Doyle, Stephanie; Manathunga, Catherine; Prinsen, Gerard; Tallon, Rachel; Cornforth, Sue
While the experiences of international doctoral students, especially those from Asian countries, have been well researched, fewer studies have explored the experiences of African students in Southern countries like Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand. This article reports on doctoral writing and student and supervisor perspectives on English…
Amiri, Fatemeh; Puteh, Marlia
Communication apprehension has been identified as a major factor which inhibits an individual's willingness to communicate and his/her ability to develop effective communication skills. While many prior studies have investigated oral communication apprehension among undergraduate students, there has been little research exploring this phenomenon…
Ding, Qun; Devine, Nesta
Chinese international students constitute the largest proportion of overseas students in several English-speaking countries such as the UK and New Zealand. Little research has been done concerning those undertaking doctoral study. This qualitative study explores how Chinese overseas doctoral students become involved in church communities and how…
Knight, Jane; Madden, Meggan
International academic mobility is an aspect of internationalization that is changing rapidly in terms of volume, scope, and impact. Although much of the attention and research on mobility has focused on undergraduate students participating in short-term study abroad, internships, and exchange experiences, the new push to develop international…
Woo, Hongryun; Jang, Yoo Jin; Henfield, Malik S.
This study explores 8 international doctoral students' perceptions of coping strategies used in supervision training in counselor education programs. Using human agency as a conceptual framework, the authors found 3 categories: (a) personal and professional self-directed strategies as personal agency, (b) support and care from mentors as proxy…
Godskesen, Mirjam Irene; Kobayashi, Sofie
In this paper we focus on individual coaching carried out by an external coach as a new pedagogical element that can impact doctoral students’ sense of progress in doctoral education. The study used a mixed methods approach in that we draw on quantitative and qualitative data from the evaluation...... impact the supervisor – student relationship in a positive way....
This dissertation examined the relationship between Asian international doctoral students' self-regulation on academic and social integration and explored how acculturation tendencies function as a mediator between self-regulated learning and academic and social integration. Previous research has indicated that self-regulated learning has a great…
On 10 May, over 130 PhD students and their supervisors, from both CERN and partner universities, gathered for the 4th Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber. The assembly was followed by a poster session, at which eighteen doctoral students presented the outcome of their scientific work. The CERN Doctoral Student Programme currently hosts just over 200 students in applied physics, engineering, computing and science communication/education. The programme has been in place since 1985. It enables students to do their research at CERN for a maximum of three years and to work on a PhD thesis, which they defend at their University. The programme is steered by the TSC committee, which holds two selection committees per year, in June and December. The Doctoral Student Assembly was opened by the Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti, who stressed the importance of the programme in the scientific environment at CERN, emphasising that there is no more rewarding activity than lear...
On Wednesday 2 April, CERN hosted its third Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber. CERN PhD students show off their posters in CERN's Main Building. Speaking to a packed house, Director-General Rolf Heuer gave the assembly's opening speech and introduced the poster session that followed. Seventeen CERN PhD students presented posters on their work, and were greeted by their CERN and University supervisors. It was a very successful event!
This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility ...
Holmstrom, Engin Inel; Holmstrom, Robert W.
This study investigated factors underlying discrimination against woman doctoral students. Analyses revealed that faculty attitudes and behavior toward woman doctoral students contributed significantly to their emotional stresses and self-doubts. (Author/NE)
This study examines the influence of faculty mentorship in the shaping of African American doctoral student success. A case analysis framework is used to investigate the belief systems that doctoral students held about their doctoral experience. Data collection involved a one-phase semi-structured interview protocol used to gather information…
Spiro, J H; Roenneburg, M; Maly, B J
Physicians' emotional problems need to be recognized and treated. Intervention and prevention in this problem area have been attempted at the Medical College of Wisconsin through a programme of peer counselling designed to teach student physicians how to recognize and treat emotional difficulties faced by their peers. During the 18 months that the programme has been in operation, 20 peer counsellors reported a total 1,185 hours spent in counselling their peers, lending credence to the speculation that doctors will turn to their peers for help if, in medical school, there is acceptance of fallibility and responsiveness on the part of peers.
Kim, Dongbin; Roh, Jin-young
This study explores whether patterns of doctorate attainment among Chinese and Korean international students in the USA have changed over time, both in terms of quantity (i.e., number of international students) and quality (i.e., the selectivity of the undergraduate and doctoral institutions), and whether these changes reflect the improvements in…
Brodin, Eva M.
Critical and creative thinking constitute important learning outcomes at doctoral level across the world. While the literature on doctoral education illuminates this matter through the lens of experienced senior researchers, the doctoral students' own perspective is missing. Based upon interviews with 14 doctoral students from four disciplines at…
Boden, Daniel; Borrego, Maura; Newswander, Lynita K.
Interdisciplinary approaches are often seen as necessary for attacking the most critical challenges facing the world today, and doctoral students and their training programs are recognized as central to increasing interdisciplinary research capacity. However, the traditional culture and organization of higher education are ill-equipped to…
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the challenges faced by students in completion of an online doctoral program at the University of Liverpool, Online Doctoral Business Administration program. We analyse the responses of 91 doctoral students in an online DBA program. Based on the exploratory qualitative study themes were developed…
Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lonka, Kirsti
Little is known about what inspires students to be involved in their doctoral process and stay persistent when facing challenges. This study explored the nature of students' engagement in the doctoral work. Altogether, 21 behavioural sciences doctoral students from one top-level research community were interviewed. The interview data were…
Full Text Available James GM Crossley,1,2 Pirashanthie Vivekananda-Schmidt1 1University of Sheffield School of Medicine, Sheffield, 2Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Chesterfield, UK Abstract: In 2009, the General Medical Council UK (GMC published its updated guidance on medical education for the UK medical schools – Tomorrow's Doctors 2009. The Council recommended that the UK medical schools introduce, for the first time, a clinical placement in which a senior medical student, “assisting a junior doctor and under supervision, undertakes most of the duties of an F1 doctor”. In the UK, an F1 doctor is a postgraduation year 1 (PGY1 doctor. This new kind of placement was called a student assistantship. The recommendation was considered necessary because conventional UK clinical placements rarely provided medical students with opportunities to take responsibility for patients – even under supervision. This is in spite of good evidence that higher levels of learning, and the acquisition of essential clinical and nontechnical skills, depend on students participating in health care delivery and gradually assuming responsibility under supervision. This review discusses the gap between student and doctor, and the impact of the student assistantship policy. Early evaluation indicates substantial variation in the clarity of purpose, setting, length, and scope of existing assistantships. In particular, few models are explicit on the most critical issue: exactly how the student participates in care and how supervision is deployed to optimize learning and patient safety. Surveys indicate that these issues are central to students' perceptions of the assistantship. They know when they have experienced real responsibility and when they have not. This lack of clarity and variation has limited the impact of student assistantships. We also consider other important approaches to bridging the gap between student and doctor. These include supporting the
Deborah S. Garson
Full Text Available Creating a quality literature review is fundamental to doctoral student professionalization, yet research into how the literature review is taught, learned, or experienced is limited. Responding to this under-addressed but critical key to doctoral education, the focus of this mixed methods study is on students’ perceptions of a year-long course, co-taught by a faculty member and embedded librarian, devoted specifically to addressing the literature review. Analysis of students’ course evaluations and written reflections/feedback over an eight year period revealed four primary themes: 1 Entering students’ technological know-how does not guarantee effective information literacy skill and without the requisite skills one-shot library workshops are insufficient for making learning whole; 2 Rather than conceiving of the literature review as a product, constructing a literature review represents a pivotal process in doctoral students’ research and literacy skill development; 3 Creating a literature review, and the process it entails, signals in students the development of their professional researcher identity, involving movement beyond “how to” to address questions of “why” and “for whom”; 4 The literature review course was experienced as a substantively different course than is typical in the doctoral experience, mirroring the course’s foundational assumption that librarians, instructors, and learners share agency in creating the literature review process. The course curriculum is framed by two simultaneous learning streams: information literacy competencies and student research agenda. The course curriculum aligns information literacy competencies and research methodology with the goal of exploring and purposefully integrating creativity and curiosity in the search and research construction process.
May 30, 2018 ... You must be enrolled at a Canadian university at the doctoral level ... IDRC Doctoral Research Awards are intended to promote the capacity and growth of ... including academic training, local language capacity, professional ... funding opportunity to support Canadian-African research teams studying Ebola.
Sarah L Ferguson
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore student perceptions of their own doctoral-level education and quantitative proficiency. Background: The challenges of preparing doctoral students in education have been discussed in the literature, but largely from the perspective of university faculty and program administrators. The current study directly explores the student voice on this issue. Methodology: Utilizing a sequential explanatory mixed-methods research design, the present study seeks to better understand doctoral-level education students’ perceptions of their quantitative methods training at a large public university in the southwestern United States. Findings: Results from both phases present the need for more application and consistency in doctoral-level quantitative courses. Additionally, there was a consistent theme of internal motivation in the responses, suggesting students perceive their quantitative training to be valuable beyond their personal interest in the topic. Recommendations for Practitioners: Quantitative methods instructors should emphasize practice in their quantitative courses and consider providing additional support for students through the inclusion of lab sections, tutoring, and/or differentiation. Pre-testing statistical ability at the start of a course is also suggested to better meet student needs. Impact on Society: The ultimate goal of quantitative methods in doctoral education is to produce high-quality educational researchers who are prepared to apply their knowledge to problems and research in education. Results of the present study can inform faculty and administrator decisions in doctoral education to best support this goal. Future Research: Using the student perspectives presented in the present study, future researchers should continue to explore effective instructional strategies and curriculum design within education doctoral programs. The inclusion of student voice can strengthen
This conceptual article uses the tools of Pierre Bourdieu (1977, 1986, 1990) to examine the socialization of doctoral students by suggesting that the processes of doctoral study highlight inequities among students. Using Young's (1990) social justice approach as a framework to complement the ideas of Bourdieu, I demonstrate how aspects of academic…
The present paper reports an investigation into the use of linking adverbials in the academic writing of Chinese doctoral students. The learner corpus used in the present study is composed of 20 applied linguistics doctoral dissertations. We also compiled a control corpus of 120 published articles in six international journals of applied…
Bircher, Lisa S.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the socialization (Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001) experiences of part-time doctoral students as a result of peer mentorship in one college. Part-time doctoral students are identified as students who are maintaining full-time employment or obligations outside of the university. The…
This study investigated the extent to which doctoral advisors provided mentoring to their students and if mentor support influenced doctoral student outcomes. Survey results from 477 respondents, across disciplines at two universities, indicated that most students believed mentoring was important and over half of them received mentoring support…
The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral education in South Africa. The main point of the article is that the different understandings of the…
Asamenew Demessie Bireda
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate some challenges female doctoral students experience in their doctoral journey. The study used a qualitative design and structured interviews. The theoretical framework that guided the study was that of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecosystemic theory. A purposely selected sample of five female doctoral students from the University of South Africa Ethiopia campus participated in the study. The results identified three major areas of concern such as: academic, psychosocial and home/work related. Specifically, female doctoral students reported concerns surrounding quality of supervision support, inadequate academic skill, nature or system of education, stress, motivation, isolation, balancing personal and professional life, relationship problems, home and work related concerns. Hence, universities must provide opportunities and resourceful strategies to meet the challenges posed by women scholars in the doctoral journey.
Writing a thesis is one of the most challenging activities that a doctoral student must undertake and can represent a barrier to timely completion. This is relevant in light of current and widespread concerns regarding doctoral completion rates. This study explored thesis writing approaches of students post or near Ph.D. completion through…
Mars, Nina; Kalske, Jaakko; Halttunen-Nieminen, Mervi; Pitkäranta, Anne
At the University of Helsinki, the licentiate degree in medicine involves internships that can be conducted as a medical intern or locum doctor. The students and their supervisors fill out a feedback form, which helps in assessing the students' improvement in various areas. Based on the feedback form between 2008 and 2013, students having worked as locum doctor rated better improvement in their diagnostic skills, writing medical records, interacting with the patient, and operating in the work community. Supervisor evaluations did not show a similar clear difference between the job positions.
Presently, 130 doctoral students at CERN do their research on “technical” subjects such as magnets and cryogenics, beam and detector physics, computing and vacuum, among others. Student present their scientific achievements at the first doctoral student assembly. To present their scientific achievements and to bring together the students with CERN supervisors and CERN’s management was the main objective of the first doctoral student assembly and poster session, held June 30. The photograph shows about half of those who presented posters, all in their second year of assignment, and ready to attach their work to the panels. Another aim of the assembly was to discuss the outcome of the anonymous questionnaire and to gain feedback for the improvement of the doctoral student program. While there is vast overall satisfaction, improvements should aim at strengthening the links between students, CERN supervisors, and university professors. With 24 posters prese...
Ted M. Cross
Full Text Available As higher education is changing to reach larger numbers of students via online modalities, the issue of student attrition and other measures of student success become increasingly important. While research has focused largely on undergraduate online students, less has been done in the area of online non-traditional doctoral student success, particularly from the student trait perspective. The concept of grit, passion and persistence for long-term goals, has been identified as an important element of the successful attainment of long-term goals. As doctoral education is a long-term goal the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of doctoral student grit scores on student success. Success was measured by examining current student GPA and other factors. Significant relationships were found between grit and current student GPA, grit and the average number of hours students spent on their program of study weekly, and grit and age. The results of this research maybe important for informing how doctoral education is structured and how students might be better prepared for doctoral work.
Full Text Available To study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. A cross-sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected basic questions regarding BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. After excluding the incomplete response forms the data was analysed on 1,054 responders. The results were analysed using an answer key prepared with the use of the Advanced Cardiac Life Support manual. Out of 1,054 responders 345 were medical students, 75 were medical interns, 19 were dental students, 59 were dental interns, 105 were homeopathy interns, 319 were nursing students, 72 were doctors, 29 were dentists, 25 were nursing faculty and six were homeopathy doctors. No one among them had complete knowledge of BLS. Only two out of 1054 (0.19% had secured 80 - 89% marks, 10 out of 1054 (0.95% had secured 70 - 79% marks, 40 of 1054 (4.08% had secured 60 - 69% marks and 105 of 1054 (9.96% had secured 50 - 59% marks. A majority of them, that is, 894 (84.82% had secured less than 50% marks. Awareness of BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges is very poor.
Almost ten years after the start of the programme in 2007, the hundredth Gentner Doctoral Student started his PhD at CERN. The hundredth Gentner Doctoral Student, Christian Zimmer, in front of the AEgIS detector in the AD hall, where he will spend a significant portion of the next 3 years. In 2007, the German Gentner Doctoral Student Programme was established at CERN, named in honour of the celebrated nuclear physicist Wolfgang Gentner, President of the CERN Council from 1972-74. On 1 July 2016, the 100th Gentner Doctoral Student, Christian Zimmer, started his PhD at CERN, where he will work on setting up the sympathetic laser cooling of antiprotons at the AEgIS experiment. CERN’s Doctoral Student Programme has been running for many years, with 200 students currently enrolled. The Gentner programme is fully integrated into the general CERN Doctoral Student Programme, but is entirely funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The programme sponsors 30 to 40...
Weitz, Antje; Stevens, Bjorn; Marotzke, Jochem
The mission of the International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling (IMPRS-ESM) is to provide a high quality, modern and structured graduate education to students pursuing a doctoral degree in Earth system modelling. In so doing, the IMPRS-ESM also strives to advance the emerging discipline (or cross-discipline) of Earth system modelling; to provide a framework for attracting the most talented and creative young women and men from around the world to pursue their doctoral education in Germany; to provide advanced as well as specialized academic training and scientific guidance to doctoral students; to encourage academic networking and publication of research results; to better integrate doctoral research at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) with education and research at the University of Hamburg and other cooperating institutions. Core elements are rigorous selection of doctoral students, effective academic supervision, advanced academic training opportunities and interdisciplinary communication as well as administrative support. IMPRS-ESM graduates have been recognized with a variety of awards. 85% of our alumni continue a career in research. In this presentation we review the challenges for an interdisciplinary PhD program in Earth system sciences and the types of routines we have implemented to surmount them as well as key elements that we believe contribute to the success of our doctoral program.
Godskesen, Mirjam; Kobayashi, Sofie
In this paper we focus on individual coaching carried out by an external coach as a new pedagogical element that can impact doctoral students' sense of progress in doctoral education. The study used a mixed-methods approach in that we draw on quantitative and qualitative data from the evaluation of a project on coaching doctoral students. We…
Pfeiffer, M; Dimitriadis, K; Holzer, M; Reincke, M; Fischer, M R
Weight and quality of medical doctoral theses have been discussed in Germany for years. Doctoral study programs in various graduate schools offer opportunities to improve quality of medical doctoral theses. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate distinctions and differences concerning motivation, choice of subject and the dissertation process between doctoral candidates completing the doctoral seminar for doctoral students in the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich and doctoral candidates doing their doctorate individually. All 4000 medical students of the LMU obtained an online-questionnaire which was completed by 767 students (19 % response rate). The theoretical framework of this study was based upon the Self-Determination-Theory by Deci and Ryan. Doctoral candidates completing the doctoral study program were more intrinsically motivated than doctoral candidates doing their doctorate individually; no difference was found in their extrinsic motivation. In regard to choice of subject and dissertation process the doctoral students in the seminar were distinguished from the individual group by having chosen a more challenging project. They anticipated a demanding dissertation process including conference participation, publishing of papers, etc. Intrinsic motivation correlates positively with choosing a challenging project and a demanding dissertation process. High intrinsic motivation seems to be very important for autonomous scholarly practice. Our results suggest that doctoral study programs have a positive impact on intrinsic motivation and interest in research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Guanglun Michael Mu
Full Text Available Workshops and seminars are widely-used forms of doctoral training. However, research with a particular focus on these forms of doctoral training is sporadic in the literature. There is little, if any, such research concerning the international context and participants’ own voices. Mindful of these lacunae in the literature, we write the current paper as a group of participants in one of a series of doctoral forums co-organised annually by Beijing Normal University, China and Queensland University of Technology, Australia. The paper voices our own experiences of participation in the doctoral forum. Data were drawn from reflections, journals, and group discussions of all 12 student and academic participants. These qualitative data were organised and analysed through Bourdieu’s notions of capital and field. Findings indicate that the doctoral forum created enabling and challenging social fields where participants accrued and exchanged various forms of capital and negotiated transient and complex power relations. In this respect, the sociological framework used provides a distinctive theoretical tool to conceptualise and analyse the benefits and tensions of participation in the doctoral forum. Knowledge built and lessons learned through our paper will provide implications and recommendations for future planning of, and participation in, the doctoral forum series and similar activities elsewhere.
Lakhey, M; Lakhey, S; Niraula, S R; Jha, D; Pant, R
Many doctors are leaving Nepal to work abroad. To understand this problem better, we decided to study the attitude and plans of young doctors and medical students. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Kathmandu Medical College involving 65 first year medical students, 100 interns and 100 house officers. The data collected was entered in Microsoft excel and analysed by SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) programme. Chi-square test was used to compare two proportions. Significance level was set at 5%. Only 2% house officers said that their job prospects were excellent as compared to 22.4% of students, whereas 20% house officers as compared to 9% students thought job prospects in Nepal were poor (p= 0.003). Eighty two percent of students thought that a doctor's service to his country was very important as compared to 51% of interns (p= 0.001) and 58% of house officers. Forty percent of students, 58% of interns and 48% of house officers (no statistical significance between the three groups) planned to migrate to a developed country after graduation. Eighty eight percent of students, 89% interns and 74% of house officers (no statistical significant differences between the three groups) were of the opinion that improving career opportunities or working environment of the doctor could make the profession more attractive. Although majority of students, interns and house officers were of the opinion that a doctor's service to his community/country was very important, almost half of them still planned to migrate to a developed country after graduation. Improving the chances of professional advancement and professional working environment can make the profession more attractive, and therefore, may decrease this tendency for brain drain from our country.
Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian; Pham, Binh
As part of their journey of learning to research, doctoral candidates need to become members of their research community. In part, this involves coming to be aware of their field in ways that are shared amongst longer-term members of the research community. One aspect of candidates' experience we need to understand, therefore, involves how they…
Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi
Doctoral studies are about learning to create new knowledge and to become a researcher. Yet surprisingly little is known about the individual learning patterns of doctoral students. The study aims to explore learning patterns among natural science doctoral students. The participants included 19 doctoral students from a top-level natural science…
Baltrinic, Eric R.; Jencius, Marty; McGlothlin, Jason
This phenomenological study explored 10 counselor education doctoral students' coteaching experiences with faculty members. Three coteaching structures identified from the data were relational, operational, and developmental. A definition of coteaching supported by the findings is presented. Implications for counselor education programs,…
Kumar, Swapna; Johnson, Melissa
The purpose of our research was to explore faculty members' experiences with online mentoring during the dissertation stage of an online doctoral program. During semi-structured interviews, four mentors reflected on their online mentoring of students, specifically the strategies that worked well, challenges faced while mentoring online, and other…
Introduction: Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and ...
This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…
Micheli, Amelia C.
The purpose of this study was to explore variables impacting dispositional empathy in doctoral psychology students. While there is a great deal of research regarding empathy in practicing psychologists and mental health professionals, little is known about empathy in psychology trainees. This is especially surprising given the importance of…
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
This article, with a focus on North American postsecondary education, identifies international students as a strategic enrollment management institutional priority; presents themes in the international student retention, satisfaction, and success research literature; and describes related best practices. It also presents the findings from an…
Kosh, Emily P.
Personality affects relationships. During the doctoral education, the second most important factor in degree completion, after financial support, is the student-advisor relationship. Approximately half of doctoral students do not finish their degrees. While it is known mentors have a profound impact on the success of doctoral students, the effect…
Much attention has been paid to formal pedagogic elements of the doctorate--supervision and other structured institutional provisions--but we know less about the role played by non-formal practices in doctoral students' learning. This paper explores the experiences of eight doctoral students involved in editing student-run journals. Editorship and…
Scanlan, Judith M; Abdul Hernandéz, C
The literature in international education focuses primarily on the experiences of western students in developing countries, international students in western universities, the development of an educational program in a developing country, or internationalization of curricula in western universities. There is little in the literature that addresses the challenges students and participating faculty face when implementing a graduate program in a developing country. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the challenges of implementing a doctoral program in an international exchange through the lens of Kanter's theory of empowerment. Recommendations to address these challenges will be made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robinson, C. Sean
Although there is a significant body of research on the process of undergraduate education and retention, much less research exists as it relates to the doctoral experience, which is intended to be transformational in nature. At each stage of the process students are presented with a unique set of challenges and experiences that must be negotiated and mastered. However, we know very little about entering students' expectations, beliefs, goals, and identities, and how these may or may not change over time within a doctoral program. Utilizing a framework built upon socialization theory and cognitive-ecological theory, this dissertation examines the expectations that incoming doctoral students have about their programs as well as the actual experiences that these students have during their first year. Interviews were conducted with twelve students from the departments of Botany, Chemistry, and Physics prior to matriculation into their respective doctoral programs. These initial interviews provided information about students' expectations. Interviews were then conducted approximately every six to eight weeks to assess students' perceptions about their actual experiences throughout their first year. The findings of this study showed that new doctoral students tend to have uninformed and naive expectations about their programs. In addition, many of the specific policies or procedures necessary for navigation through a doctoral program were unknown to the students. While few differences existed in terms of students' expectations based on gender or discipline, there were significant differences in how international students described their expectations compared to American students. The two primary differences between American and international students revolved around the role of faculty members and the language barrier. It is clear that the first year of doctoral study is indeed a year of transition. The nature and clarity of the expectations associated with the role of
Lin, Yii-nii; Hsu, Angela Yi-ping
This study describes the peer mentoring experience from doctoral student mentors' point of view. Twelve science and engineering doctoral students participated in this phenomenology study. The findings suggest doctoral peer mentors served instrumental, psychosocial, buffering, and liaison roles; they passed on their social, professional, and…
Shapiro, Johanna; Rucker, Lloyd; Robitshek, Daniel
The authors describe a longitudinal third- and fourth-year elective, 'The Art of Doctoring', introduced in an attempt to counteract perceived frustration and cynicism in medical students at their home institution during the clinical years. The course goals aimed at helping students to develop self-reflective skills; improve awareness of and ability to modify personal attitudes and behaviors that compromise patient care; increase altruism, empathy and compassion toward patients; and sustain commitment to patient care, service and personal well-being. These goals were accomplished through introduction and development of five skill sets: learning from role models and peers; on-site readings of works by medical student- and physician-authors; self- and other-observation; self-reflective techniques; and case-based problem-solving. The course involved regular in-class exercises and homework assignments, as well as a personal project related to improving personal compassion, caring and empathy toward patients. Students also learned to use a coping algorithm to approach problematic clinical and interpersonal situations. Class discussions revealed three issues of recurring importance to students: loss of idealism, non-compliant patients, and indifferent, harsh or otherwise unpleasant attendings and residents. Quantitative and qualitative student evaluations overall indicated a generally favorable response to the course. Problems and barriers included attendance difficulties and variable levels of student engagement. Future directions for this type of educational intervention are considered, as well as its implications for medical education.
Sherry, Mark; Thomas, Peter; Chui, Wing Hong
This study examines the experiences of international students at The University of Toledo, where international students comprise approximately 10% of the student population. It highlights problems international students experience such as adapting to a new culture, English language problems, financial problems and lack of understanding from the…
HassabElnaby, Hassan R.; Dobrzykowski, David D.; Tran, Oanh Thikie
Accounting has been faced with a severe shortage in the supply of qualified doctoral faculty. Drawing upon the international mobility of foreign scholars and the spirit of the international medical graduate program, this article suggests a model to fill the demand in accounting doctoral faculty. The underlying assumption of the suggested model is…
Robb, W B
Preparing graduates for the transformation from medical student to doctor provides medical schools with a real challenge. Medical educators advocate a process of graduated delegation of responsibility in the clinical years of medical school. This is best exemplified in the North American system of sub-internship programmes; an educational approach which European medical schools have been slow to adopt. This study reports on the introduction of an intensive two-week surgical sub-internship for final medical year students. "Sub-interns" were asked to complete pre and post sub-internship online questionnaires assessing their readiness to perform clinical and practical skills, attitudes towards the program, and how well it prepared students for internship. Forty-nine students completed a questionnaire pre sub-internship and 47 completed the post-questionnaire. Student confidence towards practical and clinical skills and their first day at work increased over the two weeks. Mean Iikert scores for all 6 practical and clinical skills improved post sub-internship. The introduction of a surgical sub-internship is timely and welcomed by medical students. Its development helps bridge the gap in responsibilities between medical student and doctor.
As the number of international students in Chinese higher education increases steadily, this volume is one of the first to focus on their many and varied experiences. With contributions focusing on such topics as intercultural adaptation, soft power and interculturality, language learning strateg...
Kumar, Vijay; Aitchison, Claire
Very few empirical studies have investigated programmes in which doctoral students act as peer facilitators in faculty writing groups. We report on the development of a centrally delivered doctoral student writing programme in which twenty student participants were mentored and provided with the resources to initiate their own faculty-based…
Rinfrette, Elaine S.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Coyle, James P.; Jackson, Kelly F.; Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M.; Rine, Christine M.; Shulman, Lawrence
Teaching in higher education is often not addressed in doctoral education, even though many doctoral graduates will eventually teach. This article describes a biweekly teaching workshop, presents pitfalls and challenges that beginning instructors face, and advocates pedagogical training for doctoral students. Led by a well-known social work…
Bracke, N; Moens, L
The Doctoral Schools at Ghent University have a three-fold mission: (1) to provide support to doctoral students during their doctoral research, (2) to foster a quality culture in (doctoral) research, (3) to promote the international and social stature and prestige of the doctorate vis-a-vis potential researchers and the potential labour market. The Doctoral Schools offer top-level specialized courses and transferable skills training to doctoral students as part of their doctoral training programme. They establish mechanisms of quality assurance in doctoral research. The Doctoral Schools initialize and support initiatives of internationalization. They also organize information sessions, promotional events and interaction with the labour market, and as such keep a finger on the pulse of external stakeholders.
BACKGROUND: Between 2000 and 2010, Ireland became increasingly dependent on foreign-trained doctors to staff its health system. An inability to train and retain sufficient doctors to meet demand is the primary reason for the dependence on foreign-trained doctors. By 2008 the proportion of foreign-trained doctors was the second highest in the OECD. This increased dependence on international medical migration has both national and international policy implications. METHODS: Registration data were obtained from the Medical Council of Ireland (MCI) for a 10-year period: 2000-2010. Data indicate country of qualification but not nationality. The total number of registrants and entrants (n) was determined for each year. Immigration data were also obtained on the number of work visas issued to doctors. Registration and visa data were then compared in order to estimate doctor migration to Ireland 2000-2010. RESULTS: The proportion of foreign-trained doctors rose from 13.4% of all registered doctors in 2000 to 33.4% by 2010. The largest increase was in foreign-trained doctors from outside the EU, rising from 972 (7.4%) in 2000 to 4740 (25.3%) of registered doctors in 2010. The biggest source country in 2000 was Pakistan. By 2010, South Africa had become the biggest source country. The number of foreign-trained doctors from other EU countries doubled from 780 in 2000 to 1521 in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: Registration data are likely to over-estimate and visa data under-estimate the numbers of doctors actively working in Ireland. However, they serve to illustrate Ireland\\'s rapidly increasing and potentially unsustainable reliance on foreign-trained doctors; and to highlight the need for better data to measure migratory flows. Improved measurement of health worker migration is necessary both for national workforce planning and to fulfil the requirements of the WHO Global Code on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel.
This year marks the start of a new phase between CERN and Morocco with the arrival of the first two Moroccan students. Mohamed Gouighri and Sara Boutouil, the first two Moroccan students at CERN. Thanks to the efforts of a small group of Moroccan academics, Morocco has been participating in the LHC programme for over ten years. About ten Moroccan physicists are members of the ATLAS collaboration, which comprises over 2000 physicists and 165 research institutes from 37 different countries. The arrival of the first Moroccan doctoral students at CERN was the logical next step. The new programme is the result of a multi-party agreement between CERN, the Sharing Knowledge Foundation, the Moroccan universities participating in the LHC programme and the Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology. Mohamed Gouighri is the first Moroccan to obtain a scholarship to study at CERN, which is being funded by the Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology. He has been studying physics at the Faculty of S...
Doctors, especially junior doctors, face immense pressure in their day-to-day work. As a result, the rates of depression and anxiety are particularly high in this demanding profession. The pressure, which is compounded by constantly being under societal scrutiny, can unfortunately drive the doctor to breaking point. However, we can help doctors deal with these pressures in a more meaningful way if we make them aware of their wider environment (within a social paradigm) and the implications of their actions.
Walsh, Robyn; Bambacus, Elizabeth; Gibson, Donna
The purpose of this article is to provide a supervision approach to experiential groups that replaces professors with doctoral students in the chain of supervision, enlists a faculty member to provide supervision of supervision to the doctoral students, and translates supervision theory to meet the unique needs of group counseling supervision.…
Jaeger, Audrey J.; Mitchall, Allison; O'Meara, KerryAnn; Grantham, Ashley; Zhang, Jingjing; Eliason, Jennifer; Cowdery, Kelly
This study examined and enriched our understanding of the career choice process for doctoral students of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. In addition, it explored the challenges facing all doctoral students in STEM in understanding and making meaning of diversity as it relates to individual perspectives and…
Oktay, Julianne S.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Fisher, Elizabeth
The researchers conducted an exploratory study using grounded theory qualitative research methods to examine experiences of social work doctoral students as they learned to teach ("N"?=?14). A core category, "learning through experience," representing a basic social process, was identified. The doctoral students experienced…
Latinas currently attain the lowest number of terminal degrees in the United States when compared to White, African American, and Asian American women. While Latina doctoral students share common struggles with other minority/female doctoral students, the unique cultural expectations associated with their racial/ethnic and gender related…
Robertson, Margaret J.
This article raises two inter-related issues: firstly there is a correlation between the needs of doctoral students that are strongly related to age and career stage; and secondly, because these needs differ according to their demographic, the current discourse of developing work-readiness skills of doctoral students is misplaced for the growing…
Minor, Amanda J.; Pimpleton, Asher; Stinchfield, Tracy; Stevens, Heath; Othman, Nor Asma
Counselor education doctoral students (CEDSs), like other doctoral students, need assistance and support to ensure their self-care. One area markedly affecting self-care is one's relationships with others. The purpose of this article is to examine the multiple relationships involved within CEDSs supervision, the potential areas to utilize peer…
Terry, Helen; Liller, Karen D.
The purpose of this article is to describe the Doctoral Student Leadership Institute, an initiative developed to hone the leadership skills of doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines. The components of the Institute and preliminary assessment measures with findings are discussed. We particularly were pleased with the outcomes of the…
Goldman, Zachary W.; Goodboy, Alan K.
This study explored how psychosocial development affects doctoral students' relationship and communication with their advisor. Chickering and Reisser's vectors of psychosocial development were examined in the doctoral context to understand how students preserve communicatively satisfying relationships with their advisor through the use of…
Writing at the doctoral level presents many challenges for second language writers. This paper reports on a longitudinal study investigating English as a second language (ESL) doctoral students' writing problems and the strategies they developed to meet these challenges. Eight students were interviewed four times over a two-year period during…
Miller, John K.; Stone, Dana J.
The authors examined factors influencing career aspirations of doctoral students of color in family therapy doctoral programs across the country, with a special focus on careers in the professoriate. Qualitative interviews were conducted with students at varying levels of degree completion. Respondents discussed barriers to careers in academia as…
Frazier, Christina Coffee
This qualitative case study explored the experiences of doctoral students at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities as they transitioned from a fairly stable academic department experiencing significant changes. To achieve the purpose of the study, I investigated the experiences of doctoral students through an organizational development…
Twitter and other social networking sites have much to offer doctoral students, especially given that models for doctoral education are increasingly becoming more diverse with more students studying part-time for traditional PhDs, or on programmes such as professional doctorates. Prior research has highlighted the benefits of Twitter but, as other…
Qureshi, Zeshan U; Lattey, Katherine; Bryne, Patrick; Rodrigues, Mark; Ross, Michael; Maxwell, Simon
Medical textbooks are an important teaching supplement. Few have junior doctors or medical students ('juniors') as primary contributors. However, the strengths of junior-led face-to-face teaching are now well-established, and we hypothesized that similar advantages would be transferrable to a textbook setting. Juniors were approached to contribute to an independently published medical textbook, with senior clinicians recruited in parallel to ensure factual accuracy. Juniors directed every aspect of textbook writing and the production process. The published book stressed that it was an open collaboration with readers, inviting them to get in touch to evaluate the text and suggest ideas for new titles. Of 75 respondents, 93 % awarded the first textbook in the series 4 or 5 out of 5 for overall quality. Five other titles have been released, with seven more in development. Over 100 juniors are currently involved, with two students progressing from reviewers to editors after less than a year of mentorship. Juniors can be a motivated, dynamic, innovative group, capable of significant contributions to the medical textbook literature. This initiative has generated a sustainable infrastructure to facilitate junior-led publishing, and has the capacity for expansion to accommodate new initiatives and ideas.
Katherine S Blondon
Full Text Available Interprofessional collaboration between doctors and nurses is based on team mental models, in particular for each professional's roles. Our objective was to identify factors influencing concordance on the expectations of doctors' and nurses' roles and responsibilities in an Internal Medicine ward. Using a dataset of 196 doctor-nurse pairs (14x14 = 196, we analyzed choices and prioritized management actions of 14 doctors and 14 nurses in six clinical nurse role scenarios, and in five doctor role scenarios (6 options per scenario. In logistic regression models with a non-nested correlation structure, we evaluated concordance among doctors and nurses, and adjusted for potential confounders (including prior experience in Internal Medicine, acuteness of case and gender. Concordance was associated with number of female professionals (adjusted OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.73, for acute situations (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.62, and in doctor role scenarios (adjusted OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.65. Prior experience and country of training were not significant predictors of concordance. In conclusion, our concordance-based approach helped us identify areas of lower concordance in expected doctor-nurse roles and responsibilities, particularly in non-acute situations, which can be targeted by future interprofessional, educational interventions.
Jacobs, Fabian; Stegmann, Karsten; Siebeck, Matthias
Universities are increasingly organizing international exchange programs to meet the requirements of growing globalisation in the field of health care. Analyses based on the programs' fundamental theoretical background are needed to confirm the learning value for participants. This study investigated the extent of sociocultural learning in an exchange program and how sociocultural learning affects the acquisition of domain-specific competencies. Sociocultural learning theories were applied to study the learning effect for German medical students from the LMU Munich, Munich, Germany, of participation in the medical exchange program with Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. First, we performed a qualitative study consisting of interviews with five of the first program participants. The results were used to develop a questionnaire for the subsequent, quantitative study, in which 29 program participants and 23 matched controls performed self-assessments of competencies as defined in the Tuning Project for Health Professionals. The two interrelated studies were combined to answer three different research questions. The participants rated their competence significantly higher than the control group in the fields of doctor-patient relationships and communication in a medical context. Participant responses in the two interrelated studies supported the link between the findings and the suggested theoretical background. Overall, we found that the exchange program affected the areas of doctor-patient relationships and effective communication in a medical context. Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory contributed to explaining the learning mechanisms of the exchange program.
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati
The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…
Based on ethnographic interviews with 48 doctoral students and 22 faculty members in science and engineering, this study examines the ways in which doctoral students and faculty make market, symbolic, and social meaning of the presence or absence of money in doctoral student socialization and of funding from governmental and industrial sources.…
Full Text Available Nonnative English-speaking scholars and trainees are increasingly submitting their work to English journals. The study’s aim was to describe their experiences regarding scientific writing in English using a qualitative phenomenographic approach. Two focus groups (5 doctoral supervisors and 13 students were conducted. Participants were nonnative English-speakers in a Swedish health sciences faculty. Group discussion focused on scientific writing in English, specifically, rewards, challenges, facilitators, and barriers. Participants were asked about their needs for related educational supports. Inductive phenomenographic analysis included extraction of referential (phenomenon as a whole and structural (phenomenon parts aspects of the transcription data. Doctoral supervisors and students viewed English scientific writing as challenging but worthwhile. Both groups viewed mastering English scientific writing as necessary but each struggles with the process differently. Supervisors viewed it as a long-term professional responsibility (generating knowledge, networking, and promotion eligibility. Alternatively, doctoral students viewed its importance in the short term (learning publication skills. Both groups acknowledged they would benefit from personalized feedback on writing style/format, but in distinct ways. Nonnative English-speaking doctoral supervisors and students in Sweden may benefit from on-going writing educational supports. Editors/reviewers need to increase awareness of the challenges of international contributors and maximize the formative constructiveness of their reviews.
Mawson, Kate; Abbott, Ian
This article presents a discussion around issues of identity for part-time professional doctoral students. The current supervision arrangements of a professional doctoral programme were considered, using an exploratory study, to explore the idea that supervision for competent confident professionals should, in the early stages, focus on identity…
Guerin, Cally; Jayatilaka, Asangi; Ranasinghe, Damith; McCulloch, Alistair; Calder, Paul
A "knowledge society" relies on a workforce with high-level skills in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Continuing development of ICT will arise partly from research undertaken by doctoral graduates. However, compared to other cognate disciplines, ICT has relatively few students taking up doctoral studies. This article…
Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Ynalvez, Ruby A.; Ramírez, Enrique
We explored the social shaping of science at the micro-level reality of face-to-face interaction in one of the traditional places for scientific activities--the scientific lab. We specifically examined how doctoral students' perception of their: (i) interaction with doctoral mentors (MMI) and (ii) lab social environment (LSE) influenced…
Herrington, Jan; Montgomerie, C.; McKenney, Susan; Seale, J.; Reeves, Thomas C.; Oliver, Ron
At first glance, design-based research may appear to be such a long-term and intensive approach to educational inquiry that doctoral students, most of whom expect to complete their Ph.D. degree in 4-5 years, should not attempt to adopt this approach for their doctoral dissertations. In this paper,
Many people regard the doctorate as the pinnacle of success. Despite the challenges of completing the terminal degree, the dream of earning the doctoral degree remains a goal for many every year. Understanding the phenomenon of African American student enrollment at for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs) is necessary because many African…
Brown, Ted; Crabtree, Jeffrey L; Mu, Keli; Wells, Joe
Internationally, occupational therapy education has gone through several paradigm shifts during the last few decades, moving from certificate to diploma to bachelors to masters and now in some instances to clinical doctorate as the entry-level professional credential to practice. In the United States there is a recommendation under consideration by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) that by 2025, all occupational therapy university programs will move to the clinical doctorate level. It should be noted, however, that the AOTA Board can only make recommendations and it is the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) who has regulatory authority to approve such a change. What are the potential implications for the profession, our clients, and funders of occupational therapy services? What are the primary drivers for the move towards the clinical doctorate being the educational entry point? Is the next step in the evolution of occupational therapy education globally a shift to the entry-level clinical doctorate? This article reviews current literature and discusses issues about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate. The published evidence available about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate is summarized and the perceived or frequently cited pros and cons of moving to the clinical doctorate as the singular entry point to occupational therapy practice are considered. The potential impacts of the introduction of the clinical doctorate as the entry-to-practice qualification across the United States on the occupational therapy community internationally will be briefly discussed. If the United States moves toward the entry-level clinical doctorate as the only educational starting point for the profession, will other jurisdictions follow suit? Further discourse and investigation of this issue both inside and outside of the United States is needed so that informed decisions can be made.
Curtin, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.; Ostrove, Joan M.
International doctoral students in the United States face challenges of acculturation in academia yet complete graduate school at higher rates and more quickly than their domestic counterparts. This study examined advisor support, sense of belonging, and academic self-concept among international and domestic doctoral students at a research…
Kendra Lowery; Rachel Geesa; Kat McConnell
Objectives: In preparation for creating a peer-mentoring program for education doctorate (EdD) students, we conducted a literature review to learn about the characteristics of peer-mentoring programs for graduate students and EdD students specifically. Method: Our search criteria included articles about peer mentoring for graduate students only; published in peer-reviewed journals since the year 2000; and about programs that involved more experienced students, students farther along in t...
Tesh, Vernon L.
With the goal of promoting the development of early career investigators in the field of toxinology, Toxins welcomed applications for the 2016 Toxins Travel Awards for post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. [...
Vernon L. Tesh
Full Text Available With the goal of promoting the development of early career investigators in the field of toxinology, Toxins welcomed applications for the 2016 Toxins Travel Awards for post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. [...
Zamir, Q.; Nadeem, A.; Rizvi, A.H.
Objective: To assess the level of awareness regarding basic and practical knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and its importance in the eyes of medical/dental students and doctors. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in medical and dental colleges as well as hospitals of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, from June to September 2011. Non-probability convenience sampling was used and structured questionnaires on basic and practical knowledge of the procedure were distributed. The questionnaire had 26 items related to basic and advanced knowledge of the required skills. Doctors were divided into two groups based on their years of service and practice. Those with less than 5 years' experience were grouped as junior doctors, while rest as senior doctors. Descriptive statistics were employed to analyse the data using SPPS version 17 and Microsoft Excel. Percentages were worked out and the results were interpreted. Result: Of the 1000 questionnaires distributed, 646 (64.6%) were received duly filled and represented the study sample. Of the 646 participants, 34 (5.26%) were dentists, 424 (65.63%) were medical students, 92 (14.24%) were doctors and 96 (14.86%) were dental students. Basic knowledge of doctors was found to be better than that of dentists (n=96; 50% vs. n=8; 23%). Similarly, the advance knowledge of doctors was better than the dentists (n=53; 58% vs. n=11; 31%). The basic knowledge of junior doctors was found to be almost equal to the senior doctors (n=26; 44.75% vs. n=15; 45.5%). The advance knowledge of junior doctors was found to be better than the senior doctors (n=27; 45.37% vs. n=10; 29.48%). Among the students, 157 (37%) of the medical students had basic knowledge of CPR, while 36 (38%) dental students had basic knowledge of the topic. Medical students had more advanced knowledge (n=157; 37%) than dental students (n=34; 35%). Conclusion: The awareness of basic and advance knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in medical
Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Borrego, Matthew E.; Konduri, Niranjan
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between student-life stress and health related quality of life (HRQOL) among Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) students. Data were collected for 166 students in the first three years of a Pharm.D. curriculum. Student-Life Stress Inventory scores were significantly negatively correlated to mental…
Gillard, J H; Dent, T H; Jolly, B C; Wallis, D A; Hicks, B H
We asked British medical schools and teaching hospitals about the training they offer to medical students and hospital doctors in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The response rate was 96%. Training that is practical and consistent with guidelines is offered to nearly all students and house officers, often by consultants. Training for other junior doctors and consultants is much less common. The organisation of training is haphazard, and many hospitals have no resuscitation training officers. As a result, few doctors receive the frequent retraining needed to maintain competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrest.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the image of ideal psychiatrist (IIP among patients, doctors involved in psychiatric care and medical students and also between individuals with different work experience (doctors vs. students. The psychiatrist’s personality seems an important factor in supporting therapeutic process; therefore it is worth searching for the patient’s needs. Materials and methods: Three groups participated in the study: patients of the psychiatric units, medical students of 6th year and psychiatrists. The Gough and Heilbrun ACL (Adjective Check List – based on Mur‑ ray’s theory of needs – was used to assess IIP. Results: Data analysis revealed statistically significant differences among patients, doctors and students involving five scales: Nurturance, Aggression, Change, Succorance and Deference. Patients had lower scores on Change scale than doctors and higher scores on the Nurturance, Succurance and Deference than stu‑ dents. Psychiatrists had higher scores on Nurturance and Deference scale and lower score on Aggression scale than students. Conclusions: The findings showed differences in the expectations of patients compared to those of students and doctors. The most significant difference that was observed involved the Change. It may indicate that patients prefer order, conventional approach and stability in psychiatrist’s personality traits more commonly than doctors. Study findings suggest that work experience has impact on IIP: with increasing work experience, opinion about IIP comes closer to patients’ expectations.
Kalraiya, Ashish; Buddhdev, Pranai
Musculoskeletal problems account for a vast proportion of presentations encountered by doctors globally, with figures ranging from 15-36%. However, the time medical schools allocate to learning orthopedics is by no means proportional to this. This study aims to bridge this gap by developing an international orthopedic teaching program tailored to the specific knowledge and skills required by junior doctors in different countries. This prospective study asked fifty junior doctors, who had recently completed an orthopedics job, what three orthopedic teaching topics taught retrospectively would have benefitted their clinical practice. The most requested topics were used to design educational workshops for junior doctors and these consequently comprised the TROJAN (Teaching Requested by Orthopaedic Juniors And Novices) training program. Data was collected from twenty-five junior doctors in KwaZulu-Natale State, South Africa, and twenty-five in London, UK. It is therefore in these two countries that the TROJAN program was subsequently made available. Participants who selected topics were within two years of graduating medical school and had worked an orthopedic or Accident and Emergency job within the last year. 49% of topics chosen by SA doctors were practical skills such as wrist and ankle fracture reduction techniques, and management of open fractures. The most requested topic by UK doctors (11 out of 25) was management of neck of femur fractures. This is rationalized by the fact South African doctors require more hands-on responsibility in their daily practice whereas in the UK greater emphasis is placed on optimizing patients for theatre and making sound management plans. TROJAN currently develops orthopedic skills and knowledge in junior doctors in South Africa and United Kingdom with teaching customized based upon location. Feedback has been exceptionally positive with every candidate thus far rating the usefulness of TROJAN as the highest option, very useful.
Crosslin, Matt; Wakefield, Jenny S.; Bennette, Phyllis; Black, James William, III
This paper details a proposed doctoral student connections program that is based on sociocultural theory. It is designed to assist new students with starting their educational journey. This program is designed to leverage social interactions, peer mentorship, personal reflection, purposeful planning, and existing resources to assist students in…
Löffler-Stastka, Henriette; Seitz, Tamara; Billeth, Sabrina; Pastner, Barbara; Preusche, Ingrid; Seidman, Charles
Gender-specific differences in the attitudes towards doctor-patient communication among medical students and physicians were assessed. A total of 150 medical students and 51 physicians from different departments took part in the study. The association, attitude and experiences regarding doctor-patient communication were assessed with a series of tools and questionnaires. Female doctors and students tended to describe the doctor-patient communication with positive attributes, such as "helpful", "sentimental", "voluble", "sociable", "gentle", "yielding" and "peaceful". Male students and physicians, on the other hand, described doctor-patient communication as "overbearing", "robust" and "inhibited". The most frequent associations females had with the term doctor-patient communication were "empathy", "confidence", "openess", while the most frequent association of the male colleagues was "medical history". Female doctors reported speaking about the psychosocial situation of the patient significantly more often and believed in higher patient satisfaction by sharing more information. Furthermore, they reported having longer conversations with a more equal partnership than their male colleagues. Compared to male students, female students were willing to take part in training their communication skills more often and had more interest in research about doctor-patient communication. Male medical students reported self-doubt during conversations with female patients, while one third of the male physicians talked about "the power over the patient". This study indicates a gender-dependent communication style influenced by stereotypes. At the establishment of communication training these differences should be taken into account, especially to strengthen male communication skills and improve their attitudes.
Full Text Available Background: The European Union (EU supports North–South Partnerships and collaborative research projects through its Framework Programmes and Horizon 2020. There is limited research on how such projects can be harnessed to provide a structured platform for doctoral level studies as a way of strengthening health system research capacity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the challenges of, and facilitating factors for, ‘nesting’ doctoral students in North–South collaborative research projects. The term nesting refers to the embedding of the processes of recruiting, supervising, and coordinating doctoral students in the overall research plan and processes. Design: This cross-sectional qualitative study was undertaken by the EU-funded QUALMAT Project. A questionnaire was implemented with doctoral students, supervisors, and country principal investigators (PIs, and content analysis was undertaken. Results: Completed questionnaires were received from nine doctoral students, six supervisors, and three country PIs (86% responses rate. The doctoral students from SSA described high expectations about the input they would receive (administrative support, equipment, training, supervision. This contrasted with the expectations of the supervisors for proactivity and self-management on the part of the students. The rationale for candidate selection, and understandings of the purpose of the doctoral students in the project were areas of considerable divergence. There were some challenges associated with the use of the country PIs as co-supervisors. Doctoral student progress was at times impeded by delays in the release of funding instalments from the EU. The paper provides a checklist of essential requirements and a set of recommendations for effective nesting of doctoral students in joint North–South projects. Conclusion: There are considerable challenges to the effective nesting of doctoral students within
Ensslin, Astrid; Slocombe, Will
This study reports on the pedagogic rationale, didactic design and implications of an AHRC-funded doctoral training scheme in collaborative and digital multimedia in the humanities. In the second part of this article we discuss three areas of provision that were identified as particularly significant and/or controversial. These include (1) desktop…
Sep 3, 2009 ... throughout the interviews and that all information would be treated with confidentiality. ... change.7 Saunders and Valente found that when doctors had not been able, ... earlier loss, and perhaps adopting a coping strategy of avoiding all grief ..... Perceptions of clients by professional helpers. Psychological ...
Walters, Gwendolyn M.
The concept of caring has been integral to the practice of nursing and nursing education since the early teachings of Florence Nightingale. Significant changes in both the practice and the need for educating increasing numbers of advanced-degree nurses have resulted in an increase in online doctoral-level nursing programs. This internet-based…
This study examines the factors that shape calling orientations within the Indian context. Based on the narratives of 72 junior doctors and medical interns, it is found that participants identify with harbouring a calling both prior and subsequent to occupational entry. Although factors such as self-recognition of talent and sensemaking of work as…
McKenna, Hugh; Keeney, Sinead; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi
To evaluate the quality of doctoral education in nursing in the United Kingdom. In recent decades, doctoral education programmes in nursing are increasing worldwide. There are many reasons for this and concerns have been raised regarding the quality of provision in and across countries. To date, the quality of doctoral education on a global level has not been reported in the literature. This United Kingdom study is part of a seven country investigation into the quality of doctoral education in nursing (Australia, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States of America). A quantitative study using a cross-sectional comparative survey design. An online survey was administered to collect the views of doctoral students and staff members on four domains: programme, faculty/staff, resource and evaluation. The study was carried out between 2010-2012. In most cases, staff perceived these more positively than students and the differences in perception were often statistically significant. Interestingly, many students rated the quality of supervision as excellent, whereas no staff member rated supervision this highly. The crucial importance of resources was confirmed in the path analysis of the four Quality of Doctoral Nursing Education domains. This demonstrates that investment in resources is much more cost-effective than investment in the other domains in relation to improving the overall quality of doctoral education in nursing. This study has wide-ranging implications for how the quality of doctoral education is monitored and enhanced. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vieira-Baptista, Pedro; Lima-Silva, Joana; Fonseca-Moutinho, José; Monteiro, Virgínia; Águas, Fernanda
Abstract Objective To assess themedical doctors andmedical students’ opinion regarding the evidence and ethical background of the performance of vulvovaginal aesthetic procedures (VVAPs). Methods Cross-sectional online survey among 664 Portuguese medical doctors and students. Results Most participants considered that there is never or there rarely is amedical reason to perform: vulvar whitening (85.9% [502/584]); hymenoplasty (72.0% [437/607]); mons pubis liposuction (71.6% [426/595]); ...
Sheng Guo; Jungmin Lee
We conduct an analysis of recent trends on the subfields of study that doctoral students in economics choose for their dissertations. By investigating data on the JEL classification codes of dissertations reported by the Journal of Economic Literature from 1991 to 2007, we find that the trends in the subfields of study of doctoral dissertations follow those of articles published at five major general-interest journals (American Economic Review, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Journal of Polit...
Rhoads, Robert A.; Zheng, Mi; Sun, Xiaoyang
This qualitative study reports findings from a comparative analysis of the methodological socialization of doctoral students in the social sciences at two universities: one in China and one in the USA. Relying primarily on theories of organizational socialization, the study focuses on formal and informal processes students report as part of…
Bates, Peter; Goff, Lori
This autoethnographic study explores the experiences of two part-time doctoral students as we document our journey of balancing our multiple competing roles. As we reflected and consulted the literature, we began to identify many benefits and challenges that part-time candidature brings to students, universities and employers. Through our…
Reichert, William M.
There are various ways to succeed in recruiting and retaining underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral students; but key to them all is the creation of real student-faculty relationships, which demonstrate by example that diversity and excellence can and should coexist. This cannot be delegated or done indirectly, and no amount of outreach, campus…
Bimstein, E; Mayes, A; Mittal, Hc
To evaluate dental students' perspectives about pre- and post-doctoral pediatric dentistry education venues. Surveys with visual analog scales (from 0 to 100) measuring the educational contribution of pediatric dentistry venues were conducted. The pre-doctoral venues included a 3rd year university twilight clinic (UTC), a 3rd year urban community based clinic (CBC) and 4th year mobile clinics (MCs). The post-doctoral venues included treatment of children under general anesthesia, oral sedations, a regular clinic (no sedations), seminars, journal club, case conferences and studding for the American Board of Pediatric Dentistry. Analyses of variance between the scores indicated that the 3rd year CBC score (68.2 ± 4.5) was statistically significant higher (p= .007) than the one for the 3rd year UTC score (44.9 ± 6.1). The 4th year students' MCs score (61.4 ± 4.0) was statistically significant higher than their retrospective scores for the 3rd year CBC (56.4 ± 4.4) or UTC (42.2 ± 4.9) scores (p= .03 and .004 respectively). Among the didactic or clinical post-doctoral venues, the regular clinic and the seminars received the highest scores (84.3 ± 1.7 and 71.6 ± 2.8 respectively). pre-doctoral community-based clinical education and post-doctoral regular university based clinic are considered by students to provide the main contribution to pediatric dental education.
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
King, R.; Findlay, A.; Ahrens, J.
To bring their understanding of patterns in students' study and work abroad up to date, HEFCE and the British Council, the UK National Agency for Erasmus, commissioned a review of international student mobility. Professor Russell King and Jill Ahrens of the University of Sussex, and Professor Allan
This paper presents first empirical evidence on international student migration to Germany. I use a novel approach that analyzes student mobility using an augmented gravity equation and find evidence of strong network effects and of the importance of distance - results familiar from the empirical migration literature. However, the importance of disposable income in the home country does not seem to be too big for students, while the fact of being a politically unfree country decreases migrati...
Faghihi, Foroozandeh; Ethington, Corinna A.
This study examined the extent to which an individual doctoral student's characteristics and involvement in the academic and social life of the department influences the student's perception of growth and development during graduate school, and thus the student's persistence in pursuing a graduate degree. The study surveyed doctoral students…
Kyser, Christine; McKenna, Kelly
This paper introduces and describes a mixed methods research project conducted with international doctoral students from Non-Western countries that explored students and faculty members' experiences in a writing workshop. In this "Perspectives" piece, we offer insight into our journey of fostering relationships with our students and…
Huhn, D; Lauter, J; Roesch Ely, D; Koch, E; Möltner, A; Herzog, W; Resch, F; Herpertz, S C; Nikendei, C
Particularly at the beginning of their studies, international medical students face a number of language-related, social and intercultural challenges. Thus, they perform poorer than their local counterparts in written and oral examinations as well as in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) in the fields of internal medicine and surgery. It is still unknown how international students perform in an OSCE in the field of psychosocial medicine compared to their local fellow students. All students (N = 1033) taking the OSCE in the field of psychosocial medicine and an accompanying written examination in their eighth or ninth semester between 2012 and 2015 were included in the analysis. The OSCE consisted of four different stations, in which students had to perform and manage a patient encounter with simulated patients suffering from 1) post-traumatic stress disorder, 2) schizophrenia, 3) borderline personality disorder and 4) either suicidal tendency or dementia. Students were evaluated by trained lecturers using global checklists assessing specific professional domains, namely building a relationship with the patient, conversational skills, anamnesis, as well as psychopathological findings and decision-making. International medical students scored significantly poorer than their local peers (p International students showed poorer results in clinical-practical exams in the field of psychosocial medicine, with conversational skills yielding the poorest scores. However, regarding factual and practical knowledge examined via a multiple-choice test, no differences emerged between international and local students. These findings have decisive implications for relationship building in the doctor-patient relationship.
Carr, Sandra E; Celenza, Antonio; Puddey, Ian B; Lake, Fiona
Little recent published evidence explores the relationship between academic performance in medical school and performance as a junior doctor. Although many forms of assessment are used to demonstrate a medical student's knowledge or competence, these measures may not reliably predict performance in clinical practice following graduation. This descriptive cohort study explores the relationship between academic performance of medical students and workplace performance as junior doctors, including the influence of age, gender, ethnicity, clinical attachment, assessment type and summary score measures (grade point average) on performance in the workplace as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. There were two hundred participants. There were significant correlations between performance as a Junior Doctor (combined overall score) and the grade point average (r = 0.229, P = 0.002), the score from the Year 6 Emergency Medicine attachment (r = 0.361, P gender or ethnicity on the overall combined score of performance of the junior doctor. Performance on integrated assessments from medical school is correlated to performance as a practicing physician as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. These findings support the value of combining undergraduate assessment scores to assess competence and predict future performance.
Osburn, Kathryn Ann
Despite decades of research and reform efforts designed to bolster female retention in scientific disciplines, the conundrum of women's departure from doctoral programs in the sciences remains. This qualitative case study investigated the aspects of the graduate school experience that female doctoral students described as facilitating or impeding their successful degree completion in chemistry. I analyzed the graduate school narratives of twelve female participants who represented both successful and unsuccessful doctoral recipients from four advisors at one university. Participants identified four types of experiences that facilitated their retention in the doctoral program: feeling successful and confident in meeting the program requirements, having positive research experiences, receiving support from social networks, and being dedicated to career goals. Participants cited four kinds of experiences that impeded their continued participation in the doctoral program: having negative research experiences, feeling a lack of success and confidence in meeting the program requirements, changing career goals, and receiving no support from social networks. The graduate school experiences of participants who did and did not successfully attain their degree objectives differed in terms of four dimensions: pre-program experiences, academic experiences, advisory experiences, and social experiences. Based on these findings, I have proposed a model of attrition and retention that emphasizes the role that these unique program experiences play in shaping participants' sense of professional fit within the community of doctoral chemists, consequently contributing to their differential program outcomes. This study not only offers a new perspective on the phenomenon of female doctoral attrition in the sciences but also informs the development of more gender-inclusive graduate science practices and policies that will support the retention of female doctoral students.
Oyetola, Elijah Olufemi; Oyewole, Taiwo; Adedigba, Micheal; Aregbesola, Stephen Tunde; Umezudike, Kehinde; Adewale, Adedotun
Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. Self-administered questionnaires were randomly distributed among medical doctors/students, and nurses of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information collected using the questionnaire included participants' biodata, questions evaluating dental awareness, knowledge of systemic and oral health connections as well as referral practices. The data analysis was done with STATA version 11 software. A total of 300 questionnaires were randomly distributed among doctors/students and nurses, 206 were returned (response rate of 69%). Of the returned questionnaires, 129(63%) were males and 77(37%) were females. There were 42 medical doctors, 49 nurses and 115 medical students. The mean age of the participants was 26.7 years (SD 5.2). Majority (99.5%) was aware of dental profession, but 92% had never referred patients for dental consultation. One third (31%) of medical doctors believed that Ludwig angina was a cardiac disease. A large proportion of the respondents (61%) see no need for routine dental visit while 27% would want to visit the dentist only when they had a dental complaint. Although a large percentage of the participants claimed to be aware of dentistry, our findings revealed low level of knowledge and attitude to Dentistry. Efforts should be made towards closing this knowledge gap to achieve efficient oral health.
Ryan, Maureen M; Walker, Madeline; Scaia, Margaret; Smith, Vivian
In this article, we offer a perspective into how Canadian doctoral nursing students' writing capacity is mentored and, as a result, we argue is disciplined. We do this by sharing our own disciplinary and interdisciplinary experiences of writing with, for and about nurses. We locate our experiences within a broader discourse that suggests doctoral (nursing) students be prepared as stewards of the (nursing) discipline. We draw attention to tensions and effects of writing within (nursing) disciplinary boundaries. We argue that traditional approaches to developing nurses' writing capacity in doctoral programs both shepherds and excludes emerging scholarly voices, and we present some examples to illustrate this dual role. We ask our nurse colleagues to consider for whom nurses write, offering an argument that nurses' writing must ultimately improve patient care and thus would benefit from multiple voices in writing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Recruitment Of International Students Into Cameroon Tertiary Institutions In The Absence Of International Offices. ... The present system of recruiting international students is haphazardly been handled by ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Fricke, Tyson A; Lee, Melissa G Y; Brink, Johann; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Konstantinov, Igor E
In 2005 the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at The Royal Children's Hospital started an early academic mentoring program for medical students and junior doctors with the aim of fostering an interest in academic surgery. Between 2005 and 2015, 37 medical students and junior doctors participated in research in the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at The Royal Children's Hospital. Each was given an initial project on which to obtain ethics approval, perform a literature review, data collection, statistical analysis, and prepare a manuscript for publication. A search of the names of these former students and doctors was conducted on PubMed to identify publications. A total of 113 journal articles were published in peer-reviewed journals with an average impact factor of 4.1 (range, 1.1 to 19.9). Thirty (30 of 37, 81%) published at least one article. A mean of 4.3 journal articles was published per student or junior doctor (range, 0 to 29). Eleven (11 of 37, 30%) received scholarships for their research. Nine (9 of 37, 24%) have completed or are enrolled in higher research degrees with a cardiothoracic surgery focus. Of these 9, 2 have completed doctoral degrees while in cardiothoracic surgery training. Five will complete their cardiothoracic surgery training with a doctoral degree and the other 2 are pursuing training in cardiology. A successful early academic mentoring program in a busy cardiothoracic surgery unit is feasible. Mentoring of motivated individuals in academic surgery benefits not only their medical career, but also helps maintain high academic output of the unit. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Louis J. Grabowski
Full Text Available The emerging body of research on business professional doctoral programs has focused primarily on the programs’ composition and management, offering limited insight into students’ motivations and the impact the degree has on graduates and their careers. However, understanding these student motivations and career impacts is valuable for several reasons. In addition to helping future candidates assess various programs and the business professional doctoral degree itself, it can help enrolled students maximize their academic experience and help administrators improve these programs so that they better meet students’ personal and professional expectations. To bridge this research gap, this study pursued a mixed-methods approach to glean insights into why people pursue professional doctorates in business, the ultimate personal and professional outcomes of students, and the educational process producing those outcomes. The study revealed that most students entered these programs with a desire for personal or professional transformation, including the possibility of entering academia or a new industry. Moreover, the vast majority of program graduates believed they had experienced such a transformation, often in both professional and personal ways. Further, while important to personal growth, alumni perceived that certain program elements—such as the student networks they created and non-research related coursework—had little to no effect upon their career and viewed their research and the research process as far more important to their professional development. Based upon these findings, the researchers propose a comprehensive process model to explain the personal and professional factors and outcomes for graduates of business professional doctoral programs. They also suggest practical steps that students and administrators can take to improve the business professional doctoral educational experience.
Publishing English papers in journals listed in Science Citation Index (SCI) has become a requirement for degree conferment for doctoral science students at many universities in China. The publication requirement engenders high pressure for doctoral students and their supervisors and shapes the politics of the relationship between the two parties.…
Martin, Lisa D.
The purpose of this study was to examine music education doctoral students' shifting occupational identity beliefs, career intent and commitment, and overall confidence for teaching in higher education. A total of 124 music education doctoral students, enrolled at 29 institutions of higher education in the United States, completed a onetime,…
Covi, Lisa M.
Provides empirical evidence of how doctoral students and their faculty advisors use electronic communication technologies. Examines work patterns of doctoral students and data on recent introduction of new electronic communication practices, offering an alternative explanation to the Nintendo Generation Myth that claims electronic communication…
Li, Wendan; Collins, Christopher S.
Although international students annually contribute billions of dollars to the US economy, meaningful intercultural interaction between international students, peers, and faculty is often missing at US host campuses. Feelings of isolation, loneliness, and alienation are pervasive among international students at US campuses; these feelings can…
Curtin, Nicola; Malley, Janet; Stewart, Abigail J.
We know little about the role of faculty mentoring in the development of interest in pursuing an academic career among doctoral students. Drawing on Social Cognitive Career Theory, this study examined the relationships between different kinds of mentoring (instrumental, psychosocial, and sponsorship) and academic career self-efficacy, interests,…
Bennett, Liz; Folley, Sue
This paper explores the experiences of two doctoral students who embraced Web 2.0 tools in their digital scholarship practices. The paper gives an insider perspective of the challenges and potential of working with online tools, such as blogs, and participating in online communities, such as Twitter's #phdchat. We explore by drawing on our…
Schalko, Isabella; Jacob, Romain; Kuzmanovska, Irena
The present survey was conducted as a follow-up of the AVETH survey in 2014. Based on 1′052 completed answers this report summarizes the current employment situation and the corresponding opinion of doctoral students at ETH Zurich about their salary rate and additional duties.
Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick
Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…
Stokes, D. Michelle.
This correlational study used standard multiple regression to determine if there was a relationship between the factors of cultural intelligence (metacognitive CQ, cognitive CQ, motivational CQ, and behavioral CQ) and transformational leadership in doctoral students. This study also sought to determine the best predictor of burnout by using a…
Ewen, Heidi H.; Carr, Dawn C.; Reynolds, Courtney
This research seeks to examine the characteristics and goals of students enrolled in gerontology doctoral education. The authors seek to identify the unique characteristics of scholars enrolled in the interdisciplinary study of aging and elicit discussion on the ways in which these scholars will contribute to the growth and development of the…
Dieker, Lisa; Wienke, Wilfred; Straub, Carrie; Finnegan, Lisa
In this article, the authors provide a summary of the current techniques being used to recruit, retain, and support a diverse range of scholars, including students with disabilities, in a doctoral program. The manuscript provides a summary of the current need for leadership personnel who are scholars with knowledge in special education, general…
Kelly, Steven N.; VanWeelden, Kimberly
This investigation addressed methods and experiences used to educate doctoral music education students to work as university college professors. Selected faculty representing every institution offering a Ph.D. in music education in the United States and Canada (N = 46) were sent an online questionnaire concerning (1) the extent respondents…
Stanton, Kate Valentine; Liew, Chern Li
Introduction: We examine doctoral students' awareness of and attitudes to open access forms of publication. Levels of awareness of open access and the concept of institutional repositories, publishing behaviour and perceptions of benefits and risks of open access publishing were explored. Method: Qualitative and quantitative data were collected…
Williamson, Madeline J.; Fenske, Robert H.
The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting satisfaction of Mexican American (MA) and American Indian (AI) students with their doctoral programs. Faculty mentoring plays an extremely significant role in minority education. Previous research indicates differences between males and females in their interaction with faculty. Minority…
Falls, Leigh; Jara, Teresa; Sever, Tim
Managing change processes, resistance to change, and organizational members' emotional reactions to change are crucial skills for future educational leaders to learn. Our case study is based on a workshop conducted using two experiential exercises to facilitate current educational leadership doctoral students' reflections on their own reactions to…
McAlpine, Lynn; Turner, Gill
Increasingly, research staff positions rather than lectureships are the reality for social sciences PhD graduates wishing academic work. Within this context, our longitudinal study examined how social science doctoral students and research staff in two UK universities imagined their futures in and out of academia. The variation over time in how…
Nahata, Milap C.
A pharmacy doctoral program's independent-study component in pathophysiology, supported by computer-assisted instruction and self-evaluation, has the advantages of self-pacing, reduced faculty time commitment, and increased ability to work effectively with physicians. Disadvantages include student feeling of isolation, imbalanced content, and…
Locke, Anna Flores
Using a basic qualitative research design, this author interviewed eight Latino doctoral students in counseling programs about their professional identity development experiences. The author analyzed the data from a Latino Critical Race theoretical perspective to explore the ways in which power and privilege played a role in the participants'…
Vasil, Martina; McCall, Joyce M.
The purpose of this autoethnographic multiple case study was to compare experiences of two first-generation college students pursuing doctoral degrees in music education. Motivations for pursuing an advanced degree were to enact change in the field of music education and fulfill personal ambitions. Participants encountered two challenges,…
Kong, Xiaoqing; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Jeffe, Donna B; Andriole, Dorothy A; Wathington, Heather D; Tai, Robert H
This exploratory qualitative study investigated how doctoral students reported their personal and professional interaction experiences that they believed might facilitate or impede their academic pursuits in biomedical research. We collected 19 in-depth interviews with doctoral students in biomedical research from eight universities, and we based our qualitative analytic approach on the work of Miles and Huberman. The results indicated that among different sources and types of interaction, academic and emotional interactions from family and teachers in various stages essentially affected students' persistence in the biomedical science field. In addition, co-mentorship among peers, departmental environment, and volunteer experiences were other essential factors. This study also found related experiences among women and underrepresented minority students that were important to their academic pursuit.
Evans, Catrin; Stevenson, Keith
Educating nurses to doctoral level is an important means of developing nursing capacity globally. There is an international shortage of doctoral nursing programmes, hence many nurses seek their doctorates overseas. The UK is a key provider of doctoral education for international nursing students, however, very little is known about international doctoral nursing students' learning experiences during their doctoral study. This paper reports on a national study that sought to investigate the learning expectations and experiences of overseas doctoral nursing students in the UK. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in 2008/09 with 17 international doctoral nursing students representing 9 different countries from 6 different UK universities. Data were analysed thematically. All 17 interviewees were enrolled on 'traditional' 3 year PhD programmes and the majority (15/17) planned to work in higher education institutions back in their home country upon graduation. Studying for a UK PhD involved a number of significant transitions, including adjusting to a new country/culture, to new pedagogical approaches and, in some cases, to learning in a second language. Many students had expected a more structured programme of study, with a stronger emphasis on professional nursing issues as well as research - akin to the professional doctorate. Students did not always feel well integrated into their department's wider research environment, and wanted more opportunities to network with their UK peers. A good supervision relationship was perceived as the most critical element of support in a doctoral programme, but good relationships were sometimes difficult to attain due to differences in student/supervisor expectations and in approaches to supervision. The PhD was perceived as a difficult and stressful journey, but those nearing the end reflected positively on it as a life changing experience in which they had developed key professional and personal skills. Doctoral
Full Text Available Abstract Background Educating nurses to doctoral level is an important means of developing nursing capacity globally. There is an international shortage of doctoral nursing programmes, hence many nurses seek their doctorates overseas. The UK is a key provider of doctoral education for international nursing students, however, very little is known about international doctoral nursing students' learning experiences during their doctoral study. This paper reports on a national study that sought to investigate the learning expectations and experiences of overseas doctoral nursing students in the UK. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in 2008/09 with 17 international doctoral nursing students representing 9 different countries from 6 different UK universities. Data were analysed thematically. All 17 interviewees were enrolled on 'traditional' 3 year PhD programmes and the majority (15/17 planned to work in higher education institutions back in their home country upon graduation. Results Studying for a UK PhD involved a number of significant transitions, including adjusting to a new country/culture, to new pedagogical approaches and, in some cases, to learning in a second language. Many students had expected a more structured programme of study, with a stronger emphasis on professional nursing issues as well as research - akin to the professional doctorate. Students did not always feel well integrated into their department's wider research environment, and wanted more opportunities to network with their UK peers. A good supervision relationship was perceived as the most critical element of support in a doctoral programme, but good relationships were sometimes difficult to attain due to differences in student/supervisor expectations and in approaches to supervision. The PhD was perceived as a difficult and stressful journey, but those nearing the end reflected positively on it as a life changing experience in which they had
Thomson, George A; Foster, Matthew; Sheriff, Rezvi; Mendis, Lalitha; Fernando, Devaka J S; Blundell, Caroline; Worrall, Jeffrey; Black, Carol
The UK offers excellent postgraduate medical education, and overseas doctors in training often covet a period of training in the UK. Some overseas training authorities make UK training mandatory prior to appointment as a consultant. Unfortunately, the organisation of such training often proves to be ad hoc, and may lack educational value. UK training faces challenges as a result of reduced hours of work, more structured and intensive educational needs, and pressures of increasing clinical demand. A plethora of new 'trust' posts have developed, often with limited educational value, creating a risk that training quality for overseas doctors is reduced. Against this background, such posts can be used to create international training partnerships such as that at Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Trust (SFHT), providing high-quality general and specialty training. Given the success of this strategy, it would be desirable for other UK trusts to provide similar schemes offering specialties not covered at SFHT.
Alves, Sandra Mara Campos; Oliveira, Felipe Proenço de; Matos, Mateus Falcão Martins; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Delduque, Maria Celia
The shortage of doctors, especially in remote areas, is a critical issue for the development of national health systems and has thus been the focus of a number of international cooperation projects. An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted to examine cooperation between Brazil, Angola and Cuba. A nonsystematic literature review was conducted of selected open access articles and official documents addressing relevant health cooperation initiatives. Previously selected characteristics of actions designed to redress the shortage of doctors were compared. It was concluded that the interactions between the three countries were fruitful and potentially beneficial for the health of the population of these countries. South-South cooperation between these countries showed positive results in the educational and regulatory dimensions and adopted a non-dependence perspective that seeks to strengthen endogenous capacity, which are important factors for evaluating the structural components of health systems.
Kumar, Swapna; Coe, Catherine
The increase in online graduate programs and the online mentoring of student research have led to the need to identify challenges faced by online mentees and successful strategies used by online mentors during the dissertation process. Based on semistructured interviews with ten graduates, strategies for online mentoring and areas of support…
Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Welton, Anjale; Lee, Pei-Ling; Young, Michelle D.
Purpose: There is a meager body of research addressing the role educational leadership preparation programs in colleges and universities play in preparing women leaders. Also educational leadership preparation research has yet to explore ways in which mentorship provides additional capital for female graduate students. This study seeks to…
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The aim of this study is to make a theoretical contribution vis-à-vis the main determinants of international student identification with a middle ranking business school corporate brand. The findings of this study are of foundational significance in theory building terms. A substantive theory of international postgraduate student identification in UK middle ranking business school corporate b...
Scharfenberg, Janna; Schaper, Katharina; Krummenauer, Frank
The German "Dr med" plays a specific role in doctoral thesis settings since students may start the underlying doctoral project during their studies at medical school. If a Medical Faculty principally encourages this approach, then it should support the students in performing the respective projects as efficiently as possible. Consequently, it must be ensured that students are able to implement and complete a doctoral project in parallel to their studies. As a characteristic efficiency feature of these "Dr med" initiatives, the proportion of doctoral projects successfully completed shortly after graduating from medical school is proposed and illustrated. The proposed characteristic can be estimated by the time period between the state examination (date of completion of the qualifying medical examination) and the doctoral examination. Completion of the doctoral project "during their medical studies" was then characterised by a doctoral examination no later than 12 months after the qualifying medical state examination. To illustrate the estimation and interpretation of this characteristic, it was retrospectively estimated on the basis of the full sample of all doctorates successfully completed between July 2009 and June 2012 at the Department of Human Medicine at the Faculty of Health of the University of Witten/Herdecke. During the period of investigation defined, a total number of 56 doctoral examinations were documented, 30 % of which were completed within 12 months after the qualifying medical state examination (95% confidence interval 19 to 44 %). The median duration between state and doctoral examination was 27 months. The proportion of doctoral projects completed parallel to the medical studies increased during the investigation period from 14 % in the first year (July 2009 till June 2010) to 40 % in the third year (July 2011 till June 2012). Only about a third of all "Dr med" projects at the Witten/Herdecke Faculty of Health were completed during or close to
Graham, James M; Kim, Yang-Hyang
In the face of the rising number of doctoral recipients in professional psychology, many have voiced concerns about the quality of nontraditional training programs. Past research suggests that, on a variety of outcomes, graduates from clinical PhD programs outperform graduates from clinical PsyD and, to a lesser extent, counseling PhD programs. We examine an aggregate archival dataset to determine whether student or university characteristics account for the differences in outcomes among programs. The data show meaningful differences in the outcomes of clinical PhD, PsyD, and counseling PhD programs. Furthermore, graduates from research-intensive universities perform better on the psychology licensure exam and are more likely to become American Board of Professional Psychology diplomates. The available data support the notion that the ability to conduct research is an essential component of graduate education. In this light, PsyD programs represent a unique opportunity to train students in the types of evaluation and outcomes assessments used by practicing psychologists. We discuss implications for graduate-level training in professional psychology. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ligia Correia Lima de Souza
Full Text Available Choosing a medical specialty is an important, complex, and not fully understood process. The present study investigated the factors that are related to choosing and rejecting medical specialties in a group of students and recent medical doctors.A cross-sectional survey of 1,223 medical students and doctors was performed in Brazil in 2012. A standardized literature-based questionnaire was applied that gathered preferable or rejected specialties, and asked questions about extracurricular experiences and the influence of 14 factors on a Likert-type scale from 0 to 4. Specialties were grouped according to lifestyle categories: controllable and uncontrollable, which were subdivided into primary care, internal medicine, and surgical specialties. Notably, the time period of rejection was usually earlier than the time period of intended choice (p < 0.0001, χ(2 = 107.2. The choice mainly occurred during the internship period in medical school (n = 466; 38.7%. An overall large frequency of participation in extracurricular activities was observed (n = 1,184; 95.8%, which were highly associated with the respective medical area. Orthopedic surgery had the highest correlation with participation in specialty-specific organized groups (OR = 59.9, 95% CI = 21.6-166.3 and psychiatry was correlated with participation in research groups (OR = 18.0, 95% CI = 9.0-36.2. With regard to influential factors in controllable lifestyle specialties, "financial reason" (mean score ± standard deviation: 2.8 ± 1.0; median = 3 and "personal time" (3.1 ± 1.3; median = 4 were important factors. In primary care, these factors were less important (1.7 ± 1.3 and 1.7 ± 1.5, respectively; median = 2 for both, and higher scores were observed for "curricular internship" (3.2 ± 1.1, median = 4 and "social commitment" (2.6 ± 1.3, median = 3.The present findings provide important insights into developing strategies to stimulate interest in specialties based on the needs of the
Kim, Mi Ja; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Ahn, Yang-Heui; Kim, Euisook; Yun, Soon-Nyoung; Lee, Kwang-Ja
The rapidly increasing number of nursing doctoral programs has caused concern about the quality of nursing doctoral education, including in Korea. To describe the perceived quality of Korean nursing doctoral education in faculty, student, curriculum and resources. Focus group. Fourteen Korean nursing doctoral programs that are research focused and include coursework. Four groups of deans, faculty, students and graduates; students completed three semesters of doctoral program; and graduates completed doctoral programs within the most recent 3 years. Focus groups examined the strengths and weaknesses of faculty, students, curriculum, and resources. Faculty strengths were universities' recognition of faculty research/scholarship and the ability of faculty to attract extramural funding. Faculty weaknesses were aging faculty; high faculty workload; insufficient number of faculty; and teaching without expertise in nursing theories. Student strengths were diverse student backgrounds; multidisciplinary dissertation committee members, and opportunities to socialize with peers and graduates/faculty. Students' weaknesses were overproduction of PhDs with low academic quality; a lower number and quality of doctoral applicants; and lack of full-time students. Curriculum strengths were focusing on specific research areas; emphasis on research ethics; and multidisciplinary courses. Curriculum weaknesses were insufficient time for curriculum development; inadequate courses for core research competencies; and a lack of linkage between theory and practice. Resources strengths were inter-institutional courses with credit transfer. Weaknesses were diminished university financial support for graduate students and limited access to school facilities. Variations in participant groups (providers [deans and faculty] vs. receivers [students and graduates]) and geographical location (capital city vs. regional) were noted on all the four components. The quality characteristics of faculty
Maynor, Lena M; Barrickman, Ashleigh Landis; Stamatakis, Mary K; Elliott, David P
To describe students' and faculty members' perceptions of the impact of lecture recording in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Second- and third-year pharmacy students and faculty members completed an anonymous survey instrument regarding their perceptions of lecture recording with 2 classroom lecture capture software programs, Camtasia Studio and Wimba Classroom. Most students (82%) responded that Camtasia was very helpful and almost half (49%) responded that Wimba Classroom was helpful (pstudents reported being more likely to miss a class that was recorded; however, few students (10%) reported using recordings as a substitute for attending class. The most common concern of faculty members was decreased student attendance (27%). Pharmacy students consider lecture recordings beneficial, and they use the recordings primarily to review the lecture. While faculty members reported concerns with decreased attendance, few students reported using recordings as an alternative to class attendance.
Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education.
Full Text Available Although a large body of literature has suggested that doctoral supervisors play an important role in their students’ attempts at scholarly publishing, few studies have focused specifically on what roles they play. This study sought to address this gap by zooming in on the various roles a group of Chinese doctoral students found their supervisors playing in their scholarly publishing endeavors. Our analysis revealed four important roles played by the supervisors: ‘prey’ searchers, managers, manuscript correctors and masters. The results showed that the supervisors not only facilitated the doctoral students’ publishing output, but also fostered their apprenticeship in scholarly publishing and the academic community. However, the results also unveiled a general unavailability of sorely-needed detailed and specific guidance on students’ early publishing attempts and some supervisors’ limited ability to correct students’ English manuscripts. These findings underscore the important contributions doctoral supervisors can make to their students’ academic socialization. They also suggest a need for external editorial assistance with doctoral students’ English manuscripts and ample opportunities for their scaffolded initiation into the tacit conventions and practices of scholarly publishing.
Goodman, Barbara E; Ikiugu, Moses N
Recently, the Occupational Therapy Department requested a custom-designed medical physiology course for the students in the new occupational therapy doctoral program. The first author, a physiologist with extensive experience in teaching both undergraduate preprofessional and medical students in human physiology, was recruited to design and implement the course. The course was designed to be consistent with the constructivist philosophy that guides the occupational therapy curriculum. The course was offered for the first time during fall/spring 2015/2016 and included both first- and second-year occupational therapy doctoral students. A number of anonymous assessment tools were used to evaluate students' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of various pedagogies used in the course in enhancing their learning. A summative course assessment survey with comments was used at the end of the course. This paper describes the model of course design and the student feedback, which generated some suggestions for improvement of the course. This approach in designing a new course for a new disciplinary group of students should be helpful to other faculty involved in developing courses for health career programs populated by students with variable physiology backgrounds and different educational needs. The final relevant feedback from the course would be to have the students evaluate the usefulness of the course to their future careers immediately following their certification examinations in a year or two and during their subsequent clinical experiences; however, that information will likely be more difficult to obtain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Cortesi, Agostino; Saeed, Khalid; Chaki, Nabendu
The book contains the extended version of the works that have been presented and discussed in the Second International Doctoral Symposium on Applied Computation and Security Systems (ACSS 2015) held during May 23-25, 2015 in Kolkata, India. The symposium has been jointly organized by the AGH University of Science & Technology, Cracow, Poland; Ca’ Foscari University, Venice, Italy and University of Calcutta, India. The book is divided into volumes and presents dissertation works in the areas of Image Processing, Biometrics-based Authentication, Soft Computing, Data Mining, Next Generation Networking and Network Security, Remote Healthcare, Communications, Embedded Systems, Software Engineering and Service Engineering.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, public health care is the responsibility of primary health care centres, which render a wide range of community level preventive, curative and rehabilitative medical care. Since 1990's, medical studies have involved early familiarization of medical students with general practice from the beginning of the studies, as this pre-clinical familiarisation helps medical students understand patients as human beings, recognise the importance of the doctor-patient relationship and identify practicing general practitioners (GPs as role models for their professional development. Focused on doctor-patient relationship, we analysed the reports of 2002 first year medical students in the University of Kuopio. The students observed GPs' work during their 2-day visit to primary health care centres. Methods We analysed systematically the texts of 127 written reports of 2002, which represents 95.5% of the 133 first year pre-clinical medical students reports. The reports of 2003 (N = 118 and 2004 (N = 130 were used as reference material. Results Majority of the students reported GPs as positive role models. Some students reported GPs' poor attitudes, which they, however, regarded as a learning opportunity. Students generally observed a great variety of responsibilities in general practice, and expressed admiration for the skills and abilities required. They appreciated the GPs' interest in patients concerns. GPs' communication styles were found to vary considerably. Students reported some factors disturbing the consultation session, such as the GP staring at the computer screen and other team members entering the room. Working with marginalized groups, the chronically and terminally ill, and dying patients was seen as an area for development in the busy Finnish primary health care centres. Conclusion During the analysis, we discovered that medical students' perceptions in this study are in line with the previous findings about the
Børsen, Tom; Antia, Avan N; Glessmer, Mirjam Sophia
The need to make young scientists aware of their social responsibilities is widely acknowledged, although the question of how to actually do it has so far gained limited attention. A 2-day workshop entitled "Prepared for social responsibility?" attended by doctoral students from multiple disciplines in climate science, was targeted at the perceived needs of the participants and employed a format that took them through three stages of ethics education: sensitization, information and empowerment. The workshop aimed at preparing doctoral students to manage ethical dilemmas that emerge when climate science meets the public sphere (e.g., to identify and balance legitimate perspectives on particular types of geo-engineering), and is an example of how to include social responsibility in doctoral education. The paper describes the workshop from the three different perspectives of the authors: the course teacher, the head of the graduate school, and a graduate student. The elements that contributed to the success of the workshop, and thus make it an example to follow, are (1) the involvement of participating students, (2) the introduction of external expertise and role models in climate science, and (3) a workshop design that focused on ethical analyses of examples from the climate sciences.
Pat J. Precin
Full Text Available Time perspective is a fundamental dimension in psychological time, dividing human experiences into past, present, and future. Time perspective influences individuals’ functioning in all occupations, including education. Previous research has examined the relationship between time perspective and academic outcomes, but the same research has not been done, to date, with occupational therapy doctoral students. This quantitative, cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between time perspective and academic success in occupational therapy doctoral students across the United States. Data from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI and grade point averages (GPAs were collected from 50 participants via surveymonkey.com. Past Negative time perspective statistically predicted GPA in the negative direction (p = .001 for students in pre-professional OTD programs, but did not predict GPA for post-professional students. Age, gender, and learning environment did not significantly influence the prediction of GPA in either group. The method and results of this study demonstrate that the ZTPI, an instrument used in the field of psychology, may have value in the profession of occupational therapy and occupational therapy doctoral programs.
James Jia Jun Chen
Full Text Available Background Interns, or first year junior doctors, have traditionally been used as an adaptable frontline solution to many of the changes in healthcare, utilising their broad skill sets for both direct patient care and administrative burdens. While there are studies that focus on the total hours junior doctors work, there are few that analyse the specific tasks they do and how they dedicate their work time. Aims We aim to quantify the amount of time intern doctors spent on specific tasks during a shift. Methods This is a multi-centred, retrospective, self-reported study that was carried out in a public tertiary hospital network in Western Australia, comprising one tertiary, two metropolitan, and three regional hospitals. 68 individual shifts were reported, accounting for 605.72 hours. Participants reported time spent, in fifteen minute segments, on categories grossly defined as clerical tasks, clinical tasks, teaching, and personal time. Participants were also asked about their satisfaction with the amount of clinical exposure during the reported shift. Results Direct patient care accounted for 22 per cent of total shift time, indirect care 74 per cent, and personal time 4 per cent. Discharge summaries accounted for the most time-per-shift at 26 per cent, followed by medical note documentation at 14 per cent, with the least being teaching at 2 per cent. Direct patient contact by interns during a shift was on average 12 per cent (SD 14 per cent. 12 interns or 18 per cent of all responses reported no direct patient contact (0 per cent during a shift. Interns working in emergency medicine spent 44 per cent of their shift on direct patient contact, significantly more compared to their medicine and surgical colleagues. Conclusion Indirect care activities consume almost three times as much time as direct care activities. Interns are mostly unsatisfied with their amount of clinical exposure per shift. The results concur with the current literature of
van der Merwe, Mathilde
Writing-for-publication is a practice that doctoral students should acquire for integration into international research culture. Publication rates and forms of pedagogy supporting the development of publication skills for doctoral students, however, remain inadequate worldwide. Limited data of doctoral student publication from African universities…
Perry, Cody J.; Lausch, David W.; Weatherford, Jenny; Goeken, Ryan; Almendares, Maria
International students provide economic, cultural, and academic benefits to universities throughout the nation. However, many international students lack the support necessary to be successful and satisfied with their education. In order to determine international students' perceptions of their university experience, an online survey was emailed…
Kayama, Mami; Gregg, Misuzu F; Asahara, Kiyomi; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Okuma, Keiko; Ohta, Kikuko; Kinoshita, Yasuhito
This study aimed to describe the process of mentoring doctoral students for qualitative research in Japanese graduate programs in nursing. Nine experienced faculty-seven nurse researchers and two sociologists-were interviewed. Participants were asked about their process of mentoring students for qualitative nursing dissertations. Data analysis was conducted using a qualitative descriptive method. Participants' age ranged from 48 to 60 years. The first theme in the mentoring process is about the individualized, one-on-one mentorship process. The second theme occurs in a group process. The third theme is coordinating mentors and establishing a network to support the evaluation system. The mentoring processes identified in this study will be useful for future faculty development. The study elucidated much room for improvement in doctoral education programs for qualitative research methods in nursing science. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Derck, Jordan; Zahn, Kate; Finks, Jonathan F; Mand, Simanjit; Sandhu, Gurjit
Racial minorities continue to be underrepresented in medicine (URiM). Increasing provider diversity is an essential component of addressing disparity in health delivery and outcomes. The pool of students URiM that are competitive applicants to medical school is often limited early on by educational inequalities in primary and secondary schooling. A growing body of evidence recognizing the importance of diversifying health professions advances the need for medical schools to develop outreach collaborations with primary and secondary schools to attract URiMs. The goal of this paper is to describe and evaluate a program that seeks to create a pipeline for URiMs early in secondary schooling by connecting these students with support and resources in the medical community that may be transformative in empowering these students to be stronger university and medical school applicants. The authors described a medical student-led, action-oriented pipeline program, Doctors of Tomorrow, which connects faculty and medical students at the University of Michigan Medical School with 9th grade students at Cass Technical High School (Cass Tech) in Detroit, Michigan. The program includes a core curriculum of hands-on experiential learning, development, and presentation of a capstone project, and mentoring of 9th grade students by medical students. Cass Tech student feedback was collected using focus groups, critical incident written narratives, and individual interviews. Medical student feedback was collected reviewing monthly meeting minutes from the Doctors of Tomorrow medical student leadership. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two strong themes emerged from the Cass Tech student feedback: (i) Personal identity and its perceived effect on goal achievement and (ii) positive affect of direct mentorship and engagement with current healthcare providers through Doctors of Tomorrow. A challenge noted by the medical students was the lack of structured curriculum beyond the 1st
This paper examines ways educational leaders engaging with doctoral research have worked for students' participation in education systems. Twenty-four interviews were conducted with educational leaders of schools, colleges, and districts in England and the US doing doctoral research. The findings reveal that the leaders identify US and English…
Groen, Christopher M; McGrath, Cormac; Campbell, Katherine A; Götherström, Cecilia; Windebank, Anthony J; Landázuri, Natalia
Staff from the Mayo Clinic in the US and the Karolinska Institute in Sweden describe a joint transatlantic course intended to broaden the horizons of the next generation of researchers in the field of regenerative medicine.
Christina W. Yao; Chrystal A. George Mwangi
International student mobility has grown significantly in recent years, with over 4.1 million students in 2013 who studied abroad around the world (Institute of International Education [IIE], 2016). With the changes in student demographics and increased mobility, student affairs professionals are in a unique role to support international student transition and success. Unfortunately, current research and practice in higher education tends to place a high level of respo...
Vieira-Baptista, Pedro; Lima-Silva, Joana; Fonseca-Moutinho, José; Monteiro, Virgínia; Águas, Fernanda
Objective To assess the medical doctors and medical students' opinion regarding the evidence and ethical background of the performance of vulvovaginal aesthetic procedures (VVAPs). Methods Cross-sectional online survey among 664 Portuguese medical doctors and students. Results Most participants considered that there is never or there rarely is a medical reason to perform: vulvar whitening (85.9% [502/584]); hymenoplasty (72.0% [437/607]); mons pubis liposuction (71.6% [426/595]); "G-spot" augmentation (71.0% [409/576]); labia majora augmentation (66.3% [390/588]); labia minora augmentation (58.3% [326/559]); or laser vaginal tightening (52.3% [313/599]). Gynecologists and specialists were more likely to consider that there are no medical reasons to perform VVAPs; the opposite was true for plastic surgeons and students/residents.Hymenoplasty raised ethical doubts in 51.1% (283/554) of the participants. Plastic surgeons and students/residents were less likely to raise ethical objections, while the opposite was true for gynecologists and specialists.Most considered that VVAPs could contribute to an improvement in self-esteem (92.3% [613/664]); sexual function (78.5% [521/664]); vaginal atrophy (69.9% [464/664]); quality of life (66.3% [440/664]); and sexual pain (61.4% [408/664]). Conclusions While medical doctors and students acknowledge the lack of evidence and scientific support for the performance of VVAPs, most do not raise ethical objections about them, especially if they are students or plastic surgeons, or if they have had or have considered having plastic surgery. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Full Text Available y article investigates the situation, goals, and discourse praxis of professors supervising doctoral students writing in English. It is part of a wider project examining student-teacher interaction which is designed to improve written communication, particularly at the higher levels of academic study. Like the students they supervise, the five professors studied are English as a Foreign Language users, and all give instruction exclusively in English. Based on separate interviews with each professor, my study demonstrates that there is a tendency among doctoral supervisors to focus on the content and form of the thesis to the detriment of socio-cultural practice, i.e., the discourse between the professor and student, as well as the recognition of the text as a piece of social practice, shaped by a particular kind of academic public and the rules of scholarship that have been developed over time. The type of social practice that students bring with them varies from culture to culture. I argue that a doctoral thesis bears witness not only to the student’s ability to conduct research at a high level, but also to the creation of a distinct scholarly identity that is the result of effective discourse between professor and student, whereby the professor communicates “the rules of the game” that lead to a successful career both at university and after. My paper reflects on how we as teachers/supervisors can promote the formation of scholarly identity through the medium of English as a Foreign Language. I do so by focusing on the five supervisors’ knowledge of English, their ability to provide guidance in English, and their awareness of the importance of promoting scholarly identity in English. The article concludes with some reflections on the type of support required, if any, from native English teachers.
Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Young-Mee
Communication is a core clinical skill that can be taught and learned. The authors intended to develop a patient-doctor communication model for teaching and assessing undergraduate medical students in Korea. To develop a model, literature reviews and an iterative process of discussion between faculty members of a communication skills course for second year medical students were conducted. The authors extracted common communication skill competencies by comparing the Kalamazoo Consensus Statement, SEGUE framework communication skills, the Calgary Cambridge Observation Guides, and previous communication skills lists that have been used by the authors. The content validity, with regard to clinical importance and feasibility, was surveyed by both faculty physicians and students. The first version of the model consisted of 36 items under 7 categories: initiating the session (8 items), building a relationship (6), gathering information (8), understanding a patient's perspectives (4), sharing information (4), reaching an agreement (3), and closing the session (3). It was used as a guide for both students and teachers in an actual communication skills course. At the end of the course, student performance was assessed using two 7-minute standardized patient interviews with a 34-item checklist. This assessment tool was modified from the first version of the model to reflect the case specificity of the scenarios. A patient-doctor communication model, which can be taught to those with limited patient care experience, was finally developed. We recommended a patient-doctor communication skills model that can be used for teaching and evaluating preclinical and clinical students. Further studies are needed to verify its validity and reliability.
Roberts, C J
World health depends upon our field of vision. If we selectively view the world from a narrow perspective, we will be unable to function effectively as nurses. The sobering reality of health conditions throughout the world should awaken our consciousness and sharpen our focus on priorities for the future. We can agree with Lindquist, that "nursing must be viewed from a global perspective if it is to influence the quality of health care provided in the future." Although not every student has the means and availability to travel overseas in a volunteer capacity, students may begin to examine the possibilities and start their own correspondence with an international agency. Regardless of our realm of service, the opportunity to provide care for individuals of all cultures, whether abroad or at home, remains the highest privilege of our profession.
Payne Karl Frederick
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors. Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants’ views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257 of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131 of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203 of students and 68.4% (n=67/98 of doctors owning an iPhone. The majority of students and doctors owned 1–5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, p Conclusions This study found a high level of smartphone ownership and usage among medical students and junior doctors. Both groups endorse the development of more apps to support their education and clinical practice.
Arvidsson, Barbro; Franke, Anita
The aim was to describe variations in how doctoral students conceive their learning process to become researchers in the light of their professional background as nurses. Nursing research is an emerging discipline and the number of nurses who acquire a doctor's degree is increasing. The study had a descriptive, qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach and was carried out by means of 20 interviews. Three different description categories emerged: (1) A learning process that provides a synthesis of different parts of the research process aimed at developing preparedness for action within the nursing profession. (2) A learning process where practical problems are integrated with and problematised in relation to scientific theories. (3) A learning process involving the transformation from nurse to researcher. The description categories revealed that the focus was on solving problems that occur in health care and synthesising them by means of research tools. Furthermore, the doctoral students explored different ways of understanding and developing their awareness of the nature of research. Focus was also on the nursing profession and practice and a shift towards the role of a researcher was evident. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wisker, Gina; Robinson, Gill; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
Much international doctoral learning research focuses on personal, institutional and learning support provided by supervisors, managed relationships,‘nudging’ robust, conceptual, critical, creative work. Other work focuses on stresses experienced in supervisor-student relationships and doctoral...... journeys. Some considers formal and informal learning communities supporting students on research journeys, and roles played by families, friends and others, sometimes o ering encouragement and sometimes added stress. However, little has been explored concerning often uno cial, largely unrecognised...... sanctioned (‘lightside’), and less well recognised often unsanctioned (‘darkside’) on doctoral research and writing learning journey, instigating questions about doctoral student needs, and the range of support provided, both legitimate, well known, less legitimate. This work concentrates on the ‘darkside’....
Full Text Available This study examines the ways that part-time Ph.D. students develop community within the academic department and how a sense of community is related to persistence. This study included 12 participants (ten students and two program chairs in two academic departments at one urban research institution. This qualitative study followed a descriptive case study design and provided three levels of data: the institution is the bounded system; the academic departments are the cases; and the participants are embedded cases. Positive relationships with peers and faculty served as a source of encouragement and supported persistence, particularly during challenging semesters and later phases of the doctoral program. However, it was often difficult for the participants to develop and/or maintain relationships, due to limited proximity, limited access to faculty, and changing cohorts. Participants did not consider full-time doctoral students to be part of their community, due to perceived differences between part-time and full-time students. The participants also perceived that faculty catered to full-time students and preferred to conduct research with them rather than part-time students.
Burford, Bryan; Rosenthal-Stott, Harriet E S
The emergence of medical students' professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October) and end (April) of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to 'doctors' and 'students'. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to 'doctor' and 'student' measures. In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102) and 75% (n = 58) of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83) and 73% (n = 56). Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all 'doctor'-referent measures were higher than 'student' measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups). Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature, but may reflect students' lack of 'performance' of professional identity, while the
Saeed, Khalid; Cortesi, Agostino; Chaki, Nabendu
This book presents extended versions of papers originally presented and discussed at the 3rd International Doctoral Symposium on Applied Computation and Security Systems (ACSS 2016) held from August 12 to 14, 2016 in Kolkata, India. The symposium was jointly organized by the AGH University of Science & Technology, Cracow, Poland; Ca’ Foscari University, Venice, Italy; and the University of Calcutta, India. The book is divided into two volumes, Volumes 3 and 4, and presents dissertation works in the areas of Image Processing, Biometrics-based Authentication, Soft Computing, Data Mining, Next-Generation Networking and Network Security, Remote Healthcare, Communications, Embedded Systems, Software Engineering and Service Engineering. The first two volumes of the book published the works presented at the ACSS 2015, which was held from May 23 to 25, 2015 in Kolkata, India.
Agarwal, Mukesh M; Shah, Syed M; Al Kaabi, Juma; Saquib, Shabnam; Othman, Yusra
The aim of this study was to appraise the current regional practices of screening, diagnosis and follow-up of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) because the approach to GDM is frequently inconsistent. A 21-item questionnaire was distributed to physicians taking care of pregnant women in seven hospitals in the United Arab Emirates and one hospital in Oman. Besides assessing their attitudes towards testing for GDM, the questionnaire assessed familiarity with the Hyperglycemia and Pregnancy Outcome study and the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups GDM guidelines. One hundred and forty-eight (93%) of the 159 questionnaires distributed to the medical doctors (106 [72%] obstetricians and 42 [28%] internists) were returned. For GDM screening, six hospitals used five different tests; two hospitals utilized one single test. For GDM diagnosis, six hospitals employed the 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (four different criteria) while two hospitals used the 3-h, 100-g OGTT (single criteria). For post-delivery follow-up, the 2-h, 75-g OGTT and fasting plasma glucose were accepted by 103 (70%) and 38 (26%) of the 148 medical doctors, respectively. Ninety-eight (69%) of 143 responding physicians were aware of the Hyperglycemia and Pregnancy Outcome study, while 85 (61%) of 140 responders were familiar with the guidelines of the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups; this knowledge was independent of specialty, seniority, academia, years in practice or country trained. Although this study is parochial, its implications are global; that is, further education of caregivers would make the discordant approach to GDM (within and between hospitals) more harmonious and improve the obstetric care of pregnant women. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Koenigsfeld, Carrie F; Wall, Geoffrey C; Miesner, Andrew R; Schmidt, Ginelle; Haack, Sally L; Eastman, Darla K; Grady, Sarah; Fornoff, Anisa
To determine whether a faculty-led mock-interview activity enhanced pharmacy student preparation for the residency interview process and increased match rates. Twenty-eight doctor of pharmacy students volunteered for a 40-minute mock-interview session with 2-person faculty teams. A standard roster of 12 interview questions was derived from published literature and the faculty members' experience. Feedback on the student's interview performance was provided verbally during the session. Following the interview, students were given a 2-part survey instrument. The first part of the survey was administered immediately following the mock-interview session and the second part was administered after the standard date for residency program results (known as "Match Day"). Participant match rates were compared to American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) national rates. 82.5% (23 of 27) of students in the mock-interview group matched a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) program. Compared to national rates (61.9%), more students in our surveyed mock-interview group matched a PGY1 residency (P = .015; odds ratio [OR] 3.546, 95% CI 1.161-12.116). Higher match rates were seen in the students completing the mock residency interview compared to ASHP national rates. In general, students completing the mock interview found the process helpful and felt better prepared for their residency interviews.
Harris, Robin; Birk, Stefanie B; Sherman, Jan
The growing number of online Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs, steady attrition rates, and shortage of faculty created an opportunity to explore the use of distance-mediated mentoring. Twenty first-year DNP Nursing Leadership students were matched with DNP-prepared mentors in a formalized e-mentoring program. The Ideal Mentor Scale was used to determine what students desired most from the mentoring relationship in addition to midpoint and end-of-program surveys. Quantitative analysis revealed mentors and mentees found the relationship to be beneficial (p mentors (92%) noted the program supplied adequate resources, and the majority of students would recommend the program. Having a mentor leads to both mentor- and mentee-perceived benefits. Recommendations include continuing to seek ways to improve the communication and commitment between the mentor and mentee in order to receive reciprocal program benefits. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(8):458-462.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to showcase the information literacy course for doctoral students called Information Resources and Tools for Research. Turku University Library organises this course in collaboration with the University of Turku Graduate School. The course, which was started in 2012, has been organised four times so far, twice in English and twice in Finnish. The course offers training to all doctoral Programs in all of the seven disciplines present at the University of Turku and doctoral candidates of the University. In our presentation we will describe the structure and contents of the course and share our experiences of the collaboration with the University of Turku Graduate School. In addition, we will describe how the information specialists of the Turku University Library have collaborated during the course. We will also discuss the challenges of the course. Based on the course feedback, it can be stated that in general, participants have found this course very useful for their research in the University of Turku.
Jennifer W. Beall
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to examine perceived stress in doctor of pharmacy students during their first, second, and third years of their program in a fully implemented new curriculum. The secondary objectives were to determine if there is a relationship between perceived stress and certain demographic variables, to compare student pharmacist perceived stress to the perceived stress in the general population, and to examine student reported stressors during pharmacy school and coping strategies employed for those stressors. A previously validated survey (Perceived Stress Scale-10 was given to first, second, and third year student pharmacists. Females exhibited higher mean stress scores than males. The under 22 years and over 32 years age categories exhibited higher mean stress scores than the 22 to 26 year old student population. There was no significant difference in perceived stress scores between classes of the program. Only a portion of the variation in stress scores was predicted by gender, age, marital status, race, and year in curriculum. Stress scores among these student pharmacists are higher overall than those in previously published probability samples in the general population. Class assignments and completing electronic portfolios were the top stressors reported. Spending time with family and friends was the most frequent coping mechanism reported. Programming related to stress reduction (particularly among female and nontraditional age students appears warranted.
Malau-Aduli Bunmi S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have addressed the challenges that international medical students face and there is a dearth of information on the behavioural strategies these students adopt to successfully progress through their academic program in the face of substantial difficulties of language barrier, curriculum overload, financial constraints and assessment tasks that require high proficiency in communication skills. Methods This study was designed primarily with the aim of enhancing understanding of the coping strategies, skill perceptions and knowledge of assessment expectations of international students as they progress through the third and fourth years of their medical degree at the School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Australia. Results Survey, focus group discussion and individual interviews revealed that language barriers, communication skills, cultural differences, financial burdens, heavy workloads and discriminatory bottlenecks were key factors that hindered their adaptation to the Australian culture. Quantitative analyses of their examination results showed that there were highly significant (p Conclusions Despite the challenges, these students have adopted commendable coping strategies and progressed through the course largely due to their high sense of responsibility towards their family, their focus on the goal of graduating as medical doctors and their support networks. It was concluded that faculty needs to provide both academic and moral support to their international medical students at three major intervention points, namely point of entry, mid way through the course and at the end of the course to enhance their coping skills and academic progression. Finally, appropriate recommendations were made.
Full Text Available Although it has been agreed that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM should be included in the German medical curriculum, there is no consensus on which methods and how it should be taught. This study aimed to assess needs for CAM education by evaluating current knowledge, attitudes and interests of medical students, general physicians and gynecologists. Two instruments based on established and validated questionnaires were developed. One was given to seventh semester medical students and the other to office-based doctors. Data were analyzed by bivariate correlation and cross-tabulation. Altogether 550 questionnaires were distributed—280 to doctors and 270 to medical students. Completed questionnaires were returned by 80.4% of students and 78.2% of doctors. Although 73.8% (160/219 of doctors and 40% (87/217 of students had already informed themselves about CAM, neither group felt that they knew much about CAM. Doctors believed that CAM was most useful in general medicine, supportive oncology, pediatrics, dermatology and gynecology, while students believed that dermatology, general medicine, psychiatry and rheumatology offered opportunities; both recommended that CAM should be taught in these areas. Both groups believed that CAM should be included in medical education; however, they believed that CAM needed more investigation and should be taught “critically". German doctors and students would like to be better informed about CAM. An approach which teaches fundamental competences to students, chooses specific content based on evidence, demographics and medical conditions and provides students with the skills they need for future learning should be adopted.
Full Text Available A key aspect of the effective supervision of PhD research is the supervisor-student relationship. This interaction is affected by the characteristics and needs of students and institutional conditions, as well as the skills, attitudes, and roles of supervisors and their supervisory styles. When supervision is carried out at a distance, it entails an additional challenge, mainly concerning interaction. The purpose of this study is to improve the research process, supervision, and design of virtual environments in order to support this supervision. The study identifies the supervisory relationships that affect doctoral research conducted at a distance from the student’s academic institution. It also describes how students and their supervisors perceived the characteristics of supervision and the skills and attitudes students perceived in and expected from their supervisors. For data collection, semistructured interviews were used. The results indicate important differences between supervisors’ perceptions concerning their own role and students’ needs regarding supervision, and they demonstrate the importance of attending to student needs and, on the part of supervisors, exercising responsibility in the development of research competencies in students, as is the case of independence of criteria and autonomy.
Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Vosko, Andrew M; Brash, Marissa; Ph, Dr; Philips, Michael A
High levels of stress and fatigue are associated with decreased academic success, well-being, and quality of life. The objective of this research was to quantify levels of perceived stress and fatigue among chiropractic students to identify sources of and student coping mechanisms for perceived stress and fatigue and to identify the relationship between students' perceived stress and fatigue. A survey comprised of the Perceived Stress Scale, the Undergraduate Sources of Stress Survey, and the Piper Fatigue Scale was administered to chiropractic students in their 2nd, 5th, and 8th trimesters of doctoral study. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, and linear correlation tests. Students reported having moderate to high levels of stress and fatigue, with higher levels of stress and fatigue seen in women than in men. A nonsignificant difference among stress scores and a significant difference among fatigue scores were observed based on program term. Levels of stress predicted levels of fatigue, and stress was strongly correlated with psychological health, relationships with family members, mood, and need for learning accommodations. Fatigue was strongly correlated with psychological health, academic demands, and conflicts between studies and other activities. There are differences in the reporting of perceived stress and fatigue levels in this chiropractic student population based on gender. The correlation between fatigue and stress also suggests that measures that may alleviate one may likely affect the other.
Tanners, Adam; McDougall, Dennis; Skouge, Jim; Narkon, Drue
The purpose of this alternating treatment, single-case research study was to compare reading comprehension and time expended reading, of a doctoral student with learning disabilities, under two reading conditions. In condition one, the student used a self-discovered accommodation, that is, listening, on an iPod, to an audiobook version…
Duke, Dawn C; Denicolo, Pam M
Over the past two decades, there has been a flurry of government papers and policy reports worldwide calling for increased number and diversity of doctoral researchers and a broadening of the curriculum to meet the developing needs of respective national 'knowledge-driven' economies. This has been followed by position papers and best practice examples of employability skills development in boundary-crossing doctoral programmes, especially in response to these initiatives. However, there is a disassociation between this ample literature expounding the new doctorate with its broader remit, inclusivity and production of 'industry-ready' graduates and the comparatively sparse literature on the doctoral candidates' experiences of their programmes and career readiness. Within this review, we briefly outline international government initiatives and examples of the responses by Life Science and Biomedical doctoral programmes to address these various challenges. Furthermore, we explore the recent literature on the lived experience of doctoral researchers by examining their perception of the recent changes to the research context to make recommendations for universities and supervisors on how to better support an ever more diverse doctoral population for a wide range of career opportunities. Examples of how doctoral researchers themselves can make the best of currently available opportunities are also provided. © FEMS 2017.
Orfanou, Christina; Tsiamis, Costas; Karamagioli, Evika; Pikouli, Anastasia; Terzidis, Agis; Pikoulis, Emmanuel
Doctors in Greece face the possibility of encountering a person that has suffered torture, especially since the high rates of refugees' and migrants' inflows that took place over the last years. In order to assess the awareness and the knowledge of doctors and senior medical students in Greece regarding a manual on effective investigation and documentation of torture such as Istanbul Protocol (official United Nation document since 1999), a cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured anonymous questionnaire. The sample was doctors practicing in public hospitals in Greece, doctors volunteering at a non-governmental organization (NGO) and undergraduate medical students in their final year of studies in the Medical School of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 23, using descriptive statistics and statistical significance tests.In a total of 289 participants, the mean total score of Istanbul Protocol knowledge was 4.43 ± 1.104 (the maximum possible score was 10) and the mean total score of Istanbul Protocol awareness was 2.04 ± 1.521 (the maximum possible score was 10). The most important conclusion was that among doctors and senior medical students, there seem to be knowledge, awareness, and information deficit about Istanbul Protocol and several issues relating to torture. The overall research outcome highlights the need for the development of a relevant informative/educational program, in order to cover the corresponding existing needs of the population of doctors in Greece.
Børsen, Tom; Antia, Avan N.; Glessmer, Mirjam Sophia
climate science meets the public sphere (e.g., to identify and balance legitimate perspectives on particular types of geo-engineering), and is an example of how to include social responsibility in doctoral education. The paper describes the workshop from the three different perspectives of the authors......: the course teacher, the head of the graduate school, and a graduate student. The elements that contributed to the success of the workshop, and thus make it an example to follow, are (1) the involvement of participating students, (2) the introduction of external expertise and role models in climate science......, and (3) a workshop design that focused on ethical analyses of examples from the climate sciences....
Fisher, Millard J.; Ozaki, Roger H.
This document presents a model wellness program for international college students in the United States and strategies to aid them in staying healthy during their stay. It notes that, without parents or other support groups, international students run the risk of developing serious health problems because of inadequate diet and sleep, substandard…
Rice, Kenneth G.; Choi, Chun-Chung; Zhang, Yanmei; Ye, Huan Jacqueline; Nesic, Aleksandra; Bigler, Monica; Anderson, Debra; Villegas, Jorge
International graduate students experience a number of unique challenges as they transition through their training programs. Surprisingly, relatively little research has been conducted on perhaps one of the most crucial predictors of international students' retention and success within their graduate programs: the advising relationship. Using a…
Barletta, John; Kobayashi, Yumi
This article explores the issues for counsellors working with international students, particularly Asian international students. As globalisation has expanded people have tended to study overseas in great numbers, hence the increasing importance for professionals to examine counselling in this cultural speciality. In order to understand effective…
Fleischman, David; Raciti, Maria; Lawley, Meredith
This paper presents an empirical study undertaken to develop a typology of international student community engagement activities that incorporates the perceptions of three key stakeholder groups--the international students, the community and the university. Framed by the notion of value co-creation, our exploratory study was undertaken at a…
Yeoh, Joanne Sin Wei; Terry, Daniel R.
The flow of international students to study in Australia increases each year. It is a challenge for students to study abroad in a different sociocultural environment, especially for postgraduate research students, as they experience numerous difficulties in an unfamiliar and vastly different study environment. A study aimed to investigate the…
Sambunjak, Dario; Marušić, Matko
Young scientists rarely have extensive international connections that could facilitate their mobility. They often rely on their doctoral supervisors and other senior academics, who use their networks to generate opportunities for young scientists to gain international experience and provide the initial trigger for an outward move. To explore the process of informal recommending of young physicians from a small country for postdoctoral research positions in foreign countries, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight senior academics who acted as recommenders and eight physicians who, based on the recommendations of senior academics, spent at least a year working in a laboratory abroad. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by using the framework approach. The findings showed that recommending can take four distinct forms: 1) forwarding information, 2) passive recommending, 3) active recommending, and 4) mentor recommending. These forms differ in their level of commitment and mutual trust among actors, and possible control over the success of the process. Two groups of recommendees--'naive' and 'experienced'--can be distinguished based on their previous scientific experience and research collaboration with the recommender. Crucial for the success of the process is an adequate preparation of recommendees' stay abroad, as well as their return and reintegration. The benefits of recommending extend beyond the individual participants to the scientific community and broader society of the sending country. With a sufficient level of commitment by the actors, informal recommending can be a part of or grow into an all-encompassing developmental relationship equal to mentoring. The importance of senior academics' informal contacts and recommendations in promoting junior scientists' mobility should be acknowledged and encouraged by the research institutions and universities, particularly in developing countries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young scientists rarely have extensive international connections that could facilitate their mobility. They often rely on their doctoral supervisors and other senior academics, who use their networks to generate opportunities for young scientists to gain international experience and provide the initial trigger for an outward move. Methods To explore the process of informal recommending of young physicians from a small country for postdoctoral research positions in foreign countries, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight senior academics who acted as recommenders and eight physicians who, based on the recommendations of senior academics, spent at least a year working in a laboratory abroad. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by using the framework approach. Results The findings showed that recommending can take four distinct forms: 1 forwarding information, 2 passive recommending, 3 active recommending, and 4 mentor recommending. These forms differ in their level of commitment and mutual trust among actors, and possible control over the success of the process. Two groups of recommendees - 'naive' and 'experienced' - can be distinguished based on their previous scientific experience and research collaboration with the recommender. Crucial for the success of the process is an adequate preparation of recommendees' stay abroad, as well as their return and reintegration. The benefits of recommending extend beyond the individual participants to the scientific community and broader society of the sending country. Conclusions With a sufficient level of commitment by the actors, informal recommending can be a part of or grow into an all-encompassing developmental relationship equal to mentoring. The importance of senior academics' informal contacts and recommendations in promoting junior scientists' mobility should be acknowledged and encouraged by the research institutions and universities, particularly in developing
Giving orphaned students abroad the chance to study in Japan While Ashinaga originally only supported Japanese students who had lost parents, as time passed it became increasingly clear that we had the experience and means to assist orphaned students outside Japan as well. This first took the shape of fundraising for international humanitarian crises, but eventually grew into various financial aid and scholarship opportunities to benefit orphaned students from around the world. Wh...
Hall, Samuel; Stephens, Jonathan; Andrade, Teu; Davids, Joseph; Powell, Matthew; Border, Scott
Near-peer teaching involves more experienced students acting as tutors and has been widely used in anatomy education. This approach has many advantages for the learner due to the social and cognitive congruence they share with the teacher, however, the influence of distance between the teacher and learner on these congruences has yet to be explored. The aim of this study was to compare the attitudes and perceptions of the student learner towards neuroanatomy review sessions taught by either a senior medical student or a junior doctor. The students were randomly assigned to an allocated tutor. All tutors used standardized material and had access to identical resources. The type of allocated tutor was swapped between the two teaching sessions and 99 student feedback forms were collected in total. The rating for the overall quality of the teaching session was not significantly different between the junior doctors and senior medical students (P = 0.11). However, criteria closely relating to social and cognitive congruence such as "enjoyment of the session," "delivery of the teaching," and "was it a good use of time" were all rated significantly higher for the senior medical students (P peer teaching spectrum have an impact upon the student's perception of their learning experience. While all teachers were suitable role models it appears that junior doctors are too far removed from their own undergraduate experiences to share congruences with pre-clinical medical students. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.
Girela Pérez, Beatriz; Rodríguez Cano, María Araceli; Girela López, Eloy
Doctor-patient relationship is of paramount importance for a good medical practice, however as long as medicine has been increasingly influenced by technology and science, it may be at risk of losing contact with basic human values of respect for the beliefs and preferences of the other person. In this study, we have analyzed the deontological vision of the physician-patient relationship perceived through clinical situations reflected in the portfolios carried out by 225 students of the 5th year of the Degree of Medicine at the University of Córdoba, during the courses 2014/15 and 2015/16. 201 out of 833 deontological considerations on articles of the Code of Medical Ethics constitute non-compliances. It is noteworthy that these breaches to the Code of Medical Ethics considered refer mainly (73%) to Chapter III (doctor-patient relationship). It is particularly interesting that the problems most frequently detected are those related to attitude, forms or language and lack of understanding/confidence of the physician with the patient (article 8 with 46 noncompliances), as well as problems in providing information (articles 12.1 and 15, with 18 and 42 noncompliances respectively).
South Korea dispatches Korean nationals to partner developing countries as an Official Development Assistance (ODA) project through the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). In the health sector, KOICA dispatches international cooperation doctors (ICDs), nurses, physical therapists, radiologic technologists, nutritionists, medical laboratory technologists, occupational therapists, and dental hygienists. A total of 216 ICDs were dispatched over 19 times from 1995 until 2013. There were 19 areas of specialties among the ICDs. The most common specialty was internal medicine (61/216, 28.2%), the second most common specialty was general surgery (43/216, 19.9%), followed by oriental medicine (27/216, 12.5%), pediatrics (17/216, 7.9%), orthopedics (16/216, 7.4%), family medicine (16/216, 7.4%), and odontology (14/216, 6.5%). The ICDs have worked in 21 countries. KOICA dispatched the highest number of ICDs to Asia (97/216, 44.9%), followed by Africa (50/216, 23.1%), Latin America (34/216, 15.7%), the commonwealth of independent states (31/216, 14.4%), and Oceania (4/216, 1.9%). Nobody was dispatched to the Middle East. A total of 134 KOICA health professionals were dispatched to Peru from 1996 until October 1, 2014. Of these, 19.4% (26/134) were ICDs, 44.8% (60/216) were nurses, 20.1% (27/134) were physical therapists, 6.7% (9/134) were radiologic technologists, 2.2% (3/134) were nutritionists, and 6.7% (9/134) were medical laboratory. ICDs' specialties comprised internal medicine (13/26, 50%), family medicine (8/26, 30.8%), pediatrics (2/26, 7.7%), otorhinolaryngology (1/26, 3.8%), orthopedics (1/26, 3.8%), and oriental medicine (1/26, 3.8%). Most of the dispatched health professionals worked at institutions that were supported by KOICA. For this reason, the proportion of health professionals who worked at public health centers (PHCs) was the highest (58.2%, 78/134) when classified by workplace type. Other KOICA health professionals worked at hospitals
Full Text Available Unlike the doctoral programs in places where students are paired with advisors at the time of admission itself, most US programs require the students to choose their advisors, and the advisors to formally accept the students as advisees. Little research has been done to understand how students and faculty approach this mutual selection and pairing process. This paper examines this process in STEM departments (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, with specific focus on factors influencing the decisions. Based on focus groups and interviews of doctoral students and faculty from STEM departments in an American university, we identify criteria applied by students and faculty in making their choices. Students were found to assess faculty on available funding, area of research, personality, ability to graduate students fast, and career prospects for students, and faculty to assess students on their qualifications/credentials and perceived ability to contribute to research. We also found that this mutual assessment was not objective, but influenced by perceptions associated with faculty gender and career stage, and student nationality. In the end, whether students and faculty were actually paired with persons of their choice depended on departmental factors including prevalent pairing practices, restrictions on student numbers per faculty, and reward structure. We discuss implications of the findings for research and practice.
Hensel, Desiree; Moorman, Margaret
Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) is a structured art-viewing technique designed to teach critical thinking and aesthetic appreciation. Literature on how VTS might be used in nursing is just emerging. This qualitative descriptive study examined written responses to how 14 doctorate of nursing practice students thought they might use VTS in their practice after engaging in a classroom session. Three themes emerged for how nurses might use VTS: Facilitating Interpersonal Relationships, Changing Thinking in Practice, and As a Teaching Tool. This study contributes to the growing body of literature that suggests that art and VTS and can be used in nursing with practitioners of all levels to promote conversations that involve listening intently and considering other possibilities. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(8):365-368. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Hwang, Kun; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Seong Yeon; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Ae Yang
In South Korean ferry disaster in 2014, the captain abandoned the ship with passengers including high school students still aboard. We noticed the resemblance of abandoning the ship with passengers still aboard the ferry (named the Sewol) and the ship Patna, which was full of pilgrims, in Joseph Conrad's novel "Lord Jim." The aim of this study is to see how medical students think about the role of a medical doctor as a captain of a ship by analyzing book reports on Conrad's "Lord Jim." Participants included 49 third-year medical students. Their book reports were analyzed. If placed in the same situation as the character of Jim, 24 students of the 49 respondents answered that they would stay with the passengers, while 18 students indicated they would escape from the ship with the crew. Most of the students thought the role of a doctor in the medical field was like that of a 'captain.' The medical students reported that they wanted to be a doctor who is responsible for his or her patients, highly moral, warm-hearted, honest, and with high self-esteem. In conclusion, we found that "Lord Jim" induced the virtue of 'responsibility' from the medical students. Consequently, "Lord Jim" could be good teaching material for medical humanities.
@@ "To become a doctor is like becoming a bomb expert:It takes a long time to learn this skill; you must use care and intuition; and you must understand that your work has grave consequences for those around you,"said Amgalan Gamazhapov,an advanced medical student who studies traditional Chinese and Mongolian medicine at the Inner Mongolia Medical University.
Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos
The importance of research, as promoted by the CanMEDS framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects. To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called DoktaMed with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. DoktaMed is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of DoktaMed rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor"). They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting DoktaMed as a worthwhile investment of time. Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting DoktaMed. However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that DoktaMed focuses on now. Evaluation after six years of DoktaMed is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects.Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor". They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting as a worthwhile investment of time.Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting . However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that focuses on now.Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.
Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan
This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant…
Kuo, Patty Beyrong; Woo, Hongryun; Bang, Na Mi
The authors examined the relationship between research self-efficacy, motivation, and productivity, as well as advisory relationship as a moderator, among 190 counselor education doctoral students. Research self-efficacy and motivation predicted productivity. Advisory relationship moderated the relationship between intrinsic and failure avoidance…
Szelényi, Katalin; Bresonis, Kate
This article examines the research-related experiences of 48 doctoral students and 22 faculty in science and engineering fields at three research universities, with specific emphasis on the intersection of the public good and academic capitalism. Identifying an expansive, intersecting organizational space between the public good and academic…
Jalongo, Mary Renck; Boyer, Wanda; Ebbeck, Marjory
Expectations for academic writing and publication have intensified in Academia. Doctoral students in colleges of education are advised to publish even before they graduate and evidence of successful publication is influential in hiring, tenure, and promotion decisions. The purpose of this research was to study the process of writing for…
Chang, Peichin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Taking an effective authorial stance in research argumentation has been designated as both vitally important and challenging. The study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) doctoral students' conceptions of authorial stance, the role of domains in affecting their conceptions, and the ties of the conceptions to the participants'…
Terry, Tarae; Ghosh, Rajashi
Doctoral students leave their programs early due to lack of mentoring relationships needed to support degree completion and success. However, how mentoring contributes to Ed.D degree completion is not widely studied. In this qualitative narrative study, we sought to explore how multiple mentoring relationships reduced attrition in an Ed.D program.…
Pretto, Gabriella; Curró, Gina
Since 1980s the rate of technological change has been phenomenal, creating an impact on the information-seeking behaviors of doctoral students and other researchers. When searching the three fields of Information Technology (IT), Information and Communication Technology (ICT), and Educational Technology (EdTech), it is like opening a Pandora's…
Telbis, Nicola Miky
Research shows that the international student population is showing significant growth. Studies also show that foreign students are encountering difficulties such as social adaptability, language barriers, academic ability, and financial need. There is compelling evidence that establishes a correlation between a person's self-efficacy and his or…
In research in cross-cultural psychology, international education is largely understood as an "adjustment" to host country norms and institutions, a notion that prioritizes social order and stability. The student is seen as in deficit in relation to these norms. The student's home country identity becomes seen as a barrier to be broken…
Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun
As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…
With the rapid increase in the number of international students from different academic backgrounds around the world, college and university teachers in the West find it harder to understand the many and complex reasons when these students plagiarize or use sources ineffectively. Reviewing relevant literature, I first make a pedagogical analysis…
A field of study that derives its name from the Latin root for “knowledge”—student interns had a shot at that clue for 200 points in the 10th annual Student Science Jeopardy Tournament, but their minds went blank. Answer: What is Science?
With the rapid increase in the number of international students from different academic backgrounds around the world, college and university teachers in the West find it harder to understand the many and complex reasons when these students plagiarize or use sources ineffectively. Reviewing relevant literature, I first make a pedagogical analysis of student plagiarism then show why teachers should shift focus from traditional views about cultural difference toward a multidimensional understand...
This study explored what motivated 6 Chinese international students to complete a PhD in science, technology, engineering, and math fields in the United States despite perceived dissatisfaction. This study was grounded in the value-expectancy achievement motivation theory and incorporated a Confucian cultural lens to understand motivation. Four…
: academy, doctoral research education, Ghana, graduate writing course, support .... courses draw international students from various departments throughout the .... know how to apply critical thinking to transform and create knowledge as well.
Elliott, Naomi; Farnum, Karen; Beauchesne, Michelle
Although graduates of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs are expected to demonstrate competence in advanced clinical scholarship, mentoring, and leadership, little is published about how team debate on a global health care topic supports DNP student learning and skill development. This article reports on an illuminative evaluation of DNP student learning experiences of team debate in the context of a 2-week international school program in Ireland. A focused illuminative evaluation approach involving a cohort of seven DNP students, who had participated in an international school team debate, was used. Data were collected using a Web-based qualitative questionnaire designed to elicit in-depth reflective accounts of DNP students' learning experiences. Content analysis revealed that team debate on a global health care topic enhanced learning in relation to fostering critical thinking and critical appraisal skills; encouraging teamwork; providing opportunities for mentoring, relationship building, and socialization into profession; and, from the DNP student perspective, increasing knowledge and global understanding of health care. This evaluation provides insights for nurse educators into the benefits of introducing team debate as a group activity to enhancing scholarly inquiry and mentoring skills of DNP students. Further research to evaluate team debate in other nurse education programs is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
heavily from the support from informal and extra-curricular researcher communities and non-formal support systems even beyond the institution in the private and societal lifeworlds. The chapter describes and analyses such forms of organizational and existential darkness within doctoral education...... and professionalization of doctoral education, with Graduate schools increasing in size and organizational complexity. Paradoxically, we see in contemporary research into doctoral students’ learning experiences that the students do not favour the formalized support systems and supervision, but on the contrary draw most......, and discusses how institutions and doctoral programmes could use such sprawling spaces for learning to build doctoral ecologies and to strengthening existentially based pedagogies within doctoral education....
Muniz Janaína Barbosa
Full Text Available Asthma results from a combination of three essential features: airflow obstruction, hyperresponsiveness of airways to endogenous or exogenous stimuli and inflammation. Inadequacy of the techniques to use different inhalation devices is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate how 20 medical students, 36 resident physicians of Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, and 40 asthma patients used three devices for inhalation therapy containing placebo. All patients were followed at the Pulmonary Outpatient Service of Botucatu Medical School and had been using inhaled medication for at least six months. The following devices were evaluated: metered dose inhalers (MDI, dry powder inhalers (DPI, and MDI attached to a spacer device. A single observer applied a protocol containing the main steps necessary to obtain a good inhaler technique to follow and grade the use of different devices. Health care professionals tested all three devices and patients tested only the device being used on their management. MDI was the device best known by doctors and patients. MDI use was associated with errors related to the coordination between inspiration and device activation. Failure to exhale completely before inhalation of the powder was the most frequent error observed with DPI use. In summary, patients did not receive precise instruction on how to use inhaled medication and health care professionals were not well prepared to adequately teach their patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of scientific dishonesty is scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore this study investigates the experiences with and the attitudes towards various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD-students at the medical faculties of all Norwegian universities. Method Anonymous questionnaire distributed to all post graduate students attending introductory PhD-courses at all medical faculties in Norway in 2010/2011. Descriptive statistics. Results 189 of 262 questionnaires were returned (72.1%. 65% of the respondents had not, during the last year, heard or read about researchers who committed scientific dishonesty. One respondent had experienced pressure to fabricate and to falsify data, and one had experienced pressure to plagiarize data. On average 60% of the respondents were uncertain whether their department had a written policy concerning scientific conduct. About 11% of the respondents had experienced unethical pressure concerning the order of authors during the last 12 months. 10% did not find it inappropriate to report experimental data without having conducted the experiment and 38% did not find it inappropriate to try a variety of different methods of analysis to find a statistically significant result. 13% agreed that it is acceptable to selectively omit contradictory results to expedite publication and 10% found it acceptable to falsify or fabricate data to expedite publication, if they were confident of their findings. 79% agreed that they would be willing to report misconduct to a responsible official. Conclusion Although there is less scientific dishonesty reported in Norway than in other countries, dishonesty is not unknown to doctoral students. Some forms of scientific misconduct are considered to be acceptable by a significant minority. There was little awareness of relevant policies for scientific conduct, but a high level of willingness to report misconduct.
Tanyildiz, Zeynep Esra
The United States has been a very attractive destination for foreign Science and Engineering (S&E) graduate students and postdoctoral scholars for a considerable period of time. Several studies have documented significant contributions of foreign students and foreign scientists in S&E. These contributions in turn foster economic development. Recent studies suggest, however, that the U.S. is losing its dominance in attracting foreign talent. Increased competition outside the U.S. contributes to the change as do changes in visa regulations. Despite the important role of foreign doctoral students in the U.S., relatively little is known about factors influencing their decision to attend an institution. One factor that is rarely explored is the effect of networks on institution selection. Through their networks, students learn about application procedures, studying at an institution, housing opportunities, general culture and people. In doing this, they draw both on the experience of the alumni as well as the support of current students and faculty at their target institution. Thus, networks can play an important role in where foreign doctoral students actually end up studying. This study aims to provide both qualitative and quantitative information about the role networks play in foreign doctoral students' institution selection. This three-part study utilizes different methodologies: (1) focus group interviews conducted with Turkish doctoral students at the Georgia Institute of Technology; (2) a web study of research laboratories in science and engineering; and (3) the estimation of Random Utility Model (RUM) of institution selection. These three components build on each other, in addition to the individual contributions that they make. Together they provide an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of the role of networks. The results from guided focus group interviews indicate that students, alumni, faculty and local community of the same nationality influence
Hammershøy, Anna; Simonsen, Berit Elsebeth; Miller, Tanja
The paper focuses on Service, Hospitality and Tourism management education programme at the University College of Northern Denmark. The English-taught international stream is developed in a local context, following a Danish curriculum and employing Danish instructors. The students originate...... primarily from Eastern and Central Europe and are not socialised in the North European educational culture. It takes these students more attempts to pass examinations compared to the Danish students, and their GPA is lower compared to the Danish students. The paper addresses the immediate learning context...
Bell, James A.
Does the international student suffer from statistics anxiety? To investigate this, the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) was administered to sixty-six beginning statistics students, including twelve international students and fifty-four domestic students. Due to the small number of international students, nonparametric methods were used to…
Gourley, Dick R; Vaidya, Varun A; Hufstader, Meghan A; Ray, Max D; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A
This report describes the experiences of the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy over 20 years with an international capstone educational experience for students. Although the university provides reciprocal opportunities to international students, this report focuses on the experiences of the college's pharmacy students who have participated in the program. This capstone course is offered as an elective course in the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) component of the college's experiential program. Goals of the program and a brief description of its organizational structure are provided. Results of a structured student satisfaction survey and a survey covering the most recent 3 years of the program are presented. This program has greatly broadened participants' cultural horizons and expanded their global view and understanding of the contributions of pharmacy to health care.
Cian, Heidi; Dsouza, Nikeetha; Lyons, Renee; Alston, Daniel
This manuscript is written in response to Lydia Burke and Jesse Bazzul's article Locating a space of criticality as new scholars in science education. As doctoral students finding our place in the culture of science education, we respond by discussing our journeys towards the development of a scholarly identity, with particular focus on whether or how we see ourselves as critical scholars. Since each of us authoring this paper has a different perspective, a metalogue format is utilized to ensure all of our voices and journeys are represented. We use the Burke and Bazzul article as a platform for conversations about challenges faced for emerging scholars in the field of science education and explore how we see our role in responding to these challenges. Specifically, we discuss the barriers to publication, dissemination of research to practitioners, and how to approach these problems from a grounding in critical theory. As a result of our conversations, we conclude that there is a need to reshape the field of science education to invite more unorthodox research perspectives, methodologies, and publication formats. To do so, the issues we explore require a continued conversation between emerging scholars, practicing researchers, and practicing educators.
Full Text Available In Europe most studies of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL focus on language knowledge and language skills and most studies of CLIL are carried out in primary schools and secondary schools. As for the implementation of CLIL in China, most studies are done theoretically and are carried out among undergraduates. CLIL is mainly applied in the teaching and learning of general English rather than in the teaching and learning of English for Academic Purpose (EAP. In order to have a better understanding of the effect of CLIL on EAP learners, a sample analysis is undertaken among doctoral students of science. Two kinds of instruments are adopted in this paper to conduct both quantitative and qualitative study, including two questionnaires and a series of classroom observations. The study obtains the following findings: Firstly, as CLIL is effective due to its dual-focus, it is possible to implement CLIL in EAP teaching and learning. Secondly, class activities such as group work, pair work, class presentations as well as task-based course activities such as translation, paper writing, paper analysis and rewriting practice play an important role in motivating the participants to integrate discipline content and language. Besides, the four factors of CLIL which include content, communication, culture and cognition are attached great importance to by learners. Finally, the increasing ability to integrate content and language as well as the thinking patterns and cultural awareness in EAP writing greatly contributes to the participants’ further academic researches.
Boquet, Elizabeth; Kazer, Meredith; Manister, Nancy; Lucas, Owen; Shaw, Michael; Madaffari, Valerie; Gannett, Cinthia
In 2010, Fairfield University, a Jesuit Carnegie Masters Level 1 University located in the Northeast, established its first doctoral-level program: the Doctorate of Nursing Practice (DNP). In a developing program such as the DNP, some of the most pressing concerns of current rhetoric and writing in the disciplines align and interact with the…
Eastman, Christine; Maguire, Kate
This paper argues for a pedagogic practice to overcome the challenges that many professional practitioners face in undertaking a professional doctorate. Recent examination feedback on a professional doctoral programme of 300 candidates in the UK highlighted that a number of candidates often struggle to write persuasively, critically and…
Welton, Anjalé D.; Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Lee, Pei-Ling
There is limited research on quantitative differences between men and women's experiences in doctoral programs. We aim to fill that gap by sharing findings from a web-based exploratory survey of perceived gender differences on quality mentoring in educational leadership doctoral programs. According to survey results, there is limited…
Masterman, Ann Katherine
This study's purpose was to compare the lived experiences of doctoral women studying Education, a prototypically female field, with women studying Engineering, a prototypically male field to illustrate the phenomenon of doctoral degree progress in the two fields. Using critical feminist theory and Valian's (1999) concept of gender schemas, this…
Bhutta, M; Mandavia, R; Syed, I; Qureshi, A; Hettige, R; Wong, B Y W; Saeed, S; Cartledge, J
To ascertain determinants of an interest in a career in ENT surgery through a survey of medical students and junior doctors. A survey was administered, comprising Likert scales, forced response and single option questions, and free text responses, at five different courses or events for those interested in a career in ENT. The survey had an 87 per cent response rate; respondents consisted of 43 applicants for national selection, 15 foundation doctors and 23 medical students. The most important factors that encourage ENT as a career included: the variety of operative procedures, work-life balance, inherent interest in this clinical area and inspirational senior role models. Exposure to ENT in undergraduate or post-graduate training is critical in deciding to pursue this specialty. It is important to promote those aspects of ENT surgery that attract people to it, and to argue for greater exposure to ENT during undergraduate and post-graduate training.
Thomas, Tony J.
The purpose of this research is to understand more clearly the lived experiences of married doctoral students with children who are enrolled in a cohort-based program. Attempting to maintain a strong family relationship, balance a career, enroll in a doctoral program, and provide for a family is an avalanche of emotion and pressure on all members…
Hulsman, Robert L.; Pranger, Susan; Koot, Stephanie; Fabriek, Marcel; Karemaker, John M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.
Introduction: Medical communication can be a stressful experience for both doctors and patients. In particular, inexperienced doctors facing the demanding task of a bad news consultation may experience high levels of distress. The aim of this exploratory study is to test students' differential
Nilas, Lisbeth; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Laursen, Jacob Brink
English skills was perceived low. Conclusion Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking...... medical departments. Keywords International students Clinical teaching Teaching in foreign language Doctors’ English skills Self-assessment......Background From 2012–2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, “Internationalization at Home ”, offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students...
Robbins, Nancy; Lo, Yen-Hai; Hou, Feng-Heiung; Chou, Tsai-Sheng; Chen, Chin-Hung; Chen, Chao-Chien; Chen, Wen-Chiang; Chen, Yen-Chuan; Wang, Shih-Jen; Huang, Shih-Yu; Lii, Jong-Yiing
The design for this preliminary study was based on the experiences of the international students and faculty members of a small southwest university being surveyed and interviewed. The data collection procedure blends qualitative and quantitative data. A strong consensus was found that supports the study's premise that there is an association…
The present study examined the possible correlation between six life circumstances of international students (N = 124) admitted entry into the United States for the purpose of academic study and their geographic choice of location upon graduation. This paper improves upon the current literature by offering actual migration outcomes (rather than…
The main purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the experiences of Vietnamese international students who returned to Vietnam after graduation from a U.S. higher education institution (henceforth, the repatriates). Areas to be explored include the transitional period, perceptions of the relevance of the U.S. education to their current…
Le, Anh T.; LaCost, Barbara Y.
The purpose of this study is to explore the experiences of Vietnamese international students who have returned to Vietnam after graduation from a U.S. higher education institution. The findings suggest that participants found it harder to readjust to Vietnam than to adjust to the U.S. even though they had lived most of their lives in Vietnam. Time…
Sloane, Stephanie; Liechty, Janet M.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Donovan, Sharon M.
Transdisciplinary (TD) approaches are increasingly used to address complex public health problems such as childhood obesity. Compared to traditional grant-funded scientific projects among established scientists, those designed around a TD, team-based approach yielded greater publication output after three to five years. However, little is known about how a TD focus throughout graduate school training may affect students’ publication-related productivity, impact, and collaboration. The objective of this study was to compare the publication patterns of students in traditional versus TD doctoral training programs. Productivity, impact, and collaboration of peer-reviewed publications were compared between traditional (n = 25) and TD (n = 11) students during the first five years of the TD program. Statistical differences were determined by t-test or chi square test at p students was 5.2 ± 10.1 (n = 56) compared to 3.6 ± 4.5 per traditional student (n = 82). Publication impact indicators were significantly higher for TD students vs. traditional students: 5.7 times more citations in Google Scholar, 6.1 times more citations in Scopus, 1.3 times higher journal impact factors, and a 1.4 times higher journal h-index. Collaboration indicators showed that publications by TD students had significantly more co-authors (1.3 times), and significantly more disciplines represented among co-authors (1.3 times), but not significantly more organizations represented per publication compared to traditional students. In conclusion, compared to doctoral students in traditional programs, TD students published works that were accepted into higher impact journals, were more frequently cited, and had more cross-disciplinary collaborations. PMID:29244832
This dissertation builds on an alternative framework for evaluation of science, technology and innovation (STI) outcomes - the scientific & technical (S&T) human capital which was developed by Bozeman, Dietz and Gaughan (2001). At its core, this framework looks beyond simple economic and publication metrics and instead focuses on scientists' social capital. The premise of the framework is that science does not happen in vacuum and that resources embedded in scientists' social networks are important and enduring outcomes of the scientific process that were not being captured by traditional metrics. This dissertation examines social capital of science and engineering (S&E) graduate students, an underrepresented group of stakeholders in STI evaluations. S&E graduate students are unique for several reasons. In comparison with students in other disciplines, S&E graduate students have a greater proportion of international students; are widely employed by industry in numbers exceeded only by business graduates. And, most importantly, S&E graduates pursue education in fields that contribute the most to the US innovation capacity. This dissertation introduces a multidimensional measure of social capital based on the network theory of social capital proposed by Nan Lin (1999). According to Lin, social capital consists of three components: availability of resources and social embeddedness in one's network and mobilization of these resources. In order to address these elements, the dissertation employs two studies that focus on different components of social capital. Study 1 looks at accessibility of resources in students' social networks and whether students would be likely to mobilize them by using a proxy measure of norms and values about collaborations. The study also addresses the effect of social capital on students' experiences and outcomes, specifically, on their satisfaction and perceived career preparedness. The researcher investigates the mechanisms that explain
Dunbar, R. W.; MacDonald, R.
The professional development program, "On the Cutting Edge", offers annual multi-day workshops for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing academic careers. Goals are to prepare participants to become more effective teachers, stronger candidates for academic positions, and more aware of the realities of academic jobs. Insights that participants especially hope to gain from these workshops include feedback on the application process, especially an understanding of how search committees work; the different realities of balancing teaching, research, and personal life in a range of academic institutions; and expectations for tenure. The ten-person leadership team represents, by design, a wide range of academic career paths and institutions, and provides approximately 1:6 leader: participant ratio. Specific sessions include research on learning, an introduction to course and lab design, effective teaching and assessment strategies, developing a teaching statement, time management and early career faculty success, and moving research forward into new settings. Optional workshop sessions and discussions include the following topics: dual-career couples; families and careers; teaching portfolios; effective negotiation strategies; tenure and promotion; effective field trips; getting started in undergraduate research; opportunities in K-12 education; career options beyond faculty positions. Highlights of the workshop are faculty panel discussions about career paths and the academic job search. By workshop end, participants complete a goal setting and action planning activity. Two years of evaluation data suggest our goals are being met. Participants particularly appreciate the practical ideas and the opportunity to interact with, and learn from, a diverse leadership team and other participants.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of medical students’ professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Method Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October and end (April of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to ‘doctors’ and ‘students’. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to ‘doctor’ and ‘student’ measures. Results In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102 and 75% (n = 58 of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83 and 73% (n = 56. Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all ‘doctor’-referent measures were higher than ‘student’ measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups. Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Conclusions Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature
Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Hun; Kim, Ae Yang; Hwang, Kun
The purpose of this study is to find what medical students think the reward for their future work should be and whether they would keep their ideals or abandon them for prestige and wealth by analyzing the book reports of Cronin's The Citadel. Participants were 50 medical students of junior class. A month before the classroom lecture, the book and digital video disk were provided. Students had discussions in groups of seven and wrote book reports which include answers of three questions. Regarding what should be the reward for the medical doctor, two-thirds of students (66.7%) answered with spiritual compensation, while one-third (33.3%) chose material reward. In the situation presented to Manson, three-fifths (60.0%) answered they would keep their ideals (idealist), while the remaining two-fifths (40.0%) decided they would abandon them. Less than one-third of students (30.0%) answered they would reveal the corruptions of the doctor's society, while two-thirds (64.0%) would not. The larger number of idealists who prefer spiritual reward rather than a material reward represents the innocence of youth as in portrayed in The Citadel.
Brighide M. Lynch
Full Text Available Background: In 2010 a community of practice was set up for and by doctoral students engaged in person-centred and practitioner research. After three years, this community became part of a larger international community of practice. Aims and objectives: Captured under the stanzas of a poem and supported by the literature, this paper uses member narratives and creative expressions in a critical reflection on the experience of being a member of the Student International Community of Practice. Conclusions: Membership in the community of practice was experienced as beneficial, providing both support and challenge to enrich the doctoral students’ development as person-centred researchers. Retaining connectivity across an international landscape and finding effective ways to integrate new members into the community presented the greatest challenges. Implications for practice development: • The theoretical foundation and experiential knowledge could assist others considering support structures for the development of person-centred practices • Shared learning and co-creation of knowledge add value to the experience of being a doctoral researcher • Membership fluctuations present challenges to continuity of learning and the maintenance of a safe space with communities of practice. Such fluctuations, however, create chances for community members to experience diverse roles within the group and encourage explicit attention to person-centredness
Wang, Yi; Tang, Yu; He, Yan; Zhu, Ya-qin
To evaluate the effect of doctor-patient communication education on dental clinical practice. The process of 61 dental interns' clinical practice was divided into two stages. The dental interns were taught with traditional teaching method in the first stage. Doctor-patient communication and communication skill training were added to the second stage. Scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior was used to evaluate the dental interns' behavior by themselves after two stages. The SEGUE frame work was used to evaluate the dental interns' behavior by teachers after two stages. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package. The result of scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior was analyzed using Fisher exact test or Chi-square test. The score of the SEGUE frame work was analyzed using Student's t test. The result of Scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior showed only 37.71% of dental interns could establish good doctor-patient relationship in the first stage. After doctor-patient communication and communication skill training, the percentage became 75.4%. The result of the SEGUE frame work showed the score was raised from 16.066±3.308 to 21.867±2.456, and a significant difference was found between the two stages. Doctor-Patient communication education can improve dental interns' communication skills and help to establish a good doctor-patient relationship.
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
Doctoral education covers the “third cycle” of degrees following the bachelor’s and the master’s degree. The education of researchers is necessary for developing music therapy as a scientific discipline and calls for a certain research culture that not only brings knowledge on research...... with an integration of science and practice. This leads to a description of the principles of problem-based learning as a social constructive approach, problematization, self-directed learning and learning community. The chapter is concluded with an example of a model of doctoral education, the Aalborg model, where...... the coursework, supervision, and curriculum is based on problem-based learning. About the book: 'International Perspectives in Music Therapy Education and Training: Adapting to a Changing World,' the first anthology of its kind, edited by Professor Karen Goodman, brings noted educators from Brazil, Canada...
Larkin, Gregory Luke; Mello, Michael J
Possessed of both instinct and intellect, physician teachers are required to be respectful exemplars of professionalism and interpersonal ethics in all environments, be it the hospital, classroom, or outside the educational setting. Sometimes, even while protecting the sanctity of the teacher-student relationship, they may surreptitiously find themselves in the throes of consensual intimacy, boundary violations, student exploitation, or other negative interpersonal and/or departmental dynamics. One may question how an academic can consistently resolve this tension and summon the temperance, humility, charity, and restraint needed to subdue lust, pride, abuse, and incontinence in the workplace. One important answer may lie in an improved understanding of the moral necessity of social cooperation, fairness, reciprocity, and respect that is constitutive of the physician-teacher role. Although normative expectations and duties have been outlined in extant codes of ethics and conduct within academic medicine, to date, few training programs currently teach faculty and residents about the ethics of appropriate pedagogic and intimate relations between teaching staff and students, interns, residents, researchers, and other trainees. This essay highlights examples from history, literature, and medical ethics as one small step toward filling this void.
Schwartz, Alan; Mazouni, Abdelhamid
Medical educators have been concerned that medical students may decline in empathy for patients during the course of their training, based on studies measuring clinical empathy using psychometrically strong self-report measures. Clinical empathy is a complex construct, incorporating attitudes toward patients but also other components, such as professional detachment. Triangulation of extant measures with instruments based on nonreactive methods could provide a better understanding of whether and how physician attitudes toward patients may be changing during training. We sought to develop and pilot-test such a nonreactive method. We develop variations of an implicit association test (IAT) designed to measure attitudes toward physicians and patients based on speed of reaction to images of actors and positive and negative words. In the IATs, the same actors are photographed as doctors, clinic outpatients, hospitalized inpatients, and as a "general public" control. We examine preliminary evidence for their validity by collecting pilot data from internet participants (not involved in the health professions), medical students, and nursing students. Internet participants (n = 314) and nursing students (n = 31) had more negative associations (IAT scores) with doctors than did medical students (n = 89); nursing students and female internet participants had more positive associations with hospitalized patients than did medical students and male internet participants. Medical students' associations with hospitalized patients varied by year of training. This IAT may provide insight into implicit attitudes among those who enter training for the health profession and changes in those attitudes that may be inculcated during that training.
The New Edition of International Express Pre-Intermediate retains all the keys features of this popular and successel four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learner's real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.
Packwood, Helen; Findlay, Allan; McCollum, David
There are currently 435,000 international students studying in UK Universities. This paper investigates the forces driving student mobility and the relationship between student migration and future mobility plans. The research, based on a survey of over 3000 international students and interviews with senior staff in International Offices at ten UK Universities confirms the importance of understanding international student mobility as part of wider mobility trajectories.
Reyes, Antonio Jose; Ramcharan, Kanterpersad; Sharma, Sharda
A 29-year-old previously healthy woman, a doctor, was diagnosed with remitting relapsing multiple sclerosis after fulfilling McDonald's criteria for the diagnosis of definite multiple sclerosis. Despite 22 months of immunomodulatory treatment, the feasibility of continuing to train in a stressful specialty of medicine became an ethical and practical dilemma. Fitness for practice and career advancement among doctors with illnesses or having cognitive and physical decline from disease and/or ageing is a global problem. The need for addressing this issue in a compassionate and comprehensive manner is discussed. Cognitive and physical fitness are required in doctors and other healthcare workers since medical errors/adverse events are commonplace in medical practice. The public welfare is equally important in this global problem. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Ibrahim, Halah; Abdel-Razig, Sawsan; Nair, Satish C
This study aimed to explore the perceptions of medical students in a developing medical education system towards international accreditation. Applicants to an Internal Medicine residency program in an academic medical center in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-International (ACGME-I) were surveyed between May and June 2014. The authors analysed responses using inductive qualitative thematic analysis to identify emergent themes. Seventy-eight of 96 applicants (81%) completed the survey. The vast majority of respondents 74 (95%) reported that ACGME-I accreditation was an important factor in selecting a residency program. Five major themes were identified, namely improving the quality of education, increasing opportunities, meeting high international standards, improving program structure, and improving patient care. Seven (10%) of respondents felt they would be in a position to pursue fellowship training or future employment in the United States upon graduation from an ACGME-I program. UAE trainees have an overwhelmingly positive perception of international accreditation, with an emphasis on improving the quality of training provided. Misperceptions, however, exist about potential opportunities available to graduates of ACGME-I programs. As more countries adopt the standards of the ACGME-I or other international accrediting bodies, it is important to recognize and foster trainee "buy-in" of educational reform initiatives.
Tran, Ly Thi
Academic writing is a key practice in higher education and central to international students' academic success in the country of education. International Student Adaptation to Academic Writing in Higher Education addresses the prominent forms of adaptation emerging from international students' journey to mediate between disciplinary practices, cultural norms and personal desires in meaning making. It introduces new concepts that present different patterns of international student adaptation including surface adaptation, committed adaptation, reverse adaptation and hybrid adaptation. Drawing on
Tran, Lea Nga Thanh
International student migration to Norway has markedly increased during the past 20 years. This inflow has caused the Norwegian authorities to shed light on the topic. Until 2001, it was expected from the Norwegian authorities that international students return home after graduation. After the 21th century several policy changes occurred to attract more international students to Norway, and making it easier for international students to obtain a work permit after their studies. This thesis an...
Lempp, H; Seabrook, M; Cochrane, M; Rees, J
In this prospective qualitative study over 12 months, we evaluated the educational and clinical effectiveness of a new final year undergraduate programme in a London medical school (Guy's, King's and St Thomas'). A stratified sample of 17/360 final year students were interviewed four times, and the content was assessed against 32 amalgamated learning outcomes identified in 1997 in The New Doctor. At the beginning of the preregistration year, eight of the learning outcomes were already met, 10 partly, eight remained to be attained and for six, insufficient evidence existed. Preregistration house officers who have been through the final year student house officer programme expressed competence in many of the outcomes of the General Medical Council's New Doctor. The study identified areas such as prescribing where further developments are needed and will help in planning the new foundation programme.
Korobova, Nadia; Starobin, Soko S.
This study examines the relationship between student engagement, student satisfaction, and the academic success of international and American students using 2008 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) data. It was found that international students scored slightly higher than American students on enriching educational experiences and…
Almoustapha Oumarou Soumana
Full Text Available In recent decades some countries of the Middle East have offered facilities to attract international students to pursue their higher education within their higher education institutions. The purpose of this study is to understand the difficulties faced by these students while conducting their studies abroad, and in doing so, to broaden the awareness of the challenges they face to complete their research. The participants of this qualitative study are international PhD students studying at a Middle Eastern public university. The university has reported increasing enrollment of international students, particularly from Africa in the last few years. Data were collected using a set of semi-structured interviews that drew out information on critical incidents that characterized the kind of difficulties students had faced in their studies. The data collected was further analyzed using a qualitative software package, NVivo (QSR International, 11. Six main themes came out from the content analysis of the interviews, which are the role of the adviser, student features, funding issues, family engagement, research and psychological obstacles which provide a holistic picture of student perspectives on the factors that influence degree progress. While these students might have faced difficulties mentioned in existing literature, this study argues that the participants have indicated experiencing psychological obstacles that were not described in earlier studies, such as the state of mind they were in as a result of being worried for family members due to war or violence in their home countries, and drop in currency exchange rates and difficulties in acquiring money due to international sanctions imposed against their countries. This study provides important thoughts on the factors that impact the degree progress of international PhD students from Africa, while at the same time revealing a serious gap in the advisers’ role which can contribute to the
Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon; Wada, Kaori; Mogami, Tamiko
With growing attention to the internationalization of counseling psychology in the past decade, discussion on effective training of international students is much-needed. In order to provide effective mentorship to international students, the mentor needs to be aware of specific challenges faced by international students and cultural differences…
This study investigated international student adjustment issues and needed social support. Data were obtained from individual interviews with 10 international students at The Ohio State University. Results indicate that international students experience significant problems in their coping with U.S. education, cultural differences, and language…
Popadiuk, Natalee Elizabeth; Arthur, Nancy Marie
International student research predominantly focuses on the initial and middle stages of their sojourn. Our research, however, specifically addresses how relationships support international students to successfully navigate the late-stage transition from university to work. In this qualitative study, we interviewed 18 international students from…
Tran, Ly Thi; Vu, Thao Thi Phuong
Enhancing the educational experience and social connectedness for international students is the responsibility of different involved parties among whom international students themselves and host institutions play a key role. However, the question of how the condition of cross-border mobility has shaped and re-shaped international students'…
Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew
The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…
Szanton, Sarah L; Taylor, Holly A; Terhaar, Mary
As Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs proliferate, effective collaboration with institutional review boards (IRBs) is important to protect human subjects. It is particularly important that faculty and students recognize which DNP students' projects should be considered as "human subjects research" or "quality improvement." The former require IRB review, whereas the latter may be eligible for expedited review or may be considered exempt. We report outcomes following implementation of a combination of didactic training, one-to-one consultation, and a decision support protocol to improve preparation for and collaboration with the IRB at a large university. In the first year of using this protocol, 53% of projects were deemed human subjects research and received IRB review. The other 47% were deemed quality improvement projects and did not require IRB review. We offer our experience as an approach for teaching students how to protect the subjects included in their quality improvement activities. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
The student demographics in American universities have been changing in recent years and the result is a rapidly increasing enrollment of international students. In particular, the Indian international student population has grown to be the second largest, with over 100,000 students enrolling at post-secondary educational institutions across the…
Hancock, Jason; Roberts, Martin; Monrouxe, Lynn; Mattick, Karen
The practice of medicine involves inherent ambiguity, arising from limitations of knowledge, diagnostic problems, complexities of treatment and outcome and unpredictability of patient response. Research into doctors' tolerance of ambiguity is hampered by poor conceptual clarity and inadequate measurement scales. We aimed to create and pilot a…
The number of Indigenous Australians completing doctoral qualifications is disparately below their non-Indigenous contemporaries. Whilst there has been a steady increase in Indigenous completions in recent years, significant work remains to redress the imbalance. Supervision has been identified as a primary influencer of the likely success of…
Maher, Michelle A.; Ford, Martin E.; Thompson, Candace M.
Using survey and qualitative data, this study identified emergent themes that remain consistent across or differentiate among reports of women earning their doctoral degree relatively quickly ("early-finishers") and those taking considerably longer ("late-finishers"). Emergent themes included commitment to timely degree completion, faculty…
Alroy, Gideon; Ber, Rosalie
Trigger films (short situational films followed by discussion) are seen as a suitable medium for teaching the intricacies of the interpersonal relationship, legitimate behavior patterns following doctor-patient interaction, and the sensitivity and ability to detect nonverbal and accessory communication. Guidelines for the production and use of…
Pabst, R; Park, D-H; Paulmann, V
Recently there were mostly emotional debates about the scientific background and relevance of the German academic title "Dr. med.", while objective data are scarce. When submitting their doctoral thesis at the Medical School of Hannover students were asked anonymously about the type, topic, duration, quality of supervision as well as frequency and type of publication of the results. 180 doctoral candidates (62% women) participated in the study. The supervision was graded as good by the majority of students. The duration working on the thesis was equivalent to 47 weeks of a full time employment. There was some negative influence in participating in lectures and courses. Nearly all participants (98%) would recommend younger students to work on a dissertation as they had done themselves in parallel to the curriculum. The ability of how to interprete scientific data was assumed to be positively influenced. About two thirds stated that the results had been published in original articles at the time of submitting the thesis. More data from other medical faculties are needed to document the relevance of the medical dissertation to replace the emotional by a more rational debate. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Helmke, Laura Andrews; Ulku-Steiner, Beril
Twenty students enrolled in Ph.D. programmes were interviewed to examine the role of gender in their academic experiences. Gender was examined in three ways: gender of the student, gender of the student's faculty supervisor and gender make-up of the faculty within the student's department or academic unit. All students reported the importance of…
This paper explores the impact of conflict on international student mobility. Through an examination of undergraduate, international students studying in Israel, this case study questions how and if a situation of ongoing violent conflict affects international student travel decisions to study in a host country. Contrary to assumptions of…
Sennekamp, Monika; Paulitsch, Michael A; Broermann, Marischa; Klingebiel, Thomas; Gerlach, Ferdinand M
In Germany, medical doctorates are regularly criticized for their insufficient quality. In order to improve the quality of doctorates and to support doctoral candidates, a department-wide doctoral research program was established at the Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main in 2011 taking into account the practical needs of doctoral students at the School of Medicine. The program development proceeded in several steps: in the first step (2009/2010), a pilot study with eleven doctoral candidates was carried out at the Institute of General Practice. Their ratings of the perceived relevance and their own knowledge of 15 topics of scientific work were used to identify a provisional need for support. Subsequently an interdisciplinary panel of experts established the program throughout the faculty. Since its implementation, a requirements analysis in the form of questionnaires has been continuously carried out in order to assess the doctoral students' prior knowledge and their preferences expressed. At the same time, systematic searches for support programs in other medical fields have been conducted throughout Germany on several occasions. On the basis of the pilot study, the research results and the expert panel discussions the following topics were found to be particularly relevant: principles of good scientific practice, literature search, reference management, organization and structure of a doctoral thesis, formatting of Word documents, clinical epidemiology and data management. A specific, stepwise development process was used to design a concept for the faculty of medicine that pays close attention to the knowledge and interests of doctoral candidates. The establishment of the doctoral research program in Frankfurt and the results of its evaluation are presented in a second article (Paulitsch et al., 2016). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Robinson, Gill; Wisker, Gina
This paper presents our cross-national research into what we term the ‘doctoral learning penumbra’, which covers the diverse, unnoticed, and often unrecognised forms of help and support that doctoral students draw from during their PhD, and which are vital for completion. Our aim is to better...
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 11 titles deal with the following topics: secondary school principals' attitudes toward characteristics of an ideal reading program; the effects of rock music on the reading comprehension of eighth grade students; objectives for…
Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran; Kim, Jung-Hee
International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 → 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 → 23.8 kg/m(2)) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students.
Faghihi, Forooz; Rakow, Ernest A.; Ethington, Corinna
This study examined relationships among doctoral candidates' background characteristics, research preparation, research environment, research involvement, student-advisor relationship, research self-efficacy, and dissertation progress. The study focused on differences in research self-efficacy and dissertation progress among students from the…
International students offer an unique opportunity to study the extent to which environment causes obesity. Because international students have an imperfect ability to choose their destination and are less aware of the social and cultural conditions in and around the university campus we argue that the prevalence of obesity in the surrounding area is plausibly exogenous to international students’ choice of university. In this study, we survey international students studying at 43 public unive...
Niemczyk, Ewalina Kinga
Graduate students' development as researchers is a key objective in higher education internationally. Research assistantships (RAships) nurture graduate students as novice researchers as they develop theoretical and methodological knowledge. However, few studies have investigated the ways institutional regulations, informal practices, and…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 55 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the prime time access rule; (2) media education; (3) magazine and children's advertising; (4) Irish national and Third World cinema; (5) international radio…
Ayu, Astri Parawita
Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorders, associated comorbidities and the evidence-base upon which to base clinical practice, most health systems have not invested in standardised training of healthcare providers in addiction medicine. As a result, people with substance use disorders often receive inadequate care, at the cost of quality of life and enormous direct health care costs and indirect societal costs. Therefore, we undertook this study to assess the views of international scholars, representing different countries, on the core set of addiction medicine competencies that need to be covered in medical education.
This paper critically appraises the discourse around international medical migration at the turn of the 21st century. A critical narrative review of a range of English-language sources, including grey literature, books and research reports, traces the development and spread of specific causative models. The attribution of causative relations between the movement of skilled medical workers, the provision of health care and population health outcomes illustrates how the global reach of biomedicine has to be understood in the context of local conditions. The need to understand migration as an aspect of uneven global development, rather than a delimited issue of manpower services management, is illustrated with reference to debates about 'brain drain' of Africa's health-care professionals, task-shifting and the crisis in health-care human resources. The widespread presumed cause of shortages of skilled health-care staff in sub-Saharan Africa was overdetermined by a compelling narrative of rich countries stealing poor countries' trained health-care professionals. This narrative promotes medical professional interests and ignores historical patterns of underinvestment in health-care systems and structures. Sociological theories of medicalization suggest that the international marketization of medical recruitment is a key site where the uneven global development of capital is at work. A radical reconfiguration of medical staffing along the lines of 'task-shifting' in rich and poor countries' health-care systems alike offers one means of thinking about global equity in access to quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Mr. Wen-chuan Li of China has become the first student to obtain a doctor's degree as a result of research work carried out in the Agency. Mr. Li, who is 33, graduated as a Bachelor of Agriculture at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University in 1960 and in 1966 was granted a fellowship to study mutations in plant breeding at the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratory near Vienna, under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen, a professor of the University of Bergen. The Hochschule fur Bodenkultur of Vienna accepted the research as being suitable for a thesis and have now granted the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. The subject of the thesis was modifying factors influencing the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents as compared with ionizing radiations in barley. Alkylating agents are involved in the use of chemicals as a means of changing the characteristics of seeds to bring about changes aimed at improving the quality of crops. Mr. Li's work is regarded as a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanics by which mutations are induced, to the efficient use of chemicals and ionizing radiations in practical applications, and to the efforts of the Agency in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization to benefit food supplies. Mr. Li has now completed his fellowship with the Agency and has been appointed an Assistant Professor in Plant Breeding at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University. The photograph, taken in the plastic hot house at Seibersdorf, shows him studying rice plants grown from seeds subjected to irradiation. Another noteworthy achievement is that of Mr. Karl-Franz Lacina, a security guard at the Agency's headquarters. At the age of 50 he has been accorded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Vienna University, the result of six years' work in his leisure time. The major subject was Arabic, with French and philosophy as supporting subject. (author)
Mr. Wen-chuan Li of China has become the first student to obtain a doctor's degree as a result of research work carried out in the Agency. Mr. Li, who is 33, graduated as a Bachelor of Agriculture at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University in 1960 and in 1966 was granted a fellowship to study mutations in plant breeding at the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratory near Vienna, under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen, a professor of the University of Bergen. The Hochschule fur Bodenkultur of Vienna accepted the research as being suitable for a thesis and have now granted the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. The subject of the thesis was modifying factors influencing the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents as compared with ionizing radiations in barley. Alkylating agents are involved in the use of chemicals as a means of changing the characteristics of seeds to bring about changes aimed at improving the quality of crops. Mr. Li's work is regarded as a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanics by which mutations are induced, to the efficient use of chemicals and ionizing radiations in practical applications, and to the efforts of the Agency in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization to benefit food supplies. Mr. Li has now completed his fellowship with the Agency and has been appointed an Assistant Professor in Plant Breeding at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University. The photograph, taken in the plastic hot house at Seibersdorf, shows him studying rice plants grown from seeds subjected to irradiation. Another noteworthy achievement is that of Mr. Karl-Franz Lacina, a security guard at the Agency's headquarters. At the age of 50 he has been accorded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Vienna University, the result of six years' work in his leisure time. The major subject was Arabic, with French and philosophy as supporting subject. (author)
Ayu, Astri Parawita; El-Guebaly, Nady; Schellekens, Arnt; De Jong, Cor; Welle-Strand, Gabrielle; Small, William; Wood, Evan; Cullen, Walter; Klimas, Jan
Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorders, associated comorbidities, and the evidence base upon which to base clinical practice, most health systems have not invested in standardized training of health care providers in addiction medicine. As a result, people with substance use disorders often receive inadequate care, at the cost of quality of life and enormous direct health care costs and indirect societal costs. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the views of international scholars, representing different countries, on the core set of addiction medicine competencies that need to be covered in medical education. A total of 13 members of the International Society of 20 Addiction Medicine (ISAM), from 12 different countries (37% response rate), were interviewed over Skype, e-mail survey, or in person at the annual conference. Content analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts, using constant comparison methodology. We identified recommendations related to the core set of the addiction medicine competencies at 3 educational levels: (i) undergraduate, (ii) postgraduate, and (iii) continued medical education (CME). The participants described broad ideas, such as knowledge/skills/attitudes towards addiction to be obtained at undergraduate level, or knowledge of addiction treatment to be acquired at graduate level, as well as specific recommendations, including the need to tailor curriculum to national settings and different specialties. Although it is unclear whether a global curriculum is needed, a consensus on a core set of principles for progression of knowledge, attitudes, and skills in addiction medicine to be developed at each educational level amongst medical graduates would likely have substantial value.
International students pursuing graduate education in U.S. institutes have been rapidly increasing in recent years. Students from all over the world remarkably contribute to the advancement of U.S. economy and technology. This article addresses the challenges and opportunities international students face during and after graduate education. The…
Eid, Mamoud Taha; Jordan-Domschot, Theresa
The purpose of the research project was to assess the needs, satisfaction, and concerns of international students attending Eastern Oregon State College. The international student population consisted of students from Micronesia, Netherlands, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Japan, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, China,…
Nunes, Sarah; Arthur, Nancy
This study explored the integration experiences of 16 international students entering the Canadian workforce using a semistructured interview and constant comparison method. The international students were pursuing immigration to Canada, despite unmet job prospects. Students recommended that employers refrain from discriminating against students…
International students constitute a significant proportion of the Australian university population, and thus of the university library-using population. Drawing on qualitative research findings, this paper discusses the library-related experiences and perceptions of international students at two Australian universities. While the students'…
Poeze, Martijn; Ramsay, Graham; Gerlach, Herwig; Rubulotta, Francesca; Levy, Mitchel
Background To be able to diagnose and treat sepsis better it is important not only to improve the knowledge about definitions and pathophysiology, but also to gain more insight into specialists' perception of, and attitude towards, the current diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. Methods The study was conducted as a prospective, international survey by structured telephone interview. The subjects were intensive care physicians and other specialist physicians caring for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Results The 1058 physicians who were interviewed (including 529 intensivists) agreed that sepsis is a leading cause of death on the ICU and that the incidence of sepsis is increasing, but that the symptoms of sepsis can easily be misattributed to other conditions. Physicians were concerned that this could lead to under-reporting of sepsis. Two-thirds (67%) were concerned that a common definition is lacking and 83% said it is likely that sepsis is frequently missed. Not more than 17% agreed on any one definition. Conclusion There is a general awareness about the inadequacy of the current definitions of sepsis. Physicians caring for patients with sepsis recognise the difficulty of defining and diagnosing sepsis and are aware that they miss the diagnosis frequently. PMID:15566585
Shankar, P R
In Nepal, a number of private sector medical schools have opened recently; although sufficient numbers of doctors are graduating there continues to be a doctor shortage in rural areas. This article analysed the rural doctor shortage in Nepal and reviewed the international literature for strategies that may be suitable for use in Nepal. Original research articles, reviews, magazine articles and project reports dealing with Nepal and other developing countries during the period 1995 to 2010 were sourced via Google, Google Scholar and Pubmed. Full text access was obtained via WHO's HINARI database. The health workforce in Nepal is unevenly distributed resulting in doctor shortages in rural areas. The recent introduction of mandatory rural service for scholarship students was aimed to reduce the loss of medical graduates to developed nations. High tuition fees in private medical schools and low Government wages prevent recent graduates from taking up rural positions, and those who do face many challenges. Potential corrective strategies include community-based medical education, selecting rural-background medical students, and providing a partial or complete tuition fee waiver for medical students who commit to rural service. Traditional healers and paramedical staff can also be trained for and authorized to provide rural health care. A range of strategies developed elsewhere could be used in Nepal, especially community-oriented medical education that involves rural doctors in training medical students. The reimbursement of tuition fees, assistance with relocation, and provision of opportunities for academic and professional advancement for rural doctors should also be considered. Government investment in improving working conditions in rural Nepal would assist rural communities to attract and retain doctors.
Buck, Benjamin; Romeo, Katy Harper; Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L
One possible explanation for the dearth of psychologists working in severe mental illness (SMI) areas is a lack of training opportunities. Recent studies have shown that while training opportunities have increased, there remain fewer resources available for SMI training compared to other disorders. Examines whether students express discomfort working with this population and whether they are satisfied with their level of training in SMI. One-hundred sixty-nine students currently enrolled in doctoral programs in clinical psychology in the United States and Canada were surveyed for their comfort treating and satisfaction with training related to a number of disorders. RESULTS indicate that students are significantly less comfortable treating and finding a referral for a patient with schizophrenia as well as dissatisfied with their current training in SMI and desirous of more training. Regression analyses showed that dissatisfaction with training predicted a desire for more training; however, discomfort in treating people with SMI did not predict a desire for more training in this sample. This pattern generally held across disorders. Our results suggest general discomfort among students surveyed in treating SMI compared to other disorders.
Thompson, Kris; Coon, Jill; Handford, Leandrea
With the move to the doctor of physical therapy (DPT) degree and increasing tuition costs, there is concern about financing entry-level education. The purposes of this study were to identify how students finance their DPT education and to describe the financial impact after graduation. A written survey was used to collect data on financing DPT education, student debt, and the financial impact on graduates. There were 92 subjects who had graduated from one program. Frequencies as well as nonparametric statistics using cross-tabulations and chi-squared statistics were calculated. The response rate was 55%. Of the respondents, 86% had student loans, 66% worked during school, 57% received some family assistance, and 21% had some scholarship support. The amount of monthly loan repayment was not statistically related to the ability to save for a house, the ability to obtain a loan for a house or car, or the decision to have children. Saving for the future (p = 0.016) and lifestyle choices (p = 0.035) were related to the amount of monthly loan repayment. Major sources of funding were student loans, employment income, and/or family assistance. Respondent's ability to save for the future and lifestyle choices were negatively impacted when loan debt increased. Physical therapist education programs should consider offering debt planning and counseling.
Elizabeth da Trindade de Andrade
Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO's cure target.To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment.Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis.Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students' education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence.The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship, assistance and educational health
de Andrade, Elizabeth da Trindade; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Siqueira, Hélio Ribeiro de; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti; Mannarino, Celina
The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO's cure target. To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment. Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis. Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students' education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence. The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship, assistance and educational health strategies.
Drawing on the findings from in-depth interviews with Vietnamese international students studying at Australian universities, this article presents insights into the sociological influences that stem from international students' social networks, at home and abroad, and how they impact on students' aspirations and engagement in international…
Edge, Rhiannon; Goodwin, Dawn; Isba, Rachel; Keegan, Thomas
The Chief Medical Officer recommends that all health care workers receive an influenza vaccination annually. High vaccination coverage is believed to be the best protection against the spread of influenza within a hospital, although uptake by health care workers remains low. We conducted semistructured interviews with seven medical students and nine early career doctors, to explore the factors informing their influenza vaccination decision making. Data collection and analysis took place iteratively, until theoretical saturation was achieved, and a thematic analysis was performed. Socialization was important although its effects were attenuated by participants' previous experiences and a lack of clarity around the risks and benefits of vaccination. Many participants did not have strong intentions regarding vaccination. There was considerable disparity between an individual's opinion of the vaccine, their intentions, and their vaccination status. The indifference demonstrated here suggests few are strongly opposed to the vaccination-there is potential to increase vaccination coverage.
Joyce, Sharon T.
What happens when former first-generation college (FGC) students successfully graduate from college and then aim for post-undergraduate education? The purpose of this dissertation is to compare differences between FGC students and non-FGC admissions profiles regarding end-of-first-year performance at UC Berkeley's School of Optometry. The aims of…
Howells, Kerry; Stafford, Karen; Guijt, Rosanne; Breadmore, Michael
While increasing attention is being placed on the crucial importance of a positive supervisor-student relationship, few studies have investigated how to enhance this. Our paper investigates the effect of gratitude practices, proposing it brings both focus and intentionality to the student-supervisor relationship resulting in better research…
Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie; Crossley, James; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah
Professional self-identity [PSI] can be defined as the degree to which an individual identifies with his or her professional group. Several authors have called for a better understanding of the processes by which healthcare students develop their professional identities, and suggested helpful theoretical frameworks borrowed from the social science and psychology literature. However to our knowledge, there has been little empirical work examining these processes in actual healthcare students, and we are aware of no data driven description of PSI development in healthcare students. Here, we report a data driven model of PSI formation in healthcare students. We interviewed 17 student doctors and dentists who had indicated, on a tracking questionnaire, the most substantial changes in their PSI. We analysed their perceptions of the experiences that had influenced their PSI, to develop a descriptive model. Both the primary coder and the secondary coder considered the data without reference to the existing literature; i.e. we used a bottom up approach rather than a top down approach. The results indicate that two overlapping frames of reference affect PSI formation: the students' self-perception and their perception of the professional role. They are 'learning' both; neither is static. Underpinning those two learning processes, the following key mechanisms operated:  When students are allowed to participate in the professional role they learn by trying out their knowledge and skill in the real world and finding out to what extent they work, and by trying to visualise themselves in the role.  When others acknowledge students as quasi-professionals they experience transference and may respond with counter-transference by changing to meet expectations or fulfil a prototype.  Students may also dry-run their professional role (i.e., independent practice of professional activities) in a safe setting when invited. Students' experiences, and their perceptions of those
Aug 20, 2014 ... assessment of interns by senior doctors in respect of three cases, an overall assessment of the interns' performance ... The transition from being a student to an intern is associated .... Formative assessments include a range of.
Full Text Available Introduction: Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Methods: Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass–fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. Results: All course participants (N=30 completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Conclusion: Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.
Vora, Nirali; Chang, Mina; Pandya, Hemang; Hasham, Aliya; Lazarus, Cathy
Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass-fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. All course participants (N=30) completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.
Gleason, Brenda L; Gaebelein, Claude J; Grice, Gloria R; Crannage, Andrew J; Weck, Margaret A; Hurd, Peter; Walter, Brenda; Duncan, Wendy
To determine the feasibility of using a validated set of assessment rubrics to assess students' critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities across a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Trained faculty assessors used validated rubrics to assess student work samples for critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities. Assessment scores were collected and analyzed to determine student achievement of these 2 ability outcomes across the curriculum. Feasibility of the process was evaluated in terms of time and resources used. One hundred sixty-one samples were assessed for critical thinking, and 159 samples were assessed for problem-solving. Rubric scoring allowed assessors to evaluate four 5- to 7-page work samples per hour. The analysis indicated that overall critical-thinking scores improved over the curriculum. Although low yield for problem-solving samples precluded meaningful data analysis, it was informative for identifying potentially needed curricular improvements. Use of assessment rubrics for program ability outcomes was deemed authentic and feasible. Problem-solving was identified as a curricular area that may need improving. This assessment method has great potential to inform continuous quality improvement of a PharmD program.
Nelson, Joan M; Cook, Paul F; Raterink, Ginger
The past several years have seen explosive growth in the number of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree programs offered by colleges of nursing in the United States. Through a process of trial and error since 2005, the faculty at the University of Colorado, College of Nursing, have revised the course structure and procedures related to the DNP capstone project to improve the quality and usefulness of these student projects. Efforts have focused on educating and involving all nursing faculty in the DNP capstone process, distinguishing between competencies for our PhD and DNP projects, clearly aligning the DNP capstone project with quality improvement methods rather than with research, working with our campus institutional review board to clarify regulatory review requirements for quality improvement studies, developing a review committee to oversee DNP students' projects, and structuring our sequential course requirements to encourage students' professional presentations and publications. Our current capstone process reflects 7 years of iterative work, which we summarize in this article in hopes that it will help institutions currently in the process of developing a DNP program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.; Bray, Oliver R., Jr.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.
This study examines how GRE scores can be used to better understand Education doctoral candidates' methodology choices for the dissertation as well as their persistence behaviors. Candidates' of one online doctoral education program were examined. Results of a MANOVA suggested that there is no difference in GRE scores based on doctoral candidates'…
de Andrade, Elizabeth da Trindade; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; de Siqueira, Hélio Ribeiro; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti; Mannarino, Celina
Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO’s cure target. Goal To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment. Methods Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis. Results Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students’ education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence. Conclusion The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship
students develop networks both nationally and internationally. Recommendation for Researchers: A recommendation emanating from this research is to put greater emphasis on further investigation of the role of other predictors in burnout in order to enhance doctoral students’ well-being. Impact on Society: A better understanding of factors that promote lower attrition rates and enhance well-being for doctoral students is likely to lead to more efficient use of finacial and intellectual resources in academia and society more broadly. Future Research: Given the results of this study, qualitative interviews might be helpful in mapping out the dynamics that lead to attrition and to identify the mechanisms in the researcher community that support the doctoral students and enhance well-being in their doctoral journey.
Nelson, Michael H.; Bzowyckyj, Andrew S.; Fuentes, David G.; Rosenberg, Ettie; DiCenzo, Robert
The CAPE 2013 Outcomes answered the call for increased student leadership development (SLD) by identifying leadership as a desired curricular goal. To meet this outcome, colleges and schools of pharmacy are advised to first identify a set of SLD competencies aligned with their institution’s mission and goals and then organize these competencies into a SLD framework/model. Student leadership development should be integrated vertically and horizontally within the curriculum in a deliberate and longitudinal manner. It should include all student pharmacists, begin at the point of admission, and extend beyond extracurricular activities. The school’s assessment plan should be aligned with the identified SLD competencies so student learning related to leadership is assessed. To accomplish these recommendations, a positive environment for SLD should be cultivated within the school, including administrative backing and resources, as well as support among the broader faculty for integrating SLD into the curriculum. PMID:26941428
Janke, Kristin K; Nelson, Michael H; Bzowyckyj, Andrew S; Fuentes, David G; Rosenberg, Ettie; DiCenzo, Robert
The CAPE 2013 Outcomes answered the call for increased student leadership development (SLD) by identifying leadership as a desired curricular goal. To meet this outcome, colleges and schools of pharmacy are advised to first identify a set of SLD competencies aligned with their institution's mission and goals and then organize these competencies into a SLD framework/model. Student leadership development should be integrated vertically and horizontally within the curriculum in a deliberate and longitudinal manner. It should include all student pharmacists, begin at the point of admission, and extend beyond extracurricular activities. The school's assessment plan should be aligned with the identified SLD competencies so student learning related to leadership is assessed. To accomplish these recommendations, a positive environment for SLD should be cultivated within the school, including administrative backing and resources, as well as support among the broader faculty for integrating SLD into the curriculum.
Shaw, Kathy; Rabatsky, Ali; Dishman, Veronica; Meseke, Christopher
Objective : This study investigated the effect of completion of course prerequisites, undergraduate grade point average (GPA), undergraduate degree, and study habits on the performance of students in the biochemistry course at Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida. Methods : Students self-reported information regarding academic preparation at the beginning of the semester using a questionnaire. Final exam grade and final course grade were noted and used as measures of performance. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine if number of prerequisites completed, undergraduate GPA, undergraduate degree, hours spent studying in undergraduate study, and hours spent studying in the first quarter of the chiropractic program were associated significantly with the biochemistry final exam grade or the final grade for the biochemistry course. Results : The number of prerequisites completed, undergraduate degree, hours spent studying in undergraduate study, and hours spent studying in the first quarter of the chiropractic program did not significantly affect the biochemistry final exam grade or the final grade for the biochemistry course, but undergraduate GPA did. Subsequent univariate analysis and Tukey's post hoc comparisons revealed that students with an undergraduate GPA in the 3.5 to 3.99 range earned significantly higher final course grades than students with an undergraduate GPA in the 2.5 to 2.99 range. Conclusion : No single variable was determined to be a factor that determines student success in biochemistry. The interrelationship between the factors examined warrants further investigation to understand fully how to predict the success of a student in the biochemistry course.
Arhar, Joanne; Niesz, Tricia; Brossmann, Jeanette; Koebley, Sarah; O'Brien, Katherine; Loe, David; Black, Felicia
The focus of the Education Works Personalization Project was to facilitate teams of teacher action researchers whose goal was to personalize their teaching with the support of university partners including doctoral students in education. The subsequent apprentice-like research experience within this university-school partnership provided an…
Fajen, Ava Lee
Scholars predict that the current institutional, state, and federal push for the commercialization of research, as well as increases in industry funding, will challenge, and perhaps even alter, the culture and ethical standards of academe. A focal point for these trends at many institutions is the current emphasis on life sciences research. This study builds on what is known about doctoral students and their ethical training in the life sciences by examining the individual experiences of doctoral students within the context of changing research expectations and funding patterns at one research university. The project was conducted using a case study approach within the naturalistic tradition. Twenty-four advanced doctoral student in the life sciences were interviewed. They were asked about their perceptions and experiences related to three broad topics: the normative and ethical aspects of academic research behavior; the impact of changing funding sources and changing expectations for research outcomes; and the aspects of their graduate education and training related to research norms and ethics. A systematic qualitative data analysis process allowed the richness and complexity of the students' views and concerns to be revealed. The results of this study highlight their individual and shared understandings and experiences, provide a conceptual framework for understanding their perceptions, and offer related recommendations for improving doctoral education within the current, ethically complex research context.
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a demand to include doctoral students and researchers in the curriculum for information literacy. Not only information search, but also the expertise of the librarians in scientific publishing, bibliometric analysis is demanded. As a result of the demand the two universities in Turku/Åbo have developed their research services. The libraries have also met for benchmarking and further cooperation is being discussed. 1.The implementation of three focus group interviews with 18 researchers at Åbo Akademi University The Focus Group survey methodology has its roots in social science qualitative research. It is widely used in the library world and is considered to be suitable particularly well for the evaluation and development of library services. The overall purpose with our interviews was to obtain feedback on how library users (in this case, researchers and graduate students wish ÅAUL to develop its services to better meet their needs. Three group interviews were conducted, with 6-8 participators. The following questions were, among others, discussed in every session: How do the researchers perceive the library's role in their daily work? What is the starting point for retrieving information (e.g. The MetaLib portal, Google Scholar or other? Is there a need for courses/more supervision in information search and reference management? Is there a need for tailored and integrated library services? As a result of the sessions and analysis of the group discussions a number of measures were proposed: Targeted teaching of subject-specific databases, more topic-specific sessions in the library portal and RefWorks. Compulsory information retrieval course for first year doctoral students. Information Weeks or "hands on" sessions on campus libraries. The library should participate more in workshops and seminars to increase their visibility and their services. The library should actively consider how to measure the impact and
Yang, Stephanie; Salzman, Michael; Yang, Cheng-Hong
Due to the advance of technology, the American society has become more diverse. A huge population of international students in the U.S. faces unique issues. According to the existing literature, the top-rated anxieties international student faces are generally caused by language anxiety, cultural adjustments, and learning differences and barriers.…
Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry
This article examines the effects of specific coping strategies on managing acculturative stress and acculturation of Asian international students, based on a sample of 220 Asian international students in the U.S. The data were analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression using Baron and Kenny's (1986) mediation procedure. The results supported…
Abo Rabia, Hazza M.
This qualitative, exploratory study described the experiences of Arab international students in a U.S. postsecondary institution. This research identified those factors that Arab international students reported as facilitating or obstructing their academic success, promoting or limiting their socialization within the context of their postsecondary…
This study aimed to explore international student food choices in a semirural setting using participatory photovoice techniques. Eighteen international students took photographs over 7-10 days of a typical food week and then attended a workshop where they completed three photography display and captioning tasks. Ten themes emerged linked to the…
Kusek, Weronika A.
International students are not only important for universities, but even more so to the host communities, towns and regions where higher education institutions are located. This pilot study looked at a public university located in a small college town in Ohio. The study explored the relationship between international students and the local…
Sheppard, Beth; Elliott, Nancy; Baese-Berk, Melissa
Intensive English Program (IEP) Instructors and content faculty both listen to international students at the university. For these two groups of instructors, this study compared perceptions of international student speech by collecting comprehensibility ratings and transcription samples for intelligibility scores. No significant differences were…
Moores, Lisa; Popadiuk, Natalee
Despite the considerable growth of the international student population, positive aspects of their experience have received little attention. The current study combines a Critical Incident Technique methodology and a positive psychology lens to explore the cross-cultural transition of seven international students, focusing on facilitative factors,…
Lee, Kent; Ranta, Leila
Many international students come to Canada to improve their English language proficiency and develop friendships with Canadians and other international students. However, gaining access to host nationals (i.e., Canadians) is not an easy task for most English as a second language (ESL) learners. Factors such as language proficiency may hamper…
Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; James, Waynne
This article investigates the transformative learning experiences of international graduate students from Asian countries. Data collection consisted of quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants included international graduate students from Asia, in the Colleges of Arts and Sciences and Engineering. Overall, 82.3% of the participants…
Stipanovic, Natalie; Pergantis, Stephanie Irlene
International students are a globally growing population that have numerous risk factors to their successful matriculation. One classroom tool university instructors have to combat these risk factors is utilizing an inclusive pedagogical framework. Instructors of international students that wish to apply an inclusive pedagogy to meet the needs of…
Language is a primary barrier for international students in library instruction classes. This article reviews the literature on classroom communication from both the second language acquisition and library fields, and suggests ways in which second language acquisition research can be applied to communication with international students in library…
In recent years, China has grown from an insignificant player to a major destination in the global market for international students. Based on a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews conducted in 2013, this study uses Shanghai as an example to examine international students' experiences in China. It is found that China has become a niche…
Karuppan, Corinne M.; Barari, Mahua
At a time when the number of internationally mobile students worldwide has been growing steadily, the US share of this market has been declining. Since, as it is often claimed, international students are the best ambassadors for their host countries, an effective recruitment strategy is to enhance their learning experience, with the expectation…
Knaub, Alexis Victoria
Gender disparity is an issue among the many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Although many previous studies examine gender issues in STEM as an aggregate discipline, there are unique issues to each of the fields that are considered STEM fields. Some fields, such as physics, have fewer women graduating with degrees than other fields. This suggests that women's experiences vary by STEM field. The majority of previous research also examines gender and other disparities at either the nationwide or individual level. This project entailed social network analysis through survey and interview data to examine a single physics department's doctoral students in order to provide a comprehensive look at student social experiences. In addition to examining gender, other demographic variables were studied to see if the results are truly associated with gender; these variables include race/ethnicity, year in program, student type, relationship status, research type, undergraduate institute, and subfield. Data were examined to determine if there are relationships to social connections and outcome variables such as persistence in completing the degree and the time to degree. Data collected on faculty were used to rank faculty members; data such as h-indices and number of students graduate over the past 5 years were collected. Fifty-five (55) of 110 possible participants completed the survey; forty-three are male, and twelve are female. Twenty-eight of the fifty-five survey participants were interview; twenty-three are male, and five are female. Findings for peer networks include that peer networks are established during the first year and do not change drastically as one progresses in the program. Geographic location within the campus affects socializing with peers. Connections to fellow students are not necessarily reciprocated; the maximum percentage of reciprocated connections is 60%. The number of connections one has varies by network purpose
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the needs and aspirations of international students studying at a comprehensive university campus in the USA in comparison to domestic students represented by factors that drive students' college choice. Design/methodology/approach: The study opted for a survey design through questionnaire and…
Matthews, Judith; Quattrocki, Carolyn
Describes a seminar in which undergraduate students in home economics were provided with research training and the opportunity to work together on a research project which included housing, clothing, nutrition, consumer services, child development, and family relations. Students also explored difficulties international students encounter in…
The number of international students attending U.S. higher learning institutions has decreased over the past decade (excluding students from China and Saudi Arabia) from 40 percent to 30 percent. These students are an important resource for the U.S. and their native countries in terms of education, culture, and economy. Differences between…
Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.
Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…
Huong, Le; Koo, Fung Kuen; Arambewela, Rodney; Zutshi, Ambika
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Vietnamese international students' experiences with the campus learning environment by analysing differences in staff and student perceptions. Design/Methodology/Approach: Two focus groups (n = 12) and ten in-depth interviews were conducted with Vietnamese students and four in-depth interviews with…
Kumar, Swapna; Antonenko, Pavlo
From an instrumental view, conceptual frameworks that are carefully assembled from existing literature in Educational Technology and related disciplines can help students structure all aspects of inquiry. In this article we detail how the development of a conceptual framework that connects theory, practice and method is scaffolded and facilitated…
Schnoes, Alexandra M.; Caliendo, Anne; Morand, Janice; Dillinger, Teresa; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle; Moses, Bruce; Gibeling, Jeffery C.; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Lindstaedt, Bill; McGee, Richard; O'Brien, Theresa C.
The Graduate Student Internships for Career Exploration (GSICE) program at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), offers structured training and hands-on experience through internships for a broad range of PhD-level careers. The GSICE program model was successfully replicated at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis). Here, we…
Frambach, J.M.; Manuel, B.A.; Fumo, A.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Driessen, E.W.
BACKGROUND: Evidence tailored to sub-Saharan Africa on outcomes of innovations in medical education is needed to encourage and advance their implementation in this region. AIM: To investigate preparedness for practice of students and graduates from an innovative and a conventional medical curriculum
Tackney, Charles T.; Gwozdz, Wencke
offers guided study in the statistical use of SPSS using a common EU data set. Course evaluations indicate students who had previously felt disinterested or unaware of the significance and role of quantitative studies emerged from the three day intensive with a better understanding and sense...
Moore, W. Allen; Noonan, Ann Cassidy
Recently, the use of animal laboratories has decreased in medical and basic science programs due to lack of trained faculty members, student concerns about animal welfare, and the increased availability of inexpensive alternatives such as computer simulations and videos. Animal laboratories, however, have several advantages over alternative forms…
Callary, Betina; Werthner, Penny; Trudel, Pierre
The PhD experience is often a transition from student to future faculty member, which involves considerable learning and development (Glaze, 2002; Hockey, 2004). Using a lifelong learning perspective (Jarvis, 2009), the purpose of this article is to explore, through a reflective self-study, my process of learning throughout the PhD degree. In this…
Jordan, Katy; Howe, Christine
Postgraduate students involved in delivering undergraduate teaching while working toward a research degree are known as graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). This study focused upon the problems and benefits arising from this dual role as researchers and teachers, as perceived by GTAs at the University of Cambridge. To this end, GTAs at Cambridge…
Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.
Genovese, S Kim; Schmidt, Nola A; Brown, Janet M
The number of international applicants to US nursing graduate programs is increasing. Modifying standard admission criteria, such as RN licensure, graduate record examination, validation of BSN degree, criminal background check, letters of recommendation, and personal statements, is necessary because of unique complexities. Addressing admission requirements unique to international students, such as English proficiency, visas, and proof of financial resources, is critical. Managing complexities of admitting international students is necessary to facilitate their success.
Wilken, Lisanne; Dahlberg, Mette Ginnerskov
Since 2009, there has been a noticeable increase in the number of students from EU’s newer member states, who enrol as full-degree students at Danish universities. Attracted by the fee-free access to highly ranked universities, these students often arrive with dreams of creating better lives for ...
Full Text Available Active learning has been linked with increased student motivation, engagement and understanding of course material. It promotes deep learning, helping to develop critical thinking and writing skills in students. Less well understood, however, are the responses of international students to active learning. Using social constructivist theory, the purpose of this study is to examine domestic and international student perceptions of active learning introduced into large undergraduate Accounting Information Systems lectures. Several active learning strategies were implemented over one semester and examined through the use of semi-structured interviews as well as pre- and post- implementation surveys. Our results suggest broad improvements for international students in student engagement and understanding of unit material when implementing active learning strategies. Other key implications include international student preference for active learning compared with passive learning styles, and that international students may receive greater benefits from active learning strategies than domestic students due to social factors. Based on these findings this paper proposes that educators should seek to implement active learning to better assist and integrate students of diverse backgrounds.
Matheson, Catherine B; Matheson, David J; Saunders, John H; Howarth, Claire
The UK General Medical Council recommends that medical students have the opportunity of shadowing the outgoing new doctor whose post they will soon undertake. At the University of Nottingham the two-week shadowing period was preceded by two weeks of lectures/seminars wherein students followed sessions on topics such as common medical/surgical emergencies, contracts, time management, surviving the first two years of clinical practice, careers advice and so on. The present study aimed to gain a better knowledge and understanding of the lasting impact of a four-week preparation course for new Foundation Year 1 doctors [F1 s - interns]. The objectives chosen to achieve this aim were: 1/ to determine the extent to which the lecture/seminar course and shadowing period achieved their stated aim of smoothing the transition from life as a medical student to work as a new doctor; 2/ to evaluate perceptions of the importance of various forms of knowledge in easing the transition between medical student and new doctor In the spring of 2007, 90 graduates from Nottingham were randomly selected and then emailed a link to a short, online survey of quantitative and qualitative questions. Of these 76 responded. Analysis of quantitative data was carried out using SPSS 16.0 and employed McNemar's test. Analysis of the qualitative data was carried out using the constant comparative method. Only 31% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that the lecture/seminar part of the course prepared them well for their first FY1 post; 14% agreed that during their first job they drew on the knowledge gained during the lecture/seminar course; 94% strongly agreed or agreed that the shadowing part of the course was more useful than the lecture/seminar part. Experiential knowledge gained in the shadowing was the most highly valued, followed by procedural knowledge with propositional knowledge coming far behind. Our study shows that new doctors retrospectively value most the knowledge they are able
Wearring, Andrew; Le, Huong; Wilson, Rachel; Arambewela, Rodney
International students are an important part of today's global university sector. This paper explores, through 10 in-depth interviews, the perceptions of Vietnamese international students studying with regard to their experience of teaching and learning in Australia. The findings indicate that Vietnamese students struggle with language,…
Jourdini, My Mustapha
This study examined the effects of exposure to international students on American student and faculty perceptions at a regional Appalachian University. A revised and improved version of Jaleh Shabahang's (1993) "International Education Opinionnaire" was used to survey American students and faculty regarding their perceptions of the…
Building on international migration theories and the literature on the dynamics of student mobility, this study sketches a two-dimensional framework and examines its utility to understand the rationales of in-bounding student mobility in Turkey. The empirical part of the study was conducted with 331 international students studying in public…
Chue, Kah Loong; Nie, Youyan
Psychological factors contribute to motivation and learning for international students as much as teaching strategies. 254 international students and 144 local students enrolled in a private education institute were surveyed regarding their perception of psychological needs support, their motivation and learning approach. The results from this…
Anderson, K H; Friedemann, M L; Bűscher, A; Sansoni, J; Hodnicki, D
This paper describes an international nursing and health research immersion program. Minority students from the USA work with an international faculty mentor in teams conducting collaborative research. The Minority Health International Research Training (MHIRT) program students become catalysts in the conduct of cross-cultural research. To narrow the healthcare gap for disadvantaged families in the USA and partner countries. Faculty from the USA, Germany, Italy, Colombia, England, Austria and Thailand formed an international research and education team to explore and compare family health issues, disparities in chronic illness care, social inequities and healthcare solutions. USA students in the MHIRT program complete two introductory courses followed by a 3-month research practicum in a partner country guided by faculty mentors abroad. The overall program development, student study abroad preparation, research project activities, cultural learning, and student and faculty team outcomes are explored. Cross-fertilization of research, cultural awareness and ideas about improving family health occur through education, international exchange and research immersion. Faculty research and international team collaboration provide opportunities for learning about research, health disparities, cultural influences and healthcare systems. The students are catalysts in the research effort, the dissemination of research findings and other educational endeavours. Five steps of the collaborative activities lead to programmatic success. MHIRT scholars bring creativity, enthusiasm, and gain a genuine desire to conduct health research about families with chronic illness. Their cultural learning stimulates career plans that include international research and attention to vulnerable populations. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.
Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem
As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…
Hellweg, C. E.; Spitta, L. F.; Kopp, K.; Schmitz, C.; Reitz, G.; Gerzer, R.
Training young researchers in the field of space life sciences is essential to vitalize the future of spaceflight. In 2009, the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine established the Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) in cooperation with several universities, starting with 22 doctoral candidates. SpaceLife offered an intensive three-year training program for early-stage researchers from different fields (biology, biomedicine, biomedical engineering, physics, sports, nutrition, plant and space sciences). The candidates passed a multistep selection procedure with a written application, a self-presentation to a selection committee, and an interview with the prospective supervisors. The selected candidates from Germany as well as from abroad attended a curriculum taught in English. An overview of space life sciences was given in a workshop with introductory lectures on space radiation biology and dosimetry, space physiology, gravitational biology and astrobiology. The yearly Doctoral Students' Workshops were also interdisciplinary. During the first Doctoral Students' Workshop, every candidate presented his/her research topic including hypothesis and methods to be applied. The progress report was due after ∼1.5 years and a final report after ∼3 years. The candidates specialized in their subfield in advanced lectures, Journal Clubs, practical trainings, lab exchanges and elective courses. The students attended at least one transferable skills course per year, starting with a Research Skills Development course in the first year, a presentation and writing skills course in the second year, and a career and leadership course in the third year. The whole program encompassed 303 h and was complemented by active conference participation. In this paper, the six years' experience with this program is summarized in order to guide other institutions in establishment of structured Ph.D. programs in this field. The curriculum including elective courses is
Full Text Available Mohammad Yusuf Abdoolraheem,1 Mohammad Farwana2 1GKT School of Medical Education, King’s College London, UK; 2Frimley Health Foundation Trust, Camberley, UKWe read with great interest the research article published by Aggarwal and Khan1 concerning the experiences of final-year medical students in terms of both cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and discussions of advanced directives during clinical placements. While we would agree with the concluding opinion that there should be standardized formal education concerning CPR and “Do Not Attempt CPR” (DNACPR; the knowledge and skills developed during theoretical and simulation based teaching should also be complemented by clinical exposure to various scenarios such that the students are more prepared prior to starting their Foundation year training. View the original paper by Aggarwal and Khan.
Karpinski, Aryn C.
Objective. To examine racial differences in communication apprehension and interprofessional socialization in fourth-year PharmD students and to investigate the relationship between the two constructs. Methods. Two measures with reliability and validity psychometric evidence were administered to fourth-year pharmacy students at a single historically black university with a large racial minority population. The Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) measures level of fear or anxiety associated with communication. The Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS) measures beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors towards interprofessional collaborative practice. Results. One hundred fourteen students completed the survey. This produced a 77.4% response rate and 45.6% of the participants were African American. There were significant differences between races (ie, White, African-American, and Asian) on both measures. The PCRA-24 and ISVS were significantly correlated in each racial group. Conclusion. As pharmacy education moves to more interprofessional collaborations, the racial differences need to be considered and further explored. Pharmacy curricula can be structured to promote students’ comfort when communicating interprofessionally across racial groups. Understanding of culture and early education in cultural competence may need to be emphasized to navigate racial or cultural differences. PMID:26941434
Full Text Available The purpose of the doctoral education process is to create and legitimize scholarly researchers. This transformation, from student to scholar, is widely discussed in the literature. However, recent rapid changes in university culture have resulted in less time for supervision, stricter completion deadlines, and a greater focus on efficiency and productivity. This has had an impact on this transition process, and this impact has not been widely studied. The aim of this article is to understand the consequences of the current trends for PhD students and the education of PhD students in general. The article is based on interviews with 14 international students from two different research programs at the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg University in Denmark. The case of international PhD students in a western setting is singled out as a challenging case for becoming a legitimate scholar, since they face the additional challenge of becoming socialised into their new foreign setting. Overall, the study concludes that the transition process of doctoral students is affected by the way different supervisors deal with current university trends and how PhD students fit or do not fit into their knowledge production practices. The study identifies matches or mismatches in a knowledge production perspective, quality of contact, and degree of independence of the PhD student as factors that influence whether a transition process can be marked as sound, troublesome, or lacking. Finally, the study identifies an overall risk of neglecting the more interdependent types of international PhD students. Suggestions are given as how to address this risk.
Choi, Kyoung Mi; Protivnak, Jake J.
This research study used qualitative phenomenological methodology to explore counseling graduate students' experiences leading support groups for international students. Participants included 6 master's-level counseling students. The following 4 themes emerged to describe the counseling students' experience as group leaders: (a) individualistic…
Matross, Ronald; And Others
Surveyed domestic students' attitudes toward foreign students before and after the seizure of the U.S. hostages in Iran. Results showed most students did not change their attitudes toward foreign students, but did show increased support for funding international exchange programs. Attitudes were related to demographic characteristics and political…
Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Caglayan Serin, Derya; Pullukcu, Hüsnü; Tasbakan, Meltem; Köseli Ulu, Demet; Yamazhan, Tansu; Arda, Bilgin; Sipahi, Hilal; Ulusoy, Sercan
Writing a thesis is mandatory for getting a postgraduate medical degree in Turkey. Publication of the results of the thesis in an indexed journal makes the results available to researchers, however publication rate is usually low. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to investigate the publication rate of Turkish Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Medical Microbiology specialty theses and Microbiology doctorate theses in international peer-review journals. On August 17th 2007, the thesis database of the Council of Higher Education of the Republic of Turkey (YOK) where all specialization and doctorate theses are recorded obligatorily, was searched for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology and Medical Microbiology specialty and Microbiology doctorate theses. Assuming that publication of a thesis would last at least six months, theses dated to February 2007 and after were excluded. The publication rate of those theses was found out by searching Science Citation Index-Expanded database for thesis author and supervisor between August 17-September 12, 2007. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Our search yielded a total of 834 theses dated from 1997 to 2007, however 10 of them were excluded, since they were dated to February 2007 or after. It was found that the overall publication rate was 11.4% (94/824). The publication rates for Microbiology doctorate, Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology specialty theses were 13.7% (34/249), 10.7% (33/309) and 10.2% (27/266), respectively, with no statistical significance (p> 0.05). It was determined that nine (9.6%) of the 94 published theses belonged to 1997-2001 period, whereas 85 (80.4%) were in 2002-2007 period (p< 0.05). The probable reason for this increase was thought to be related with the updated criteria of YOK carried out in 2000 for academic promotions, nevertheless the publication rate of the investigated theses in international peer
Full Text Available The analysis of the scientific - methodical sources. We prove the feasibility of using an integrative approach in the training of future health professionals. Scientists are perspectives on the essence of the concept of integration, their position relative to integrative learning in higher education. Integrative learning is seen as a new educational technology. The basic components of the integration of modern science: Interscience synthesis, synthesis of methodological, social synthesis. It is found that an integrative technology is based on the principles of integrative and personal - oriented education. Reveals the main ways of implementing these principles: the design of interdisciplinary integration, the identification of the same type of interdisciplinary topics; orientation training content on the personality of the student, the formation integrity valeological knowledge and practical skills (in the context valeological behavior. Lit their own opinions of the authors on the formation valeological competence of students of medical colleges in the integration environment. Predicted the final result of this process - a methodological willingness of future health professionals to use valeological component in professional activities.
This article attends to the affective-political dimensions of doctoral aspiration. It considers why doctoral students continue to hope for an 'academic good life' in spite of the depressed and precarious features of the academic present. The article emerges from 2013 research with ten doctoral students in the Arts and Social Sciences, at a…
Full Text Available The article addresses the specific features of professional language training of international students in the multicultural environment of a Russian university teaching students of international relations. After a brief historical survey of teaching foreign students in the universities of Russia, the writer considers the factors that influence the choice of universities graduating specialists in international relations by foreign students. The author goes on to analyze the specifics of linguisticand socio-cultural environment in Russian universities and its impact on international students stressing the fact that the educational environment at MGIMO-University is multilingual and multicultural. That explains the relevance of studying the quality of professional language training of foreign students in the sphere of international relations. The language of teaching in most universities of the Russian Federation is Russian, besides, all MGIMO students are obliged to learn English either as their first or second foreign language, that is why international students have to study in a tri-lingual environment and the interfering influence of several cultures. The writer points out that under such circumstances it is necessary for future IR specialists to build a number of professionally relevant competences: linguistic, socio-cultural, communicative, and suggests educational technologies that have proved to be effective in building them: case-study, role-plays, etc. The article gives special attention to the place and role of translation in teaching English as translation is a system of encoding within the system of two language systems. Translating phrases from Russian into English the student does 'inner', mental translation using the mother tongue. That makes the author suggest using the students'mother tongues in the teaching process. While learning foreign languages, international students should, along with language material, study the system
Lightfoot, Elizabeth; Lee, Hee Yun
Graduate and professional schools are increasingly using short-term international study abroad courses as one way for internationalizing their curriculum. While international service learning can be a means for improving students' engagement in international learning experiences and providing a structure for learning, it is difficult to design…
Full Text Available Amidst global discourse about universities’ internationalization, how do universities position themselves and their purposes in recruiting international students? For professionals working to establish partnerships and increase cultural enrichment both on their home campuses and through international exchange, the purposes that are often foregrounded in professional associations speak to the public good, to the broad social benefits of such activities. However, my research on the marketing that international offices at four universities in the UK and U.S. are doing to international students suggest that as in the marketing of U.S. universities to domestic students, it is the private benefits of higher education, to the students and to the individual institutions that are predominant (Hartley and Morphew, 2008; Saichaie and Morphew, 2014.
International schools are not always in a position to know what has become of their graduates, though this kind of information is immensely useful. This article describes a survey showing that "third-culture kids" are a very mobile and highly educated minority. All international schools should strive to keep in touch with their alumni. (18…
Edwards, John; Hartwell, Heather; Brown, Lorraine
Background\\ud International study is becoming more prevalent, yet aspects such as food neophobia often militate against the consumption of a nutritionally balanced diet of visiting students. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which international postgraduate students experience food neophobia, how this might vary by nationality and other demographic characteristics, and how acculturation might manifest itself in students’ dietary behaviour.\\ud Methods\\ud Inter...
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
The first important initiatives to establish international collaboration in music therapy research were taken in 1995 by Inge Nygaard Pedersen, Lars Ole Bonde and Tony Wigram. In 1997 Tony was given the task of leading, developing and creating a doctoral programme. The faculty of humanities granted...... the necessary resources, so that the first five PhD students could be enrolled. Under Tony’s leadership of the doctoral programme, the number of PhD students grew from the initial 5, to 10 in 2001 and 25 in 2010....
Robinson, Robert L
The last decade has brought significant changes to internal medicine clerkships through resident work-hour restrictions and the widespread adoption of hospitalists as medical educators. These key medical educators face competing demands for quality teaching and clinical service intensity. The study reported here was conducted to explore the relationship between clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students. A retrospective correlation analysis of clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine was conducted. Internal medicine hospitalists who supervise the third-year inpatient experience for medical students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years participated in the study. Clinical service intensity data in terms of work relative value units (RVUs), patient encounters, and days of inpatient duty were collected for all members of the hospitalist service. Medical students rated hospitalists in the areas of patient rapport, enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, sharing knowledge and skills, encouraging the students, probing student knowledge, stimulating independent learning, providing timely feedback, providing constructive criticism, and observing patient encounters with students. Significant negative correlations between higher work RVU production, total patient encounters, duty days, and learner evaluation scores for enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, probing the student for knowledge and judgment, and observing a patient encounter with the student were identified. Higher duty days had a significant negative correlation with sharing knowledge/skills and encouraging student initiative. Higher work RVUs and total patient encounters were negatively correlated with timely feedback and constructive criticism. The results suggest that
BACKGROUND: In recent years, rising numbers of medical students and an increasingly demanding clinical workload has put pressures on the educational systems for medical students in the hospital. Bedside teaching remains central to education, but tutorial delivery by registrars, tutors and consultants has proven to be increasingly difficult with the greater numbers of students now in the undergraduate system. AIMS: We have performed a pilot study to determine the feasibility of developing a Junior Tutor Programme, to assist in the delivery of tutorials to undergraduate medical students. METHODS: This was designed and delivered by interns under the supervision of the academic staff in the Departments of Medicine and Surgery in Connolly Hospital. The programme was evaluated by a questionnaire filled in by the students anonymously. RESULTS: A supervised programme of tutorials delivered by interns is a potentially useful way to ensure delivery of clinical teaching to undergraduate medical students.
Yakunina, Elena S.; Weigold, Ingrid K.; McCarthy, Alannah S.
International students in higher education represent a diverse population with unique mental health needs. Foreign students commonly experience a host of adjustment issues, including acculturative stress, language difficulties, cultural misunderstandings, racial discrimination, and loss of social support. Despite their challenges, few…
Behl, Malvika; Laux, John M.; Roseman, Christopher P.; Tiamiyu, Mojisola; Spann, Sammy
International students enrolled in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs provided acculturative stress and needs data. Acculturative stress was correlated with academic, social, language, and cultural needs. Furthermore, relationships were found between students' types of needs.…
Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others
This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong…
Bista, Krishna, Ed.; Foster, Charlotte, Ed.
Study abroad programs have proven beneficial for both the international student as well as the domestic community and school population interacting with the student. In an effort to promote cultural awareness, intercultural communications as well as opportunities for future study abroad program success, universities must take care to provide…
Ahmad, Syed Zamberi
The aim of this research is to present the determinants of students' perceptions of quality and experience of study at international branch campuses in Malaysia, a country that is set to become an academic hub in Asia. This study used a multi-method approach for data collection. The respondents comprised 245 students (both undergraduate and…
Using qualitative and quantitative analysis this paper presents a teaching model based on experiential learning in a large "International Business" unit. Preliminary analysis of 92 student evaluations determined the effectiveness of experiential learning to allow students to explore the association between theory and practice. The…
This brief paper describes a special, informal seminar for international students that used an adjunct instruction model to focus on technical terminology in the field of instructional technology. Foreign students are enrolled concurrently in two linked courses--a language course and a content course with the two courses sharing content base and…
Onabule, Adebayo I.; Boes, Susan R.
International students experience significant stressors while studying in American colleges and universities, yet they use psychological services far less than domestic students (Misra & Castillo, 2004). Factors such as previous experience with counseling, perceived effectiveness of counseling style, and nationality were found to be factors…
Souto-Otero, Manuel; Huisman, Jeroen; Beerkens, Maarja; de Wit, Hans; Vujic, Suncica
In this article, we look at the barriers to international student mobility, with particular reference to the European Erasmus program. Much is known about factors that support or limit student mobility, but very few studies have made comparisons between participants and nonparticipants. Making use of a large data set on Erasmus and non-Erasmus…
Doss, Daniel Adrian; Henley, Russ; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Hong, Qiuqi; Miller, Lauren
The authors examined students' perceptions of plagiarism from a higher education teaching institution within the U.S. southeast. This study employed a five-point Likert-scale to examine differences of perceptions between domestic versus international students. Statistically significant outcomes were observed regarding the notions that plagiarism…
Doctors’ relationship with patients and their role in society is changing. Until the 1960s doctors concentrated on the welfare of patients with less emphasis placed on patients’ rights1. Over recent decades there has been increasing empowerment of the individual across all facets of society including health care. Doctors continue to be perceived as having expertise and authority over medical science. Patients, however, now hold sway over questions of values or preferences. We all must be aware of this change in the doctor- patient interaction. We need to be more aware of the outcomes that patients view as important. The concept of shared decision-making with the patient is now widely appreciated. The process involves a change in mind set particularly for doctors who trained in an earlier era.
1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...
Tiffin, Paul A; Paton, Lewis W; Mwandigha, Lazaro M; McLachlan, John C; Illing, Jan
International medical graduates working in the UK are more likely to be censured in relation to fitness to practise compared to home graduates. Performance on the General Medical Council's (GMC's) Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB) tests and English fluency have previously been shown to predict later educational performance in this group of doctors. It is unknown whether the PLAB system is also a valid predictor of unprofessional behaviour and malpractice. The findings would have implications for regulatory policy. This was an observational study linking data relating to fitness to practise events (referral or censure), PLAB performance, demographic variables and English language competence, as evaluated via the International English Language Test System (IELTS). Data from 27,330 international medical graduates registered with the GMC were analysed, including 210 doctors who had been sanctioned in relation to at least one fitness to practise issue. The main outcome was risk of eventual censure (including a warning). The significant univariable educational predictors of eventual censure (versus no censures or referrals) were lower PLAB part 1 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.00) and part 2 scores (HR, 0.94; 0.91 to 0.97) at first sitting, multiple attempts at both parts of the PLAB, lower IELTS reading (HR, 0.79; 0.65 to 0.94) and listening scores (HR, 0.76; 0.62 to 0.93) and higher IELTS speaking scores (HR, 1.28; 1.04 to 1.57). Multiple resits at either part of the PLAB and higher IELTS speaking score (HR, 1.49; 1.20 to 1.84) were also independent predictors of censure. We estimated that the proposed limit of four attempts at both parts of the PLAB would reduce the risk in this entire group by only approximately two censures per 5 years in this group of doctors. Making the PLAB, or any replacement assessment, more stringent and raising the required standards of English reading and listening may result in fewer fitness
Edwards, J S A; Hartwell, H L; Brown, L
International study is becoming more prevalent, yet aspects such as food neophobia often militate against visiting students consuming a nutritionally balanced diet. The present study aimed to evaluate the extent to which international post-graduate students experience food neophobia, how this might vary by nationality and other demographic characteristics, and how acculturation might manifest itself in students' dietary behaviour. International students (n = 228) attending a Masters course were invited to complete a validated food neophobia and dietary habits questionnaire during their first week at university. The questionnaire was subsequently re-administered to the same students approximately 4 and 8 months later. In total, 226 usable responses were analysed (124, 58 and 44, respectively) for the first, second and final data collection. Perhaps surprisingly, the overall food neophobia scores increased from an mean (SD) initial value of 27.95 (16.95) to 33.67 (33.67) after 3 months, although, when comparing European and Asian students, only the former were significantly different (P Asian and European students reported small but not significant changes in their eating habits, although, after 3 months, significantly (P = students' perceived healthiness of their diets either by nationality or over time. Understanding the complexities of food neophobia, other aspects of dietary change and at what point these changes might take place in the acculturation process when students arrive in the UK needs to be fully understood if a climate for positive learning is to be established.
This study concerns the theory and practice of international marketing in higher education with the purpose of exploring a conceptual model for understanding international students' needs in the context of a four-year college in the United States. A transcendental phenomenological design was employed to investigate the essence of international…
Zhou, G. Z.; Wong, D. D.; Nguyen, L. K.; Mendelson, R. M.
Full text: This study aims to evaluate medical student and intern awareness of ionising radiation exposure from common diagnostic imaging procedures and to suggest how education could be improved. Fourth to sixth year medical students enrolled at a Western Australian university and interns from three teaching hospitals in Perth were recruited. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of 26 questions on their background, knowledge of ionising radiation doses and learning preferences for future teaching on this subject. A total of 331 completed questionnaires were received (95.9%). Of the 17 questions assessing knowledge of ionising radiation, a mean score of 6.0 was obtained by respondents (95% CI 5.8-6.2). Up to 54.8% of respondents underestimated the radiation dose from commonly requested radiological procedures. Respondents (11.3 and 25.5%) incorrectly believed that ultrasound and MRI emit ionising radiation, respectively. Of the four subgroups of respondents, the intern doctor subgroup performed significantly better (mean score 6.9, P< 0.0001, 95% CI 6.5-7.3) than each of the three medical student subgroups. When asked for the preferred method of teaching for future radiation awareness, a combination of lectures, tutorials and workshops was preferred. This study has clearly shown that awareness of ionising radiation from diagnostic imaging is lacking among senior medical students and interns. The results highlight the need for improved education to minimise unnecessary exposure of patients and the community to radiation. Further studies are required to determine the most effective form of education.
International students have constituted a growing population in American higher education in the past few decades. This study presented a case study of six international students' academic, cultural and social experiences during their stay in the US. Data obtained through interviews and the results of content analysis indicate that international…
Addressing the importance of international student engagement on campus and creating friendships with host-country nationals during their time abroad, this small-scale study explores the question of, "Are there trends in how or through what means international students are making connections with co-national, multi-national, or host-national…
Patterns in college student mobility between Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are examined, with attention given to challenges posed by having three of these countries within the European Union and two outside it. The role of several formal agreements is discussed, and implications for policy needs concerning interinstitutional and/or…
Critchley, Kim A; Richardson, Eileen; Aarts, Clara; Campbell, Barbara; Hemmingway, Ann; Koskinen, Liisa; Mitchell, Maureen P; Nordstrom, Pam
With growing interconnectivity of healthcare systems worldwide and increased immigration, inappropriate cultural and role assumptions are often seen when cultures clash within a country or when there is practice across country boundaries in times of disaster and during international travel. To increase students' multicultural awareness and work experiences abroad, the authors describe a 7-school, 5-country international student exchange project. The authors also share the students' evaluations of their experiences as they are challenged to erase boundaries and embrace nursing across countries. Participating faculty describe the process, challenges, and keys to success found in creating and living this international project. Students involved in the exchange process evaluate the learning opportunities and challenges and the joy of coming together as newfound colleagues and friends.
The American Nuclear Society's (ANS's) International Student Exchange Program sponsors bilateral exchanges of students form graduate schools in American universities with students from graduate schools in France, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), and Japan. The program, now in its 12th year, was initiated in response to an inquiry to Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) from the director of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay proposing to send French nuclear engineering students to the United States for summer jobs. The laboratory was asked to accept two students to work on some nuclear technology activity and ANS was invited to send American students to France on an exchange basis. To date, 200 students have taken part in the program. It has been a maturing and enriching experience for them, and many strong and enduring friendships have been fostered among the participants, many of whom will become future leaders in their countries
De Soto, William; Tajalli, Hassan; Villarreal, Alison
Purpose: Common knowledge seem to suggest that international studies (IS) programs are at the forefront of helping their students better understand the world beyond United States borders. The purpose of this study is to test the proposition that IS students have a greater global awareness than other college students. Method: Hanvey's (1976) five…
Wilkins, Stephen; Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens; Huisman, Jeroen
The international branch campus has emerged as a popular form of transnational higher education but to date little research has been undertaken on student perceptions and experiences, other than the student feedback evaluations conducted by institutions. This research employed a survey questionnaire to investigate student perceptions of study at…
Hwang, Kun; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Seong Yeon; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Ae Yang
Purpose: In South Korean ferry disaster in 2014, the captain abandoned the ship with passengers including high school students still aboard. We noticed the resemblance of abandoning the ship with passengers still aboard the ferry (named the Sewol) and the ship Patna, which was full of pilgrims, in Joseph Conrad’s novel “Lord Jim.” The aim of this study is to see how medical students think about the role of a medical doctor as a captain of a ship by analyzing book reports on Conrad’s “Lord Jim...
Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody
OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (pinternational study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. CONCLUSIONS. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance.
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
of future researchers, mainly through doctoral education, has become of heightened interest. In this process several global trends and related drivers of such changes can be identified, e.g. professionalization and quality assurance of doctoral education, and researcher mobility. With the European...... for students during the PhD – when at the same time political fractions state that “[o]verregulation of doctoral programs should be avoided” as doctoral education is seen as “a source for human capital for research but is also an extremely important part of the research itself” (Gudmundsson, 2008, p. 77). Also...... the PhD to not only international disciplinary arenas, but also to a world beyond the campus made manifest through a culturally diverse and existentially enhanced PhD process and learning environment. I argue that we should acknowledge that globalisation does not only make possible ‘standardisation...
Scott P. Kerlin
Full Text Available This article probes the implications of neo-conservative public education policies for the future of the academic profession through a detailed examination of critical issues shaping contemporary doctoral education in U.S. and Canadian universities. Institutional and social factors such as financial retrenchment, declining support for affirmative action, downward economic mobility, a weak academic labor market for tenure-track faculty, professional ethics in graduate education, and backlash against women's progress form the backdrop for analysis of the author's survey of current doctoral students' opinions about funding, support, the job market, and quality of learning experiences.
Full Text Available Robert L Robinson Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, USA Background: The last decade has brought significant changes to internal medicine clerkships through resident work-hour restrictions and the widespread adoption of hospitalists as medical educators. These key medical educators face competing demands for quality teaching and clinical service intensity. Objective: The study reported here was conducted to explore the relationship between clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students. Design: A retrospective correlation analysis of clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine was conducted. Participants: Internal medicine hospitalists who supervise the third-year inpatient experience for medical students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years participated in the study. Measures: Clinical service intensity data in terms of work relative value units (RVUs, patient encounters, and days of inpatient duty were collected for all members of the hospitalist service. Medical students rated hospitalists in the areas of patient rapport, enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, sharing knowledge and skills, encouraging the students, probing student knowledge, stimulating independent learning, providing timely feedback, providing constructive criticism, and observing patient encounters with students. Results: Significant negative correlations between higher work RVU production, total patient encounters, duty days, and learner evaluation scores for enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, probing the student for knowledge and judgment, and observing a patient encounter with the student were identified. Higher duty days had a significant negative correlation
The government of Finland have been allocating huge amount of budget to provide free and quality education for their citizens. Due to non-tuition fee policy, Finland was one of the selective destination for higher education from international student’s view point. However, the government of Finland implemented a new regulation regarding tuition fees and 2017 on wards, the higher education institutions will no longer receive the funds which were previously provided by the government. As a resu...
Gonsalves, Allison J.
Doctoral physics students have stories about what kinds of actions, behaviours and ways of doing physics allow individuals to be recognized as physicists. Viewing a physics department as a case study, and individual participants as embedded cases, this study used a sociocultural approach to examine the ways doctoral students construct these stories about becoming physicists. Through observations, photo-elicitation, and life history interviews, eleven men and women shared stories about their experiences with physics, and the contexts that have enabled or constrained their trajectories into doctoral physics. The results of this study revealed the salience of recognition in the constitution of physicist identities; but how recognition was achieved often entailed the reproduction or reworking of persistent discourses of gender norms. Various interchangeable forms of competence (technical, analytical, and academic) emerged as assets that can be used to achieve recognition in this physics community. However, competence was not the only means by which one might be recognized as a physicist. Contributing to the possibility for recognition was the performance of stereotypical Discourses for physicist that relied on traditional gender norms for the field. The results demonstrated that achieving recognition as a competent physicist often involved a complex negotiation of gender roles and the practice of physics.
Full Text Available The content of three stages of training of technologies of development of physical capacity is revealed. The efficiency of the solution of the set tasks of the research by means of implementation of the methodology of teaching technology development of physical fitness of students - future doctors is shown. The proposed method of teaching the technologies of the development of physical fitness of students - future doctors aimed at the introduction of differentiated tasks, methods, forms and means aimed at the development of physical fitness of students, taking into account their physical preparedness, and provided for the unity of general and special training of students - future doctors for future professional activities. The proposed author's technique envisaged three main stages of teaching technology of physical fitness development for students - future physicians. The initial stage of training was aimed at the development of general endurance, improvement of the functions of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, strengthening the musculoskeletal system of students, which was achieved by the gradual retraction of the body into work, which was expressed in elongation of the running distance, walking while maintaining a uniform pace. At the second stage, students were offered exercises with an increase in the volume of loading in the mixed aerobic-anaerobic mode of energy supply in accordance with the state of health, physical and functional preparedness of students, while applying a continuous unified work in the form of cross-country running, paced Scandinavian walking in a wide range speeds, as well as continuous variable work, while turning to circular training. In the third stage, if students had a good level of physical fitness, we continued to increase gradually not only the amount of training loads, but also increased the intensity of exercises. But in most cases, when the increased requirements to the level of development of
The number of international students in the United States has been increasing each year, but little is known about their experience. There are recent studies on international students, however, only a few research has focused on international students studying at graduate level. To best study international graduate students' experience, a…
..., international development, and the professions. Therefore, students planning to apply their language skills in... colleges and universities to fund individual doctoral students to conduct research in other countries in... (Cambodian), Kirghiz, Korean, Kurdish (Kurmanji), Kurdish (Sorani), Lao, Malay (Bahasa Melayu or Malaysian...
... countries in the fields of government, international development, and the professions. Therefore, students... Fellowship Program is to provide grants to colleges and universities to fund individual doctoral students to...), Kirghiz, Korean, Kurdish (Kurmanji), Kurdish (Sorani), Lao, Malay (Bahasa Melayu or Malaysian), Malayalam...
Choy, Sarojni; Singh, Parlo; Li, Minglin
Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in doctoral enrolments of Asian international students in Australian universities. While policies have been developed to meet the needs of these students, there seems to be some confusion around the terms internationalisation, globalisation, bi-cultural, inter-cultural, multi-cultural, and…
Increased international student mobility worldwide necessitates studying its impact on students, particularly for domestic students who have been neglected in research but who are greater in number than mobile students. It is also important that higher education institutions facilitate domestic students' relationships with international students…
Nakayama, Don K; Hendren, W Hardy
In the fall of 1951, a group of Harvard medical students led by W. Hardy Hendren, III organized a national movement against the newly instituted match that would assign graduating seniors to hospital internship programs. Before then, hospitals with intern positions to fill rushed to secure commitments from students, who in turn accepted the first decent offer that came their way. Knowing that students could not risk waiting for a better offer, hospitals pushed them into making early commitments. When some students began getting offers in their junior and sophomore years, medical schools, professional groups, and hospitals organized the National Inter-association Committee on Internships to deal with the issue. The intern match was thus organized and scheduled to take place in 1952. When the plan was announced in mid-October 1951, Hendren recognized that the proposed algorithm placed students at a disadvantage if they did not get their first choice of hospitals. Facing resistance at every step from the National Inter-association Committee on Internships and putting his standing at Harvard Medical School at risk, Hendren led a nationwide movement of medical students to change the procedure to one that favored students' choices. Their success <1 month later established in the inaugural match the fundamental ethic of today's National Resident Matching Program to favor students' preferences at every step of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study was to examine differences between intern and non-intern students in terms of their perspectives on sport management internship within the context of field experience. The subjects of the study were a total of 189 students. They were 4th year students who completed their internship and 3rd year students who were yet to…
Yamamoto, Izumi; Iwatsu, Fumio
Recently, the number of international students who have an experience of internship as employment experience has been increasing. In general, internship is a system through which students gain a work experience relating to his/her major field and future career, while at university. Many Japanese leading industries are situated in this Chubu area. Therefore, we have tried to facilitate an internship as a part of the curriculum from 2005. Here we report the progress of our internship programs and try to study the possibility of its future. Through this study, we can say that an internship would be a good opportunity for both international students and Japanese companies to understand each other. On the other hand, it is hard to bring the system to match students and companies, form both side of financial base and human resource. Therefore, to bring up good talent becomes to good connection with the industrial world.
Van Mol, C.
Intra-European Student Mobility in International Higher Education Circuits focuses on the phenomenon of international student exchanges in Europe. Strongly interdisciplinary in its focus, this book empirically addresses four main research questions: who goes abroad, how students reconstruct their
早矢仕, 彩子; Hayashi, Saiko
The purpose of the present study was to examine how self-perception and cultural attitude influence on the international students' feelings of adjustment. Students in 7 Japanese language schools mainly from Asian countries answered the questionnair. Items were about (1) attitude to own/host culture, (2) positive feeling toward own country/culture, (3) self-efficacy and social life skills in their own countries and (4) self-efficacy, social life skills, expecting level of social life skills an...
A. P. Karpik
Full Text Available The article gives a spotlight on a three universities (Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography, Siberian State Academy of Geodesy, Wuhan University and ISPRS’ cooperation in organizing and holding summer student seminars for undergraduate, master, and PhD students of the universities specializing in photogrammetry, remote sensing, GIS, aerial and space cartography. Principles of topics of the seminar selection, lecture courses delivering and practical training as well as international joint team work on projects and their defence are described. The description of the basic stages of 3S implementation, and the goals of this sort of the international event is given.
Full Text Available The article presents the biographical data of John Langdon Down, his invaluable contribution to the development of rehabilitation programs for children with Down syndrome. The basis of these programs was the socialization of people with intellectual disabilities. In doctor Down’s rehabilitation center there were used methods, including health care, education, physical education, the formation of correct behavior.
Rienties, Bart; Héliot, YingFei; Jindal-Snape, Divya
A common assumption in higher education is that international students find it difficult to develop learning and friendship relations with host students. When students are placed in a student-centred environment, international students from different cultural backgrounds are "forced" to work together with other students, which allows…
Main, E Eve; Garrett-Wright, Dawn; Kerby, Molly
For the past decade participation in service and experiential learning in higher education has increased. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of BSN and MSN students participating in a multidisciplinary service-learning course in a rural, underserved village in Belize. Researchers analyzed student journals utilizing qualitative data analysis techniques. There were eight consistent themes found in the student journals. The findings indicate that international service learning opportunities increase students' awareness of their place in a global society and the potential contribution they can make in society. For the past decade, service and experiential learning in higher education, including nursing education, has become increasingly important. Simply put, service and experiential learning combine community service activities with a student's academic study for the sole purpose of enriching the academic experience. As faculty, we feel the goal of baccalaureate and graduate nursing education is to produce an educated professional who will become a responsible citizen.
Garrett, Bernard M; Cutting, Roger
This paper describes a project to establish and evaluate online study partnerships, using social networking applications, between final year Canadian nursing students at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and second year undergraduate science education students at the University of Plymouth (UoP) in the UK. The project took place between 2009 and 2010 and evaluated the use of social networking applications with international interdisciplinary partnerships between Canadian and UK students. A multi-method evaluation strategy incorporating questionnaires, online focus groups and web analytics was used to explore the value of social media to promote the exchange of ideas and discussion of scientific philosophy in different contexts, between students working in disciplines with differing philosophical perspectives principally modern/post-modern, quantitative/qualitative, empirical/theoretical. This project resulted in a very successful collaborative partnership between UK and Canadian students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study analyses information needs and behaviours of master’s and doctoral theology students currently studying at the International Baptist Theological Seminary (IBTS in Prague, Czech Republic. The aim is two-fold: first, to extend understanding of the information behaviour of theologians working as distance learners in a cross cultural setting; and secondly, to provide guidance for the development of library information services for this group. The study follows a quantitative research approach with a survey design and attempts to replicate in a modified way studies by Gorman (1990 and Stieg Dalton and Charnigo (2004. The findings suggest that theology students at IBTS use many and varied types of materials in their interdisciplinary studies while giving clear preference to books, periodicals and theses. Most of the participants have, partly successfully, embraced information technology as a tool and use it extensively. To satisfy their research needs they employ a variety of methods to find relevant information and fall back on “typical” humanists’ research behaviours when “usual” channels do not work: engage their networks, expand their personal library, and browse. While the humanist profile is evident throughout the diverse group, there are also notable differences. Theologians increasingly work interdisciplinary and integrate approaches considered typical for other disciplines. Partly differences are caused by the fact that the group under consideration are students who still experiment with research approaches. Many differences are caused by technological developments and contextual aspects.
Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Piert, Joyce; Militello, Matthew
In this article, the authors use their personal narratives and collaborative portraits as methods to shed light on the complexities of developing a research identity while journeying through a doctoral program. Using the metaphors of a wanderer, a chameleon, and a warrior, their narratives represent portraits of experiences faced by doctoral…
Youdas, James W.; Krause, David A.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Rindflesch, Aaron B.; Hollman, John H.
Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy…
Williamson, Madeline J.; Fenske, Robert H.
In response to concern about the supply of minority faculty available to replace retiring academics, a study investigated academic achievement in doctoral programs by two of the United States' fastest-growing subpopulations, Mexican-Americans (MA) and American Indians (AI). The objectives were to establish a conceptual framework, to refine…
Full Text Available Objective: At the University of Leipzig, the requirements of the Licensing Regulations for Doctors (Approbationsordnung für Ärzte for the practical training of communication skills are actively implemented by a two-semester communication course. During this course, student tutors impart the basics of interpersonal as well as selected aspects of doctor-patient communication using interactive training methods. This article reports on the effect the training has on the self-assessed communication skills of the medicine students.Methods: The students’ self-perceived communication skills were assessed, both at the beginning and after the completion of the first and second course semesters using questionnaires related to the course’s learning goals. Pre-post comparisons were then carried out. 142 students (of 163 students in total participated in the survey at the start of the course, of which 117 completed the T2-questionnaire at the end of the first course semester. Only the 84 students who also completed the questionnaires in the second course semester were included in the statistical analysis. These responses were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: The comparison of the self-assessments between the four measurement points showed that statistically significant learning progress for all assessed communication skills had taken place from the point of view of the students. The largest changes between measurements, and therefore the greatest learning progress, could be seen in knowledge related skills.Conclusion: From the students’ point of view the communication training contributes significantly to the acquisition of communication skills. The results suggest that this “hands-on” course concept is suited to successfully enhance the students’ communication skills. The course concept should therefore be retained for both the course in its current form as well as for any extension of the course into the
This article aims to provide insight into the experiences of Chinese international students in some South African tertiary institutions. The study investigates their successes and failures in endeavouring to learn English and the culture shock and 'learning shock' they endure when registering to study in an African country with ...
Streitwieser, Bernhard T.; Light, Gregory J.
While much of recent study abroad research has focused on identifying and measuring different learning outcomes in terms of specific skills, competencies, perspectives and attributes acquired during study abroad opportunities, less research has considered how students' deeper conceptions and understandings of international experience may change…
Previous studies have reported that international students in the US experience unique difficulties and acculturative stress related to cultural differences, language barriers, academic pressure, and interpersonal relationships (Mallinckrodt & Leong, 1992). Berry, Kim, Minde, and Mok (1987) defined this "acculturative stress" as…
Poulakis, Mixalis; Dike, Craig A.; Massa, Amber C.
This study investigated eight Greek international college students' experiences of acculturation and acculturative stress at a mid-western university in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and Consensual Qualitative Research methodology was utilized for data analysis to identify contextual themes and…
Paswan, Audhesh K.; Ganesh, Gopala
This study empirically investigates the relationship between satisfaction with educational service augmenters and consumer loyalty within the context of the international student market. An enhanced state of consumer satisfaction, also labeled as delight, is captured by focusing on service augmenters that fall outside the domain of the core…
They came for a science lesson. They left with more. The new Werner H. Kirsten student interns filed into the auditorium in Building 549 to expand their knowledge of fundamental laboratory practices, as part of the Science Skills Boot Camp. A panel of presenters instructed the attendees on skills such as reading scientific papers effectively, practicing proper research ethics,
Barlett, Luke; Cathro, Darcy; Mellow, Maddi; Tate, Clara
In October 2012, two students from the Australian Science and Mathematics School and two from Yankalilla Area School were selected to travel to Olavarria, Argentina in order to compete in the 6th International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO). It was an opportunity for individuals with a passion for Earth science to come together from 17 countries to…
By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Student intern Sam Pritt’s interest in improving geolocation led him to develop a project that won a top regional prize at the Siemens Competition in Math, Science, and Technology in November. Pritt was awarded a $3,000 college scholarship, and he competed in the national competition in early December.
Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C.; Hong, Ji Y.; Pace, Terry M.
Using data obtained from in-depth semistructured interviews, we examined international students' attachments to place in the local American Midwestern community where they have attended college for at least 2 years. The results of this study suggest that participants engage in a process of renegotiation of meanings attached to new places in ways…
Abu Rabia, Hazza M.
The adjustment process and issues of 16 Arab international students enrolled at two universities in the Northeast of the United States were examined through this qualitative, exploratory study. The participants were from Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and United Arab Emirates and had been in the US for 2 to 5 years. In-depth…
Kratz, Fabian; Netz, Nicolai
The authors develop a conceptual framework explaining monetary returns to international student mobility (ISM). Based on data from two German graduate panel surveys, they test this framework using growth curve models and Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions. The results indicate that ISM-experienced graduates enjoy a steeper wage growth after graduation…
Trevor Uyi OMORUYI
Full Text Available International students’ contribution to Higher Education Institutions (HEIs tends to be considered from different aspects. There is an inadequate substantiation base that would allow academics, researchers and other stakeholders understand the importance of overseas students in the UK Business Schools. This paper investigates the contribution of international students to Business School in the UK HEIs. The research was exploratory and part of a bigger project on how and why Business Schools in the UK use Relationship Marketing to retain international students. It employed semi-structured interviews with 18 members of staff from four Business Schools in the North of England. Findings indicate that international students’ definition tends to differ amongst staff members within the Business Schools. Business Schools’ management perceive overseas students as an integral part of their institutions, especially as their overall contributions cannot be over-emphasised. The sample size and use of semi-structured interviews, as a single data gathering strategy, does not allow broad generalisation of findings. The obtained evidence can still be used as a platform for further research in this area.
Ding, Ning; Bosker, Roel J.; Xu, Xiaoyan; Rugers, Lucie; van Heugten, Petra PAM
In business higher education, group project work plays an essential role. The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between the group heterogeneity of students' business project groups and their academic achievements at both group and individual levels. The sample consists of 536 freshmen from an International Business School…
Bonazzo, Claude; Wong, Y. Joel
This qualitative study examined four Japanese international female college students' experience of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes in a predominately white university. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) overt forms of prejudice and discrimination; (2) stereotypes common to Asians; (3) stereotypes unique to the Japanese;…
Viggiano, Tiffany; López Damián, Ariadna I.; Morales Vázquez, Evelyn; Levin, John S.
This qualitative investigation explains the ways in which community college decision makers justify the inclusion of international students at three community colleges in the United States. We identify and explain the ways in which decision makers rationalize institutional policy--particularly recruitment strategies and motivations--related to…
Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson
Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…
There is a paucity of studies conducted with unaccompanied adolescent international students. In this qualitative inquiry, I present a thematic analysis of the critical incidents that Chinese, Japanese, and Korean participants reported as either facilitating or hindering to their transition to Canada. Using the Critical Incident Technique, I…
... and enhances the problem solving process in the context of international students' identification with an imaginary personality. The defense mechanisms unconsciously applied in the frame of an individual's narration assist in interpreting their emotional state and psychological adaptation levels at a certain point in time.
Xiang, Biao; Shen, Wei
During the late 1990s China moved from a period of "wealth creation" that benefited the majority of the population to a period of "wealth concentration" that benefited a minority. This essay focuses on the role of international student migration from China to other countries in this process. In particular the authors delineate…
Mosneaga, Ana; Agergaard, Jytte
Universities are increasingly urged to take new responsibilities as agents of internationalisation as the globalisation of higher education intensifies the competition for international students and leads to transformation of national and European policy landscapes. Drawing on the case study of two leading universities in Denmark, this paper…
Mosneaga, Ana; Agergaard, Jytte
Universities are increasingly urged to take new responsibilities as agents of internationalisation as the globalisation of higher education intensifies the competition for international students and leads to transformation of national and European policy landscapes. Drawing on the case study of two...
Bondu, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G.; Scheithauer, Herbert
School homicides have become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful…
Nyland, Chris; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati; Smith, Sharon
In the period immediately preceding the 2007 Australian election, much attention was accorded to the impact of the nation's labour laws on vulnerable employees. This debate centred on specific groups including women, youth, migrants and workers on individual employment contracts. International students, by contrast, were ignored in the debate.…
Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Shijuan; Lee, Seung-hee; Magjuka, Richard J.
This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the perceptions of international students regarding the impact of cultural differences on their learning experiences in an online MBA program. The study also revealed that online instructors need to design courses in such a way as to remove potential cultural barriers, including…
Lee, Ju Seong
The author investigates what challenges four international students (Vietnamese, Filipino, Brazilian, and Chinese) faced and how they coped with these dilemmas in a Japanese language program during the first semester in 2014. Multiple apparatuses (e.g., field notes, face-to-face oral interviews, focal group conversations, and semi-structured…
Lowinger, Robert Jay; Kuo, Ben C. H.; Song, Hyun-A.; Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Kim, Eunyoung; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Chang, Catherine Y.; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung
This study examined the relationships among acculturative stress, coping styles, self-efficacy, English language proficiency, and various demographic characteristics as predictors of procrastination behavior in Asian International students (N = 255) studying in the United States. Results of multiple logistic regression indicated that a collective…
Ullrich, Lauren; Dumanis, Sonya B; Evans, Tanya M; Jeannotte, Alexis M; Leonard, Carrie; Rozzi, Summer J; Taylor, Caitlin M; Gale, Karen; Kanwal, Jagmeet S; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A; Wolfe, Barry B; Forcelli, Patrick A
A key facet of professional development is the formation of professional identity. At its most basic level, professional identity for a scientist centers on mastery of a discipline and the development of research skills during doctoral training. To develop a broader understanding of professional identity in the context of doctoral training, the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID) ran a multi-institutional study from 2001 to 2005. A key outcome of the CID was the development of the concept of 'stewards of the discipline'. The Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience (IPN) at Georgetown University participated in CID from 2003 to 2005. Here, we describe the IPN and highlight the programmatic developments resulting from participation in the CID. In particular, we emphasize programmatic activities that are designed to promote professional skills in parallel with scientific development. We describe activities in the domains of leadership, communication, teaching, public outreach, ethics, collaboration, and mentorship. Finally, we provide data that demonstrate that traditional metrics of academic success are not adversely affected by the inclusion of professional development activities in the curricula. By incorporating these seven 'professional development' activities into the required coursework and dissertation research experience, the IPN motivates students to become stewards of the discipline.
Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H
Medical professionals' attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns' knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from 'true', 'false', or 'don't know'. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice.
Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw
Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.
Heffron, Sean; Maresco, Peter A.
The value of an international experience--especially for students of business--continues to be an area of focus at colleges and universities. Students across all disciplines within the business curriculum: accounting, economics, finance, management, marketing, or sport management are expected by employers to possess knowledge of, and appreciation…
Cresswell, Penelope; Monrouxe, Lynn V
Compliance to hygiene behaviours has long been recognised as important in the prevention and control of healthcare associated infections, but medical doctors still display some of the lowest rates of compliance of all healthcare workers. We aim to understand compliance to hygiene behaviours by analysing medical students', junior doctors' and medical educators' narratives of these behaviours to identify their respective attitudes and beliefs around compliance and how these are learnt during training. Such an understanding can inform future interventions to improve compliance targeted to areas of greatest need. A qualitative study, using narrative interviews (nine focus groups and one individual interview). Data were analysed thematically using inductive framework analysis. Teaching hospitals in the UK. Convenience sample of 25 participants: third-year medical students in their first clinical year (n=13), junior doctors (n=6) and medical educators (n=6). We identified four main themes: (1) knowledge, (2) constraints, (3) role models/culture and (4) hygiene as an added extra. Knowledge varied across participant groups and appeared to influence behaviours; medical students relied on what they have been told by seniors, while medical educators relied on their own knowledge and experience. There was a strong belief that evidence for the effectiveness of good hygiene behaviours is lacking. Furthermore, medical educators' behaviour appears to strongly influence others. Finally, hygiene was predominately viewed as an added extra rather than an integral part of the process. Awareness of the evidence around good hygiene needs to be improved at all levels. Medical students and junior doctors should be encouraged to consider why they are asked to perform certain hygiene behaviours in order to improve ownership of those behaviours. Medical educators need to recognise their responsibilities as role models for their junior counterparts, thereby understanding their role in
Full Text Available The rapid growth in international student numbers in Australia in the first decade of the 2000s was accompanied by a series of public crises. The most important of these was the outbreak in Melbourne Victoria and elsewhere of physical attacks on the students. Investigations at the time also pointed to cases of gross exploitation, an array of threats that severely compromised their human rights. This paper reviews and pursues the outcomes of a report prepared by the authors in 2010 for Universities Australia and the Human Rights Commission. The report reviewed social science research and proposed a series of priorities for human rights interventions that were part of the Human Rights Commission’s considerations. New activity, following the innovation of having international students specifically considered by the Human Rights Commission, points to initiatives that have not fully addressed the wide range of questions at state.
Moren, Alexis; Cook, Mackenzie; McClain, Molly; Doberne, Julie; Kiraly, Laszlo; Perkins, Rosina Serene; Kwong, Karen
As medical student interest in global surgical care grows, a comprehensive curriculum is necessary to understand surgical care in resource-limited environments. We developed a surgical elective encompassing a multiyear medical student curriculum, with the goal of improving students' understanding of global surgical care, consisting of a junior seminar and a senior clerkship. This student elective focused on the global burden of surgical disease, ethics of care in low-resource settings, and care of marginalized U.S. Students who participated in the fourth year clerkship at a tertiary center in Northern India completed a reflective essay on their experience. Qualitative analysis was conducted using constant comparison and axial coding to establish a grounded theory. Medical students showed a desire to serve the poor, build collaborative relationships, and integrate international health into their future career. This novel curriculum provides students a clinical and public health basis to understand challenges of surgical care in low-resource environments while laying the groundwork for students with a future career in global health. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen
In many countries and regions around the world international students now weigh up the potential advantages and disadvantages of undertaking their higher education at an international branch campus rather than at a home campus located in a traditional destination such as the United States or United Kingdom. The aim of the research is to identify…
Abdullah, Doria; Abd Aziz, Mohd Ismail; Mohd Ibrahim, Abdul Latiff
The movement of students across borders has had profound impact on higher education policy development. This article seeks to unpack international student mobility through a discourse approach, using five policy documents on international student mobility from well-established recruiters of international students. Eight headline findings are…
Staff members of the Agency working at the Seibersdorf laboratory are continuing to achieve high academic distinction. Two more - both Austrian - have now been awarded the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. Joachim Kramer, who is 26, graduated from the Hochschule fur Bodenkultur in 1967 with the degree of Diplom-Ingenieur and then started work in the plant breeding and genetics section of the laboratory under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen. The results of the research work he carried out were accepted as the subject of a thesis for which he has now been granted his doctorate. The doctoral promotion took place on 30 June, at a ceremony attended by Dr. Andre Finkelstein, Deputy Director General for Research and Isotopes. The subject of Dr. Kramer's thesis was a comprehensive study of the mutagenic effects of fast neutrons and gamma rays, and the influence of various modifying factors such as water content, oxygen and metabolic state of seeds at the time of irradiation. This work has contributed significantly to the understanding of the mechanisms by which these two types of ionizing radiation produce mutations in seeds. The knowledge gained will be of great importance in the efficient use of ionizing radiation in practical plant breeding. Paul Wassermann, who is 33 years old, joined the Agency in 1965. He, too, graduated from the Hochschule fur Bodenkultur as Diplom-Ingenieur in agriculture, having graduated with honours previously from the agricultural secondary school at Raumberg, Austria, in 1958. Dr. Wassermann's own words may be used to explain how he came to gain his doctorate. 'In October, 1966, I completed my studies at the Hochschule,' he writes. 'I was employed at the Agency laboratories in Seibersdorf, working in the plant and soils group. Encouraged by the interesting research which was performed there, a thesis entitled 'the Fate of Nitrogen in Submerged Rice Soils' was started, which finally led to the doctor's degree in Agriculture in June this year
Full Text Available Despite being well ahead of many other disciplines in establishing strong and evidence-based research and practice, engineering in many countries still experiences high rates of student and graduate attrition. One possible reason for this is that students enter engineering study without understanding the realities of either their degree program or engineering work, and without a sense of motivation and commitment. The research reported here aimed to extend understanding of first year engineering students’ thinking about their competencies, identity, self-efficacy, motivation, and career. The study involved over 1,100 first year engineering students enrolled in a common first year unit. Responses were coded using the Engineers Australia graduate competencies as a framework, and this paper reports findings from the most diverse cohort of students (n=260, of whom 49% were international students with English as their second language. The research identified differences between international and domestic students’ perceptions of self and of career competencies, possibly related to self-esteem. Implications include improved confidence and motivation to learn as students consider their strengths, interests and goals. Further, the research raises the need for analysis of international students’ cultural and educational background to determine how different cohorts of international students self-appraise and how they associate learning with their future careers.
Group of Eight (NJ1), 2008
This Go8 Backgrounder compares the academic performance of three cohorts of students in Group of Eight (Go8) universities: Australian students, international students on campus in Australia (onshore) and international students overseas (offshore). Analysis of data supplied by Go8 universities shows that in 2007 students passed 91.8% of the courses…
Full Text Available Dear editor Clinical environments encounter is an important part of studying medicine (1. Patient contact as an integral part of medical education occurs in various formats in the clinical settings (2, 3. During clinical training, medical students may experience high levels of stress, and some may not deal with it well. The abruptness of students’ transition to the clinical setting generated positive and negative emotions. Due to being a novice, they did not receive adequate training on how to get emotionally prepared for meeting seriously ill people. In such circumstances, the shortage of training will have predictably crucial consequences. Early clinical contact has been suggested to reduce these stresses and help the students adapt effectively to changes in the hospital climate (2. Patient contact creates an environment where each student appreciates cultural diversity and reinforces the development of clinical professional interpersonal skills through social, emotional and cognitive experiences (4, 5. It encourages validating of the relationship between patients and doctors and allows students to experience a more personal relationship with patients and nurture the ability to empathize with them, providing considerable benefits for trainees and patients. In this way, the social emotions that students experience when empathizing with a patient represent a uniquely human achievement. By internalizing their subjective interpretations of patient’s beliefs and feelings, the student’s body, brain and mind come together to produce cognition and emotion . They construct culturally relevant knowledge and make decisions about how to act and think about the patient’s problems as if they were their own. On the other hand, patient interaction in undergraduate education offers students a valuable early insight into the day-to-day role of a doctor and the patients’ perspective on specific conditions. Early experience provides a greater knowledge
Nilas, L; Løkkegaard, E C; Laursen, J B; Kling, J; Cortes, D
From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English. The majority self-assessed their English proficiency between seven and eight on a 10 unit visual analogue scale, with 10 equivalent to working in Danish, while 15 % rated five or less. However, one-fourth found teaching and writing in English to be twice as difficult than in Danish, and 12 % rated all teaching tasks in English at four or less compared to Danish. The self-assessed need for additional English skills was perceived low. Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking medical departments.
Fisher, James M; Rudd, Matthew P; Walker, Richard W; Stewart, Jane
In recognition of the fact that elder abuse is a global problem that doctors underrecognize and underreport, a simulation training session for undergraduate medical students was developed. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to examine barriers to and drivers of medical students making a diagnosis of elder abuse in simulated practice, with the goal of refining teaching methods and informing future teaching sessions for other clinical teachers. Third-year medical students (Newcastle University, United Kingdom) undertook a simulation scenario with a high-fidelity mannequin representing an elder abuse victim. After the simulation scenario, students underwent a semistructured debriefing. A tripartite approach to data collection was employed that included audio recordings of the simulation, data sheets capturing students' thoughts during the scenario, and postscenario debriefing. A different researcher analyzed each data set in isolation before discussions were held to triangulate findings from the data sets. Forty-six students undertook the scenario; none declined to participate. A number of barriers to students diagnosing elder abuse were identified. Students held a low index of suspicion for elder abuse and were overly optimistic regarding the etiology of the individual's injuries. Students lacked the confidence to raise concerns about possible elder abuse, believing that certainty was required before doing so. There was widespread confusion about nomenclature. These findings provide clinical teachers with important topic areas to address in future teaching sessions. Simulation, as a method to teach about elder abuse in a reproducible and immersive fashion, is recommended to clinical teachers. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Chen, Jiun-Shiu; Stevens, Jeffery; Cox, Susie S.; Tudor, Thomas R.
Learning outcomes for international business (IB) courses are designed to do more than simply impart IB knowledge. However, past studies have had mixed results on the impact of learning in IB courses. This study examines whether a student's personality may affect learning outcomes. The results suggest that after completing an IB course, students…
Taylor, Zachary W.
A recent Educational Testing Services report (2016) found that international graduate students with a TOEFL score of 80--the minimum average TOEFL score for graduate admission in the United States--usually possess reading subscores of 20, equating to a 12th-grade reading comprehension level. However, one public flagship university's international…
Turner, Paul D.; Monaghan, Michael S.; Walters, Ryan W.; Merkel, Jennifer J.; Lipschultz, Jeremy H.; Lenz, Thomas L.
Objective To examine faculty members' and students' expectations and perceptions of e-mail communication in a dual pathway pharmacy program. Methods Three parallel survey instruments were administered to campus students, distance students, and faculty members, respectively. Focus groups with students and faculty were conducted. Results Faculty members perceived themselves as more accessible and approachable by e-mail than either group of students did. Campus students expected a shorter faculty response time to e-mail and for faculty members to be more available than did distance students. Conclusion E-mail is an effective means of computer-mediated communication between faculty members and students and can be used to promote a sense of community and inclusiveness (ie, immediacy), especially with distant students. PMID:21436932
This paper looks at results from the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment to examine the effects of school libraries on students' test performance, with specific focus on the average of students' family wealth in a school. The paper documents students' school library use and students' home possessions to indicate how school…
In an increasingly competitive environment, with reduced government funding, full fee-paying international students are an important source of revenue for higher education institutions (HEIs). Although many previous studies have focused on the role of English language proficiency on academic success, there is little known about the extent to which levels of English language proficiency affect these non-native English speaking students’ overall course experience. There have been a wealth of st...
Bondü, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G; Scheithauer, Herbert
School homicides have been become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful research on risk and protective factors that can inform evidence-based preventive models is summarized. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
The New Edition of International Express Intermediate retains all the key features of this popular and successful four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learners' real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.
Christensen, Mette Krogh; Lund, Ole
Scholarly communities are dependent on and often measured by their ability to attract and develop doctoral students. Recent literature suggests that most scholarly communities entail ecological niches in which the doctoral students learn the codes and practices of research. In this article, we...... successful doctoral education because it: 1) fleshes out the professional attitude that is necessary for becoming a successful researcher in the department, 2) shapes and adapts the doctoral students’ desires to grasp and identify with the department’s practices, and 3) provides the doctoral students...... explore the microclimate in an ecological niche of doctoral education. Based on a theoretical definition of microclimate as the emotional atmosphere that ties group members together and affects their actions, we conducted a case study that aimed to describe the key features of the microclimate...
Edgecombe, Kay; Jennings, Michele; Bowden, Margaret
This paper reviews the sparse literature about international nursing students' clinical learning experiences, and also draws on the literature about international higher education students' learning experiences across disciplines as well as nursing students' experiences when undertaking international clinical placements. The paper aims to identify factors that may impact international nursing students' clinical learning with a view to initiating further research into these students' attributes and how to work with these to enhance the students' clinical learning. Issues commonly cited as affecting international students are socialisation, communication, culture, relationships, and unmet expectations and aspirations. International student attributes tend to be included by implication rather than as part of the literature's focus. The review concludes that recognition and valuing of international nursing students' attributes in academic and clinical contexts are needed to facilitate effective strategies to support their clinical practice in new environments. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This paper presents research on problems of knowledge recognition among students of various nationalities at an international organisation......This paper presents research on problems of knowledge recognition among students of various nationalities at an international organisation...
Jacobitz, Frank; Schubert, Thomas
Short-term, study-abroad, elective engineering courses were developed in order to raise the international awareness and global competency of engineering students. These Compact International Experience (CIE) courses were taught in response to a strong student desire for engineering study abroad courses and an effort by the home institution to internationalize its curriculum. An assessment of repeat offerings of two three-semester-unit courses on Topics in Fluid Mechanics and Advanced Electronic Circuit Design in a three-week time frame in France and Australia was performed. The goals of the two CIE courses are an effective teaching of their respective technical content as well as a student understanding of the cultural environment and the impact of engineering solutions from a global and societal viewpoint. In the repeat offerings, increased interaction with local industry was an additional goal. The CIE courses were assessed through surveys completed at the beginning and end of the courses, weekly student reflection papers, course evaluations, and formalized instructor observations. Based on the assessment performed, the two CIE courses have been found to be a valuable approach in the delivery of engineering technical electives combined with an international experience.
Slater, Stephanie; Bretones, P. S.; McKinnon, D.; Schleigh, S.; Slater, T. F.; Astronomy, Center; Education Research, Physics
Large international investigations into the learning of science, such as the TIMSS and PISA studies, have been enlightening with regard to effective instructional practices. Data from these studies revealed weaknesses and promising practices within nations' educational systems, with evidence to suggest that these studies have led to international reforms in science education. However, these reforms have focused on the general characteristics of teaching and learning across all sciences. While extraordinarily useful, these studies have provided limited insight for any given content domain. To date, there has been no systematic effort to measure individual's conceptual astronomy understanding across the globe. This paper describes our motivations for a coordinated, multinational study of astronomy understanding. First, reformed education is based upon knowing the preexisting knowledge state of our students. The data from this study will be used to assist international astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) professionals in their efforts to improve practices across global settings. Second, while the US astronomy EPO community has a long history of activity, research has established that many practices are ineffective in the face of robust misconceptions (e.g.: seasons). Within an international sample we hope to find subpopulations that do not conform to our existing knowledge of student misconceptions, leading us to cultural or educational practices that hint at alternative, effective means of instruction. Finally, it is our hope that this first venture into large-scale disciplinary collaboration will help us to craft a set of common languages and practices, building capacity and leading toward long-term cooperation across the international EPO community. This project is sponsored and managed by the Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research (CAPER), in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46. We are actively
Ivanoff, Chris S; Yaneva, Krassimira; Luan, Diana; Andonov, Bogomil; Kumar, Reena R; Agnihotry, Anirudha; Ivanoff, Athena E; Emmanouil, Dimitrios; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Koneski, Filip; Muratovska, Ilijana; Al-Shehri, Huda A; Al-Taweel, Sara M; Daly, Michele
Training culturally competent graduates who can practice effectively in a multicultural environment is a goal of contemporary dental education. The Global Oral Health Initiative is a network of dental schools seeking to promote global dentistry as a component of cultural competency training. Before initiating international student exchanges, a survey was conducted to assess students' awareness of global dentistry and interest in cross-national clerkships. A 22-question, YES/NO survey was distributed to 3,487 dental students at eight schools in seven countries. The questions probed students about their school's commitment to enhance their education by promoting global dentistry, volunteerism and philanthropy. The data were analysed using Vassarstats statistical software. In total, 2,371 students (67.9%) completed the survey. Cultural diversity was seen as an important component of dental education by 72.8% of the students, with two-thirds (66.9%) acknowledging that their training provided preparation for understanding the oral health care needs of disparate peoples. A high proportion (87.9%) agreed that volunteerism and philanthropy are important qualities of a well-rounded dentist, but only about one-third felt that their school supported these behaviours (36.2%) or demonstrated a commitment to promote global dentistry (35.5%). In addition, 87.4% felt that dental schools are morally bound to improve oral health care in marginalised global communities and should provide students with international exchange missions (91%), which would enhance their cultural competency (88.9%) and encourage their participation in charitable missions after graduation (67.6%). The study suggests that dental students would value international exchanges, which may enhance students' knowledge and self-awareness related to cultural competence. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.
Boyle, Cynthia J.; Janke, Kristin K.
Objective. To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Results. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Conclusions. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought. PMID:24371345
Traynor, Andrew P; Boyle, Cynthia J; Janke, Kristin K
To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought.
Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…
Bond, Christopher; Hsu, Marc Ting-Chun
This study reviews and evaluates international students' perceptions of UK banks. The specific research objectives were to identify international students' expectations and perceptions of service quality from UK banks and to assess the quality GAP or dissonance between these. A total of 297 international students studying in the UK responded to…
Despite the contribution to economic and social impact on the institutions in the United States, international students' academic adaptation has been always challenging. The study investigated international graduate students' academic adaptation scales via a survey questionnaire and explored how international students are academically adapted in…
Previous studies suggest that international graduate students' academic success is significantly associated with the average grade point (GPA), and this measure is closely related with international graduate students' received academic and financial supports. However, international graduate students' academic success can involve a multidimensional…
The study investigated the costs and benefits of international education to Zimbabwean students studying in South African Universities. The objectives of the study were to investigate the actual and perceived benefits of international education to students. The study also investigated the impact of international education on the lives of students,…
Padlee, Siti Falindah; Reimers, Vaughan
International students make a vital contribution to the Australian economy. Due to their importance, a number of studies have been undertaken to examine the living experiences, attitudes and behaviours of international students in Australia. However, very few studies have examined international students' overall satisfaction with their university…
A consequence of the dramatic rise in international student mobility is the trend for international students to remain in the country in which they study after graduation. Countries such as Australia, the UK and Canada stand to benefit from international student migration, as they are able to fill skill shortages with locally trained foreign…
Jackson, Michelle; Ray, Sukanya; Bybell, Danica
In this study, we examined the role of self-esteem, hope, optimism, coping, acculturative stress, and social support on international students' depressive symptoms and sociocultural adjustment. Seventy international students completed a self-report online survey. The most notable finding was that the international students used adaptive and…
Li, Shuang; Zizzi, Sam
Previous literature has focused on international student's social transition and monocultural and bicultural ties. Little research has explored international students' multicultural friendship development and the role that physical activity plays in their social interaction. The current case study explored a group of international students'…
Cantwell, Brendan; Luca, Sandra G.; Lee, Jenny J.
This study examined the dispositions, experiences, and expectations of international students in a developing country to understand the increasing phenomenon of reverse student flows and the role of the political economy in international student mobility. Students' dispositions, experiences and expectations--referred here collectively as…
Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)
Within the International Design Competition 2011 at the Hockenheimring (Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions were presented: (1) Formula Student Germany - Experience the Future (Tim Hannig); (2) Live at the Hockenheimring 2011; (3) Cutaway Model of the FSC Winning Car - The GFR11c by the Global Formula Racing Team of the DHBW Ravensburg; (4) Formula Student Racecar with Selective Cylinder Deactivation (Alexander Titz); (5) Construction of a crankshaft for the RS11 (Stefan Buhl); (6) The Wheel Design of the ARG 11 (Megan Rotondo); (7) Cutaway Model of the FSE Winning Car - The DUT11 by the DUT Racing Team of the Delft University of Technology; (8) Formula Student Electric - E-Scrutineering (Ann-Christin Bartoelke); (9) Development of an E-motor for Formular Student Electric (Urs Leuthold); (10) The Battery Management System of the FHWT04e (Andreas Hagemeyer); (11) Overall Results 2011 at a Glance; (12) Show your Colours; (13) Formula Student Germany visiting China (Alia Pierce).
Aaberg, Anne Marie Roust; Larsen, Caroline Emilie Brenner; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen
BACKGROUND: Early recognition and immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation are critical determinants of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Our aim was to evaluate current knowledge on basic life support (BLS) in Danish high school students and benefits of a single...... training session run by junior doctors. METHODS: Six-hundred-fifty-one students were included. They underwent one 45-minute BLS training session including theoretical aspects and hands-on training with mannequins. The students completed a baseline questionnaire before the training session and a follow...... areas of BLS is poor among high school students. One hands-on training session run by junior doctors seems to be efficient to empower the students to be first responders to OHCA....
Aitchison, Claire; Catterall, Janice; Ross, Pauline; Burgin, Shelley
Contemporary changes to the doctorate mean student researchers are likely to be expected to write differently, write more and more often, and yet, despite a growing interest in doctoral education, we still know relatively little about the teaching and learning practices of students and supervisors vis-a-vis doctoral writing. This paper draws from…
Nguyen, David H. K.
There is scarce research that examines the leadership experiences of international students on campus. Leadership capacity and efficacy are important indicators of success in higher education and are linked to important academic, career, and life benefits, such as career and leadership aspirations, work performance, the ability to cope and…
Romerhausen, Nick J.
As the population of international students continues to rise at U.S. colleges and universities, multiple academic obstacles pose barriers to success. Research on strategies of intervention has primarily included face-to-face interactions while an exploration of other assistance approaches is minimal in comparison. This study explored the role…
King, Russell; Sondhi, Gunjan
This paper breaks new ground in its comparative analysis of two international student migration (ISM) streams, one from the Global South to the Global North (India to developed Anglophone countries), and the other within the Global North (UK to North America, Europe and Australia). These two ISM movements reflect different positionalities within…