economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griedl, R.; Sturm, J.; Degrave, C.; Kappler, F.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    2001-01-01

    Starting in 1991, the French and German cooperation led to common work based on the experience of the two designers FRAMATOME and SIEMENS KWU with all their know how, the most important utilities in France and Germany operating NPP and the technical supports of the Licensing Authorities GRS and IPSN. The conclusion of that work was the issue in November 1997 and February 1999 respectively of two Basic Design reports for a European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) with a power of 4250 MWth and 4900 MWth. The Basic Design approach was led under two key items: Enhancement of the overall safety level by implementation of design measures to: make the plant less dependant to common cause failures; practically eliminate all high pressure core melt sequences which could lead to important radioactive releases to the environment; implement specific systems to face severe accident situation with low-pressure core melt. Use of the many years of experiences in two different nuclear designs is to reach an overall availability figure over 91%, partly due to design improvements on the safety level. With such an objective, demonstrated by feedback of experience on already operating plants, the EPR project can be proposed as a competitive alternative to the most recent fossil plants. (author)

  17. Skills Management: A Base for Increasing Economic Competitiveness in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIŞU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study incorporates an analysis of the performance of higher education system (the Bologna Model from the perspective of evaluations made by companies. The main objective is to identify the competence areas required from fresh graduates for sustaining the contention of business enterprises and to analyse investments made by companies for developing talents within the framework of pressure generated by the economic crisis. The study take into consideration the partnership between the economic environment and higher education institutions as well as an anticipation of occupation trends for young graduates based on employee forecasts. Research results demonstrate the fact that the education system relies mainly on a transfer of knowledge and not on developing the competencies necessary for enhancing the employment chances of graduates or on their job performance. Only two out of ten employers are satisfied by the competencies demonstrated by graduates, the statistics being similar to the number of employers who collaborate with higher education institutions for providing adequate study programmes. From amongst the companies declaring that they provide continual development programmes, most invest in courses related to communication, team work and client orientation, although they are not satisfied with the graduates’ abilities in solving problems, making decisions or in leadership. A weak collaboration between companies and educational institutions generates a lack of rapid response from the educational system to the requirements of the market economy, amplifying the deficiency of competences, especially in fields with continual technological development or in those where new occupations are constantly appearing.

  18. Economic and social analyses at a regional level in the light of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Maria Gogâltan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most economic studies, competitiveness is considered a key issue of the political success failure. A major element which contributes to regional inequalities is the level of competitiveness. This element has been the subject of numerous studies over the past years, even though more attention was given to the national level and less to the regional one. Moreover, the purpose of these regional analyses is the correlation of territorial objectives and problems with possible sources of financing, seeing to ensure optimal combinations between regional demand and supply, the optimal distribution of the income and of the results obtained, regional competitiveness, the location of clusters, etc.

  19. Broadband adoption, digital divide, and the global economic competitiveness of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing variation in economic performance between countries is significantly affected by the level, diffusion, and use of different types of information and communication technology. In the last several years economic competitiveness increasingly depends on broadband availability and the adoption, use, and speed of this technology. Broadband access to the internet fosters economic growth and development and increases a country’s global competitiveness. This technology could have a big impact on the competitive advantage of Western Balkan countries because they currently experience a large digital divide, both within countries (between regions, urban and rural areas, different vulnerable groups, etc. and with EU countries. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the current level and dynamics of the digital divide in Western Balkan countries using the Broadband Achievement Index (BAI, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA-based model, the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI, the Corruption Perception Index (CPI, and cross-country methodology. This paper measures and compares Western Balkan countries’ current level of broadband adoption and their position on the evolutionary path towards closing the existing economic and digital gap with EU countries. Comparative analysis of calculated BAI data values, GCI, and CPI shows that Western Balkan countries belong to the ‘laggard’ group regarding their broadband achievement and global economic competitiveness. The values of the calculated BAI sub-indexes in this paper indicate the strong and weak sides of the corresponding aspects of broadband technology implementation and give directions for setting further priorities for political intervention, not only in the building of information society but also in the improvement of the economic competitiveness of Western Balkan countries.

  20. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAvinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz revolutionized the modelling of imperfectly competitive markets and launched "the second monopolistic competition revolution". Experts in the areas of macroeconomics, international trade theory, economic geography, and international growth theory examine

  1. Technical Efficiency and Port Competition: Revisiting the Bohai Economic Rim, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Economic Rim plays an important role in supporting China’s economic growth. For this research, we selected nine main ports in the region to study whether intra-port competition or corporatization would improve efficiency. Using a panel fixed effect model and stochastic frontier model, we found that the technical efficiency of selected ports is significantly influenced by the time of the initial public offering than by regional competition. The results are supportive and encouraging for policy makers to move toward the decentralized port governance in China.

  2. Analyzing the international competitiveness of the industry in Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain using revealed comparative advantages (RCA) indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Oelgemöller, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the export structure of the four European countries Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain, the so called PIGS countries. These countries were all hit by the economic downturn in the course of the financial crisis and have been struggling with the national debt crisis and recession. One way to identify sectoral international competitiveness is provided by the revealed comparative advantage index developed by Balassa (RCA 1). This indicator evolved through several studie...

  3. Choosing a standard reactor: International competition and domestic politics in Chinese nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, M.V.; Saikawa, Eri

    2011-01-01

    China has ambitious plans to expand its nuclear power capacity. One of the policy goals that high-level policymakers have desired is to base the nuclear program on a standardized reactor design. However, this has not materialized so far. By examining its nuclear reactor choices for individual projects, we argue that China’s policymaking process has been greatly influenced by international competition and domestic politics. Multiple international nuclear vendors are intent upon maintaining their respective niches in the expanding Chinese reactor market, and they have used various forms of economic and political pressure to achieve their objectives. On the other hand, China’s policymaking process is fragmented and the shifting power balances among powerful domestic actors do not allow a fixed path to be followed. Further, because of the high costs and potential profits involved, nuclear reactor choices in China have been driven not just by technical considerations but also by foreign and trade policy objectives. All of these make it unlikely that China will standardize the reactor type it constructs in the near future. -- Highlights: ► China’s nuclear power policymaking has been fragmented and without central control. ► Multiple domestic actors have pursued independent agendas. ► International nuclear vendors have intensely competed for Chinese reactor contracts. ► Economic, political and foreign policy goals have driven reactor contract decisions. ► China is unlikely to construct only a standardized reactor design.

  4. Defining competitiveness through the theories of new economic geography and regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of work is defining competitiveness through a multidisciplinary approach of the theories of new economic geography and regional economy. The paper describes in detail the theory of competitiveness, defined by numerous authors in this area, with special emphasis on the opposing views of Michael Porter and Paul Krugman. A regional competitiveness that is colsely related to economic geography and regional economy, the development of regional economy and typology of regions have been defined in the work. One of the first authors that stressed the importance of geographical location was Michael Porter. In his model called “diamond“, the author emphasizes that geographical concentration of a business enhances the productivity, innovativity and sector export. After this theory, many authors have foccussed on the location problem research, which resulted in better interconnection of economy and geography. As the result of such activities, new directions have been developed, such as the new theory of economic geography and regional economy. New economic geography has been mentioned mostly in connection with the Nobel Prize winner, Paul Krugman, whose theories are often opposed to Porter's ones. Krugman had the most credit for the development of New Economic Geography. At the end of the work, the differences between comparative and competitive adventages were explained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007, br. 47009 i br. 179015

  5. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC MECHANISM OF MANAGING COMPETITIVENESS OF THE COAL-MINING ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya V. Dyachkova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the authors propose the organizational and economic mechanism of managing competitiveness of the coal-mining enterprise. This mechanism has been worked out on the basis of the analysis of business processes of competitiveness management in mines of the Donbass region with the aim of supporting, arranging and managing effectively these processes. During the research the common faults complicating exact and timely assessment of competitiveness of the enterprise were revealed and the structural and functional model of business processes was offered. This model includes a complex of actions with a certain algorithm of the actions aimed to increase the level of competitiveness by assessment of the current level of enterprise’s competitiveness, to identify strengths andweaknesses of the enterprise, and to elaborate the strategy of subsequent implementation. The basis of the proposed mechanism is represented by economic and mathematical model of competitiveness assessment. This model includes the use of the method for assessing the enterprise’s competitiveness on the basis of three indicators: 1 financial and economic conditions; 2 production and technological conditions; 3 mining-and-geological conditions. This model gained further development in the treelike structure of factors and indicators for ensuring the possibility of identification of the priority directions and problems of enterprise’s activity. As a result, the authors proposed the method of defining disproportions among current and potential opportunities of the enterprise by modeling a sample enterprise, and also the method of definition of stability of the enterprise by comparison of competitiveness indicators for the last and report period. The last stage of formation of the organizational and economic mechanism of management of competitiveness of the coal-mining enterprise is development of a matrix of the choice of the development strategy of the

  6. Economic growth and gender equality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And conversely, does gender equality impact economic growth? ... change and growth in the economy on women's employment opportunities and the type ... sectors and their overall effect on development outcomes, such as economic growth ...

  7. ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty ... new information and communication technologies (ICTs) as a lever for economic and social development. ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all people, without ...

  8. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND IN PROMOTING GLOBAL ECONOMIC STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role that the International Monetary Fund performs in promoting global economic stability. Global economic and financial stability plays a key role in the financial system and the economy as a whole. The increase in the importance of the concept of financial stability by supervisors at both European and global level was concretized by defining a framework for the operationalization of macroprudential policy, together with the establishment of coordination bodies in this field, thus recognizing its role in the mix of established economic policies such as monetary, fiscal or competitive policy.

  9. Evaluation of the Impact of the EU Structural Support on the Competitiveness of Lithuanian Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Remeikiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of the EU structural support in Lithuania require theoretical and practical research to disclose the determinants that have a significant impact on the competitiveness of Lithuanian economics. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of the EU structural support on the competitiveness of Lithuanian economics. The methods of the research include systematic and comparative analysis of the scientific literature, expert evaluation and linear regression. The research disclosed the main determinants of country’s competitiveness. The results have revealed that EU structural support has the most significant impact on Lithuanian engineering and technological infrastructure. The impact of the support on country’s macroeconomic, scientific and social environment can also be considered as significant. The EU structural support has medium strong impact on education and business environment conditions in Lithuania. It has been established that, in the field of business advancement, Lithuanian should be rated as medium competitive. Hence, the increase in country’s competitiveness by employing EU structural funds should be treated as one of priority aims. In addition, responsible authorities should perform with higher efficiency seeking for higher competitiveness of the country.

  10. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF CREATION OF AN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CENTER AS IMPORTANT CIS AND EVRASES COUNTRIES INTERGATION FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Balabanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of forming in Moscow a regional (to be in future transformed into a global international Single Economic Space (SES financial center should become for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS and Euroasian Economic Community (EvrAsES countries an universal integration instrument to be used to create their common economic and commercial space. The international center along with SES national financial centers will form an internationally competitive polycentric financial network with single institutional (regulatory, law, customs, etc.agreements. A mechanism should be formed to attract countries outside Customs Union to participate in creation of the international financial center.

  11. International competition in vertically differentiated markets with innovation and imitation: trade policy versus free trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováč, Eugen; Žigić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 323 (2014), s. 491-521 ISSN 0013-0427 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : model of price competition * trade policy * free trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.045, year: 2014

  12. Burkina Faso - Promoting Growth, Competitiveness and Diversification : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 3. Enhancing Growth Factors

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...

  13. Burkina Faso - Promoting Growth, Competitiveness and Diversification : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...

  14. Group Litigation in European Competition Law: A Law and Economics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Keske (Sonja)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, insights of the law and economics literature were collected in order to develop the features of an optimal group litigation concerning the deterrence of European Competition Law violation and these were then compared to the proposals of the European Commission in the

  15. Implementation of Electricity Business Competition Framework with Economic Dispatch Direct Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Sabri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Technically, electricity business under competition structure is more complex than that of vertically integrated one. The main prolems here are how to create an applicable competition framework and to solve electric calculations very quickly to obtain an optimal energi pricing, cost of losses, congestion and transportation costs by less than 15 minutes. This paper proposes a competition framework with the electric calculations, where a bilateral contract has been accommodated. Optimal energy price in the paper is calculated based on direct method of economic dispatch to obtain the result very quickly. The proposed method has been simulated to a 4-bus system. The simulation results show that the method works well and complies with the expectation. Therefore, electric power business under competition structure can be well realized by the proposed method.

  16. Contemporary large-scale international design competitions1 in China. A case study of Baietan, Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of contemporary design competitions has been increasingly recognized in fast-growing China in the course of World Trade Organization (WTO integration and globalization. However, scientific and systematic analysis is rare on how international design competitions are introduced, and how they interact and transplant in the Chinese context. The well-known Chinese-Western culture gap and complicated social and political background make this topic more challenging. Herein, the authors focus on how the international design competitions were “translated” into both international and local perspectives with a compara­tive analysis on development of international design competitions between the Chinese and the Finnish model. To fully exemplify the design-completion procedure and the different roles of Chinese stakeholders and their perspectives on design competitions, the authors study the Baietan case, which was chosen due to its specific relationship with the city’s strategic plan, its representativeness in using international design competitions in connection to large-scale urban projects in China and its public access to the relevant documentation. The preliminary findings suggest that Chinese-style design competitions, acting as ‘designed trading zones’, with less-defined competition rules compared to the Finnish model, may foster the settings of local transformation in adopting international urban planning and design knowledge. However, an integrated approach is required to address subsequent implementation.

  17. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Vodosek, M.; Den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political

  18. Response to 'Modularization as an avenue to economic competitiveness'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, W.P.

    1990-01-01

    . Parallel construction paths are available to a prime plant contractor using one or more shipya rds. Learning curves of 85% and better are standard in the shipyards of the United States on multiple units. For those not familiar with learning curve calculations, this means that unit ten produced in a modem shipyard would cost about 85% of unit one. Although Ingalls has not sought out this market in the recent past, it will bear watching as the future unfolds a world where the gross consumption of fossil fuels (at least to produce electrical energy) must soon be curtailed. Indeed, it is becoming shameful that the United States with our demonstrated technological capabilities has not been the world leader in nuclear power generation. A national energy policy would be welcome to all Americans, and the shipbuilding industry has the ability and strength to contribute. Finally, I would like to congratulate Professor Michael Golay for arranging this First International Conference on this subject and look forward to participating. Perhaps in the future our shipyards may be called upon to examine solar and geothermal modular plants as well. (author)

  19. Economics | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Today, just as businesses must compete for survival, growth, and market space, librarians and information professionals must assume a more proactive role to cope with increasing competition. Read more ... Relationships between social policy and human development are the subject of much research and theorizing.

  20. Political and Economic Decisions and Competition – What is the Efficient Antimonopoly Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Lekvinadze

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of economic decisions which affect the antitrust and competition support policies. Many countries provide governmental initiatives for improving antirust legislation. There is an effort to develop efficient legislation, to define market boundaries, to identify dominating companies, and to prevent cartel development. A review of the literature has shown that refined legislation does not work. Qualified and non-politicized economic decisions are required to provide fair and equitable competition in the marketplace. The discussions of various researchers are profiled on the economic issues. This article analyzes The Republic of Georgia’s 20 year unique market experiences in Eastern Europe. Recommendations have been proposed to increase the effectiveness of an anti-monopoly policy. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  1. NATURE OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the factors influencing the business environment in the economic relations of enterprises in national and international aspect are discussed. Global interdependencies have been explored and results have been drawn on the impact of international political and economic changes on the business environment of national and supranational companies.

  2. A Country Report Project for an International Economics Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Adil E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that international economics textbooks pay too little attention to the complexity of issues and problems facing individual nations. Describes a country report project included as part of a college-level international or development economics course. Provides two student instruction sheets and a sample country report. (CFR)

  3. Principles of International Economic Law, and the Right to Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Competition and Regulation in West Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) is an international research, advocacy and networking organization based in India, with resource centres in Kenya, Viet Nam, the United Kingdom and Zambia. Through these centres, CUTS International engages with local civil society on issues of international trade, ...

  5. Economics | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Read more about Improving childcare options to create better economic opportunities for women in Nairobi slums. Language English. Read more about Expanding the Canadian Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Scholarship Program to Advanced Scholars. Language English.

  6. The tobacco international competitiveness of the South Brazil :1997-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Candéa Sá Barreto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses the international competitiveness of the southern tobacco in international trade. We used data analysis system of the Foreign Trade Information Internet (ALICE-Web, the Foreign Trade Secretariat (SECEX of the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade (MDIC in the years 1997-2014. Additionally, advantages index were constructed for and competitiveness revealed to observe the state of the production behavior in international trade. The results show that the southern region has a high relative advantage in tobacco exports over the years considered. The revealed competitiveness was positive, however, advantage of greater magnitude since 2005.

  7. Economic competitiveness gap related to the application of the GAEC standards of cross-compliance on farms: evaluation methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fedrizzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methods used in the monitoring carried out in the farms of the MO.NA.CO. project, to calculate the economic competitiveness gap faced by agricultural holdings that accede to the commitments imposed by the standards included in the project. The monitoring works were performed in agricultural holdings in relation to the particular reference condition of each standard. The processing of the information acquired allowed us to define the working times of each cultivation operation by means of the indications in the recommendations of the Associazione Italiana di Genio Rurale - Italian Rural Engineering Association, that considers the official methodology of the International Commission of the Organisation Scientifique du Travail en Agriculture (C.I.O.S.T.A.. The overall costs and revenues in case of compliance or non-compliance with the commitments of the standard were calculated by using Biondi’s methodology and other norms that indicate the technical and economic coefficients to be used in the calculations (EP 496.2 and D 497.4 ASAE standards. With the data related to the unit cost of ploughing a model Partial Least Squares (PLS has been achieved and validated, and it makes possible to predict the unit cost of this agricultural operation. Finally, the values of the variation of the economic competitiveness gap are reported for each standard.

  8. The Project Approach in Organization of Foreign Economic Activity as a Means of Increasing Competitiveness of Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarenko Vladimir Ye.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the organization of foreign economic activity of industrial enterprise in case of introduction of project approach to its management. New conditions of doing business in terms of aircraft building enterprises, consisting in the transition to production according to international standards, require a modern approach to the solution of the range of issues. In conditions of limited internal financial resources of company and high expenses connected with entering the foreign market, it is extremely important to define the priority directions of foreign economic activity and the most optimal mechanisms of its organization and management. The functioning of the sphere of foreign economic activity of industrial enterprise in case of introduction of project approach to management has been analyzed. The essence, features and the main parameters of project approach as a means of increasing the competitiveness of enterprise have been defined. Priorities of the large-scale enterprise development strategy have been analyzed and suggested by means of carrying out the project method of organization of foreign economic activity.

  9. Evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway and the influence of energy policy on economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Honglin; Wang, Lin; Tian, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the evolution of the competition of energy alternative pathway in China, and the influence of energy policy on economic growth by using a dynamical system method. Firstly, the relation between energy and economic growth is taken into account, and a dynamic evolution model is established. It is observed that Hopf bifurcation and chaotic behavior occurs with the varying investment in renewable energy production. Secondly, when there is no policy intervention in energy market, the evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway is also investigated. Thirdly, the system parameters are also identified by using an artificial neural network method on the basis of certain empirical statistical data in China, and the dynamics of the parameters-identified system are studied. Finally, the influences of energy policy on economic growth are empirically analyzed, and some policy recommendations are given based on the results of empirical analysis. - Highlights: • Modeling the energy economy system via the method of dynamic system. • Attaining the chaotic attractor of the energy production and economic system. • Discovering the Hopf bifurcation when the investment changes. • Proposing the alternative pathway of free competition in energy production. • Determining the turning points of parameters related to policy regulation

  10. The Role of Innovation in Fostering Competitiveness and Economic Growth: Evidence from Developing Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Lejla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the essential features determining the role of innovation in developing economies by examining the structure of innovation measures. The economic growth and competitiveness of developing economies are powerfully connected to its innovation status. The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of innovation in driving economic growth per capita and competitiveness in selected developing economies. In order to determine the interconnection among the variables of innovation, competitiveness, and growth, assorted methodological measurement instruments have been applied. The data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The results suggest the importance of specific innovation dimensions for prospective economic growth in developing economies. The identical measures responsible for fragile innovation are associated to the low composite measures of innovation accomplishment. This demonstrates the enormous disparity concentrated in every innovation aspect over time, specifically in innovation output and enterprise performances between the developing economies and the EU-28 average measures. The research results indicate the usage of appropriate economic instruments in diminishing the problems that developing economies are currently dealing with.

  11. International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy projects. Building on a similar model for the United States, I-JEDI was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the U.S. government's Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support partner countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector.

  12. Economics | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The book is a bona fide crystal ball. It will be a must read for the next decade. David Bloom, Clarence James Gamble Professor of Economics and Demography and ... of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, USA.

  13. Economics | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the form of government, ethnicity and nationality, and other social factors. ... the context of globalization from several continents and a number of theoretical ... and for the promotion of cultural, political and economic diversity everywhere.

  14. Economics | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This pathbreaking book identifies the economic and social factors underlying the ... current beliefs about good practice in the provision of business development ... assessment of impact, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of such services.

  15. Global economic governance | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... In fragile political and economic environments, financial systems already are prone to ... Instability in one country can provoke instability in others, and when this .... Recognition that financial stability is a global public good has ...

  16. Energy and competitiveness - Notes of the Economic Analysis Council, Nr. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Dominique; Fontagne, Lionel; Martin, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    This note aims at analyzing the impact of a possible increase of energy prices on the French competitiveness, and more particularly on the performance of exporting companies, while trying to make a distinction between short-term and long-term effects. A first part proposes a diagnosis of the French loss of competitiveness. The second part analyzes the energy prices in France for industries with comparisons with other countries (electricity price, tariffs and production cost). The next part addresses mechanisms relating competitiveness and energy price on a short, medium or long term. Then the authors try to assess at the enterprise level how exports react to energy price variations. The last part contains recommendations for an economic policy

  17. Co-operation and Competition in Regional Economic Development Associated with Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webler, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Competition and co-operation appear in many different social venues. The author gives a variety of examples of co-operative behaviour in economics, politics, research, and everyday life activities such as sports. These four diverse examples illustrate the variety of forms that co-operation may take such as tacit co-operation, incremental co-operation, deep co-operation, etc. The links with the form of democracy (adversary democracy or consensual democracy) are also pointed. However, as with so many other things in life, the key is to the question of co-operation or competition is balance. Co-operation and competition are dialectical opposites. They create and maintain and define each other; they each are incomplete without the other

  18. The Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Geo-Economic Relationships between China and ASEAN Countries: Competition or Cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufang Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, China’s economic power has experienced great changes and has brought about a profound impact on the world economy. This led us to ask a question: do changes in China’s economic power shift the geo-economic relationships between China and its neighboring countries? To answer this question, we researched the evolution of geo-economic relationships between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN countries. Using the Euclidean distance method, we explored the changes in these geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries from 1980 to 2014. Our findings resulted in five conclusions: (1 Over time, geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries remained relatively stable. (2 Geographically, the main geo-economic relationships between China and continental ASEAN countries were complementary, while the main geo-economic relationships between China and island ASEAN countries were competitive. (3 Geopolitics and geo-culture were attributed to the changes in geo-economic relationships. (4 The evolution of geo-economic relationships was characterized by path dependence. (5 Geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries could be classified into four types: game type, with high cooperation and competition; complementary type, with high cooperation and low competition; fight type, with low cooperation and high competition; and loose type, with low cooperation and competition. Our findings contribute to improving the understanding of geo-economic relationships.

  19. An exploratory study of international marketing in India: Indian firms, multinationals and their competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Oburai, Prathap

    2004-01-01

    Indian firms are more international than ever before. Internationalisation drives and export orientation are prominent in the organisational strategies of a number of leading Indian firms and multinationals located in India. This is a significant indicator of the growing competitiveness of firms, industries and the nation. This paper examines the sources of competitive advantages in a few chosen sectors, selected firms, and explores the internationalisation possibilities and potential. Intern...

  20. Non-competitive market behaviour in the international coking coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, P.; Thorpe, S.; Hogan, L.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a primal dual programming model of international coking coal trade is constructed to test for non-competitive market behaviour. World trade in 1996 is simulated under perfect competition and various non-competitive market structures. Statistical tests are used to compare simulated trade flows with actual data. Assuming Cournot-Nash behaviour, an all consumer oligopsony market structure is preferred to alternative models. Under an all consumer oligopsony world coking coal prices and trade are lower than under perfect competition. Under an oligopsonistic structure welfare gains from productivity increases in Australian coal mines might largely accrue to coal buyers

  1. Financial constraints and international trade with endogenous mode of competition:

    OpenAIRE

    Bouët, Antoine; Vaubourg, Anne-Gaël

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine how financial constraints affect firms’ decisions to export when the mode of intra-sectoral competition is endogenous. We propose an extension of Neary and Tharakan’s (2012) model, in which firms resort to external funders to finance fixed export costs and investments in production capacities. We assume that sectors differ in financial constraint and that the cost of capital increases with the level of financial constraint. We first show that less financia...

  2. THE ECONOMIC NATURE OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Gorcheva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialized literature does not provide a unanimously accepted definition of the term “tourism”. Regardless of the differences of approach and definition techniques, all definitions are generally based on the need for recreation and achievement of physical and emotional comfort, which are the driving forces for development and execution of various activities to meet those needs. Another approach used to clarify the essence of the term “tourism” allows not only for its social role, but also the economic logic for the development and the management of tourism as an economic activity. This approach, clarifying the essence of the term “tourism” from an economic point of view, allows for the creation of a number of hierarchically related concepts.

  3. Organizational-economic mechanism of management of food industry enterprises competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Gorb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the discussion of the peculiarities of the formation of organizational-economic mechanism of food industry enterprise management. Brief characteristics of social-economic environment of functioning the enterprises of the industry have been given for determining its desirable parameters. The characteristics of challenges to the competitive positions of Ukrainian enterprises in the connection with the country's entry to the “free trade” zone with the European Union have also been given. The authors consider the solving of the touched upon problem in the combination of competitiveness management functions and preventive anti-crisis management in the single mechanism. The structure of such mechanism has been suggested, and the characteristics of its components have been given.

  4. New perspectives on internationalization and competitiveness integrating economics, innovation and higher education

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume showcases contributions from leading academics, educators and policymakers derived from two workshops hosted by the Interdisciplinary Center for Economic Science (ICES) at George Mason University on internationalization and competitiveness. It aims to present key areas of current research and to identify basic problems within the field to promote further discussion and research. This book is organized into two sections, focusing on: science and economics and innovation policy and its measurement, with an underlying emphasis on exploring connections across disciplines and across research, practice and policy. The first workshop was held at George Mason University (GMU) in Arlington, VA, USA in March 2013 and a second, building on the key results from the first, was held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden in October 2013. A variety of problems were discussed and several interdisciplinary concepts in internationalization and competitiveness have already emerged from the...

  5. TAX COMPONENT OF FISCAL POLICY OF INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF NATIONAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danilov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of using fiscal levers to regulate the national economy competitiveness. What kind of tax levers should be used in order to increase the competitiveness of the national economy is justified. Taxes are the main source of fiscal revenue of the country, which depends on the inherent principles of optimizing the tax system, determined Ukraine's withdrawal from the crisis and raising the country's competitiveness. It is proposed differentiation in income tax rates, depending on whether the company is engaged in innovation and investment activity or not. Changing the rate of value added tax in a downward will reduce the revenue of the country. For enterprises that are not exporting products to decrease the amount of working capital for a certain period Fiscal policy that promotes the removal of the country's financial and economic crisis and the increasing competitiveness of the state, should be challenging. In order to implement incentive effects of taxes set forth in the tax code, we propose a linear programming model of the budget (revenue and expenditure . Building the economic and mathematical optimization model with possible actions challenging the tax factors of individual taxes and the possibilities of using the proceeds of certain taxes on certain items of expenditure budget.

  6. Contracting out local road and park services: Economic effects and their strategic, contractual, and competitive conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Petersen, Ole Helby; Houlberg, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    such as markets, contracts, municipal strategies and contracting history influence these outcomes. Drawing on original survey data from Danish municipalities, we find that competitive tendering has on average reduced costs. Further analysis shows that savings are not associated with lower quality, thus indicating......The economic rationale for contracting out local services is increasingly contested by empirical research. This article aims to contribute to this literature, first by scrutinising the economic effects of contracting out in local road and park services and, second, by exploring how characteristics...... realise larger savings, whereas the characteristics of markets and contracts do not seem to explain variations in cost savings....

  7. Point Climat no. 29 'Managing France's energy transition while safeguarding economic competitiveness: be productive'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Leguet, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: - Is the French energy transition compatible with economic growth and a 'competitive' French economy? Our answer is 'yes, with some conditions'. - The French economy is better positioned today for a meaningful energy transition than it has been for over 40 years. At the level of the macro-economy, a steady shift to higher energy prices is now much easier without hurting economic growth than it once was. - A small percentage of energy-intensive sectors may need targeted and temporary assistance with this transition

  8. Political competition, economic reform and growth : theory and evidence from transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pavletic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Which political and institutional factors trigger reforms that enable the poor to benefit from the process of economic growth? How can the incentives of policy makers be influenced in order to achieve such a dynamic? These are the questions this study seeks to address by examining the transition process in post-communist countries. The author argues that political competition within an accepted and respected institutional environment has been a driving force in shaping the direction and succe...

  9. Do international economic developments affect the South African economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Swanepoel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has opened economies more, exposing them to more international shocks and increasing the challenges to which domestic economic policies must respond. This paper provides a starting point for the analysis of the impact of international economic developments on the South African economy by means of graphical illustrations, correlations coefficients and in some cases a VAR analysis. Although this paper has shed some light on the importance of international economic developments on the South African economy, more rigorous econometric investigation is needed to validate the arguments and to address many of the unresolved questions.

  10. Economics | Page 20 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mitigating this problem is now one of governments' priority goals as part of a ... In the contemporary approach to the relationship between economic growth and ... Read more about Le développement face à la pauvreté: Réseau analyse ... Part I discusses basic fundamental issues of well-being and poverty measurement.

  11. Economics | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans leur livre, intitulé Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia: Size Structure and Economic Growth, Dipak Mazumdar et Sandip Sarkar proposent une interprétation des trajectoires de croissance économique de certains pays d'Asie, mise en corrélation avec la structure de la taille des entreprises manufacturières. Read more ...

  12. Economics | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Kenya's population is becoming increasingly urban; more than half of Nairobi's residents live in informal settlements (slums) plagued by cramped living conditions and poor access to basic services. Read more about IDRC-supported project influencing government policy in Kenya.

  13. Economics | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Building Businesses with Small Producers presents the findings and a comparative analysis of seven case studies that challenge current beliefs about good practice in the provision of business development services (BDS) to small and micro enterprises. The book also highlights ...

  14. Economics of Climate Change Adaptation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Literature on the economics of climate change adaptation - especially in developing countries - is generally scarce, and this weakens the premise on which adaptation decisions are made. Moreover, there is no standard framework or toolkit to guide researchers and policymakers in this kind of decision-making. This grant ...

  15. ACADEMIC PARTNERSHIP AND GENERATION OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: THE CASE OF THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF RESEARCHERS ON COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the objective to demonstrate the contributions achieved by the International Network of Researchers in Competitiveness (INRCO in academic collaboration and scientific knowledge generation. Part of the assumption sustaining that economic globalization processes, information and communication technologies revolution lead to the increasing environmental complexity and uncertainty of a knowledge society. One answer is the study and analysis of competitiveness considered as the strategy to achieve higher levels of economic growth and socio-cultural development in all micro, meso and macro levels. The method used is the analytic-deductive based on the evidence of related data with the activity and results in publications of the International Network of Researchers in Competitiveness. Consequently, it has been adapted certain speculative notions in a theoretical analysis exploring the social dynamics of the scientific activities. It is concluded that the management of the researchers’ dynamic network is capable to generate, apply and recycle the critical knowledge and the assets of academic and scientific talent through a dynamic combination of resources that have a position inside the formal e informal borders and between these borders of participant academics and institutions.

  16. First International Public Health Film Competition 2016-reflections on the development and use of competition judging criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, U; Luna, P; Russell, P; Bergonzi-King, L; Ashton, J; McCarthy, C; Donovan, H; Inman, P; Seminog, O; Botchway, S

    2018-03-01

    Film competitions can be a helpful method to understand issues of quality in health films. In this paper, we describe the development and use of explicit quality criteria to identify the 'best' films for the first ever international public health film competition. A film selection committee encompassing a range of stakeholders was compiled. The committee drew up 10 explicit quality criteria to judge films drawing upon other film festival's selection criteria. These criteria were then applied to a broad range of health-related films entered into a film competition to select the 'best' film to screen. Eighty-four films from 20 different countries were submitted to the public health film competition. The originality of the subject covered by the film, the public health importance of the issue and story-telling approach in the film were found to be the most discriminatory criteria to select films. Selection of health films for festivals can be undertaken using explicit quality criteria. There are a number of advantages to such an approach; however, explicit selection involves a large commitment of resources from film festival organizers and there is further research required to test the validity of the quality criteria applied to health-related films.

  17. International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) Competition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sparrow, RW

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available . At this meeting it was requested that the CSIR act as the administrative co-ordinating arm of the team. Following from this meeting a brochure was produced advertising the iGEM competition inside Wits and for Honours student nominations to be team members.... The academic year in South Africa commences in February. By late February 2010 student nominations had been received from which the supervisors selected the team members. The first team meeting was held on 5th March 2010. After which the team...

  18. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: The Case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish economy has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products this country exports to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of this country may...... therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  19. Wireless Competition in Canada: Damn the Torpedoes! The Triumph of Politics over Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Church

    2014-08-01

    agencies will continue the failed policy of attempting to “enhance competition” in wireless markets. What will be the final cost to Canadians of an economically vacuous commitment to the proposition that competition is measured by the number of competitors?

  20. Are Competitive Materialism and Female Employment Related to International Homicide Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Don Soo

    2017-04-01

    The institutional anomie theory is a proposal that states competitive materialism, an intense cultural pressure for economic success at any costs, and increased female employment may be related to a high homicide rate. The current work tested this proposition by utilizing homicide data collected from 45 developed and developing countries. Regression results did not support the proposition. Competitive materialism and female employment were not significantly related to the cross-national variation of homicide rates.

  1. Corporate governance, competition, the new international financial architecture and large corporations in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Singh; Bruce Weisse; Alaka Singh

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines from the developing countries perspective important analytical and policy issues arising from: a) the current international discussions about corporate governance in relation to the New International Financial Architecture; b) changes in the international competitive environment being caused by the enormous international merger movement in advanced countries. The background to a) above is the emergence of corporate governance as a key issue in the current G7 proposals...

  2. Socio-Economic Determinants of International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav PRYTULA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since economic factors cannot fully explain the determinants of bilateral migration, this study explores the social and cultural determinants that influence an individual’s decision to migrate. Values, norms and interests in a given culture, may determine whether an individual’s intention to move translates into actual migration. Work values inherent in different cultures could explain why people move or do not move under the condition of perceived economic advantages of migration. A gravity type migration model is used to incorporate variables related both to economic indicators and work values. It is perhaps the first migration study to use the World Value Survey (WVS and the European Value Survey (EVS. We use 2000 stock bilateral migration dataset collected by the World Bank. Our findings indicate that if more aspects of work are valued in a country, this country sends more migrants. Also we show that countries with higher extrinsic work value orientation tend to send more migrants, while countries with higher intrinsic work value orientation tend to send fewer migrants. Our finding shows that the value of work and the level of job security in a country may significantly change migration decision.

  3. Constitutional Socio-Economic Rights and International Law: "You ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenauer Foundation and Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus) 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights.

  4. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. TIENKEN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries’ rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum’s Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI. The study investigated the existence of relationships between international test rankings from three different time periods during the last 50 years of U.S. education policy development (i.e., 1957–1982, 1983–2000, and 2001–2006 and 2006 GCI ranks. It extends previous research on the topic by investigating how GCI rankings in the top 50 percent and bottom 50 percent relate to rankings on international tests for the countries that participated in each test. The study found that the relationship between ranks on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic strength is stronger among nations with lower-performing economies. Nations with strong economies, such as the United States, demonstrate a weaker, nonsignificant relationship.

  5. Impacts on Canadian Competitiveness of International Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Holling

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes and provides additional perspective on a study that contributes to the growing body of analyses of the costs of limiting greenhouse gas emissions. The study estimates the economic costs to Canada of six planning scenarios. Four of these scenarios involve the use of tradable emission permits and two involved a carbon tax. In each case, the mechanism's target is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at some percentage of 1990 levels (100% or 90% by either 2010 or 2015. Policies that impose greater constraints on carbon dioxide emissions lead to higher economic costs in terms of foregone output. These costs, however, vary for the same objective, depending on the mechanism chosen and the economic assumptions made. In one typical scenario, in which tradable emission permits are used to achieve stabilization at 1990 levels by 2010, GDP is depressed from the "business-as-usual" scenario by about 2% for the first decade, after which it recovers to business-as-usual levels. Generally, for all scenarios, the economic impact of climate change mitigation imposes a transition cost on the economy, but the long-term productive capacity of the economy is not significantly affected.

  6. International Alliance of Green Hotels to Reach Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Hufei Ge; Silu Chen; Yujie Chen

    2018-01-01

    Under increasing environmental pressure, hotel firms need to improve their ability to access international alliances while maintaining good performance for sustainable development. This paper uses survey data from 784 hotels running at different levels of service in China to test the hypothesis in an integrated analytical model, and the findings show that the impact of international alliances varies with different levels of green hotels. Despite operating in the same sector, hotels running at...

  7. Competitiveness and Economic Growth through Education and Investments: The Case of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana PÎŞCHINA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores and emphasizes the importance of education and innovation activity for competitiveness, and qualitative economic growth, using the case study of the Republic of Moldova. Specifically in context of globalization, when developing nations experience pressures of economic and societal imbalances, the importance of basic cornerstones of the economy cannot be overestimated. Starting with education, an economy builds the platform to nurture and hopefully retain talent. Entrepreneurs create new business streams, new products and services, and new areas for investment. Investments, in their turn, can be used as another powerful mechanism to obtain quality in economic growth. Besides necessary investments in infrastructure and healthcare, investments into science, technology and various R&D activities that lead up to the increased share of high-technology in the GDP structure of countries like Moldova are necessary, as well as possible due to high potential of Moldova’s skilled population making up for the lack of other resources available to the developed economies. In this context, economic competitiveness and qualitative growth by importing, adapting, implementing and developing new technologies, can be reached by the industrializing economies sooner than expected.

  8. Effect of Economic Vulnerability on Competitive Advantages, Enterprise Performance and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Mamun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of economic vulnerability upon competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability of micro-enterprises owned and managed by micro-entrepreneurs who participate in varied development initiatives in Peninsular Malaysia. Upon adopting the cross-sectional design, data were randomly collected from selected 300 micro-entrepreneurs from the eKasih program (national poverty data bank located in four states of Peninsular Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected by conducting structured interview sessions with the respondents held from September until November 2017. The findings revealed that the state of economic vulnerability among the respondents had a significantly negative effect on the aspects of competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability among micro-enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia. Despite of the widely acknowledged and empirically examined effects of socioeconomic antecedents upon micro-enterprise performance, the focus on the effect of a more comprehensive measure of socioeconomic condition, that is, economic vulnerability, among low-income households appears to be scant. Hence, the outcomes of this study are able to provide critical insights for development organizations pertaining to development programs and their effectiveness on economically vulnerable, particularly among low-income households in Peninsular Malaysia.

  9. Techno-Economic Comparison of Onshore and Offshore Underground Coal Gasification End-Product Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Christine Nakaten

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground Coal Gasification (UCG enables the utilisation of coal reserves that are currently not economically exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. Hereby, UCG produces a high-calorific synthesis gas that can be used for generation of electricity, fuels and chemical feedstock. The present study aims to identify economically competitive, site-specific end-use options for onshore and offshore produced UCG synthesis gas, taking into account the capture and storage (CCS and/or utilisation (CCU of resulting CO 2 . Modelling results show that boundary conditions that favour electricity, methanol and ammonia production expose low costs for air separation, high synthesis gas calorific values and H 2 /N 2 shares as well as low CO 2 portions of max. 10%. Hereby, a gasification agent ratio of more than 30% oxygen by volume is not favourable from economic and environmental viewpoints. Compared to the costs of an offshore platform with its technical equipment, offshore drilling costs are negligible. Thus, uncertainties related to parameters influenced by drilling costs are also negligible. In summary, techno-economic process modelling results reveal that scenarios with high CO 2 emissions are the most cost-intensive ones, offshore UCG-CCS/CCU costs are twice as high as the onshore ones, and yet all investigated scenarios except from offshore ammonia production are competitive on the European market.

  10. General Principles of the WTO and European Community Laws in Building International Competition Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Mo Chung

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Organization (WTO established a Working Group on the interaction between trade and competition policy in 1996. By the Doha Ministerial Declaration, it recognized the case for international competition policy framework and agreed that the relevant negotiations take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The Working Group is meant to focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness among others in the period until the Fifth Session. This article attempts to clarify the implications of the core (WTO principles to the would-be international competition laws and practices. It further tries to get lessons from competition law and practices of the European Community. Protection of fundamental rights, proportionality, non-discrimination, transparency, supremacy, subsidiarity and direct effect are the general principles of the European Community law to be discussed in relation to the competition law and policy. It concludes that the general principles of the WTO and EC laws provide guiding principles for the future international competition norms, and makes some preliminary assessment of the present Korean competition law and policy in the light of those principles.

  11. Legal Guarantees of Economic Competition in the European Union Public Procurement Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kosiński

    2017-01-01

    that new 2014 EU public procurement directives, viz. Directive 2014/23/ EU, Directive 2014/24/EU and Directive 2014/25/EU, are not really aimed at fostering the competition as the main goal. Nevertheless, a specific and deep analysis of regulation of mentioned directives leads to the conclusion that those directives provide for bigger and broader economic competition. This is achieved generally thanks to opening of the public procurement market for micro, small and medium enterprises (SMBs’ sector. 

  12. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  13. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  14. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  15. Economic competitiveness of small modular reactors versus coal and combined cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Bilbao, Sama; Valle, Edmundo del

    2016-01-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) may be an option to cover the electricity needs of isolated regions, distributed generation grids and countries with small electrical grids. Previous analyses show that the overnight capital cost for SMRs is between 4500 US$/kW and 5350 US$/kW, which is between a 6% and a 26% higher than the average cost of a current large nuclear reactor. This study analyzes the economic competitiveness of small modular reactors against thermal plants using coal and natural gas combined cycle plants. To assess the economic competitiveness of SMRs, three overnight capital costs are considered 4500 US$/kW, 5000 US$/kW and 5350 US$/kW along with three discount rates for each overnight cost considered, these are 3, 7, and 10%. To compare with natural gas combined cycle (CC) units, four different gas prices are considered, these are 4.74 US$/GJ (5 US$/mmBTU), 9.48 US$/GJ (10 US$/mmBTU), 14.22 US$/GJ (15 US$/mmBTU), and 18.96 US$/GJ (20 US$/mmBTU). To compare against coal, two different coal prices are considered 80 and 120 US$/ton of coal. The carbon tax considered, for both CC and coal, is 30 US$/ton CO_2. The results show what scenarios make SMRs competitive against coal and/or combined cycle plants. In addition, because the price of electricity is a key component to guarantee the feasibility of a new project, this analysis calculates the price of electricity for the economically viable deployment of SMRs in all the above scenarios. In particular, this study shows that a minimum price of electricity of 175 US$/MWh is needed to guarantee the feasibility of a new SMR, if its overnight capital cost is 5350 US$/kWe and the discount rate is 10%. Another result is that when the price of electricity is around 100 US$/MWh then the discount rate must be around 7% or less to provide appropriate financial conditions to make SMRs economically feasible. - Highlights: • Small modular reactor (SMR) are economically assessed. • SMR are compared against gas and coal

  16. Photovoltaic power: public policies and economic impacts. The French choices in the international context (1973-2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, Alain

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes 40 years of international public policies in favour of solar cells development and deployment with their economic impacts: strengths and weaknesses of solar energy and its societal impact; French R and D, financial support, competition and national energy policy; the US pioneering role; the Japanese take over; the German example; the European Union federating role; the Chinese leading position

  17. Photovoltaic power: public policies and economic impacts. The French choices in the international context 1973-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, Alain

    2013-06-01

    This article summarizes 40 years of international public policies in favour of solar cells development and deployment with their economic impacts: strengths and weaknesses of solar energy and its societal impact; French R and D, financial support, competition and national energy policy; the US pioneering role; the Japanese take over; the German example; the European Union federating role; the Chinese leading position

  18. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. To be competitive in anticipated markets, small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) rely on design and deployment approaches that are able to offset the adverse impacts of economy of scale. Such approaches include design simplification resulting from the application of safety design features that are the most appropriate for reactors of smaller capacity; the economy of mass production of multiple prefabricated modules; the option of incremental capacity increase, with possible benefits resulting from accelerated learning; sharing of common equipment and facilities; shorter construction

  19. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  20. International cooperation and competition in space - A current perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    International cooperative efforts undertaken by NASA are evaluated and consideration is given to the proposed space station. The Shuttle RMS and Spacelab were constructed through efforts of Canadian and European companies and the ESA. Landsat, with its widely dispersed technology and data, has encouraged international access to its capabilities and start-up of follow-on programs in other countries. Space station planning is proceeding with a view to worldwide utilization of space and to the commitment and resources other nations are willing to place in the station. It is conceded that administrative difficulties will arise if the space station is a completely international effort guided by NASA. Additionally, concern will be present for technology leaks, national security implications on the space station, and reasonably fulfilling the benefits expected by those who become partners in the construction and operation of the station.

  1. Full employment and competition in the Aspen economic model: implications for modeling acts of terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprigg, James A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew

    2004-11-01

    Acts of terrorism could have a range of broad impacts on an economy, including changes in consumer (or demand) confidence and the ability of productive sectors to respond to changes. As a first step toward a model of terrorism-based impacts, we develop here a model of production and employment that characterizes dynamics in ways useful toward understanding how terrorism-based shocks could propagate through the economy; subsequent models will introduce the role of savings and investment into the economy. We use Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool developed at Sandia, to demonstrate for validation purposes that a single-firm economy converges to the known monopoly equilibrium price, output, and employment levels, while multiple-firm economies converge toward the competitive equilibria typified by lower prices and higher output and employment. However, we find that competition also leads to churn by consumers seeking lower prices, making it difficult for firms to optimize with respect to wages, prices, and employment levels. Thus, competitive firms generate market ''noise'' in the steady state as they search for prices and employment levels that will maximize profits. In the context of this model, not only could terrorism depress overall consumer confidence and economic activity but terrorist acts could also cause normal short-run dynamics to be misinterpreted by consumers as a faltering economy.

  2. Effect of Black Economic Empowerment on profit and competitiveness of firms in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert P.J. Kleynhans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The key obstacle hindering optimal profitability levels and competitiveness in firms in South Africa is the application of labour legislation policies and tools aimed at narrowing the income gap between different racial groups and resolving inequality amongst a diverse workforce. Research purpose: This article determined whether the implementation of a Black Economic Empowerment (BEE policy by companies has a positive effect on their growth in terms of profits and competitiveness. Motivation for the study: This study determined whether the implementation of BEE could be profitable for companies. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative study was undertaken in order to find empirical evidence supporting the relation between high BEE Scores, profitability and competitiveness. The empirical investigation utilised regression analysis, correlations and other methods, based on data between January 2009 and December 2011. The BEE Scorecard was used to obtain BEE scores of the top 50 BEE companies. Thereafter, the top 50 companies’ financial information was gathered from the Johannesburg Securities Exchange. Main findings: The implementation of BEE within companies has a positive effect on profitability, turnover and investment. Numerous factors have, however, been hindering,while other factors enhanced the success of BEE. Practical/managerial implications: The findings encourage mangers to engage in BEE as it may facilitate higher profits and indicates where labour legislation could be improved. Contribution/value-add: Value was added through new research determining the effects of BEE and labour legislation on profitability and competitiveness of firms on a micro-level.

  3. Long-Term Comparative Advantages of the Eurasian Economic Union Member States in International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkowski Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 1st January 2015 the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU - a new integration block comprising initially Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and later that year also Armenia and Kyrgyzstan - appeared on the world map. This paper endeavors to identify the EAEU countries’ long-term international comparative advantages within four basic groups of goods according to the OECD classification of manufacturing industries based on technology intensity. The analysis, using B. Balassa’s RCA methodology and covering the years 2000-2014, indicates that these countries lack competitiveness, with none of them possessing any RCAs in the high-technology category whereas in the medium-hightechnology category - only Belarus. In contrast, all the EAEU countries fared the best in the medium-low-technology category, which is mostly attributable to the resources-based character of their economies. Surprisingly, dramatically low international competitiveness was recorded by Kazakhstan and Russia.

  4. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  5. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Charl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education…

  6. Environmental regulation and competitiveness. A meta-analysis of international trade studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Master-point and Tinbergen Institute, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Withagen, C.A.A.M. [Department of Economics and CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena such as ecological dumping, ecological capital flight, and regulatory 'chill' in environmental standards. A different view is that strict environmental regulation triggers industry's innovation potential, and subsequently increases its competitiveness. The impact of environmental regulation on competitiveness has been analyzed in terms of international capital movements, new firm formation, and international trade. This paper focuses on a statistically rigorous analysis of international trade studies, using a technique that is known as meta-analysis. The paper presents a statistically supported evaluation of the literature, in order to assess what the main conclusions regarding the relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness are when it comes to studies on international trade flows. The synthesis of the literature is subsequently used to present guidelines for future primary research in this area.

  7. Environmental regulation and competitiveness. A meta-analysis of international trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena such as ecological dumping, ecological capital flight, and regulatory 'chill' in environmental standards. A different view is that strict environmental regulation triggers industry's innovation potential, and subsequently increases its competitiveness. The impact of environmental regulation on competitiveness has been analyzed in terms of international capital movements, new firm formation, and international trade. This paper focuses on a statistically rigorous analysis of international trade studies, using a technique that is known as meta-analysis. The paper presents a statistically supported evaluation of the literature, in order to assess what the main conclusions regarding the relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness are when it comes to studies on international trade flows. The synthesis of the literature is subsequently used to present guidelines for future primary research in this area

  8. Apples and Oranges Mean a New Fruit Crop: New Business Plan Competition Model Integrates Economic and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jacqueline; Oden, Lisa Derby

    2007-01-01

    Mount Wachusett Community College Entrepreneurial Resource Center Business Plan Competition brings together stakeholders across all economic sectors to bolster the regional economy. It also highlights entrepreneurs as a viable career choice. The competition disintegrates existing silos, provides education to all entrants, and gives business…

  9. The impact of Oil Prices on the International Economic Arena: The Economic Factors and International Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history the new technologies and discoveries revolutionized the way we live. The discovery, the oil, has been critical for society, becoming the world’s most profitable and essential industry transforming itself from domestic to international business. The aim of this paper, above all is to analyze the role of oil and its price volatility in world economy. The ongoing changes and transformations in world oil industry tend to have a great effect not only on the oilimporting countries but also on oil-exporting nations. The demand or supply-triggered oil price volatility differ in its effects to world economic activity. Although it may have different effect for the oil importing nations in comparison to oil exporting nations, still inflationary pressure may be a common feature. A number of points relevant to the study are put forward highlighting pros and cons of issues discussed. The paper also elaborates the environmental concerns, deriving from the increase of oil consumption and the necessity (globally to increase efforts in finding a decent,(environmentally friendly replacement for oil.

  10. International Competition and Inequality: A Generalized Ricardian Model

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    Why does the gap in real wage rates persist between the First World and the Third World after so many years of increasing globalization? The standard neoclassical trade model predicts that real wage rates will be equalized with international trade, whereas the standard Ricardian trade model does not. Facts are thus consistent with the Ricardian model. However, this model leaves undetermined income distribution. The objective of this paper is to fill this gap by developing a generalized Ricard...

  11. Effects of regulation and economic environment on the electricity industry's competitiveness: A study based on OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Chulwoo; Jung, Euy-Young; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a competitiveness index for the electricity industry based on efficiency, stability, and growth factors identified from previous studies subject to data accessibility. These are then weighted appropriately through the application of the analytical hierarchy process. This index is an alternative tool to capture the diverse characteristics of the electricity industry in order to analyze performance after deregulation. Using the competitiveness index, we analyze the effect of regulation change in specific economic environments represented by the level of economic development, energy intensity, and manufacturing share, for example. According to the results, deregulation generally increases competitiveness, but the effect depends on the economic environment and the type of regulation. Deregulating entry and vertical integration to increase competitiveness is more effective in countries where the level of economic development, energy intensity, and manufacturing share are low. The manner in which the privatization effect is related to the economic environment is, however, unclear. - Highlights: • This study proposes a competitiveness index for the electricity industry. • It examines the effects of electricity industry deregulation in OECD countries. • It suggests an economic environment in which deregulation can contribute to competitiveness

  12. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector : International comparison base year 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this report the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI), an independent research institute of Wageningen UR (University and Research) in the Netherlands, presents the results of a study on the competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector. The production costs for poultry meat are

  13. International competition in vertically differentiated markets with innovation and imitation: trade policy versus free trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováč, E.; Žigić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 323 (2014), s. 491-521 ISSN 0013-0427 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : model of price competition * trade policy * free trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.045, year: 2014

  14. International outsourcing under monopolistic competition: winners and losers

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Viet; van Long, Ngo

    2007-01-01

    We show that, even with flexible domestic wages, international outsourcing may worsen the welfare of the home country and reduce the profits of all firms. If wages are rigid, outsourcing is welfare-improving if and only if the sum of the "trade creation" effect and the "exploitation effect" exceeds the "trade diversion" effect. A wage subsidy may improve welfare. We also extend the model to a two-period framework. Delaying outsourcing can be gainful because the fixed cost of outsourcing may f...

  15. THE DETERMINANTS OF THE VIETNAMESE ECONOMICS COMPETITIVENESS, A LESSON FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ha NGUYEN; Xavier GALIEGUE

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has been very successful for the last two decades, since the adoption of “Doi moi” in 1986. Over the last two decades, an economic growth rate in Vietnam has been one of the highest worldwide (with GDP growing by respectively 8% per year). The increase of the Vietnamese share of world trade is the highest of all major Asian exporters (including China) since the mid-1990s. « Why is Vietnam so competitive with respect to other Asian exporters? » This paper considers Vietnam's competitiv...

  16. The Impact of International Tourism on the Economic Development and the Image of an Individual Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevtushenko Viktoriia А.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study the dynamics of economic indicators of international tourism, the main problems, trends and prospects of the industry development in the world market and an individual country, the role of the country’s image and its impact of on the creation of a competitive tourist product. There considered the dynamics of statistical indicators of the international tourism structure, in particular the tourist flow, contribution to the world GDP and employment, and national economies. The analysis of the status of the tourist industry of Ukraine in the context of the main economic indicators and hotel infrastructure is conducted using the example of Kharkov region. The role of the image and its influence on the competitiveness of the national tourist product is revealed. On the basis of correlation analysis, forecast models for a number of indicators are created. The present trends in the development of the tourist industry of Ukraine are identified and recommendations on improving its competitiveness are given.

  17. The Role of Government in Restoring International Competitiveness: the Case of Crisis Management in the Baltic States Economies versus Poland Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matysek-Jędrych

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between the government actions, global economic crisis, and competitiveness on a national and regional dimension. The Baltic States (i.e., Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have experienced one of the biggest Gross Domestic Product (GDP contractions during the Global Crisis so far. Meanwhile, Poland was the only country with a positive GDP growth in the European Union during the Global Crisis. Hence, identifying and assessing changes in the relative competitiveness, as a consequence of the economic downturn in both Baltic States and Poland, has sparked many interests.The main channel through which the crisis undermined competitiveness has been the macroeconomic situation. That is why employing single macroeconomic variables as proxies of competitiveness suggests a much stronger influence of the crisis on competitiveness in comparison to overall measures (e.g. Global Competitiveness Index. It may be generally concluded that a short-term crisis, even if severe, does not have a negative influence on international competitiveness as long as a proper anti-crisis policy is implemented and the country is small enough to react fast and adapt to new conditions in the global environment.

  18. The international competitive position of the Dutch top sectors; De internationale concurrentiepositie van de topsectoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspe, O.; Weterings, A.; Thissen, M.

    2012-03-15

    Creating an excellent investment climate for the Dutch top sectors; that is the strategy of the Dutch government to improve the economic competitiveness of the Netherlands. In this endeavour, the Dutch cabinet is advised by ten top teams. With this study, the Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) aims to supplement the action agendas of the top teams, which mainly involve generic and sector-specific measures. Based on empirical know-how and quantitative analysis of the competitive position of the top sectors within Europe, PBL shows that characteristics of the regional business climate are particularly important for the international competitiveness of the top sectors. A benchmark of 250 European regions shows how the Dutch regions score as compared to their most important competitors in Europe. This benchmark shows that drawing up the investment agenda for the Dutch top sectors is tailored work. For example, for the top sector energy in South Holland, it is important to invest in a strong private knowledge base (research and development by businesses). For the top sector logistics in North Holland, on the other hand, a better connectivity by road is important. For the high-tech businesses in Noord-Brabant, strengthening the high-tech cluster in this region would be beneficial. Therefore, PBL recommends a spatial-economic vision on the competitive powers of the top sectors. This vision should focus on priority areas North Holland and South Holland, and on crucial connections such as Schiphol and the highways 'Triple A', A2, A4 and A12. [Dutch] Een excellent vestigingsklimaat creëren voor de topsectoren. Dat is de strategie van het kabinet-Rutte om de economische concurrentiekracht van Nederland te verbeteren. Het kabinet laat zich daarbij adviseren door tien topteams. Met deze studie wil het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) een aanvulling bieden op de actieagenda's van de topteams, die vooral generieke en sectorspecifieke maatregelen betreffen

  19. ROMANIAN TOURISM REVIVAL, A PRIORITY PREMISE IN INCREASING NATIONAL ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanita SUSU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC, the tourism industry has created five million new jobs, going to count globally over 260 million employees; approx. 10% of all new jobs in the world are generated by this industry. Where is Romania in this landscape? At the level of competitiveness, Romania fell five places in 2011-2013, reaching 68, from 63, behind Hungary, Poland and even Bulgaria. The reasons for departing from: Romanians' attitude towards tourists, ineffective marketing, the quality of the natural environment, transport deficiencies and ineffective police services (law enforcement, maintaining order. However, at the national level, we have all the necessary elements and we have all chances to become a competitive tourist destination domestically and internationally; in order for this chance to become a reality, we need to exploit the existing potential and transform Romania into an attractive tourist destination for both Romanian and foreigners, a performance target, as the natural conditions and materials are available.

  20. Concept analysis of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychkovskii Andrei Yurevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to determine the competitiveness of enterprises. The techniques of estimating the probability of bankruptcy as the lowest level of competitiveness of the organization. Asked to assess the competitiveness on the basis of the analysis of internal and external factors of the company. External factors are asked to provide a financial and economic, political, industrial, technological, social, environmental. Internal factors proposed to explore, using the model of "the golden rule of business economics" in conjunction with approaches for assessing the ability of the enterprise to create value.

  1. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl Wolhuter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education on the economy. In the interwar “factors and forces” stage of Comparative Education, the economy as a shaping force of national education systems came to the fore. In the social science phase of the 1960s the focus shifted to a study of the effect of education on the economy. This was reversed again in the 1970s, when socio-economic reproduction theories assigned a deterministic place to socio-economic stratification of society. In recent years neo-liberal economics dictated the research agenda of Comparative Education. In conclusion recommendations for a future research agenda in the field are made.

  2. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y. C.; Ragazzi, E.

    2006-03-01

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions need to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers.

  3. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y.C. [Politecnico di Torino, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Torino (Italy); Ragazzi, E. [CERIS, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, CNR, National Research Council, Moncalieri, TO (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions needs to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers. (authors)

  4. Applying the competitive market business equation to power generation operations and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corio, M.R.; Bellucci, J.W.; Boyd, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents cost-effectiveness evaluation, benchmarking, planning, and decision-making tools being used with utilities to address critical production/cost-efficiency and market issues in the transition to a competitive market in electricity. It expands upon Applied Economic Research Co., Inc.'s (AER's) earlier work in the area of frontier analysis of plant spending vs. reliability. It discusses development of a method for quantifying the various elements involved and for structuring them into an integrated framework and set of models for analysis, evaluation of alternatives, and forward planning in the evolving transition to a deregulated, competitive market in electricity. The work presented addresses the overall production cost frontier, i.e., the marginal cost of production including operation, maintenance, capital, and fuel expenditures. (Fuel expenditures are a function of the price paid for fuel (per Btu) and the efficiency with which the fuel is transformed from Btu's to kWh, i.e., the heat rate.) Frontiers (best demonstrated performance curves) are developed for the total cost of production--analyzing both reliability and heat rate. The paper describes and gives examples of the framework for evaluating the competitive position of a utility's generating units compared to other units, as well as the framework for evaluating the potential for revenue obtained outside the existing service area

  5. Romanian Business Environment in the Context of Economic Competitiveness Based on Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STEGAROIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes of production factors priorities affect more and more the evolution of global economy, requiring reorientation of development policies both at company level and at national economies level to adapt to the phenomenon called: “the new economy” or “knowledge economy”. If for classical economy the ability to compete - competitiveness- depends largely on the quantity or the amount of production factors, at the present, has gained importance the efficiency of their use. The idea of making this article appeared both from the necessity of a systematic research to approach the Romanian competitive environment and the desire to stoop to this important conference theme. We can certainly say that the actual business environment is characterized by a particularly dynamic due to changes that occur within it, especially under the impact of technical and scientific revolution which brought to the fore the knowledge as an essential element of achieving a high competitiveness. It is intended that the proposed theme of this article to have an economic importance for the actual information and adequacy of the current economy in Romania.

  6. Coordination in International Manufacturing: The Role of Competitive Priorities and the Focus of Globally Dispersed Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sayem

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this era of globalization, network integration has received great attention, as it certainly has implications for the competitiveness in international manufacturing. A key issue in integration is to coordinate activities of dispersed facilities in a way to align the target of locating abroad and the priorities to be competitive. This study explores and clarifies the effect of competitive priority and focus of dispersed facilities on coordinating the activities in intra-firm network manufacturing. Based on a multiple case study involving four different companies manufacturing in globally dispersed facilities, the results confirm that both competitive priorities and specific focus of global manufacturing are important for selecting mechanisms to coordinate overseas facilities, with the competitive priorities ‘quality’ and ‘flexibility’ being the more important. Furthermore, the findings reveal that companies place emphasis on informal mechanisms to coordinate the low-cost focused facilities. In turn, the importance of formal mechanisms seems equal for coordinating both low-cost focused facilities and those focused on capturing a local market. Finally, the findings of this paper suggest that elements of competitive priority, as well as the focus of dispersed facilities, should be considered towards making the choice for mechanisms of coordination. The findings bear important implications for the effective coordination of activities in international manufacturing.

  7. Does the internet generate economic growth, international trade, or both?

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, Huub

    2012-01-01

    Recent cross country panel data studies find a positive impact of internet use on economic growth and a positive impact of internet use on trade. The present study challenges the first finding by showing that internet use does not explain economic growth directly in a fully specified growth model. In particular openness to international trade variables seems to be highly correlated with internet use and the findings in the literature that internet use causes trade is confirmed here, suggestin...

  8. Parametric Cost Estimates for an International Competitive Edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, L.T.; Hickey, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress to date by CH2M HILL and the UKAEA in development of a parametric modelling capability for estimating the costs of large nuclear decommissioning projects in the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe. The ability to successfully apply parametric cost estimating techniques will be a key factor to commercial success in the UK and European multi-billion dollar waste management, decommissioning and environmental restoration markets. The most useful parametric models will be those that incorporate individual components representing major elements of work: reactor decommissioning, fuel cycle facility decommissioning, waste management facility decommissioning and environmental restoration. Models must be sufficiently robust to estimate indirect costs and overheads, permit pricing analysis and adjustment, and accommodate the intricacies of international monetary exchange, currency fluctuations and contingency. The development of a parametric cost estimating capability is also a key component in building a forward estimating strategy. The forward estimating strategy will enable the preparation of accurate and cost-effective out-year estimates, even when work scope is poorly defined or as yet indeterminate. Preparation of cost estimates for work outside the organizations current sites, for which detailed measurement is not possible and historical cost data does not exist, will also be facilitated. (authors)

  9. THE ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTARY OF THE "SOFT POWER" IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available "Soft power" is a complex instrument of international politics. It is an organized set of interactions and relationships predetermined to a large extent by the psychological element. Its core qualities are attraction, persuasion and legitimacy. The "soft power" acts in international relations through a complex instrumentation consisting of actions in the military, political, economic, cultural, sports, ideological, religious spheres, but all its manifestations must be supported by the economic instrument. To this end, many countries have set up special bodies. It is expected that "soft power" will be a major instrument of international politics in the coming epoch.

  10. Theories of International Economic Development (Case Study: Economic Development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Bardhok Bashota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper rightly says that “real starting point for each research is set based on assumptions of reality, not only based on the real facts”. The text below was prepared In accordance with this logic, where the Theories of International Development are treated especially focusing on International Economic Development. Therefore, theoretical reflections present assumption side, and study of many empirically measured data will correspond with real facts, because with ought these facts assumption would be useless. Technically this writing consists of two parts: in the first part are elaborated all theoretical and practical characteristics of overall international development, while in a second part as a case study will be Economic Development i Kosovo. From methodological point of view this is a comparative study and based on statistical data, while problem treating approach is critical and explanatory. As it will be understood later, development theories have been decisively influenced by economic thinking, and the focus on this dimension responds best to the nature of the term development. On the other hand the fact of unfolding economical development will reflect interference and the nature of it’s inter politics. Today economic development becomes a worldwide goal, having a considerable place in most of the literature with economic content. Also, here are presented as well examples from different practices that reflect economic development in different periods and places. Here is presented international economic development starting with a brief description of a genealogy of this development and ways of economic development back that time. It is of a special importance elaboration through theoretical approach on the creation of capital and economic development, as  mercantilist theory, classic and neo classic theory, than capitalization and Socialism-Marxism. To better understand the nature of economic development, the focus falls on

  11. A review of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) as a competitive South-East Asia hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardai, A. M.; Er, A. Z.; Johari, M. K.; Noor, A. A. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper is aimed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL) against its competitors in Southeast Asia countries. Due to the geographical and market relevance issues, several airport hubs around KUL are chosen for comparison: Changi International Airport (SIN), Suvarnabhumi International Airport (BKK) and Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is used to evaluate the comparative situation between the airports in relation to changing industry and market environment. The study discovers some competitive edges for KUL. Nonetheless, the airport still has to be improved to face future challenges and it is under imminent threat of new aircraft technology.

  12. Reflections between CSR and international human rights in EU initiatives for a competitive inclusive society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    : The paper aims to contribute to our understanding of whether a shift is taking place in societal attitudes towards a perception that corporations have duties based on international law. This is assessed on the basis of EU initiatives on inclusiveness and responsible competitiveness, particularly...... the EU Multistakeholder Forum and the Lisbon Strategy, with a particular focus on goals or views related to the human rights of non-discrimination and rights to work, education and vocational training, and network governance in (soft) law creation. It is found that despite obvious links, international...... law does not serve as a clear source of inclusiveness or responsible competitiveness. It is also found that the initiatives assessed do not indicate a shift at EU institutional level towards a perception that business holds duties under international law. International law seems at the most to be seen...

  13. A new vision on competitiveness within the post-crisis economy. Causes, evolutions and possible innovative solutions to fight against the undesirable effects of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mariana CISMAŞ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to highlight the need for promoting a new vision regarding competitiveness mostly in the context of amplifying the effects and the complexity of the nature of crisis manifested now on the international level (economic, environment, demographic, value and moral etc..The economic thinking pays increased attention to the issues related to economic crisis, as well as the development of theories that give satisfactory answers about the causes and, especially, the solutions to the crisis.Using scientific observation and comparative case study as research methods, this paper aims to make a theoretical critical review of the theories regarding the causes of economic crisis over time and to identify and analyze some anti-crisis policies.

  14. Intellectual capital: approaches to analysis as an object of the internal environment of an economic entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Ustinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital is of strategic importance for a modern company. At the same time, its effective management, including a stimulating and creative approach to solving problems, will help to increase the competitiveness and development of economic entities. The article considers intellectual capital as an object of analysis of the internal environment. In the context of the proposed approaches to its study, its impact on the development of the company is also considered. The intellectual capital has a special significance and influence on internal processes, since on each of them the intellectual component allows to achieve a positive synergetic effect from the interaction of different objects. In more detail, it is proposed to consider it in terms of the position of the company it occupies on the market, the principles of its activities, the formation of marketing policies, the use of resources, methods and means of making managerial decisions, and the organizational culture formed. For the analysis of the state of the internal environment, the main approaches are proposed, in which the intellectual capital is considered, among them: methods for analyzing cash flows, economic efficiency and financial feasibility of the project, analysis of the consolidated financial flow by group of objects, assessment of the potential of the business entity, technology of choice of investment policy, technology Selection of incentive mechanisms. In this regard, it is advisable to analyze the company's internal environment from the position of influencing its state of intellectual capital. The scheme of interaction of intellectual capital and objects of an estimation of an internal environment of the managing subject is offered. The results of this study should be considered as initial data for the further development of the economic evaluation of the influence of intellectual capital on the competitiveness of companies.

  15. FEATURES TO ENSURE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF REINSURANCE OPERATIONS OF THE CEDENT AND THE REINSURER IN THE DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Veretnov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of reinsurance operations significantly affect the competitiveness of the cedent and the reinsurer. At the same time, ensuring the competitiveness of reinsurance operations does not always lead to the economic efficiency of the cedent and the reinsurer. We give the definition of the concept of competitiveness of reinsurance operations. The features ensuring the competitiveness of reinsurance operations of the cedent and the reinsurer in the domestic and international insurance market. The use of these features allows you to not only improve the quality of reinsurance protection, which has a beneficial effect on the financial stability of the cedent, but provides such necessary, confidential professional and personal relationship of the cedent and the reinsurer.

  16. Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of salivary hormones and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and anxiety in winners and losers during an international judo competition. Twenty-three trained, male, national-level judo athletes provided three saliva samples during a competition day: morning, in anticipation of competition after an overnight fast, mid-competition, and post-competition within 15 min post-fight for determination of salivary cortisol, salivary testosterone, salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio, SIgA absolute concentrations, SIgA secretion rate and saliva flow rate. The competitive state anxiety inventory questionnaire was completed by the athletes (n = 12) after the first saliva collection for determination of somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self-confidence. Winners were considered 1-3 ranking place (n = 12) and losers (n = 11) below third place in each weight category. Winners presented higher anticipatory salivary cortisol concentrations (p = 0.03) and a lower mid-competition salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.003) compared with losers with no differences for salivary testosterone. Winners tended to have higher SIgA secretion rates (p = 0.07) and higher saliva flow rates (p = 0.009) at mid-competition. Higher levels of cognitive anxiety (p = 0.02) were observed in the winners, without differences according to the outcome in somatic anxiety and self-confidence. The results suggest that winners experienced higher levels of physiological arousal and better psychological preparedness in the morning, and as the competition progressed, the winners were able to control their stress response better.

  17. Competitive Internal Logistics Systems through Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Granlund, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The growing demand for products and services puts great pressure on logistics performance and enhances the role that logistics plays in determining a company’s competitiveness. This research focuses on internal logistics systems, which includes all logistics activities and processes within the physical limits of an isolated company. Internal logistics is vital for the overall function of many companies. However, despite its importance, this part of logistics has traditionally not been viewed ...

  18. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity - a Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...

  19. International Perspectives on Work-Family Policies: Lessons from the World's Most Competitive Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Mokomane, Zitha; Heymann, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The United States does not guarantee families a wide range of supportive workplace policies such as paid maternity and paternity leave or paid leave to care for sick children. Proposals to provide such benefits are invariably met with the complaint that the costs would reduce employment and undermine the international competitiveness of American…

  20. 78 FR 24158 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for NATO International Competitive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for NATO International Competitive Bidding AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is the executive agency responsible for certifying U.S...

  1. Analysis of actual state on enterprise competitive intelligence at internal and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nansheng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the actual state of the enterprise competitive intelligence at internal and abroad and on the point of view of practice and theory, it sets forth the character of ci and the influence on the enterprise, analyzes objectivity the questions and the challenges in using CI in our country, brings up the methods and channels in setting up the CIS. (author)

  2. Evaluation of competitive and economic indices in canola and pea intercropping at different rates of nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfollah fallah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate of competitive and economic indices in canola and pea intercropping at different rates of nitrogen fertilizer at Shahrekord University research farm during 1390 - 1391. Intercropping and sole cropping treatments (100% canola; 66% canola + 33% pea, 50% canola + 50% pea; 33% canola + 66% pea; 100% pea were evaluated as the first factor and nitrogen rates (100% need; 75% need and 50% need as the second factor in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The calculated competitive indices were included land equivalent ratio (LER, relative crowding coefficient (K, aggressively (A, the system production index (SPI, actual yield loss (AYL, competitive ratio (CR and economy indices included monetary advantage index (MAI, and the intercropping advantage (IA. Results showed that all the competitive and economic indices had the highest amount in 50 and 75% of nitrogen requirement. The amounts of AYLt and SPI and economic indices (MAI and IA were positive for all intercropping ratios. Also, LERt and Kt for all intercropping ratio were greater than one, that indicating the superiority of intercropping over sole cropping any of the two plants. The positive values aggressively index and the greater than one values competitive ratio for canola, indicated canola was superior competitor in compared to pea. In conclusion, the evaluation of competitive and economic indices appropriately describes intercropping advantage of canola with pea in reduced nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  3. The law, economics and politics of international standardisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    In an era of increased reliance on private regulatory bodies and globalised economic activity, standardisation is the field where politics, technical expertise and strategic behaviour meet and interact. International standard-setting bodies exemplify the rise of transnational governance and the

  4. International business and economic geography : knowledge, time and transactions costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip

    This paper sketches out how the ways in which a combination of economic geography and international business approaches can shed light on the spatial behaviour of multinational companies. The emphasis of the argument here is on the nature of the knowledge content embedded in the transactions of the

  5. Investigation of international energy economics. [Use of econometric model EXPLOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Clement, M.; Foley, T.J.; Rao, S.A.

    1977-03-01

    The Division of International Affairs of the Energy Research and Development Administration is assessing the long-range economic effects of energy research and development programs in the U.S. and other countries, particularly members of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In support of this effort, a program was designed to coordinate the capabilities of five research groups--Rand, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The program could evaluate the international economics of proposed or anticipated sources of energy. This program is designed to be general, flexible, and capable of evaluating a diverse collection of potential energy (nuclear and nonnuclear) related problems. For example, the newly developed methodology could evaluate the international and domestic economic impact of nuclear-related energy sources, but also existing nonnuclear and potential energy sources such as solar, geothermal, wind, etc. Major items to be included would be the cost of exploration, cost of production, prices, profit, market penetration, investment requirements and investment goods, economic growth, change in balance of payments, etc. In addition, the changes in cost of producing all goods and services would be identified for each new energy source. PNL developed (1) a means of estimating the demands for major forms of energy by country, and (2) a means of identifying results or impacts on each country. The results for each country were then to be compared to assess relative advantages. PNL relied on its existing general econometric model, EXPLOR, to forecast the demand for energy by country. (MCW)

  6. The Impacts of Climate Change Negotiation on Domestic Industrial Structure and International Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Yoon Young [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    environmental impacts on South Korea. On the whole, the Kyoto Protocol has the potential to cause profound economic changes in individual countries and the wider global economy. From an economic perspective the setting of greenhouse gas emission targets in the Kyoto Protocol was the key decision taken at Kyoto because of the significant implications on economic and trade competitiveness they hold. Now that individual Annex I country targets have been set, the international debate has shifted toward the question of cost effective and environmentally credible implementation of the Protocol and the way of participation of developing countries including South Korea to contribute to the global efforts for greenhouse gas emission reduction. It is believed that the ongoing climate change negotiation could create the structural changes of industries in South Korea. This new situation will bring South Korea to an unfamiliar economic and social environment. (author). 76 refs., 41 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. An Analysis of Economic Growth, Competitiveness and Macroeconomic Imbalances in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hurduzeu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the determinants of the economic crisis and of the sovereign debt crisis, we aim to analyze the dynamics of the European economies and discuss changes related to macroeconomic imbalances, as highlighted by the recent crises as an important factor of the unfavorable dynamics registered during the last years. In this respect we considered both internal and external imbalances, as specified in the macroeconomic imbalance procedure that was implemented for the European Union member states since 2012, as a response to the crises that affected all open economies of the world. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive analysis of economic imbalances in the European Union and to determine their influence on economic growth.

  8. Competition in electricity markets: international experience and the case of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Giulietti, M.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of European Directives 96/92 and 2003/54 on the liberalisation of the internal market for electricity, the Italian electricity sector has been subject to extensive institutional changes which have affected the competitive nature of the market. In this paper we attempt to assess the likely effect of these institutional changes on the Italian electricity industry, and focus particularly on the impact of the introduction of a centralised wholesale market. The assessment of the likely impact of these institutional changes is based on the comparison with the international experience of countries where extensive liberalisation measures have been implemented (such as the US, UK and the Scandinavian region). On the basis of this international comparison, we draw some lessons about how to promote effective competition in the Italian market and in other electricity markets which have not been fully liberalised. (Author)

  9. Smart City as Framework for Creating Competitive Advantages in International Business Management

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Sofronijević; Vesna Milićević; Bojan Ilić

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the essence of the Smart City concept and opportunities for the creation of competitive advantages arising in the framework generated by this concept. Various elements of a Smart City are analysed and related to different options for economic growth and business innovation improvement. Possibilities arising from networking and clustering in Creative Cities are listed along with some details of advantages provided by a symbiosis of information and communication technologies ...

  10. The International Closed Competition for the “Smart School” Complex in Irkutsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inessa Brazhnikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the International Closed Competition for an educational institution in a new format – the “Smart School” Complex in Irkutsk. The winner of the competition, CEBRA Company (Denmark, proposed an architectural concept for a ‘School Park’, which would unite architecture and landscape, while creating a unique space and inspiring students to respect the past, the present and the future. The key points of CEBRA’s architectural concept are given in the article.

  11. International competitiveness of the Polish wood industry from the mesoeconomic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wanat, Leszek; Wojciech, Lis

    2012-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Polish forest and wood industry, in particular the wood market itself, is determined by many factors which are shaping – to a various extent – its basic measure, i.e. a share of the industry or each of its sectors in the open international market. Due to a significant share of the wood industry in the generation of Poland's GDP, constant measurement and verification of this sector's competitiveness, both ex-ante and ex-post, seem to be of extreme importance. Next to...

  12. Institutional factor in international economic activity of region and its socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the impact of the institutional factor on the development of regional international economic relations. The scope of the study is regional international economic activity (IEA, the subject-matter is the role of the institutional factor in its development. The study purpose is to develop a scientific approach for the assessment of the institutional factor impact on the development of region’s international economic relations. The hypothesis is that the targeted efforts of all participants of IEA of the region (business, authorities, local community to strengthen of theese components of the institutional factor, which have a strong influence on the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach for the assessment of this influenceis developed. It includes determining three elements of IEA institutionalization—agreements, organizations, events. A three-dimensional model is proposed for the coordination of these elements with 3 groups of countries—developed, developing and CIS, including the Eurasian Economic Union, and also with basic indexes characterizing the qualitative and quantitative contribution of region’s IEA into its socio-economic development. This model is tested on the example of the Sverdlovsk region of Russia for 2003–2015. That has allowed to define various kinds of the effects from strenthening the IEA institutional component, which are expressed in the increase of the export of the region, improvement of its investment attractiveness, the diversification of regional economy as well as the the generation of additional jobs and tax flows increase.

  13. Youth Entrepreneurship as a Way of Boosting Indian Economic Competitiveness: A Study of Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusmita Dash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in youth entrepreneurship has been fuelled due to high levels of unemployment amongst young people and as a way to foster employment opportunities or to address social exclusion. Youth entrepreneurship has gained more importance in recent years in many countries, with increased interest in entrepreneurship as a way of boosting economic competitiveness and promoting regional development. Based on survey and interview of the young entrepreneurs through a structured questionnaire in Bhubaneswar and Cuttack, the twin cities of Orissa, the researchers have made an attempt to study the factors contributing to the promotion of young entrepreneurs to start up their own enterprise, to find out the constraints that impedes and prospects that motivates the young people in starting and running a business and to assess the performance of the young entrepreneurs in Orissa.

  14. Development of an industrial complex for ensuring national competitiveness and economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kalach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living standards depends on the state of the country’s industrial complex. In a message to Russian President Vladimir Putin's Federal Assembly was asked to implement in 2015 a national technological initiative, the development of industries of the new technological order. As a result of the predominance of the industry of the sixth technological order should occur major changes in the structure of production factors and significance. It follows the inevitability of structural changes in the system of economic institutions and mechanisms of economic security and competitiveness of the state achieve the main goal of the state program “The development of industry and increase its competitiveness” is carried out through the following the directions of sub-programs: investment goods (chemical complex development composite materials, industrial biotechnology, power engineering, machine tool industry, agricultural machinery, machinery specialized production, transport engineering; goods (light industry, children;s products industry, the automotive industry; military-industrial complex; infrastructure (development of engineering activities, industrial parks; semi-finished goods and materials (timber industry, metallurgy, industrial development of rare-earth metals. At the current pace of technological and economic development, the 6 th technological structure will come into proliferation phase in 2010–2020, and in the phase of maturity – 40-ies of XXI century. At the same time in 2020–2025 there will be a new scientific-technical and technological revolution, which will become the basis for developing, synthesizing advances in the above basic technologies. In this paper, we proposed as a tool to ensure the economic security of the state to use the acceleration system of technical development of the industrial complex.

  15. The Competitiveness-Crisis Nexus in the EU Politics of Internal Devaluation. A Critical Political Economy Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigger, A.

    2017-01-01

    In response to Chancellor Merkel’s call for a ‘Competitiveness Compact’ at the World Economic Forum in Davos in January 2013, the European Commission has launched a package of new economic policies that are argued to be key for realising a "Genuine Monetary and Economic Union". Part and parcel of

  16. Potash Taxation: How Canada’s Regime is Neither Efficient nor Competitive from an International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Saskatchewan — and by extension, Canada — is the largest producer of potash in the world, accounting for over 30 per cent of global production. Perhaps the good fortune of having an abundance of such a valuable natural resource has engendered an approach whereby tax policy has not been considered a top priority. That would at least be one explanation for the alarmingly inefficient and uncompetitive potash regime that currently exists in Saskatchewan. New Brunswick’s potash-taxation regime is at least somewhat better designed than Saskatchewan’s, although it hardly stands as a model of efficiency. In both cases, poorly designed policies are hindering the provinces’ economic potential and, in turn, Canada’s. Put bluntly, when compared against its international peers, Saskatchewan’s potash-tax regime is not only the most complex and inefficient, it can also be the least competitive since its tax incentives conditioned on dated production levels and investment sizes cannot be used in perpetuity. Whereas its international peers tend to tax all potash investment projects equally, the marginal effective tax and royalty rates (METRR on potash investment projects in Saskatchewan, either itemized or aggregated, are so widely varied that it is possible to calculate a METRR gap between two different projects as much as 48 percentage points. The convoluted nature of Saskatchewan’s regime benefits no one — not producers, investors, or the provincial government, which is left without any revenue certainty from its most significant natural resource. In fact, in recent years, where potash production and sales value rebounded substantially in Saskatchewan from 2009 levels, excessive tax allowances resulted in the province incurring three years of tax revenue losses from its potash production tax. New Brunswick’s potash-taxation regime is less complex than Saskatchewan’s, but it is not efficient. The province recently introduced a price

  17. Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Predicts Self-Reported Measures of General Competitiveness, but Not Behavior in Economic Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönte, Werner; Procher, Vivien D; Urbig, Diemo; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D) is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE), with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I) and 617 university students (Study II). The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D) in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.

  18. Digit Ratio (2D:4D Predicts Self-Reported Measures of General Competitiveness, but Not Behavior in Economic Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bönte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE, with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I and 617 university students (Study II. The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.

  19. The American Mortgage Crisis Implications on the international economics evolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia NISTOR

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Shock waves that produce large cracks deepen existing political, economic and social, and sometimes a new order replaces the old. In 2010, states across the world over blast, which invariably will lead to changing the current world order. Last twenty years have seen major changes in international economic context, the Soviet Union collapsed and centralized economies in Eastern Europe, reforms in China and India, export-based growth strategies in East Asia, all leading to the creation of a world economy market and also bringing 4 to 5 billion people.

  20. Editorial: New Developments in International Business and Economics in CEECs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Puślecki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The political and economic shift of early 1990s in Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEECs initiated a fundamental process of transformation of the region's economies and firms (Galgóczi, 2002. The formerly regulated economies gradually became an integral part of the global economy (Dayan & Gorynia, 2009; Szarucki, 2013. While the unprecedented scale of change provided then a unique research setting for international business and economics scholars, there have been recent discussions about the extent to which the CEE region is still a specific business environment (Schuh & Rossmann, 2010.

  1. ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AND ITS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel COSER

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the competitiveness of food products can be found in many research studies in the field. They reveal the essence of agro-food competitiveness, while expressing management tools and method. At the level of agro-food competitiveness management, this article highlights also the possibility of influencing factors determining the defining characteristics of the respective competitiveness.

  2. Economic essence of competitiveness of agro-food products and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coser Cornel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the competitiveness of food products can be found in many research studies in the field. They reveal the essence of agro-food competitiveness, while expressing management tools and method. At the level of agro-food competitiveness management, this article highlights also the possibility of influencing factors determining the defining characteristics of the respective competitiveness.

  3. State Policy of Stimulation of Industrial Competitiveness under Conditions of Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Viacheslav H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problems of state regulatory policy of stimulation of economic growth, increase of efficiency of activity of industrial branches of the country. It considers examples of foreign experience in the part of state support of domestic manufacturers. It shows possible variants of integration of co-operation between CIS countries on the basis of specialisation, co-operation and joint activity for achieving economic growth of economies. It demonstrates an automated system of mass servicing of customers, which is offered to be used in the structure of associations of trade enterprises. It offers ways of achievement of competitive advantages of domestic enterprises under conditions of globalisation by means of introduction of clusters of the consumer market enterprises. The article reveals their shortcomings and possibilities of development in the territory of Ukraine under conditions of limited financial resources. It acknowledges that measures of the fiscal policy should be directed, first of all, at support of creation of associations of medium enterprises of the light and other branches of industry and agriculture, which have development potential. It identifies main elements of creation of state programmes of support and development of the cluster form of organisation of the light and other branches of industry, agriculture and trade.

  4. The Conceptual Foundations for Ensuring the International Competitiveness of Tourism Company in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarha Oleksandra O.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the conceptual-strategic principles of ensuring the international competitiveness of tourism enterprise. As result of research the essence and value of management of competitiveness of tourism enterprise in the conditions of globalization were considered. Factors of formation of competitive advantages, and also the reasons determining competitiveness of a tourism product have been determined. The main aspects of formation of quality of services provision have been identified. On the basis of the carried out research, the concept of integrated marketing communications has been formed, which is a combination of traditional ways of communication activity with the only synchronized communication, oriented towards establishing the multichannel relationships with different target audiences, with choosing an own marketing model for each audience. Application of the given concept would allow to optimally choose means of communication and to provide more effective realization of a tourism product at the international market of tourism services that will promote companies’ overgrowing their local status and gaining their self-importance on a global scale.

  5. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The text of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - a high-class international document on the assurance and legal protection of the human rights - outlined a sum of principles regarding these rights, which fall within the broad range of legal doctrine on fundamental human rights. These principles are not contrary to the principles set out in the Charter of the United Nations and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, on the contrary, it were given an evident expression in its text content. That the authors of this Covenant wanted the assertion of these principle provisions, it is actually confirmed by the text of Article 24.

  6. Economic Sustainability in International Business: Peculiarities, Methods and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna Pavlivna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a contribution to the ongoing analysis of economic sustainability in international business. This study is presented with a view toward further understanding and agreement of the key concepts of sustainability. Approaches to sustainability are considered, important benchmarks and essential characteristics of sustainable development in international business are included. The article demonstrates how the concept of economic sustainability can be applied to the business level. The main ideas of the most widespread concepts on resource management are presented. Incorporation of ESG and financial factors in the concept of sustainable investing is considered. Emissions that are responsible for climate change, namely top emitters, key issues and figures are presented.

  7. Discussion on Industry Chain Financing Promoting International Competitiveness of China’s Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuo; LI; Tingting; CHANG

    2015-01-01

    Industry chain financing,also known as supply chain financing,is a kind of financial innovation in production and transaction emerging from the 1990 s. Recent years,industry chain financing has gradually permeated in agriculture. As one of the major agricultural countries in the world,China should still make great endeavor in satisfying domestic requirement of agricultural products and improving international competitiveness. Based on the empirical and feasible analysis of agricultural industry chain financing,this article emphasizes on the new mode of industry chain financing and puts forward some related policy suggestions to discuss how to quicken agricultural development with financial support as well as promote international competitiveness of China’s agriculture.

  8. INTERNATIONAL RESERVES, GUARANTEE THAT SUPPORTS ROMANIA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate demand in our country far exceeds the ability of the economy to produce goods and services. The gap between total demand for goods and services on the one hand and economic status, on the other hand stands out primarily by the continuing need for funds to cover the budget deficit. The Lack of foreign investors, poor development of capital market and non-involvement of credit institutions to support economic development leads the Romanian state to borrow regularly on international money market. Guarantor of the country for these loans is the reserve fund managed by the central bank of the state. Trade deficits and foreign borrowing are two components of the same problems. As the state borrows more from the international financial markets the higher is the trade deficit. A national initiative on facilities development companies with export production and aggregate demand for domestic products, can lead to lower imports. Increasing the fund's reserves and activation may be one of the solutions required to support economic development. Through this study we try to discover the role of the reserve fund and other sources of economic development.

  9. Are stricter investment rules contagious? Host country competition for foreign direct investment through international agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Roy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the trend toward international investment agreements (IIAs) with stricter investment rules is driven by competitive diffusion, namely defensive moves of developing countries concerned about foreign direct investment (FDI) diversion in favor of competing host countries. Accounting for spatial dependence in the formation of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and preferential trade agreements (PTAs) that contain investment provisions, we find that the increase in agreements with ...

  10. Smart City as Framework for Creating Competitive Advantages in International Business Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sofronijević

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the essence of the Smart City concept and opportunities for the creation of competitive advantages arising in the framework generated by this concept. Various elements of a Smart City are analysed and related to different options for economic growth and business innovation improvement. Possibilities arising from networking and clustering in Creative Cities are listed along with some details of advantages provided by a symbiosis of information and communication technologies and creativity to companies operating in such environments. Managerial aspects of the Internet of Things are presented and identified as a basis for the Smart City outlook, but also as a major prospect to develop certain business opportunities leading to competitive advantages for companies operating out of smart cities.

  11. Burkina Faso - Promoting Growth, Competitiveness and Diversification : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 2. Sources of Growth - Key Sectors for Tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...

  12. Competitiveness of the railway transportation in the conditions of functioning of the infrastructure new organizational-economic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Mishchenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The transport infrastructure of railways of the countries of EU-27 in the conditions of functioning new organizational-economic mechanism, and also dynamics of level of competitiveness of a railway transportation as result of reforming of railways of the countries of EU-27, in the conditions of realisation of the European transport legislation is investigated.

  13. Fear, economic consequences, hunting competition, and distrust of authorities determine preferences for illegal lethal actions against gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Peter Lyhne; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2017-01-01

    based on similarities of preferences. Preference for illegal lethal actions were found among four groups concerned about; (1) negative economic impact; (2) competition over game; (3) safety of humans and domestic animals, and; (4) lack of trust in authorities. Our results do not imply that 60...

  14. Safety and Security Decisions in times of Economic Crisis : Establishing a Competitive Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that organisations who invest intelligently in safety and security, regardless the macroeconomic situation, will have a competitive advantage over their competitors not doing so. Establishing and maintaining a competitive advantage is all about excellence. Excellent results actually

  15. An Internationally Competitive Economy: a Comparison of Poland and the Visegrad Group Countries in the Post‑Accession Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molendowski Edward

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an analysis comparing the competitive position of Poland and other countries of the Visegrad Group (V4 in the post‑accession period (2004-2015. The assumption is that among the V4 countries, Poland has joined those countries where the diverse effects of EU membership are clearly visible. In the study, analysis was applied to secondary data pertaining to pillars of economic competitiveness, as determined by the ‘Global Competitiveness Reports’ prepared by the World Economic Forum. The article ends with a list of vital conclusions based on the presented analysis.

  16. Trade Barrier Elimination, Economics of Scale and Market Competition: Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastutik Widyastutik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN and its dialogue partner countries agreed to reduce trade barriers in the services sector, one of which is sea transport services. The purpose of this study is to estimate the equivalent tax of non-tariff barriers in the sea transport services. Besides that, this study is going to analyze the economic impacts of the regulatory barriers elimination in the sea transport services of ASEAN and its dialogue partner countries. Using the gravity model, it can be identified that trade barriers of sea transport services sector of ASEAN and dialogue partner countries are still relatively high. Additionally, by adopting IC-IRTS model in Global CGE Model (GTAP, the simulation results show consistent results with the theory of pro-competitive effects. The greater gain from trade is obtained in the CGE model assuming IC-IRTS compared to PC-CRTS. China gains a greater benefit that is indicated by the highest increase in welfare and GDP followed by Japan and AustraliaDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i2.5279

  17. International Summer School on Mathematical Systems Theory and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Szegö, G

    1969-01-01

    The International Summer School on Mathematical Systems Theory and Economics was held at the Villa Monastero in Varenna, Italy, from June 1 through June 12, 1967. The objective of this Summer School was to review the state of the art and the prospects for the application of the mathematical theory of systems to the study and the solution of economic problems. Particular emphasis was given to the use of the mathematical theory of control for the solution of problems in economics. It was felt that the publication of a volume collecting most of the lectures given at the school would show the current status of the application of these methods. The papers are organized into four sections arranged into two volumes: basic theories and optimal control of economic systems which appear in the first volume, and special mathematical problems and special applications which are contained in the second volume. Within each section the papers follow in alphabetical order by author. The seven papers on basic theories are a rat...

  18. The economic impact of South Africa’s international airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is strongly linked to economic growth and plays a major role in providing greater mobility and choice, leading to an improvement in incomes and welfare. Transport infrastructure such as highways, bridges, ports, airports and railways is critical in achieving economic growth. If the supply of these facilities does not keep up with rising demand, the cost of moving goods will increase, and there will be a downward pressure on profits and growth. Airports play a critical role in generating employment within an economy, creating wealth, contributing to the tax base, stimulating tourism and contributing to world trade. While the latter two are less easily measured, it is possible to determine a base impact that an airport has on an economy by measuring the direct and indirect gross domestic product, employment and taxation impacts. This study quantifies these for the three main international airports in South Africa.

  19. Qualitative Event-Based Diagnosis: Case Study on the Second International Diagnostic Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2010-01-01

    We describe a diagnosis algorithm entered into the Second International Diagnostic Competition. We focus on the first diagnostic problem of the industrial track of the competition in which a diagnosis algorithm must detect, isolate, and identify faults in an electrical power distribution testbed and provide corresponding recovery recommendations. The diagnosis algorithm embodies a model-based approach, centered around qualitative event-based fault isolation. Faults produce deviations in measured values from model-predicted values. The sequence of these deviations is matched to those predicted by the model in order to isolate faults. We augment this approach with model-based fault identification, which determines fault parameters and helps to further isolate faults. We describe the diagnosis approach, provide diagnosis results from running the algorithm on provided example scenarios, and discuss the issues faced, and lessons learned, from implementing the approach

  20. Gathering International Competitive Intelligence via Online Data Retrieval in the International Marketing Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fred

    A unit on online data retrieval techniques designed for a college course in international marketing is described. The unit is intended to teach students how to compile information on overseas markets and competitors. Online retrieval is seen as a relatively inexpensive means of gathering important data from otherwise inaccessible international…

  1. International economic association on production of nuclear instrumentation - ''INTERINSTRUMENT''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twardon, Z.

    1979-01-01

    History of establishment and development of the International economic association ''Interinstrument'' is stated. Structure of the Association is given and directions of its activity, as well as structure of its budget. List is given of organizations, performing works according to the agreements with the Association. Main directions are stated of activity of the Association in the field of specialization of production of items of nuclear equipment; co-ordination of activity in the sphere of foreign trade; information about new instruments. Activity is stated of the branch offices of the Association, engaged in maintenance of instruments and nuclear equipment [ru

  2. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

  3. Energy policy under the aspect of international economic interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    A few introductory remarks on the status of and on prospects fo the world energy economy as well as on reasons given for the necessity of a world-wide coordination of energy policy and economic policy are followed by an explanation of the policy led by oil extracting countries and of the endeavour of western industrialized countries to reduce oil imports. Even if the state of utilizing nuclear energy does not yet present a sufficient alternative, the international nuclear energy continues to be directed towards this goal. Seen from an international viewpoint, relieving contributions are to be expected from energy-conservation-actions and from the development of regenerative energy sources. (UA) [de

  4. Solar photovoltaic. Competitiveness and economic evaluation. Comparative and models; Energia solar fotovoltaica. Competitividad y evaluacion economica. comparativa y modelos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado Fernandez, E.; Colmenar Santos, A.; Peire Arroba, J.; Carpio Ibanez, J.; Castro Gil, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    Limits have been evaluated in the medium and long term economic competitiveness of solar photovoltaic energy in general and Spain in particular, considering the level of evolution that must have this form of energy production, until it become cevitamin with the other traditional energy sources and other emerging growth. to conduct the study, has developed a scenario-based methodology photovoltaic, which has taken account of the Spanish state regulation because it is vital operation on the road to real competitiveness relative to other types of energy. (Author) 10 refs.

  5. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  6. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Indra Juarsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multinational Corporation/MNC has a significant role to play in promoting sustainable development and alleviating global poverty. As a subject of International Economic Law, MNC has the rights to take profit from its business activities. In addition, it also has responsibility to protect sustainable environment through CSR program. This paper focuses on what more specific instrument sets CSR in international economic law, and how CSR can be implemented by the MNC. International (public law has been providing instruments to regulate MNC activities related to CSR, those are: OECD Guidelines, ILO Declaration and UN Global Compact. However, they are only “soft laws” that still require more specific instrument to be implemented. As a continuation of the general rules of public international CSR Instruments, the World Bank Group through the IFC and MIGA sets standard performances that must be met by every corporation that will get finance (IFC or guarantee (MIGA. Standard Performances are described further in the environmental, health and safety guidelines that are essential for every company to provide protection to stakeholders related to business activities including workers, communities, and environment. As the method of evaluation and enforcement, IFC and MIGA have institution namely Compliance Advisor Ombudsman serving to receive reports from the public, investigate and provide notification to the company activities that negatively affect the society. Ultimately CSR is not only seen as philanthropy (mandatory but also as guidelines and a code of conduct to be followed by the corporation in carrying out any business.   Key words: mandatory norm, obligatory norm, CSR

  7. 76 FR 75599 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Meeting Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7659] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Meeting Cancellation The meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy... Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, and Business...

  8. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF HIGHER EDUCATION OF UKRAINE ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Tsarenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is evaluation of competitiveness of higher education of Ukraine in comparison with the foreign countries and under the influence of the globalization of market environment. The evaluation of the level of competitiveness of higher education in Ukraine on the modern stage under the influence of the globalization transformation and in the light of international comparisons is investigated insufficiently, which makes up for the purpose and objectives of this research. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of the data, which are set out in the international reports about the competitiveness of countries in the world, in particular about the higher education. The analysis of the degree of researching the problem of competitiveness of higher education in the works of scientists is made in advance. Results of the research showed that the main components of pillar «High education and training» of the Global Competitiveness Index, namely: secondary education enrollment, tertiary education enrollment, quality of the education system, quality of math and science education, quality of management schools, internet access in schools, availability of research and training services and extent of staff training. The analysis of the dynamics of the indicator “Higher education and training” of Global Competitiveness Index is made for Ukraine and the other countries, which is showed the following: in the last five years the highest index of higher education and training belongs to Finland, the score of which, in the dynamics, significantly increases, concerning Ukraine, it among 132 countries takes 40th place, that is top 50 countries with the highest ranking of the competitiveness of higher education and training, this position for Ukraine is stable, with the exception of 2011, when the position was reduced to 51 in the rankings. Furthermore, in 2014 Ukraine’s rating has increased in comparison with other years. Then in

  9. THE INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS’ IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Prykhodko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper. In our study we try to assess the causality link between a number of the international economic integration politico-economic factors, institutions and basic production factors with the growth of the economy. We form a sample of 18 post-socialist countries, including Central and Eastern Europe (CEE countries-members the European Union, and the rest of CEE non-members countries and CIS countries, who have not acquired the membership in the EU, including Ukraine. The time period of our study is 23 years, starting from 1991 – the year of independence of Ukraine till 2013 – the last year for which statistics are published for our group of a corresponding list of indicators that make up our interest. In the estimating equation we use econometric analysis panel data by least squares method with fixed effects transformation to eliminate countries’ heterogeneity. In the study we use such determinant of the institutions quality as the Index of Economic Freedom (Heritage Foundation, and we investigate various components of the Index of Economic Freedom (freedom of ownership, freedom of trade, freedom from corruption, freedom of investment. We assume that institutions towards freedom of foreign trade and reducing corruption will have a greater effect on the economy of the investigated countries. It is advisable to attach to the international economic integration politico-economic factors the indicator of foreign trade taxation as a measure of tariff barriers, international aid programs of the foreign donors and the European institutions to assess their role for the economic growth of the countries surveyed, and we take into account the capital and the labor as the basic factors of production. Methodology. The methods of synthesis, logic, abstraction and analysis are used in the study. On a sample of 18 post-socialist countries (CEE and CIS for the period of 23 years (1991-2013 we had conducted the econometric panel analysis

  10. THE MECHANISM OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION IN INNOVATION COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia S. Leontieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout article authors give algorithm of organizational culture diagnostic testing of the Hyundai Glovis Russia company, features and difficulties of her cross-cultural environment. Within research the corporate culture and history of the Hyundai Glovis Russia company is analysed. Besides, systems of norms, values and behavior models of the Korean and Russian personnel, and also set of forms of interaction between them are compared. The structural model of transformation of cultural distinctions in competitive advantages of the international enterprise structures is developed.

  11. Essays on inference in economics, competition, and the rate of profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfenaker, Ellis S.

    This dissertation is comprised of three papers that demonstrate the role of Bayesian methods of inference and Shannon's information theory in classical political economy. The first chapter explores the empirical distribution of profit rate data from North American firms from 1962-2012. This chapter address the fact that existing methods for sample selection from noisy profit rate data in the industrial organization field of economics tends to be conditional on a covariate's value that risks discarding information. Conditioning sample selection instead on the profit rate data's structure by means of a two component (signal and noise) Bayesian mixture model we find the the profit rate sample to be time stationary Laplace distributed, corroborating earlier estimates of cross section distributions. The second chapter compares alternative probabilistic approaches to discrete (quantal) choice analysis and examines the various ways in which they overlap. In particular, the work on individual choice behavior by Duncan Luce and the extension of this work to quantal response problems by game theoreticians is shown to be related both to the rational inattention work of Christopher Sims through Shannon's information theory as well as to the maximum entropy principle of inference proposed physicist Edwin T. Jaynes. In the third chapter I propose a model of ``classically" competitive firms facing informational entropy constraints in their decisions to potentially enter or exit markets based on profit rate differentials. The result is a three parameter logit quantal response distribution for firm entry and exit decisions. Bayesian methods are used for inference into the the distribution of entry and exit decisions conditional on profit rate deviations and firm level data from Compustat is used to test these predictions.

  12. Lessons from plant management for achieving economic competitiveness for evolutionary reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andognini, G.

    1999-01-01

    Ontario Hydro, Canada's largest utility, has 20 nuclear power units of the CANDU design with a total design power of 15, 020 Electrical MW or about half of the total generating capacity. The performance of these plants, which were installed between the 1970s and early 1990s, was initially very good but worsened in recent years and the regulator expressed concerns about declining safety standards. In early 1997, an external Nuclear Performance Advisory Group led by Mr G. Carl Andognini was established and conducted an intensive assessment of the nuclear operation. That assessment ranked the operation of Ontario Hydro's plants as m inimally acceptable , noting a number of causes such as: lack of management leadership and accountability; poor safety culture; inadequate training; lack of configuration management; and, deficient organization. A recovery program is now underway, involving the laying-up of eight units to free resources to upgrade the remaining twelve. A number of lessons that can be drawn from the Ontario Hydro experience are presented. The key lessons include: the importance of having the light people, with the right qualifications in the right place, at the right time; the need for all staff to have a questioning attitude and to be committed to a s afety culture ; configuration management is essential - knowledge of the status of the plant must be maintained and all documentation kept up to date; maintenance must be given high priority and be provided adequate resources: defined standards are needed for the conduct of all work; the Directors (or equivalent) and senior management must understand the plant and appreciate the consequences of their decisions and actions. The paper concludes that good new designs are not sufficient by themselves to achieve economically competitive and safe nuclear plants - a high standard of operation and maintenance is also necessary throughout the life of the plants. (author)

  13. Formation of an Approach to the Clustered Management of Foreign Economic Activity of Enterprises in the Conditions of Global Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushchenko Olena A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at formation of an approach to the clustered management of foreign economic activity of enterprises in the conditions of global competition. Expedience of use of the cluster approach in the field of management of foreign economic activity of enterprises has been substantiated. A basic framework has been developed and a cluster model for management of foreign economic activity of enterprises providing a description of such management as a complex mechanism with the specified parameters has been created. The basic elements of the cluster model of management of foreign economic activity of enterprise have been allocated. Purposes for selecting elemental clusters in the process of management of foreign economic activity of enterprise have been defined. The partial functions of management that display the functional purpose of the cluster model of management of foreign economic activity of enterprises, as well as the composition of its elements, have been allocated. A generalized hierarchical view of the cluster model of management of foreign economic activity of enterprises has been proposed. A scheme of the operational administration of functioning of the cluster model of management of foreign economic activity of enterprises, based on the core principles and basics of situational simulation, has been presented. Effectiveness of the presented management model is determined by the increasing share of enterprises in the external markets in the context of the relevant clusters, an expansion of the types of foreign economic activity of enterprises, implementation of innovations

  14. Population, internal migration, and economic growth: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, R S

    1982-01-01

    The role of population growth in the development process has received increasing attention during the last 15 years, as manifested in the literature in 3 broad categories. In the 1st category, the effects of rapid population growth on the growth of income have been studied with the use of simulation models, which sometimes include endogenous population growth. The 2nd category of the literature is concerned with theoretical and empirical studies of the economic determinants of various demographic rates--most usually fertility. Internal migration and dualism is the 3rd population development category to recieve attention. An attempt is made to synthesize developments in these 3 categories by estimating from a consistent set of data a 2 sector economic demographic model in which the major demographic rates are endogenous. Due to the fact that the interactions between economic and demographic variables are nonlinear and complex, the indirect effects of changes in a particular variable may depend upon the balance of numerical coefficients. For this reason it was felt that the model should be empirically grounded. A brief overview of the model is provided, and the model is compared to some similar existing models. Estimation of the model's 9 behavior equations is discussed, followed by a "base run" simulation of a developing country "stereotype" and a report of a number of policy experiments. The relatively new field of economic determinants of demographic variables was drawn upon in estimating equations to endogenize demographic phenomena that are frequently left exogenous in simulation models. The fertility and labor force participation rate functions are fairly standard, but a step beyong existing literature was taken in the life expectancy and intersectorial migration equations. On the economic side, sectoral savings functions were estimated, and it was found that the marginal propensity to save is lower in agriculture than in nonagriculture. Testing to see the

  15. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  16. Duplex recombinase polymerase amplification assays incorporating competitive internal controls for bacterial meningitis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Owen; Clancy, Eoin; Forrest, Matthew S; Piepenburg, Olaf; Cormican, Martin; Boo, Teck Wee; O'Sullivan, Nicola; McGuinness, Claire; Cafferty, Deirdre; Cunney, Robert; Smith, Terry J

    2018-04-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology that provides rapid and robust infectious disease pathogen detection, ideal for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics in disease-prevalent low-resource countries. We have developed and evaluated three duplex RPA assays incorporating competitive internal controls for the detection of leading bacterial meningitis pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae singleplex RPA assays were initially developed and evaluated, demonstrating 100% specificity with limits of detection of 4.1, 8.5 and 3.9 genome copies per reaction, respectively. Each assay was further developed into internally controlled duplex RPA assays via the incorporation of internal amplification control templates. Clinical performance of each internally controlled duplex RPA assay was evaluated by testing 64 archived PCR-positive clinical samples. Compared to real-time PCR, all duplex RPA assays demonstrated 100% diagnostic specificity, with diagnostic sensitivities of 100%, 86.3% and 100% for the S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae assays, respectively. This study details the first report of internally controlled duplex RPA assays for the detection of bacterial meningitis pathogens: S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae. We have successfully demonstrated the clinical diagnostic utility of each duplex RPA assay, introducing effective diagnostic technology for POC bacterial meningitis identification in disease-prevalent developing countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PRICE VS QUALITY COMPETITION AND THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF AVERAGE PRICES IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattoscio Nicola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the relationship between the average export prices and the distance between the origin and the destination market in international trade. Distance between trading partners obviously stands at the core of I international trade literature and is strictly related with the issue of how countries and firms compete on export markets when transport costs become increasingly stiff. Heterogeneous-Firm Trade (HFT models predict that only most competitive firms are able to export on distant markets, where it is more difficult to recover from freight costs. However, this simple concept does not lead to unambiguous predictions on the spatial pattern of average export f.o.b. prices. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

  18. THE CAPACITY AND COMPETITIVENESS OF THE FIRMS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS – FOUR MODELS OF MARKET APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina NEAMTU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Firma and companies wish the extension on the international market, but not always are able to serve in anefficient manner, an extended market as a result of the capacity restrictions that these companies register. Inrapport with the capacity restrictions, the firm would take into account another dimension of the Internationalmarket that might posses. The study takes into consideration the adaptation of the firm at one of the four levels ofmarket development, having as result two major approaches, each approach offering two action modalities at thelevel of international business. There results four modalities (ways of assignment of the resources and activities,depending on the capacity of the company, in rapport with the one of the market and competition.

  19. Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Skill Performance During an International Female Rugby Sevens Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Javier; Del Coso, Juan; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2017-12-01

    Portillo, J, Del Coso, J, and Abián-Vicén, J. Effects of caffeine ingestion on skill performance during an international female rugby sevens competition. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3351-3357, 2017-The aim of this study was to establish the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on skills and technical performance during a match in female elite rugby sevens players. On 2 nonconsecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish national rugby sevens team (mean age = 23 ± 2 years) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink). After 60 minutes for caffeine absorption, participants played 3 rugby sevens matches against another national team. Body impacts during the matches were assessed by triaxial accelerometers. The matches were videotaped, and each individual technical action was notated afterward by 2 experienced observers. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the rate of body impacts in zone 1 (16.1 ± 4.9 vs. 20.8 ± 9.9 impacts/min, p rugby-specific technical actions during the games. In conclusion, the ingestion of 3 mg·kg of caffeine in the form of an energy drink increased the number of body impacts during a rugby sevens international competition which suggests a higher engagement of the players during the game. However, the caffeine ingestion did not influence the quality of the technical actions performed during the competition.

  20. Creating competitive advantage in international marketing: strategic alliances at exportation logistics – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Mazzali

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the creation process of a competitive advantage in the international business, starting on the concept of the supply chain management. First, the aim of this study is to show that the dimension of the success in the international negotiations depends on the formation of strategic alliances. Second, that the formation of the alliances demands the adaptation of cultures and strategies of all the involved parties. It was opted for a qualitative research, with descriptive character, associated to the experience of an executives group of the Cia Cacique de Café Solúvel and its partners, on the constitution of a logistic alliance. It is clearly shown, on one hand, that the alliance between the main company and its partners consolidates the necessity of strategic interdependence in the interior of the supply chain. On the other hand, the success of it is based on the identification and selection of the partners, the effective alignment of interests and strategies, the construction of the confidence, the equal treatment and transparence in the negotiation. Key-words: export logistics; strategic alliances; competitive advantage

  1. Relationships between triathlon performance and pacing strategy during the run in an international competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Meur, Yann; Bernard, Thierry; Dorel, Sylvain; Abbiss, Chris R; Honnorat, Gérard; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between athlete's pacing strategies and running performance during an international triathlon competition. Running split times for each of the 107 finishers of the 2009 European Triathlon Championships (42 females and 65 males) were determined with the use of a digital synchronized video analysis system. Five cameras were placed at various positions of the running circuit (4 laps of 2.42 km). Running speed and an index of running speed variability (IRSVrace) were subsequently calculated over each section or running split. Mean running speed over the first 1272 m of lap 1 was 0.76 km·h-1 (+4.4%) and 1.00 km·h-1 (+5.6%) faster than the mean running speed over the same section during the three last laps, for females and males, respectively (P international competitions, even if high levels of motivation and direct opponents lead them to adopt an aggressive strategy.

  2. Output-based allocation as a form of protection for internationally competitive industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, Erik

    2003-12-01

    Policies adopted by Annex B Parties to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to increase costs for industries vulnerable to international competition in domestic or export markets. Domestic emissions trading, by enabling the aggregate emissions target to be met at least cost, helps to reduce the adverse impacts on these industries. An output-based allocation of allowances reduces the output decline due to imposition of the emissions trading program relative to a lump-sum (historic) allocation and so helps reduce the adverse impacts on these industries. The effectiveness of an output-based allocation in maintaining production must be assessed empirically because it depends on the characteristics of all of the firms covered by the trading program as well as other factors. Modeling results for a possible emissions trading program for Alberta confirm the expected impacts of an output-based allocation and indicate that the effectiveness varies across industries. While encouraging greater production, an output-based allocation lowers profits relative to a lump-sum allocation and leads to a different distribution of costs. Other policy options for reducing the output decline in industries vulnerable to international competition include lump-sum allocations or auctioned allowances combined with assistance programs for emission reduction actions or a requirement to meet 'world best' emission performance standard. These policy options should be compared with an output-based allocation in terms of effectiveness, total cost and other impacts, before a policy is adopted

  3. MACROECONOMIC ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Hooke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of globalization of world economic processes, the role of individual national economies increases, comparative advantages of the development of a country are formed, and their competitiveness is ensured. That is why it is worth emphasizing the importance of increasing the competitiveness of each individual country, based on its internal capacity. In a broad aspect, the competitiveness of the national economy is perceived as the ability of the country to ensure the balance of its external proportions and to avoid those constraints imposed by the foreign economic sphere, to self-organizing the improvement of their world economic ties. The competitiveness of the economy at the macro level is associated with the duration of the cycle of reproduction of the main productive assets and, accordingly, the jobs, productive forces of society and determined by the overall economic efficiency of investment. The criteria of competitiveness of the national economy are the growth of social productivity of labor, increase of social and economic efficiency of production and standard of living of the population. The competitiveness of the national economy determines sustainable socio-economic development of the country, as well as sustainable development predetermines the competitiveness of not only the country, but also all its levels. Scientific results are obtained using special methods of research of economic objects and phenomena, that is, based on the correlation and regressive, comparative analysis (establishing the relationship between the indicator factor, as well as economic modeling. Findings. Generalizing analysis and the importance of the macroeconomic aspect of competitiveness were used in the research paper, which will allow to better respond to the economic situation, in accordance with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy; which in turn will solve important problems of the development and implementation of its

  4. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2007-01-01

    .... economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional attention has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  5. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2005-01-01

    .... economic growth productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  6. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2006-01-01

    .... economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional attention has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  7. The Impact of Fiscal Competition about International Double Taxation in a Nash Equilibrium Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir Adina

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines international tax rules, with respect to both corporate income tax rates and tax rules for double taxation. This article assumes that governments set non-discriminatory tax rates on domesticand foreign-sourced corporate income and can choose no tax allowance as the tax rule. Consequently, the Nash equilibrium outcomes contradict the intuition underlying previous studies: no tax allowance is chosen as the tax rule where world economic welfare can be maximized. The purpose o...

  8. Competitive strategies and strategic positioning of oil companies in the international oil business: theory and practice in perspective; Strategies competitives et positionnement strategique des compagnies petrolieres dans le commerce petrolier international. Theorie et pratique en perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dos Santos, E.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Electrotecnica e Energia-IEE; Teixeira Carneiro, J.M. [Pontifical Catholic University (Brazil). Managirial Science Dept.; Ferreira Deschamps Cvalcanti, M.A. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Strategic Planning for the Downstream

    1999-05-01

    This is the first work of a series of four articles aiming to analyse the concepts of competitive strategy and strategic positioning of firms in the international oil industry. The authors present the essence of their analytical model, which are based on the theoretical framework of competitive strategy developed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard. The second article is published hereunder, the third and fourth ones will appear in the next issue. (authors)

  9. Forms of Market and Competition in the Contemporary Economics. Theoretical Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Zabrzewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article author analyses the subjective structures of markets (as abstract notion. Bases of these structures are quantitative criteria. The main mechanism which changes these structures is the non-perfect competition. Twenty years ago M.E. Porter, the famous American economist, was formulated a concept of new stage of market rivalry. Above the article, the author makes a critical remark on Porters concept of market competition.

  10. Country of origin image attributes as a source of competitive advantage: study in international brazilian fashion industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bassi Sutter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to understand which attributes of the country of origin image are source of international competitive advantage in the context of Brazilian fashion. From the theoretical framework related to competitive advantage, country of origin image, Brazilianness and their attributes in fashion, we conducted exploratory research with a qualitative approach. The results suggest that the image of Brazil is understood by the international fashion market in accordance with the attributes of the literature. However (i in fashion, market still does not have a steady concept on the image of Brazil, (ii Brazilianness attributes in fashion can be a source of competitive advantage in international trades if they are communicated, promoted and understood by the international market; finally, (iii among the eight Brazilianness trendy attributes identified in the literature, four were highlighted as differentiators: shape and volumes, colors, prints and lifestyle.

  11. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  12. The impact of international economic sanctions on Iranian cancer healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Shohreh; Fazlalizadeh, Hooman; Stedman, Jennifer; Chuang, Linus; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Ram, Regina

    2015-10-01

    In 2012, Iranian's economy collapsed under strain from sanctions instituted to stop Iran from violating the International Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Sanctions have indirectly led to serious healthcare concerns, specifically cancer treatment. This is the first report to evaluate Iranian cancer healthcare while under international economic sanctions. Data and information were identified by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using the search terms: "Iran", "health policy", "sanctions", "ethics", and "cancer". Articles published in the English language between 1966 and present were included, based on relevance to sanctions or the specific case of sanctions in Iran. The Program of Action for Cancer Therapy evaluated Iran's National Cancer Control Program (NCCP), reporting it has substantial deficits, including prevention, diagnosis/treatment, palliative care, monitoring, and technology, with a serious drug shortage for cancer care. Sanctions have exemptions for medicines and food, but lead to disruption of health services through complications in transportation, transferring currencies or lack of money. There is increasing evidence that sanctions harm vulnerable populations, while blocking globalization and not creating political or social change quickly. Improvement of Iran's NCCP is not feasible, and the health of cancer patients will continue to decline while the sanctions are in effect. The solution is complex, but a modern and innovative approach to diplomacy, which includes human rights, is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 17180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... provides information and advice on the effective integration of economic interests into overall foreign... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7327] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy... Charter of the Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy. The Committee serves in a solely...

  14. A Rooster and a Bean Seed. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelyuk, Julia

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a description of the lesson; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives;…

  15. A Lesson about the Circular Flow. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfried, Janet

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate grade level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subjects; instructional objectives; time…

  16. Dietary Intake of Athletes Seeking Nutrition Advice at a Major International Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Burkhart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete’s competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia. Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384–18,009 kJ, with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0–9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg (median = 3.8 and contributing to 50% total energy (TE (range 14%–79%. Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3–4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7 to 10–138 g (median = 67 g, and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%–48% and 24% TE (range 8%–44%, respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15 in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes.

  17. Competitive Advantages of Effective Relationships of Business Entities as a Basis for Economic Development of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butenko Nataliia V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the transformation of sense of relationships between business entities in the national economy as well as basic ideas and principles of forming competitive advantages of effective relationships. The objective preconditions for the transition from the confrontation strategy to relationships as a basis of interaction of business entities in the structure of the national economy are analyzed. It is determined that the weakening of the antagonistic dominant of competitive relations and the growing importance of a constructive component of partnership has become a background of the desire of business entities to establish effective relationships. The attention is focused on the trends of the cooperation and integration approach to competitive behavior, which is manifested in such forms of competitive interactions as coordination, constructive interaction and competitive collaboration in order to achieve individual and common goals of competitive relationships of the entities. The competitive advantages based on establishing long-term and effective relationships are considered. The peculiarities in the formation of the system of relationships in the insurance market are justified, in particular the causes hindering the development of relationships in the sphere of security are determined, the main partners — entities in the system of relationships in the insurance market are identified, the levels of relationships management in the insurance market are determined. Among the advantages of the use of effective relationships in the field of insurance are the following: improving the company’s image, attracting new customers, additional sales of insurance services, limiting the access of competitors’ offers, more efficient use of the advertising budget, improving the efficiency of the development of new insurance products and services, increasing the profits and value of brands, improving relations with

  18. International Competitiveness of the Maquiladoras in the Context of NAFTA-Functioning: Experience for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygorova-Berenda Larysa I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the emergence of the maquiladoras in Mexico, their evolution, characteristics and stages of development. The theoretical background of the maquiladoras is considered from the position of the product life cycle theory. As one of the preconditions for the emergence of the socalled «golden age» of the maquiladoras served a powerful devaluation of the Mexican peso in the mid 1990's. Along with this, a number of authors have noted the non-obviousness of economic successes in the whole economy of Mexico. The current stage is characterized by the transition of the maquiladoras from assembling and simple productions towards the producing innovative products and marketing their own brands. It is noted that among the investors in the maquiladoras, in contrary to the American TNCs, the number of companies from Southeast Asia and Europe is still growing. The author concludes that in the middle of the 1990's the maquiladoras were transformed from the special economic cross-border trade along with investments with the United States, which had a local character, into a classical free trade zone. The article contains an attempt to extrapolate the experience of the maquiladoras on interaction in the creation of a free trade zone with the US-market, against the background of the growing competition from Southeast Asian countries at the US-market, considering the current trade relations of Ukraine with the EU.

  19. Internal-external stimulus competition in a system of interacting moving particles: Persuasion versus propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, N. C.; Revelli, J. A.; Sibona, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a general nonlinear analytical framework to study the effect of an external stimulus in the internal state of a population of moving particles. This novel scheme allows us to study a broad range of excitation transport phenomena. In particular, considering social systems, it gives insight of the spatial dynamics influence in the competition between propaganda (mass media) and convincement. By extending the framework presented by Terranova et al. [Europhys. Lett. 105, 30007 (2014), 10.1209/0295-5075/105/30007], we now allow changes in individual's opinions due to a reflection induced by mass media. The equations of the model could be solved numerically, and, for some special cases, it is possible to derive analytical solutions for the steady states. We implement computational simulations for different social and dynamical systems to check the accuracy of our scheme and to study a broader variety of scenarios. In particular, we compare the numerical outcome with the analytical results for two possible real cases, finding a good agreement. From the results, we observe that mass media dominates the opinion state in slow dynamics communities; whereas, for higher agent active speeds, the rate of interactions increases and the opinion state is determined by a competition between propaganda and persuasion. This difference suggests that kinetics can not be neglected in the study of transport of any excitation over a particle system.

  20. Behind the scenes at FameLab, the international competition for young scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    FameLab is an international science communication competition for young researchers and science teachers aged 18 to 35. At CERN, preparations are under way to recruit participants, advertise the event to the public and organise the regional semi-finals for Suisse Romande, which will take place on Saturday, 4 February 2012 in the Globe of Science and Innovation. The Bulletin looks ahead to the forthcoming event…   As you might have read in the 5 December 2011 issue of the Bulletin, Switzerland is one of the 20 countries participating in the FameLab 2012 competition, and the regional finals for French-speaking Switzerland will take place at CERN in the Globe of Science and Innovation on Saturday, 4 February 2012. “At the moment we’re still recruiting participants through various channels (registration is open till 31 January) and organising the one-day programme of events in the Globe,” says project coordinator Paola Catapano of the CERN Communication ...

  1. Competitive strategies and strategic positioning of oil companies in the international oil business: theory and practice in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, E.M.; Teixeira Carneiro, J.M.; Ferreira Deschamps Cvalcanti, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This is the first work of a series of four articles aiming to analyse the concepts of competitive strategy and strategic positioning of firms in the international oil industry. The authors present the essence of their analytical model, which are based on the theoretical framework of competitive strategy developed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard. The second article is published hereunder, the third and fourth ones will appear in the next issue. (authors)

  2. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC AGGLOMERATIONS OF CLUSTER TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CISMAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of economic agents’ behaviour, whose nowadays tendency is togroup themselves in space as clusters, has an important place in the field of localizing industrialactivities. This is due to domestic scale economies, known as agglomerations economies.According to Edgar M. Hoover (Hoover, 1948, domestic scale economies are specific tocompanies; the economies of localizing - to a certain branch, whose companies form clusters incertain geographical arias, and the urbanization economies are specific to cities, where thereare clusters of companies from different branches. The specialty literature regarding localeconomic development, based on the idea of cluster starts from well-known economic theories,such as: agglomeration theory (Alfred Marshall, the theory of spatial localizing of industrialunits (Alfred Weber, the theory of interdependence of locations (Harold Hotelling, the diamondtheory (Michael Porter, the theory of entrepreneurship (Joseph Schumpeter, the theory ofgeographical concentration. Basically, the common point which links them are the conceptswhich occur in these theories, such as: industrial district, industrial agglomeration, spatialinterdependence, concepts which lie at the basis of the cluster idea. Clusters represent animportant instrument for promoting industrial development, innovation, competitiveness andeconomic growth. If, at the beginning, the effort to develop clusters belonged to private personsand companies, nowadays, the actors involved in their development are the governments andpublic institutions of national or regional level.The objective established within the Lisbon Strategy (2000, to make the EuropeanUnion “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy”, is tightly linked to thenew approaches of the European economic policy, to competitiveness. One of the policies isfocused on developing at the European Union level clusters in the high competitiveness fields. with an innovative character

  3. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity - a Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...... varieties obsolescent in a process of creative destruction. For given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. It is shown that several patterns of exports may arise depending primarily on the size of fixed trade costs. At a given point in time firms therefore...... differ due to different age, although all firms are symmetric in a life cycle perspective. The paper thus offers an alternative view on firm heterogeneity compared with other recent papers, where productivity differences appear as an outcome of a stochastic process....

  4. International design competition. Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb. Formula Student Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    Within the International Design Competition 2011 at the Hockenheimring (Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions were presented: (1) Formula Student Germany - Experience the Future (Tim Hannig); (2) Live at the Hockenheimring 2011; (3) Cutaway Model of the FSC Winning Car - The GFR11c by the Global Formula Racing Team of the DHBW Ravensburg; (4) Formula Student Racecar with Selective Cylinder Deactivation (Alexander Titz); (5) Construction of a crankshaft for the RS11 (Stefan Buhl); (6) The Wheel Design of the ARG 11 (Megan Rotondo); (7) Cutaway Model of the FSE Winning Car - The DUT11 by the DUT Racing Team of the Delft University of Technology; (8) Formula Student Electric - E-Scrutineering (Ann-Christin Bartoelke); (9) Development of an E-motor for Formular Student Electric (Urs Leuthold); (10) The Battery Management System of the FHWT04e (Andreas Hagemeyer); (11) Overall Results 2011 at a Glance; (12) Show your Colours; (13) Formula Student Germany visiting China (Alia Pierce).

  5. The Leading Economic Sectors Building Comparative and Competitive Advantages in Romania's Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giurgiu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available For now on, as a member state of the EU, Romania and the Romanian commercial operators should maximize the foreign trade’s opportunities given by the rich portfolio of free trade agreements of the European Union and try to reorient our exports towards countries where the products of which the structure of our Romanian exports is consisted of hold a comparative and competitive advantage, in order to reduce the Romanian long-term trade balance deficit. Therefore, this paper focuses on finding out the leading sectors with high potential to maintain and consolidate the comparative and competitive advantages of the Romania’s foreign trade.

  6. Aspects of Spatial Economic Processes of Disadvantaged Areas in Hungarian and International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KITTI NÉMEDI-KOLLÁR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The examination of disadvantaged regions goes back to a long history, greatly influenced by the ever-changing natural, economic and human resources. Consequently, while examining the disadvantaged areas, we face new systems of coherences. Today’s regional policy also needs to answer the question whether the spatial development funds of the past have been efficient or not and whether the land use distribution influences the spatial competitiveness or not. As we move towards 2015, we must consider the actual state of delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs and address the above-mentioned issues in order to realise the international political commitment to leave no one behind. In this paper, we have shown some aspects of spatial economic processes through the example of the Hungarian disadvantaged areas. These issues are timely because the usefulness of the research is important, ranging from rural development to spatial planning and the elaboration of local and regional development strategies. Spatial discrepancies in Hungary cause the disadvantage of rural areas, contributing to their lagging behind compared to the urban areas (Kollár, 2012.

  7. Trust, Personal Moral Codes, and the Resource-Advantage Theory of Competition: Explaining Productivity, Economic Growth, and Wealth Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelby D. Hunt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholars agree that societal-level moral codes that promote social trust also promote wealth creation.  However, what specific kinds of societal-level moral codes promote social trust?  Also, by what specific kind of competitive process does social trust promote wealth creation?  Because societal-level moral codes are composed of or formed from peoples’ personal moral codes, this article explores a theory of ethics, known as the “Hunt-Vitell” theory of ethics, that illuminates the concept of personal moral codes and uses the theory to discuss which types of personal moral codes foster trust and distrust in society.  This article then uses resource-advantage (R-A theory, one of the most completely articulated dynamic theories of competition, to show the process by which trust-promoting, societal-level moral codes promote productivity and economic growth.  That is, they promote wealth creation.

  8. The Economics of Parallel Trade – Iconoclast Views on a Dogma of EU Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to demonstrate that whilst parallel trade (also referred to as “grey market trade” in the United States, or as “arbitrage” in economic theory) in the European Union is subject to a remarkably favourable legal regime, the economic case supporting this approach remains to be made. To this end, it shows that the position of the EU Courts, and more generally of the EU institutions, is far from unquestionable in light of the relevant economic literature.

  9. Sprawl and mega-events: Economic growth and recent urban expansion in a city losing its competitive edge (Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new context of contemporary cities, local competitiveness for financial resources has grown more than ever, resulting in cities characterised by important socioeconomic transformations. Earlier studies addressed the relation between urban expansion, socioeconomic development and mega-events only for specific areas and types of urban growth, often overlooking the role of mega-events in fuelling urban sprawl. As the host of the 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Greece is a paradigmatic example for emerging cities hosting mega-events due to the close interconnection between the Olympics, infrastructure development and urban sprawl. This article connects the latent relationship between economic expansion driven by the Olympic Games and laissez-faire urbanism to the long-term unregulated urban expansion characterising Athens’s development. By providing room for the original wave of sprawl, the resulting socioeconomic context is interpreted as a signal of the weakness of the “competitive city” framework in poorly planned and long-deregulated urban contexts such as Athens. A comprehensive analysis of recent phases of economic growth and discontinuous urban expansion thus provides further insight into understanding sprawl processes in today’s cities, and helps distinguish the morphological patterns and socioeconomic dynamics that characterise urban expansion during sequential cycles of economic expansion and recession.

  10. Socio-economic Segregation with (without) Competitive Education Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros

    2002-01-01

    The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…

  11. The Economics of MOOCs and Their Interrelationship to Competitiveness and Cohesiveness: The Case of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDavid-Hadar, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Higher education contributes to state competitiveness via human capital development that provides future returns to the economy through increases in labour productivity. Additionally, higher education is an infrastructure for future state-level social cohesiveness. Those countries where the education system produces more equitable outcomes are…

  12. Linkages between Income Inequality, International Remittances and Economic Growth in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Ijaz; Ahmad Mahdzan, Nurul Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamic linkages between income inequality, international remittances and economic growth using time series data over the period of 1976-2006 in case of Pakistan. The cointegration analysis based on the bounds test confirms the existence of a long-run relationship between income inequality, international remittances and economic growth. Our results reveal that income inequality and international remittances enhance economic growth. The causality analysis based on innov...

  13. Cooperação econômica versus competitividade social Economic cooperation versus social competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio Tupinambá Arroyo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As estratégias de cooperação econômica, presentes desde as sociedades primitivas, indicam que a presidência da lógica da 'competição' é uma importante distorção promovida pelo modo capitalista de produção e vivência que apartou o trabalhador do trabalho, desumanizando as relações sociais e políticas. Cooperação e competição possuem interações e complementaridades possíveis de potencializar um desenvolvimento humano desde que sob as premissas da economia solidária. Interação que traz efetiva agregação de valor ao processo econômico. A principal estratégia cooperativa está na lógica das teorias que fundamentam os aglomerados e arranjos econômicos. E a construção sociocultural capaz de tornar esta opção uma construção hegemônica se articula, hoje, em torno da economia solidária.The strategies of economic cooperation, found since primitive societies, indicate that the dominance of the logic of 'competition' is an important distortion promoted by the capitalist mode of production and the experience that separated the worker from work, dehumanizing social and political relations. Cooperation and competition interact and complement each other in ways that are capable of potentializing human development as long as they do so from the premises of solidarity economics. This interaction effectively aggregates value to the economic process. The principal cooperative strategy is in the logic of the theories that are at the foundation of the economic agglomerates and arrangements. The social-cultural construction capable of making this option a hegemonic construction is now articulated around solidarity economics.

  14. Corruption - a Relevant Factor in the International Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George DIMOFTE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is divided into small low-level corruption and high-level corruption. Small level little corruption is defined as the area of corruption which does not prejudice the interests of the majority of individuals. This category can be covered by a health care professional, the corruption of a clerk, etc through their decisions is an individual or group of individuals at the expense of others, but this kind of injustice is limited in time and space. Corruption, means high-level corruption of a dignitary, clerk, etc. This kind of corruption and the main effect over the entire State characteristic and the individuals who compose it. The consequences of this kind of corruption can translate into direct and indirect costs that will be supported in the end by all taxpayers. The objectives of corruption are double: profit and power. The international economic crisis has its origin in the manifestations of high level corruption in the governments of different countries. All the state now have to fight against corruption in order to settle new rules to avoid the effects af the crisis and to prevent a deepening of this crisis with devastating effects upon tha population. Here we try to emphasize the importance that we all should give corruption and measures had to be taken by everyone.

  15. Special considerations regarding indirect expropriation in international economic law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana Spătaru-Negură

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to property is a human right that has to be respected so that if the property of a natural or legal person is taken over, the respective person has to be compensated. The right of a state to control the economic business is one of the rights sustained and exercised by the states on a constant basis. This reflects the inherent sovereignty of a state to control its people, incidents and objects found on its territory. Between these rights, the situation of indirect expropriation appears which has been described in the doctrine as being very abstract and rigid, big lacunae existing. The sense of the indirect expropriation and of the international investors’ protection against the indirect expropriation is very ambiguous. Using different methods specific to scientific analyse of the legal phenomenon (e.g. the logical method, the comparative method, the historical method and the quantitative methods, we consider that through this paper we can reach certain results that could be interesting for any legal practitioner or theoretician, this paper intending to present the most relevant cases that could amount to indirect expropriation.

  16. The role of Chamber of Commerce System in international economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ramona Popescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of chambers of commerce and industry, non-governmental organizations, fully committed to stimulating economic initiative and increase business competitiveness. The objective of the paper is to highlight the instruments and means through which the chambers of commerce and industry provide support for the development and promotion of business and their ability to settle trade disputes. In the first part of the article are presented the characteristics and functions of chambers, organizations that support the development of international trade. Although the role of chambers of commerce and industry is essentially the same, they behave national and regional specific features. The second part advance the chamber means for promoting international trade through concrete examples based on analyzing actions of chambers of commerce and industry. The article ends with an assessment of the actual situation of the county chambers of commerce and industry in Romania, obtained after a personal research. The survey is structured around two major themes: chamber system in Romania and the Romanian business environment.

  17. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-11-15

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  18. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  19. Economics of voluntarist approaches in environmental policies with non-perfect competition and cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.

    2004-05-01

    Voluntarist approaches (VA) are a form of environmental regulation which has been recently developed and which allows companies to voluntarily commit themselves to improve their environmental efficiencies. This work integrates for the first time the role of market structures which prevail both on the polluting industries side and on the cleansing industries side in order to compare some VA with other environmental policy instruments. A VA inspired from a policy introduced in Denmark is compared first with a tax in the framework of an imperfect competition between polluting companies. The same form of VA is then compared to a tax, a pollution quota and a process standard when the cleansing is delegated to an imperfectly competitive industry. Finally, the study of a VA applied in France in the domain of domestic packing wastes allows to compare the theoretical point of view and the real situation. (J.S.)

  20. Economic Optimal Operation of Community Energy Storage Systems in Competitive Energy Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Arghandeh, Reza; Woyak, Jeremy; Onen, Ahmet; Jung, Jaesung; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed, controllable energy storage devices offer several benefits to electric power system operation. Three such benefits include reducing peak load, providing standby power, and enhancing power quality. These benefits, however, are only realized during peak load or during an outage, events that are infrequent. This paper presents a means of realizing additional benefits by taking advantage of the fluctuating costs of energy in competitive energy markets. An algorithm for optimal charge...

  1. An Analysis of Techno-Economic Requirements for MOSAIC CPV Systems to Achieve Cost Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cunningham, Daniel [ARPA-E; Zahler, James [ARPA-E

    2017-11-01

    A comprehensive bottom-up cost model has been developed by NREL for ARPAE's MOSAIC micro-concentrator PV program. In this presentation, we use this model to examine the potential competitiveness of MOSAIC systems compared to incumbent technologies in different markets. We also provide an example of how these models can be used by awardees to assess different aspects of their design.

  2. Economical assessment of competitive enhanced limestones for CO2 capture cycles in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeo, Luis M.; Lara, Yolanda; Lisbona, Pilar; Martinez, Ana

    2009-01-01

    CO 2 capture systems based on the carbonation/calcination loop have gained rapid interest due to promising carbonator CO 2 capture efficiency, low sorbent cost and no flue gases treatment is required before entering the system. These features together result in a competitively low cost CO 2 capture system. Among the key variables that influence the performance of these systems and their integration with power plants, the carbonation conversion of the sorbent and the heat requirement at calciner are the most relevant. Both variables are mainly influenced by CaO/CO 2 ratio and make-up flow of solids. New sorbents are under development to reduce the decay of their carbonation conversion with cycles. The aim of this study is to assess the competitiveness of new limestones with enhanced sorption behaviour applied to carbonation/calcination cycle integrated with a power plant, compared to raw limestone. The existence of an upper limit for the maximum average capture capacity of CaO has been considered. Above this limit, improving sorbent capture capacity does not lead to the corresponding increase in capture efficiency and, thus, reduction of CO 2 avoided cost is not observed. Simulations calculate the maximum price for enhanced sorbents to achieve a reduction in CO 2 removal cost under different process conditions (solid circulation and make-up flow). The present study may be used as an assessment tool of new sorbents to understand what prices would be competitive compare with raw limestone in the CO 2 looping capture systems. (author)

  3. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  4. Economic competitiveness : performance measures for transportation : review of literature and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is developing a comprehensive set of measures that link investments in transportation to the general economic performance of the New York State Economy. The agency would like to understand in p...

  5. Framework for Developing Economic Competitiveness Measures for the California Sustainable Freight Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The METRANS Transportation Center has been providing technical assistance to the California Governors Office of Business and Economic Development (GO-Biz) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in support of implementing the California Sust...

  6. International Trade and Economic Growth in the Polish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Gurgul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examinations of linear and nonlinear causalities performed for international trade involving the Polish economy and its economic growth. In order to infer the impact of the world crisis on the Polish economy, two samples have been studied (containing quarterly data – a full sample (Q1 1996–Q3 2009 and pre-crisis sample (Q1 1996–Q3 2008. The results of linear causality tests support the existence of feedback between the growth rate of exports and growth in gross domestic product (GDP irrespectively of the time period chosen. For both the samples examined, no direct causal links between the growth rates of GDP and imports were detected. One can only suppose the existence of indirect links before the crisis. Bidirectional causality was found for growth rates of exports and imports only for the pre-crisis sample. Some weak evidence of a causal link running from the growth rate of imports to the growth rate of exports was also found for the period that covers the crisis, which may be interpreted as a confirmation of the fact that growth in imports also precedes growth in exports in bullish periods. It results from our computations that, at the time of the financial crisis of 2008, the main factor that caused Polish GDP growth to remain positive was domestic demand. The results of nonlinear causality analysis provided only weak evidence for causality running from GDP to exports, from GDP to imports and from imports to exports. (original abstract

  7. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  8. Macroeconomic Determinants of Economic Growth: A Review of International Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirwa Themba G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper conducts a qualitative narrative appraisal of the existing empirical literature on the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth in developing and developed countries. Much as other empirical studies have investigated the determinants of economic growth using various econometric methods, the majority of these studies have not distinguished what drives or hinders economic growth in developing or developed countries. The study finds that the determinants of economic growth are different when this distinction is used. It reveals that in developing countries the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth include foreign aid, foreign direct investment, fiscal policy, investment, trade, human capital development, demographics, monetary policy, natural resources, reforms and geographic, regional, political and financial factors. In developed countries, the study reveals that the key macroeconomic determinants that are associated with economic growth include physical capital, fiscal policy, human capital, trade, demographics, monetary policy and financial and technological factors.

  9. Competition in the natural gas pipeline industry: An economic policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallick, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) currently regulates the price at which natural gas can be sold by regulated interstate natural gas pipelines. Whether pipelines should be deregulated depends, to an important extent, on the competitive nature of the market. The key question is whether pipelines can successfully raise price (i.e., the transport fee) and reduce output if the market is deregulated. In most natural gas pipeline markets, there are a small number of current suppliers. Opponents of deregulation argue that the unrestrained market power of pipelines in many local markets will introduce inefficiencies in the sale of natural gas. Implicit in their arguments is a narrow view of competition: the number of current suppliers. The competitive effect of potential entry is largely ignored. These commentators would argue that without potential entry, it may be true that the net social cost of deregulation exceeds the costs of maintaining present regulation. A study was conducted to determine the extent to which potential entry might constrain the exercise of market power by natural gas pipelines if price and entry regulation is removed. Potential entrants are defined in the context of antitrust markets. That is, these markets are consistent with the Department of Justice (DOJ) Merger Guidelines. The study attempts to quantify the effects of potential entry on the market power of current suppliers. The selection of potential entrants therefore considers a number of factors (such as the size of the nearby supplier and the distance to the market) that are expected to affect the likelihood of collision in a deregulated market. The policy implications of the study are reviewed

  10. THE EXTENT TO WHICH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE INVOLVED IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIALFLOWS AND THE MAIN EFFECTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen\tBOGHEAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments are an important factor for economic growth and development. Throughout time, the source and destination of foreign direct investments have undergone significant changes and thus, starting with the 2000’s there has been an increasingly more global involvement of developing countries in the global flow of foreign direct investments. These countries are currently accountable for more than a quarter of the global outward FDI flows and for almost half of the total global inward FDI flows. In light of the changes that have occurred worldwide after the global financial crisis, the economic policy measures tend to vary from encouraging FDI’s to limiting them. If some countries see FDIs as an important factor for economic growth and global expansion, others only perceive the strong competition from foreign companies, which can lead to a loss of control over domestic capital. At the same time, as the North-South disparity faded, there is evidence that developing countries have become more involved in international financial flows during the past few years. In order to highlight this issue, we have analysed the existing data for a period that has seen a strong financial integration of emerging markets and a decreased volatility of financial flows in advanced industrialised countries (1970-2013. We will particularly approach the relationship between economic growth and international capital flows, with specific reference to foreign direct investment flows (FDI.

  11. The comparative analysis of safety and economic competitiveness of the advanced high-power reactor projects of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Makhanov, U.M.; Philimonova, R.A.; Kichutkina, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    The comparative analysis results of the safety and economic competitiveness of the seven advanced large sized reactors projects (900 MW and more) are submitted in that report: EPR, Frameatome France, Siemens Germany; EP-1000 Westinghouse, USA and Genesi Italy; Candu 9, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd; System 80 +, ABB, USA; KNGR, group NSSS Engineering and Development, Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc; APWR, Electric Power company, Japan Atomic Power Company, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Westinghouse Electric; and WWER-1000 (V-392), Atomenergoproject/Gidropress Russian Federation. According to the economic competitiveness of listed compared power reactors the 14 criteria of safety have been accepted. These criteria: 1. Features of the barrier system of 'defence-in-depth'. 2. The self-security of a reactor under increase of power and reactivity of a reactor, decrease of the expense and phase transformations of the reactor core coolant (presence of negative feedbacks). 3. Presence of the reactor shutdown systems responding principles of a variety, independence and reservation. Presence of the passive means of initiation and operation of the emergency protection. 4. The emergency cooling of the core of reactor. A presence of the passive means of cooling. Presence of the water reservation for the water supply of the different safety systems. 5. The emergency electrical supply, its reliability and degree of reservation. 6. The prevention measures of the heavy accident with the melt core. The decrease of the heavy accident probability. 7. The account of the heavy accident under development of the levels of protection. 8. The protection levels of NPP, the technological criteria of efficiency of the each safety barriers and the limiting radiation criteria for the each level of protection , in particular for the design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents. 9. The measures for reduction of the heavy accident consequences. The management by the beyond

  12. 76 FR 4987 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Secretary of State for Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted... Subcommittee, the Economic Sanctions Subcommittee, and the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building is...

  13. 78 FR 50394 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness: Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Competitiveness: Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... discussion for a public meeting of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness (Committee). DATES... growth competitiveness, foster national economic competitiveness, and improve U.S. supply chain...

  14. Competition and Constraint : Economic Globalization and Human Resource Practices in 23 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ferry; Wittek, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Economic globalization is often considered to be one of the main causes of recent changes in the workplace and the way in which organizations manage their human resources. Nevertheless, an empirical study putting this claim to the test by relating the internationalization of the economy to the use

  15. Economic, environmental and international trade effects of the EU Directive on energy tax harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlhaas, Michael; Schumacher, Katja; Diekmann, Jochen; Schumacher, Dieter; Carmes, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In October 2003, the European Union introduced a Directive, which widens the scope of the EU's minimum taxation system from mineral oils to all energy products including coal, natural gas and electricity. It aims at reducing distortions that currently exist between Member States as well as between energy products. In addition, it increases previous minimum tax rates and thus the incentive to use energy more efficiently. The Directive will lead to changes in the energy tax schemes in a number of countries, in particular some southern Member Countries (Greece, Spain, Portugal) and most of the new Member States. In this paper, we analyze the effects of the EU energy tax harmonization with GTAP-E, a computable general equilibrium model. Particular focus is placed on the Eastern European countries, which became new members of the EU in May 2004. We investigate the effects of the tax harmonization on overall economic growth and sectoral development. Special attention is paid to international trade in order to analyze if competitiveness concerns, which have been forwarded in the context of energy taxation are valid. Furthermore, the effect on energy consumption and emissions and thus the contribution to the EU's climate change targets is analyzed

  16. Korean SFR development program and technical activities for improving economical competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jaewoon

    2013-01-01

    Future Plan: • Construction cost evaluation of PGSFR and commercial SFR; – Component based capital cost evaluation of PGSFR is undergoing and will be completed by the first half of 2014; – Component cost is only based on the experience from that of LWR; • Cost Benefit Analysis of Future Nuclear Energy Mix; – With revised National Energy Plan (as of 2013); – Near-term: Benefit from LWR spent fuel recycling: - In Korean law, Share of Expense for spent fuel disposal is reserved as 0.4M$ per a LWR spent fuel assembly (as of 2003); – Long-term: Competitive power plant to LWR with self sustainable feature; • Revision of commercial SFR conceptual design; – Less constraint in material (fuel, cladding) irradiation experience; – More innovative features as long-term goal

  17. AP1000: Meeting economic goals in a competitive world. Annex 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J.

    2002-01-01

    In the U.S., conditions are becoming more favorable for considering the nuclear option again for new baseload generation. While oil and natural gas prices have risen, the cost of operating the existing fleet of nuclear plants has decreased. Furthermore, an advanced 1000 MWe nuclear plant that will be even more cost-competitive with fossil fuels and natural gas will be available by 2005. Westinghouse, in an effort to further improve on the AP600's cost competitiveness, has developed the AP1000, a two-loop, 1000 MWe, advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications to enhance the construction, operation, and maintenance. Like the AP600, the AP1000 uses proven technology that builds on over 30 years of operating PWR experience. Westinghouse has completed design studies that demonstrate that it is feasible to increase the power output of the AP600 to at least 1000 MWe, maintaining its current design configuration and licensing basis. To maximize the cost savings, the AP1000 has been designed within the space constraints of the AP600, while retaining the credibility of proven components and substantial safety margins. The affect on the plant's overnight cost of the increased major components that is required to uprate the AP600 to 1000 MWe is small. This overall cost addition is on the order of 11 percent, while the overall power increase is almost 80 percent. This paper describes the changes made to uprate the AP600 and gives an overview of the plant design. (author)

  18. International Experiences with Economic Incentives for Protecting the Environment (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2001 report finds that over the last 20 years, and particularly during the past decade, economic incentives have been increasingly used to control pollution and improve environmental and health protection.

  19. Economic targets and loss-aversion in international environmental cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    İriş, Doruk

    2015-01-01

    In the standard emission problem, each country’s ruling party decides on an optimal level of emissions by analyzing the cost and benefit to the country. However, such policy decisions are often influenced by political parties’ incentives to be elected. Voters tend to give higher priority to economic issues than they do to environmental ones. As a result, political parties have additional incentives to reach a critical economic benefit level, at a cost of higher emission level, in order to sat...

  20. International symposium on energy, environment and economics: Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colville, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The conference deals with a comprehensive range of topics on energy sources and technologies, the economic impacts of energy use and production, and environmental issues. The papers are grouped into chapters covering environmental policy, environment education, environment economics, new and renewable energy sources, utilities, electricity and planning software, domestic energy, commercial energy, heat pumps and cogeneration, and transport. A number of un-presented papers and abstracts of contributions are included. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs. figs., refs

  1. Nuclear energy and economic competitiveness in several normative systems; Energia nuclear y competitividad economica en varios sistemas normativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The serious challenge imposed by the necessity of reducing the gases emission of greenhouse effect in the electric generation sector, it has renovated the interest in the new plants construction of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, since the use of the nuclear energy began to descend ago more of 25 years, it is has speculated continually about the possible nuclear rebirth. Are such predictions based in solid basis or are mere groundless prognostics? The objective of the present document is to analyze the economic aspects of the nuclear energy, to identify the key factors that they allow to determine its competitiveness and to sound the possible markets for the new plants of nuclear energy. To achieve this, it is divided in the following sections: Revision of the current state of the nuclear energy, including the location, the type and capacity of the plants; Identification of the variables that determine the economic situation of the nuclear energy; Revision of the recent predictions and of the economic aspects of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant of Finland; A revision by market of the possible future of the new nuclear facilities in the coming decade. (Author)

  2. COMPETITIVENESS OF METAL PRODUCTION OF RUP ‘BMZ» ON THE INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kuzmich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the received integral indices of competitiveness testify to the fact that production is on the high level of competitiveness on world markets of sales and is approximately on one position with the best goods-analogues.

  3. MARKET COMPETITIVENESS, RISK, AND ECONOMIC RETURN: THE CASE OF THE LIMASSOL JUICE FACTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Andreou; Glenn Jenkins; Savvakis Savvides

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the strategic options available to a juice drink manufacturing company in Cyprus who is facing serious problems of survival in an aggressive and rapidly changing market environment. Following an initial screening of possible investments based on qualitative evaluation of the market, the two most promising strategies are formulated and appraised for financial and economic viability. The financial appraisal analyzes the projected cash flows from the owner’s and total invest...

  4. The competitive economics of a middle aged multi unit nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992 Ontario Hydro's 15 year old 4 x 850 MWe Candu, Bruce A Nuclear Generating Station was predicted to need considerable capital investment to replace pressure tubes, steam generators and other prematurely ageing equipment in order to restore the station to high performance. Over the subsequent two years the station has undergone 2 major economic assessment studies which have confirmed the economic viability of continued operation of the plant. Declining demand for electricity in Ontario combined with a excess of generating capacity and a need to stabilise electricity rates have however forced significant operational cost reductions and reduced capital availability for rehabilitation work, it's medium and long term future remains in question. This presentation offers a practical illustration of the need to maintain steady high performance from nuclear generating plant via the appropriate life management techniques. The avoidance of mid life infusion of capital is considered as essential if nuclear generation is to successfully survive major changes in economic conditions. 2 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Competition in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Warren

    1995-01-01

    With changes occurring within both the gas and electricity industries and both sectors undergoing simultaneous reforms at the State and national levels it is timely to look at some major aspects of the energy-reform processes in Australia and to attempt to offer some perspectives from the viewpoint of an industry user of energy. From an industry user's viewpoint there is quantifiable evidence that competition in the energy sector will deliver major economic benefits to industry and the nation. The reform process currently in train will increase Australia's international competitiveness. Commonwealth-State collaboration is useful on economic issues which require a national consistent approach. Many significant and complex arrangement apply to the gas and electricity sectors which add to the complexity of the respective reform processes. More competitive arrangements are therefore required more quickly at several stages of the gas-sector reform process, such as in the commercialization of government utilities, resolving the issue of third-party transmission pricing, and the removal of State governments' impediments to competitive trading. The Hilmer Report on National Competition Policy will help deal with some difficult structural and transitional issues, e.g. third-party access, competitive structures, regulatory regimes, and a consistent national approach.(author). 1 fig., 1 photo

  6. Economic Objects: How Policy Discourse in the United Kingdom Represents International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…

  7. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  8. A Different Kind of Physics Competition-the 12th International Young Physicists Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Hugh

    1999-11-01

    This May, five seniors from the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics and their adult leaders, Hugh Haskell and Chuck Britton, were the first US team to compete in the International Young Physicists Tournament (IYPT), which took place in Vienna, Austria. They challenged and were challenged by eighteen similar teams from sixteen other countries. The IYPT differs from the Physics Olympiad, which is an examination, whereas the Tournament is a debate on the solution of seventeen open-ended problems published in October, on the IYPT website . The five students, Adriane Boyd, Dahl Clark, Mark Blevins, Zach Keane, and Adam Simpkins spent from mid-January until our departure on May 20, preparing their responses to the questions. In Vienna, the team was joined by Ron Edge, of the University of South Carolina, who served as jurist for the tournament. Each team pays for transportation, but once there, the host country bears all other costs. For each event, called a "physics fight," three teams are assigned their roles-reporter, opponent and reviewer. First, the opposing team selects a question. The reporters have twelve minutes to present a report. The opposing team then has five minutes to critique the report. After a rebuttal by the reporter, the reviewers discuss effectiveness of both presentations . Finally, the jurors ask questions and score each team. This year's overall winner was Germany. Taking second was the team from the Republic of Georgia. The US team did not make the semifinal round, but did well enough for a first-time competitor. Will there be another United States Team? This is an open question. Efforts are being made to find a school that can send a team to next year's competition which is scheduled for Budapest, Hungary.

  9. Fuzzy model of relationship among economic performance, competitiveness and business ethics of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bočková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to study the relations among financial indicators, competitiveness and business ethics of comparable small and medium-sized enterprises. A sample of 59 SMEs from the South Moravia region was chosen. All selected companies either produce or service electronics. This research is based on the application of scientific analysis, synthesis, induction, fuzzy logic and modeling. Information for this research was obtained from secondary information sources – Amadeus database, accounting statements and information from the register of companies. Each company is described by a set of 10 variables. Fuzzy sets and reasoning are ideal tools to cope with vague, ill-structured and uncertain scenarios which can be found frequently in business and economics. This is the main reason why fuzzy logic was used in this research. The paper is self-explanatory and no a prior knowledge of fuzzy reasoning is required.

  10. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INNOVATION CLUSTERS ON INCREASING ECONOMIC AGENTS SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ustymenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of enterprises integration into international innovation clusters on the increasing of enterprises, countries and regions economic sustainability under the global instability are explored. Potential sources of instability and threats of the integration into international cluster structures are defined. Author outlines the main benefits of international innovation cluster for enhancement of economic agents sustainability, such as: possibility for joint exploitation of market opportunities and efforts consolidation for overcoming market threats, cluster self-sufficiency, effective cluster internal reorganization and adaptation in response to external changes. Three clusters (engineering for agriculture production cluster (Hersonska oblast and German enterprises, IT cluster (Lvivska oblast and Poland enterprises, cluster for R&D commercialization (Slobodzanschina euroregion are examined to uncover the role of international innovation cluster formation on enhancement of economic agents' economic sustainability.

  11. Competition to commit crime: An economic experiment on illegal logging using behavioral game theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tananya Songchoo; Komsan Suriya

    2012-01-01

    This study constructs an economic experiment using behavioral game theory to figure out policies that discourage illegal logging in Thailand. A player is assigned to be either a police or an outlaw in the game. The game randomly matches two players in different roles. The lawbreaker can offer a bribe to police under uncertainties whether the police may refuse it or reject the offer because of too small amount of the bribe. Even when bribery is accepted, it is still uncertain for an lawbreaker...

  12. The market for, and economics of, cogeneration and independent power projects in a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeese, R.

    1999-01-01

    A corporate review of Access Capital Corporation was presented. The company is a financial advisor for the development and ownership of electric power projects. The company has expertise in various technologies including gas-fired cogeneration, hydro energy, biomass, renewables and district heating. This presentation included a series of overhead viewgraphs which focused on: (1) the restructuring of Ontario's electricity market, (2) future private power requirements, (3) economics of IPP technologies, (4) pros and cons of on-site power generation, (5) rates paid for private power supply, and (6) financial restructuring of current NUG power purchase contracts. 2 tabs., 6 figs

  13. SYSTEMATIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF ENSURING ECONOMIC SECURITY OF EXACERBATION OF THE THREATS AND CHALLENGES OF A NEW TYPE FOR NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Momot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to systematize the international experience of economic security both in terms of individual countries and the global economy as a whole. Setting such a goal it is associated with the growth of globalization and integration processes in the world economy, which are the new threat of economic security. Methods. Theoretical and methodological basis of the study were research and findings on issues of economic security at the level of the world economy as a whole and individual national economies in particular. We used such general scientific and special methods, such as analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, adaptation. The findings led to the conclusion that the protection of national interests and the formation of an economic security strategy – the most important functions of the state, the implementation of which is impossible without a system of self-regulation mechanisms and regulation. The government should implement a set of measures to promote economic growth, and that will guarantee the economic security of the country. These measures should cover all sectors of the economy. These measures include the implementation an active structural and social policies, enhancing the activity of the state in investment, financial, monetary and foreign economic sphere, the continuation of institutional reforms. The practical significance is to separate the differences used methodological approaches to ensure the economic security of the EU member countries and the CIS. This is explained by the fact that the first group of countries is focused on standards and borrows the experience of the leading EU countries (Germany, France, and the second group, located in the zone of influence of Russia (Moldova, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, – on the Russian developments and standards. In turn, Russia in their design focuses more on standards to ensure economic security, which have been made in the period of the Soviet

  14. Economic evaluation of current conditions of competition and efficiency of automotive and rail systems in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco Correa, Carlos Andrés

    2012-01-01

    This study uses microeconomic data from the transportation systems of land cargo in Colombia: rail and trucking, to determine their degree of allocative efficiency through the non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis DEA. The average overall efficiency found was 74.4% for trains and 20.56% for trucks. These figures indicate that rail is more efficient in the allocation of resources. This means that trains in Colombia use their input better than trucks to maximize their production, given the costs and technological characteristics of each system. This is a signal for the design of a public policy for investment in transportation infrastructure that seeks to raise the competitiveness of Colombian exports, investing not only in roads but in complementary systems such as railways too. - Highlights: ► Colombia is currently undergoing a backlog of transport infrastructure and high export costs. ► We perform a microeconomic study of transportation systems in Colombia: rail and trucking. ► As a result we found that the rail is much more efficient than the automotive system. ► As policy recommendation the government should consider the investment in railways. ► It is necessary to take into account the strategic value that investment in railways would bring.

  15. Untying the Energy Knot of Supply Security, Climate Change, Economic Competitiveness: The Role of Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulteel, Paul; Capros, Pantelis

    2007-07-01

    In energy terms, the following decades will be dominated by the challenge of developing a low-carbon, energy-secure and competitive economy. EURELECTRIC launched a study, horizon 2030-2050, to develop a qualified vision about the role of electricity in responding to these challenges. The resulting message is a positive one: with the right policies that include a long-term visibility of carbon pricing to allow integration of climate change impacts in investments and business strategies, it is possible to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions without unreasonable costs to the economy, and at the same time to reduce oil and gas dependency. A focus on demand side energy-efficiency is a prerequisite. The development of renewables, of clean fossil fuel technology with carbon capture and storage, and of nuclear energy can make a low-carbon and largely oil-independent power generation mix a reality. This allows for formidable synergies with energy-efficient electro-technologies at the demand side. Two sectors are especially meaningful in this respect: the heating and cooling and road transport sectors, where heat pumps and plug-in hybrid cars respectively can make energy-efficient, oil-independent and low-carbon homes and cars a reality. Although the analysis is based on European conditions, the authors believe that it has worldwide relevance. (auth)

  16. Power market competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Unites States the prospect of greater competition in wholesale power market was immediately eclipsed by talk of retail competition. Attempts to move to retail competition have been costly and complex. Prudent public policy and economic analyses suggest that retail competition not be implemented until it can first be demonstrated that effective competition exists in wholesale power markets [it

  17. Politics and economics to shape international oil and gas activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that political and economic events play unusually strong roles in shaping worldwide oil and gas activity levels this year. Developments in the former U.S.S.R. will be critical. As the now-independent republics adopt new economic systems, production and demand patterns will change, as will exports from what has been the world's leading oil producer. Changing conditions in the Middle East among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries also will affect the industry in the year following the brief Persian Gulf war. Unless worldwide demand surges unexpectedly, these substantial additions to supply will tend to weaken oil prices in 1992

  18. The difference in the position of Mexico, Japan and China as recipients of international tourism and their position in Competitiveness Index Travel and Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Magaña Carrillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexico, as a tourist destination that is recipient of tourists, ranks among the top ten in terms of international arrivals. Nevertheless, in terms of competitiveness, according to the index of Travel and Tourism Competitiveness, its ranking is very low. This research project looks to understand and explain the differences in tourist competitiveness between Mexico and other countries within the Asia-Pacific Basin. This article is preoccupied with the question posed by Mexico’s evident contradicting position as that of being on the one hand, leader in terms of international arrivals, and on the other, having a low competitive performance, according to the index of international tourist competitiveness. Comparing Mexico to Japan and China, helps to understand what aspects, among those considered in the index pillars, should be contemplated in order to strengthen Mexico’s levels of competitiveness, as suggested in the Tourist Sectorial Plan 2007-2012.

  19. Research Monograph on Federal International Economic Emergency Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-31

    rights to use such information in the form of licenses, patents, franchises , etc. I Accordingly, for purposes of this study, we shall define economics...existence of the Washington Metropolitan Area’s rapid transit system, U.S. production of subway cars U . has ended. Consumer products ranging from

  20. Investment Returns and Economic Fundamentals in International Art Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. We examine geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. We find (i) a close connection between the country of sale and the type (e.g., nationality) of artworks sold; (ii) substantial international variation in average returns to art investments over the period 1971-2007; (iii) an impact of both global a...

  1. International tourism and economic growth in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jaforullah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for the New Zealand economy. Using unit root tests, cointegration tests and vector error correction models, and annual data over the period 1972-2012 on international tourism expenditure, real gross domestic product (GDP) and the exchange rate for New Zealand, it finds that the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for New Zealand. The long-run elasticity of real GDP with respect to international tourism expenditure is estimate...

  2. Spatial concentration of economic activity and competitiveness of Central European regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Majewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles with a still somewhat underdeveloped aspect of regional competiveness which regards to spillover effects stemming from spatial proximity of highly competitive neighbors. Although spillover effects are well recognized in the literature, we focus more on inter-regional concentration of business activity when enterprises are located in a particular district which is not far from the agglomeration center but not the center itself. We check for statistical significance of spatial autocorrelation measures (local Moran’s Ii statistic in order to identify spillovers between districts in Central European countries (Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia. We use variables indicating Knowledge Intensive Services (KIS, in particular hi-tech KIS and information and communication services (including computer science. We compare 2009 with 2015 to notice agglomeration dynamics. We observe statistically significant spillover effects in Central European countries in urbanization-type clusters as well as strengthening of the effect over time. Taking into consideration more detailed data for Poland we conclude that while hi-tech KIS mostly spill over to neighboring districts, the reverse pattern may be observed for computer science (programming and consultancy. One explanation is that this subsector relies on highly demanded workforce and a prestigious localization (in the agglomeration centers works as a bargaining chip to attract programmers. In order to measure the spillover effects more precisely it is recommended to define and measure the neighborhood of agglomeration centers using localization of firms based on GPS coordinates instead of centroids (geometric means of districts – as shown in example of Poland.

  3. Culture, industrial policy and international competitiveness of Colombian Pyme’s (SME’s Cultura, política industrial y competitividad internacional de las pyme en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernanado Bustamante Zapata

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available So far the analysis related to the PyME production has focused on its components:organization, policies and technology. All these elements are considered as support for thePyMEs’ economic, productive and social management (Cardona, Cano, Ramírez, & Gutiérrez,2006. Thus, they help to determine the Colombian PyMEs’ relative competitiveness in theglobalized environment. This article pursues the establishment of cultural variables thataffect the production in the international business context through the analytic-syntheticmethod, in order to unravel the possible impact in terms of competitiveness as an industrialpolicy element.Hasta el momento, el análisis acerca de los mundos de producción de las pyme ha girado en torno a sus componentes, organización, políticas y tecnología, considerados soportes de la gestión económica, productiva y social de dichas empresas. Por ende, vistas así las pyme, se facilita la determinación de su relativa competitividad en el entorno globalizado. El propósito de este artículo es establecer cuáles variables culturales afectan los mundos de producción en el contexto de los negocios internacionales de las compañías colombianas. El estudio se realizó a partir del método analítico–sintético con el objetivo de desentrañar el posible impacto en términos de competitividad desde el elemento política industrial.   ABSTRACT So far the analysis related to the PyME production has focused on its components: organization, policies and technology. All these elements are considered as support for the PyMEs’ economic, productive and social management (Cardona, Cano, Ramírez, & Gutiérrez, 2006. Thus, they help to determine the Colombian PyMEs’ relative competitiveness in the globalized environment. This article pursues the establishment of cultural variables that affect the production in the international business context through the analytic-synthetic method, in order to unravel the possible impact

  4. ‘Make-or-Buy’ in International Oligopoly and the Role of Competitive Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Dermot, Leahy; Catia, Montagna

    2007-01-01

    We study how competitive pressure influences the make-or-buy decision that oligopolistic firms face between producing an intermediate component in-house or purchasing it from a domestic supplier. We model outsourcing as a bilateral relationship in which the supplier undertakes relationship specific investments. A home and foreign firm compete in the home market. Firms’ mode of operation decision depends on cost and strategic considerations. Competitive pressure increases firms’ incentive to...

  5. Competition, liquidity and stability: international evidence at the bank and systemic levels

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Ngoc My

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of market power on bank liquidity; the association between competition and systemic liquidity; and whether the associations between liquidity and stability at both bank- and systemic- levels are affected by competition. The first research question is explored in the context of 101 countries over 1996-2013 while the second and the third, which require listed banks, use a smaller sample of 32 nations during 2001-2013. The Panel Least Squares and the system Ge...

  6. International Inequality in the Age of Globalization: Japanese Economic Ascent and the Restructuring of the Capitalist World-Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Ciccantell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how Japanese ?rms and the Japanese state constructed a development model based on the steel industry as a generative sector that drove Japan’s economic ascent in the world-historical context of U.S. hegemony. We make three arguments in this paper. First, there is a new model of capital accumulation that does create new forms of social inequality by redistributing costs and bene?ts in very di?erent ways than earlier models. Second, Japanese ?rms and the Japanese state created this new model of capital accumulation and social inequality via mechanisms including joint ventures, long term contracts, and other forms of international trade and investment, not U.S.-based transnational corporations, as is usually assumed. Third, world-systems theory reconstructed through the lens of the new historical materialism explains this restructuring of the capitalist world-economy as the outcome of Japan’s economic ascent over the last ?fty years. Further, we argue that this new model of capital accumulation has had similar impacts on redistributing the costs and bene?ts of development between core and peripheral regions of the capitalist world-economy in a wide range of global industries. These strategies created a tightly linked set of technological and organizational innovations to overcome the natural and social obstacles to Japanese development, dramatically increase Japan’s international economic competitiveness by lowering production costs in all sectors of the economy, turn Japan into the world’s largest exporter of manufactured products, restructure a range of global industries, and recreate the world-system hierarchy in support of Japanese development. In particular, organizational inno-vations in the use of long term contracts and joint ventures in raw materials industries to foster global excess capacity and lower rents to resource extracting ?rms and states reallocated the costs of providing the material building blocks of

  7. Construction of Electronics Database for East Asian Countries and Empirical Analysis of International Competitiveness of Japanese Companies (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    The international competitiveness of Japanese electronics firms is fading as firms in East Asian countries such as China, Korea, and Taiwan catch up. In this paper, we have constructed an electronics industry database from 1996 to 2005 for China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States. It covers industrial statistics in these countries including trade and overseas production statistics, which makes it possible to control for global production activities of electronics firms. We have also...

  8. Competitiveness and Economic Security — Priority Problems of the Region’s Metallurgical Comples and Its Leaders in the Conditions Of Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Anatolyevich Kozitsyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the research is the study of the regional metallurgical complex and its leaders, which account for 55 % of industrial output and more than 57 % of exports of the Sverdlovsk region, in the current terms of economic instability. Supporting the business priorities of improving the competitiveness and economic security of the enterprise is based on the example of "UMMCHolding" — the leader of ferrous metallurgy in the Middle Urals, an active participant in the global and Russian copper market. The modern economic, mathematical, and general scientific methods (comparison study, the ratio of total and private, and others are applied as the research methods. To obtain the study results, the main areas of the holding impacted by the sanctions are analyzed: modernization of production and spare parts provisions of the current imported equipment, correction of the supply chain, searching for new business partners, transformation of the structure and direction of cargo traffic, solving transportation problems, stocks system management and minimization of economic, social and environmental costs. The urgency of solving the problem of company competitiveness and economic security increasing together with its sectoral and regional features in the present conditions is proved as the key conclusion. The high competitiveness of the holding is considered to be one of the factors of its economic security. The main goal of the economic security of the company is its sustainable and maximally effective functioning at the present time and high potential for successful development in the future. The indicators and criteria for the economic security evaluation are studied in detail. The analysis conducted has shown that, in general, the holding has high indicators characterizing its economic security on the basis of high competitiveness. As a negative sign, a lack of the investment growth needed to solve urgent problems is noticed.

  9. THE TOURIST DISTRICT MODEL OF COMPETITIVENESS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN LOCAL TERRITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo GIANNETTO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has represented one of the major sources of balance of trade earnings for many years in the most developed countries. According to estimates by the World Tourism Organization (WTO, world tourism flows will grow by 4-5% annually over the coming years, reaching in 2020 an estimated number of 1.6 billion international arrivals, of which 378 million will be short haul international travellers. With the passage of time demand will become more diversified and this will lead to the spread of “new tourism”, the search for new products and increasingly diverse offers, characterized by organized local tourist systems.This paper underlines the importance of the tourist district model as a strategic tool for creating innovative processes of endogenous development in a highly globalized framework, moreover it tries to highlight the peculiarities of tourist districts and their importance in overcoming the major limitations of the distribution chain. Therefore, the birth of the tourism district represents an important opportunity for the promotion of tourism development of different local realities.

  10. Comparative analysis between a PEM fuel cell and an internal combustion engine driving an electricity generator: Technical, economical and ecological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Lúcia Bollini; Silveira, Jose Luz; Evaristo da Silva, Marcio; Machin, Einara Blanco; Pedroso, Daniel Travieso; Tuna, Celso Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In the recent years the fuel cells have received much attention. Among various technologies, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is currently the most appropriate and is used in several vehicles prototype. A comparative technical, economical and ecological analysis between an Internal Combustion Engine fueled with Diesel driving an electricity Generator (ICE-G) and a PEMFC fed by hydrogen produced by ethanol steam reforming was performed. The technical analysis showed the advantages of the PEMFC in comparison to the ICE-G based in energetic and exergetic aspects. The economic analysis shows that fuel cells are not economic competitive when compared to internal combustion engine driving an electricity generator with the same generation capacity; it will only be economically feasible in a long term; due to the large investments required. The environmental analysis was based on concepts of CO 2 equivalent, pollution indicator and ecological efficiency. Different to the ICE-G system, the Fuel Cell does not emit pollutants directly and the emission related to this technology is linked mainly with hydrogen production. The ecological efficiency of PEMFC was 96% considering the carbon dioxide cycle, for ICE-G system this parameter reach 51%. -- Highlights: • The exergetic efficiency of ICE-G was 22% and for the fuel cell was 40%. • The PEM fuel cell at long-term become economically competitive compared to ICE-G. • The ecological efficiency of PEM fuel cell was 96% and Diesel ICE-G was 51%

  11. Internal resources as applied to differential competitive adaptation process in strategic business sector hotels in Curitiba: comparative study of cases

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Antônio João Hocayen da; Teixeira, Rivanda Meira

    2010-01-01

    Curitiba’s hotel sector has become very attractive to both national and international hotel chains due to the settling of several car-makers in the late 90’s, once accomodation was widely on demand. Therefore organizations part of the hotel industry were inserted in a highly competitive environment in which small, medium and large traditional companies in the hotel business as well as national and international hotel chains have settled in Curitiba for the past few years are all part of. Thus...

  12. Forum Spanish leading brands, experience of international competitiveness; El foro de marcas renombras espanolas, una experiencia para la competitividad internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonet Feffer, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    In 1999, the Leading Brands of Spain Forum was created as an institution with a mixed nature, public and private, whose main mission is the defence and promotion of the Spanish renowned and well-known brands strongly internationalized, as basic elements for the international competitiveness of our country. Since then, its activity has focused on the strategic importance of these intangible assets of the companies and the country, its leading brands, on which the international positioning of the Spain Brand will strongly rely on. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. International fuel cycle centres offer large economics and easier financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.

    1977-01-01

    The summary report of the IAEA study project on multi-national regional nuclear fuel cycle indicates that for facilities of reasonable size such projects offer very decisive advantages in fuel cycle costs and resource availability over national facilities in general, and more markedly over the other alternative of the open ended, non-recycle fuel route. The economic evaluation of alternative fuel cycle strategies, one of the basic studies summarised in the report, is considered. (author)

  14. An analysis of the economic scenario of Peru and Chile, from the perspective of global competitiveness double diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús C. Peña-Vinces

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little economies, as the Peruvian and Chilean, are found immersed in the global sand of the emerging economies, so that to evaluate them from a home based point of view (Porter 1990 would be a very limited and not useful approach. This fact makes Porter’s national diamond (1990 to end up, not being enough for that objective (Moon et al. 1998: 135. This paper analyzes the mentioned economies from a global approach, which includes the local market and the foreign market, in other words, to evaluate them from the double diamond perspective of the international competitiveness proposed by Moon et al. (1998, and Moon and Lee (2004: 138.

  15. Economic Analysis of Cleft Palate Repair in International Adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson-Hansen, Sandra; Paliga, J Thomas; Tahiri, Youssef; Paine, Kaitlyn M; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective cohort study. Major international tertiary care referral center for cleft palate repair. One hundred thirty-eight patients at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia who had palate repair performed between 2010 and 2013, excluding syndromic patients, patients undergoing palate revision, and patients with incomplete payment information. None. Fees and charges for procedures. Surgeon payment was significantly higher for international adoptees (Δ = $2047.51 [$128.35 to $3966.66], P = .038). Medicaid-adjusted surgeon payments averaged $1006 more for adoptees ([-$394.19 to $2406.98], P = .158). Hospital and anesthesiology costs for adoptee palate repair were highly variable but did not differ significantly from those for nonadoptees. Partly due to payer mix, surgeon reimbursement was somewhat higher for international adoptees. No difference in total payment was found.

  16. OPEC and the international oil market: can a cartel fuel the engine of economic development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noguera, Jose; Pecchenino, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2007), s. 187-199 ISSN 0167-7187 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : OPEC * International oil market * oil export Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2007

  17. Investment returns and economic fundamentals in international art markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.; Velthuis, O.; Baia-Curioni, S.

    Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. This chapter examines geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. The chapter finds (1) a close connection between

  18. Investment Returns and Economic Fundamentals in International Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. We examine geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. We find (i) a close connection between the country

  19. International migration, remittances and economic welfare in the source country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-batiz, F L

    1986-01-01

    "This article provides a formal framework for the analysis of the impact of international migration in the presence of remittances. The discussion differentiates between temporary and permanent migration and between the effects of remittances that raise investment and those that raise consumption spending in the source country. Changes in prices, income distribution and national welfare are examined." The geographic focus is worldwide. excerpt

  20. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  1. The Principle of National Treatment in international economic law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, A.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    This second volume in the European IP Institutes Network Series provides an exhaustive overview on the principle of national treatment that is enshrined in a number of international treaties. The non-discrimination principle ensures that foreign nationals, goods, services or investments are not

  2. Fundamental economic irreversibilities influence policies for enhancing international forest phytosanitary security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Will Allen; Robert G. Haight; E. Carina H. Keskitalo; Mariella Marzano; Maria Pettersson; Christopher P. Quine; E. R. Langer

    2017-01-01

    National and international efforts to manage forest biosecurity create tension between opposing sources of ecological and economic irreversibility. Phytosanitary policies designed to protect national borders from biological invasions incur sunk costs deriving from economic and political irreversibilities that incentivizes wait-and-see decision-making. However, the...

  3. 77 FR 1548 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will examine a New Focus on Investment: Attracting Inbound Foreign Direct Investment to the United States, and will highlight the U.S.-Turkey Economic Partnership Commission. Subcommittee reports will be led by the Investment Subcommittee, the...

  4. 78 FR 2709 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... hosted by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and... Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy, and the Stakeholder Advisory Board on... Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is...

  5. 77 FR 57180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted Kassinger. The... on Women in International Economic Policy, and the Stakeholder Advisory Board on the U.S. National... Enterprises. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building is...

  6. 78 FR 24784 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted... Investment Subcommittee, the Sanctions Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic... public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building is controlled; to obtain pre...

  7. 77 FR 33014 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted Kassinger. The... Subcommittee, the Sanctions Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy, and the...://www.state.gov/e/eb/adcom/aciep/index.htm for updates. This meeting is open to public participation...

  8. The realities of nuclear power: international economic and regulatory experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The book is aimed at the energy industry, energy ministries, nuclear power organisations and national agencies. A description is given of a framework for evaluating nuclear power technology development, along with the economic evaluation of nuclear power. The contrasting records are examined of four of the major users of nuclear power - the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada and France, and factors are identified which have been important in determining the success or otherwise of each of the four nuclear power programmes. Finally the future of nuclear power is discussed. (U.K.)

  9. The International School Industry: Examining International Schools through an Economic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James

    2006-01-01

    Based upon the results of a quantitative analysis of tuition revenues generated by international schools, it is argued that international schools can be examined in terms of a global multi-billion dollar industry and that business theory can be, and is being, applied in international schools today. This article proposes that international schools…

  10. Economic competition, sustainability, and survival endurance: The extinction of the dodo, the Easter Island case, and the tragedy of the commons effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Moreira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A fast developing industry worldwide, tourism demands a monumental extent of resources, and at times devastates and condemns the very own environments that are fundamental to the economic survival of organizations and the sustainability of travel destinations. The purpose of the study is to link three established scientific themes on survival and sustainability to empirical results in the field of economic decision and behavior. The discussion of this link may also represent the originality value of the paper. Departing from the results of a series of decision games obtained under a quasi-experimental design, behavioral patterns were analyzed and extrapolated to explore the terminal effects of competition trends on the survival and economic viability of organizations and travel destinations in restricted environments. The findings show that the identified competition tendency neutralized an important share of the economic potential offered by the decision game, with significant negative effects on the economic efficiency. If persistent, the competition tendency is expected to produce long term effects on the sustainability and economic survival of organizations and travel destinations in restricted environments. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v2i4.84

  11. International design competition - Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb - Formula Student Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van; Siebenpfeiffer, W. (eds.)

    2007-11-15

    Following its great success last year, Formula Student Germany made an even more impressive impact at the second competition held at the Hockenheimring in 2007. This time, 1400 students from 14 nations came together to present the results of their development work to 5000 visitors and sponsors. At the end, the competition was won by the team from the University of Stuttgart - and ATZ/MTZ would like to congratulate them on their victory. The special character of Formula Student, however, means that everyone has something to celebrate. The enthusiasm and commitment of the teams not only resulted in exciting racing cars and innovative overall designs but also in a fantastic atmosphere. (orig.)

  12. Economic efficiency of countries' clinical review processes and competitiveness on the market of human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoliti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research is a specific phase of pharmaceutical industry's production process in which companies test candidate drugs on patients to collect clinical evidence about safety and effectiveness. Information is essential to obtain manufacturing authorization from the national drug agency and, in this way, make profits on the market. Considering this activity, however, the public stakeholder has to face a conflict of interests. On the one side, there is society's necessity to make advances in medicine and, of course, to promote pharmaceutical companies' investments in this specific phase (new generation). On the other side, there is the duty to protect patients involved in these experimental treatments (old generation). To abide by this moral duty, a protection system was developed through the years, based on two legal institutions: informed consent and institutional review board. How should an efficient protection system that would take human experimentation into account be shaped? Would it be possible for the national protection system of patients' rights to affect the choice of whether to develop a clinical trial in a given country or not? Looking at Europe and considering a protection system that is shaped around institutional review boards, this article is an empirical work that tries to give answers to these open questions. It shows how a protection system that can minimize the time necessary to start a trial can positively affect pharmaceutical clinical research, that is, the choice of pharmaceutical companies to start innovative medical treatments in a given country. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  14. Economic impacts of higher oil and gas prices. The role of international trade for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Meyer, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The analysis concentrates on direct and indirect price increases, induced shifts in international trade and structural changes in the oil importing economies. The paper at hand asks, whether a stabilizing effect via international trade and domestic structural change on the GDP of oil importing countries can be observed, if a permanent oil price increase occurs. At least for Germany, structural change from consumer goods to investment goods industry and an improvement of international competitiveness limit negative impacts of increased energy prices. Analysis is based on the extensive and disaggregated global GINFORS model and the detailed INFORGE model for the German economy. (author)

  15. Thermal and nuclear power plants: Competitiveness in the new economic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the conditions of development and functionality of power generating assets have notably changed. Considering the decline in the price of hydrocarbon fuel on the global market, the efficiency of combined-cycle gas-turbine plants in the European part of Russia is growing in comparison with nuclear power plants. Capital investments in the construction of nuclear power plants have also increased as a result of stiffening the safety requirements. In view of this, there has been an increasing interest in exploration of effective lines of development of generating assets in the European part of Russia, taking consideration of the conditions that may arise in the nearest long-term perspective. In particular, the assessment of comparative efficiency of developing combined-cycle gas-turbine plants (operating on natural gas) in the European part of Russia and nuclear power plants is of academic and practical interest. In this article, we analyze the trends of changes in the regional price of hydrocarbon fuel. Using the prognosis of net-weighted import prices of natural gas in Western European countries—prepared by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Energy Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ERIRAS)—the prices of natural gas in the European part of Russia equilibrated with import prices of this heat carrier in Western Europe were determined. The methodology of determining the comparative efficiency of combined-cycle gas turbine plants (CCGT) and nuclear power plants (NPP) were described; based on this, the possible development of basic CCGTs and NPPs with regard to the European part of Russia for various scenarios in the prognosis of prices of gaseous fuel in a broad range of change of specific investments in the given generating sources were assessed, and the extents of their comparative efficiency were shown. It was proven that, at specific investments in the construction of new NPPs in the amount of 5000 dollars/kW, nuclear

  16. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY PERTAINING TO USAGE OF AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORT FACILITIES WHILE EXECUTING INTERNATIONAL CARGO TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology for evaluation of economic efficiency pertaining to usage of automotive transport facilities while executing international cargo transportation on the basis of average internal norm calculation of automotive operational profitability of a specific model under conditions which are typical for the given market by an average carrier.

  17. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  18. 76 FR 33399 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will focus on issues relating to the advent of cloud computing as a new business model in international trade, the implications of... (Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986), as amended; Public Law 107-56 (USA Patriot Act...

  19. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  20. Mass Customization as Innovation Driver of International Competitiveness in Peripheral Regional SME Subcontractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taps, Stig B.; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    practices that can be exploited as competitive capabilities. This paper suggests that an open network structure demands a transformation of peripheral-located SME subcontractor from traditional customized producer to mass customized producer. Mass customization as an instrument for the transformation...