WorldWideScience

Sample records for international disability rights

  1. International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability: Disability Inclusive Development and International Development Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozue Kay Nagata

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a historical momentum for disabled persons and their associates, as well as ODA workers in the development cooperation field all over the world. For the last two decades, persons with disabilities, their associates and professionals working in this field have promoted their human rights, equality, nondiscrimination and full participation. This Convention is beyond the concept of non-discrimination, and it is very comprehensive in its structure, scope and coverage, promoting developmental activities too in order to realize disabled people’s socio-economic rights. Furthermore it calls for international and regional development cooperation. Prior to its adoption, in September 2000 at the Millennium Summit the Member States of the Untied Nations issued the Millennium Declaration, committing themselves to a series of development targets, most of which are to be achieved by 2015. Known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, they represent a framework for achieving sustainable and "just" human development through broadening the benefits of development for all categories individuals, women and men, the poor and the rich, the disabled and the non-disabled. The very first goal of the MDG is the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. Poverty is both a cause and consequence of disability. Poverty and disability reinforce one another. Thus, it is necessary to ensure that persons with disabilities be an integral part of efforts to achieve MDGs, particularly in the areas of poverty alleviation, primary education, gender, employment and international development cooperation. In the Asian and Pacific region, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP has proclaimed two decades of disabled persons 1993-2002, and 2003-2013 (to which Iran became a signatory in 1994, and promoted the inclusive, barrier-free and rights

  2. The Legal Rights of Students with Disabilities: International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1948 when the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, all students have been declared the right to education. The rights of disabled students have not been explicitly addressed, however, and each country has developed their own rules and regulations. Although similarities exist among the different countries,…

  3. Social assistance and disability in Brazil: the reflection of the international debate of the rights of people with disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wederson Rufino dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the debate on the social model of disability has influenced conceptions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health adopted by the World Health Organization in 2001 and adopted in Brazil in 2007, through the law of the Continuous Cash Benefit. The BPC is a major social policy of income transfer to poor disabled people, affecting over one million and half disabled people in the country. Since 2009, the evaluation of persons with disabilities for the BPC will make by medical and social skills targeted by ICF. Will be demonstrated that, although the adoption of the ICF maybe to represent regard to how to understand disability as social inequality, the adoption of the ICF by the law of the BPC will face challenges in ensuring the right to dignity of disabled people.

  4. Can International Human Rights Law Help Restore Access to Justice for Disabled Workers?

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    Rupert Harwood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research literature indicates that legislative changes in recent years, including the introduction of tribunal fees, have made it harder for workers in general to enforce their rights under UK employment laws. Drawing on the author’s qualitative study, conducted in 2015 and with information from 265 participants, this paper finds that these legislative changes could be having disproportionate adverse impacts on disabled workers. Of particular note, fees had deterred substantial numbers from submitting discrimination claims; and it appeared that this reluctance to take legal action had in turn emboldened some employers to commit what might have been found to constitute unlawful acts if taken to tribunal. The paper goes onto consider whether these adverse impacts on disabled workers could render fees unlawful under UK and European equality and human rights law and/or could entail violations of rights under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The paper concludes that the intent behind UK laws might (in relation to the lawfulness of fees have been frustrated in the domestic courts and that the impact of any future successes in the domestic courts, or under international law, might be dependent upon public opinion and political expediency. The paper also briefly compares developments in Britain with developments in neighbouring and other comparable jurisdictions.

  5. Understanding the Role of an International Convention on the Human Rights of People with Disabilities: An Analysis of the Legal, Social, and Practical Implications for Policy Makers and Disability and Human Rights Advocates in the United States. White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janet E.

    This White Paper by the National Council on Disability urges the support and participation of American policymakers and organizations representing people with disabilities in the drafting of an international human rights treaty specifically addressing the rights of people with disabilities. Following an executive summary and an introductory…

  6. The right to vote of persons with disabilities and, specially, of persons with mental and intellectual disabilities in public international law. Its reception in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos Pascual Planchuelo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the different international treaties and instruments, at universal and regional levels, that protect –directly or indirectly- the right to political participation and the right to vote of all persons with all kind of disabilities. Specifically, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006 brings a change in the framework on disability, by proclaiming their right to political participation, and recognizing their legal capacity in equal conditions to the rest of the people. The consequence of this analysis is that Spain must guarantee the right to vote of all persons with disabilities regardless the type of disability (physical, intellectual, mental o sensory, being necessary the adaptation of its domestic laws to international engagements and obligations; therefore, the Spanish authorities are obliged to remove or reform of the article 3 of Electoral General Organic Law.

  7. Poverty, disability and human rights

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    Beatriz Martínez Ríos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that persons with disabilities represent 15% of the world population. There is a strong link between poverty and disability. Population with disabilities is among the most disadvantaged and discriminated. However, development economic theories have forgotten essential matters about this population, contributing towards their invisibility and poverty. The Capability Approach from a Human Rights based approach brings us a new dimension. The extraordinary costs that arise from a disability and from the psychological, physical and social barriers that persons with disabilities face, contribute to their poverty, lack of freedom and vulneration of human rights, as put forward by current studies on this subject. International co-operation becomes a very valuable tool to be used for the promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities and overcoming poverty.

  8. PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES AND THEIR SEXUAL, REPRODUCTIVE, AND PARENTING RIGHTS: AN INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robyn M.Powell; Michael Ashley Stein

    2016-01-01

    Despite important gains in human rights,persons with disabilities-and in particular women and girls with disabilities-continue to experience significant inequalities in the areas of sexual,reproductive,and parenting rights.Persons with disabilities are sterilized at alarming rates;have decreased access to reproductive health care services and information;and experience denial of parenthood.Precipitating these inequities are substantial and instantiated stereotypes of persons with disabilities as either asexual or unable to engage in sexual or reproductive activities,and as incapable of performing parental duties.The article begins with an overview of sexual,reproductive,and parenting rights regarding persons with disabilities.Because most formal adjudications of these related rights have centered on the issue of sterilization,the article analyzes commonly presented rationales used to justify these procedures over time and across jurisdictions.Next,the article examines the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the attendant obligations of States Parties regarding rights to personal integrity,access to reproductive health care services and information,parenting,and the exercise of legal capacity.Finally,the article highlights fundamental and complex issues requiring future research and consideration.

  9. Sexual rights and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2011-03-01

    This paper argues against Appel's recent proposal-in this journal-that there is a fundamental human right to sexual pleasure, and that therefore the sexual pleasure of severely disabled people should be publicly funded-by thereby partially legalising prostitution. An alternative is proposed that does not need to pose a new positive human right; does not need public funding; does not need the legalisation of prostitution; and that would offer a better experience to the severely disabled: charitable non-profit organisations whose members would voluntarily and freely provide sexual pleasure to the severely disabled.

  10. International Human Rights to Early Intervention for Infants and Young Children with Disabilities: Tools for Global Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharan E.; Guralnick, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    With almost universal ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the growing number of States Parties that have signed or ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the majority of countries in the world have now committed to implementing the human rights articulated in these treaties. In this article we first provide an overview of both Conventions, highlight the articles in the treaties that are relevant to early intervention for infants and young children with disabilities, and describe the specific duties required of States Parties to ensure compliance including international cooperation. Second, a series of early intervention action principles are put forward that can help States Parties translate the underlying values of the Conventions into practice. PMID:26213446

  11. Disability in a Human Rights Context

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    Theresia Degener

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD is a modern human rights treaty with innovative components. It impacts on disability studies as well as human rights law. Two innovations are scrutinized in this article: the model of disability and the equality and discrimination concepts of the CRPD. It is argued that the CRPD manifests a shift from the medical model to the human rights model of disability. Six propositions are offered why and how the human rights model differs from the social model of disability. It is further maintained that the CRPD introduces a new definition of discrimination into international public law. The underlying equality concept can be categorized as transformative equality with both individual and group oriented components. The applied methodology of this research is legal doctrinal analysis and disability studies model analysis. The main finding is that the human rights model of disability improves the social model of disability. Three different models of disability can be attributed to different concepts of equality. The medical model corresponds with formal equality, while the social model with substantive equality and the human rights model can be linked with transformative equality.

  12. Understanding the Potential Content and Structure of an International Convention on the Human Rights of People with Disabilities: Sample Treaty Provisions Drawn from Existing International Instruments. A Reference Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janet E.

    This document is designed to prepare advocates in the international disability community for productive participation in the development of international conventions on the human rights of people with disabilities. Knowledge of the standard categories of international law provisions will help participants address issues related to the structure of…

  13. Bad Bedfellows: Disability Sex Rights and Viagra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The disability rights movement grounds material critiques of the treatment of people with disabilities in a social constructionist perspective, locating disability in the social rather than physical realm, and demedicalizing the concept of disability. However, this conceptualization is threatened by the medicalization of non-normative erections as…

  14. Human Rights Law for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific: The Need for a Disability Rights Tribunal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are arguably the most significant political force shaping the life experience of people with disability. The "United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" sets the standard at an international level, creating both positive and negative rights, and calls upon member states of the United Nations (UN)…

  15. Right to Inclusive Education for Students with Disabilities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Brent C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the current inclusive education system in Kenya, and how those practices relate to Article 24 of the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Local laws and international instruments are presented to shed light on the extent to which students with disabilities have a right to inclusive…

  16. Disabled Children: The Right to Feel Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…

  17. Disability approach in face of expansion of human rights

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    Joyceane Bezerra de Menezes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It analyzes the social model of disability approach that is adopted by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Unlike the medical model, disability shall be understood as the interaction between the limitation or natural deterrent suffering person in their physical functions, mental and / or intellectual and social barriers. The paper follows qualitative analysis, basing on bibliographical and documentary research that showed the change in paradigm of international documents on human rights, focusing on the inclusion of people with disabilities and mitigation of social barriers to participate in community life, social and politician.

  18. 76 FR 76601 - International Day of Persons With Disabilities, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... securing fundamental human rights for all persons with disabilities around the world. On International Day... make at home and abroad, and we remember that disability rights are universal rights to be recognized... around the world, my Administration is putting disability rights at the heart of our Nation's foreign...

  19. Human Rights and Social Justice: the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the quiet revolution in international law

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Penny

    2009-01-01

    On the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights (UDHR) the Commonwealth Attorney General announced a national public consultation concerning the need for better human rights protection in Australia and the viability of a federal human rights charter. Whether or not the anticipated Charter includes social, economic and cultural rights is directly relevant to questions of social justice in Australia. This paper argues that the legislative acknowledgment of civil and p...

  20. Disability Discrimination and the Right of Disabled Persons to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which ... disabilities through the enactment of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998. ... their constitutional rights to equality, freedom and human dignity, and further, that it ...

  1. Disability Discrimination and the right of disabled persons to access

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    StudentLab

    jurisprudence of the United States of America as well as to guidelines provided ... gender discrimination, but also disability discrimination especially, in the workplace, ..... Montalti and Bellengère "Is a right to affirmative action the solution to the.

  2. 75 FR 76251 - International Day of Persons With Disabilities, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... promote human rights, fair opportunity, and equal access for people with disabilities. Last year, the... Disabilities, the first new human rights treaty of the 21st century. Like our laws in the United States, this... International Disability Rights at the Department of State. My Administration also continues to support the...

  3. Legal Rights & Intellectual Disability: A Short Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julia, Ed.; And Others

    The book examines actions that may be taken to redress wrongs illegally perpetrated against people with intellectual disabilities in New South Wales, Australia. Ten topic areas are addressed (sample subtopics in parentheses): protecting rights (complaints to government departments, use of the ombudsman); discrimination (legal aid); personal…

  4. Towards Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities--And Why It Matters for Education of People with Disability in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author gives an overview of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international human rights convention that sets out the fundamental human rights of people with disabilities. The Convention sets out general and specific obligations for…

  5. Embracing the New Disability Rights Paradigm: The Importance of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) commenced operation. The CRPD has created a dynamic new disability rights paradigm that empowers disability people's organizations and creates a new paradigm for disability scholars. This paper analyses the impact of the CRPD and provides practical guidance as…

  6. Bioethics and international human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasma, D C

    1997-01-01

    Noting how the spread of medical technology is creating clashes with traditional values and within cultures, the author addresses the clash between Western rights-based incentives, as used by the United Nations to guarantee respect for life and dignity, and communitarian traditions. He proposes a mean between wholesale cultural relativism and international absolutism.

  7. Integrating People with Disabilities: Their Right--Our Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Rebecca; Raja, B. William Dharma; Ravanan, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    A full understanding of disability recognizes that it has a powerful human rights dimension and is often associated with social exclusion, and increased exposure and vulnerability to poverty. Disability is a human rights issue. The World Bank (1999) report points out that one in five of the world's poorest are disabled, for whom access to basic…

  8. Vulnerable Rights: The Incomplete Realization of Disability Social Rights in France

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    Anne Revillard

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available While disabled people embody a classical figure of vulnerability, this paper shifts the focus of attention to the vulnerability of their social rights. I address this question normatively and empirically. From a normative point of view, a common framing of disability rights as civil rights, under the influence of the Americans with disabilities Act (ADA, has tended to impede the discussion on disability social rights. By re-asserting that social rights are fundamental human rights, the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD contributes to bringing them back to the forefront of disability research. However, the realization of disability social rights also needs to be empirically assessed. Based on theories of social rights as well as on Weberian sociology of law, I point to two major ideal-typical characteristics of social rights: they are expected to reduce uncertainty, especially regarding the evolution of one’s autonomy, and to foster a sense of citizenship. I then study the reception of two types of disability benefits in France, the Adult disability benefit (AAH and the Disability compensation benefit (PCH, to assess to what extent these promises of social rights translate into the experiences of disabled citizens. My analysis is based on 30 biographical interviews with people with either visual or mobility impairments, conducted between 2014 and 2016. The results show the persistent vulnerability of disability social rights in France, pointing to the importance of the procedural dimension of rights realization.

  9. Reproductive autonomy of women and girls under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2018-01-01

    Women and girls with disabilities have historically been denied the freedom to make their own choices in matters relating to their reproduction. In the healthcare sector they experience multiple discriminatory practices. Women and girls with intellectual disabilities are particularly vulnerable to coerced or forced medical interventions. The present article considers the contribution the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities makes towards affirming the rights of women and girls with disabilities to enjoy reproductive autonomy, including autonomy related to reproductive health, on an equal basis with individuals without disabilities. The Convention is paradigm-setting in its maximal approach to affirming the rights of individuals with disabilities to make autonomous choices under conditions of equality and non-discrimination. The Convention is the first human rights treaty to clearly affirm that impairment of decision-making skills is not a justification for depriving a person with cognitive or intellectual disability of legal capacity. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. From Disability Rights to the Rights of the Dying (and Back Again

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    Harold Braswell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for civil rights for dying people. The creation of such rights should be understood as complementary to, but distinct from, existing initiatives to provide dying people with social benefits. A basis for rights for terminally ill people can be found in the disability rights movement. Through an ethnographic case study of two dying individuals, I argue that terminally ill people can be subjected to disability discrimination as it is understood within the dominant theoretical framework of disability rights: the social model of disability. Nevertheless, while disability rights provides a theoretical basis for understanding discrimination against people who are dying, existing U.S. disability rights legislation largely does not recognize, nor address this discrimination. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a separate set of rights of the dying. I conclude by arguing that such “dying rights” are a logical extension of disability rights, and will bring ancillary benefits to both disabled people and the disability rights movement itself. There is thus a strong foundation for a legal and political alliance between disability rights advocates and advocates for people who are dying.

  11. "A Lesson in Love": The Right to Autonomy of the Disabled

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Holanda Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    The International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities aims to promote the autonomy of these individuals. In this context, it guarantees the right to sexuality, family pool, legal recognition, civil and political rights, etc. From this perspective, the goal is to understand autonomy as an element of human dignity and the theoretical foundations of exercise for people with disabilities. As an example, presents the movie "I Am Sam" in the history of a parent with mental retarda...

  12. Children's rights, international human rights and the promise of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children's rights, international human rights and the promise of Islamic legal theory. ... Law, Democracy & Development ... law but also religion and ethics, thus offering a multidimensional approach covering the total personality of the child.

  13. The International Human Rights Muddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machan, Tibor R.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses confusion about the meaning of human rights in the United States. Suggests that welfare rights usurp the more traditional freedom rights of the founding fathers. Contrasts American interpretations with those of the Soviet Union. Journal availability: see SO 507 190. (KC)

  14. Rights in mind: Thinking differently about dementia and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Tom; Zeilig, Hannah; Mittler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to argue for the utility of a relational model of disability, as a way of conceptualizing dementia. We explore whether dementia should be considered as a disability, and whether people with dementia might consider themselves as disabled people. We review examples of, and issues raised by, the political activism of people with dementia. We consider how language constructs dementia negatively. We discuss how the environment influences the experience of dementia. In conclusion, we show that a relational model of dementia lays the basis for a human rights approach to the condition, based on collaborative partnerships between people with dementia and people from other disability communities.

  15. Hidden Contradictions and Conditionality: Conceptualisations of Inclusive Education in International Human Rights Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Bronagh

    2013-01-01

    The nature of education that children with disabilities should receive has been subject to much debate. This article critically assesses the ways in which the international human rights framework has conceptualised "inclusive education". It argues that the right to education for children with disabilities in international law is…

  16. US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles

    Did the Bush administration fundamentally harm the international human rights system through its rejection of human rights norms? This is the central question explored within US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy, which analyses the practices of legitimacy between the Bush...... nations have followed in America's footsteps, and that the Bush administration's deviation from international norms has served to reaffirm worldwide commitment to human rights....

  17. US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles

    Did the Bush administration fundamentally harm the international human rights system through its rejection of human rights norms? This is the central question explored within US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy, which analyses the practices of legitimacy between the Bush...... nations have followed in America's footsteps, and that the Bush administration's deviation from international norms has served to reaffirm worldwide commitment to human rights....... administration, states, and international organizations in cases of torture, habeas corpus, and rendition. Vincent Keating argues that despite the material power of the United States, there is little evidence that the Bush administration gravely damaged international norms on torture and habeas corpus as few...

  18. Legal capacity as a universal human right and a determinant of social status of people with mental disability

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Milan M.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of the UN Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities (2006) brought about a core shift to how the international community and human rights law see and treat human disability in general. This paradigm shift materilizes itself in a number of provisions ranging from those which catalogue the proclaimed human rights as they are in the context of special implementation and protection of people with disabilities, to those that introduce a level of specificity in light of th...

  19. The Tale of Two Civil Societies: Comparing disability rights movements in Nicaragua and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Meyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The UNCRPD is unique amongst international rights instruments because it empowers civil society organizations to represent the rights-bearers themselves—persons with disabilities. As such, DPOs in the Global South have become a major concern for UN agencies and international NGOs who believe that grassroots disability associations need political advocacy training in order to take up their role as rights advocates. These expectations contain implicit assumptions regarding civil society-state relations and the existence of governmental capacity. The authors, however, hypothesize that not all civil societies will fit the rights advocacy model due to the political culture and public resources available within their respective, local communities. Disability movements in Nicaragua and Uruguay are compared and contrasted. In Nicaragua, a disability rights coalition dismisses many international expectations in favor for continuing to follow traditional civil society expectations to provide services. In Uruguay, a long history of high levels of social spending and disability organizing enabled DPOs to successfully advocate for progressive laws. The deaf community, however, decided to implement their own, separate advocacy strategies to ensure a fairer distribution of public resources. The authors conclude that rather than top-down civil society training, the international movement should allow local organizations set their own priorities.

  20. Reproductive rights: an international sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, S

    1984-01-01

    This discussion considers the issue of reporductive rights in the countries of Mexico, Nigeria, Iraq, India, Germany, China, Colombia, Poland, Italy, Egypt, and Ireland. In Mexico abortion is illegal, but an estimated 3 million illegal abortions are performed yearly. Complications from these abortions send 600,000 women to Mexican hospitals each year. The Mexican government, concerned about overpopulation, appears to be moving toward a liberalization of its abortion policy. Birth control is available, often without a prescription, in pharmacies, public health agencies, and some hotels. In Nigeria if a pregnant women goes abroad she must take a medical test upon returning to prove she has remained pregnant during the trip. Underground abortionists cater especially to unmarried teenagers. Women in Nigeria obtain birth control with the written permission of their husbands. Elective abortion is illegal in Iraq. Theoretically, contraception is available to all without a doctor's prescription, but in actuality, only married women buy contraceptives which are often simply not in stock in pharmacies and stores. Elective abortion is legal in India where the government has launched an agressive family planning compaign. India's family planners have had to work against religious prohibitions against abortion. Germany has zero population growth and the lowest birthrate in the world. Birth control is available to all, both by prescription and over the counter. Abortion became legal in 1978. In China "one couple one child" is the favorite slogan and the eventual goal of an aggressive family planning campaign inaugurated in 1979. The Chinese hope this policy will reduce population growth to 5% by 1985 and allow the country to achieve zero population growth by the end of the century. To this end, the Chinese government has launched a massive public education program encouraging late marriages and the use of contraception. Abortions, sterilizations, and contraceptive devices are

  1. Survival, Disability Rights, and Solidarity: Advancing Cyberprotest Rhetoric through Disability March

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin W. Mann

    2018-01-01

    Disability March (DM) was an online contingent of the 2017 Women's March on Washington which allowed protestors who could not attend physical marches due to disabilities to create profiles and descriptions on the website disabilitymarch.com. In this thematic analysis of the 2,251 profiles created through DM, I found emergent themes related to disability disclosure, support for broad health care coverage, support for human rights, and opposition to the new political administration. Comments su...

  2. Disability Rights, Music and the Case for Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubet, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Participation in music is both a human right and a disability right. Music is a human need in the Darwinian (not Social Darwinian) evolutionary sense. Similarly, inclusion is an evolved capacity, beneficial to human perpetuation. The policing of music resembles authoritarian regulation of other forms of allegedly pleasurable but actually vital…

  3. Survival, Disability Rights, and Solidarity: Advancing Cyberprotest Rhetoric through Disability March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Mann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Disability March (DM was an online contingent of the 2017 Women's March on Washington which allowed protestors who could not attend physical marches due to disabilities to create profiles and descriptions on the website disabilitymarch.com. In this thematic analysis of the 2,251 profiles created through DM, I found emergent themes related to disability disclosure, support for broad health care coverage, support for human rights, and opposition to the new political administration. Comments supporting these themes demonstrated that DM functioned as a unique form of cyberprotest that upheld disabled perspectives through solidarity. This study demonstrates that disability cyberprotest movements like DM may promote disabled individuals within broader protest discourse and contemporary policy issues that are often essential to the survival and well-being of marginalized individuals.

  4. "A Lesson in Love": The Right to Autonomy of the Disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Holanda Fernandes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities aims to promote the autonomy of these individuals. In this context, it guarantees the right to sexuality, family pool, legal recognition, civil and political rights, etc. From this perspective, the goal is to understand autonomy as an element of human dignity and the theoretical foundations of exercise for people with disabilities. As an example, presents the movie "I Am Sam" in the history of a parent with mental retardation and their legal battle for custody of their daughter.

  5. Sovereignty, human rights, and international migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Rocha Reis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between sovereignty and human rights concerning the elaboration of immigration policies. It deals with the role of the State in international migrations, the effects of the development of an international human rights legislation over the immigration question, and finally discusses the idea that the increasing international migration is leading the State to lose control over its population and territory, two central features of the sovereignty concept.

  6. The Right to Work by the Persons with Disabilities in the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sousa de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The strugles lived by the persons with disabilities on their quest for attaining their proper rights have taken the shape of a true democratic battle with the increasing number of persons in this situation and the uprise in their worldwide influence. The advances reached by this minority group have drawn, at first, international attention and, subsequently, national acceptance, leading to the signature of the New York Covention, in 2008. In fact, the equality principle - treating the equals equally and the unequals unequally - looses its meaning without the defiinition of what are these inequalities and who are the people who suffer from it. One of the main approaches for achieving equality is by protecting these people's right to work, inclusive within the public sphere. Work a productive act of citizenship and, as such, cannot be denied or limited due to the disability. For the persons with disabilities, working in the public service is a challenge which has been only partially solved. Although their access to jobs in the public service has been widely guaranteed, it is still necessary to ensure the essential conditions for the effective accomplishment of their assigned duties. The main goal of this paper is to analize the evolution of the national and international law in terms of the current understanding that implementing the rights of people with disabilities should be centered on inclusion. After a brief investigation of the legislation protecting the rights of the people with disabilities, we make a detailed study of the internal, State and Federal Law in order to identify the presence or absence of regulations that promote the adaptation or readaptation of workers with disabilities. The analysis will be focused on the comparison between the worker's attained post and his/hers actual duties and the responsabilities, specially in the cases on which the readaptation process act in terms of promoting the exclusion of the person with

  7. Human rights and intellectual disabilities in an era of 'choice'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyson, R; Cromby, J

    2013-12-01

    Efforts to uphold and promote the human rights of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are being affected by the increasing emphasis on 'choice' in the delivery of social care services. While rights presume subjects or selves to whom they apply, there is a disconnect between the subjects presumed within human rights frameworks and the variable capacities of a heterogeneous ID population. This disconnect is amplified by choice discourses which characterise current service provision based upon neoliberal ideologies. Conceptual assumptions and theoretical positions associated with human rights in relation to people with ID are critically examined. The analysis results in an argument that current conceptualisations of personhood in relation to human rights exclude people with ID. The adverse effects of this exclusion are exacerbated within services which emphasise the permissive rights associated with a neoliberal agenda of 'choice' over protective rights. In order to ensure that the human rights of people with ID are upheld, neoliberal emphases on choice need to be tempered and a more nuanced and inclusive notion of personhood in relation to universal human rights needs to be adopted. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  8. Characteristics of international websites with information on developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Gelbar, Nicholas W; Mouradjian, Keri; Shefcyk, Allison; Smith, Isaac C

    2014-10-01

    The Internet often serves as a primary resource for individuals seeking health-related information, and a large and growing number of websites contain information related to developmental disabilities. This paper presents the results of an international evaluation of the characteristics and content of the top 10 ranked results (i.e., not including sponsored results - pay-per-click) returned when one of five terms related to developmental disabilities (i.e., ADHD, autism, down syndrome, learning disability, intellectual disability) was entered into one of six country specific Google online search engines (i.e., Australia (https://www.google.com.au), Canada (https://www.google.ca), Ireland (https://www.google.ie), New Zealand (https://www.google.co.nz), the United Kingdom (https://www.google.co.uk), and the United States (https://www.google.com)) on October 22, 2013. Collectively, we found that international consumers of websites related to developmental disabilities will encounter different websites with differing content and terminology, and should be critical consumers to ensure they locate the information they are seeking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Precision Medicine and Advancing Genetic Technologies—Disability and Human Rights Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling de Paor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological developments are propelling genetics and genetic technologies into the public sphere. Scientific and technological innovation is becoming more refined, resulting in an increase in the availability and use of genetic testing, and other cutting edge genetic technologies, including gene editing. These genetic advances not only signal a growing trend towards precision medicine, but also provoke consideration of the protection of genetic information as an emerging human rights concern. Particular ethical and legal issues arise from a disability perspective, including the potential for discrimination and privacy violations. In consideration of the intersection of genetics and disability, this article highlights the significant concerns raised as genetic science and technology advances, and the consequences for disability rights, particularly the core concepts of non-discrimination, and respect for diversity and difference. On examining international human rights perspectives, it looks particularly at the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and how it may be used to guide best practice in this area. With an acknowledgement of historical abuses of genetic science, this article highlights the need to maintain caution as to the potential consequences of advancing genetic technologies on persons with disabilities and indeed on society as a whole.

  10. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  11. Disability Discrimination and the Right of Disabled Persons to Access the Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Marumoagae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which most employers are faced with in the South African labour market. Key among such challenges has also been employers' ability to ensure that persons with disabilities access the labour market. In this paper I highlight employment discrimination experienced by persons with disabilities in South African workplaces, which often prohibits them from accessing employment opportunities. I argue that employers need to consider employing persons with disabilities and also reasonably to accommodate them within South African workplaces. I further illustrate efforts by the legislature to eradicate forms of unjustified discrimination against persons with disabilities through the enactment of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998. I argue that all of us need to understand how cultural, social, physical and other barriers continue to prevent persons with disabilities in South Africa from enjoying their constitutional rights to equality, freedom and human dignity, and further, that it is desirable that society at large and government work together towards eradicating barriers which prevent persons with disabilities from accessing the labour market.

  12. Global Forest Rights Action Research | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How can such rights and benefits be distributed equitably within communities? ... strengthened livelihoods through improved forest management;; partnership ... Enhancing the Action Research Capacity of the International Model Forest Network ... by bringing research findings, mainly from earlier IDRC-supported work, into ...

  13. 45 CFR 1385.4 - Rights of individuals with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... university affiliated programs or for projects of national significance grants must also contain an assurance... DISABILITIES, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM § 1385.4 Rights of individuals with developmental disabilities. (a) Section 110 of the Act, Rights...

  14. International Legal Realities of Migrant Labour Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Di Lieto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the evolutionary process of the global governance of labour migration, which has led to the progressive privatisation and commodification of international labour mobility. The focus is on the effects of such change on working conditions for migrants. In particular, the analysis is concerned with legal conceptualisations of labour mobility and their repercussions on the normative process of migration governance. For people on the move, the journey almost always entails sacrifices and uncertainty. The possible costs range from the emotional cost of separation from families and friends to high monetary fees. The stakes can include the physical dangers of working in dangerous occupations, or even a risk of death, such as in the case of illegal border crossings. Nevertheless, millions of people are still attempting movement, facing these costs or risks, in order to improve their living standards and those of their families. The implications for international human rights law are striking. Thus, attention is drawn to the human rights of all migrant workers, and more specifically to the protection and development of basic labour rights in the framework of international organisations. Ultimately, the main point of this study is to evaluate to what extent the freedom to choose where to work and to do so in decent conditions is a current legal reality at both the national and international levels.

  15. Disability, Access to Food and the UN CRPD: Navigating Discourses of Human Rights in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzi Waltz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, the Netherlands ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD, one of the last developed nations to do so. In this article, we explore how equal access to food provides a lens through which barriers to implementing a rights-based approach to disability equality can be examined in countries that are historically resistant to such discourses. Through a literature review, policy research, and interviews with disabled people, representatives of disabled people’s organisations, Dutch legal scholars, food researchers, and foodbanks, we have explored barriers to equal food access in the Netherlands, and current approaches to overcoming social, economic and physical barriers. Our analysis indicates that implementation of the UN CRPD and other relevant international and EU policies continues to be limited in the Netherlands due to narrow interpretations, leading to policies and practices that do not foster equal access to resources and environments. Dutch understandings of disability equality are evolving, but encounter opposition from an entrenched system of separation and resistance to mandating change, including a reluctance to even collect data about inequality. From this basis, we identify knowledge gaps and make recommendations for steps the Netherlands could take to ensure equal access to food.

  16. International telemedicine consultations for neurodevelopmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L; Sable, Craig; Evans, Sarah; Knight, Joseph; Cunningham, Parker; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Gropman, Andrea; Stuart, Sheela; Glass, Penny; Conway, Anne; Ramadan, Issam; Paiva, Tania; Batshaw, Mark L; Packer, Roger J

    2014-06-01

    A telemedicine program was developed between the Children's National Medical Center (CNMC) in Washington, DC, and the Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Foundation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A needs assessment and a curriculum of on-site training conferences were devised preparatory to an ongoing telemedicine consultation program for children with neurodevelopmental disabilities in the underserved eastern region of the UAE. Weekly telemedicine consultations are provided by a multidisciplinary faculty. Patients are presented in the UAE with their therapists and families. Real-time (video over Internet protocol; average connection, 768 kilobits/s) telemedicine conferences are held weekly following previews of medical records. A full consultation report follows each telemedicine session. Between February 29, 2012 and June 26, 2013, 48 weekly 1-h live interactive telemedicine consultations were conducted on 48 patients (28 males, 20 females; age range, 8 months-22 years; median age, 5.4 years). The primary diagnoses were cerebral palsy, neurogenetic disorders, autism, neuromuscular disorders, congenital anomalies, global developmental delay, systemic disease, and epilepsy. Common comorbidities were cognitive impairment, communication disorders, and behavioral disorders. Specific recommendations included imaging and DNA studies, antiseizure management, spasticity management including botulinum toxin protocols, and specific therapy modalities including taping techniques, customized body vests, and speech/language and behavioral therapy. Improved outcomes reported were in clinician satisfaction, achievement of therapy goals for patients, and requests for ongoing sessions. Weekly telemedicine sessions coupled with triannual training conferences were successfully implemented in a clinical program dedicated to patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities by the Center for Neuroscience at CNMC and the UAE government. International consultations in neurodevelopmental

  17. Same law-same rights? Analyzing why Sweden's disability legislation failed to create equal rights in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maycraft Kall, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzed the apparent paradox of disability rights in Sweden. Despite strong welfare state traditions and stated Government ambitions to create generous statutory entitlements for all disabled people using a single, comprehensive Disability Act, psychiatric disabilities were principally excluded from the Disability Act's rights and provisions. The study focused on Sweden's Mental Health Reform and Disability Reform using governance perspectives that traced and analyzed the policy-processes of both reforms. Theoretically guided analytical frameworks were developed to help understand the divergent reform outcomes. The first focused on legislative arguments of regulatory specificity and legal enforcement mechanisms to consider whether the Disability Act was formulated in a manner that was easier to apply to certain disabilities. The second analyzed ideological arguments and the influence of Government political beliefs that signaled specific reform 'visions' to implementers and thereby influenced policy implementation. The main findings are that both perspectives matter as the dual influences of legislative and ideological differences tended to exclude mental health service users from the Act's generous disability rights. The overall conclusion was that while legislation was an important regulatory mechanism, the Government's underlying ideological reform vision was also an essential governance instrument that signaled Government intentions to implementing agencies and thus influenced the creation of enduring disability rights. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human rights of persons with mental disabilities. The European Convention of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, L O

    2000-01-01

    It is not necessary to recount the numerous charters and declarations ... to understand human rights.... All persons are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Everyone ... is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the international human rights instruments without discrimination, such as the rights to life, liberty, security of the person, privacy, health, education, work, social security, and to marry and found a family. Yet, violations of human rights are a reality to be found in every corner of the globe.

  19. International employee perspectives on disability management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon; Buys, Nicholas; Yu, Ignatius; Geisen, Thomas; Harder, Henry; Randall, Christine; Fraess-Phillips, Alex; Hassler, Benedikt; Scott, Liz; Lo, Karen; Tang, Dan; Howe, Caroline

    2018-05-01

    To provide an international analysis of employees' views of the influence of disability management (DM) on the workplace. An international research team with representation from Australia, Canada, China, and Switzerland collected survey data from employees in public and private companies in their respective regions. Due to lack of availability of current measures, a research team-created survey was used and a total of 1201 respondents were collected across the four countries. Multiple linear (enter) regression was also employed to predict DM's influence on job satisfaction, physical health, mental health, workplace morale and reduced sickness absence, from respondents' perceptions of whether their company provided disability prevention, stay-at-work, and return-to-work initiatives within their organization. One-way ANOVA comparisons were used to examine differences on demographic variables including company status (public versus private), union status (union versus nonunion), and gender. The perceived influence of DM programs was related to perceptions of job satisfaction; whereas, relationships with mental health, physical health, morale, and sickness absence were variable according to type of DM program and whether the response was related to self or others. Difference analyses (ANOVA) revealed significantly more positive perceptions for private and nonunion organizations; no gender effects were found. There is perceived value of DM from the perspective of employees, especially with respect to its value for coworkers. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation efforts should continue to focus attention on the value of disability management (DM). In particular, DM that is fully committed to the biopsychosocial model would be supported by this research. Employees reported the most value in the psychosocial variables addressed by DM, such that rehabilitation professionals could focus on these valued aspects to improve buy-in from employees. The interest in

  20. Pipelines explosion, violates Humanitarian International Right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Recently and for first time, an organism of the orbit of the human rights put the finger in the wound of the problem that represents for Colombia the pipelines explosion and the social and environmental impact that those actions in this case the Defense of the People office, the institution that published a document related this denounces, in the one that sustains that the country it cannot continue of back with a serious and evident reality as the related with the explosions of pipelines. We are the only country of the world where happen these facts and enormous losses are not only causing to the Colombian economy, but rather our environmental wealth is affecting, the document, denounced the ignorance of the humanitarian international right on the part of those who apply to that class of attacks

  1. Ensuring the Right to Vote for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawrence M. Mute

    2009-11-17

    Nov 17, 2009 ... be a contributor in the major decision making process in your country ... let as make sure .... mental disorders/disabilities had to take a rationality test at the .... Enfranchising Persons with Disabilities in Kenya: Tripple Messages.

  2. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Notes on Genealogy and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Margret; Mazurek, Kas

    2014-01-01

    The dense and complex "Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" (CRPD) is both a human rights treaty and a development tool. It supplements the web of existing human rights instruments insofar as they relate to disability. Schooling is enshrouded as a rights-based case; inclusive education as a development tool for all…

  3. Children's rights, international human rights and the promise of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 INTRODUCTION. A perception exists amongst ... groups.1 The criticisms levelled against Islamic legal precepts, particularly in the aftermath of ... of Islamic legal theory pertaining to the rights of children, particularly the potential of this theory ...

  4. Analysis of the recent international documents toward inclusive education of children with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaie Minou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of various international documents clearly suggests that international documents have provided a significantmotivation to efforts undertaken at the national level about education of children with disabilities. UN Convention on theRights of the Child imposed a requirement for radical changes to traditional approaches to provision made for children withdisabilities. One year later, the 1990 World Conference on Education for all focused attention on a much broader range ofchildren with disabilities who may be excluded from or marginalized within education systems. Its development has involveda series of stages during which education systems have explored different ways of responding to children with disabilities andothers who experience difficulties in learning. This conference declared the inclusive education is regarded as the only meansto achieve the goal of "Education for All". This trend was reaffirmed by next international documents. And finally, accordingto the article 24 of the Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities, disabled persons should be able to accessgeneral tertiary education, vocational training, adult education and lifelong learning without discrimination and on an equalbasis with others through reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. All of these documents played an important role inbringing the attention on to children with disabilities, especially on education as a vehicle for integration and empowerment.This research examines the new international trends occurring regarding the education of children with disabilities and finallyresults that the new trends show a movement from special education to inclusive education and moving from seclusion toinclusion and provide that solutions must focus on prevention, cure and steps to make these children as normal as possible.In this regard, States must ensure the full realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all disabled people,on an

  5. Disabling Discourses and Human Rights Law: A Case Study Based on the Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the symbolic power of language to construct and convey disabling discourses, albeit ample rhetoric, on the need to reinstate and safeguard disabled people's human rights and entitlements. The role of language and its discursive ramifications need to be explored and problematized in the light of legal mandates and…

  6. Role of Self-help Groups in Promoting Inclusion and Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Kumaran

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:This study examined the role of self help groups in addressing some of the problems faced by persons with disabilities such as social exclusion, discrimination, lack of awareness about their rights and privileges, and absence of livelihood programmes.Method: One hundred persons with disabilities were randomly drawn for the study from 50 self help groups in 2 districts that were covered under a popular poverty alleviation programme implemented by the state of Andhra Pradesh  in India.  An interview schedule was used to collect information.Results: Before joining the group, some of the persons with disabilities were mostly confined to their houses, and viewed as less productive and incapable of leading a ‘normal’ life. After joining the groups, they came out of their seclusion and started to work together for their collective welfare and development. They gained knowledge about their rights and privileges and started income generation activities with the help of loans made available to them.  They gained better acceptance within their families, but attitudes of their communities was slower to change. A feeling that “disability is not inability” seemed to have been internalized among the members of the groups.Conclusion: Self-help groups can be very effective in helping persons with disabilities to come out of their isolation and in promoting their participation and inclusion in societal mainstream.Key Words: Self-help group, persons with disabilitiesdoi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.78

  7. The Right to Live--Disability Is Not a Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Lisa

    1984-01-01

    A physically disabled individual shares her horror at decisions of parents and doctors to deny medical treatment to handicapped infants. She avers that every child is born with a mix of talents and shortcomings, some more marked than others, and that disability should not be punished. (CL)

  8. What Is Right? Ethics in Intellectual Disabilities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Kidney, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    There are important benefits to including adults with intellectual disabilities in research. Calls for their increased participation in research co-occur with notable discussion about how to conduct ethically strong research with adults with intellectual disabilities, a population widely considered vulnerable in the context of research. The…

  9. Violence and abuse against people with disabilities: A comparison of the approaches of the European Court of Human Rights and the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Oliver; Campbell, Ann

    This paper explores how, and how effectively, two systems of international law have addressed exploitation, violence and abuse of people with mental disabilities. The two international systems reviewed were the Council of Europe's European Court of Human Rights and the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The two issues dealt with are (a) forced institutionalisation and denial of community-based services and (b) medically-sanctioned treatment as abuse or violence. The paper offers a comparative analysis of the way in which the two bodies have dealt with exploitation, violence and abuse of people with disabilities, and offers recommendations as to how the two bodies could adjust their approaches to come into closer alignment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. 77 FR 72909 - International Day of Persons With Disabilities, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... they travel, conduct business, study, or reside overseas. Ratifying the Convention in the Senate would reaffirm America's position as the global leader on disability rights and better position us to encourage... disabilities is guaranteed. Today, let us renew our commitment to meeting that challenge here in the United...

  11. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mititelu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the United Nations, in 1966, the human being who enjoy his civil and political rights, enjoy in fact that “humanitas dignitas” (human dignity, since these rights derive from this. That is why this Covenant stipulated that the States parties are obligated to assure both the recognitions of these rights and their exercise and juridical protection.

  12. A Clash of Conventions? Participation, Power and the Rights of Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Sandland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the neglected topic of the relationship between the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with regard to the participation rights of disabled children. It analyses key articles in both conventions and considers relevant general comments from both convention committees (the Committee on the Rights of the Child and the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and their interpretation by academic contributors. The article argues that much work on this topic fails to develop an adequate understanding of power relations, and that the ‘social model of disability’ which underpins the disabilities convention, when applied to ‘childhood’ (as opposed to ‘children’ suggests that the implications of that convention for the participation rights of all children, not only disabled children, are profound. This is because the disabilities convention rejects the relevance of tests of capacity and ‘best interests’ for disabled adults, for reasons which are equally germane to disabled children, and children in general. The article concludes with discussion of the difficulties in implementing the insights derived from the analysis of the disabilities convention in substantive law in the absence of a right to freedom from age discrimination for children, and suggests other, less far-reaching, reforms that could be made this notwithstanding.

  13. Human rights of refugee-survivors of sexual and gender-based violence with communication disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Barrett, Helen

    2018-02-01

    Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 1948 ) states that all people have the right to seek, receive and impart information using any means. Ensuring that people with communication disability achieve this right is inherently challenging. For people with communication disability, who are refugee-survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), additional human rights are challenged, including the right to education, protection from discrimination, a safe place to live, security of person and legal protection. Their experiences and needs, however, are poorly understood. This paper reports on a literature review of the intersectionality between SGBV, being a refugee and having a communication disability, and a preliminary investigation of the situation of refugee-survivors of SGBV with communication disability, in Rwanda. The project involved 54 participants, including 50 humanitarian and partner organisation staff and four carers of refugees with communication disabilities, from two locations (camp-based and urban refugees). Findings from both revealed that, for people with communication disability, barriers are likely to occur at each step of preventing and responding to SGBV. Moreover, stigmatisation of people with communication disability challenges SGBV prevention/support and people with communication disability may be targeted by SGBV perpetrators. SGBV service providers acknowledge their lack of knowledge and skills about communication disability, but wish to learn. Findings highlight the need for increased knowledge and skill development, in order to improve the situation for refugee-survivors of SGBV with communication disability.

  14. The Intersection of Intellectual Disability and Dementia: Report of The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P

    2017-11-02

    An International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia, held in Glasgow, Scotland (October 13-14, 2016), drew individuals and representatives of numerous international and national organizations and universities with a stake in issues affecting adults with intellectual disability (ID) affected by dementia. A discussion-based consensus process was used to examine and produce a series of topical reports examining three main conceptual areas: (a) human rights and personal resources (applications of the Convention for Rights of People with Disabilities and human rights to societal inclusion, and perspectives of persons with ID), (b) individualized services and clinical supports (advancing and advanced dementia, post-diagnostic supports, community supports and services, dementia-capable care practice, and end-of-life care practices), and (c) advocacy, public impact, family caregiver issues (nomenclature/terminology, inclusion of persons with ID in national plans, and family caregiver issues). Outcomes included recommendations incorporated into a series of publications and topical summary bulletins designed to be international resources, practice guidelines, and the impetus for planning and advocacy with, and on behalf of, people with ID affected by dementia, as well as their families. The general themes of the conceptual areas are discussed and the main recommendations are associated with three primary concerns. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Disability Rights, Gender, and Development: A Resource Tool for Action. Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva de Alwis, Rangita

    2008-01-01

    This resource tool builds a normative framework to examine the intersections of disability rights and gender in the human rights based approach to development. Through case studies, good practices and analyses the research tool makes recommendations and illustrates effective tools for the implementation of gender and disability sensitive laws,…

  16. Disability, access to food and the UN CRPD : Navigating discourses of human rights in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltz, Mitzi; Mol, Tanja; Gittins, Elinor; Schippers, Alice

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, the Netherlands ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD), one of the last developed nations to do so. In this article, we explore how equal access to food provides a lens through which barriers to implementing a rights-based approach to disability

  17. A Handbook on Legal Rights of Developmentally Disabled People in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogi, Robert; And Others

    The handbook provides information in question-and-answer format on the legal rights of developmentally disabled persons, focusing on those in the state of Massachusetts. An introductory section discusses developmental disabilities and advocacy. The main section, on legal rights, covers such areas as discrimination (including Section 504 of the…

  18. The inclusion of disability as a condition for termination of parental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Elizabeth; Hill, Katharine; LaLiberte, Traci

    2010-12-01

    All 50 states and the District of Columbia have statutes outlining the grounds for terminating parental rights (TPR) in relation to child abuse and neglect. Although recent research has found that parents with disabilities are not more likely to maltreat their children than parents without disabilities (Glaun & Brown, 1999; Oyserman, Mowbray, Meares, & Firminger, 2000), studies have found very high rates of TPR of parents with disabilities (Accardo & Whitman, 1989). The objective of this study is to examine how states are including disability in their TPR statutes. This study used legal document analysis, consisting of a comprehensive Boolean search of the state codes of the 50 states and District of Columbia (DC) relating to TPR, using the most recent state code available on Lexis-Nexis in August 2005. TPR and related statutes were searched for contemporary and historical disability related terms and their common cognates, such as: "mental," "disability," "handicap," and "incapacity." Two researchers independently conducted the searches, and the searches were reconciled. A code list was then developed to measure for inclusion of disability, preciseness, scope, use of language, and references to accessibility or fairness. Statutes were then reanalyzed, and groupings developed. Thirty-seven states included disability-related grounds for termination of parental rights, while 14 states did not include disability language as grounds for termination. Many of these state codes used outdated terminology, imprecise definitions, and emphasized disability status rather than behavior. All of the 14 states that do not include disability in TPR grounds allowed for termination based on neglectful parental behavior that may be influenced by a disability. The use of disability language in TPR statutes can put an undue focus on the condition of having a disability, rather than parenting behavior. This paper recommends that states consider removing disability language from their

  19. The Right to Freedom of Association in the Workplace: Australia's Compliance with International Human Rights Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Zoé

    2010-01-01

    The right to freedom of association in the workplace is a well established norm of international human rights law. However, it has traditionally received insubstantial attention within human rights scholarship. This article situates the right to freedom of association at work within human rights discourses. It looks at the status, scope and importance of the right as it has evolved in international human rights law. In so doing, a case is put that there are strong reasons for states to comply...

  20. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Erinda Duraj (Male)

    2015-01-01

    Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The partic...

  1. Arab women continue rights struggle | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-01-29

    Jan 29, 2013 ... English · Français ... A) launched a regional research effort in 2002 to examine how women's lack of citizenship rights leads to the denial of a host of other rights. ... Now, says Abou-Habib, “we have more knowledge about how ...

  2. When International Press Rights "Are" the News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2006-01-01

    In many countries, reporters and editors face criminal prosecution, censorship, self-censorship, exile, tax audits, loss of broadcast and publication licenses, loss of jobs, assault, and even assassination based on how they practice their profession. Press rights and human rights advocacy groups try to draw media and official attention to those…

  3. The Paralympic Movement: using sports to promote health, disability rights, and social integration for athletes with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauwet, Cheri; Willick, Stuart E

    2012-11-01

    Competitive sports for people with disabilities has grown rapidly over the past several decades, and opportunities for participation are increasingly available throughout the spectrum from developmental to elite. The Paralympic Games, seen as the pinnacle sporting event that represents the broader Paralympic Movement, has provided a platform to showcase the abilities of people with disabilities while also serving as a catalyst for disability rights through ensuring integration, equality of opportunity, and accessibility of the built environment. Concurrently, media coverage of the Paralympic Games has led to an increased awareness of opportunities for sport participation for individuals with disabilities and, with it, the adjustment of norms regarding expectations for exercise as a component of preventive health. In addition, there is evidence of the power of sports to stimulate confidence, self-efficacy, and a self-perceived high quality of life for individuals with disabilities above and beyond the basic benefits to cardiometabolic fitness. When taken together, the promotion of health, disability rights, and social integration through sports has the power to transform the lives of those who participate and to further stimulate the expansion of opportunities available to the next generation of athletes with disabilities. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. THE EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS OF DISABLED PEOPLE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Koceva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of the legal framework concerning the employment rights of the disabled people in the Republic of Macedonia is a significant research challenge because of its importance regarding the employment rights regulation of the disabled people in all. When analyzing the regulation regarding the disabled people, the editing of their rights is of great importance as a source and promoter of many crucial changes and value components when creating a democratic society with no discrimination. Considering this, the influence of the degree of respecting the value principles and standards is particularly emphasized along with the human rights and freedom of the disabled people when it comes to the development of the democracy and the rule of law. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Macedonian legal framework for the employment rights of the disabled people and to present the provisions of the most important legal acts concerning this subject.

  5. Constitutional Socio-Economic Rights and International Law: "You ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenauer Foundation and Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus) 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights.

  6. Protecting digital rights in Pakistan | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-02-13

    Feb 13, 2017 ... The annual prize is awarded by the Dutch government to human rights ... a growing social conservatism that prizes whatever form of stability is promised. ... is difficult, made worse by increasing social and political instability.

  7. Health care access and support for disabled women in Canada: falling short of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barbara E; Mykitiuk, Roxanne

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and other international human rights conventions guarantee the fundamental human rights to physical, social, and psychological health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these rights are being upheld in Canada for disabled women. An interpretive, qualitative, focus group design was employed. Participants were women 18 to 67 years of age with a self-identified physical, sensory, cognitive, and/or psychiatric impairment. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 74 disabled women from urban and rural settings in Northern Ontario, Manitoba, and Nova Scotia. The data were analyzed for themes using a flexible coding system derived from and consistent with the research objectives and the study's human rights framework. Participants described multiple intersecting factors that impeded or facilitated access to health care. Services included both generic health services and impairment-specific services. Participants experienced a number of barriers accessing professionals, support programs, and services. These are described under three broad themes: 1) Labyrinthine health service 'systems,' 2) assumptions, attitudes, and discriminatory practices, and 3) inadequate sexual health or reproductive services and supports. The results suggest that Canada falls significantly short of guaranteeing disabled women's human rights to access health care supports and services. Access barriers resulted from the inefficiencies and complexities of the multiple agencies and programs that disabled women had to navigate, difficulties accessing information on available services, and negative attitudes of some health and social service providers. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health to the disability tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Becker, Angela; Doralp, Samantha; Fayed, Nora; Kean, Crystal; Lencucha, Raphael; Leyshon, Rhysa; Mersich, Jackie; Robbins, Shawn; Doyle, Phillip C

    2007-01-01

    The Disability Tax Credit (DTC) Certification is an assessment tool used to provide Canadians with disability tax relief The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a universal framework for defining disability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DTC and familiarize occupational therapists with the process of mapping measures to the ICF classification system. Concepts within the DTC were identified and mapped to appropriate ICF codes (Cieza et al., 2005). The DTC was linked to 45 unique ICF codes (16 Body Functions, 19 Activities and Participation, and 8 Environmental Factors). The DTC encompasses various domains of the ICF; however, there is no consideration of Personal Factors, Body Structures, and key aspects of Activities and Participation. Refining the DTC to address these aspects will provide an opportunity for fair and just determinations for those who experience disability.

  9. The general law on persons with disabilities and the right to self-determination of people with mental disabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza Espinoza, Juan; Universidad de San Martín de Porres

    2015-01-01

    This law is extremely important, since repealed and modified quite a few articles of the Civil Code related to exercise capacity. Indeed, aims to establish the legal framework for the promotion, protection and realization, equal, rights of persons with disabilities, promoting their development and full and effective inclusion in the political, economic, social, cultural and technological (art. 1.°), the defines a disabled person. Esta ley es sumamente importancia por cuanto ha derogado y m...

  10. Disability Exclusion and Rights: The Life Story of Alice Jamieson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Lynch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a commonly held belief that fear of disability by society is the reason for segregation of the disabled. Although acknowledging the validity of such a belief, this paper disputes this claim as it pertains to sufferers of mental illness. Specifically it explores one woman’s development of dissociative identity disorder as a result of years of incestuous abuse. Alice Jamieson developed multiple personalities in order to survive her horrendous childhood, which ultimately caused her to live a life of segregation and social exclusion. Alice did however; experience the enabling effects of positive, supportive relationships on rare occasions throughout her childhood (with her grandfather and her adult life (with a work colleague. The telling of her story bought Alice a powerful sense of healing and has helped raise awareness of childhood sexual abuse and its devastating consequences.

  11. FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN INDONESIAN PRESS: INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Staples

    2016-01-01

    This paper will firstly examine the International framework of human rights law and its guidelines for safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press. Secondly, it will describe the constitutional and other legal rights protecting freedom of speech in Indonesia and assess their compatibility with the right to freedom of speech under the International human rights law framework. Thirdly it will consider the impact of Indonesia's constitutional law and criminal and civil law, includin...

  12. International criminal tribunals and human rights law: Adherence and contextualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Given their mandate to prosecute persons responsible for the most atrocious of human rights violations, International Criminal Tribunals (ICTs) are generally hailed as welcome enforcers of international human rights law: a new instrument in the toolkit of human rights protectors. However, ICTs

  13. The right to vacation: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rebecca; Schmitt, John

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews international vacation and holiday laws and finds that the United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers any paid vacation or holidays. As a result, one in four U.S. workers do not receive any paid vacation or paid holidays. The lack of paid vacation and paid holidays in the United States is particularly acute for lower-wage and part-time workers, and for employees of small businesses. This report also includes a comparative appendix with information on paid leave and holiday laws in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

  14. Indigenous Australians, Intellectual Disability and Incarceration: A Confluence of Rights Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Brolan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article reviews the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians with intellectual disability in the Australian prison system through a human rights lens. There is an information gap on this group of Australian prisoners in the health and disability literature and the multi-disciplinary criminal law and human rights law literature. This article will consider the context of Indigenous imprisonment in Australia and examine the status of prisoner health in that country, as well as the status of the health and wellbeing of prisoners with intellectual disability. It will then specifically explore the health, wellbeing and impact of imprisonment on Indigenous Australians with intellectual disability, and highlight how intersectional rights deficits (including health and human rights deficits causally impact the ability of Indigenous Australians with intellectual disability to access due process, equal recognition and justice in the criminal justice and prison system. A central barrier to improving intersectional and discriminatory landscapes relating to health, human rights and justice for Indigenous Australian inmates with intellectual disability, and prisoners with intellectual disability more broadly in the Australian context, is the lack of sufficient governance and accountability mechanisms (including Indigenous-led mechanisms to enforce the operationalisation of consistent, transparent, culturally responsive, rights-based remedies.

  15. Expanding the horizons of disability law in India: a study from a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Tushti

    2013-01-01

    Disabled/"differently abled" persons by virtue of being human have the right to enjoy human rights to life, liberty, equality, security, and dignity. However, due to social indifference, psychological barriers, a limited definition of "disability" entitling protection of law, and a lack of proper data, disabled persons in India remain an invisible category. Although several laws exit to ensure their full and effective participation in society, they remain insufficient as they are primarily based on the government's discretion. At the same time, whenever the judiciary finds an opportunity, it acts as a real protector of disabled persons, but it is not feasible to knock on the door of the judiciary for every request. Interestingly, various civil societies and human rights activists have occasionally asserted the rights of the disabled. However, unless the foundation stones of law are fortified, disabled persons cannot fully realize their rights. It is high time to enact effective laws, with timely implementation, to protect their interests and empower their capabilities that are based on a "rights-based approach" rather than on the charity, medical, or social approaches. Thus, the horizons of law must be expanded to provide a "human friendly environment" for all of the disabled to overcome the barriers that impair their development. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  16. Health Advocacy: A Vital Step in Attaining Human Rights for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolan, C. E.; Boyle, F. M.; Dean, J. H.; Gomez, M. Taylor; Ware, R. S.; Lennox, N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) experience health inequity compared with the general population, a key contributing factor being disparities in social determinants of health. The enactment of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) provides a platform for the progression and promotion of…

  17. The Inclusion of Disability as a Condition for Termination of Parental Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Elizabeth; Hill, Katharine; LaLiberte, Traci

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: All 50 states and the District of Columbia have statutes outlining the grounds for terminating parental rights (TPR) in relation to child abuse and neglect. Although recent research has found that parents with disabilities are not more likely to maltreat their children than parents without disabilities ([Glaun and Brown, 1999] and…

  18. International human rights and cultural diversity: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly agreed that international human rights law and cultural diversity have a mutually interdependent and beneficial relationship. Many human rights, such as the rights to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life

  19. Labour Law for Persons with Disability in Iran: From First International Efforts to Decent Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Reza Abadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis and Matching the legal system of Work for Persons with disability in Iran with Standards of International Labor Organization concerning to Decent Work. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive – Analytic study , after studying International efforts around Labor law for Persons With Disability , in the context of general and special Human rights documents and ILO ‘s Standards, the present Legal system for the work of persons with disability in Iran, Include Laws and Regulations has been considered by Using the Library – documentation method. Results: In the scope of fundamental Rights, Iranian legal system 1- About Disabled compulsory Work has enough guarantees like other workers, and there is not any deficiency. 2- About Freedom of syndicalism: there is not any deficiency too, and there is not any limitation for Disabled workers and employers membership in present associations. 3- In subject of equal remuneration, despite of non-ratification any special approval, but the Base Wage has determined the same for disabled workers (like the others in article 41 of the Labor Law. 4- About nondiscrimination, also based on present legal foundations, any kind of discrimination because of disability has been prohibited, and in field of employment, by ratification the comprehensive law recently in 2004 and by joining to convention for persons with disability in 2008 has taken serious steps too. Specially the significant gap of facilities presented in various areas of rationing public sector employment, Direct and Indirect Educational services for entering the labor market , and self –employment between war reterans and other groups of disability has been narrowed. Conclusion: Based on results of present comparative research, legal principles for fundamental Rights of vocation for people with disabilities in Iran attempt to meet the basic standards of Decent Work and thus it seems that the crucial issue, besides the passing the

  20. Civil rights for people with disabilities: obstacles related to the least restrictive environment mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    State and other social service agencies as well as service providers are governed by laws that often provide unclear guidance regarding the rights of people with disabilities. Although some standards can be, and have been, developed to protect the rights of people with disabilities, all people with disabilities are not the same and therefore, each can require very different types of accommodations. Some aspects of disability rights must be individually based, including the requirement that people with disabilities receive educational services in the least restrictive environment and care in the most inclusive setting. The current interpretation of these mandates suggests that agency decisions rely on professional judgments. Unless professionals work with their clients, this reliance can serve to disempower those whom the law was intended to protect. Though much debated, the legal definition of a person with a disability is unclear. This article examines the concept of disability and that of the least restrictive environment as well as that of the "most inclusive setting," explains to whom they apply, discusses how they have been defined both in statutes and case law, and elaborates on the role of social workers as a result of the law's reliance on professional judgment in ascertaining client rights.

  1. Canada's Implementation of the Right to Education for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Seema

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the content and legal implementation of the right to education as a human right in Canada. It seeks to expose the extent to which Canadian legislative mechanisms have succeeded in protecting the right to education of students with disabilities by using students with epilepsy as a test case. To that end, the article examines…

  2. Mind the Gap: The Human Rights of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobrial, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic human rights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the Human Rights of children with…

  3. LEGAL ANALYSIS OF ARTICLE 7 OF THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES: CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGNACIO CAMPOY CERVERA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to carry out an in-depth analysis of Article 7, “Children with disabilities”, of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. First of all it is explained how the Article 7 is the result of two different models of human rights: the “renewed” protectionism in relation with the children’s rights and the social model in relation with the rights of persons with disabilities. After, it is explained how was the development of the creation of Article 7 within the Ad Hoc Committee which was created for the elaboration of the Convention. In an extensive section it is analysed the wording of Article 7, particularly taking account of the General Comments of the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Committee on the Rights of the Child. Finally, the analysis of the meaning and scope of Article 7 is completed, taking into account other articles of the Convention and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights.

  4. Depression in the context of disability and the "right to die".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Carol J

    2004-01-01

    Arguments in favor of legalized assisted suicide often center on issues of personal privacy and freedom of choice over one's body. Many disability advocates assert, however, that autonomy arguments neglect the complex sociopolitical determinants of despair for people with disabilities. Specifically, they argue that social approval of suicide for individuals with irreversible conditions is discriminatory and that relaxing restrictions on assisted suicide would jeopardize, not advance, the freedom of persons with disabilities to direct the lives they choose. This paper examines the idea promoted by some proponents of assisted suicide that it is reasonable to be depressed about one's diminished quality of life in cases of irreversible illness or disability and, therefore, such depression should not call into question the individual's competence to request assistance in dying. The concept of rational depression is defined and examined in the context of: four real-life cases involving individuals with disabilities who requested assistance in dying; a set of criteria commonly applied to decision-making to determine rationality; and research bearing on the emotional status of people with disabilities. It is concluded that although disability is associated with particular socially mediated stressors, there is no theoretical or empirical evidence to indicate that depression and its role in the "right to die" is dynamically different, more natural, or more reasonable for disabled people than for non-disabled people.

  5. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The text of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - a high-class international document on the assurance and legal protection of the human rights - outlined a sum of principles regarding these rights, which fall within the broad range of legal doctrine on fundamental human rights. These principles are not contrary to the principles set out in the Charter of the United Nations and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, on the contrary, it were given an evident expression in its text content. That the authors of this Covenant wanted the assertion of these principle provisions, it is actually confirmed by the text of Article 24.

  6. Educating for an Inclusive World: Lessons Learned from a Globally Networked Human Rights and Disability Course for Social Work and Law Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Filomena; Lewis, Laura; Méndez-López, Adalberto

    2017-01-01

    This article examines an innovative model of online international education regarding disability through a human rights perspective piloted through a collaboration between Universidad LaSalle, Mexico, and University at Buffalo, United States. The course is organized around a pressing global human rights and development issue. Its objective is to…

  7. The Discourse on Human Rights and the International Regime of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyassu Gayim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The international regime of human rights governs the kinds of freedoms, liberties, benefits, autonomy and protection which human beings are entitled to, what kind of obligations we have in this connection and what the roles of states are in recognizing and protecting these rights. Yet, the sources, foundation and justifications for these rights and who we are by nature to deserve some rights has been contentious over the centuries, not least because we live in social context, which requires balancing rights by meeting the broader community interests: political order, stability, and satisfying the general welfare. This paper re-visits the major contentious positions in the discourse on human rights for purposes of explaining how the international community has navigated when shaping the contours of the international regime of human rights. Has this regime endorsed, rejected or avoided some of these positions? Does it follow a clear political ideology?

  8. Afrikaans-speaking parents' perceptions of the rights of their children with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities: A descriptive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Alta; Bornman, Juan; Dada, Shakila

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the perceptions of Afrikaans-speaking parents regarding the human rights, as defined by the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), of their children, aged between 8.0 and 14.11 (years/months), with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. The underlying premise is that the CRC defines the rights of children, whereas the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) can provide the framework for documenting a deprivation of rights and the conditions under which those rights can be realized. Forty-seven Afrikaans-speaking parents completed a custom-designed survey. The results of the closed-ended questions indicated that most parents felt that their children had rights and that these rights were met. A theme analysis performed on the open-ended questions revealed that parents were mostly concerned about their children's rights pertaining to school education and safety. These rights were discussed in terms of the CRC articles and linked to environmental codes of the ICF-CY. Finally, the limitations and implications of the study are discussed and recommendations are made. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels.

  10. Remarks before the Paralyzed Veterans of America, Disability Rights Conference (Washington, DC, April 5, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Wm. Bradford

    This speech by the Assistant Attorney General in the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice describes the Reagan Administration's enforcement of section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and other federal statutes protecting the rights of disabled people in America. The Supreme Court case of "Consolidated Rail Corporation v.…

  11. Evolving International Practices for Protection of Human Rights- the UN Human Rights Advisory Panel and EU Human Rights Review Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzije ISTREFI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the unique development of the international human rights non judicial protection mechanism in Kosovo. Since 1999 Kosovo has been placed under international supervision carried out by international organizations, namely the United Nations and the European Union. The UN’s Mission in Kosovo (UNMK was unprecedented both in scope and structural complexity. After the Declaration of Independence by Kosovo authorities on 17 February 2008, the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo EULEX took over to assist and support the Kosovo authorities in the rule of law area, specifically in the areas of the police, the judiciary and customs. The UNMIK’s extensive mandate and EULEXs limited executive powers in practice have affected human rights of Kosovars as a consequence of the UNMIK and EULEX actions and inactions in the course of exercise of their mandates. This study will try to reveal the processes that lead to establishment of these two unique international human rights Panels and their impact on human rights protection of individuals under international administration. The main question to be addressed is if these two human rights panels are providing the adequate remedy for addressing human rights violations by international actors in a post conflict Kosovo.

  12. Evolving International Practices for Protection of Human Rights- the UN Human Rights Advisory Panel and EU Human Rights Review Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Remzije ISTREFI

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the unique development of the international human rights non judicial protection mechanism in Kosovo. Since 1999 Kosovo has been placed under international supervision carried out by international organizations, namely the United Nations and the European Union. The UN’s Mission in Kosovo (UNMK) was unprecedented both in scope and structural complexity. After the Declaration of Independence by Kosovo authorities on 17 February 2008, the European Union Rule ...

  13. The sexual and reproductive rights and benefit derived from sexual and reproductive health services of people with physical disabilities in South Africa: beliefs of non-disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Xanthe; Carew, Mark T; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Swartz, Leslie; Chiwaula, Mussa; Rohleder, Poul

    2017-05-01

    There is a body of theoretical work, and some empirical research, which suggests that non-disabled people assume people with physical disabilities are not suitable romantic partners, do not have sexual drives or desires, or are not sexually active. It has also been proposed that people with physical disabilities face barriers to sexual healthcare access which are structural as well as social. The present paper explores non-disabled South Africans' beliefs concerning the degree to which non-disabled respondents enjoy sexual and reproductive rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare, compared to people without disability. Using a survey, we asked 1989 South Africans to estimate the degree to which people with physical disabilities and people without disability have sexual rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare services, respectively. Respondents were more likely to support the idea that the population without disability were deserving of sexual rights compared to people with physical disabilities. Respondents were more likely to rate the degree to which people with physical disability benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare as less than that for people without physical disabilities. These findings provide some of the first empirical support that non-disabled people perceive people with physical disabilities as having fewer sexual and reproductive rights, and deriving less benefit from sexual and reproductive health services, than the population without disability. To have diminished sexual rights, and benefit less from sexual and reproductive healthcare, we suggest, evinces a negation of the sexual and reproductive needs and capacity of people with physical disabilities.

  14. Finding the Gaps: A Comparative Analysis of Disability Laws in the United States to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the National Council on Disability (NCD), and others, better understand how the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, if ratified by the United States, might impact U.S. disability laws by examining the degree to which U.S. law is consistent with the CRPD. The paper endeavors to analyze the…

  15. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  16. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing...

  17. Disability and sexuality as right to quality of life aspects view of social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta

    2015-12-01

    address the sexuality issues for people with mental disabilities view of social workers. Objectives of the study – describe the rights of mentally disabled individuals; address the concept of sexuality for people with mental disabilities; analyse social workers’ opinion about people with intellectual disabilities and sexuality. Social workers think that parents should assist any child – regardless of her/his abilities – to develop life skills. Societal discomfort – both with sexuality and also with the sexuality of people who live with disabilities – may mean that it is easier to view anyone who lives with disabilities as an ‘eternal child.’ This demeaning view ignores the need to acknowledge the young person’s sexuality and also denies her/his full humanity. The main problem thus is not the lack of sexual activity, but lack of sexual education. Without proper sex education, people with mental disabilities are at great risk to sexual exploitation, sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancy. Sex education must, therefore, encompass skills to prevent sex abuse and encouragement to report and seek treatment for unwanted sexual activity. Experts in the field agree that disabled individuals are entitled to a full sexual life. Sex education materials and programs do exist that are designed to meet the needs of people who live with physical, emotional, and mental disabilities. However, the conducted surveys revealed that social experts working in the field tend to avoid responsibilities and pass on the education related matters to the parents’ shoulders or suggest enrolling to sex education classes. Keywords: mental disability, sexuality, social workers.

  18. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health

  19. Human Rights Education and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Nica

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP)--a program implemented in thousands of schools globally--introduced a human rights course (Makivirta, 2003). This curriculum is the first of its kind to hold potential widespread influence on human rights education in the formal education sector. In this study, I analyze the…

  20. Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

  1. The Netherlands and the Development of International Human Rights Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiding, H.

    2007-01-01

    When discussing the Netherlands' international human rights policies, the first aspects to come to mind are usually those related to how it addresses and reacts to concrete human rights violations by other countries. In fact, there sometimes appears to be a tendency for public opinion to identify a

  2. Rights and the Role of Family Engagement in Child Welfare: An International Treaties Perspective on Families' Rights, Parents' Rights, and Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzer, Gertrud; Gran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    According to international human rights treaties, what rights do family members, parents, and children have in family engagement in child welfare decision-making? A sociolegal analytical approach produces a typology of rights, then applies the typology to eight countries' approaches to family engagement to show that strong bundles of rights are…

  3. Conscientious objection to military service in international human rights instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Kavaliauskaitė, Ernesta

    2010-01-01

    Current debates on conscientious objection to military service reveal a conflict between conscription and individual freedom of conscience; they question the scope of human rights and liberties as well as raise an issue of their extension. The majority of member states of UN and CoE officially recognize a right to conscientious objection. However, the flow of complaints to international human rights monitoring bodies demonstrates absence of a general consensus on the concept, origin and legal...

  4. International financial institutions and human rights: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Thomas; Kentikelenis, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Serving as lender of last resort to countries experiencing unsustainable levels of public debt, international financial institutions have attracted intense controversy over the past decades, exemplified most recently by the popular discontent expressed in Eurozone countries following several rounds of austerity measures. In exchange for access to financial assistance, borrowing countries must settle on a list of often painful policy reforms that are aimed at balancing the budget. This practice has afforded international financial institutions substantial policy influence on governments throughout the world and in a wide array of policy areas of direct bearing on human rights. This article reviews the consequences of policy reforms mandated by international financial institutions on the enjoyment of human rights, focusing on the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. It finds that these reforms undermine the enjoyment of health rights, labour rights, and civil and political rights, all of which have deleterious implications for public health. The evidence suggests that for human rights commitments to be met, a fundamental reorientation of international financial institutions' activities will be necessary.

  5. Intellectual disability rights and inclusive citizenship in South Africa: What can a scoping review tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) is the most prevalent disability in the world. People with intellectual disability (PWID) frequently experience extreme violations of numerous human rights. Despite greater prevalence in South Africa than in high-income countries, most ID research currently comes from the Global North. This leaves us with few contextually sensitive studies to draw from to advance inclusive citizenship. Objectives Our scoping review aims to investigate pertinent ID rights issues in South Africa, synthesise quantitative and qualitative studies, and provide a synopsis of available evidence on which to base future work. We aim to clarify key concepts, address gaps in the literature and identify opportunities for further research. Method We followed strict eligibility criteria. Medical subject heading terms were entered into seven databases. Seven reviewers worked independently, two per paper. Quantitative and qualitative data extraction forms were designed. We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and registered a protocol. An inductive approach enabled a thematic analysis of selected studies. Results By following PRISMA guidelines, 82 studies were assessed for eligibility of which 59 were included. Ten sub-themes were integrated into four main themes: the right not to be discriminated against, the right to psychological and bodily integrity, the right to accommodating services and challenges to rights implementation. Conclusion People with intellectual disability face compound difficulties when trying to assert their constitutionally entitled rights. This ongoing project requires serious commitment and action. Statutory obligations to nurture every South African’s human rights naturally extend to PWID and their supporters who forge ahead in a disabling environment. PMID:29850438

  6. FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN INDONESIAN PRESS: INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Staples

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will firstly examine the international framework of human rights law and its guidelines for safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press. Secondly, it will describe the constitutional and other legal rights protecting freedom of speech in Indonesia and assess their compatibility with the right to freedom of speech under the international human rights law framework. Thirdly it will consider the impact of Indonesia’s constitutional law and criminal and civil law, including sedition and defamation laws, and finally media ownership, on the interpretation and scope of the right to freedom of speech in the press. Consideration of these laws will be integrated with a discussion of judicial processes. This discussion will be used to determine how and in what circumstances the constitutional right to freedom of speech in the press may be facilitated or enabled, or on the other hand, limited, overridden or curtailed in Indonesia. Conclusions will then be drawn regarding the strengths and weaknesses of Indonesian laws in safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press and the democratic implications from an international human rights perspective. This inquiry will be restricted to Indonesian laws in existence during the post-New Order period of 1998 to the present, and to the information and analysis provided by English-language sources.

  7. International human rights for mentally ill persons: the Ontario experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerberg, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    This article is part of a working project which assesses Ontario's mental health legislation and practice vis-à-vis international human rights standards. The paper focuses on procedural safeguards provided by the major international human rights instruments in the field of mental health law such as the UN Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness (MI Principles) and the European Convention on Human Rights as interpreted by the European Human Rights Court. In analysing Ontario's compliance with international standards, the paper will explore some problems arising from the implementation of the legislation with which the author is familiar with from his experience as counsel for the Consent and Capacity Board. The paper aims to generate discussion for potential reforms in domestic legal systems and to provide a methodology to be used as a tool to assess similar mental health legislation in other local contexts.

  8. Emerging hemodynamic signatures of the right heart (Third International Right Heart Failure Summit, part 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite the importance of preserved right ventricular structure and function with respect to outcome across the spectrum of lung, cardiac, and pulmonary vascular diseases, only recently have organized efforts developed to consider the pulmonary vascular–right ventricular apparatus as a specific unit within the larger context of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology. The Third International Right Heart Failure Summit (Boston, MA) was a multidisciplinary event dedicated to promoting a dialog...

  9. Death with "dignity": the wedge that divides the disability rights movement from the right to die movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behuniak, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Much of the American debate over physician assisted death (PAD) is framed as an ideological split between conservatives and liberals, pro life and pro choice advocates, and those who emphasize morality versus personal autonomy. Less examined, but no less relevant, is a split within the ranks of progressives--one that divides those supporting a right to die in the name of human rights from disability rights activists who invoke human rights to vehemently oppose euthanasia. This paper reviews how "dignity" serves both as a divisive wedge in this debate but also as a value that can span the divide between groups and open the way to productive discourse. Supporters of legalized euthanasia use "dignity" to express their position that some deaths might indeed be accelerated. At the same time, opponents adopt the concept to argue that physician assisted suicide stigmatizes life with a disability. To bridge this divide, the worldviews of two groups, Compassion & Choices and Not Dead Yet, are studied. The analysis concludes that the two organizations are more parallel than contrary--a finding that offers opportunities for dialogue and perhaps even advances in public policy.

  10. Disability rights in dialogue with clinical genetics conference, May 31 to June 2, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The issue of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion has been hotly debated in the medical, genetic counselling, feminist, parents, disability rights and bio-ethics literature, each of the various positions critiquing each other. People from the disability rights community in particular have began to articulate a critical view of the practice of widespread prenatal diagnosis with intent to abort because the pregnancy might result in a child with a disability. Unfortunately, people from the various disciplines and perspectives, such as bioethics, disability rights, feminism and so forth, by and large, have tended only to write for themselves and their colleagues. Few people have crossed disciplines to try to talk to people with other views. The rapid advances of genome research have continued to produce new prenatal tests, raising many complex ethical questions regarding the applications of prenatal testing. But the widely disparate positions of the various factions has made it difficult to move toward formulation of public policy change necessary to encompass these new genetic technologies. Genetic counselling is in the front lines of the controversial social and ethical issues arising from prenatal diagnosis, in its interface between medical science and the consumer of services. The primary intent of the conference was to invite and facilitate productive dialogue between individuals and groups of people who have traditionally not interacted as a result of their disparate views on these issues and to learn from this process, emphasizing the involvement of people with disabilities and people who work in clinical genetics.

  11. Challenges and improvements in the rights of persons with disabilities: A global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Cisternas Reyes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Persons with Disabilities is the first human rights treaty of the 21st century, which established the human rights model for this part of the population. The Convention is structured around two main pillars: equality and non discrimination, and diversified rights for this group. This Convention raises a number of legal innovations among which we highlight the accessibility, rehabilitation, the right to independent living, and the right to inclusion in the community, aspects that invite to explore its nature. In addition to these principles, the work of the treaty body, the Committee of Experts of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, will be analyzed. The Committee has competence to examine individual complaints, and has adopted General Comments on critical issues such as equal recognition before the law and accessibility. Finally, this paper studies the link between the human rights of people with disabilities and the Sustainable Development Goals for the Post-2015 Development Agenda, which has predominated the contemporary debate within the United Nations.

  12. Mapping Progress : Human Rights and International Students in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jakubowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in international student numbers in Australia in the first decade of the  2000s was accompanied by a series of public crises. The most important of these was the outbreak in Melbourne Victoria and elsewhere of physical attacks on the students. Investigations at the time also pointed to cases of gross exploitation, an array of threats that severely compromised their human rights. This paper reviews and pursues the outcomes of a report prepared by the authors in 2010 for Universities Australia and the Human Rights Commission. The report reviewed social science research and proposed a series of priorities for human rights interventions that were part of the Human Rights Commission’s considerations.  New activity, following the innovation of having international students specifically considered by the Human Rights Commission, points to initiatives that have not fully addressed the wide range of questions at state.

  13. Human Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and Universal Values in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist and far right-wing (national-socialistic threats to be met by the supporters of liberal political rights and civil freedoms in the interwar period. The list of human rights and fundamental freedoms had constantly been updating in the postwar period, including by the efforts of the UNO and other international organizations, and fixing in different international documents. The author emphasizes the import role of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE in transforming the issues of human rights and fundamental freedoms into the essential element of public diplomacy of contemporary states. He traces the process of the increasing utilization of liberal political rights and civilian freedoms, which are usually the effective tools for domestic democratic transformation, within the framework of diplomatic practice of European and North-American states, aimed at ensuring their political and economic interests on the world stage. In this regard the author addresses the attempts of Western countries to legalize "humanitarian"interventions in circumvention of the UN Security Council. The article emphasizes the necessity to replenish the understanding of universal human rights and freedoms by the values, developed both by the international community within the framework of implementing the Millennium Development Goals and by various countries and peoples, which in sum constitute the modern international civilizational baggage.

  14. Equality of What? The Capability Approach and the Right to Education for Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Broderick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to education is indispensable in unlocking other substantive human rights and in ensuring full and equal participation of persons with disabilities in mainstream society. The cornerstone of Article 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities seeks to ensure access to inclusive education for persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others as well as the full development of human potential. Since the adoption of the Convention, there has been much theorising about inclusive education; however, there has been little focus on the meaning of equality in the context of the right to education for persons with disabilities. The capability approach, developed by Amartya Sen and further refined by Martha Nussbaum, focuses on ensuring equality and developing human potential. It is often viewed as a tool that can be used to overcome the limitations of traditional equality assessments in the educational sphere, which only measure resources and outcomes. This article explores whether the capability approach can offer new insights into the vision of educational equality contained in the Convention and how that vision can be implemented at the national level.

  15. Experiencing Rights within Positive, Person-Centred Support Networks of People with Intellectual Disability in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, A.; Donelly, M.; Whitaker, L.; Dew, A.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Knox, M.; Shelley, K.; Parmenter, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This research describes issues related to human rights as they arose within the everyday lives of people in nine personal support networks that included adult Australians with an intellectual disability (ID). Method: The research was part of a wider 3-year ethnographic study of nine personal support networks. A major criterion for…

  16. The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

  17. Public and Professional Constructions of Mental Retardation: Glen Ridge and the Missing Narrative of Disability Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biklen, Douglas; Schein, Philip Lambert

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses a court case of an adolescent labeled retarded who was sexually assaulted. It examines implications of being spoken about and of others speaking for the labeled person. It then considers how a disability rights/People First framework could shift public and professional understandings and responses to human abuse. (Contains…

  18. Social participation for people with communication disability in coffee shops and restaurants is a human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Clare; Guinan, Nicole; Kinneen, Libby; Mulheir, Denise; Loughnane, Hannah; Joyce, Orla; Higgins, Elaine; Boyle, Emma; Mullarney, Margaret; Lyons, Rena

    2018-02-01

    Although Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "everyone has a right to freedom of opinion and expression", for people with communication disability this may not be a reality. This commentary shares a practical example of how people with communication disabilities together with speech-language pathology (SLP) students, academics and clinical staff co-designed and co-implemented a Communication Awareness Training Programme for catering staff to enable communication access in coffee shops and restaurants. This is an example of how SLPs can embrace their social responsibility to break down barriers for people with communication disabilities. This commentary shares the reflections of those involved and how they felt empowered because they had learned new skills and made a difference. This commentary highlights the need for co-design and co-delivery of programs to raise awareness of communication disability among catering staff and how the stories of people with communication disabilities served as a catalyst for change. It also highlights the need to SLPs to move intervention to a social and community space.

  19. Rights Discourses in Relation to Education of People with Intellectual Disability: Towards an Ethics of Care that Enables Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, Judith Anne; Macleod, Catriona Ida

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we argue that human rights approaches for intellectually disabled people have failed to recognise the complexity of rights claims made by and on behalf of this group. Drawing on a research project into discourses of education for intellectually disabled people in the Eastern Cape, South Africa we discern three rights discourses;…

  20. Human dignity according to international instruments on human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Alzina de Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to international instruments on human rights, the dignity of the human person is the foundation of human rights, and both human dignity and human rights are inherent to the human being, universal and inviolable. This understanding of human dignity is not a fruitless truism, but the solid foundation on which to build a world community under the rule of the new ius gentium: the International Law for Humankind. Moreover, it is the clue to answer many questions raised by the new world of globalization and of the exponential growth of international rules.Consequently, there is a need to a common doctrine on a notion of human dignity which will allow the implementation and adjudication of the aforementioned instruments, at the service of the human person and in conformity with the juridical conscience which they reflect. Philosophy of Law concepts which can be traced back to Aristotle provide that notion. According to these concepts, the demanding nature of “human dignity” sustains the notion of “legal personhood”, and both notions pertain to the realm of Law and Right, not of Morale and Values. Thus, human dignity and human rights are and must be, respectively, a basic principle and a necessary part of any Law system, including international law

  1. Embracing international children's rights: from principles to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Charles N

    2012-07-01

    As clinicians, pediatricians need to be cognizant of the how the principles of equity, social justice, and children's rights help to inform and guide us as we strive for the health and well being of all children. Children of the world are frequently the most vulnerable global citizens facing poverty, displacement, and lack of life's basic necessities. An awareness of international children's rights can serve as a catalyst for working toward the ultimate dream that all children have the right to be raised in a warm and loving family as part of the global community where health and well-being is realized. To that end, the American Academy of Pediatrics has a number of valuable resources designed to promote a better understanding of international children's rights. These include the Community Pediatric Section's Children's Rights Curriculum dedicated to increasing awareness of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Children and the relationship between public policy, advocacy, and children's health. In addition, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Section on International Child Health is committed to improving the health and well-being of the world's children through education, advocacy, research, and the delivery of health services and the creation of effective global partnerships.

  2. Emerging hemodynamic signatures of the right heart (Third International Right Heart Failure Summit, part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Bradley A

    2014-12-01

    Despite the importance of preserved right ventricular structure and function with respect to outcome across the spectrum of lung, cardiac, and pulmonary vascular diseases, only recently have organized efforts developed to consider the pulmonary vascular-right ventricular apparatus as a specific unit within the larger context of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology. The Third International Right Heart Failure Summit (Boston, MA) was a multidisciplinary event dedicated to promoting a dialogue about the scientific and clinical basis of right heart disease. The current review provides a synopsis of key discussions presented during the section of the summit titled "Emerging Hemodynamic Signatures of the Right Heart." Specifically, topics emphasized in this element of the symposium included (1) the effects of pulmonary vascular dysfunction at rest or provoked by exercise on the right ventricular pressure-volume relationship, (2) the role of pressure-volume loop analysis as a method to characterize right ventricular inefficiency and predict right heart failure, and (3) the importance of a systems biology approach to identifying novel factors that contribute to pathophenotypes associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension and/or right ventricular dysfunction. Collectively, these concepts frame a forward-thinking paradigm shift in the approach to right heart disease by emphasizing factors that regulate the transition from adaptive to maladaptive right ventricular-pulmonary vascular (patho)physiology.

  3. Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

  4. The Human Rights Approach to Education in International Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufner, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with human rights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…

  5. The right to a fair appeal in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, Drazan

    2017-01-01

    The Right to a Fair Appeal in International Criminal Law – Layman’s Summary A criminal trial does not end after the first judgment of a court. A person is only finally found guilty or innocent after one or more appeals. Appeals thus have an important place in the criminal justice system. However,

  6. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  7. The Right to Education for Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A distinctive challenge facing internally displaced persons (IDPs) are structural conditions that deny them access to the right to education. The main aim of the study is to investigate the role of open and distance learning in providing access and educational opportunities to the IDPs. The research methodology for this study ...

  8. Immigrant Rights in Iran and Canada and International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzan Lotfi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available After World War II, migration, particularly in the post-Cold War became a global challenge. Today, there are 191 million migrants around the world that constitutes 3 percent of the world's total population. And it is a fact that has various social, economic, humanitarian, political and especially juridical dimensions and effects at the international level as an international issue. National Immigration Law is a part of the legal system governing the strangers in the host state whose provisions are determined by the domestic legal system of the recent state. Although the standards of international law are intended to govern migration, but in this case, however, the regulation of the source government is ineffective. Unless there are specific treaty arrangements while global recruits in the field of migration are specifically impossible and regional multilateral treaties can only be cited. This article tries to review and analyze the immigrant rights in Iran as a source country and Canada as a host country with their own different rights regarding the immigrants by a descriptive - analytical approach. Because of tangible vacuum in the literature of international law and the need to explore other sources of international law, according to the first paragraph of Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, on the one hand and the necessity of this article in Iran as a transit country for migration and particularly to Canada on the other hand, conducting this research is of great importance.

  9. People with disabilities and work inclusion in Latin America: challenges to the universalization of rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wederson Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational inclusion is one of the major contemporary challenges in promoting the human rights of people with disabilities in any country. Objective: To carry out a theoretical discussion and analysis of public policy through the characteristics of the legislative framework of the Latin American countries with their respective initiatives, policies and programs to promote the labor inclusion of people with disabilities. Method: The documents were analyzed, with emphasis on content analysis, in order to form a analysis framework on the main characteristics, similarities and challenges faced by these countries. Results: The main initiatives of the Latin American countries have been: 1. approval of legislation with mandatory vacancies in companies and public service; 2. creation of national computerized occupational intermediation systems; 3. Entrepreneurship of people with disabilities and 4. policies for personalized follow-up of the labor inclusion itinerary. Conclusion: The main challenges common to Latin American countries, which become barriers to inclusion, are: 1. To comply with the quotas reserved and to carry out supervision; 2. To increase the educational and professional qualification of the people; 3. To reconcile benefits of non-contributory / social security incomes with occupational contributions, 4. Raise awareness among businesses, families and society about the productivity and capacities of people with disabilities, and 5. Create tax exemptions and other incentives for companies to hire people with disabilities.

  10. Accessibility to the Public Facilities: A Mean to Achieve Civil Rights of the People with Disabilities in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Ghasemzadeh; Mohammad Kamali; Ali Chabok; Masoud Fallahi Khoshknab; Manuchehr Shirani

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Civil rights may cover different aspects of citizens’ lives. All the members of the society should have equal access to the public facilities and public transportation system. Barriers and obstacles in society may limit the accessibility of these facilities to the disabled people. Methods: This article contains a part of the results in a phenomenological study of the Disability Rights. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe experiences of disability r...

  11. Consensus statement of the International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia on valuing the perspectives of persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Udell, Leslie; Hogan, Mary; Quinn, Sam; Beránková, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia covered a range of issues related to dementia and intellectual disability, including the dearth of personal reflections of persons with intellectual disability affected by dementia. This article reflects on this deficiency and explores some of the personal perspectives gleaned from the literature, from the Summit attendees and from the experiences of persons with intellectual disability recorded or scribed in advance of the two-day Summit meeting. Systemic recommendations included reinforcing the value of the involvement of persons with intellectual disability in (a) research alongside removing barriers to inclusion posed by institutional/ethics review boards, (b) planning groups that establish supports for dementia and (c) peer support. Practice recommendations included (a) valuing personal perspectives in decision-making, (b) enabling peer-to-peer support models, (c) supporting choice in community-dwelling arrangements and (d) broadening availability of materials for persons with intellectual disability that would promote understanding of dementia.

  12. Special education as a trap: Detours and mazes in ensuring the right to inclusive education for persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Correa Montoya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical analysis of the judicial precedent of the Colombian Constitutional Court when protecting the Right to Education of persons with disabilities. After contrasting the Human Rights standards enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities with the main decisions of the Court, we conclude that it has promoted special and segregated education and therefore it has fostered discrimination on the basis of disability and the violation of other constitutional rights. The article closes identifying the main challenges that judges may face in the future for effectively protect the Right to Inclusive education.

  13. Right Site, Wrong Route - Cannulating the Left Internal Jugular Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Peter; Arukala, Sanjay K; Sule, Anupam A

    2018-01-09

    Central venous catheters are placed in approximately five million patients annually in the US. The preferred site of insertion is one with fewer risks and easier access. Although the right internal jugular vein is preferred, on occasion, the left internal jugular may have to be accessed. A patient was admitted for septic shock, cerebrovascular accident, and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A central venous line was needed for antibiotic and vasopressor administration. Due to trauma from a fall to the right side and previously failed catheterization attempts at the left subclavian and femoral veins, the left internal jugular vein was accessed. On chest radiography for confirmation, the left internal jugular central venous catheter was seen projecting down the left paraspinal region. It did not take the expected course across the midline toward the right and into the superior vena cava (SVC). A review of a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest with contrast done on a prior admission revealed a duplicated SVC on the left side that had not been reported in the original CT scan interpretation. A left-sided SVC is present in approximately 0.3% to 0.5% of the population, with 90% of these draining into the coronary sinus. During placements of central venous lines and pacemakers, irritation of the coronary sinus may result in hypotension, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, or cardiac arrest. A widened mediastinum can be an indication of a duplicated SVC. When attempting a left internal jugular vein central venous catheter placement, it is important to be aware of venous anomalies in order to prevent complications.

  14. CONSIDERATIONS APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS OF WAGES AND RELATED RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    NASTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA; AVRAM MARIOARA

    2014-01-01

    General research area of this article is the issue of employee benefits nationwide and can be placed in the sphere of accounting research at the intersection of the finance research and field research on human resource management. The current conditions of global economic crisis, rewarding staff works on two levels, influencing both the behavior of employees and the efficiency of the economic entity. Wages and related rights are regulated under International Accounting Sta...

  15. The Voting Rights of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Reflections on the Arguments, and Situation in Kenya and England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redley, M.; Maina, E.; Keeling, A.; Pattni, P.

    2012-01-01

    Article 29 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities guarantees equality of political rights, including the right to vote and stand for election. The affirmation of these rights, first guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, raises an important question given the long-standing association between political…

  16. Human rights of children with intellectual disabilities: comparing self-ratings and proxy ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huus, K; Granlund, M; Bornman, J; Lygnegård, F

    2015-11-01

    A child rights-based approach to research articulates well with Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and highlights the importance and value of including children's own views about aspects that concern them. The aim of this study is to compare children with intellectual disability's own ratings (as self-raters) to those of their primary caregivers (as proxy raters) regarding human rights of children. The study also aims to establish whether there is an inter-rater agreement between the self-raters and proxy raters concerning Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This study is nested in a larger study examining the human rights of children with intellectual disability in South Africa. In total, 162 children with intellectual disability from 11 schools across three provinces and their primary caregivers participated by answering parts of a Children's Rights Questionnaire (CRQ) developed by the researchers based on the United Nation's CRC. We compared the answers for six questions in the questionnaire that were addressed to self-raters (children) and proxy raters (primary caregivers) in the same way. Questions regarding basic needs, such as access to clean water or whether the child had food to eat at home, were answered similarly by self-raters and proxy raters. Larger differences were found when self-raters and proxy raters were asked about whether the child had things or friends to play with at home. Socio-economic variables seemed to affect whether self-raters and proxy raters answered similarly. The results underscore the importance of promoting children's rights to express themselves by considering the opinions of both the children as self-raters and their primary caregivers as proxy raters - not only the latter. The results indicate that it is especially important to include children's own voices when more complex needs are surveyed. Agreement between self- and proxy ratings could be affected by socio-economic circumstances.

  17. Pathological, Disabled, Transgender: The Ethics, History, Laws, and Contradictions in Models that Best Serve Transgender Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance; Gill, Sabrina

    This article addresses the precarious place of transgender and gender non-cis persons in relation to their discrimination-protections in recent legal, medical, and ethical policies in the United States. At present, there exists a contradiction such that trans persons are considered "pathological" enough that they are included in the latest iteration of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) as "gender dysphoric," but they are not included in the category of "disabled" under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). As such, trans persons in America are subject to the stigma of pathology (albeit with medical treatment) without the full protections of the ADA. By contrast, transgender and non-cis-gender Americans find their queer cohorts who are HIV-positive to be fully protected by the ADA. We ask whether transgender and non-cis-gender persons should embrace their (already pathologized) personhood as a disability. Sometimes "choosing disability" affords more rights than it deploys stigma.

  18. Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

    2010-05-15

    Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities – such as evictions and lost access to natural resources – are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTION, DISABILITY AND HEALTH IN FIELD OF PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, as an active participant at the Seminar IMPLEMENTATION OF ICF IN THE FIELD OF PEDIATRICS, held on 14-15 July 2004 at the hotel Panorama – Skopje, states his insight about the organization, work and aims of the seminar. He makes a review on attitudes and fields ICF in pediatric field commits. The commitments of ICF (International Classification of Function, Disability and Health in the Field of Pediatrics have been put on the child with developmental disabilities to be attention-centered; on bio-developmental model in interaction with the environment, on greater possibilities, safety and satisfaction of needs, as well as on greater freedom in participation in the community to realize the legal rights. It is pointed out that ICF in the field of pediatrics supports the idea ‘One for all’.

  20. Right to education: the school enrollment of people with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto David Araujo

    2015-12-01

    by the Brazilian Constitution, that has in equality one of its core values. From a newspaper report, denouncing the difficulty of people with disabilities to actualize their enrollment in the regular school system, this article analyzes the current constitutional configuration of rights to inclusion and education of that vulnerable group, pointing out the ways offered by the Brazilian legal system to guarantee and actualize these rights. Any damage caused by the refusal of the school enrollment, diffuse or individual, moral or material, are liable to repairing.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS OF WAGES AND RELATED RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the issue of employee benefits nationwide and can be placed in the sphere of accounting research at the intersection of the finance research and field research on human resource management. The current conditions of global economic crisis, rewarding staff works on two levels, influencing both the behavior of employees and the efficiency of the economic entity. Wages and related rights are regulated under International Accounting Standards and International Financial Reporting Standards by IAS 19 "Employee Benefits" and IFRS 2 "Share-based Payment". Concerns over the years, on remuneration, was the International Accounting Standards Board, as in 1998 was developed International Accounting Standard 19 "Employee Benefits" and in 2004 was drafted to International Financial Reporting Standard 2 "Share-based Payment". This article is part of a broader research and through it we tried to address a topical issue that employee benefits and consequences of the degree of economic and financial development of economic entities and living standards of the population.

  2. [Functioning and disability: the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Fidalgo, María; Geoffrey, Reed; Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has provided a new foundation for our understanding of health, functioning, and disability. It covers most of the health and health-related domains that make up the human experience, and the most environmental factors that influence that experience of functioning and disability. With the exhaustive ICF, patients' functioning -including its components body functions and structures and activities and participation-, becomes a central perspective in medicine. To implement the ICF in medicine and other fields, practical tools (= ICF Core Sets) have been developed. They are selected sets of categories out of the whole classification which serve as minimal standards for the assessment and reporting of functioning and health for clinical studies and clinical encounters (Brief ICF Core Set) or as standards for multiprofessional comprehensive assessment (Comprehensive ICF Core Set). Different from generic and condition-specific health-status measures, the ICF Core Sets include important body functions and structures and contextual factors. The use of the ICF Core Sets provides an important step towards improved communications between healthcare providers and professionals, and will enable patients and their families to understand and communicate with health professionals about their functioning and treatment goals. Specific applications include multi- and interdisciplinary assessment in clinical settings and in legal expert evaluations and use in disease or functioning-management programs. The ICF has also a potential as a conceptual framework to clarify an interrelated universe of health-related concepts which can be elucidated based on the ICF and therefore will be an ideal tool for teaching students in all medical fields and may open doors to multi-professional learning.

  3. The awareness of primary caregivers in South Africa of the human rights of their children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huus, K; Dada, S; Bornman, J; Lygnegård, F

    2016-11-01

    Besides the right to freedom, human rights can be seen as a basic requirement also for the maintenance of human dignity and the opportunity to thrive - particularly in the case of children with disabilities. It is imperative to explore primary caregivers' awareness of the human rights of their children with intellectual disabilities in view of the role they may play in either facilitating or restricting these rights. This paper explores the awareness of 219 primary caregivers of the human rights of their children with intellectual disabilities. A descriptive survey design was used with a custom-designed questionnaire that employed a deductive content analysis based on the articles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child. Comparisons were drawn between the awareness of primary caregivers from urban and those from rural areas. The majority (85.5%) of participants agreed that their child with intellectual disability had rights. Three broad kinds of right were mentioned (in descending order): provision rights, protection rights and participation rights. Participants from both urban and rural areas mentioned education (a provision right) most frequently. However, participants from urban areas were more aware of the different rights that existed than were their counterparts from rural areas. Primary caregivers in both rural and urban areas are aware of the rights of their children with disabilities, although there are significant differences between them. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Comparative View of Equality Under the UN Convention on the Rights of PERSONS with Disabilities and the Disability Laws of the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene S Kanter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [CRPD], the first international treaty addressing specifically the rights of people with disabilities, including in the workplace.  The purpose of the CRPD is “to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity....” The CRPD has been ratified by 160 countries, including Canada, but not yet by the United States. Article 27 of the CRPD, entitled Work and Employment, prohibits not only discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, but also the right of people with disabilities to reasonable accommodations, equal remuneration for work of equal value, safe and healthy working conditions,  assistance in finding, obtaining, maintaining and returning to employment,  rehabilitation, job retention and return-to-work programmes,  as well as affirmative action programmes, incentives and other measures to promote equal employment opportunities. As compared to the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Canadian Charter, the CRPD, therefore, goes beyond prohibiting discrimination and instead seeks to ensure greater substantive equality for people with disabilities in the workplace.  As such, the author proposes that both US and Canadian legislatures and courts should look to the CRPD to help their respective countries move beyond traditional notions of formal equality towards a new right to substantive equality in the workplace for people with disabilities. En 2006, les Nations Unies ont adopté la Convention relative aux droits des personnes handicapées [CDPH], le premier traité international portant explicitement sur les droits des personnes handicapées, y compris les droits dans le milieu de travail. La CDPH a pour objet de « promouvoir, protéger et assurer la pleine et égale jouissance de tous

  5. Accessibility to the Public Facilities: A Mean to Achieve Civil Rights of the People with Disabilities in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Ghasemzadeh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Civil rights may cover different aspects of citizens’ lives. All the members of the society should have equal access to the public facilities and public transportation system. Barriers and obstacles in society may limit the accessibility of these facilities to the disabled people. Methods: This article contains a part of the results in a phenomenological study of the Disability Rights. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe experiences of disability rights among 11 physically disabled that were living in Tehran, Iran. The study involves secondary analysis of in-depth transcribed interview data, using colazzi’s method. Results: A total of 655 descriptive expressions were categorized in to 25 preliminary structural elements (sub themes. 7 essential structural elements (themes emerged from an analysis of the sub themes. One of these themes was right to access which was emerged from an analysis of 6 sub themes. Discussion: Disabled people who participated in the interviews. These sub themes that were obtained from an analysis of descriptive expressions of the participants, are: right to access to housing, right to access to education and information, right to access to job facilities, right to access to medical care and rehabilitation, right to access to rest, leisure and sport and right to access to places and transportation system. The right to access theme, was then categorized in to the civil rights field. In this article we will describe the right to access as it was experienced by those physically.

  6. The immunity of states and their officials in international criminal law and international human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alebeek, R.

    2008-01-01

    * Provides an in-depth analysis of case law such as the Pinochet, Jones, Al-Adsani, the Arrest Warrant, and Taylor cases. * The first comprehensive treatment of the subject for both civil and criminal proceedings The development of international human rights law and international criminal law has

  7. An overview of prisons, prisoners and international human rights standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coyle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the principal international human rights standards that exist for the treatment of prisoners. Given the increase in the use of  imprisonment in many countries, the administration of prisons poses certain challenges. The author addresses this issue by first examining the purposes of imprisonment, which is the only way to evaluate if the penitentiary system is achieving the goals that have been set for it. The author then analyzes five elements that must be taken into account when complying with international standards regarding the treatment of prisoners: living conditions for prisoners; the contact that prisoners have with their families and other persons; special conditions that apply to incarcerated persons according to specific situations (gender, nationality, age, illness, etc.; prison personnel and independent oversight of prisons. In the end, what all of these  standards have in common is the importance of upholding human dignity when dealing with incarcerated persons.

  8. Using a multidisciplinary classification in nursing : The international classification of functioning disability and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Achterberg, T; Holleman, G; Heijnen-Kaales, Y; Van der Brug, Y; Roodbol, G; Stallinga, HA; Hellema, F; Frederiks, CMA

    This paper reports a study to explore systematically the usefulness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to nurses giving patient care. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has a history of more than 20 years. Although this World

  9. Using a multidisciplinary classification in nursing: the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Achterberg, Theo; Holleman, Gerda; Heijnen-Kaales, Yvonne; van der Brug, Ype; Roodbol, Gabriël; Stallinga, Hillegonda A.; Hellema, Fokje; Frederiks, Carla M. A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a study to explore systematically the usefulness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to nurses giving patient care. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has a history of more than 20 years. Although this World

  10. Getting International Labour Rights Right at a Foreign Controlled Company in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses international campaigning for labour rights and global labour networking against illegitimate labour practices of global corporations. Theoretically, the article offers an analytical framework to explain and strategise labour empowerment and disempowerment in Global Production......–Malaysian campaign in support of a worker collective in a Danish controlled joint venture in Malaysia struggling for union recognition and collective bargaining agreement. The article concludes that the GLN approach integrates the achievements of the labour agency literatures by focusing on explaining changes...... in strategic labour power from the dynamic interface of strategic opportunities and labour capacity. Moreover, it is argued that semi-comprehensive international campaigns of labour NGOs may add critical but insufficient support to labour agency in developing countries with highly legalistic and politically...

  11. Participation and Service Access Rights for People with Intellectual Disability: A Role for Law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supported decision-making and personal budgets for services are the new paradigms. Method: Supported decision-making proposals from the Australian State of Victoria are analysed against international trends to determine the viability of laws reflecting new international norms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons…

  12. Collaborating with the Disability Rights Community: Co-Writing a Code of Ethics as a Vehicle for Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Hartley, Michael; Jang, Yoo Jin; Johnston, Sara; Moore-Grant, Nykeisha; Walker, Quiteya; O'Hanlon, Chris; Whalen, James

    2012-01-01

    An ethics project is described that challenged students to collaborate with disability rights authorities to co-write a code of ethics for a Center of Independent Living. Experiential and reflective assignments analyzed how the construction of knowledge and language is never value-neutral, and people with disabilities need to have a voice in…

  13. The Concept of Quality of Life and Its Role in Enhancing Human Rights in the Field of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, M. A.; Navas, P.; Gomez, L. E.; Schalock, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The changed societal views of persons with disabilities are reflected in the 2006 United Nations "Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities". However, what is not specified in the Convention is how to operationalise and measure the Articles composing the Convention, and how to use that information to further…

  14. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Participation in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, L.; Dew, K.

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of persons with disabilities in formal decision-making processes is thought to have a range of benefits. However, research suggests that participatory processes may fail to match normative ideals. This study examines the participation of persons with disabilities in the development of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of…

  15. Advancement of human rights standards for LGBT people through the perspective of international human rights law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cviklová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue how various religious and legal systems cope with current developments that undermine binary opposition of man and woman including definition of their sexual and cultural identities. More concretely, it tries to explain, how concrete societies and legislations deal with claims of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals (LGBT that claim broader recognition. It elucidates differences among Western provisions and policies of the relevant legal bodies such as the General Assembly of the United Nations, the European Court of Human Rights and the Supreme Court concerning these issues. It also points to the nature and real impact of international civil society forces such as Yogyakarta principles that formulate extension of rights concerning lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals. On the basis of comparison of various legal and religious discourses it explains current practices of direct and indirect discrimination and in some non-European national systems even extra-judicial killings, torture and ill-treatment, sexual assault, rape and other violations of human rights. When emphasizing substantial differences among current European states and non-European ones concerning policies toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT, it shows current tendencies of advancement in the field by common policies of Council of Europe, recent judgments issued by the European Court of Human Rights as well as civil society efforts such as Yogyakarta principles. Swedish standards have been introduced in order to emphasize existing progressive attitudes to LGBT people concerning gay marriages and adoption procedures.

  16. Human rights and the requirement for international medical aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchin, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances an argument that human rights require high-income nations to provide such aid. The essay briefly examines John Rawls' obligations of justice and the reasons that their applicability to cases of international medical aid remains controversial. Regardless, the essay argues that purely humanitarian obligations bind the governments and citizens of high-income liberal democracies at a minimum to provide major medical aid to avert premature deaths in poor nations. In refusing to undertake such medical relief efforts, developed nations fail to adequately protect a fundamental human right to life.

  17. Changing International ‘Subjectivity’ and Rights and Obligations under International Law – Status of Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Pentikäinen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation, liberation of trade supported by institutions such as the WTO, the unprecedented internationalisation of companies' activities in the global market, the creation of even larger company entities (including multinational corporations and the ensuing growth of business power have radically restructured the equilibrium of companies' relations with state and society. In the contemporary world many companies are de facto stronger and more influential actors than states, and their activities have concrete effects on political, cultural and societal aspects in the countries where they operate or to which they have other business links. These developments have created new kinds of challenges, e.g. for the protection of human rights which may be undermined by business activities. In this situation corporations are increasingly expected to pay due regard to avoiding activities contributing to human rights violations. The doctrine of subjects of international law (international 'subjectivity' considers states as the primary subjects, in addition to which also some other actors have been granted the status as a subject, including even corporations. This article sheds light on the shifts that have taken place in the doctrine of international 'subjectivity' and the paradigm of rights and obligations under international law linked to this 'subjectivity'. Particular attention is paid to the position of corporations, and the exploration is conducted through the prism of the development of rights and obligations in the area of international human rights law.

  18. Legal capacity as a universal human right and a determinant of social status of people with mental disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Milan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of the UN Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities (2006 brought about a core shift to how the international community and human rights law see and treat human disability in general. This paradigm shift materilizes itself in a number of provisions ranging from those which catalogue the proclaimed human rights as they are in the context of special implementation and protection of people with disabilities, to those that introduce a level of specificity in light of their holders' particular needs. But the strongest presence of the shift to this regard can be found in the Article 12 CRPD that sheds new light on the concept of (legal capacity of people with (mental disabilites. According to this norm and put quite simply - there should be no difference in observing and treating capacity of a person with disabilities to that of any other person. This is not only the matter of prohibiting discrimination on grounds of mental impairments, but furthermore preventing the system from establishing a classification in which a person with psychosocial or intellectual impairment would be a second-rate citizen, an object of law or a victim of legal, social and family abuse, someone who is a burden to his entire environment, someone who does not have a say in any case concerning his own life and wellbeing. Legal capacity should not be a goal to be fighting for, but a universal human right. Of course and unfortunatelly, such a shift is purely a formal one, when not causing due reform within the national systems and without proper implementation in the member states. What is thought urgently needed and directly required by the given provision is removing the system features that allow deprivation of legal capacity on the bases of mental impairments and introducing a humane and human rights oriented model in which the decision making of these people would be autonomous and supported, and with only very restricted exceptions, done by them and not

  19. Therapy or human right? The meaning of recreation for children and youth with disabilities in the "Krembo Wings" youth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Michal; Almog-Bar, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that leisure or recreation promotes health, quality of life and wellbeing. Participation in leisure is also a fundamental right of people with disabilities. Studies report disparities in leisure participation between children and youth with and without disabilities. Youth movements are a form of leisure activity, and are of particular importance in Israeli society. In this study we set out to explore how the youth movement Krembo Wings (KW) outlines the meanings of recreation for children and youth with disabilities. Our theoretical framework centers on the critical perspective of a disability study committed to disability rights. We conducted a qualitative study of KW. Data were drawn from multiple sources: published and unpublished documents, website materials, and semi-structured interviews with various key people in the movement. Data were analyzed through directed content analysis and were categorized into either the biomedical model or the social model of disability. Most of our findings show that KW adopts a biomedical understanding of disability. Nonetheless, indicators of the social model, though few, were also evident. Although the biomedical model was found to be dominant in Israel, there are promising indicators of change. Our somewhat mixed findings might suggest that KW is at a transitional phase between biomedical thinking and a more rights-based approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rights and quality of life of individuals with intellectual disability and extensive support needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia NAVAS MACHO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available People with intellectual (ID and developmental disabilities who have generalized or extensive support needs constitute a particularly vulnerable group that has traditionally experienced situations of exclusion. Despite this, their situation has not been a priority subject of study nor have there been specific developments in social policy to respond to their needs, which can be translated into an absence of interest in knowing the reality of these group, difficulties to guarantee the fulfillment of their rights, and lack of initiative aimed to achieve their full inclusion in society. Is therefore necessary to undertake different actions, translated into objectives of the present work: to explore and synthesize existing data on this group in our country; to detect their needs and their fulfillment; and to propose evidence-based guidelines to ensure their well-being and rights. For this purpose, the methodology used consisted of: (a a review of the most relevant scientific literature of the last ten years on ID and extensive support needs; and (b the analysis of the results yield by two national surveys carried out in Spain: the Disability, Independence, and Dependency Situations survey, EDAD (INE, 2008, and the System for Autonomy and Care for Dependency, SAAD (IMSERSO, 2016, among others. Considering the disparities observed within this group, urgent lines of action are highlighted, which are aimed to improve the knowledge about the living conditions of people with more significant ID and drive better practices in the provision of supports to this group.

  1. Rights-Based and Person-Centered Approaches to Supporting People with Intellectual Disability: A Dialectical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Stephen; Goldberg, Chaim; Hamel, Corey; Shore, Ryan; Wein, Avraham; Wood, Daniel; Zummo, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Protecting human rights has increasingly become a focus of regulation regarding individuals with Intellectual Disability (ID). While this focus on rights has succeeded in protecting people with ID from many of the most insidious abuses of the past, an over-emphasis on the human rights of people with ID while ignoring other aspects of their…

  2. Complementing or Conflicting Human Rights Conventions? Realising an Inclusive Approach to Families with a Young Person with a Disability and Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Kristy; Goldblatt, Beth

    2011-01-01

    United Nation's conventions exist to help facilitate and protect vulnerable people's human rights: including people with disabilities (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006) and children (Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989). However, for some families where a family member has a disability, there may be inherent…

  3. Can the subaltern speak? Visibility of international migrants with communication and swallowing disabilities in the World Report on Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Mershen

    2013-02-01

    Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshal (2013) argued that the speech-language pathology profession must be encouraged to consider novel ways to deliver equitable services to people with communication disorders. People with communication disorders include the world's 215 million international migrants who deserve unique commentary when considering disability in the world. Hence, this paper focuses on invisibility of international migrants with communication or swallowing disorders in the World Report on Disability. The analysis of people with disabilities is biased towards citizenship. What of those who are non-citizens? Three issues are highlighted: (a) the demographic construction of migrants; (b) management of communication disability within the migrant patient-speech language pathologist dyad; and (c) strategic re-prioritization of dysphagia as a disability. While relevant to all people, re-prioritization of dysphagia as an impairment (of eating or drinking) resulting in restricted mealtime participation is especially relevant to the healthcare of international migrants. This issue is discussed in terms of how safe or adequate eating and drinking ought to constitute essential discharge criteria in medical settings where discharge (often resulting in deportation) may be decided on one's ability to walk or talk.

  4. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Penelope M; Pryor, Julie

    2004-04-01

    Nursing conceptualizes disability from largely medical and individual perspectives that do not consider its social dimensions. Disabled people are critical of this paradigm and its impact on their health care. The aims of this paper are to review the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), including its history and the theoretical models upon which it is based and to discuss its relevance as a conceptual framework for nursing. The paper presents a critical overview of concepts of disability and their implications for nursing and argues that a broader view is necessary. It examines ICF and its relationship to changing paradigms of disability and presents some applications for nursing. The ICF, with its acknowledgement of the interaction between people and their environments in health and disability, is a useful conceptual framework for nursing education, practice and research. It has the potential to expand nurses' thinking and practice by increasing awareness of the social, political and cultural dimensions of disability.

  5. “GAY RIGHTS ARE HUMAN RIGHTS”: : THE FRAMING OF NEW INTERPRETATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS NORMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron

    2014-01-01

    “Gay Rights are Human Rights” may have begun as a slogan chanted in the street, but academics and human rights organizations began to use the international human rights frame systematically in the 1990s to argue for universal human rights to fully apply to LGBT persons. This framing gradually began

  6. Aligning Physical Activity Measures with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Framework for Childhood Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Samantha Mae; Case, Layne; Leung, Willie

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has placed emphasis on framing health behavior as a multidimensional construct. In relation to childhood physical activity, this encompasses dimensions of functional performance, activity attendance, and subjective perceptions of involvement and enjoyment…

  7. Assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia : Internal consistency and inter-observer reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, CM; Dekker, J; Deelman, BG; Stehmann-Saris, JC; Kinebanian, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the internal consistency and inter-observer reliability of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia is presented. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL). The study was conducted at occupational therapy departments in

  8. Assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia: internal consistency and inter-observer reliability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the internal consistency and inter-observer reliability of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia is presented. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL). The study was conducted at occupational therapy departments in

  9. Housing and Transport: Access Issues for Disabled International Students in British Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorenian, Armineh

    2013-01-01

    This article explores two disabled people's "Seven Needs" to independent living, those of "housing" and "transport" issues, in relation to disabled international students in British universities. Firstly, students' living arrangements, including issues related to the suitability of university accommodation to their…

  10. International Conference on Higher Education and Disabilities--Innsbruck, Austria: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangla, Ken; Moore, Naomi; Hurst, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Access to higher education for people with disabilities has been a concern and motivation for change internationally. Collaborative discussions about the attitudes and policies addressing these issues began many years ago with several organizations and agencies representing the interest of people with disabilities. There were international…

  11. THE CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL LAW. A RELATION BETWEEN HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEANNETTE IRIGOIN BARRENE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During an armed conflict, a change in the application of the human right regulations and international humanitarian law can be observed in the practice of contemporary international law. It is possible to observe at UN and International Courts’ levels an interesting trend in the sense of considering the application of both systems simultaneously in cases of international crisis as well as in internal conflicts. This innovation in contemporary international law can be observed initially in the change experimented by the legislation of the Human Rights’ European Court and specially and clearer in the Human Rights’ Inter American Court, which in cases against Honduras, Colombia, Paraguay and other countries, states that the State, being warrantor of the efficient protection of civil population, must apply and honor not only the Human Rights’ American Convention, but also the articles 13th and 14th of the II protocol of the Geneva Conventions of 1949. The convergence of both branches of the Law, and its application may help to achieve a better defense and efficiency of the fundamental rights of the human being.

  12. Developing human rights based indicators to support country monitoring of rehabilitation services and programmes for people with disabilities: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skempes, Dimitrios; Bickenbach, Jerome

    2015-09-24

    human rights standards in rehabilitation service delivery and organization. The development of a valid and universally applicable set of indicators will have a profound impact on the design and implementation of evidence informed disability policies and programs as it can support countries in strengthening performance measurement through documentation of comparative information on rehabilitation care systems. Most importantly, the resulting indicators can be used by disabled people's organizations as well as national and international institutions to define a minimal standard for monitoring and reporting progress on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the area of rehabilitation.

  13. Adverse consequences of article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for persons with mental disabilities and an alternative way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Matthé; Gather, Jakov

    2018-04-01

    It is widely accepted among medical ethicists that competence is a necessary condition for informed consent. In this view, if a patient is incompetent to make a particular treatment decision, the decision must be based on an advance directive or made by a substitute decision-maker on behalf of the patient. We call this the competence model. According to a recent report of the United Nations (UN) High Commissioner for Human Rights, article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) presents a wholesale rejection of the competence model. The High Commissioner here adopts the interpretation of article 12 proposed by the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. On this interpretation, CRPD article 12 renders it impermissible to deny persons with mental disabilities the right to make treatment decisions on the basis of impaired decision-making capacity and demands the replacement of all regimes of substitute decision-making by supported decision-making. In this paper, we explicate six adverse consequences of CRPD article 12 for persons with mental disabilities and propose an alternative way forward. The proposed model combines the strengths of the competence model and supported decision-making. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. 78 FR 73683 - International Day of Persons With Disabilities, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... injustice to stand denies itself the full talents and contributions of individuals with disabilities. I was.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-29397 Filed 12-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ...

  15. Inclusive Early Childhood Development: Ensuring the Rights and Well-Being of Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertlieb, Donald

    2018-01-01

    The science and practice of early childhood development now stands ready to address the needs and ensure the rights of infants and young children with disabilities and their families, among the most underserved and marginalized in all regions of the world. Synergies in global policies such as the "United Nations Convention on the Rights of…

  16. Rocking the Cradle: Ensuring the Rights of Parents with Disabilities and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Despite a dark history marked by the eugenics movement, increasing numbers of people with disabilities are choosing to become parents. Recent research reveals that more than 4 million parents--6 percent of American mothers and fathers--are disabled. This number will unquestionably increase as more people with disabilities exercise a broader range…

  17. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: accessibility and the right to information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; McGonagle, T.; Donders, Y.

    2015-01-01

    According to Article 19 ICCPR, the right to freedom of opinion and expression includes the freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. The Human Rights Committee included the right of access to information as specific item in its General

  18. The PCIJ and International Rights of Groups and Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.; Tams, C.J.; Fitzmaurice, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Permanent Court of International Justice was established in a period in which the position of the State as the natural form of political organization had come under pressure, among others, in academic-legal circles. It was also the period in which international-legal concern for groups within

  19. What about a Disability Rights Act for Canada?: Practices and lessons from America, Australia, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The Harper government and most national political parties are committed to a federal act for dealing with accessibility rights for persons with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to identify progressive lessons from countries with similar legislation for consideration by Canadian authorities. Countries surveyed are the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. While disability rights legislation is widely accepted to be a necessary policy initiative in light of ongoing barriers and exclusion, experience suggests that such laws are far from a sufficient response to promote access. Other policy instruments required include supportive employment programs, tax incentives, and the direct provision of basic supports.

  20. ‘Gay Rights are Human Rights: The framing of new interpretations of international human rights norms’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the development of the framing of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and sexual orientation and gender identity in terms of a human rights paradigm. This decades-long process involved many actors, from within academia, gay

  1. ‘Gay Rights are Human Rights: The framing of new interpretations of international human rights norms’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the development of the framing of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and sexual orientation and gender identity in terms of a human rights paradigm. This decades-long process involved many actors, from within academia, gay

  2. Bridging international law and rights-based litigation: mapping health-related rights through the development of the Global Health and Human Rights Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Cabrera, Oscar A; Ayala, Ana; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2012-06-15

    The O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University, the World Health Organization, and the Lawyers Collective have come together to develop a searchable Global Health and Human Rights Database that maps the intersection of health and human rights in judgments, international and regional instruments, and national constitutions. Where states long remained unaccountable for violations of health-related human rights, litigation has arisen as a central mechanism in an expanding movement to create rights-based accountability. Facilitated by the incorporation of international human rights standards in national law, this judicial enforcement has supported the implementation of rights-based claims, giving meaning to states' longstanding obligations to realize the highest attainable standard of health. Yet despite these advancements, there has been insufficient awareness of the international and domestic legal instruments enshrining health-related rights and little understanding of the scope and content of litigation upholding these rights. As this accountability movement evolves, the Global Health and Human Rights Database seeks to chart this burgeoning landscape of international instruments, national constitutions, and judgments for health-related rights. Employing international legal research to document and catalogue these three interconnected aspects of human rights for the public's health, the Database's categorization by human rights, health topics, and regional scope provides a comprehensive means of understanding health and human rights law. Through these categorizations, the Global Health and Human Rights Database serves as a basis for analogous legal reasoning across states to serve as precedents for future cases, for comparative legal analysis of similar health claims in different country contexts, and for empirical research to clarify the impact of human rights judgments on public health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Meier, Nygren

  3. Reconsidering Sheltered Workshops in Light of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte May-Simera

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheltered work and related practices remain a prevalent service for people with intellectual disabilities. However, as a result of being placed in these, participants overwhelmingly remain segregated and excluded from their wider communities. This paper explores whether, with the advent of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, we can at least begin to assess the equality implications of such placements and argue that the experience of segregation itself represents numerous rights violations and discrimination. Having considered traditional equality mechanisms and their bearing on people with intellectual disabilities, this discussion explores how far the Convention’s re-envisioning of the basic principles of equality can perhaps provide a more promising outlook and ideological stance. Indeed, during the Convention’s inception, the negotiations circled around the conflicting opinions as to the purpose, usefulness, and future of sheltered work, revealing the existing tensions between protection and autonomy, shrouding all disability policy discussions. As a result, the question of sheltered work is not explicitly addressed in the treaty and the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities have been unable to definitively declare that the practice of sheltered work constitutes an act of discrimination. However, the Committee does as times demand that sheltered workshops be phased out where it is obvious that the practice of sheltered work is directly linked to the exploitation of workers. Moreover, certain provisions in the Convention might help in determining wrongful discrimination in some, if limited, instances.

  4. Making reasonable and achievable adjustments: the contributions of learning disability liaison nurses in 'Getting it right' for people with learning disabilities receiving general hospitals care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Juliet; Brown, Michael; McKechanie, Andrew; Mack, Siobhan; Hayes, Matthew; Fletcher, Joan

    2015-07-01

    To examine the role of learning disability liaison nurses in facilitating reasonable and achievable adjustments to support access to general hospital services for people with learning disabilities. Mixed methods study involving four health boards in Scotland with established Learning Disability Liaison Nurses (LDLN) Services. Quantitative data of all liaison nursing referrals over 18 months and qualitative data collected from stakeholders with experience of using the liaison services within the previous 3-6 months. Six liaison nurses collected quantitative data of 323 referrals and activity between September 2008-March 2010. Interviews and focus groups were held with 85 participants included adults with learning disabilities (n = 5), carers (n = 16), primary care (n = 39), general hospital (n = 19) and liaison nurses (n = 6). Facilitating reasonable and achievable adjustments was an important element of the LDLNs' role and focussed on access to information; adjustments to care; appropriate environment of care; ensuring equitable care; identifying patient need; meeting patient needs; and specialist tools/resources. Ensuring that reasonable adjustments are made in the general hospital setting promotes person-centred care and equal health outcomes for people with a learning disability. This view accords with 'Getting it right' charter produced by the UK Charity Mencap which argues that healthcare professionals need support, encouragement and guidance to make reasonable adjustments for this group. LDLNs have an important and increasing role to play in advising on and establishing adjustments that are both reasonable and achievable. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Principles of International Economic Law, and the Right to Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Born Global Sourcers – buying internationally right from the inception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    time researchers has identified various types of INV’s and based on the empirical work by Rasmussen et al (2010) a particular type of international new venture is isolated. The Born Global sourcers which is firms who conducts international purchasing from or near their establishment but who only...... be a viable starting point for research into this type, but that this research could be supplemented by including the relations to domestic clients/partners....

  7. International Human Rights, Citizenship Education, and Critical Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Citizenship education invokes dilemmas even for the most committed teachers and students, researchers, and innovators. How can citizenship education advance equity and equal rights within highly unequal schools and societies? How can it support young people to feel they have the competence, confidence, and right to vote and to challenge injustice?…

  8. Evolution of disability in traffic accident victims in rehabilitation, characterized by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF enables monitoring of the clinical evolution of a patient. Objective: This study aimed to characterize the evolution of disabilities in patients undergoing physical therapy following traffic accidents, using the ICF. Methods: A longitudinal study of 53 accident victims was conducted between April and October 2010, in a rehabilitation unit in the capital of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Data from physical therapy evaluation were collected in 2 stages and coded by the ICF. Results: The average time between evaluation and reevaluation was 73.4 days. The evolution of functional impairment demonstrated a reduction in the number of patients with deficits, except for muscle tone functions. On initial evaluation, 90.6% had difficulty with sensory functions and pain, varying from mild to complete, decreasing to 67.9% on reevaluation, with pain still mostly present. Almost all patients (96.2% had a disability of neuromusculoskeletal and movement related functions on initial assessment, with a decrease to 15.7% of patients on reevaluation. The greatest improvements were observed in the categories of muscle strength (36.7% and gait pattern (30.6%. On reevaluation, improvement was also observed regarding perceived impairment of body structures, especially for those with severe and complete disability. Conclusion: The study confirmed a reduction in the percentage of patients with some form of disability, and positive development in functional capacity. The use of ICF enabled evaluation of physical disabilities and monitoring of the evolution of patients undergoing physical therapy.

  9. The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kremens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR and International Criminal Court (ICC meet the standard provided by international human rights law, in particular the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The paper proves that international human rights law has affected international criminal law tremendously. Moreover, it is argued that the protection of the accused in the law of the international courts and tribunals with regard to his rights has improved when compared to the international human rights law standard. In particular the Rome Statute of the ICC provides the accused with the most comprehensive protection. This is especially visible in the case of such rights as the presumption of innocence, right to an interpreter and right to remain silent. Nevertheless, some shortcomings in the law of the ad hoc tribunals and ICC can be observed, in particular when it comes to identifying the commencement of protection of the accused.

  10. Fear of falling predicts incidence of functional disability two years later: A perspective from an international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auais, Mohammad; French, Simon; Alvarado, Beatriz; Pirkle, Catherine; Belanger, Emmanuelle; Guralnik, Jack

    2017-12-06

    To study the extent to which fear of falling (FOF) is associated with the onset of functional disability over a 2-year period in older adults using self-reported and performance-based measures. In 2012, 1,601 participants (aged 65-74) were recruited from four sites: Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe, Canada; Manizales, Colombia; and Natal, Brazil. They were re-assessed in 2014. We quantified FOF using the Fall Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I; range: 16-64). Functional disability measures were 1) self-reported incident mobility disability, defined as difficulty climbing a flight of stairs or walking 400 meters and 2) incident poor physical performance, defined as a score <9 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. In the Poisson regression analysis, we included only those participants without functional disability at baseline to calculate incident risk ratios in 2014. 1,355 participants completed the 2014 assessment, of which 917 and 1,078 had no mobility disability and poor physical performance at baseline, respectively. In 2014, 131 (14.3%), and 166 (15.4%) participants reported incident mobility disability and poor physical performance, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic, and health covariates, a one-point increase in FES-I at baseline was associated with a 4% increase in the risk of reporting incident mobility disability (95% CI: 1.02-1.05) and a 3% increase in the risk of developing poor physical performance at follow up in the overall sample (95%CI: 1.01-1.05). FOF is associated with a higher risk of incident mobility disability and poor physical performance in a cohort of older adults. It is increasingly important to study FOF's effect on functional disability and to take necessary measures to prevent the transition to end-stage disability. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Language Justice for Sign Language Peoples: The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterbury, Sarah C. E.

    2012-01-01

    Sign Language Peoples (SLPs) across the world have developed their own languages and visuo-gestural-tactile cultures embodying their collective sense of Deafhood (Ladd 2003). Despite this, most nation-states treat their respective SLPs as disabled individuals, favoring disability benefits, cochlear implants, and mainstream education over language…

  12. Relationship of community traffic rights and international conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has established the Union as a legal personality. It opens for mixed agreements on foreign policy and community topics. In areas where the Union legislates, the EU can sign various kinds of agreements on behalf of the member states, who are consequently not allowed to negotiate international agreements on their own (autonomously in these areas. The European Union's accession to the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail (COTIF represents a historic step for the railway community. This relationship is now clear: a disconnection clause in the accession agreement in principle allows EU law precedence for traffic internal to the EU. The relationship between EU law and COTIF law is there more about coordination than disconnection.

  13. International Security Presence in Kosovo and its Human Rights Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Istrefi, Remzije

    2017-01-01

    In this article I will examine the powers and activities of NATO-led Kosovo forces (KFOR) and their impact on human rights protection in Kosovo. Through this examination, I seek to answer the following questions: which KFOR actions affected the human rights of Kosovars? Does KFOR carry out responsibilities and abide by the obligations normally imposed upon nation-states? And is there a solution available when the alleged violator is KFOR? KFOR is responsible for carrying out military tasks an...

  14. Recommendations for the Technical Infrastructure for Standardized International Rights Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Valentine; Cowles, Esmé; Estlund, Karen; Isaac, Antoine; Johnson, Tom; Matienzo, Mark A.; Peiffer, Patrick; Urban, Richard J.; Zeinstra, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This white paper is the product of a joint Digital Public Library of America (DPLA)-Europeana working group organized to develop minimum rights statement metadata standards for organizations that contribute to DPLA and Europeana. This white paper deals specifically with the technical infrastructure of a common namespace (rightsstatements.org) that hosts the rights statements to be used by (at minimum) the DPLA and Europeana. These recommendations for a common technical infrastructure for righ...

  15. The Impact of Inclusive Education (IE) on the Rights of Children with Intellectual Disabilities (IDs) in Chegutu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapuranga, Barbra; Dumba, Oswald; Musodza, Blessing

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of Inclusive Education (IE) on the rights of children with Intellectual Disabilities in schools around Chegutu. The qualitative case study method was used for the research. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from schools around Chegutu. Random sampling was used to choose the sample group from…

  16. Disability, access to food, and the UN CRPD : Navigating a rights-based equality discourse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltz, M.M.; Mol, Tanja; Gittins, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    Aims In 2016, the Netherlands ratified the UN CRPD, becoming one of the last developed nations to sign on. In this presentation, we will explore how equal access to food provides a lens through which barriers to implementing a rights-based approach to disability equality can be examined in countries

  17. Moving Towards Inclusive Education as a Human Right, An analysis of international legal obligations to implement inclusive education in law and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Waddington, L.B.; Toepke, C

    2014-01-01

    Children with disabilities experience ongoing segregation in special education classes or are otherwise excluded from education. This is in spite of the fact that States have a legal obligation to offer an accessible and inclusive education to all learners. Exclusion of any child from education is a violation of international law and a breach of human rights. The provision of inclusive education is an obligation under international law, as well as the means by which to fulfil the additional l...

  18. Teaching about Child Labor and International Human Rights. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.; Jensen, Elizabeth S.

    An estimated 246 million children between the ages of 5 and 17 work in the agricultural, industrial, and craft sectors worldwide. Approximately 180 million of these children work under the worst forms of child labor as defined by the International Labor Organization (2002). In spite of conventions and protocols designed to eradicate the worst…

  19. International Security Presence in Kosovo and its Human Rights Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istrefi Remzije

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will examine the powers and activities of NATO-led Kosovo forces (KFOR and their impact on human rights protection in Kosovo. Through this examination, I seek to answer the following questions: which KFOR actions affected the human rights of Kosovars? Does KFOR carry out responsibilities and abide by the obligations normally imposed upon nation-states? And is there a solution available when the alleged violator is KFOR? KFOR is responsible for carrying out military tasks and for ‘shouldering’ UNMIK and local security forces in some civilian peace-building tasks. In the course of the exercise of its mandate, there were alleged complaints of human rights violations by KFOR. The legal implications of these alleged complaints against KFOR (inactions will also be discussed.

  20. The Intersections of the CEDAW and CRPD: Putting Women's Rights and Disability Rights into Action in Four Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Rangita de Silva

    2010-01-01

    This report examines a new model built on advancing an intersectional human rights platform of action. The four country project in the Asian region provided a powerful locus for an innovative human rights praxis which integrated a dialectical interaction between different social movements, analytical insights and concrete political strategies and…

  1. Academic Freedom in International Higher Education: Right or Responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptual history of academic freedom and its emergence as a substantive right that pertains to either the academic or the university. It is suggested that historical reconceptualisations necessitated by contingent circumstance may have led to academic freedom being seen as a form of protection for those working within…

  2. Intellectual property rights, international trade and plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Seed is the physical embodiment of the invention of the plant breeder. Plant varieties thus constitute a special form of innovation, and an assessment of intellectual property right (IPR) systems needs to take this into account. This thesis concentrates on IPRs but breeders do have a number of means

  3. Why land rights for women are critical | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... Photo credit: UN Women Burundi “Why waste land on them? ... under both men and women is more productive because women have more of ... In Tanzania, women with strong land rights were three times more likely to work ...

  4. International Security, Development, and Human Rights: Policy Conversion or Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-ling Lin Hasenkamp

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article uses an institutional network governance approach to explore the overlapping dimension of the policy fields between security, development, and human rights, reflected in the US and German provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs in Afghanistan. The past two decades have witnessed a gradually changing paradigm in academic and policy debates regarding the questions of the normative basis of world order and possibilities for tackling imminent threats to security and peace (i.e. intra-state armed conflicts, failed states, terrorism, poverty, and deepening inequality. The introduction of concepts such as “human security” and “the right to humanitarian intervention/responsibility to protect (R2P” as well as critical examinations of peace-, nation-, and state-building missions (PNSB have led to a relativist tendency of state sovereignty and a changing attitude regarding how to address the intersection of security, development, and human rights. Despite this shift, the policy commitments to integrating these policy considerations remain puzzling. How have they been redefined, conceptualized, and put into practice? I argue that an integrated conceptual approach has facilitated the redefinition of common policy goals, principles, and the mobilization of resources. At the same time, civil and military cooperation, as demonstrated in the multifunctional work of PRTs, has been Janus-headed—permanently caught in an ongoing tension between the war on terror and short-term stability operation on the one hand and long-term durable peace and development on the other. The misunderstanding of its interim character, the dynamics of Afghan environment, the blurring of policy lines, and the differences between national PRT models have made it difficult to systematically assess the efficiency and legitimacy of each policy frame and program.

  5. Civic and legal advances in the rights of caregivers for persons with severe mental illness related disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hareesh Angothu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers for persons with disabilities are very important in the process of recovery and rehabilitation, irrespective of the cause of disability. Their services are equally important as of the health professionals. Often it is the caregivers who bear the major burden by assisting for daily needs of persons with disabilities apart from providing financial and social supports to their dependant persons with disabilities. In the process of caregiving they may have to forego their opportunities to attend work of their choice, to earn money, to progress in career, to spend satisfactory social life, and even to spend time leisurely. Yet, the informal caregiving process and the caregivers as a service provider, for persons with disabilities, have received less attention from civic societies and various state systems. However, change of paradigm of caregiving process as family responsibility to society′s collective responsibility and a stronger voice of caregiver associations has brought certain recent changes in this field. There are few governments who have recognized the importance of caregivers for their informal services and sacrifices and started providing benefits for them, thus caring for the caregivers. We review and discuss such policies and regulations which protect the rights of caregiver in this article.

  6. International Animal Protection Society Leadership: The Right People for the Right Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Phillips, Clive J C

    2018-06-07

    As the increasing body of scientific information about the experiences of other species and their ability to suffer becomes available to those working within the field of animal welfare, the amount of potential issues to address also increases. Carefully choosing issues to address, and indeed leaders to drive the cause forward, has the potential to significantly increase the efficacy of the international animal welfare movement. Within this study 15 leaders of major international animal welfare organizations were interviewed about their experiences, thoughts and strategies, which have been primarily acquired through long-term exposure to the movement, and endeavors of trial and error. After thematic analysis, key themes are presented, along with strategies and cautions that may be beneficial to the animal welfare movement. Animal welfare leaders suggested a focus on issues that fitted well with their organizations' remit and were not too broad, to avoid spreading resources and expertise too thin. A utilitarian framework was also considered important, aiming to improve the lives of as many animals as possible for the resources deployed. Good leaders were believed to have passion for their cause, not just for animals, and an ability to build and lead good teams, hence good interpersonal human skills were also perceived as essential. It is concluded that establishing what makes a good animal welfare leader could offer useful direction for future engagement of successful leaders in this field.

  7. Ethical Issues in Disability and Rehabilitation. Report of an International Conference of the Society for Disability Studies (2nd, Denver, Colorado, June 23-24, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Barbara, Ed.; Woods, Diane E., Ed.

    This monograph consists of five parts: (1) introductory material including a conference overview; (2) papers presented at an international symposium on the topic of ethical issues in disability and rehabilitation as a section of the Annual Conference of the Society for Disability Studies; (3) responses to the symposium, prepared by four of the…

  8. Truth and victims’ rights: Towards a legal epistemology of international criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Edgar R.

    2013-01-01

    The author advances the thesis that the now well established international crime victims' right to know the truth creates an opportunity for an applied epistemology reflection regarding international criminal justice. At the heart of the project lies the author's argument that this victims' right -if taken seriously- implies both the right that the international criminal justice system's normative structures or legal frameworks and practices feature a truth-promoting profile, or in other word...

  9. The Right to Education in the International Regulations on Protection of Human Rights and its regulation in the National Legal System : Preliminary Analysis from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Creusa de Araújo Borges

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine, in this article, the question of the right to education, from the Univer- sal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966. In the Brazilian national law, they are analyzed the Federal Constitution of 1988 and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Educa- tion, 1996, regarding the regulation of education matter, in coordination with the inter- national instruments in question. It is noteworthy that the regulation of the matter at the national level, is influenced by the recognition of this right in international norms, but advances in the recognition of the right to higher education of marginalized social groups, expanding the mandatory gratuity and beyond elementary school because in the Brazilian case, basic education is compulsory and the principle of free governs the entire education system in official establishments. Set up in this way, the existence of an essential core regarding the right to education, which is fully chargeable.

  10. Carrying on the Good Fight: Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000--Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This paper summarizes a May 2000 conference about advancing the civil and human rights of people with disabilities from diverse cultures. The conference included people with disabilities from diverse cultures and members of national civil rights organizations. The conference identified five priority areas for attention: (1) cultivating leadership…

  11. International environmental governance: Lessons learned from Human Rights Institutional Reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchald, Ole Kristian

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses on the possibility of establishing a High Commissioner for the Environment and transforming the UNEP Governing Council into a Council for the Environment. For this purpose, it considers the parallels between human rights regimes and environmental regimes. It provides a short-list of functions to be covered by a reformed environmental governance regime, and discusses how the reform can be coordinated with UNEP, as well as with the current and future institutional framework for sustainable development. The report also discusses how the reform can be related to fifteen core multilateral environmental agreements. Finally, the report considers how the reform can be carried out through a discussion of five separate options: a decision by the UN General Assembly, by the ECOSOC, or by the UNEP Governing Council, as well as through agreements between conferences of parties of environmental agreements, or directly between states. A main purpose of the report, which has been commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment, is to provide input to the preparations for the Rio+20 Conference in 2012.(auth)

  12. "The ladder of the law has no top and no bottom": how therapeutic jurisprudence can give life to international human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) has become one of the most important theoretical approaches to the law. But, there has, as of yet, been puzzlingly little written about the relationship between TJ and international human rights law. To be sure, there has been some preliminary and exploratory work on the relationship between TJ and international law in general, but virtually nothing on its relationship to international human rights law in a mental disability law context. This paper seeks to focus on this lack of consideration, to speculate as to why that might be, and to offer some suggestions as to how to infuse some new vitality and vigor into this important area of law and social policy. In this article, first, I offer a brief explanation of TJ. Next, I discuss, also briefly, the impact (and the potential future greater impact) of the recently-ratified United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on this area. Then, I consider the sparse commentary currently available on the intersection between TJ and international law in general, and will speculate as to why this is so sparse. Then, I offer some thoughts as to the TJ/international human rights law connection, looking specifically at three questions that require far more attention from this perspective (access to counsel, the use of state-sanctioned psychiatry as a tool of political oppression, and the potential redemptive power of the CRPD), and describe a research agenda that scholars might turn to in furtherance of the investigation of the relationships between therapeutic jurisprudence, international human rights law and mental disability law. I conclude by calling on scholars, activists, advocates and practitioners to begin to take this connection seriously in their future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validity and internal consistency of a whiplash-specific disability measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinfold, Melanie; Niere, Ken R.; O'Leary, Elizabeth F.; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Green, Sally; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of patients with whiplash-associated disorders investigating the internal consistency, factor structure, response rates, and presence of floor and ceiling effects of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to confirm the

  14. Internalizing forms of problem behavior in school-age children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brojčin Branislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are very frequent affective symptoms often found in children with disabilities. Even the nonclinical depression or depressive mood in children are characterized by social withdrawal and decline in self-confidence, anger or auto-destructive behavior, as well as decrease in academic achievement. The objective of this research is to determine the prevalence of elevated expression of internalizing behavior in children with mild intellectual disability and to perceive elevated expression association of this form of problem behavior with chronological age, gender, IQ, speech comprehension and speech production of the participants. Subscale used to assess level of internalizing types of problem behavior, which is part of the teacher's Problem Behavior Rating Scale, of the Social Skills Rating System was applied on 120 participants with mild intellectual disability, aged from 8 to 16. Increased level of internalizing problem behavior is found in 25% of the participants, whereas statistically significant correlation is detected only between this variable and IQ. The results obtained in this study indicate the necessity for children and youth with intellectual disability who have elevated level of problem internalization to be identified, for the purpose of undertaking proper measures to eliminate or alleviate those problems. Development of preventive programs directed to reinforce the skills, necessary for resolving emotional and social problems is advised as well.

  15. Homeless and Disabled: Rights, Responsibilities, and Recommendations for Serving Young Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article…

  16. Service Development for Intellectual Disability Mental Health: A Human Rights Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E.; Howlett, S.; Kremser, T.; Simpson, J.; Kayess, R.; Trollor, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) experience higher rates of major mental disorders than their non-ID peers, but in many countries have difficulty accessing appropriate mental health services. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of mental health services for people with ID using Australia as a case example, and…

  17. Karma and Human Rights: Bhutanese Teachers' Perspectives on Inclusion and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenopoulou, Leda; Dukpa, Dawa

    2018-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals call on countries to ensure that all children, especially the most vulnerable, are included in education. The small kingdom of Bhutan has made attempts to embrace inclusion in education at the policy level. However, research on inclusion and disability in this context is limited, and there are few studies focusing…

  18. International obligations through collective rights: Moving from foreign health assistance to global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Fox, Ashley M

    2010-06-15

    This article analyzes the growing chasm between international power and state responsibility in health rights, proposing an international legal framework for collective rights - rights that can reform international institutions and empower developing states to realize the determinants of health structured by global forces. With longstanding recognition that many developing state governments cannot realize the health of their peoples without international cooperation, scholars have increasingly sought to codify international obligations under the purview of an evolving human right to health, applying this rights-based approach as a foundational framework for reducing global health inequalities through foreign assistance. Yet the inherent limitations of the individual human rights framework stymie the right to health in impacting the global institutions that are most crucial for realizing underlying determinants of health through the strengthening of primary health care systems. Whereas the right to health has been advanced as an individual right to be realized by a state duty-bearer, the authors find that this limited, atomized right has proven insufficient to create accountability for international obligations in global health policy, enabling the deterioration of primary health care systems that lack the ability to address an expanding set of public health claims. For rights scholars to advance disease protection and health promotion through national primary health care systems - creating the international legal obligations necessary to spur development supportive of the public's health - the authors conclude that scholars must look beyond the individual right to health to create collective international legal obligations commensurate with a public health-centered approach to primary health care. Through the development and implementation of these collective health rights, states can address interconnected determinants of health within and across countries

  19. Facing up to disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Shakespeare

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They successfully demanded that disability be seen as a matter of equal opportunities and human rights, a shift which has now been described in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This is a global treaty which has so far been signed by 155 states and passed into law by 127.

  20. The crisis of international human rights law in the global market economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution argues that facticity of the human rights impacts of economic globalisation increasingly undermines the normativity of the state-centred conception of international human rights law. The exposure of the international legal order of states to the operations of global business

  1. The Crisis of International Human Rights Law in the Global Market Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that the facticity of the human rights impacts of economic globalisation increasingly undermines the normativity of the state-centred conception of international human rights law. The exposure of the international legal order of states to the operations of global business entities

  2. The Use of Drones and Human Rights: Particular Focus on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Articles 2, 6, 12, 17 and 21

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwani, Muhammad Saqib

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is how the use of drone technology relates to the international human rights law regime. Particular focus is on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Articles 2, 6, 12, 17 and 21.

  3. Validity and internal consistency of a whiplash-specific disability measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, Melanie; Niere, Ken R; O'Leary, Elizabeth F; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Green, Sally; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2004-02-01

    Cross-sectional study of patients with whiplash-associated disorders investigating the internal consistency, factor structure, response rates, and presence of floor and ceiling effects of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ). The aim of this study was to confirm the appropriateness of the proposed WDQ items. Whiplash injuries are a common cause of pain and disability after motor vehicle accidents. Neck disability questionnaires are often used in whiplash studies to assess neck pain but lack content validity for patients with whiplash-associated disorders. The newly developed WDQ measures functional limitations associated with whiplash injury and was designed after interviews with 83 patients with whiplash in a previous study. Researchers sought expert opinion on items of the WDQ, and items were then tested on a clinical whiplash population. Data were inspected to determine floor and ceiling effects, response rates, factor structure, and internal consistency. Packages of questionnaires were distributed to 55 clinicians, whose patients with whiplash completed and returned 101 questionnaires to researchers. No substantial floor or ceiling effects were identified on inspection of data. The overall floor effect was 12%, and the overall ceiling effect was 4%. Principal component analysis identified one broad factor that accounted for 65% of the variance in responses. Internal consistency was high; Cronbach's alpha = 0.96. Results of the study supported the retention of the 13 proposed items in a whiplash-specific disability questionnaire. Dependent on the results of further psychometric testing, the WDQ is likely to be an appropriate outcome measure for patients with whiplash.

  4. Internal consistency & validity of Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS has been recommended for assessment and certification of disability by the Government of India (GOI. However, the psychometric properties of IDEAS as adopted by GOI remain understudied. Our aim, thus, was to study the internal consistency and validity of IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 103 consenting patients with residual schizophrenia were assessed for disability, quality of life (QOL and psychopathology using the IDEAS, WHO QOL-100 and Positive and Negative symptom scale (PANSS respectively. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach′s alpha. For construct validity, relations between IDEAS, and psychopathology and QOL were studied. Results: The inter-item correlations for IDEAS were significant with a Cronbach′s alpha of 0.721. All item scores other than score on communication and understanding; total and global IDEAS scores correlated significantly with the positive, negative and general sub-scales, and total PANSS scores. Communication and understanding was significantly related to negative sub-scale score only. Total and global disability scores correlated negatively with all the domains of WHOQOL-100 (ρ<0.01. The individual IDEAS item scores correlated negatively with various WHOQOL-100 domains (ρ0< 0.01. Interpretation & conclusions: This study findings showed that the GOI-modified IDEAS had good internal consistency and construct validity as tested in patients with residual schizophrenia. Similar studies need to be done with other groups of patients.

  5. Advancing Direct Corporate Accountability in International Human Rights Law: The Role of State-Owned Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xili

    2017-01-01

    Resorting to the immensely State-centric international legal system to regulate corporate human rights abuses is often viewed as inadequate. Among many proposals aiming at filling the international regulatory gaps, imposing international human rights obligations directly on corporations is a bold one, which, due to profound doctrinal and practical challenges, has yet to be agreed upon or established. However, State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs), given its prima facie “State-Business nexus” that bl...

  6. Gender equality and human rights approaches to female genital mutilation: a review of international human rights norms and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Banerjee, Joya; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale; Fried, Susana T

    2017-05-12

    Two hundred million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and another 15 million girls are at risk of experiencing it by 2020 in high prevalence countries (UNICEF, 2016. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a global concern. 2016). Despite decades of concerted efforts to eradicate or abandon the practice, and the increased need for clear guidance on the treatment and care of women who have undergone FGM, present efforts have not yet been able to effectively curb the number of women and girls subjected to this practice (UNICEF. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. 2013), nor are they sufficient to respond to health needs of millions of women and girls living with FGM. International efforts to address FGM have thus far focused primarily on preventing the practice, with less attention to treating associated health complications, caring for survivors, and engaging health care providers as key stakeholders. Recognizing this imperative, WHO developed guidelines on management of health complications of FGM. In this paper, based on foundational research for the development of WHO's guidelines, we situate the practice of FGM as a rights violation in the context of international and national policy and efforts, and explore the role of health providers in upholding health-related human rights of women at girls who are survivors, or who are at risk. Findings are based on a literature review of relevant international human rights treaties and UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies.

  7. Endovascular Treatment of an Iatrogenic Right Internal Jugular Vein- Right Subclavian Artery Fistula and Pseudoaneurysm During the Attempt of a Hemodialysis Catheter Insertion: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eui Min; Kim, Hyun Lee; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Complications during the placement of a central venous catheter, via the right internal jugular vein puncture include local hematoma, hemothorax, pneumothorax, central vein thrombosis, and hemopericardium. Iatrogenic right internal jugular vein-right subclavian artery fistula with the formation of right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysms is an extremely rare complication in patients undergoing a central vein puncture. We report the case of a patient who developed a local hematoma at the vein puncture site and dyspnea due to a right internal jugular vein-subclavian artery fistula and a right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm at the mediastinum after puncture of right internal jugular vein. The patient was successfully treated by embolization using microcoils

  8. No, we don't think our doctors are out to get us: responding to the straw man distortions of disability rights arguments against assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Carol J

    2010-01-01

    The arguments that disability rights advocates present in opposition to legalized assisted suicide are frequently misconstrued in public debate. The goal of this paper is to identify and analyze key "straw man" fallacies about the disability rights opposition in order to clarify this position and the factors that contribute to its distortion. The author adopts a first-person perspective as a disability scholar/activist who has participated in "right to die" debates for over two decades. Three possible barriers that potentially impede comprehension of disability rights arguments are discussed. Prominent fallacies that assisted suicide proponents attribute to disability rights opponents are analyzed in relation to the dynamics of the assisted suicide debate, social views of disability and incurable illness, and available evidence. The author's position is that disability rights arguments against legalized assisted suicide contribute a complex intellectual and experience-based perspective to the debate that can illuminate immediate and distal consequences of altering public policy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Participation rights and equal status of persons with disabilities in the knowledge society: a review of the Venezuelan public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de los Ángeles Ferrer Mavarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a realistic approach in order to determine if the current knowledge society provide participation on equal terms for people with disabilities, taking special regard to the regulations of this matter in Venezuela. A documentary research method is used and reference is made to the legal framework related to disability issues in that country. We found that the legal framework, and in particular, the public policies implemented to date in Venezuela for the fulfillment of this right are still inadequate. Despite significant steps taken in this regard there are no solid legal structures that enhance this initiative aiming at the human development of this social group, useful as well for the rest of the nation. Participation could serve as a tool to promote equal opportunities and inclusion of vulnerable groups in the knowledge society but it’s potential is not fully exploited.

  10. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control: A Tool for Securing Women's Rights in Drug Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Rebecca; Pol, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to 'mainstream' this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women's experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women's rights in drug control policy design and implementation.

  11. Curricular Choices of Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Communities: Translating International Human Rights Law into Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs the provisions of international human rights law in order to analyse whether and how liberal states should regulate Haredi educational practices, which sanctify the exclusive focus on religious studies in schools for boys. It conceptualises the conflict between the right to acceptable education and the right to adaptable…

  12. The Social Studies Should Include More Discussion of International Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney, Judith V.

    1980-01-01

    Students need more exposure to the concept of human rights. They need to know The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent covenants. Also, they need to know that substantial agreement exists in the international community about what constitutes human rights. (Author/KC)

  13. THE OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS: A NEW INSTRUMENT TO ADDRESS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Courtis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the adoption of the new Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as a means to obtain redress for violations against economic, social and cultural rights in the international sphere – including its potential use for the consideration of the violation of extraterritorial obligations. Keywords: Human rights. Social rights. Violations. Optinal protocol.

  14. Nudge, nudge, wink, wink: love, sex and gay men with intellectual disabilities - a helping hand or a human right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D

    2013-11-01

    How do human rights help us with the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) who face discrimination and barriers in their sexual lives? Men with ID who are gay face a whole range of rights violations when it comes to exercising their sexual identity. How can such a seemingly marginalised group draw on rights based claims for better and equal treatment? This paper explores how the power of men's own stories may usefully challenge prevailing social norms and in turn strengthen human rights claims in this area. It also reflects on the challenges posed to such an agenda by current economic difficulties and changes in the organisation of adult social care in the UK. The paper draws on empirical research with gay men with ID completed in the UK in 2005 and briefly revisits some key messages from the data. It also considers the wider literature on the power and possibilities of human rights, 'intimate stories' and translating human rights into everyday change. Gay men with ID tell powerful stories of love, longing and exclusion. Such stories have the capacity to transform wider social attitudes and in turn strengthen the rights claims of this marginalised groups. There are question marks about the possibility of such change in a time of austerity and the broader move in the UK's welfare state from the collective to the individual consumer of services. However, the telling of men's 'intimate stories' creates an almost unassailable challenge to current discriminatory practices and norms. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  15. 'You're disabled, why did you have sex in the first place?' An intersectional analysis of experiences of disabled women with regard to their sexual and reproductive health and rights in Gujarat State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Laura; Tolhurst, Rachel; Khanna, Renu; Jehan, Kate

    Globally, disabled people have significant unmet needs in relation to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Disabled women in India face multiple discrimination: social exclusion, lack of autonomy with regard to their SRH, vulnerability to violence, and lack of access to SRH care. While they may face shared challenges, an intersectional perspective suggests that considering disabled women as a uniform and 'vulnerable' group is likely to mask multiple differences in their lived experiences. To explore commonality and heterogeneity in the experiences of disabled women in relation to their SRH needs and rights in Gujarat State, India. We conducted 22 in-depth qualitative interviews with women between the ages of 18 and 49 with any form of self-identified disability. Intersectionality was used as a lens for analysis and in sampling. Findings explore the experiences of disabled women in a number of different spheres related to decision making and SRH service use. Recognising heterogeneity is critical to inform rights-based approaches to promote SRH and rights for all disabled women. This suggests a need to encourage strategic alliances between social movements for gender equity and SRH and disability rights, in which common interests and agendas can be pursued whilst recognising and respecting differences.

  16. ‘You’re disabled, why did you have sex in the first place?’ An intersectional analysis of experiences of disabled women with regard to their sexual and reproductive health and rights in Gujarat State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Laura; Tolhurst, Rachel; Khanna, Renu; Jehan, Kate

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT ​Background: Globally, disabled people have significant unmet needs in relation to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Disabled women in India face multiple discrimination: social exclusion, lack of autonomy with regard to their SRH, vulnerability to violence, and lack of access to SRH care. While they may face shared challenges, an intersectional perspective suggests that considering disabled women as a uniform and ‘vulnerable’ group is likely to mask multiple differences in their lived experiences. Objective: To explore commonality and heterogeneity in the experiences of disabled women in relation to their SRH needs and rights in Gujarat State, India. Methods: We conducted 22 in-depth qualitative interviews with women between the ages of 18 and 49 with any form of self-identified disability. Intersectionality was used as a lens for analysis and in sampling. Results: Findings explore the experiences of disabled women in a number of different spheres related to decision making and SRH service use. Conclusions: Recognising heterogeneity is critical to inform rights-based approaches to promote SRH and rights for all disabled women. This suggests a need to encourage strategic alliances between social movements for gender equity and SRH and disability rights, in which common interests and agendas can be pursued whilst recognising and respecting differences. PMID:28460595

  17. Re-conceptualizing the International System: The Need for nsa Inclusion in the International Human Rights Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BALDA ASPIAZU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of nonstate actors in an international system that was created to deal mainly with state and not entities has allowed these actors considerable freedom from the accountability of their actions, especially in the realm of human rights. Both International Relations theory and International Law need to deal in an interdisciplinary manner to close this loophole in order to at least offer an incentive for nonstate actors to avoid further violations of human rights and humanitarian law in the future.

  18. The Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Rights of Groups and Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Permanent Court of International Justice was established in a period in which the position of the State as the natural form of political organization had come under pressure, among others, in academic-legal circles. It was also the period in which international-legal concern for groups within

  19. The Observance of Human Rights and Freedoms in the Extradition Proceedings at National and International Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana (Mitra Radu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental rights and freedoms contained in international documents may be the object of the denial of an extradition request as independent exceptions, even if they are not covered by extradition treaties. The right to life is a fundamental human right whose protection must be achieved in the extradition proceedings. By Law no. 30/1994, Romania ratified the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by the Council of Europe.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL RIGHT IN THE MILITARY JUSTICE REFORM IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL SOTO MUÑOZ

    2017-01-01

    This article describes that the military right comes from the constitutional regulation of the use of force. This regulation imposes a particular duty of obedience to the military, that is guarded at the same time, by the military disciplinary right and the military penal code. It informs that although military justice is not forbidden by the international right of the Human Rights, is considered as a regulation of restricted application. Also details, the valid requisites presented by the in...

  1. THE BASIC OBJECTIVES OF DEMECRACY  AND FUNDAMENTAL INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS  FOR THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    ILGAZ , Dr.Nesrin DEMİR  Assist.Prof.Dr.Deniz

    2007-01-01

    The basic objectives of democracy, as they take place openly in the definition of the concept and are lead primarily by freedom and equality, are listed as political representation, political participation and rights. The first important document created in the international arena concerning human rights is the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, an instrument of the United Nations. A regional agreement which has great significance is the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental...

  2. Against a singular understanding of legal capacity: Criminal responsibility and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigie, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is being used to argue for wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities. This raises a question about the implications of the Convention for attributions of criminal responsibility. The present paper works towards an answer by analysing the relationship between legal capacity in relation to personal decisions and criminal acts. Its central argument is that because moral and political considerations play an essential role in setting the relevant standards, legal capacity in the context of personal decisions and criminal acts should not be thought of as two sides of the same coin. The implications of particular moral or political norms are likely to be different in these two legal contexts, and this may justify asymmetries in the relevant standards for legal capacity. However, the analysis highlights a fundamental question about how much weight moral or political considerations should be given in setting these standards, and this is used to frame a challenge to those calling for significantly wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities on the basis of the Convention. PMID:25997381

  3. Against a singular understanding of legal capacity: Criminal responsibility and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigie, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is being used to argue for wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities. This raises a question about the implications of the Convention for attributions of criminal responsibility. The present paper works towards an answer by analysing the relationship between legal capacity in relation to personal decisions and criminal acts. Its central argument is that because moral and political considerations play an essential role in setting the relevant standards, legal capacity in the context of personal decisions and criminal acts should not be thought of as two sides of the same coin. The implications of particular moral or political norms are likely to be different in these two legal contexts, and this may justify asymmetries in the relevant standards for legal capacity. However, the analysis highlights a fundamental question about how much weight moral or political considerations should be given in setting these standards, and this is used to frame a challenge to those calling for significantly wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities on the basis of the Convention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Self-determination of individuals with intellectual disability as an educational goal and basic right: The status of the issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Arellano Torres

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of research suggest that self-determination is one of the variables that determine, in part, the quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities and their recognition as equal members of society. This paper presents a summary of the main ideas about this construct: factors that enable the origin and development of this movement, conceptual models, assessment tools and suggestions for intervention. To do this, we have performed an exhaustive review of the literature. Efforts to promote this basic right let us to state that self-determination is no longer a wish but it has become a reality.

  5. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Martin A. Volker; Elissa H. Dua; Christopher Lopata; Marcus L. Thomeer; Jennifer A. Toomey; Audrey M. Smerbeck; Jonathan D. Rodgers; Joshua R. Popkin; Andrew T. Nelson; Gloria K. Lee

    2016-01-01

    The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2) is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution si...

  6. Sustainable access to safe drinking water: fundamental human right in the international and national scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Maran de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to potable water is absolutely essential to the maintenance of life, as well as to provide regular exercise of other human rights. The lack of access to water in sufficient quantity or access to non-potable water may cause serious and irreparable damage to people. This paper investigates the evolution of international and national recognition of this fundamental human right, whether implicit or explicit. This was accomplished by the study of international human rights treaties, bibliographic information on water resources and their corresponding legal systems, national and international. The results suggest that sustainable access to drinking water is a fundamental human right in the context of international relations and the State. Further, even without explicitly stating this right in the Constitution of 1988, Brazil has incorporated the main international provisions on the subject, but this right must be acknowledged according to the principles of non-typical fundamental rights and the dignity of the human person. This right should be universally guaranteed by the Government in sufficient quantity and quality, regardless of the economic resources of individuals.

  7. The Enemy at the Gates: International Borders, Migration and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Oberoi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers contemporary border management regimes from a human rights perspective. It demonstrates how a preoccupation with border controls and enforcement has led to serious concerns for the safety and protection of migrants. As border zones have expanded, border crossing has become a more stigmatized and dangerous activity, and even as globalization has given rise to easier and faster international travel, for some, such movement has been outlawed and stigmatized. Measures to strengthen and “secure” borders have paradoxically made migrants, particularly irregular and vulnerable migrants, more at risk of violence and exploitation by non-State and State actors. Migration governance regimes at international borders are thus increasingly located within security and enforcement frameworks that pay little attention to the principles and standards of international human rights law. The paper argues that a human rights-based approach to such regimes is urgently needed, in order to address a growing human rights crisis at international borders.

  8. An Analysis of Basic Construction Variables of Racing Wheelchairs Used in the 1984 International Games for the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherril L.; Kimura, Iris F.

    1987-01-01

    A photographic analysis of racing wheelchairs used by cerebral palsy class four athletes and amputee athletes at the 1984 International Games for the Disabled was undertaken in order to analyze seven wheelchair construction variables in relation to performance outcome, distance raced, and type of disability of the user. (Author/MT)

  9. Disability and global development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Joan; Lord, Janet; Defranco, Allison

    2012-07-01

    The United States invests billions of taxpayer dollars each year into foreign assistance programs that foster international diplomacy and development directed toward improving the quality of life for people around the world. These programs develop economies and combat poverty, promote democracy and governance, build new infrastructure, advance and protect human rights, among other development goals. The United States cannot effectively accomplish the goals of foreign assistance programs unless it undertakes measures to ensure that the programs are accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. The United States has been a leader in advancing the rights of people with disabilities and must continue to promote disability rights through its international development work. Overseas economic development will not be successful unless people with disabilities are included. Because of the significant number of people with disabilities in developing countries, if they are not included, the very economic growth the United States is trying to foster will be hindered. The goals of democracy and governance programs cannot be achieved without the inclusion of people with disabilities. In many countries, domestic law contains blatant discriminatory provisions for people with disabilities that undermine access to justice and full participation in society. The provisions that discriminate against people with disabilities include arbitrary exclusions in electoral codes, sweeping plenary guardianship laws with no due-process protections, discriminatory banking practices, and inaccessible court proceedings. National disability legal frameworks remain underdeveloped throughout the world. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Child Labor in India, Philipine, Iran and the International Human Rights Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ali Ehsankhah

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the connections between poverty, illiteracy and child labor through the lens of international human rights discourse, particularly assessing the debate between the developed countries and The lesser developed countries (LDCs) over incorporating a ‘social clause’ articulating waged worker rights into international trade agreements. Poverty, often viewed simply as lack of income, is now being approached through the broader perspective of lack of opportunities, albeit u...

  11. A Humanist's Legacy: Burton Blatt and the Origins of the Disability Rights Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Stanley S.

    1995-01-01

    This article recounts the words and deeds of Burton Blatt, a writer, educator, and exposer of abuses of human rights in institutions housing people with mental retardation. His life is seen as an inspiration for those now providing moral leadership in the continuing fight against indifference to human rights abuses and social darwinism. (DB)

  12. From Legal to Effective Recognition of Equal Dignity as a Right of the Individual with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. A Process that Challenges us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana URIEN ORTIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the ethical implications of acknowledging disability as a human rights issue. The most common way to understand disability is inspired by a welfarist structure where collective needs trump the wishes of the individual. This new conceptualization, inspired by influential philosophers, such as Dworkin and Margalit, understands dignity as the individual’s right to have their life unfold in an inclusive context that creates self-respect.

  13. When All Else Fails: International Adjudication of Human Rights Abuse Claims, 1976-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Wade M.

    2006-01-01

    Although interest in the consolidation and expansion of the international human rights regime has grown in recent years, little attention is accorded to the formal procedures that allow individuals aggrieved by states to appeal directly to an international audience. Using data for 82 countries between 1976 and 1999, this article examines the…

  14. The principle of the accessibility of the right to education (international aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetyan G.A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the principle of the accessibility of the right to education from the perspective of international legal documents; establishes the forms of the accessibility according to the signs of directionality and duration of education; detects the types of the accessibility in the context of international acts.

  15. The Right to Appeal as a Fundamental Right under International Acts and Jurisprudence, with Special Emphasis on Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilard BYTYQI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to appeal, respectively the right on complaint as per our legal vocabulary, constitutes the basic trunk of the second phase of court decisions in a certain procedure, in particular the criminal proceedings. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the main notions of appeal, but also in other aspects through the comparative description it aims to bring more clarity in differences and similarities that exist in between the appeal which is used in our criminal proceedings and the appeal which is used in the criminal proceedings that take place in the supranational courts. It is known that in courts which consist of international elements, the appeal is positioned in a more advanced level, due to the fact that there are grounds of suspicion used over every element that could be used in any national criminal proceedings. Overall, in any place of the world, the appeal has the goal to remedy court decisions brought by the court of first instance, while, in the procedural aspect it has more or less differences depending on the regulations of criminal procedures of that state. Such difference due to the diversity of the legal systems today are also accepted as the universal legal value, since establishment of international tribunals provides the best practice in this field.

  16. The Educational Rights of Students: International Perspectives on Demystifying the Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.; Stewart, Douglas J., Ed.; De Groof, Jan, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Education law has emerged as an important concern to educators in many countries around the world. While there are similarities in the range of rights that students in various countries have, there are also many differences. This book provides a comprehensive examination the status of the legal rights of students in 13 international communities.…

  17. The Impact of International Cooperation for the Development of Democracy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Prado Lallande

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Cold War, the developed countries agreed that democracy and human rights would be top priority goals of the international cooperation for development. However, nearly two decades after those official commitments, these goals have not been relevant elements of the international agenda, since political, economic and security issues still prevail over both values. This paper analyzes the existing situation, in reference to the U.S. and European Union experiences. The article includes some considerations for the improvement of the international cooperation ability to promote democracy and human rights in third world countries.

  18. Rights, laws and tensions: A comparative analysis of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the WHO Resource Book on Mental Health, Human Rights and Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Richard M; Kelly, Brendan D

    Good mental health legislation is essential for ensuring high quality mental health care and protecting human rights. Many countries are attempting to bring mental health legislation in line with the UN - Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (UN-CRPD). The UN-CRPD requires policy-makers to rethink the 'medical model' of mental illness and existing laws. It also challenges WHO guidelines on drafting mental health law, described in the WHO Resource Book on Mental Health, Human Rights and Legislation (WHO-RB). This study examines the relationship between the UN-CRPD and the WHO-RB. It compares the documents, highlighting similarities and identifying areas of disagreement. The WHO-RB contains a checklist of human rights standards it recommends are met at national level. This study analyses each component on this checklist and identifies the relevant sections in the UN-CRPD that pertain to each. Both the UN-CRPD and WHO-RB address more than just acute exacerbations of illness, providing guidelines on, inter alia, treatment, education, occupation and housing. They are patient-centred and strongly influenced by social rights. The UN-CRPD, however, gives just superficial consideration to the management of acute illness, forensic and risk issues, and does little to identify the role of family and carers. The UN-CRPD has evolved from disability research and strong advocacy organisations. Careful consideration is needed to enable it to address the specific needs encountered in mental illness. Both the UN-CRPD and WHO-RB highlight common tensions that must be resolved by clinicians, and provide some guidance for stakeholders who commonly need to observe one principle at the expense of another. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. GUIDED EMPLOYMENT – RIGHTS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna ZHGUR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People with intellectual disabilities (ID are often excluded from the labour market and face many obstacles on their way to employment. Aim: The main aim is giving the persons with ID a possibility to participate in occasional employment, providing them suitable work skills, sustainable knowledge and competencies, as well as suitable skills for more active life. Materials and methods: We analysed 90 evaluation questionnaires (filled out by students, mentors, parents and craftsmen, during a 3-year project (September 2013 - October 2015. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient and Chi-square test were used for statistical data analysis. Results: We determined the level of satisfaction expressed by parents, mentors and students, related to guided employment (χ2 = 1,07; p > 0,05; χ2 = 0,04; p > 0,05;χ2 = 0,04; p > 0,05. Workshops were balanced with theoretical and practical content (χ2 = 16,58; p 0,05, craftsmen (ϱ = 0,79; p 0,05. Conclusion: Implementation of selected workshops, related to guided employment showed that employment of people with ID is possible under professional guidance of mentors.

  20. Access to health care as a human right in international policy: critical reflections and contemporary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Camilo Hernán Manchola; Garrafa, Volnei; Cunha, Thiago; Hellmann, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Using the United Nations (UN) and its subordinate body, the World Health Organization (WHO), as a frame of reference, this article explores access to healthcare as a human right in international intergovernmental policies. First, we look at how the theme of health is treated within the UN, focusing on the concept of global health. We then discuss the concept of global health from a human rights perspective and go on to outline the debate surrounding universal coverage versus universal access as a human right, addressing some important ethical questions. Thereafter, we discuss universal coverage versus universal access using the critical and constructivist theories of international relations as a frame of reference. Finally, it is concluded that, faced with the persistence of huge global health inequalities, the WHO began to reshape itself, leaving behind the notion of health as a human right and imposing the challenge of reducing the wide gap that separates international intergovernmental laws from reality.

  1. International Literature Review on WHODAS II (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federici, Stefano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This review is a critical analysis regarding the study and utilization of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II as a basis for establishing specific criteria for evaluating relevant international scientific literature.The WHODAS II is an instrument developed by the World Health Organisation in order to assess behavioural limitations and restrictions related to an individual’s participation, independent from a medical diagnosis. This instrument was developed by the WHO’s Assessment, Classification and Epidemiology Group within the framework of the WHO/NIH Joint Project on Assessment and Classification of Disablements. To ascertain the international dissemination level of for WHODAS II’s utilization and, at the same time, analyse the studies regarding the psychometric validation of the WHODAS II translation and adaptation in other languages and geographical contests. Particularly, our goal is to highlight which psychometric features have been investigated, focusing on the factorial structure, the reliability, and the validity of this instrument. International literature was researched through the main data bases of indexed scientific production: the Cambridge Scientific Abstracts – CSA, PubMed, and Google Scholar, from 1990 through to December 2008.The following search terms were used:“whodas”, in the field query, plus “title” and “abstract”.The WHODAS II has been used in 54 studies, of which 51 articles are published in international journals, 2 conference abstracts, and one dissertation abstract. Nevertheless, only 7 articles are published in journals and conference proceedings regarding disability and rehabilitation. Others have been published in medical and psychiatric journals, with the aim of indentifying comorbidity correlations in clinical diagnosis concerning patients with mental illness. Just 8 out of 51 articles have studied the psychometric properties of the WHODAS II. The

  2. The Diffusion of Disability Rights Policy: A Focus on Special Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Joan P.; Palley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the development of South Korean special education policy and suggests that different strategies of policy diffusion influenced the design of the policy at different times. Historically, South Korea relied on external pressures and influences, particularly US law and UN guidelines, to develop much of its human rights law,…

  3. Is the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Impacting Mental Health Laws and Policies in High-Income Countries? A Case Study of Implementation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Sritharan, Lathika; Tejpar, Ali

    2016-11-11

    Persons with psychosocial disabilities face disparate access to healthcare and social services worldwide, along with systemic discrimination, structural inequalities, and widespread human rights abuses. Accordingly, many people have looked to international human rights law to help address mental health challenges. On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) - the first human rights treaty of the 21st century and the fastest ever negotiated. This study assesses the CRPD's potential impact on mental health systems and presents a legal and public policy analysis of its implementation in one high-income country: Canada. As part of this analysis, a critical review was undertaken of the CRPD's implementation in Canadian legislation, public policy, and jurisprudence related to mental health. While the Convention is clearly an important step forward, there remains a divide, even in Canada, between the Convention's goals and the experiences of Canadians with disabilities. Its implementation is perhaps hindered most by Canada's reservations to Article 12 of the CRPD on legal capacity for persons with psychosocial disabilities. The overseeing CRPD Committee has stated that Article 12 only permits "supported decision-making" regimes, yet most Canadian jurisdictions maintain their "substitute decision-making" regimes. This means that many Canadians with mental health challenges continue to be denied legal capacity to make decisions related to their healthcare, housing, and finances. But changes are afoot: new legislation has been introduced in different jurisdictions across the country, and recent court decisions have started to push policymakers in this direction. Despite the lack of explicit implementation, the CRPD has helped to facilitate a larger shift in social and cultural paradigms of mental health and disability in Canada. But ratification and passive implementation are not enough. Further

  4. Aspects of UN Activities on the International Protection of Women's Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Maftei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human rights and their protection represent the regulation object of a major part of all the legal rules encompassing the international public law. The Members’ efforts to protect women's rights and to promote gender equality have resulted in the adoption of important documents, fundamental to all mankind. In the light of these international regulations, States have assumed obligations and they have created mechanisms to achieve them. Through the analytical approach we have highlighted the activities of the United Nations and international bodies for protecting women's rights and gender equality in all sectors of public and private life. In preparing this article we used as research methods the analysis of problems generated by the subject in question with reference to the doctrinal views expressed in the Treaties and specialized articles, documentary research, interpretation of legal norms in the field.

  5. Reflections between CSR and international human rights in EU initiatives for a competitive inclusive society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    : The paper aims to contribute to our understanding of whether a shift is taking place in societal attitudes towards a perception that corporations have duties based on international law. This is assessed on the basis of EU initiatives on inclusiveness and responsible competitiveness, particularly...... the EU Multistakeholder Forum and the Lisbon Strategy, with a particular focus on goals or views related to the human rights of non-discrimination and rights to work, education and vocational training, and network governance in (soft) law creation. It is found that despite obvious links, international...... law does not serve as a clear source of inclusiveness or responsible competitiveness. It is also found that the initiatives assessed do not indicate a shift at EU institutional level towards a perception that business holds duties under international law. International law seems at the most to be seen...

  6. International trade in carbon emission rights and basic materials: General equilibrium calculations for 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perroni, C.; Rutherford, T.F.

    1993-01-01

    Restrictions on CO 2 emissions affect international trade and the pattern of comparative advantage. This paper, based on calculations with a static general equilibrium model, suggests that international trade in carbon rights is a substitute for trade in energy-intensive goods, and thus international trading in carbon rights reduces sectoral effects of emission reductions. In our model, we surprisingly find that free riding by non-signatory countries may not render unilateral action ineffective. If the OECD unilaterally cuts global emissions by 5 per cent from 1990 levels by the year 2020, emission by non-OECD regions increase but offset less than 15 per cent of this cutback. Moreover, carbon taxes depress international oil prices and create incentives for increased trade in natural gas. 14 refs, 7 figs

  7. THE RIGHT TO FORM AND TO JOIN TRADE UNIONS AS DEFINED IN INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Majhoshev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The right of workers to form and to join trade unions is one of the most important international labour standards. This means that employees, no matter where they are employed (public or private sector, have the right to form their own organizations (unions. Apart from the employees, employers also have the right to form and join in employers’ associations. The right of employees and employers to organize is based on the following principles: voluntariness, autonomy and democracy. The general objective of the formation of unions and employers’ associations is to protect the rights and interests of members of the union and the employers’ association, as well as their promotion in an organized manner. The provision and guarantee of union and workers' rights are guaranteed by a number of international and regional legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, regulations, such as ILO, UN, Council of Europe and the European Union, which will be analysed further in this paper. The main objective arising from these documents is to improve the position of workers and their protection. Within the paper, we will also analyse the most important legal acts of the Republic of Macedonia concerning the right to join unions. By analysing the content of the national labour legislation, we will determine the extent to which the international labour law is being implemented. Moreover, the paper will analyse the basic principles underlying union organization and association.

  8. Critical Evaluation of International Treaties and Conventions on Women’s Human Right. A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Vijaya KUMAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human right is a complete concept within it which never tends to devide the identity of men or women but simply say human. The ways in which women experience human rights and human right violations are unique. While human rights are often understood as the rights that everyone has by virtue of their humanity, the assumption that all humans have the same experiences and needs is particularly problematic for women. The human right revolution which has become a core principle of almost all the laws of the nation around the world discern that its essences is not just in enumerating it into a piece of law but practically applying it and respecting it, as an eternal part of justice. There is an urgent need to adopt balance approach in identifying the rights of women as human right. At the same time identifying this right individually and as part universal phenomenon of human right should be the concern of every woman in every walk of life. The present study undertakes a doctrinal research and attempt to critically analyze the practical application of human right norms from both national and international law perspective, thus drawing the attention of human right activist to this problematic area of concern.

  9. Security, development and human rights: normative, legal and policy challenges for the international drug control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Damon

    2010-03-01

    This commentary addresses some of the challenges posed by the broader normative, legal and policy framework of the United Nations for the international drug control system. The 'purposes and principles' of the United Nations are presented and set against the threat based rhetoric of the drug control system and the negative consequences of that system. Some of the challenges posed by human rights law and norms to the international drug control system are also described, and the need for an impact assessment of the current system alongside alternative policy options is highlighted as a necessary consequence of these analyses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The World Report on Disability as a blueprint for international, national, and local aphasia services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Linda E; Howe, Tami; O'Callaghan, Anna; Hill, Anne J; Rose, Miranda; Wallace, Sarah J; Rose, Tanya; Brown, Kyla; Power, Emma; O'Halloran, Robyn; Rohde, Alexia

    2013-02-01

    This commentary aims to extend the debate of the lead article authors (Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall, 2013) by translating the nine recommendations of the World Report on Disability into a plan of action for the aphasia community. Solutions for the advancement of aphasia science and services are presented at international (macro), national (meso), and local (micro) levels. Implications for speech-language pathologists and aphasia service delivery are discussed. An overarching call to action is the need for speech-language pathologists to support a strong and vibrant aphasia community at all levels, so that the voices of people with aphasia can be heard.

  11. Promises of protection? Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and gender-based violence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combrinck, Helene

    Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) guarantees persons with disabilities freedom from exploitation, violence and abuse. This article explores the current status of implementation of article 16 in South Africa, with specific reference to the legislative framework underpinning protection from exploitation, violence and abuse. This investigation is done specifically in the context of gender-based violence, which remains a cause of great concern in this country. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Mapping SAGE questionnaire to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Quintas, Rui; Russo, Emanuela; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Costardi, Daniela; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Ojala, Matti; Peña, Sebastián; Perales, Jaime; Chatterji, Somnath; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Frattura, Lucilla; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    The collaborative research on ageing in Europe protocol was based on that of the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) project that investigated the relationship between health and well-being and provided a set of instruments that can be used across countries to monitor health and health-related outcomes of older populations as well as the strategies for addressing issues concerning the ageing process. To evaluate the degree to which SAGE protocol covered the spectrum of disability given the scope of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a mapping exercise was performed with SAGE protocol. Results show that the SAGE protocol covers ICF domains in a non-uniform way, with environmental factors categories being underrepresented, whereas mental, cardiovascular, sensory functions and mobility were overrepresented. To overcome this partial coverage of ICF functioning categories, new assessment instruments have been developed. PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: Mapping exercises are valid procedures to understand the extent to which a survey protocol covers the spectrum of functioning. The mapping exercise with SAGE protocol shows that it provides only a partial representation of body functions and activities and participation domains, and the coverage of environmental factors is poor. New instruments are therefore needed for researchers to properly understand the health and disability of ageing populations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights. International Planned Parenthood Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K; Helzner, J F

    1999-05-01

    For most of human existence and in most societies, women have been considered to be property and subject to men. Throughout history, with such notable exceptions as Queen Boadicea, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Elizabeth I of England, and Catherine the Great of Russia, women had little or no power until early in the 20th century when the women's suffrage movement was successful in the United States and in some European countries. As women have gained political rights, groups of women have sought sexual and reproductive rights, as exemplified by the feminist movement of the past few decades in the United States. Although marked strides toward achievement of reproductive choice have been taken in high-income countries, there remain major strictures to reproductive freedom for women in low-income countries. This area, which is replete with ethical and moral issues, has been addressed by the International Planned Parenthood Foundation (IPPF), which has worked to improve the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout the world. The IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights is a paradigm for both women's rights and human rights. Karen Newman is policy adviser with the IPPF and has codrafted the IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights together with two lawyers. She has held several positions within the IPPF, including medical researcher, press officer, and programme adviser in Europe, where she had responsibility for working with new family planning associations (FPAs) in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. At present, she is working to increase the capacity of IPPF member FPAs to undertake human rights-based advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights. Judith F. Helzner is director of Sexual and Reproductive Health at International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region, Inc., where she has worked since 1987. She holds M.A. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania in International Relations and Demography. Her previous employment

  14. Enabled or Disabled: Is the Environment Right for Using Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Danny; Özkan, Isa; Moura de Oliveira Beltrame, Daniela; Samarasinghe, Wellakke Lokuge Gamini; Wasike, Victor Wafula; Charrondière, U Ruth; Borelli, Teresa; Sokolow, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    How can we ensure that 9 billion people will have access to a nutritious and healthy diet that is produced in a sustainable manner by 2050? Despite major advances, our global food system still fails to feed a significant part of humanity adequately. Diversifying food systems and diets to include nutrient-rich species can help reduce malnutrition, while contributing other multiple benefits including healthy ecosystems. While research continues to demonstrate the value of incorporating biodiversity into food systems and diets, perverse subsidies, and barriers often prevent this. Countries like Brazil have shown that, by strategic actions and interventions, it is indeed possible to create better contexts to mainstream biodiversity for improved nutrition into government programs and public policies. Despite some progress, there are few global and national policy mechanisms or processes that effectively join biodiversity with agriculture and nutrition efforts. This perspective paper discusses the benefits of biodiversity for nutrition and explores what an enabling environment for biodiversity to improve nutrition might look like, including examples of steps and actions from a multi-country project that other countries might replicate. Finally, we suggest what it might take to create enabling environments to mainstream biodiversity into global initiatives and national programs and policies on food and nutrition security. With demand for new thinking about how we improve agriculture for nutrition and growing international recognition of the role biodiversity, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development presents an opportunity to move beyond business-as-usual to more holistic approaches to food and nutrition security.

  15. Reconciling international human rights and cultural relativism: the case of female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen A

    1994-01-01

    How can we reconcile, in a non-ethnocentric fashion, the enforcement of international, universal human rights standards with the protection of cultural diversity? Examining this question, taking the controversy over female circumcision as a case study, this article will try to bridge the gap between the traditional anthropological view that human rights are non-existent -- or completely relativised to particular cultures -- and the view of Western naturalistic philosophers (including Lockeian philosophers in the natural rights tradition, and Aquinas and neo-Thomists in the natural law tradition) that they are universal -- simply derived from a basic human nature we all share. After briefly defending a universalist conception of human rights, the article will provide a critique of female circumcision as a human rights violation by three principal means: by an internal critique of the practice using the condoning cultures' own functionalist criteria; by identifying supra-national norms the cultures subscribe to which conflict with the practice; and by the identification of traditional and novel values in the cultures, conducive to those norms. Through this analysis, it will be seen that cultural survival, diversity and flourishing need not be incompatible with upholding international, universal human rights standards.

  16. Enabled or disabled: Is the environment right for using biodiversity to improve nutrition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny eHunter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available How can we ensure that 9 billion people will have access to a nutritious and healthy diet that is produced in a sustainable manner by 2050? Despite major advances, our global food system still fails to feed a significant part of humanity adequately. Diversifying food systems and diets to include nutrient-rich species can help reduce malnutrition while contributing other multiple benefits including healthy ecosystems. While research continues to demonstrate the value of incorporating biodiversity into food systems and diets, perverse subsidies and barriers often prevent this. Countries like Brazil have shown that by strategic actions and interventions it is indeed possible to create better contexts to mainstream biodiversity for improved nutrition into government programs and public policies. Despite some progress, there are few global and national policy mechanisms or processes that effectively join biodiversity with agriculture and nutrition efforts. This perspective paper discusses the benefits of biodiversity for nutrition and explores what an enabling environment for biodiversity to improve nutrition might look like, including examples of steps and actions from a multi-country project that other countries might replicate. Finally, we suggest what it might take to create enabling environments to mainstream biodiversity into global initiatives and national programs and policies on food and nutrition security. With demand for new thinking about how we improve agriculture for nutrition, and growing international recognition of the role biodiversity, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development presents an opportunity to move beyond business-as-usual, to more holistic approaches to food and nutrition security.

  17. Distortions and Dichotomies in Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Cambodia in the Context of Globalisation and International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, Maya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of transferring technical information on disability and inclusive education from the North to the South within the context of international development. Based on data from the author's experiences as a US-trained Indian international consultant in Cambodia, it analyses how problems with translation and…

  18. An International Clinical Study of Ability and Disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the WHO-ICF Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Soheil; Albertowski, Katja; Almodayfer, Omar

    2018-01-01

    This is the fourth international preparatory study designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Examine functioning of individuals diagnosed with ASD as documented...

  19. A new ball game: the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and assumptions in care for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anita; Sullivan, Danny

    2012-09-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a powerful international instrument which imposes significant responsibilities on signatories. This column discusses changes in the definition of legal capacity which will have significant impacts on decision-making related to people with dementia. Various restrictions and limitations on personal freedoms are discussed in light of the Convention. The main focus is on challenges to existing paradigms of substitute decision-making, which are in wide use through a guardianship model. Under Art 12 of the Convention, moves to supported decision-making will result in significant changes in ensuring the rights of people with dementia. There are challenges ahead in implementing supported decision-making schemes, not only due to tension with existing practices and legislation, but also the difficulty of developing and resourcing workable schemes. This is particularly so with advanced dementia, which is acknowledged as a pressing issue for Australia due to effective health care, an ageing population and changing expectations.

  20. Under the (legal) radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations) is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help) fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers lessons to build on. PMID

  1. Under the (legal radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammonds Rachel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers

  2. Under the (legal) radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammonds, Rachel; Ooms, Gorik; Vandenhole, Wouter

    2012-11-15

    Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations) is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help) fulfil the right to health beyond borders. The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers lessons to build on.

  3. The Rights of Pastoralist Peoples. A Framework for their Recognition in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martín López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralists are one of the most poverty stricken and underdeveloped existing human groups in the world. Until now, having remained practically invisible in the eyes of international law, it is desirable to open a debate concerning the recognition of their rights. The ideal situation would be to create a specific category of rights dedicated expressly to these pastoralist peoples. Therefore, one can surmise that there are two laws that constitute its essential content: the law protecting their way of life and their access rights to the land

  4. A model to facilitate implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health into prosthetics and orthotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarl, Gustav; Ramstrand, Nerrolyn

    2017-09-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is a classification of human functioning and disability and is based on a biopsychosocial model of health. As such, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health seems suitable as a basis for constructing models defining the clinical P&O process. The aim was to use International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to facilitate development of such a model. Proposed model: A model, the Prosthetic and Orthotic Process (POP) model, is proposed. The Prosthetic and Orthotic Process model is based on the concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and comprises four steps in a cycle: (1) Assessment, including the medical history and physical examination of the patient. (2) Goals, specified on four levels including those related to participation, activity, body functions and structures and technical requirements of the device. (3) Intervention, in which the appropriate course of action is determined based on the specified goal and evidence-based practice. (4) Evaluation of outcomes, where the outcomes are assessed and compared to the corresponding goals. After the evaluation of goal fulfilment, the first cycle in the process is complete, and a broad evaluation is now made including overriding questions about the patient's satisfaction with the outcomes and the process. This evaluation will determine if the process should be ended or if another cycle in the process should be initiated. The Prosthetic and Orthotic Process model can provide a common understanding of the P&O process. Concepts of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health have been incorporated into the model to facilitate communication with other rehabilitation professionals and encourage a holistic and patient-centred approach in clinical practice. Clinical relevance The Prosthetic and Orthotic Process model can support the implementation

  5. Human Rights Promotion through Transnational Investment Regimes: An International Political Economy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cutler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available International investment agreements are foundational instruments in a transnational investment regime that governs how states regulate the foreign-owned assets and the foreign investment activities of private actors. Over 3,000 investment agreements between states govern key governmental powers and form the basis for an emerging transnational investment regime. This transnational regime significantly decentralizes, denationalizes, and privatizes decision-making and policy choices over foreign investment. Investment agreements set limits to state action in a number of areas of vital public concern, including the protection of human and labour rights, the environment, and sustainable development. They determine the distribution of power between foreign investors and host states and their societies. However, the societies in which they operate seldom have any input into the terms or operation of these agreements, raising crucial questions of their democratic legitimacy as mechanisms of governance. This paper draws on political science and law to explore the political economy of international investment agreements and asks whether these agreements are potential vehicles for promoting international human rights. The analysis provides an historical account of the investment regime, while a review of the political economy of international investment agreements identifies what appears to be a paradox at the core of their operation. It then examines contract theory for insight into this apparent paradox and considers whether investment agreements are suitable mechanisms for advancing international human rights.

  6. Environmental justice and the rights of indigenous peoples: international and domestic legal perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westra, Laura

    2008-01-01

    ... Peoples: Some Recent ATCA Jurisprudence First Nations of Canada and the Legal and Illegal Attacks on their Existence 71 103 125 PART III - JUSTIFYING GENOCIDE: PRINCIPLES AND REALITY 7 8 Genocide and Eco-crime: The Interface Aboriginal Rights in Domestic and International Law, and the Special Case of Arctic Peoples 163 187 PART...

  7. Bringing political context back into international business studies of human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourula, A.; Mäkinen, J.

    In this article, we respond to Giuliani, Santangelo, and Wettstein’s (2016) call formore international business (IB) research on the theme of human rights (HR).While we surely agree with the need for increasing research on the topic, we arguethat future research should emphasize and elaborate on the

  8. The Debate around the Need for an International Convention on the Rights of Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel; Apter, Itai

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest and debate around the question, whether there is a need for an international convention on the rights of older persons. The debate around this question is far from simple or consensual. Although there are strong voices in favor, there are also strong arguments against. Moreover, the mere fact that…

  9. Human Rights and International Labour Law issues concerning Migrant Women Working as Domestic Helpers in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Q.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375803998

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the human rights and international labour law issues concerning rural migrant women workers as domestic helpers in China and offers several legislative suggestions to the Chinese government. By describing the current de facto and de jure condition of rural migrant women working

  10. The Contributions of Digital Communications Technology to Human Rights Education: A Case Study of Amnesty International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, Rebecca Joy

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the need for critical assessment and evaluation of human rights education (HRE) programs and activities, especially newer initiatives that incorporate the use of digital information and communications technology (ICT). It provides an in-depth case study of the use of digital ICT in Amnesty International's HRE efforts,…

  11. The Role and Purposes of Public Schools and Religious Fundamentalism: An International Human Rights Law Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Douglas Charles

    2012-01-01

    The question of what are today the legitimate and proper role and purposes of public schools can only be answered by a close examination and analysis of the human right to education which has been developed by such international organizations as the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and by…

  12. Using "Competing Visions of Human Rights" in an International IB World School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, William J.

    2013-01-01

    William Tolley, a teaching fellow with the Choices Program, is the Learning and Innovation Coach and head of history at the International School of Curitiba, Brazil (IB). He writes in this article that he has found that the "Competing Visions of Human Rights" teaching unit, developed by Brown University's Choices Program, provides a…

  13. Ensure the Right of Citizens to Work: Problems of Domestic and International Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdiyarova, Zhamilya; Serikbekova, Samal; Babajanyan, Yester

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the legal problems of ensuring the right to work of citizens in the Republic of Kazakhstan and to find the conformity of labor laws in the Republic of Kazakhstan to international standards. Using the method of comparison analysis of the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan and norms of international…

  14. ARTERIAL REVASCULARIZATION WITH THE RIGHT GASTROEPIPLOIC ARTERY AND INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERIES IN 300 PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRANDJEAN, JG; BOONSTRA, PW; DENHEYER, P; EBELS, T; KIRKLIN, JW

    From September 1989 to September 1992, the right gastroepiploic artery in combination with one or both internal mammary arteries was used as a graft in 300 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The gastroepiploic artery was the primary choice in preference to the saphenous vein.

  15. Poverty as human rights deficit : some implications for the international financial institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2003-01-01

    Following the World Bank’s World Development Report2000/2001: The attack on poverty and the voices of the poor studies on which that document had been based, this chapter explores Human Rights obligations of the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). In this connection poverty is approached as

  16. Examining transgender health through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health's (ICF) Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Melissa; Cox, Steven R

    2017-12-01

    For many transgender individuals, medical intervention is necessary to live as their desired gender. However, little is known about Contextual Factors (i.e., Environmental and Personal) that may act as facilitators and barriers in the health of transgender individuals. Therefore, this paper sought to examine Contextual Factors of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health that may facilitate or negatively impact the physical, psychological, and social functioning of transgender individuals. A literature review was conducted to identify Environmental and Personal Factors that may influence transgender individuals' physical, psychological, and social functioning. Seven electronic databases were searched. In total, 154 records were reviewed, and 41 articles and other records met inclusion criteria. Three general themes emerged for Environmental Factors: family and social networks, education, and health care. Three general themes also emerged for Personal Factors: socioeconomic status, race, and age. Transgender individuals benefit from gender-affirming services, improved family and social support systems, and competent provider care. Educational training programs, including medical curricula or workshops, might provide the greatest benefit in improving transgender health by increasing the knowledge and cultural competency of health professionals working with this population. Given the diversity of gender expression, differences in lived experiences, and potential for enduring persistent "double discrimination" due to the intersectional relationships between socioeconomic status, race, and/or age, health professionals must approach transgender health using a holistic lens such as the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

  17. Semantic aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: towards sharing knowledge and unifying information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronache, Adrian Stefan; Simoncello, Andrea; Della Mea, Vincenzo; Daffara, Carlo; Francescutti, Carlo

    2012-02-01

    During the last decade, under the World Health Organization's direction, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has become a reference tool for monitoring and developing various policies addressing people with disability. This article presents three steps to increase the semantic interoperability of ICF: first, the representation of ICF using ontology tools; second, the alignment to upper-level ontologies; and third, the use of these tools to implement semantic mappings between ICF and other tools, such as disability assessment instruments, health classifications, and at least partially formalized terminologies.

  18. The international right to health: state obligations and private actors in the health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paula

    2013-09-01

    Most health systems have historically used a mix of public and private actors for financing and delivering care. But the last 30 years have seen many rich and middle-income countries moving to privatise parts of their health care systems. This phenomenon has generated concerns, especially about equitable access to health care. This article examines what the international right to the highest attainable standard of health in Art 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights says about the obligations of states which use private actors in health care. The article involves a close study of the primary documents of the key institutions responsible for interpreting and promoting Art 12. From this study, the article concludes that in mixed public-private health care systems, states not only retain primary responsibility for fulfilling the right to health but are subject to a range of additional specific responsibilities.

  19. THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES (CRPD AND QATAR'S DOMESTIC LEGISLATION: THE POTENTIAL IMPACT ON THE MAIN LEGAL DOMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO RODRÍGUEZ DEL POZO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Equal rights for persons with disabilities is the ultimate goal mandated by the CRPD, and it can probably be gradually achieved in Qatar as steps are taken towards reconsidering the approach to disability at large. This paper examines what impact the CRPD has on the country’s legislation. To that end, we explore how the sensitive domains –health, education, employment, and justice– need to be re-evaluated in light of the CRPD, where recent improvements in the rights of persons with disabilities in Qatar can enable compliance and where the greater challenges lie. We maintain that although legal reforms are needed for Qatar to comply with CRPD, within existing legislation there is notable potential to accommodate particular amendments that could significantly assist the move towards CRPD compliance. We suggest some structural steps aimed at improving compliance, consisting of the establishment of specific institutions, the promotion of associations that represent persons with disabilities and, above all, advancement of a fundamental shift in the way disability is perceived by society, moving away from the old medical notion of disability with its focus on special features and rehabilitation and instead adopting the social model that mandates inclusion and equality.

  20. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states' obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals.

  1. The International Communication Project: Raising global awareness of communication as a human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcair, Gail; Pietranton, Arlene A; Williams, Cori

    2018-02-01

    Communication as a human right is embedded within Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; however, there is a need to raise global awareness of the communication needs of those with communication disorders. In 2014, the six national speech-language and audiology professional bodies that comprise the Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) launched the International Communication Project (ICP) to help raise awareness of communication disorders around the world. Since its inception, the project has engaged close to 50 organisations from diverse regions, and has undertaken a number of initiatives, including development of the Universal Declaration of Communication Rights. A consultancy report was commissioned to inform ICP efforts to influence international policy bodies. As a result, the current focus of the ICP is to identify opportunities to influence the policies of organisations such as the World Health Organization, the United Nations and World Bank to more explicitly acknowledge and address communication as a human right. This commentary paper describes the work of the ICP to date, with an emphasis on the place of communication disorders in current international policy and potential pathways for advocacy.

  2. Outcome of tunneled infusion catheters inserted via the right internal jugular vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Wook; Do, Young Soo; Choo, Sung Wook; Yoo, Wi Kang; Choo, In Wook; Kim, Jae Hyung

    2003-01-01

    To assess the outcome of tunneled central venous catheter placement via the right internal jugular vein. Between June 2001 and May 2002, 670 consecutive Hickman catheters were placed in 654 patients via the right internal jugular vein. The procedural complications arising and follow-up data obtained from May to July 2002 were evaluated. The technical success rate for catheter placement was 99.9% (669/670). Procedural complications were limited to eight cases (1.2%), including three pneumothoraces, one early migration of the catheter, one clinically unimportant air embolism, one catheter injury, one catheter kinking and one primary malpositioning in the azygos vein. Catheter dwelling time ranged from 1 to 407 (mean 107.1) days. During the follow-up period, 416 catheter were removed for various reasons: treatment had ended (n=334), patients declined treatment or their drug regimen was changed (n=16), late complications arose (n=53), or other circumstances intervened (n=13). Late complications included 44 cases of catheter-related infection (6.6%), five of catheter migration (0.7%), two of catheter occlusion (0.3%), one of thrombophlebitis (0.15%), and one of catheter-related right atrial thrombosis (0.15%). Only one instance of symptomatic venous thrombosis or stenosis was noted, namely the one case of thrombophlebitis. Because the incidence of subsequent symptomatic venous thrombosis or stenosis is lower, the preferred route for tunneled central venous catheter placement is the right internal jugular vein

  3. Labor rights as legal constitutional category – Kosovo in relation to international labor organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Vokrri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study paper is the analyzing of the processes that followed the labor relations, its historical development respectively, since its first concrete efforts from the representatives of the workers (unions till the establishment of the International Labor Organization (1919. As it is known the labor law presents one of the fundamental rights of the human being, thus such rights (right to work, freedom of work are constitutional category and protected in whole legal systems of the present time. The efforts to install such positive spirit were not easy. Genuinely is known that bearers of progressive developments in this field (end of XIX century were organized groups of workers (unions, then initiatives from various statesmen and later to be materialized from the governments of present time followed by the addressing and protecting of these rights in international aspect. Practice has proved that creation, purpose and activity of International Labor Organization has provided its benefits in achieving the primary principles of work, such rights proclaimed by the majority of world states and embedded in their highest legal act (Constitution of the organization in question (ILO. We consider that bearers of government politics of Kosovo, responsible sectors of this field respectively, shall regard these rules set and implemented by this international body and at the same time make maximal efforts towards advancing the current legislation in this field as well as to utilize all necessary resources in order to achieve the vital goal which is the adherence in ILO. This would certainly have an impact on minimizing the occurrence of eventual discontent from the organized groups (Unions as well as other classes and naturally the progress and positive effects in this field would be visible and useful for the society.

  4. Perspectives on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) and Occupational Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Heidi; Aiken, Alice B.; Stewart, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Classifying disability for children and youth has typically meant describing a diagnosis or developmental lag. The publication of the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Child & Youth" version (ICF-CY) marks a global paradigm shift in the conceptualization and classification of childhood disability. Knowledge and…

  5. Barriers to the Implementation of the Health and Rehabilitation Articles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Hussey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The United Nations (UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD is a milestone in the recognition of the human rights of persons with disabilities, including the right to health and rehabilitation. South Africa has signed and ratified the CRPD but still has a long way to go in reforming policies and systems in order to be in compliance with the convention. This paper seeks to fill a gap in the literature by exploring what the barriers to the implementation of the health and rehabilitation articles of the CRPD are, as identified by representatives of the disability community. Methods This investigation used a qualitative, exploratory methodology. 10 semi-structured interviews of a purposive sample of representatives of disabled persons organizations (DPOs, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, and service providers in South Africa were conducted. Participants were drawn from urban, peri-urban, and rural settings in order to reflect diverse perspectives within South Africa. Data was analysed using a multi-stage coding process to establish the main categories and relationships between them. Results Six main categories of barriers to the implementation of the health and rehabilitation articles of the CRPD were identified. Attitude barriers including stigma and negative assumptions about persons with disabilities were seen as an underlying cause and influence on all of the other categories; which included political, financial, health systems, physical, and communication barriers. Conclusion The findings of this study have important implications for strategies and actions to implement the CRPD. Given the centrality of attitudinal barriers, greater sensitization around the area of disability is needed. Furthermore, disability should be better integrated and mainstreamed into more general initiatives to develop the health system and improve the lives of persons living in poverty in South Africa.

  6. An international qualitative study of ability and disability in ADHD using the WHO-ICF framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Soheil; Viljoen, Marisa; Massuti, Rafael; Selb, Melissa; Almodayfer, Omar; Karande, Sunil; de Vries, Petrus J; Rohde, Luis; Bölte, Sven

    2017-10-01

    This is the third in a series of four cross-cultural empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and Children and Youth version, ICF(-CY) Core Sets for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). To explore the perspectives of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, self-advocates, immediate family members and professional caregivers on relevant areas of impairment and functional abilities typical for ADHD across the lifespan as operationalized by the ICF(-CY). A qualitative study using focus group discussions or semi-structured interviews of 76 participants, divided into 16 stakeholder groups. Participants from five countries (Brazil, India, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Sweden) were included. A deductive qualitative content analysis was conducted to extract meaningful functioning and disability concepts from verbatim material. Extracted concepts were then linked to ICF(-CY) categories by independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. In total, 82 ICF(-CY) categories were identified, of which 32 were related to activities and participation, 25 to environmental factors, 23 to body functions and 2 to body structures. Participants also provided opinions on experienced positive sides to ADHD. A high level of energy and drive, creativity, hyper-focus, agreeableness, empathy, and willingness to assist others were the most consistently reported strengths associated with ADHD. Stakeholder perspectives highlighted the need to appraise ADHD in a broader context, extending beyond diagnostic criteria into many areas of ability and disability as well as environmental facilitators and barriers. This qualitative study, along with three other studies (comprehensive scoping review, expert survey and clinical study), will provide the scientific basis to define ICF(-CY) Core Sets for ADHD, from which assessment tools can be derived for use in clinical and research setting, as well as in health care

  7. Protecting the human right to freedom of expression in international law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Emily

    2018-02-01

    Since its inclusion in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the right to freedom of opinion and expression has been protected in all of the relevant international human rights treaties. In international law, freedom to express opinions and ideas is considered essential at both an individual level, insofar as it contributes to the full development of a person, and being a foundation stone of democratic society. Free speech is a necessary precondition to the enjoyment of other rights, such as the right to vote, free assembly and freedom of association, and is essential to ensure press freedom. However, there is a clear and worrying global trend, including in western democracies, of governments limiting vibrant discussion and debate within civil society and among civil society, political leaders and government. Two examples illustrate this trend. First, anti-protest laws in Australia and the United States threaten the ability of people to stand together and express views on issues they care deeply about. Secondly, metadata retention laws jeopardise press freedom by undermining the confidentiality of journalists' sources and dissuading people from speaking freely on matters of public importance.

  8. Eliminating mental disability as a legal criterion in deprivation of liberty cases: The impact of the Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities on the insanity defense, civil commitment, and competency law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobogin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A number of laws that are associated with deprivations of liberty, including the insanity defense, civil commitment, guardianship of the person and numerous competency doctrines in the criminal context, require proof of mental disability as a predicate. The Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities commands signatory states to eliminate that predicate. Summarizing principles set out in my book Minding Justice: Laws That Deprive People With Mental Disability of Life and Liberty, I explain how this seemingly radical stance can be implemented. Specifically, this article proposes adoption of an "integrationist defense" in the criminal context, an "undeterrability requirement" when the state seeks preventive detention outside of the criminal process, and a "basic rationality and self-regard test" for incompetency determinations. None of these proposals requires proof of a mental disorder as a predicate condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Education as a right in international treatie: A reading from inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Montanchez Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical review of education as a right, in international treaties and the evolution of the concept of inclusive education from a diverse multi and intercultural perspective. This article is part of a doctoral thesis from Valencia, Spain, researched in Ecuador. Inclusive education proposes quality education for everyone, demanding a response from competent institutions to develop a tolerant culture to difference in defense of human rights and equal opportunity. This essay facilitates guidelines that develop and support the construction of inclusive classrooms by education professionals at a primary school level as well as at a university level.

  10. [Women are human: Brief guide on international human rights law for psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobredo, Laura D

    2017-07-01

    Violence against women has gained public awareness in Argentina over the last few years. As any other social phenomena, gender violence is present in the work of psychiatrists, especially in the way they approach to clinical practice. International human rights' law enshrines the right of every women to live free from violence and to be treated with dignity and respect. This legal framework might nourish the practice of psychiatrists as a proposal for seeking cultural and social common grounds. The paper tries to get readers attention on the potentiality of this legal framework which ultimately, might in?uence not only everyday life but clinical practice as well.

  11. Biomedicine and international human rights law: in search of a global consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorno, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Global challenges raised by biomedical advances require global responses. Some international organizations have made significant efforts over the last few years to establish common standards that can be regarded as the beginning of an international biomedical law. One of the main features of this new legal discipline is the integration of its principles into a human rights framework. This strategy seems the most appropriate, given the role of "universal ethics" that human rights play in our world of philosophical pluralism. In addition to the general standards that are gradually being established, a widespread consensus exists on the urgency of preventing two specific procedures: human germ-line interventions and human reproductive cloning. PMID:12571724

  12. The Children’s Right to Music Project

    OpenAIRE

    Guylaine Vaillancourt; Sandi Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Sponsored by the Canadian Heritage Human Rights Grants and Contributions Program, the Children's Right to Music Project is an innovative program which increases awareness of the rights of children with disabilities as outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Children, in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and in the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. Its focus on the rights of children to music represents a creative approa...

  13. International Summit Consensus Statement: Intellectual Disability Inclusion in National Dementia Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Splaine, Michael; Larsen, Frode K; Gomiero, Tiziano; Lucchino, Ronald

    2017-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the development and adoption of national plans or strategies to guide public policy and set goals for services, supports, and research related to dementia. It called for distinct populations to be included within national plans, including adults with intellectual disability (ID). Inclusion of this group is important as having Down's syndrome is a significant risk factor for early-onset dementia. Adults with other ID may have specific needs for dementia-related care that, if unmet, can lead to diminished quality of old age. An International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia, held in Scotland, reviewed the inclusion of ID in national plans and recommended that inclusion goes beyond just description and relevance of ID. Reviews of national plans and reports on dementia show minimal consideration of ID and the challenges that carers face. The Summit recommended that persons with ID, as well as family carers, should be included in consultation processes, and greater advocacy is required from national organizations on behalf of families, with need for an infrastructure in health and social care that supports quality care for dementia.

  14. The Care Manager's Dilemma: Balancing Human Rights with Risk Management under the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, Kate; Diesfeld, Kate; Frey, Rosemary; Sutton, Daniel; Honey, Michelle; Vickery, Russell; McKenna, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In New Zealand, the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003 provides diversion for persons with an intellectual disability who have been charged with, or convicted of, a criminal offence. This unique Act moves the responsibility for such "care recipients" from the criminal justice system to a disability…

  15. Preventive detention of sex offenders: the American experience versus international human rights norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Nearly two decades after the birth of American Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) laws and the tolerant review of their legitimacy by American courts, European courts and international bodies are beginning to develop a jurisprudence of their own with regard to preventive detention. Applying international human rights norms, these bodies have been significantly less tolerant of preventive detention, looking not only at their design but also at their implementation. Simultaneously, American courts are showing the beginnings of a second look at SVP laws, inspired and informed not by promises about the future implementation of newly passed SVP laws, but rather by the sorry record of two decades of implementation. This article examines an American SVP scheme as it has been implemented over 20 years, contrasts the international perspective, and offers some speculation about the path of reform for American SVP schemes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Taxpayers' confidentiality and privacy rights in the international exchange of tax information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of tax information is a distinctive feature of international tax cooperation processes. The trend of intensive communication between the national tax administrations has been a political priority in economically developed countries. This area of international tax law has been subject to significant changes in the past few years. Countries are prompted to pursue the automatic exchange of tax information by entering into multilateral treaties on the exchange of tax information rather than engage in international exchange of tax information upon request by entering into bilateral agreements. These processes are promptly expedited owing to the incredible development of information and communication technologies. These developments are basically aimed at preventing different forms of international tax fraud which generate significant financial losses in the circumstances of current economic crisis. Such efforts may be justifiable regarding the interests of the countries of residence; but, what about the legal status of ordinary taxpayers who are now subject to a comprehensive and far-reaching control? The new concept may be appropriate for tracking tax fraud or embezzlement but what are its implications for law-abiding taxpayers? The national legislatures are obliged to provide for the protection of confidentiality of exchanged tax information but many states have not fully recognized the importance of providing adequate legal protection of sensitive personal and financial data. There are only a few countries whose legislations explicitly prescribe the taxpayers' right to be informed, the right to consult tax administration and the right to seek tax administration intervention as a form of legal protection in international exchange of tax information. The Serbian tax legislation does not envisage the obligation of tax authorities to notify the taxpayers about the request submitted by foreign tax authorities to provide some tax

  17. Awareness-Raising, Legitimation or Backlash? Effects of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on Education Systems in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Justin J. W.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Blanck, Jonna M.

    2016-01-01

    Global discourse about human rights, education for all, and inclusive education has altered social norms relating to dis/ability and schooling, especially through awareness-raising, by legitimating advocates' positions and by facilitating policy reforms. Affected by societal and educational change, special education systems and their participants…

  18. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: a new approach to decision-making in mental health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Fiona

    2012-12-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) requires us to engage in new approaches to decision-making in mental health law. The reclassification of mental health rights to the realm of disability rights is an important step towards equal treatment for persons with psychosocial disabilities. Law reformers worldwide are beginning to consider the implications of the provisions. Legislators will be required to understand the underlying philosophy of the CRPD to realise the rights set out in it. The CRPD possesses a number of innovative provisions which can transform decision-making in the mental health context. Article 12 provides a new conceptualisation of persons with disabilities and their capacity to participate by requiring support to exercise legal capacity. While good practice exists, the provision has yet to be fully implemented by many State Parties. This article discusses the impact of the CRPD on mental health law, legal capacity law and describes examples of supported decision-making models for mental health care.

  19. Estudiantes con discapacidades preparandose para la educacion postsecundaria: Conozca sus derechos y responsabilidades (Students with Disabilities Preparing for Postsecondary Education: Know Your Rights and Responsibilities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet, in Spanish, intended for postsecondary students with disabilities, explains the rights and responsibilities of these students and the obligations of a postsecondary school to provide academic adjustments. The federal legislation on which the information is based is described. Information for students is presented in question and…

  20. Why are generic drugs being held up in transit? Intellectual property rights, international trade, and the right to health in Brazil and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosina, Mônica Steffen Guise; Shaver, Lea

    2012-01-01

    Access to medicines faces a new legal threat: "border enforcement" of drug patents. Using Brazil as an example, this article shows how the right to health depends on international trade. Border seizures of generic drugs present human rights and trade institutions with a unique challenge. Can public health advocates rise to meet it? © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. Identifying a Human Right to Access Sustainable Energy Services in International Human Rights Law (SDG 7)? (LRN Law and Sustainability Conference)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, Marlies

    2017-01-01

    This paper assessed whether a right to sustainable energy services access can be found in international human rights law, possibly in support of achieving UN Sustainable Development Goal 7. According to SDG 7.1, States are expected to strive for the implementation of "universal access to modern,

  2. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to address facilitators and barriers to participation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Anabela Correia

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was approved by the World Health Assembly in 2001. Ten years later, strong arguments have arisen regarding the added value of ICF to the policies on employment and the outcomes at the workplace. As a conceptual framework, ICF has universality because of its inclusive and comprehensive view of human functioning. At a practical level ICF can be used to quantify the impact of impairment on an individual's ability to act in his/her environment and to assess interventions to minimize the impact of disability and maximize functioning. To explore key indicators of social participation (life habits) of persons with disabilities, particularly related to work, among environmental and personal factors. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires from a convenience sample of 149 working-age persons with disabilities. Social participation is a construct composed by multiple components and employment domain is the strongest indicator of participation. Correlations between social participation and personal factors, such as self-efficacy and attitudes towards disability were moderate. Those who are employed scored higher quality of life in terms of satisfaction with life, more positive attitudes toward disabilities and higher self-efficacy than the ones who are retired or unemployed. Persons using adapted wheelchair and those who were involved in wheelchair selection scored higher in social participation in general, performance at work, and quality of life. Age and disability duration were not associated with participants' employment status. These findings suggest that rehabilitation and vocational agents, like physiotherapists and other professionals, should have knowledge and understanding of the multiple factors that influence persons with disabilities' participation at work. Programs should provide appropriate wheelchairs, skills training, empowerment and problem-solving strategies in

  3. Perceived functioning and disability in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1: a survey according to the International Classification Of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Marie; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin; Widén Holmqvist, Lotta; Tollbäck, Anna

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse self-rated perceived functioning, disability and environmental facilitators/barriers with regard to disease severity, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) checklist, in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Cross-sectional design. Forty-one women and 29 men with myotonic dystrophy type 1. A modified ICF checklist was used for self-rating of perceived problems in 29 body-function categories, difficulties in 52 activity and participation categories, and facilitators/barriers in 23 environmental-factor categories according to the verbal anchors of the ICF qualifiers. Disease severity classification was based on the muscular impairment rating scale. Of the persons with myotonic dystrophy type 1, 80% perceived problems of excessive daytime sleepiness, 76% of muscle power, and 66% of energy and drive functions, while over 59% perceived difficulties in physically demanding mobility activities. Disabilities in mobility, self-care and domestic life were more frequently reported by persons with severe disease. Support from the immediate family, medicines and social security services were perceived as facilitators for 50-60% of the participants. Disabilities and important environmental facilitators in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1 were identified, and this clinically-relevant information can be used for developing health services for people with this condition.

  4. GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING THE RELATION INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY BUSINESS VERSUS HUMAN RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speriusi-Vlad Alin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, the intellectual property protection is no longer an absolute social and legal that justifies adoption of any measures necessary to protect it. Initially seen as the prerequisite for sustainable development, implementation of new technologies, and encouragement of international trade, the intellectual property, especially prior to ACTA (Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement international trial implementation, and also thereafter, was increasingly identified as a source of violation of fundamental rights and civil liberties, i.e. the right to protection of personal data, the right to privacy, freedom to send and receive information freedom of information, freedom to contract, and freedom to carry out economic activities (freedom of commerce. As far as international trade transactions have often a component of intellectual property that requires to be protected, it is necessary to identify the landmarks, the rules establishing de facto limits in order to protect the intellectual property without risk of infringement of fundamental rights and civil liberties of other persons, in particular users or potential users of goods and services incorporating intellectual property. The best guidelines in this regard may be provided by the CJEU (Court of Justice of the European Union case-law both due to its reasoning underlying the decision of the Parliament to reject ACTA ratification and the fact that the case-law of this Court, especially the most recent one, is highly complex and nuanced, not denying in any way the importance of intellectual property, and identifying certain cases where their primacy persist and whose analysis leads to laying down some general rules in the field.

  5. 3 CFR 8462 - Proclamation 8462 of December 2, 2009. International Day of Persons With Disabilities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disabilities still experience discrimination in the workplace and in their communities. In developing nations... Persons with Disabilities.” We must continue to embrace diversity and reject discrimination in all its...

  6. A Global Oral Health Survey of professional opinion using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Alison; Molina, Gustavo F; Eschevins, Caroline; Faulks, Denise

    2015-06-01

    The concept of oral health is frequently reduced to the absence of disease, despite existing conceptual models exploring the wider determinants of oral health and quality of life. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO) is designed to qualify functional, social and environmental aspects of health. This survey aimed to reach a consensual description of adult oral health, derived from the ICF using international professional opinion. The Global Oral Health Survey involved a two-round, online survey concerning factors related to oral health including functioning, participation and social environment. Four hundred eighty-six oral health professionals from 74 countries registered online. Professionals were pooled into 18 groups of six WHO world regions and three professional groups. In a randomised stratification process, eight professionals from each pool (n=144) completed the survey. The first round consisted of eight open-ended questions. Open expression replies were analysed for meaningful concepts and linked using established rules to the ICF. In Round 2, items were rated for their relevance to oral health (88% response rate). Eighty-nine ICF items and 30 other factors were considered relevant by at least 80% of participants. International professionals reached consensus on a holistic description of oral health, which could be qualified and quantified using the ICF. These results represent the first step towards developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, which would provide a practical tool for reporting outcome measures in clinical practice, for research and epidemiology, and for the improvement of interdisciplinary communication regarding oral health. Professional consensus reached in this survey is the foundation stone for developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, allowing the holistic aspects of oral health to be qualified and quantified. This tool is necessary to widen our approach to clinical decision making

  7. Internet Use in Aphasia: A Case Study Viewed through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Fion; Morris, Julie; Salis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article uses an illustrative case example to discuss a means of producing a holistic profile of Internet use for individuals with aphasia. Methods: The authors used the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health as a framework to select novel and existing assessments to explore the Internet use and skills of…

  8. A Psychometric Validation of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Steven R.; Deiches, Jon; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factorial validity of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale (D-IMS/EMS). Design: A quantitative descriptive design using factor analysis. Participants: 233 rehabilitation counseling and rehabilitation services students. Results: Both exploratory and…

  9. Internal consistency and validity of an observational method for assessing disability in mobility in patients with osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, M. P.; Dekker, J.; van Baar, M. E.; Oostendorp, R. A.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    To establish the internal consistency and validity of an observational method for assessing disability in mobility in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Data were obtained from 198 patients with OA of the hip or knee. Results of the observational method were compared with results of self-report

  10. Language and functionality of post-stroke adults: evaluation based on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Tereza Maynard; Chun, Regina Yu Shon

    2017-03-09

    Cerebrovascular accident is an important Public Health problem because of the high rates of mortality and sequelae such as language disorders. The conceptual health changes have led to the incorporation of functional and social aspects in the assessments as proposed by the World Health Organization in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The purpose was to evaluate and classify language aspects, functionality and participation of post-stroke individuals based on the concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and characterize the sociodemographic profile of participants. Data collection was carried out through the application of a clinical instrument to evaluate language, participation and functionality in fifty individuals based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The age of the participants varied between 32 and 88 years, and the majority were elderly men. Among body functions, the participants reported more difficulties in "memory functions". As for activity and participation, more difficulties were reported in "recreation and leisure". As for environmental factors, the component "healthcare professionals" was indicated as a facilitator by the majority of participants. The results show the impact of language difficulties in the lives of post-stroke adults and reinforce the applicability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as an important complementary tool for assessing language, functionality and participation in a comprehensive and humane approach, towards the improvement of health assistance in ambulatory care.

  11. Rehabilitation and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Past, Present, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Nochajski, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the history of disability in the United States and discusses the three paradigms: rehabilitation, independent living, and support and empowerment that have guided rehabilitative services for persons with disabilities. Within the context of this historical background, the article also presents various models used to define and classify disability. The effect and influence of society's perceptions of people with disabilities on the evolution and refinem...

  12. THE RIGHT TO A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT. INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION OF A HUMAN RIGHT TO A CLEAN ENVIRONEMENT BY ECTHR JURISPRUDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Maria HANCIU

    2015-01-01

    European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) does not specifically recognize a right to a clean environment, nor speaks specifically about environmental issues. However, there are many cases in the ECtHR jurisprudence which indirectly have a linkage with environmental protection. Often, throughout its decisions, ECtHR considers a positive obligation of States to take all necessary measures to protect human life and thus to provide a suitable environment for human living. The paper analyses the ...

  13. The Gestalt of functioning in autism spectrum disorder: Results of the international conference to develop final consensus International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health core sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; Mahdi, Soheil; de Vries, Petrus J; Granlund, Mats; Robison, John E; Shulman, Cory; Swedo, Susan; Tonge, Bruce; Wong, Virginia; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Segerer, Wolfgang; Selb, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with diverse social, educational, and occupational challenges. To date, no standardized, internationally accepted tools exist to assess autism spectrum disorder-related functioning. World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can serve as foundation for developing such tools. This study aimed to identify a comprehensive, a common brief, and three age-appropriate brief autism spectrum disorder Core Sets. Four international preparatory studies yielded in total 164 second-level International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health candidate categories. Based on this evidence, 20 international autism spectrum disorder experts applied an established iterative decision-making consensus process to select from the candidate categories the most relevant ones to constitute the autism spectrum disorder Core Sets. The consensus process generated 111 second-level International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories in the Comprehensive Core Set for autism spectrum disorder-one body structure, 20 body functions, 59 activities and participation categories, and 31 environmental factors. The Common Brief Core Set comprised 60 categories, while the age-appropriate core sets included 73 categories in the preschool version (0- to 5-year-old children), 81 in the school-age version (6- to 16-year-old children and adolescents), and 79 in the older adolescent and adult version (⩾17-year-old individuals). The autism spectrum disorder Core Sets mark a milestone toward the standardized assessment of autism spectrum disorder-related functioning in educational, administrative, clinical, and research settings.

  14. Stigma construction as a boundary to transgender people’s social rights from an international approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Arrubia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Formal equality constitutes a paramount vindication in order to achieve the state acknowledgment of LGBTI people. However, it can be observed that there is a factual platform of inequality beyond juridical norms, whereby stigma is constructed so as to impede the effective enjoyment of social rights such as education and health, among others. In this sense, the Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity illustrate the expectations of compliance with this group’s rights. Therefore, it can be noticed that these principles have attained major fulfilment throughout cases and official papers, which have emerged in different countries over last year. Then, the material analysed in this essay reflects that the stigma against sexual diversity is constructed in the immediate scope of daily life. This demands that the respect towards LGBTI people’s rights shall begin from the closest levels of domestic laws based on public policies designed with a human rights approach.

  15. The Role of International Human Rights Norms in the Liberalization of Abortion Laws Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Johanna B.; Mayall, Katherine; Sepúlveda, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract International and regional human rights norms have evolved significantly to recognize that the denial of abortion care in a range of circumstances violates women’s and girls’ fundamental human rights. These increasingly progressive standards have played a critical role in transforming national-level abortion laws by both influencing domestic high court decisions on abortion and serving as a critical resource in advancing law and policy reform. Courts in countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and Nepal have directly incorporated these standards into groundbreaking cases liberalizing abortion laws and increasing women’s access to safe abortion services, demonstrating the influence of these human rights standards in advancing women’s reproductive freedom. These norms have also underpinned national-level abortion law and policy reform, including in countries such as Spain, Rwanda, Uruguay, and Peru. As these human rights norms further evolve and increasingly recognize abortion as a human rights imperative, these standards have the potential to bolster transformative jurisprudence and law and policy reform advancing women’s and girls’ full reproductive autonomy. PMID:28630542

  16. The WHO atlas on global resources for persons with intellectual disabilities: a right to health perspective El atlas de recursos para las personas con discapacidad intelectual de la OMS: una visión desde el derecho a la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelin Lecomte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the links between the WHO atlas on global resources for persons with intellectual disabilities (Atlas-ID project and the right to health in international human rights law. The WHO Atlas-ID project initiated by the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse of the WHO was designed to collect, compile and disseminate data on intellectual disabilities services and resources throughout the world. The right to health, as linked to all other human rights, brings a set of globally agreed upon norms and standards, and out of these norms arise governmental obligations. Even in countries which have a relatively high standard of living, persons with intellectual disabilities are very often denied the opportunity to enjoy the full range of economic, social and cultural rights. This paper aims at establishing the WHO Atlas-ID and the international human rights instruments as two parts of a holistic approach in regards to State provided services to persons with intellectual disabilities and their families.Este artículo se centra en la relación entre el proyecto Atlas-DI de la OMS y el derecho a la salud en la normativa internacional de derechos humanos. El proyecto Atlas-DI de la OMS, puesto en marcha por el Departamento de Salud Mental y Abuso de Sustancias de la OMS, se diseñó para recolectar, compilar y divulgar datos sobre servicios y recursos para la discapacidad intelectual alrededor del mundo. El derecho a la salud, en su relación con todos los demás derechos humanos, engloba un conjunto de normas y estándares aprobados internacionalmente, y de éstos emanan obligaciones gubernamentales. Incluso en países con estándares relativamente altos de vida, a las personas con discapacidades intelectuales se les niega frecuentemente la oportunidad de disfrutar el espectro total de derechos económicos, sociales y culturales. El objetivo de este artículo es el de establecer el Atlas-DI de la OMS y los instrumentos

  17. A Case Report of Right Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis with Acute Brucellosis

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    F. Keramat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease which has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications in humans. Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Iran, and vein thrombosis is a rare complication of acute brucellosis. Case Report: A 58-year old woman admitted to the infectious diseases ward in Farshchian hospital had fever and severe headache beginning 15 days before admission. Moreover, she complained from fatigue, malaise, anorexia, skin lesions around the nose and cervical lym-phadenopathy. Sonogarphy of cervical soft tissues of the patient showed right internal jugu-lar vein thrombosis and numerous cervical lymphadenopathy in the right posteriocervical tri-angle. Doppler sonography of the cervical vessels of the patient showed thrombosis of the middle right internal jugular vein. The blood culture isolates were small gram-negative aero-bic coccobacilli in two separate cultures. Serologic tests of Wright, 2ME and IgG ELISA were positive in the patient. The patient was treated with doxycycline, rifampin and warfarin, and she improved completely after a 5 month follow-up. Conclusion: We should consider brucellosis in the patients with rare manifestations of brucel-losis such as vascular thrombosis in endemic areas because early diagnosis and treatment of the patients can decrease its complications and mortality rate. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:161-166

  18. Rights, Equality, Educational Provisions and Facilities for Students with Disabilities in Thailand: Legal and Practical Perspectives over the Past Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomanad Cheausuwantavee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to critically examine the present status of educational provisions and facilities for students with disabilities in Thailand, in accordance with the enforcement of various laws over the past decade (1992-2008. The legal essence of laws such as the Constitution of The Kingdom of Thailand 1997, the Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons Act 1991, and the National Education Act 1999, was typologically compared to actual situations, in terms of educational provisions and facilities, by reviewing a total of 25 research papers.The findings showed that there had been no further educational provisions and facilities for students with disabilities, despite indications within the laws. There are discrepancies between legislations and practices due to the ineffectiveness of law enforcement, and the negative attitudes of service providers and society towards students with disabilities. Therefore, positive attitudes of stakeholders have to be promoted, alongside the new laws.

  19. Consensus statement of the international summit on intellectual disability and Dementia related to post-diagnostic support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Karen; Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Coppus, Antonia; Gaertner, Claudia; Fortea, Juan; Santos, Flavia H; Keller, Seth M; Strydom, Andre

    2017-09-07

    Post diagnostic support (PDS) has varied definitions within mainstream dementia services and different health and social care organizations, encompassing a range of supports that are offered to adults once diagnosed with dementia until death. An international summit on intellectual disability and dementia held in Glasgow, Scotland in 2016 identified how PDS applies to adults with an intellectual disability and dementia. The Summit proposed a model that encompassed seven focal areas: post-diagnostic counseling; psychological and medical surveillance; periodic reviews and adjustments to the dementia care plan; early identification of behaviour and psychological symptoms; reviews of care practices and supports for advanced dementia and end of life; supports to carers/ support staff; and evaluation of quality of life. It also explored current practices in providing PDS in intellectual disability services. The Summit concluded that although there is limited research evidence for pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions for people with intellectual disability and dementia, viable resources and guidelines describe practical approaches drawn from clinical practice. Post diagnostic support is essential, and the model components in place for the general population, and proposed here for use within the intellectual disability field, need to be individualized and adapted to the person's needs as dementia progresses. Recommendations for future research include examining the prevalence and nature of behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in adults with an intellectual disability who develop dementia, the effectiveness of different non-pharmacological interventions, the interaction between pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, and the utility of different models of support.

  20. [Asymmetry in international relations, industrial property rights and anti-HIV medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Couto, Maria Helena; Nascimento, Alvaro César

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymmetry in the international relations as refers to the recognition of industrial property rights in the pharmaceutical industry. It focuses on the impact of such relations upon the access to ARV medication, an issue of worldwide interest due to its connection with the development of the nations. Clashing interests and the position taken by some countries in their patent laws point to a scenario less favorable for the access of peripheral countries to anti-HIV/AIDS medication. On the other hand, it seems that the success of the Brazilian STD/AIDS program in negotiating ARV prices will open new possibilities. The solution may be the internal strengthening of the National States and the active role played by the Agencies of the United Nations System in defense of the collective human interests.

  1. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Volker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2 is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution similar to that found in 2005 by Lecavalier for the original GARS. Though the three factors appeared to be reasonably consistent with the intended constructs of the three GARS-2 subscales, the analysis indicated that more than a third of the GARS-2 items were assigned to the wrong subscale. Internal consistency estimates met or exceeded standards for screening and were generally higher than those in previous studies. Screening sensitivity was .65 and specificity was .81 for the Autism Index using a cut score of 85. Based on these findings, recommendations are made for instrument revision.

  2. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Luciana; Bergmann, Anke; Bahia, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in observational studies. This study is a systematic review of articles that use the ICF in observational studies. We took into account the observational design papers available in databases such as PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO, published in English and Portuguese from January 2001 to June 2011. We excluded those in which the samples did not comprise individuals, those about children and adolescents, and qualitative methodology articles. After reading the abstracts of 265 identified articles, 65 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 18 were excluded. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) adapted Checklist, with 15 items needed for observational studies, was applied to the 47 remaining articles. Any paper that met 12 of these criteria was included in this systematic review. 29 articles were reviewed. Regarding the ICF application methodology, the checklist was used in 31% of the articles, the core set in 31% and the ICF categories in 31%. In the remaining 7%, it was not possible to define the applied methodology. In most papers (41%), qualifiers were used in their original format. As far as the area of knowledge is concerned, most of the studies were related to Rheumatology (24%) and Orthopedics (21%). Regarding the study design, 83% of the articles used cross-sectional studies. Results indicate a wide scientific production related to ICF over the past 10 years. Different areas of knowledge are involved in the debate on the improvement of information on morbidity. However, there are only a few quantitative epidemiological studies involving the use of ICF. Future studies are needed to improve data related to functioning and disability.

  3. Communication rights: Fundamental human rights for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2018-02-01

    The right to communicate includes the right to "freedom of opinion and expression" and rights and freedoms "without distinction of … language". The 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a time to celebrate and reflect on communication as a human right, particularly with respect to Article 19 and its relationship to national and international conventions, declarations, policies and practices. This review profiles articles from the special issue of International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (volume 20, issue 1) addressing communication rights from four perspectives: (1) communication rights of all people; (2) communication rights of people with communication disabilities; (3) communication rights of children and (4) communication rights relating to language. Divergent perspectives from across the globe are considered. First-hand accounts of people whose right to communicate is compromised/upheld are included and perspectives are provided from people with expertise and advocacy roles in speech-language pathology, audiology, linguistics, education, media, literature and law, including members of the International Communication Project. Three steps are outlined to support communication rights: acknowledge people - adjust the communication style - take time to listen. Future advocacy for communication rights could be informed by replicating processes used to generate the Yogyakarta Principles.

  4. Promoting the Recognition and Protection of the Rights of All Migrants Using a Soft-Law International Migrants Bill of Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Kysel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rights and movement of people crossing international borders remain inadequately governed and incompletely protected by a fragmented patchwork of institutions and norms. In recent years, debates regarding migration law and practice globally have been focused on subcategories of migrants, such as refugees, or on particular migration contexts, such as migration as a result of crisis or climate change. In response, a transnational initiative housed at the Georgetown University Law Center has drafted a soft-law bill of rights — the International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR — that seeks to elaborate the law protecting all migrants, regardless of the cause of their movement across an international border. The bill draws its content from human rights, refugee, and labor law, among other areas, and is drafted to be a comprehensive and declarative tool that articulates a core set of rights to protect migrants and to apply in the migration context.This article articulates how such a tool could be used to promote the recognition and protection of the rights of all migrants, in law and in practice. It argues that a soft-law bill of rights could be leveraged to fill significant gaps and promote an improved normative and institutional infrastructure that better protects all migrants worldwide. Section I provides a brief overview of the gap that a soft-law bill of rights can address. Section II provides a brief overview of the history and content of the bill of rights and IMBR Initiative. Section III describes, specifically, how making use of a soft-law bill of rights stands to improve the recognition and protection of fundamental rights that protect all migrants — and how soft law can help fill specific protection gaps.

  5. The right to appeal on criminal procedure under international acts and jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vilard Bytyqi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to appeal, respectively the right on complaint as per our legal vocabulary, constitutes the basic trunk of the second phase of court decisions in a certain procedure, in particular the criminal proceedings. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the main notions of appeal, but also in other aspects through the comparative description it aims to bring more clarity in differences and similarities that exist in between the appeal which is used in our criminal proceedings and the appeal which is used in the criminal proceedings that take place in the supranational courts. It is known that in courts which consist of international elements, the appeal is positioned in a more advanced level, due to the fact that there are grounds of suspicion used over every element that could be used in any national criminal proceedings. Overall, in any place of the world, the appeal has the goal to remedy court decisions brought by the court of first instance, while, in the procedural aspect it has more or less differences depending on the regulations of criminal procedures of that state.  Such difference due to the diversity of the legal systems today are also accepted as the universal legal value, since establishment of international tribunals provides the best practice in this field.

  6. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories explored for self-rated participation in Swedish adolescents and adults with a mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Patrik; Granlund, Mats; Thyberg, Ingrid; Thyberg, Mikael

    2012-06-01

    To explore internal consistency and correlations between perceived ability, performance and perceived importance in a preliminary selection of self-reported items representing the activity/participation component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Structured interview study. Fifty-five Swedish adolescents and adults with a mild intellectual disability. Questions about perceived ability, performance and perceived importance were asked on the basis of a 3-grade Likert-scale regarding each of 68 items representing the 9 ICF domains of activity/participation. Internal consistency for perceived ability (Cronbach's alpha for all 68 items): 0.95 (values for each domain varied between 0.57 and 0.85), for performance: 0.86 (between 0.27 and 0.66), for perceived importance: 0.84 (between 0.27 and 0.68). Seventy-two percent of the items showed correlations >0.5 (mean=0.59) for performance vs perceived importance, 41% >0.5 (mean=0.47) for perceived ability vs performance and 12% >0.5 (mean=0.28) for perceived ability vs perceived importance. Measures of performance and perceived importance may have to be based primarily on their estimated clinical relevance for describing aspects of the ICF participation concept. With a clinimetric approach, parts of the studied items and domains may be used to investigate factors related to different patterns and levels of participation, and outcomes of rehabilitation.

  7. Positive Action Measures and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities : Case Note: Communication No. 9/2012 A.F. v. Italy, UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 19 May 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Italian law (Law No. 68/1999 of 12 March 1999) requires that employers with a workforce of more than fifty employees ensure that at least 7 percent of their workforce are people who are registered as disabled. In addition, in order to fulfil this quota, the law requires that public employers reserve

  8. PRESENTATION OF SPORTING PLAYER’S RIGHTS IN HUNGARIAN AND INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szoke Reka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Incipiently, sport had been a civil activity then sports organizations, clubs, leagues and societies appeared in growing numbers throughout Europe in the 19th century. It had launched only for purposes of pastime and entertainment but it moved to social, political and economic levels later. After the Second World War, sports done in form of civil and private activity become equal to the public interest. The right to do sports is a constitutional right. In the 21st century, the demand on sport makes great strides and it pulls the development of the economic fields of sports as well. Today, sport is already considered as an independent industry, several countries have developed sport markets. According to estimates, sport accounts for 4% of the EU’s GDP. The actuality of research is given by the fact that the economic branch of sports develops continuously which is due to that more and more amounts already stream into sports in our days. In Hungary, sport is mainly state aided and has mostly financing problems while the sport businesses existing in the more developed Western Europe are principally sponsored by the private sector. The government considers sport as a strategic branch and manages as such because they see the international breakthrough potencies in sport as well. All this can explain the substantial contribution to this segment.The research covers an economic subject. The purpose of this research is to examine the differences of the accounting systems applied by a domestic and an international sport business; how they demonstrate the available player roster in their books; how they account for the incomes and expenditures incurred with the players. For the leaders of the businesses to be able to make quick and appropriate economic decisions in this intensively changing world, it is essential that an enterprise should have a well-functioning accounting system based on up-to-date information. International Financial Reporting

  9. Use of The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF as a conceptual framework and common language for disability statistics and health information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostanjsek Nenad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common framework for describing functional status information is needed in order to make this information comparable and of value. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, which has been approved by all its member states, provides this common language and framework. The article provides an overview of ICF taxonomy, introduces the conceptual model which underpins ICF and elaborates on how ICF is used at population and clinical level. Furthermore, the article presents key features of the ICF tooling environment and outlines current and future developments of the classification.

  10. The Protection of the Right to Education by International Law: Including a Systematic Analysis of Article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. International Studies in Human Rights, 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiter, Klaus Dieter

    2006-01-01

    A trend has emerged of not defining education as a "human right" anymore, but of rather calling it a "human need". This has paved the way for an ever increasing commercialisation of education, excluding the poor from access to education. A problem at a different level is that states often do not know what is expected of them…

  11. Identification of aspects of functioning, disability and health relevant to patients experiencing vertigo: a qualitative study using the international classification of functioning, disability and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Aims of this study were to identify aspects of functioning and health relevant to patients with vertigo expressed by ICF categories and to explore the potential of the ICF to describe the patient perspective in vertigo. Methods We conducted a series of qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews using a descriptive approach. Data was analyzed using the meaning condensation procedure and then linked to categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Results From May to July 2010 12 interviews were carried out until saturation was reached. Four hundred and seventy-one single concepts were extracted which were linked to 142 different ICF categories. 40 of those belonged to the component body functions, 62 to the component activity and participation, and 40 to the component environmental factors. Besides the most prominent aspect “dizziness” most participants reported problems within “Emotional functions (b152), problems related to mobility and carrying out the daily routine. Almost all participants reported “Immediate family (e310)” as a relevant modifying environmental factor. Conclusions From the patients’ perspective, vertigo has impact on multifaceted aspects of functioning and disability, mainly body functions and activities and participation. Modifying contextual factors have to be taken into account to cover the complex interaction between the health condition of vertigo on the individuals’ daily life. The results of this study will contribute to developing standards for the measurement of functioning, disability and health relevant for patients suffering from vertigo. PMID:22738067

  12. Barriers to the Implementation of the Health and Rehabilitation Articles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Meghan; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mji, Gubela

    2016-08-28

    The United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is a milestone in the recognition of the human rights of persons with disabilities, including the right to health and rehabilitation. South Africa has signed and ratified the CRPD but still has a long way to go in reforming policies and systems in order to be in compliance with the convention. This paper seeks to fill a gap in the literature by exploring what the barriers to the implementation of the health and rehabilitation articles of the CRPD are, as identified by representatives of the disability community. This investigation used a qualitative, exploratory methodology. 10 semi-structured interviews of a purposive sample of representatives of disabled persons organizations (DPOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and service providers in South Africa were conducted. Participants were drawn from urban, peri-urban, and rural settings in order to reflect diverse perspectives within South Africa. Data was analysed using a multi-stage coding process to establish the main categories and relationships between them. Six main categories of barriers to the implementation of the health and rehabilitation articles of the CRPD were identified. Attitude barriers including stigma and negative assumptions about persons with disabilities were seen as an underlying cause and influence on all of the other categories; which included political, financial, health systems, physical, and communication barriers. The findings of this study have important implications for strategies and actions to implement the CRPD. Given the centrality of attitudinal barriers, greater sensitization around the area of disability is needed. Furthermore, disability should be better integrated and mainstreamed into more general initiatives to develop the health system and improve the lives of persons living in poverty in South Africa. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is

  13. The Custody Hearing as a Fundamental Human Right in the Light of Constitutional and International Guarantees

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    Ivonaldo Da Silva Mesquita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research deals, through bibliographic and documentary research, and support in constitutional law, infraconstitutional law and international agreements, on the right to Custody Hearing. As the central point of the research, it is questioned the real meaning of Custody Hearing, its scope, characteristics and regulatory support, and also seeks to expose the many debates against and in favor of its implementation in the country. The objective is to demonstrate that the Custody Hearing is a mean capable of facing prison overcrowding, to safeguard the dignity of the human person, to prevent and identify torture, in short, provide greater protection to the detainee. The research is justified by the relevance and timeliness of matter in the national scenario, in light of the many debates and efforts of institutions important for the Custody Hearing is a reality in the country. So, we intend to contribute to a better understanding of this important right that must be recognized and supported as a fundamental human right, hitherto forgotten.

  14. Mitigating humanitarian crises during non-international armed conflicts: the role of human rights and ceasefire agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Lottie

    2016-01-01

    Situations of humanitarian crisis are often caused by armed conflicts. Given the prevalence of non-international armed conflicts today, ways of ameliorating these situations are at the forefront of concerns. The international humanitarian law rules governing non-international armed conflict remain much less developed than those for international armed conflicts. This is exacerbated by the lack of direct human rights obligations for non-state armed groups, which makes governing the behaviour o...

  15. Mapping the Mayo-Portland adaptability inventory to the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexell, Jan; Malec, James F; Jacobsson, Lars J

    2012-01-01

    To examine the contents of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) by mapping it to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Each of the 30 scoreable items in the MPAI-4 was mapped to the most precise ICF categories. All 30 items could be mapped to components and categories in the ICF. A total of 88 meaningful concepts were identified. There were, on average, 2.9 meaningful concepts per item, and 65% of all concepts could be mapped. Items in the Ability and Adjustment subscales mapped to categories in both the Body Functions and Activity/Participation components of the ICF, whereas all except 1 in the Participation subscale were to categories in the Activity/Participation component. The items could also be mapped to 34 (13%) of the 258 Environmental Factors in the ICF. This mapping provides better definition through more concrete examples (as listed in the ICF) of the types of body functions, activities, and participation indicators that are represented by the 30 scoreable MPAI-4 items. This may assist users throughout the world in understanding the intent of each item, and support further development and the possibility to report results in the form of an ICF categorical profile, making it universally interpretable.

  16. CELABRATION OF 3RD OF DECEMBER, INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

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    Maja FILIPOVSKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This year as well, the Institute of Special education and rehabilitation celebrated the International day of persons with disabilities. In that occasion, two different events were organized by the Institute at the Faculty of Philosophy. The first event was held on 03.12.2015 and was organized in collaboration with the students of the Institute of Special education and rehabilitation, Faculty of pedagogy “St. Kliment Ohridski” form Skopje, Faculty of architecture, Faculty of Fine Arts and Faculty of Music. In the official part of the program, speeches were held by Stefani Nakova, student at the Institute of Special Education and rehabilitation, dr. Zora Jachova, PhD, head of the Institute of special education and rehabilitation and dr. Velimir Stojkovski, PhD, rector of the University “Ss Cyril and Methodius” – Skopje. Beside the mentioned speeches, the event was enriched by the students from the Faculty of pedagogy “St. Kliment Ohridski” from Skopje with the performance of “Tajno moja” in sign language by Dzengis Memedovski and the presentation of Aleksandar Matovski called “Youth and the Down syndrome”.

  17. Striking the Right Balance: Police Experience, Perceptions and Use of Independent Support Persons during Interviews Involving People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). Methods: The sample comprised 229 police…

  18. Global Justice: Building International and Supranational Structures on the Basis of Fundamental Rights

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    Edgar Lammertse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to share a few thoughts, notions and questions about regulatory and governmental structures, both national and international, with regard to the development of global justice. It will highlight the issue whether or not local wisdom can contribute to global justice. In addition, this writing will discover legal problems that arise from the idea of global society and global justice by analyzing jurisdictional aspects and by explaining a little bit about dematerialization of crime, as it has been affected by the changing of communities’ behavior in global contexts after the era of computer and information and communication technology (ICT. Progressive development in Europe, especially regarding the European Union Law, will also be explored in order to describe the respect for fundamental rights in this region.

  19. The importance of decolonizing International Human Rights Law: The prior consultation in Colombia case

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    Jimena Sierra-Camargo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior consultation has been recognized as one of the most emancipatory instruments within the framework of international human rights law, which currently allows indigenous peoples and ethnic communities defend their territories. Nevertheless, in some cases the prior consultation has had an ambivalent use by other agents who have used this instrument for different purposes than those stated in ILO Convention 169 and that have caused serious damages on these groups. In this sense, the main purpose of this article is to question the ambivalent use of prior consultation in Colombia from the perspective of ‘decolonial thinking’, and in particular, from the notion of ‘coloniality’. I argue that the problem of the restrictions and limitations of the prior consultation described in this article is due to the colonial bias of this instrument, which in turn is embedded in a liberal rationality.

  20. In-stent restenosis of innominate artery with critical stenosis of right internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Raza, A.; Ahmed, W.

    2011-01-01

    A lady with aortitis syndrome developed in-stent restenosis (ISR) of the innominate artery stent and critical stenosis of right internal carotid artery. The therapeutic challenge was gaining access to the carotid vessel, after treating the innominate artery ISR and all the while using distal protection to circumvent potential cerebral embolism. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without stenting is a safe therapeutic option for re-vascularization of the supra aortic vessels. In the event of re-stenosis, re-treatment with PTA and stenting is safe. Ample evidence-base exists now for carotid artery stenting (CAS) in preference to carotid endarterectomy in patients with stenotic lesions of the carotid vessels. (author)

  1. Conditions for the lawful exercise of the right of self-defence in international law

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    Upeniece V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Charter of the United Nations wasthought to establish a normative order, maintain international peace and security. According to the Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations “Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs”[1]. However the Article 51 doesnot propose a legal definition of the conduct which is considered as an armed attack or the commencement of such an attack. It does not propose strict criterions for the use of force for self-defence. As a result different interpretations of this norm have been arising and continuing to change in response to new situations and threats.

  2. International trade in oil, gas and carbon emission rights: An intertemporal general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Rutherford, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper employs a five-region intertemporal model to examine three issues related to carbon emission restrictions. First, we investigate the possible impact of such limits upon future oil prices. We show that carbon limits are likely to differ in their near- and long-term impact. Second, we analyze the problem of open-quotes leakageclose quotes which could arise if the OECD countries were to adopt unilateral limits upon carbon emissions. Third, we quantify some of the gains from trade in carbon emission rights. Each of these issues have been studied before, but to our knowledge this is the first study based on a multi-regional, forward-looking model. We show that sequential joint maximization can be an effective way to compute equilibria for intertemporal general equilibrium models of international trade. 18 refs., 10 figs

  3. Perspectives on family caregiving of people aging with intellectual disability affected by dementia: Commentary from the International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Nancy; Gomiero, Tiziano; Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Hogan, Mary; Larsen, Frode; Beránková, Anna; Heloísa Santos, Flávia; Service, Kathy; Crowe, Jim

    2018-01-01

    This article, an output of the 2016 International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia, examines familial caregiving situations within the context of a support-staging model for adults with intellectual disability (ID) affected by dementia. Seven narratives offer context to this support-staging model to interpret situations experienced by caregivers. The multidimensional model has two fundamental aspects: identifying the role and nature of caregiving as either primary (direct) or secondary (supportive); and defining how caregiving is influenced by stage of dementia. We propose staging can affect caregiving via different expressions: (1) the "diagnostic phase," (2) the "explorative phase," (3) the "adaptive phase," and (4) the "closure phase." The international narratives illustrate direct and indirect caregiving with commonality being extent of caregiver involvement and attention to the needs of an adult with ID. We conclude that the model is the first to empirically formalize the variability of caregiving within families of people with ID that is distinct from other caregiving groups, and that many of these caregivers have idiosyncratic needs. A support-staging model that recognizes the changing roles and demands of carers of people with ID and dementia can be useful in constructing research, defining family-based support services, and setting public policy.

  4. Employing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to enhance services for children and youth with chronic physical health conditions and disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Janette; Horgan, Karen; Baldwin, Patricia; Tucker, Mary Ann; Frid, Pamela

    2008-03-01

    In 2001, the World Health Organization published the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The ICF is just beginning to be used in a variety of clinical and research settings in Canada and worldwide. The purpose of the present article is to describe the initial use of the ICF at an Ontario children's rehabilitation centre, and to consider further uses both within and outside the centre for enhancing services for children and youth with chronic physical health conditions and disabilities, as well as for their families. A description is provided on how the ICF has been used at the centre to guide clinical thinking and practice, and to justify and steer research directions. Plans underway to use the ICF to collect and record functional data at the centre are also described. Finally, recommendations for the use of the ICF to enhance communication among child health professionals across service settings are provided. Used in conjunction with the International Classification of Diseases - Tenth Revision, the ICF's conceptual framework and classification system shows great promise for enhancing the quality of services for children with chronic conditions and their families. This information may assist paediatric specialists, other child health professionals, researchers and administrators to use the ICF in similar settings. It may also stimulate exploration of the use of the ICF for general paediatricians and other service providers in the larger community.

  5. Use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identification of relevant environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Pallant, Julie F

    2007-01-01

    To use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identify relevant environmental factors. Cross-sectional survey of 101 participants in the community. Their multiple sclerosis-related problems were linked with ICF categories (second level) using a checklist, consensus between health professionals and the "linking rules". The impact of multiple sclerosis on health areas corresponding to 48 ICF categories was also assessed. A total of 170 ICF categories were identified (mean age 49 years, 72 were female). Average number of problems reported was 18. The categories include 48 (42%) for body function, 16 (34%) body structure, 68 (58%) activities and participation and 38 (51%) for environmental factors. Extreme impact in health areas corresponding to ICF categories for activities and participation were reported for mobility, work, everyday home activities, community and social activities. While those for the environmental factors (barriers) included products for mobility, attitudes of extended family, restriction accessing social security and health resources. This study is a first step in the use of the ICF in persons with multiple sclerosis and towards development of the ICF Core set for multiple sclerosis from a broader international perspective.

  6. The right to the city and International Urban Agendas: a document analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Elisabete Agrela de; Franceschini, Maria Cristina Trousdell

    2017-12-01

    Considering social, economic and demographic issues, living in the city implies inadequate living conditions, social exclusion, inequities and other problems to the population. At the same time, the city is a setting of cultural, social and affective production. As a result, there is a need to reflect on the right to the city and its relationship with promoting the health of its inhabitants. To that effect, urban agendas have been developed to address the city's ambiguity. This paper aims to analyze four of these agendas through the lenses of Health Promotion. A qualitative document review approach was conducted on urban agendas proposed by international organizations and applied to the Brazilian context: Healthy Cities, Sustainable Cities, Smart Cities and Educating Cities. Results indicate some level of effort by the analyzed agendas to assume social participation, intersectoriality and the territory as central to addressing exclusion and inequities. However, more in-depth discussions are required on each of these concepts. We conclude that urban agendas can contribute greatly toward consolidating the right to the city, provided that their underpinning concepts are critically comprehended.

  7. CELEBRATION OF DECEMBER 3RD, INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja FILIPOVSKA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On December 2nd 2016 in the main amphitheater at the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje, was held the celebration of December 3rd, the International Day of Persons with Disabilities, in organization of the Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation. The official part of the program was started with a speech by Goran Ajdinski, PhD, the Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje. The guests at the celebration were also greeted by the Rector of the University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” – Skopje, Nikola Jankulovski, PhD and the Minister of Labor and Social Policy of Republic of Macedonia, Frosina Tashevska-Remenski, PhD. After the speeches, which highlighted the current efforts and future commitment to inclusion and accessibility of persons with disabilities, two awards were presented by the Humanitarian foundation “Prof. d-r Ljupco Ajdinski”. The first award was given to Simona Kostadinova as the student with achieved highest grade point average of 9.65 in the generation 2011/12 during the studies of Special education and rehabilitation. The second award was intended for the highest ranked student at the university admission in 2016/2017. This award belonged to Nadica Gjerasimova who had 97.70 points on the official rank list. Beside the awards, two acknowledgements for humanity were also given by the Foundation “Prof. d-r Ljupco Ajdinski”. For the longstanding human activity in preparation of special education and rehabilitation staff and education and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities, the first acknowledgement was given to the Institute of Special education and rehabilitation. The second acknowledgement was meant for Kiril Temkov, PhD, about his numerous initiated and organized human activities, especially for the published paper on the ethical dimensions of special education and rehabilitation and introduction of Ethics in the education system in Republic of Macedonia. The last part of the program was intended for

  8. Gender and water from a human rights perspective : The role of context in translating international norms into local action

    OpenAIRE

    SINGH, Nandita; Åström, Karsten; Wickenberg, Per; Hydén, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    An important area in the discourse on gender and water is water supply where women are seen as the key actors and beneficiaries. A human rights approach to development has been adopted with access to safe water explicitly recognized as a basic human right. This right places a legal obligation upon governments to translate the international norms into practice. But does explicitly acknowledging the human right to water make a practical difference in women's lives? Using an actor-oriented persp...

  9. Processing Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    This Article argues that the practice of holding so many adjudicative proceedings related to disability in private settings (e.g., guardianship, special education due process, civil commitment, and social security) relative to our strong normative presumption of public access to adjudication may cultivate and perpetuate stigma in contravention of the goals of inclusion and enhanced agency set forth in antidiscrimination laws. Descriptively, the law has a complicated history with disability--initially rendering disability invisible; later, underwriting particular narratives of disability synonymous with incapacity; and, in recent history, promoting the full socio-economic visibility of people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the marquee civil rights legislation for people with disabilities (about to enter its twenty-fifth year), expresses a national approach to disability that recognizes the role of society in its construction, maintenance, and potential remedy. However, the ADA’s mission is incomplete. It has not generated the types of interactions between people with disabilities and nondisabled people empirically shown to deconstruct deeply entrenched social stigma. Prescriptively, procedural design can act as an "ntistigma agent"to resist and mitigate disability stigma. This Article focuses on one element of institutional design--public access to adjudication--as a potential tool to construct and disseminate counter-narratives of disability. The unique substantive focus in disability adjudication on questions of agency provides a potential public space for the negotiation of nuanced definitions of disability and capacity more reflective of the human condition.

  10. The use of the international classification of functioning, disability and health in primary care: Findings of exploratory implementation throughout life

    OpenAIRE

    Debrouwere, Inge; Lebeer, Jo; Prinzie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Purpose:__ The International Classification of Functioning (ICF) has found widespread acceptance since it was launched in 2001. Yet, little is known about its use in Primary Care. This paper aims to contribute to the dialogue about the practical use of the ICF by exploring how this framework constitutes a supplementary source to inform disability-related decision making in integrated Primary Care. __Method:__ The implementation process of the ICF in a Latin American Primary ...

  11. Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health system to symptoms of the Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kristin M; Ciafaloni, Emma; Matthews, Dennis; Westfield, Chris; James, Kathy; Paramsothy, Pangaja; Romitti, Paul A

    2018-07-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, collectively referred to as dystrophinopathies, are X-linked recessive diseases that affect dystrophin production resulting in compromised muscle function across multiple systems. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health provides a systematic classification scheme from which body functions affected by a dystrophinopathy can be identified and used to examine functional health. The infrastructure of the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network was used to identify commonly affected body functions and link selected functions to clinical surveillance data collected through medical record abstraction. Seventy-one (24 second-, 41 third- and 7 fourth-level) body function categories were selected via clinician review and consensus. Of these, 15 of 24 retained second-level categories were linked to data elements from the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network surveillance database. Our findings support continued development of a core set of body functions from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health system that are representative of disease progression in dystrophinopathies and the incorporation of these functions in standardized evaluations of functional health and implementation of individualized rehabilitation care plans. Implications for Rehabilitation Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, collectively referred to as dystrophinopathies, are X-linked recessive disorders that affect the production of dystrophin resulting in compromised muscle function across multiple systems. The severity and progressive nature of dystrophinopathies can have considerable impact on a patient's participation in activities across multiple life domains. Our findings support continued development of an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health core set for childhood-onset dystrophinopathies. A standardized

  12. Toward the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Rehabilitation Set: A Minimal Generic Set of Domains for Rehabilitation as a Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; Cieza, Alarcos; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Bickenbach, Jerome; Üstün, Tevfik Bedirhan; Chatterji, Somnath; Stucki, Gerold

    2016-06-01

    To develop a comprehensive set of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories as a minimal standard for reporting and assessing functioning and disability in clinical populations along the continuum of care. The specific aims were to specify the domains of functioning recommended for an ICF Rehabilitation Set and to identify a minimal set of environmental factors (EFs) to be used alongside the ICF Rehabilitation Set when describing disability across individuals and populations with various health conditions. Secondary analysis of existing data sets using regression methods (Random Forests and Group Lasso regression) and expert consultations. Along the continuum of care, including acute, early postacute, and long-term and community rehabilitation settings. Persons (N=9863) with various health conditions participated in primary studies. The number of respondents for whom the dependent variable data were available and used in this analysis was 9264. Not applicable. For regression analyses, self-reported general health was used as a dependent variable. The ICF categories from the functioning component and the EF component were used as independent variables for the development of the ICF Rehabilitation Set and the minimal set of EFs, respectively. Thirty ICF categories to be complemented with 12 EFs were identified as relevant to the identified ICF sets. The ICF Rehabilitation Set constitutes of 9 ICF categories from the component body functions and 21 from the component activities and participation. The minimal set of EFs contains 12 categories spanning all chapters of the EF component of the ICF. The identified sets proposed serve as minimal generic sets of aspects of functioning in clinical populations for reporting data within and across heath conditions, time, clinical settings including rehabilitation, and countries. These sets present a reference framework for harmonizing existing information on disability across

  13. Striking the Right Balance: Police Experience, Perceptions and Use of Independent Support Persons During Interviews Involving People with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2018-03-01

    Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). The sample comprised 229 police officers who attended a mandatory firearms training course in Melbourne, Australia, in 2010. Participants commonly reported utilizing independent support persons and displayed a fair understanding of their role. Overall, volunteers were engaged more frequently than family/friends; police considered the volunteers to be more impartial during interviews, whereas family/friends provided a greater level of emotional support to interviewees. Independent support persons need to demonstrate two quite different types of support to people with intellectual disability(ies) during police interviews; these require quite different skill sets and suggest the need for more tailored training and support for these volunteers. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Right to strike: International and regional legal instruments with accent of legislation in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Majhosev, Andon; Denkova, Jadranka

    2013-01-01

    The right to strike is a universal democratic right of all employees, regardless of where they are employed: Real or public sector. Depending on the degree of realization of this right in a state, it is accordingly evaluated on the scale of democracy. Therefore, we can say that the right to strike is a fundamental measure of democratic values of a society. There is no real democracy without the right to strike. The right to strike is governed by international legal instruments (acts) of the U...

  15. Vocational rehabilitation evaluation and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Kinnunen, Aila; Laimi, Katri

    2013-03-01

    To identify the most frequent functional limitations according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) obtained by unstandardised clinical assessment of patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders who underwent vocational rehabilitation evaluation; and to compare the obtained list with simplified versions of ICF. The descriptions of functional limitations were retrospectively identified for 32 patients. The original vocational rehabilitation evaluation was conducted by a multi-professional team in an out-patient clinic of a university hospital. The obtained descriptions were converted to ICF codes, the most frequent being compared with the ICF Checklist of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the ICF Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets suggested by the ICF Research Branch. In the study population (53 % women), 141 ICF codes were identified with a preciseness of three or more digits, the average being 21 codes/subject (median 20.0, range 9-40). When truncated to three digits, 84 ICF codes remained (average 18 codes/subject, range 9-25), 45 of which appeared in over 10 % of the study population, 24 also being found in the ICF Comprehensive, 5 in the ICF Brief Core Sets, and 33 in the WHO ICF Checklist. The list of most frequent ICF codes retrospectively obtained in this study from unstandardised records showed a similarity with ICF Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets by ICF Research Branch and the ICF Checklist by WHO, but with a bias towards the identification of body structures and functions. The results support the use of ICF in vocational rehabilitation evaluation to ensure comprehensiveness of evaluation. The ICF Comprehensive Core Set seems to be the most useful for the needs of multiprofessional team when assessing functioning of patients.

  16. Measuring Environmental Factors: Unique and Overlapping International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Coverage of 5 Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W; Miskovic, Ana; Semik, Patrick; Wong, Alex; Dashner, Jessica; Baum, Carolyn; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Tulsky, David S; Garcia, Sofia F; Jerousek, Sara; Lai, Jin-Shei; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Gray, David B

    2016-12-01

    To describe the unique and overlapping content of the newly developed Environmental Factors Item Banks (EFIB) and 7 legacy environmental factor instruments, and to evaluate the EFIB's construct validity by examining associations with legacy instruments. Cross-sectional, observational cohort. Community. A sample of community-dwelling adults with stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury (N=568). None. EFIB covering domains of the built and natural environment; systems, services, and policies; social environment; and access to information and technology; the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF) short form; the Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility (FABS/M) short form; the Home and Community Environment Instrument (HACE); the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE) short form; and 3 of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System's (PROMIS) Quality of Social Support measures. The EFIB and legacy instruments assess most of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental factors chapters, including chapter 1 (products and technology; 75 items corresponding to 11 codes), chapter 2 (natural environment and human-made changes; 31 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 3 (support and relationships; 74 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 4 (attitudes; 83 items corresponding to 8 codes), and chapter 5 (services, systems, and policies; 72 items corresponding to 16 codes). Construct validity is provided by moderate correlations between EFIB measures and the CHIEF, MQE barriers, HACE technology mobility, FABS/M community built features, and PROMIS item banks and by small correlations with other legacy instruments. Only 5 of the 66 legacy instrument correlation coefficients are moderate, suggesting they measure unique aspects of the environment, whereas all intra-EFIB correlations were at least moderate. The EFIB measures provide a brief and focused assessment of ICF

  17. Ischemic stroke in combined cerebrovascular abnormalities - aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery and arteriovenous malformation temporo occipital in the right hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolova, T.; Naydenov, K.; Manchev, I.; Manchev, L.

    2016-01-01

    A case of combined vascular abnormalities is presented- an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery and arterio-venous malformation temporooccipitally on the right, clinically presented by an ischemic brain stroke in the territory supplied by the right middle cerebral artery. Treatment included - hypo-tensive drugs, antiplatelet (antiaggregants) agents and vasodilators, which lead to significant improvement of the general and focal neurological symptoms. Neurosurgical intervention is been discussed, in order to remove the vascular malformation and to prevent future vascular events. Key words: Aneurysm. Arteriovenous Malformation. Ischemic Stroke

  18. Know Your Rights on Campus: A Guide on Racial Profiling, and Hate Crime for International Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Civil Rights Project, Cambridge, MA.

    This guide to the rights of international students explains racial profiling and hate crimes. Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many immigrants and international students have experienced heightened scrutiny and outright discrimination. Racial profiling refers to the reliance by law enforcement officers on a person's ethnicity,…

  19. Evaluation of Low Back and Neck Pain and Disability of Interns at Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Department of Afyon Kocatepe University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horata Emel Taşvuran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive tasks, high force, direct pressure, and awkward joint and prolonged constrained posture are cited as prime risk factors, making particularly younger adult physiotherapists vulnerable to musculoskeletal injury. Fourth-grade students (interns perform clinical practice at Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital. They apply hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, robotic therapy, virtual reality therapy and exercise therapy to patients (inpatient and outpatient at both orthopaedic and neurology units approximately twelve months. Because we think they are under the risk of low back and neck disorders therefore aim of the present study is to evaluate recent low back and neck pain and disability of them. 50.6% participants had recent low back pain; 52.9% participants reported mild and moderate low back disability. 21.8% participants had recent neck pain; 16% participants showed mild, moderate and severe neck disability. The difference between units related to low back and neck pain or disability wasn’t significant statistically (p>0.05. Most participants announced that they used the body biomechanics correctly (84.1% and took care of ergonomic conditions (91.5%. In conclusion, it is vital to identify prevalence of low back and neck pain among physiotherapy students and take necessary precautions to prevent further problems.

  20. Measuring patterns of disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in the post-acute stroke rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljar, Nika; Burger, Helena; Vidmar, Gaj; Leonardi, Matilde; Marincek, Crt

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model is adequate for assessing disability patterns in stroke survivors in the sub-acute rehabilitation setting in terms of potential changes in functional profiles over time. Functional profiles of 197 stroke patients were assessed using the ICF Checklist and the Functional Independence Measure (FIMTM) at admission and discharge from rehabilitation hospital. The ICF Checklist was applied based on medical documentation and rehabilitation team meetings. Descriptive analyses were performed to identify changes in ICF categories and qualifiers from admission to discharge, and correlations between different improvement measures were calculated. Mean rehabilitation duration was 60 days; patients' mean age was 60 years, with mean FIM-score 75 at admission. Mean FIM-score improvement at discharge was 12.5. Within Body Functions, changes in at least 10% of patients were found regarding 13 categories; no categories within Body Structures, 24 within Activities and Participation, and 2 within Environmental Factors. Changes were mostly due to improvement in qualifiers, except for within Environmental Factors, where they were due to use of additional categories. Correlations between improvements in Body Functions and Activities and Participation (regarding capacity and performance), as well as between capacity and performance within Activities and Participation, were approximately 0.4. Rating ICF categories with qualifiers enables the detection of changes in functional profiles of stroke patients who underwent an inpatient rehabilitation programme. :

  1. Children with Disabilities in Disability-Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction: Focussing on School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronoh, Steve; Gaillard, J. C.; Marlowe, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Every year, worldwide, disasters affect approximately seven million children with disabilities, highlighting their potential vulnerability. Although there is a growing move internationally to promote the rights of children with disabilities, they still receive little attention from disaster risk reduction (DRR) researchers and policy makers. They…

  2. Beyond the 100 acre wood : In which international human rights law finds new ways to tame global corporate power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel; Kinley, David

    2015-01-01

    States and corporations are being forced out of their comfort zones. A consensus is building among international human rights courts and committees that states can and will be held accountable for overseas human rights abuses by corporations domiciled in their respective territories. The authors

  3. Realization of the international human right to health in an economically integrated North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Eleanor D

    2009-01-01

    With the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the health care sectors of the United States, Canada, and Mexico are becoming more economically integrated. NAFTA poses major challenges to the realization of the international human right. These include: (1) Cross Border Trade in Medical Products, (2) Cross Border Trade in Medical Services, and the attendant investment protections, (3) Portability and Comparability of Health Insurance Coverage, and (4) Protection of Public Health Insurance Programs. The United States, Mexico, and Canada all provide public health insurance programs either to the entire population as in Canada or to vulnerable groups as in the United States. In none of these countries have private, for-profit providers and insurers been able to provide universal and affordable health coverage and care in a truly free market. Private insurers and for-profit providers should not profit from the care of the healthy and wealthy in ways that compromise the public programs that serve the poor and seriously ill. Nor should they be allowed to use NAFTA processes to compromise public programs. Policy makers must consider implications of NAFTA and move toward assuring access to affordable health care for all people on the North American continent.

  4. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): a unifying model for the conceptual description of the rehabilitation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos; Melvin, John

    2007-05-01

    An important basis for the successful development of rehabilitation practice and research is a conceptually sound description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy based on a universally accepted conceptual model and taxonomy of human functioning. With the approval of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by the World Health Assembly in 2001 and the reference to the ICF in the World Health Assembly's resolution on "Disability, including prevention, management and rehabilitation" in 2005, we can now rely on a universally accepted conceptual model. It is thus time to initiate the process of evolving an ICF-based conceptual description that can serve as a basis for similar conceptual descriptions and according definitions of the professions applying the rehabilitation strategy and of distinct scientific fields of human functioning and rehabilitation research. In co-operation with the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) and its professional practice committee, we present a first tentative version of an ICF-based conceptual description in this paper. A brief definition describes rehabilitation as the health strategy applied by PRM and professionals in the health sector and across other sectors that aims to enable people with health conditions experiencing or likely to experience disability to achieve and maintain optimal functioning in interaction with the environment. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute towards achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  5. The right to food in international law with case studies from The Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernaart, Bart; Meulen, van der Bernd

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, the enforceability of the right to adequate food is discussed in the context of industrialized countries. The right to food as a human right can be considered the fundament of food law. Human rights in themselves occupy a special position in the field of law. On the one hand they

  6. [Croatian and international regulations on the protection and rights of workers exposed to asbestos at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavalić, Marija; Macan, Jelena

    2009-11-01

    New regulations on the protection and rights of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos were introduced in Croatia in 2007 and 2008. They have been harmonised with the European Union (EU) and International Labour Organization (ILO) regulations, and make a step forward in safety at work, health protection, social rights, and pension schemes for Croatian workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. The 2007 Croatian regulation on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work defines and describes activities in which workers can be occupationally exposed to asbestos, defines the threshold value of asbestos in the air at work, defines valid methods for measurement of asbestos concentrations in the air, and establishes measures to reduce asbestos exposure at work or protect the exposed workers. Croatian law regulating obligatory health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos from year 2007 defines activities and competent authorities to implement health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos and to diagnose occupational diseases related to asbestos. This law also defines "occupational exposure to asbestos", and "occupational asbestos-related diseases", including asbestosis (pulmonary asbestos-related fibrosis), pleural asbestos-related disorders (plaques, pleural thickening, and benign effusion), lung and bronchial cancer, and malignant mesothelioma of serous membranes. These regulations have been harmonised with ILO, Directive 2003/18/EC amending Council Directive 83/477/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work, and with the Commission Recommendation 2003/670/EC concerning the European schedule of occupational diseases. The 2008 Croatian regulation on conditions of health surveillance, diagnostic procedures and criteria for confirmation of occupational asbestos-related diseases "defines the terms and the content of medical examination of workers

  7. Prevalence of disability in a composite ≥75 year-old population in Spain: A screening survey based on the International Classification of Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gascon-Bayarri Jordi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and predictors of functional status and disability of elderly people have been studied in several European countries including Spain. However, there has been no population-based study incorporating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF framework as the basis for assessing disability. The present study reports prevalence rates for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability by the domains of activities and participation of the ICF. Methods Nine populations surveyed in previous prevalence studies contributed probabilistic and geographically defined samples in June 2005. The study sample was composed of 503 subjects aged ≥75 years. We implemented a two-phase screening design using the MMSE and the World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule 2nd edition (WHO-DAS II, 12 items as cognitive and disability screening tools, respectively. Participants scoring within the positive range of the disability screening were administered the full WHO-DAS II (36 items; score range: 0-100 assessing the following areas: Understanding and communication, Getting along with people, Life activities, Getting around, Participation in society, and Self-care. Each disability area assessed by WHO-DAS II (36 items was reported according to the ICF severity ranges (No problem, 0-4; Mild disability, 5-24; Moderate disability, 25-49; Severe/Extreme disability, 50-100. Results The age-adjusted disability prevalence figures were: 39.17 ± 2.18%, 15.31 ± 1.61%, and 10.14 ± 1.35% for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability, respectively. Severe and extreme disability prevalence in mobility and life activities was three times higher than the average, and highest among women. Sex variations were minimal, although life activities for women of 85 years and over had more severe/extreme disability as compared to men (OR = 5.15 95% CI 3.19-8.32. Conclusions Disability is highly prevalent among

  8. Child-mother and child-father attachment security: links to internalizing adjustment among children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2014-02-01

    The study examined the unique role of children's attachment with the father and with the mother, in explaining differences in internalizing features (i.e., loneliness, sense of coherence, hope and effort, and internalizing behavior syndrome) among 107 children with learning disabilities (LD) versus 98 children with typical development ages 8-12. Preliminary analyses yielded significant group differences on most measures. SEM analysis indicated high fit between the theoretical model and empirical findings, and different patterns of relations among the model's components for the two populations. As hypothesized, child-father and child-mother attachment contributed differently to children's internalizing features for the two subgroups. Discussion focused on understanding unique and complementary roles of attachment relations with fathers versus mothers among children with and without LD.

  9. Assessing work disability for social security benefits: international models for the direct assessment of work capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ben Baumberg; Garthwaite, Kayleigh; Warren, Jon; Bambra, Clare

    2017-08-25

    It has been argued that social security disability assessments should directly assess claimants' work capacity, rather than relying on proxies such as on functioning. However, there is little academic discussion of how such assessments could be conducted. The article presents an account of different models of direct disability assessments based on case studies of the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Norway, the United States of America, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, utilising over 150 documents and 40 expert interviews. Three models of direct work disability assessments can be observed: (i) structured assessment, which measures the functional demands of jobs across the national economy and compares these to claimants' functional capacities; (ii) demonstrated assessment, which looks at claimants' actual experiences in the labour market and infers a lack of work capacity from the failure of a concerned rehabilitation attempt; and (iii) expert assessment, based on the judgement of skilled professionals. Direct disability assessment within social security is not just theoretically desirable, but can be implemented in practice. We have shown that there are three distinct ways that this can be done, each with different strengths and weaknesses. Further research is needed to clarify the costs, validity/legitimacy, and consequences of these different models. Implications for rehabilitation It has recently been argued that social security disability assessments should directly assess work capacity rather than simply assessing functioning - but we have no understanding about how this can be done in practice. Based on case studies of nine countries, we show that direct disability assessment can be implemented, and argue that there are three different ways of doing it. These are "demonstrated assessment" (using claimants' experiences in the labour market), "structured assessment" (matching functional requirements to workplace demands), and "expert assessment" (the

  10. The cultural dimension of economic activities in international human right jurisprudence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Vadi, V.; de Witte, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural diversity and human rights are mutually linked: human rights protect and promote cultural diversity while cultural diversity also forms an important aspect of the enjoyment of human rights. Cultural diversity and the economy are also increasingly connected, for example through cultural

  11. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a unifying model for the conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Melvin, John

    2007-05-01

    There is a need to develop a contemporary and internationally accepted conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). The process of evolving such a definition can now rely on the unifying conceptual model and taxonomy of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and an ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy. The PRM section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) has endorsed the application of the ICF as a unifying conceptual model for PRM and supports the process of moving towards an "ICF-based conceptual description and according definitions of PRM". With this goal in mind, the authors have developed a first tentative conceptual description in co-operation with the professional practice committee of the UEMS-PRM-section. A respective brief definition describes PRM as the medical specialty that, based on the assessment of functioning and including the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions, performs, applies and co-ordinates biomedical and engineering and a wide range of other interventions with the goal of optimizing functioning of people experiencing or likely to experience disability. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute to the process of achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of PRM by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  12. Comparison of fractional flow reserve of composite Y-grafts with saphenous vein or right internal thoracic arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glineur, David; Boodhwani, Munir; Poncelet, Alain; De Kerchove, Laurent; Etienne, Pierre Yves; Noirhomme, Philippe; Deceuninck, Paul; Michel, Xavier; El Khoury, Gebrine; Hanet, Claude

    2010-09-01

    Composite Y-grafts, using the left internal thoracic artery as the inflow, allow a more efficient use of conduits without the need to touch a diseased ascending aorta. Among other conduits, the saphenous vein graft may be an alternative to the radial artery in elderly patients. We evaluated the hemodynamic characteristics of 17 composite Y-grafts made with the left internal thoracic artery anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary artery in all cases and with either the free right internal thoracic artery (RITA group, n = 10) or a saphenous vein graft (SVG group, n = 7) implanted proximally to the left internal thoracic artery and distally to the circumflex territory 6 months after the operation. At baseline, the pressure gradient measured with a 0.014-inch pressure wire was minimal between the aorta and the internal thoracic artery stem (2 +/- 1 mm Hg), the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending (4 +/- 2 mm Hg), the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex (3 +/- 1 mm Hg), and the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex (2 +/- 2 mm Hg). During hyperemia induced by adenosine, the pressure gradient increased significantly to 6 +/- 2 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery stem, 9 +/- 4 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending artery, 9 +/- 3 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex, and 7 +/- 4 mm Hg in the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex. Fractional flow reserve was 0.94 +/- 0.02 in internal thoracic artery stem, 0.90 +/- 0.04 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending, 0.91 +/- 0.03 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex, and 0.92 +/- 0.06 mm Hg in the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex. No difference between the two types of composite Y-grafts was observed for pressure gradients or fractional flow reserve measured in internal thoracic artery stem or in distal branches. Composite Y-grafts with saphenous vein or right internal thoracic

  13. The internal consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Dekker, J.; Woude, L.H.V. van der

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  14. Internal consistency and validity of the self-assessment Parkinson's Disease disability scale. Abstract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  15. Self-report disability in an international primary care study of psychological illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VonKorff, M; Ustun, TB; Ormel, J; Kaplan, [No Value; Simon, GE

    We assessed the replicability of reliability and validity of a brief self-report disability scale, adapted from the Medical Outcomes Survey (short form), in a 15-center, cross-national, multilingual study of psychological illness among primary care patients (n = 5438). Across all 15 centers in the

  16. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Bryant, Richard A; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  17. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Joscelyne

    Full Text Available Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  18. Sports and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Pamela E; Clayton, Gerald H

    2010-03-01

    Participation in recreational and competitive sports at an early age has long been touted as a positive influence on growth and development, and for fostering lifelong healthy lifestyles. The benefits of an active lifestyle include not only fitness, but the promotion of a sense of inclusion and improved self-esteem. These benefits are well documented in all populations, and their importance has been summarized in the recent Healthy People 2010 guidelines. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently produced a summary statement on the benefits of activity for disabled children. They note that children with disabilities tend to have an overall lower level of fitness and an increased level of obesity. For this population, developing a lifelong desire to be active can be a simple means for limiting illness and much of the morbidity associated with sedentary lifestyles often associated with disability. For disabled youth, participation in disabled sports programs available nationally and internationally can be an effective means to promote such precepts. The goal of this focused review is to improve the learner's knowledge of the positive impact that active lifestyles can have on overall health in the disabled youth population and, as a result, modify their practice by incorporating recreational and competitive sport activities as part of improving overall patient care. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AGAINST THE ADVERSE IMPACT OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND OTHER BUSINESS ENTERPRISES: DILEMMAS OF INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machoňová-Schellongová Ivana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about an impact of corporate and business operations on human rights, both positive and negative. Growing influence of corporations, power shift between business and states, as well as the complex nature of corporate governance and transnational operations require international regulations. International community undertook numerous initiatives, the most significant and recent being the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights [2011], embraced by States, corporations and civil society as a “milestone“ in business and human rights agenda. While being a  useful comprehensive set of guidelines, Principles are lacking the legally binding force and any monitoring or complaints mechanism. Therefore, there are growing calls for a legally binding treaty to stipulate clearly human rights obligations of States/businesses vis-à-vis human rights and fill the protection gap for victims of corporate abuses. A newly established working group by the Human Rights Council has started to negotiate terms of reference of such a treaty in June 2015. However, meaningful negotiations are threatened by many factors, including the negative approach of US, EU and other developed States along with the corporate sector advocating for stronger implementation of Principles instead. This article aims to describe efforts of international community to prevent and eliminate a  negative impact of corporate activities on human rights. It shows different approaches and highlights some challenges and dilemmas. It concludes that parallel efforts should be undertaken - to implement the Principles and to negotiate an international treaty – in order to improve protection against an adverse impact of corporate operations on human rights. As for the Czech Republic, it is suggested to embark on the elaboration of the National Action Plan, thus providing for an opportunity to discuss implementation of the Principles among all the

  20. Parents' Assessments of Disability in Their Children Using World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version Joined Body Functions and Activity Codes Related to Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, Niels Ove; Gradel, Kim Oren

    2017-01-01

    : Parents of 162 children with spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular disorders, cerebral palsy, visual impairment, hearing impairment, mental disability, or disability following brain tumours performed scoring for 26 body functions qualifiers (b codes) and activities and participation qualifiers......AIM: To help parents assess disability in their own children using World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) code qualifier scoring and to assess the validity and reliability of the data sets obtained. METHOD...... of 1.01 and 1.00. The mean corresponding outfit MNSQ was 1.05 and 1.01. The ICF-CY code τ thresholds and category measures were continuous when assessed and reassessed by parents. Participating children had a mean of 56 codes scores (range: 26-130) before and a mean of 55.9 scores (range: 25-125) after...

  1. The right to self-determination under international law: The current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Human Rights Education Here and Now: U.S. Practices and International Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, Felisa

    2014-01-01

    Felisa Tibbitts has spent the better part of her professional life in the field of human rights education. She remarks here that earlier in her career, as a U.S. national, she had been steeped in the language of civic education and peace education, but had not come across the term "human rights" and didn't initially understand (beyond a…

  3. Accountability for the Human Rights Implications of Natural Disasters : A Proposal for Systemic International Oversight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, Marlies; Cubie, Dug

    2015-01-01

    The practical and operational challenges of responding to disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis and hurricanes are well known, so the recent decision by the UN Human Rights Council to commission research on best practices and challenges in the promotion and protection of human rights in

  4. Disagreement – Commonality – Autonomy : EU Fundamental Rights in the Internal Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution explores the implications of disagreements about rights in the ‘multi-layered’ European polity for the autonomy of EU fundamental rights law. It argues that insomuch as the EU’s weak claim to supra-national political authority is corroborated by a strong case for economic

  5. A tool for enhancing strategic health planning: a modeled use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Lisa Bundara; Fox, Michael H; Betts, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This article describes use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a tool for strategic planning. The ICF is the international classification system for factors that influence health, including Body Structures, Body Functions, Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors. An overview of strategic planning and the ICF are provided. Selected ICF concepts and nomenclature are used to demonstrate its utility in helping develop a classic planning framework, objectives, measures and actions. Some issues and resolutions for applying the ICF are described. Applying the ICF for strategic health planning is an innovative approach that fosters the inclusion of social ecological health determinants and broad populations. If employed from the onset of planning, the ICF can help public health organizations systematically conceptualize, organize and communicate a strategic health plan. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Portugal's special education law: implementing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Simeonsson, Rune J; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia; Tavares, Ana; Pinheiro, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was introduced in Portuguese education law as the compulsory system to guide eligibility policy and practice in special education. This paper describes the implementation of the ICF and its utility in the assessment process and eligibility determination of students for special education. A study to evaluate the utility of the ICF was commissioned by the Portuguese Ministry of Education and carried out by an external evaluation team. A document analysis was made of the assessment and eligibility processes of 237 students, selected from a nationally representative sample. The results provided support for the use of the ICF in student assessment and in the multidimensional approach of generating student functioning profiles as the basis for determining eligibility. The use of the ICF contributed to the differentiation of eligible and non eligible students based on their functioning profiles. The findings demonstrate the applicability of the ICF framework and classification system for determining eligibility for special education services on the basis of student functioning rather than medical or psychological diagnose. The use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework in special education policy is as follows: • The functional perspective of the ICF offers a more comprehensive, holistic assessment of student needs than medical diagnoses. • ICF-based assessment of the nature and severity of functioning can serve as the basis for determining eligibility for special education and habilitation. • Profiles of functioning can support decision making in designing appropriate educational interventions for students.

  7. INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHT AND ISLAMIC LAW: Sebuah Upaya “Menuntaskan” Wacana-Wacana Kemanusiaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febri Hijroh Mukhlis

    2017-12-01

    problem kemanusiaan. Artikel ini merupakan kajian konseptual, dengan jenis kajian kualitatif deskriptif. Kesimpulan dari kajian ini yaitu, dikotomi antara konsep HAM dan hukum Islam haruslah dituntaskan, kedunya pada satu ujung tujuan, yakni keadilan, kesetaraan dan kemanusiaan. Urusan kemanusiaan adalah urusan bersama tanpa memandang kepentingan apapun, baik agama, politik, budaya, bahkan pengetahuan. Jika tidak adanya keharmonisan dan kesepahaman antara konsep kemanusiaan dalam bingkai keagamaan atau tauhid maka pemahaman tentang kemanusiaan haruslah dibebaskan dari segala bentuk kepentingan identitas. Hukum Islam dan HAM adalah dua hal yang saling mendukung. Islam menghargai HAM begitupun sebaliknya. Pandangan agama haruslah bersifat universal sebagaimana pandangan mengenai HAM juga sebaiknya bersifat universal. Pandangan masing-masing yang sempit akan menyempitkan hubungan keduanya pula.   Keywords: international human right, Islamic law, humanity

  8. IS AN INTERNATIONAL CORPORATE HUMAN RIGHTS LIABILITY FRAMEWORK NEEDED? AN ECONOMIC POWER, BUSINESS AND HUMAN RIGHTS, AND AMERICAN EXTRATERRITORIAL JURISDICTION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arevalo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available All companies, regardless of the sector they belong to, can positively or negatively impact human rights. Governments are increasingly aware of the benefits that free trade brings their nations, which has led them to do whatever is necessary to attract foreign investment, even if it means to act against the interests of their own people. The power relationship between corporations and states generates a tension derived from their nature: while the objective of states is the welfare of its members, the purpose of corporations is profit. It is in the crack generated by the collision of powers and purposes between these two actors, that this article is intended to raise the discussion on the need to establish an international framework for corporate liability for human rights violations. To achieve its goal, the article will analyze the opportunities and obstacles raised by the exercise of extraterritorial jurisdiction in the American context and its relationship with the developments in the business and human rights field.

  9. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  10. Sharing International Responsibility for the Protection of Poor Migrants? An Analysis of Extraterritorial Socio-Economic Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the possible legal bases for or the existence of extraterritorial socio-economic human rights obligations on the part of wealthier European ‘Destination Countries’ vis-à-vis poor migrants. In particular, the paper considers whether obligations of international cooperation and

  11. Relationship between method of anastomosis and anastomotic failure after right hemicolectomy and ileo-caecal resection: an international snapshot audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkney, T.; Battersby, N.; Bhangu, A.; Chaudhri, S.; El-Hussuna, A.; Frasson, M.; Nepogodiev, D.; Singh, B.; Vennix, S.; Zmora, O.; Altomare, D.; Bemelman, W.; Christensen, P.; D'Hoore, A.; Laurberg, S.; Morton, D.; Rubbini, M.; Vaizey, C.; Magill, L.; Perry, R.; Sheward, N.; Ives, N.; Mehta, S.; Cillo, M.; Estefania, D.; Patron Uriburu, J.; Ruiz, H.; Salomon, M.; Makhmudov, A.; Selnyahina, L.; Varabei, A.; Vizhynis, Y.; Claeys, D.; Defoort, B.; Muysoms, F.; Pletinckx, P.; Vergucht, V.; Debergh, I.; Feryn, T.; Reusens, H.; Nachtergaele, M.; Francart, D.; Jehaes, C.; Markiewicz, S.; Monami, B.; Weerts, J.; Bouckaert, W.; Houben, B.; Knol, J.; Sergeant, G.; Vangertruyden, G.; Haeck, L.; Lange, C.; Sommeling, C.; Vindevoghel, K.; Castro, S.; de Bruyn, H.; Huyghe, M.; de Wolf, E.; Reynders, D.; van Overstraeten, A. de Buck; Wolthuis, A.; Delibegovic, S.; Christiani, A.; Marchiori, M.; Rocha de Moraes, C.; Tercioti, V.; Arabadjieva, E.; Bulanov, D.; Dardanov, D.; Stoyanov, V.; Yonkov, A.; Angelov, K.; Maslyankov, S.; Sokolov, M.; Todorov, G.; Toshev, S.; Georgiev, Y.; Karashmalakov, A.; Zafirov, G.; Wang, X.; Condic, D.; Kraljik, D.; Mrkovic, H.; Pavkovic, V.; Raguz, K.; Bencurik, V.; Holaskova, E.; Skrovina, M.; Farkasova, M.; Grolich, T.; Kala, Z.; Antos, F.; Pruchova, V.; Sotona, O.; Chobola, M.; Dusek, T.; Ferko, A.; Orhalmi, J.; Hoch, J.; Kocian, P.; Martinek, L.; Bernstein, I.; Sunesen, K. Gotschalck; Leunbach, J.; Thorlacius-Ussing, O.; Oveson, A. Uth; Chirstensen, S. Dahl; Gamez, V.; Oeting, M.; Loeve, U. Schou; Ugianskis, A.; Jessen, M.; Krarup, P.; Linde, K.; Mirza, Q.; Stovring, J. Overgaard; Erritzoe, L.; Jakobsen, H. Loft; Lykke, J.; Colov, E. Palmgren; Madsen, A. Husted; Friis, T. Linde; Funder, J. Amstrup; Dich, R.; Kjaer, S.; Rasmussen, S.; Schlesinger, N.; Kjaer, M. Dilling; Qvist, N.; Khalid, A.; Ali, G.; Hadi, S.; Walker, L. Rosell; Kivela, A.; Lehtonen, T.; Lepisto, A.; Scheinin, T.; Siironen, P.; Kossi, J.; Kuusanmaki, P.; Tomminen, T.; Turunen, A.; Rautio, T.; Vierimaa, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Karvonen, J.; Lavonius, M.; Rantala, A.; Varpe, P.; Cotte, E.; Francois, Y.; Glehen, O.; Kepenekian, V.; Passot, G.; Maggiori, L.; Manceau, G.; Panis, Y.; Gout, M.; Rullier, E.; van Geluwe, B.; Chafai, N.; Lefevre, J. H.; Parc, Y.; Tiret, E.; Couette, C.; Duchalais, E.; Agha, A.; Hornberger, M.; Hungbauer, A.; Iesalnieks, I.; Weindl, I.; Crescenti, F.; Keller, M.; Kolodziejski, N.; Scherer, R.; Sterzing, D.; Bock, B.; Boehm, G.; El-Magd, M.; Krones, C.; Niewiera, M.; Buhr, J.; Cordesmeyer, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Krueckemeier, K.; Vogel, T.; Schoen, M.; Baral, J.; Lukoschek, T.; Muench, S.; Pullig, F.; Horisberger, K.; Kienle, P.; Magdeburg, J.; Post, S.; Batzalexis, K.; Germanos, S.; Agalianos, C.; Dervenis, C.; Gouvas, N.; Kanavidis, P.; Kottikias, A.; Katsoulis, I. E.; Korkolis, D.; Plataniotis, G.; Sakorafas, G.; Akrida, I.; Argentou, M.; Kollatos, C.; Lampropoulos, C.; Tsochatzis, S.; Besznyak, I.; Bursics, A.; Egyed, T.; Papp, G.; Svastics, I.; Atladottir, J.; Moller, P.; Sigurdsson, H.; Stefansson, T.; Valsdottir, E.; Andrews, E.; Foley, N.; Hechtl, D.; Majeed, M.; McCourt, M.; Hanly, A.; Hyland, J.; Martin, S.; O'Connell, P. R.; Winter, D.; Connelly, T.; Joyce, W.; Wrafter, P.; Berkovitz, R.; Avital, S.; Yahia, I. Haj; Hermann, N.; Shpitz, B.; White, I.; Lishtzinsky, Y.; Tsherniak, A.; Wasserberg, N.; Horesh, N.; Keler, U.; Pery, R.; Shapiro, R.; Tulchinsky, H.; Badran, B.; Dayan, K.; Iskhakov, A.; Lecaros, J.; Nabih, N.; Angrima, I.; Bardini, R.; Pizzolato, E.; Tonello, M.; Arces, F.; Balestri, R.; Ceccarelli, C.; Prosperi, V.; Rossi, E.; Giannini, I.; Vincenti, L.; Altomare, D. F.; Di Candido, F.; Di Iena, M.; Guglielmi, A.; Caputi-Iam-Brenghi, O.; Marsanic, P.; Mellano, A.; Muratore, A.; Annecchiarico, M.; Bencini, L.; Bona-Pasta, S. Amore; Coratti, A.; Guerra, F.; Asteria, C. R.; Boccia, L.; Gerard, L.; Pascariello, A.; Manca, G.; Marino, F.; Casaril, A.; Inama, M.; Moretto, G.; Bacchelli, C.; Carvello, M.; Mariani, N.; Montorsi, M.; Spinelli, A.; Romairone, E.; Scabini, S.; Belli, A.; Bianco, F.; de Franciscis, S.; Romano, G. Maria; Delrio, P.; Pace, U.; Rega, D.; Sassaroli, C.; Scala, D.; de Luca, R.; Ruggieri, E.; Elbetti, C.; Garzi, A.; Romoli, L.; Scatizzi, M.; Vannucchi, A.; Curletti, G.; Durante, V.; Galleano, R.; Mariani, F.; Reggiani, L.; Bellomo, R.; Infantino, A.; Franceschilli, L.; Sileri, P.; Clementi, I.; Coletta, D.; La Torre, F.; Mingoli, A.; Velluti, F.; Di Giacomo, A.; Fiorot, A.; Massani, M.; Padoan, L.; Ruffolo, C.; Caruso, S.; Franceschini, F.; Laessig, R.; Monaci, I.; Rontini, M.; de Nardi, P.; Elmore, U.; Lemma, M.; Rosati, R.; Tamburini, A.; de Luca, M.; Sartori, A.; Benevento, A.; Bottini, C.; Ferrari, C. C.; Pata, F.; Tessera, G.; Pellino, G.; Selvaggi, F.; Lanzani, A.; Romano, F.; Sgroi, G.; Steccanella, F.; Turati, L.; Yamamoto, T.; Ancans, G.; Gerkis, S.; Leja, M.; Pcolkins, A.; Sivins, A.; Latkauskas, T.; Lizdenis, P.; Saladzin-Skas, Z.; Svagzdys, S.; Tamelis, A.; Razbadauskas, A.; Sokolovas, M.; Dulskas, A.; Samalavicius, N.; Jotautas, V.; Mikalauskas, S.; Poskus, E.; Poskus, T.; Strupas, K.; Camenzuli, C.; Cini, C.; Predrag, A.; Psaila, J.; Spiteri, N.; Buskens, C.; de Groof, E. J.; Gooszen, J.; Tanis, P.; Belgers, E.; Davids, P.; Furnee, E.; Postma, E.; Pronk, A.; Smakman, N.; Clermonts, S.; Zimmerman, D.; Omloo, J.; van der Zaag, E.; van Duijvendijk, P.; Wassenaar, E.; Bruijninckx, M.; de Graff, E.; Doornebosch, P.; Tetteroo, G.; Vermaas, M.; Iordens, G.; Knops, S.; Toorenvliet, B.; van Westereenen, H. L.; Boerma, E.; Coene, P.; van der Harst, E.; van der Pool, A.; Raber, M.; Melenhorst, J.; de Castro, S.; Gerhards, M.; Arron, M.; Bremers, A.; de Wilt, H.; Ferenschild, F.; Yauw, S.; Cense, H.; Demirkiran, A.; Hunfeld, M.; Mulder, I.; Nonner, J.; Swank, H.; van Wagensveld, B.; Bolmers, M.; Briel, J.; van Geloven, A.; van Rossem, C.; Klemann, V.; Konsten, J.; Leenders, B.; Schok, T.; Bleeker, W.; Brun, M.; Helgeland, M.; Ignjatovic, D.; Oresland, T.; Yousefi, P.; Backe, I. Faten; Sjo, O. Helmer; Nesbakken, A.; Tandberg-Eriksen, M.; Cais, A.; Traeland, J. Hallvard; Herikstad, R.; Korner, H.; Lauvland, N.; Jajtner, D.; Kabiesz, W.; Rak, M.; Gmerek, L.; Horbacka, K.; Horst, N.; Krokowicz, P.; Kwiatkowski, A.; Pasnik, K.; Karcz, P.; Romaniszyn, M.; Rusek, T.; Walega, P.; Czarencki, R.; Obuszko, Z.; Sitarska, M.; Wojciech, W.; Zawadzki, M.; Amado, S.; Clara, P.; Couceiro, A.; Malaquias, R.; Rama, N.; Almeida, A.; Barbosa, E.; Cernadas, E.; Duarte, A.; Silva, P.; Costa, S.; Martinez Insua, C.; Pereira, J.; Pereira, C.; Sacchetti, M.; Carvalho Pinto, B.; Vieira Sousa, P. Jorge; Marques, R.; Oliveira, A.; Cardoso, R.; Carlos, S.; Corte-Real, J.; Moniz Pereira, P.; Souto, R.; Carneiro, C.; Marinho, R.; Nunes, V.; Rocha, R.; Sousa, M.; Leite, J.; Melo, F.; Pimentel, J.; Ventura, L.; Vila Nova, C.; Copacscu, C.; Bintintan, V.; Ciuce, C.; Dindelegan, G.; Scurtu, R.; Seicean, R.; Domansky, N.; Karachun, A.; Moiseenko, A.; Pelipas, Y.; Petrov, A.; Pravosudov, I.; Aiupov, R.; Akmalov, Y.; Parfenov, A.; Suleymanov, N.; Tarasov, N.; Jumabaev, H.; Mamedli, Z.; Rasulov, A.; Aliev, I.; Chernikovskiy, I.; Kochnev, V.; Komyak, K.; Smirnov, A.; Achkasov, S.; Bolikhov, K.; Shelygin, Y.; Sushkov, O.; Zapolskiy, A.; Gvozdenovic, M.; Jovanovic, D.; Lausevic, Z.; Cvetkovic, D.; Maravic, M.; Milovanovic, B.; Stojakovic, N.; Tripkovic, I.; Mihajlovic, D.; Nestorovic, M.; Pecic, V.; Petrovic, D.; Stanojevic, G.; Barisic, G.; Dimitrijevic, I.; Krivokapic, Z.; Markovic, V.; Popovic, M.; Aleksic, A.; Dabic, D.; Kostic, I.; Milojkovic, A.; Perunicic, V.; Lukic, D.; Petrovic, T.; Radovanovic, D.; Radovanovic, Z.; Cuk, V. M.; Cuk, V. V.; Kenic, M.; Kovacevic, B.; Krdzic, I.; Korcek, J.; Rems, M.; Toplak, J.; Escarra, J.; Gil Barrionuevo, M.; Golda, T.; Kreisler Moreno, E.; Zerpa Martin, C.; Alvarez Laso, C.; Cumplido, P.; Padin, H.; Baixauli Fons, J.; Hernandez-Lizoain, J.; Martinez-Ortega, P.; Molina-Fernandez, M.; Sanchez-Justicia, C.; Gracia Solanas, J. Antonio; Diaz de laspra, E. Cordoba; Echazarreta-Gallego, E.; Elia-Guedea, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arredondo Chaves, J.; Gonzalez, P. Diez; Elosua, T.; Sahagun, J.; Turienzo Frade, A.; Alvarez Conde, J.; Castrillo, E.; Diaz Maag, R.; Maderuelo, V.; Saldarriaga, L.; Aldrey Cao, I.; Fernandez Varela, X.; Nunez Fernandez, S.; Parajo Calvo, A.; Villar Alvarez, S.; Blesa Sierra, I.; Lozano, R.; Marquez, M.; Porcel, O.; Menendez, P.; Fernandez Hevia, M.; Flores Siguenza, L.; Jimenez Toscano, M.; Lacy Fortuny, A.; Ordonez Trujillo, J.; Espi, A.; Garcia-Botello, S.; Martin-Arevalo, J.; Moro-Valdezate, D.; Pla-Marti, V.; Blanco-Antona, F.; Abrisqueta, J.; Ibanez Canovas, N.; Lujan Mompean, J.; Escola Ripoll, D.; Martinez Gonzalez, S.; Parodi, J.; Fernandez Lopez, A.; Ramos Fernandez, M.; Castellvi Valls, J.; Ortiz de Zarate, L.; Ribas, R.; Sabia, D.; Viso, L.; Alonso Goncalves, S.; Gil Egea, M. Jose; Pascual Damieta, M.; Pera, M.; Salvans Ruiz, S.; Bernal, J.; Landete, F.; Ais, G.; Etreros, J.; Aguilo Lucia, J.; Bosca, A.; Deusa, S.; Garcia del Cano, J.; Viciano, V.; Garcia-Armengol, J.; Roig, J.; Blas, J.; Escartin, J.; Fatas, J.; Fernando, J.; Ferrer, R.; Arias Pacheco, R.; Garcia Florez, L.; Moreno Gijon, M.; Otero Diez, J.; Solar Garcia, L.; Aguilar Teixido, F.; Balaguer Ojo, C.; Bargallo Berzosa, J.; Lamas Moure, S.; Sierra, J. Enrique; Ferminan, A.; Herrerias, F.; Rufas, M.; Vinas, J.; Codina-Cazador, A.; Farres, R.; Gomez, N.; Julia, D.; Planellas, P.; Lopez, J.; Luna, A.; Maristany, C.; Munoz Duyos, A.; Puertolas, N.; Alcantara Moral, M.; Serra-Aracil, X.; Concheiro Coello, P.; Gomez, D.; Carton, C.; Miguel, A.; Reoyo Pascual, F.; Valero Cerrato, X.; Zambrano Munoz, R.; Cervera-Aldama, J.; Gonzalez, J. Garcia; Ramos-Prada, J.; Santamaria-Olabarrieta, M.; Uriguen-Echeverria, A.; Coves Alcover, R.; Espinosa Soria, J.; Fernandez Rodriguez, E.; Hernandis Villalba, J.; Maturana Ibanenz, V.; de la Torre Gonzalez, F.; Huerga, D.; Perez Viejo, E.; Rivera, A.; Ruiz Ucar, E.; Garcia-Septiem, J.; Jimenez, V.; Jimenez Miramon, J.; Ramons Rodriquez, J.; Rodriguez Alvarez, V.; Garcea, A.; Ponchietti, L.; Borda, N.; Enriquez-Navascues, J.; Saralegui, Y.; Febles Molina, G.; Nogues, E.; Rodriguez Mendez, A.; Roque Castellano, C.; Sosa Quesada, Y.; Alvarez-Gallego, M.; Pascual, I.; Rubio-Perez, I.; Diaz-San Andres, B.; Tone-Villanueva, F.; Alonso, J.; Cagigas, C.; Castillo, J.; gomez, M.; Martin-Parra, J.; Mengual Ballester, M.; Pellicer Franco, E.; Soria Aledo, V.; Valero Navarro, G.; Caballero Rodriguez, E.; Gonzalez de Chaves, P.; Hernandez, G.; Perez Alvarez, A.; Soto Sanchez, A.; Becerra Garcia, F. Cesar; Alonso Roque, J. Guillermo; Rodriguez Arias, F. Lopez; del Valle Ruiz, S. R.; Sanchez de la Villa, G.; Compan, A.; Garcia Marin, A.; Nofuentes, C.; Orts Mico, F.; Perez Auladell, V.; Carrasco, M.; Duque Perez, C.; Galvez-Pastor, S.; Navarro Garcia, I.; Sanchez Perez, A.; Enjuto, D.; Manuel Bujalance, F.; Marcelin, N.; Perez, M.; Serrano Garcia, R.; Cabrera, A.; de la Portilla, F.; Diaz-Pavon, J.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, R.; Vazquez-Monchul, J.; Daza Gonzalez, J.; Gomez Perez, R.; Rivera Castellano, J.; Roldan de la Rua, J.; Errasti Alustiza, J.; Fernandez, L.; Romeo Ramirez, J.; Sardon Ramos, J.; Cermeno Toral, B.; Alias, D.; Garcia-Olmo, D.; Guadalajara, H.; Herreros, M.; Pacheco, P.; del Castillo Diez, F.; Lima Pinto, F.; Martinez Alegre, J.; Ortega, I.; Nieto Antonio, A. Picardo; Caro, A.; Escuder, J.; Feliu, F.; Millan, M.; Alos Company, R.; Frangi Caregnato, A.; Lozoya Trujillo, R.; Rodriguez Carrillo, R.; Ruiz Carmona, M.; Alonso, N.; Ambrona Zafra, D.; Ayala Candia, B. Amilka; Bonnin Pascual, J.; Pineno Flores, C.; Alcazar Montero, J.; Angoso Clavijo, M.; Garcia, J.; Sanchez Tocino, J.; Gomez-Alcazar, C.; Costa-Navarro, D.; Ferri-Romero, J.; Rey-Riveiro, M.; Romero-Simo, M.; Arencibia, B.; Esclapez, P.; Garcia-Granero, E.; Granero, P.; Medina Fernandez, F. J.; Gallardo Herrera, A. B.; Diaz Lopez, C.; Navarro Rodriguez, E.; Torres Tordera, E.; Arenal, J.; Citores, M.; Marcos, J.; Sanchez, J.; Tinoco, C.; Espin, E.; Garcia Granero, A.; Jimenez Gomez, L.; Sanchez Garcia, J.; Vallribera, F.; Folkesson, J.; Skoldberg, F.; Bergman, K.; Borgstrom, E.; Frey, J.; Silfverberg, A.; Soderholm, M.; Nygren, J.; Segelman, J.; Gustafsson, D.; Lagerqvist, A.; Papp, A.; Pelczar, M.; Abraham-Nordling, M.; Ahlberg, M.; Sjovall, A.; Tengstrom, J.; Hagman, K.; Chabok, A.; Ezra, E.; Nikberg, M.; Smedh, K.; Tiselius, C.; Al-Naimi, N.; Duc, M. Dao; Meyer, J.; Mormont, M.; Ris, F.; Prevost, G.; Villiger, P.; Hoffmann, H.; Kettelhack, C.; Kirchhoff, P.; Oertli, D.; Weixler, B.; Aytac, B.; Leventoglu, S.; Mentes, B.; Yuksel, O.; Demirbas, S.; Ozkan, B. Busra; Ozbalci, G. Selcuk; Sungurtekin, U.; Gulcu, B.; Ozturk, E.; Yilmazlar, T.; Challand, C.; Fearnhead, N.; Hubbard, R.; Kumar, S.; Arthur, J.; Barben, C.; Skaife, P.; Slawik, S.; Williams, M.; Zammit, M.; Barker, J.; French, J.; Sarantitis, I.; Slawinski, C.; Clifford, R.; Eardley, N.; Johnson, M.; McFaul, C.; Vimalachandran, D.; Allan, S.; Bell, A.; Oates, E.; Shanmugam, V.; Brigic, A.; Halls, M.; Pucher, P.; Stubbs, B.; Agarwal, T.; Chopada, A.; Mallappa, S.; Pathmarajah, M.; Sugden, C.; Brown, C.; Macdonald, E.; Mckay, A.; Richards, J.; Robertson, A.; Kaushal, M.; Patel, P.; Tezas, S.; Touqan, N.; Ayaani, S.; Marimuthu, K.; Piramanayagam, B.; Vourvachis, M.; Iqbal, N.; Korsgen, S.; Seretis, C.; Shariff, U.; Arnold, S.; Chan, H.; Clark, E.; Fernandes, R.; Moran, B.; Bajwa, A.; McArthur, D.; Cao, K.; Cunha, P.; Pardoe, H.; Quddus, A.; Theodoropoulou, K.; Bolln, C.; Denys, G.; Gillespie, M.; Manimaran, N.; Reidy, J.; Malik, A. I.; Malik, A.; Pitt, J.; Aryal, K.; El-Hadi, A.; Lal, R.; Pal, A.; Velchuru, V.; Cunha, M. Oliveira; Thomas, M.; Bains, S.; Boyle, K.; Miller, A.; Norwood, M.; Yeung, J.; Goian, L.; Gurjar, S.; Saghir, W.; Sengupta, N.; Stewart-Parker, E.; Bailey, S.; Khalil, T.; Lawes, D.; Nikolaou, S.; Omar, G.; Church, R.; Muthiah, B.; Garrett, W.; Marsh, P.; Obeid, N.; Chandler, S.; Coyne, P.; Evans, M.; Hunt, L.; Lim, J.; Oliphant, Z.; Papworth, E.; Weaver, H.; Leon, K. Cuinas; Williams, G.; Hernon, J.; Kapur, S.; Moosvi, R.; Shaikh, I.; Swafe, L.; Aslam, M.; Evans, J.; Ihedioha, U.; Kang, P.; Merchant, J.; Hompes, R.; Middleton, R.; Broomfield, A.; Crutten-Wood, D.; Foster, J.; Nash, G.; Akhtar, M.; Boshnaq, M.; Eldesouky, S.; Mangam, S.; Rabie, M.; Ahmed, J.; Khan, J.; Goh, N. Ming; Shamali, A.; Stefan, S.; Thompson, C.; Amin, A.; Docherty, J.; Lim, M.; Walker, K.; Watson, A.; Hossack, M.; Mackenzie, N.; Paraoan, M.; Alam, N.; Daniels, I.; Narang, S.; Pathak, S.; Smart, N.; Al-Qaddo, A.; Codd, R.; Rutka, O.; Bronder, C.; Crighton, I.; Davies, E.; Raymond, T.; Bookless, L.; Griffiths, B.; Plusa, S.; Carlson, G.; Harrison, R.; Lees, N.; Mason, C.; Quayle, J.; Branagan, G.; Broadhurst, J.; Chave, H.; Sleight, S.; Awad, F.; Cruickshank, N.; Joy, H.; Boereboom, C.; Daliya, P.; Dhillon, A.; Watson, N.; Watson, R.; Artioukh, D.; Gokul, K.; Javed, M.; Kong, R.; Sutton, J.; Faiz, O.; Jenkins, I.; Leo, C. A.; Samaranayake, S. F.; Warusavitarne, J.; Arya, S.; Bhan, C.; Mukhtar, H.; Oshowo, A.; Wilson, J.; Duff, S.; Fatayer, T.; Mbuvi, J.; Sharma, A.; Cornish, J.; Davies, L.; Harries, R.; Morris, C.; Torkington, J.; Knight, J.; Lai, C.; Shihab, O.; Tzivanakis, A.; Hussain, A.; Luke, D.; Padwick, R.; Torrance, A.; Tsiamis, A.; Dawson, P.; Balfour, A.; Brady, R.; Mander, J.; Paterson, H.; Chandratreya, N.; Chu, H.; Cutting, J.; Vernon, S.; Ho, C. Wai; Andreani, S.; Patel, H.; Warner, M.; Tan, J. Yan Qi; Gidwani, A.; Lawther, R.; Loughlin, P.; Skelly, B.; Spence, R.; Iqbal, A.; Khan, A.; Perrin, K.; Raza, A.; Tan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim The anastomosis technique used following right-sided colonic resection is widely variable and may affect patient outcome. This study aimed to assess the association between leak and anastomosis technique (stapled vs handsewn). Method This was a prospective, multicentre, international audit

  12. Social rights in Colombia: analysis of the international commitments of the pacts (DESC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motta Castaño, Deissy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the implementation of economic, social and cultural rights has tried to construct from different perspectives a commendable explanation to achieve its effectiveness through the rules of these rights in the state public politic through the prosecution of them. Opposite to the latter topic it meets an overwhelming panorama arisen from the lack of legal action definitely dedicated in the Constitution that allows a clear cover. This research will tackle on the one hand this problems from the history, concept and structure of the social and cultural economic rights, in order to demonstrate that such rights lack protection for a matter purely formally and that there will have to be considered to be fundamental rights of obligatory fulfillment and protection by the powers of the state and legally protected as fundamental rights. In the present research the social rights will be tackled emphatically in the Inter-American Court and inter-American Commission opposite to the agreements ratified by Colombia for the development and fulfillment of the same ones.

  13. The Kenyan national response to internationally agreed sexual and reproductive health and rights goals: a case study of three policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronje, Rose N

    2013-11-01

    While priorities for, and decision-making processes on, sexual and reproductive health and rights have been determined and led mainly at the international level, conflicting power dynamics and responses at the national level in some countries have continued to pose challenges for operationalising international agreements. This paper demonstrates how these conflicts have played out in Kenya through an analysis of three policy-making processes, which led to the Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development Policy (2003), the Sexual Offences Act (2006), and the National Reproductive Health Policy (2007). The paper is based on data from a broader study on the drivers and inhibitors of sexual and reproductive health policy reform in Kenya, using a qualitative, case study design. Information was gathered through 54 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with governmental and civil society policy actors and an extensive review of policy documents and media reports. The paper shows that the transformative human rights framing of access to sexual and reproductive health, supported by both a strong global women's rights movement and progressive governmental and inter-governmental actors to defeat opposition to sexual and reproductive health and rights at the international level, has not been as influential or successful at the national level in Kenya, and has made comprehensive national reforms difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In Absentia War Crimes Trials: A Just Means to Enforce International Human Rights?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prescott, Jody M

    1994-01-01

    .... This thesis argues that a modified civil-law style default trial procedure, in which the absent accused is represented by appointed counsel at a complete hearing, but still has the right to a new...

  15. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  16. Understanding intellectual disability through RASopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Alvaro; Pagani, Mario Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent. However, investigations in animal models suggest that learning disability can be functional in nature and as such reversible through pharmacology or appropriate learning paradigms. A fraction of the cases of intellectual disability is caused by point mutations or deletions in genes that encode for proteins of the RAS/MAP kinase signaling pathway known as RASopathies. Here we examined the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of genetic disorders focusing in studies which provide evidence that intellectual disability is potentially treatable and curable. The evidence presented supports the idea that with the appropriate understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, intellectual disability could be treated pharmacologically and perhaps through specific mechanistic-based teaching strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Conscientious objection to sexual and reproductive health services: international human rights standards and European law and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampas, Christina; Andión-Ibañez, Ximena

    2012-06-01

    The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of Human Rights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional human rights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations

  18. Freedom of Religion and Freedom of Expression: Religiously Offensive Speech and International Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Donnelly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available May the state prohibit speech that deeply offends religious sensibilities? This issue has recently been a matter of intense controversy in both the Islamic and Western world. Much of the discussion, on both sides, has been inflammatory and deeply unhelpful, even counterproductive. This paper seeks to advance the discussion by analyzing and defending the approach suggested by international human rights law. Although international human rights law is explicitly silent on the question of speech that is intended to be or is perceived as hostile to a religion, there is a clear body of law dealing with speech that fosters racial discrimination that can be used as a model. On this basis, prohibiting speech that provokes or incites religious discrimination, religious hatred, or religious violence is clearly within the bounds of international human rights law. Prohibiting speech because that speech is offensive to adherents of a religion is not. If speech is to be free, it must be regulated only to prevent demonstrable serious harm to others that outweighs the harm to those whose speech is restricted. Crying fire in a crowded theater is a classic example. Prohibiting speech that incites religious violence clearly meets this test. The fact that some people find the speech offensive clearly does not. The human right to freedom of religion does not guarantee that others respect one’s religion. States are obliged to permit the free choice and public exercise of one’s religion and to protect that choice and exercise. States are at liberty to give support to religion, either in general or to particular religions – so long as that support does not violate the human rights of others. To prohibit some speech on the basis of the religious sensibilities of one, some, or all religions restricts a fundamental human right for a non-human rights reason of insufficient weight. آیا دولتها اجازه دارند سخنرانیهایی را که

  19. Why Right is Might: How the Social Science on Radicalisation suggests that International Human Rights Norms actually help frame Effective Counterterrorism Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Parker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many states appear to turn instinctively to hard power resources when confronted with a terrorist threat. Yet existing research on violent extremism and radicalisation leading to terrorism suggests that such responses might well exacerbate the problem. Terrorist groups actively seek to exploit the push-pull dynamic that drives radicalisation and violent extremism, while one case study after the other indicates that states thereby appear to play actively into their hands. Social science research suggests that international human rights norms assist compliant states to moderate responses, build legitimacy, and ultimately craft effective counterterrorism strategies. A close reading of the literature on radicalisation and terrorist group formation offers qualitative evidence to support this conclusion. 

  20. Disability, economic globalization and privatization: A case study of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2012-01-01

    have benefitted middle-class and highly-skilled disabled persons, the majority of people with disabilities have been left out of India's economic affluence. We contend that India's globalized economy and reduced state role necessitate renewed understanding of human rights, including disability rights.......People with disabilities are one of the most disenfranchised groups in India. Standardized measurements of disability in India and internationally have overlooked the linkages between the economy and disability. In recent decades, neo-liberal economic reforms imposed in developing countries, under...... investigates the implications of economic restructuring in the arenas of social programs, education, employment, accessibility, health, agriculture and food security, and water and land acquisition from a disability perspective. Our analysis shows that while increased employment opportunities and accessibility...

  1. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, Verónica; Mahdi, Soheil; Bölte, Sven

    2018-05-30

    Capturing functional information is crucial in childhood disability. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets promote assessments of functional abilities and disabilities in clinical practice regarding circumscribed diagnoses. However, the specificity of ICF Core Sets for childhood-onset disabilities has been doubted. This study aimed to identify content commonalities and differences among the ICF Core Sets for cerebral palsy (CP), and the newly developed Core Sets for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The categories within each Core Set were aggregated at the ICF component and chapter levels. Content comparison was conducted using descriptive analyses. The activities and participation component of the ICF was the most covered across all Core Sets. Main differences included representation of ICF components and coverage of ICF chapters within each component. CP included all ICF components, while ADHD and ASD predominantly focused on activities and participation. Environmental factors were highly represented in the ADHD Core Sets (40.5%) compared to the ASD (28%) and CP (27%) Core Sets. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for CP, ASD, and ADHD capture both common but also unique functional information, showing the importance of creating condition-specific, ICF-based tools to build functional profiles of individuals with childhood-onset disabilities. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include unique functional information. The ICF-based tools for CP, ASD, and ADHD differ in terms of representation and coverage of ICF components and ICF chapters. Representation of environmental factors uniquely influences functioning and disability across ICF Core Sets for CP, ASD and ADHD.

  2. Human Rights Treaties Are an Important Part of the "International Health Instrumentariam" Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2017-10-02

    In their commentary, Haik Nikogosian and Ilona Kickbusch argue for the necessity of new binding international legal instruments for health to address complex health determinants and offer a cogent analysis of the implications of such treaties for future global health governance. Yet in doing so they pay no attention to the existing instrumentarium of international legally binding treaties relevant to health, in the form of human rights treaties. International human rights law has entrenched individual entitlements and state obligations in relation to individual and public health through iterative human rights treaties since 1946. These treaties offer normative specificity, institutional monitoring and the possibility of enforcement and accountability. If we are to build a new 'international health instrumentariam' we should not ignore existing and important tools that can assist in this endeavor. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  3. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  4. The Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Article 12: Prospective Feminist Lessons against the “Will and Preferences” Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillia Kong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human rights have recently impacted on current conceptualisations of the rights and obligations owed to individuals with impairments, culminating in the UN Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Particularly significant is Article 12, where interpretations have heralded a “will and preferences” paradigm which rejects substituted decision-making mechanisms, even in situations where an individual should make personally harmful or unwise decisions about their treatment, care, or relationships. This paper explores problems with “strict” and “flexible” interpretations of Article 12, focusing specifically on safeguarding issues in cases of relational abuse, exploitation, and coercion. Drawing analogies with feminist arguments opposing violence against women in the domestic sphere, I challenge the private/public and individualistic account of autonomy which is implicit in interpretations of the “will and preferences” paradigm, and suggest that proponents of Article 12 should consider the possible justifiability of expanded protectionist measures in cases of abuse involving individuals with impairments.

  5. Analysis of transit time flow of the right internal thoracic artery anastomosed to the left anterior descending artery compared to the left internal thoracic artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Daniela; Sanches, Aline; Jardim, Rodrigo; Lumikoski, Thais; Miotto, Gabriela; Santana, Vitor Hugo; Brofman, Paulo Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated with transit time flow the performance of the right and left thoracic arteries when used as a graft for the left anterior descending artery. Methods Fifty patients undergoing surgery for myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass were divided into two groups. In group A patients received graft of right internal mammary artery to the anterior interventricular branch. In group B patients received graft of left internal mammary artery to the same branch. At the end of the operation the flow was assessed by measuring transit time. Results In group A, mean age was 60.6±9.49 years. The average height and weight of the group was 80.4±10.32 kg and 169.2±6.86 cm. The average number of grafts per patient in this group was 3.28±1.49. The mean flow and distal resistance obtained in right internal thoracic artery was 42.1±23.4 ml/min and 2.8±0.9 respectively. In group B, the mean age was 59.8±9.7 years. The average height and weight of this group was 77.7±14.22 kg and 166.0±8.2 cm. The average number of grafts per patient in this group was 3.08 ±0.82. The mean flow and distal resistance observed in this group was 34.2±19.1 ml/min and 2.0±0.7. There were no deaths in this series. Conclusion Right internal mammary artery presented a similar behavior to left internal mammary artery when anastomosed to the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery. There was no statistical difference between the measured flow obtained between both arteries. PMID:25140463

  6. European validation of The Comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Osteoarthritis from the perspective of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Martin; Wild, Heike

    2017-09-15

    To validate the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Comprehensive Core Set for Osteoarthritis from the patient perspective in Europe. This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 375 patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Trained health professionals completed the Comprehensive Core Set, and patients completed the Short-Form 36 questionnaire. Content validity was evaluated by calculating prevalences of impairments in body function and structures, limitations in activities and participation and environmental factors, which were either barriers or facilitators. Convergent construct validity was evaluated by correlating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories with the Short-Form 36 Physical Component Score and the SF-36 Mental Component Score in a subgroup of 259 patients. The prevalences of all body function, body structure and activities and participation categories were >40%, >32% and >20%, respectively, and all environmental factors were relevant for >16% of patients. Few categories showed relevant differences between knee and hip osteoarthritis. All body function categories and all but two activities and participation categories showed significant correlations with the Physical Component Score. Body functions from the ICF chapter Mental Functions showed higher correlations with the Mental Component Score than with the Physical Component Score. This study supports the validity of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Comprehensive Core Set for Osteoarthritis. Implications for Rehabilitation Comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets were developed as practical tools for application in multidisciplinary assessments. The validity of the Comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Osteoarthritis in this study supports its application in European patients with

  7. Correlates and determinants of physical activity in persons with spinal cord injury: A review using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as reference framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Christine; Rauch, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    Participation in physical activity (PA) decreases after the onset of a spinal cord injury (SCI) and is generally low in persons with SCI. To provide an overview of findings on correlates/determinants of PA in persons with SCI applying the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to analyze and report results. A systematic literature review using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SSCI, and CINHAL was conducted. Independent variables were extracted and linked to ICF codes. Quality of evidence was rated using internationally accepted standards. Overall, evidence quality of the 25 included studies is low. Environmental Factors were consistently found as correlates of PA, whereas Personal Factors (socio-demographics and psychological constructs) were weakly associated with PA in the SCI population. Associations with Body Functions, Body Structures, Activities and Participation and Health Conditions were less frequently studied. Although quality of evidence of reviewed literature is low, results indicate that rather environmental barriers than the 'classical' socio-demographic factors known from social epidemiology correlate with PA in persons with SCI. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions concerning the association of Body Functions and Structures and Activity and Participation with PA. Future research is encouraged to better understand the interplay between functioning, contextual factors, health conditions and PA in SCI to establish a sound basis for intervention planning in this special needs population. In addition, our experience showed that linking study results to the ICF facilitates data analysis and reporting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Rights, Education for Democratic Citizenship and International Organisations: Findings from a Kuwaiti UNESCO ASPnet School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nakib, Rania

    2012-01-01

    While universal human rights frameworks and democratic models of government have gained global support and even adherence, they often exist in tension with local cultural and religious practices. In Kuwait, tensions arise between its constitution, legal system and Islam, with several groups consequently marginalised. These tensions extend into the…

  9. The Status of Thailand's Implementation of International Treaty Obligations Regarding Linguistic Human Rights in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John

    2013-01-01

    Given the recent consideration by the Thai government of a national language policy, this article considers the status of Thailand's treaty obligations regarding linguistic human rights in education. It presents a general background, a brief linguistic profile of Thailand, a concise summary of the concept and importance of linguicide, and a…

  10. Strengths and Weaknesses in a Human Rights-Based Approach to International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten; Sano, Hans-Otto

    2017-01-01

    we show how the approach works in practice, and we identify and discuss three human rights principles that play particularly important roles in its implementation: (i) participation and inclusion, (ii) non-discrimination and equality, and (iii) accountability. We show that in terms of implementation...

  11. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  12. Questions of Right and Left or Right and Wrong: A Disability-Ethics Analysis of the Right-Wing and Left-Wing Media Portrayals of the Latimer Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Heidi L.; Hayward, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the right and left wing media coverage of the Robert Latimer case, arguing that, in particular, the left-wing progressive portrayal of this case not only creates a "preferred version and vision of social order" (Ericson, Baranek, & Chan,1991, p. 4), but also affirms a utilitarian ethics and a normative framework…

  13. Analysis of the scientific output on Human Rights within Social Work: an international perspective (2000-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cubillos-Vega

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human rights are part of the mission and identity of social work; nonetheless, the topic of human rights is not well represented in the field’s scholarly output. The aim of this study is to provide a profile of the literature in the field of social work covering human rights in recent years. For this reason, a descriptive-observational analysis was performed of the output on human rights in social science journals indexed between 2000 and 2015 in the principal international databases, "Scopus" and "Web of Science". A qualitative analysis permitted establishing four main types of topics. The findings reveal a lack of papers dealing with this subject, the predominance of a theoretical approach over an empirical one, and an Anglo-Saxon hegemony. This subject of study has never been approached before. Hence, innovation is the main contribution of this paper.

  14. Mapping the rehabilitation interventions of a community stroke team to the extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melissa; Hocking, Clare; Kersten, Paula

    2017-12-01

    This study aim was to evaluate whether the Extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke captured the interventions of a community stroke rehabilitation team situated in a large city in New Zealand. It was proposed that the results would identify the contribution of each discipline, and the gaps and differences in service provision to Māori and non-Māori. Applying the Extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke in this way would also inform whether this core set should be adopted in New Zealand. Interventions were retrospectively extracted from 18 medical records and linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke. The frequencies of linked interventions and the health discipline providing the intervention were calculated. Analysis revealed that 98.8% of interventions provided by the rehabilitation team could be linked to the Extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke, with more interventions for body function and structure than for activities and participation; no interventions for emotional concerns; and limited interventions for community, social and civic life. Results support previous recommendations for additions to the EICSS. The results support the use of the Extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke in New Zealand and demonstrates its use as a quality assurance tool that can evaluate the scope and practice of a rehabilitation service. Implications for Rehabilitation The Extended International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke appears to represent the stroke interventions of a community stroke rehabilitation team in New Zealand. As a result, researchers and clinicians may have

  15. Facing up to disability

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Shakespeare

    2013-01-01

    Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They succ...

  16. Use of a New International Classification of Health Interventions for Capturing Information on Health Interventions Relevant to People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Nicola; Madden, Richard; Almborg, Ann-Helene

    2018-01-17

    Development of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) is currently underway. Once finalised, ICHI will provide a standard basis for collecting, aggregating, analysing, and comparing data on health interventions across all sectors of the health system. In this paper, we introduce the classification, describing its underlying tri-axial structure, organisation and content. We then discuss the potential value of ICHI for capturing information on met and unmet need for health interventions relevant to people with a disability, with a particular focus on interventions to support functioning and health promotion interventions. Early experiences of use of the Swedish National Classification of Social Care Interventions and Activities, which is based closely on ICHI, illustrate the value of a standard classification to support practice and collect statistical data. Testing of the ICHI beta version in a wide range of countries and contexts is now needed so that improvements can be made before it is finalised. Input from those with an interest in the health of people with disabilities and health promotion more broadly is welcomed.

  17. WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN THE POLITICAL SPHERE- MACEDONIAN AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Nikolov

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality is a key issue that concernsall government entities in the world and the extent of its legal regulation depends on the inclusion of women in the political sphere of a state. Early women's rights movement dates back to the 1830s when women began speaking publicly against slavery. Since then, the performance by women on the legal and political scene is in continuous progression, but it is not sufficient. Currently the country with the largest number of...

  18. Disability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  19. Cyber Espionage in the International and Costa Rican Law: A Form of Violation of the Human Right to Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Masís Solís

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime is a dangerous consequence of the evolution of information technology. This is how it is conceptualized the issues addressed in this paper. As a methodology, it is discussed and analysed published articles, Costa Rican law, and international regulations concerning cybercrime –such as the Convention on Cybercrime of 2001–, and introduce case law connected to the topic. In this paper, cyber espionage is viewed as an example of the way in which cybercrime jeopardizes and radically affects the human and fundamental right to intimacy. Finally, it is presented a number of conclusions in which it is underscored the importance of international cooperation for the investigation and punishment of cybercrime, as well as to locate the offenders. It is also suggested that it is crucial that due process is respected in the phase of investigation, as well as the human rights of the persons involved.

  20. The Paper of the ILO in the Effectiveness of International Standards of Fundamental Rights in Labor Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Misailidis, Mirta Gladys Lerena Manzo de; Junior, Waldomiro Antonio Rizato

    2017-01-01

    Labor Law is historically seen as legal instrument of the affirmation of human dignity. And for good reason, its effectiveness promotes the social bias of inclusion and full citizenship, fostering the distribution of income and the boosting of economy. Dissociating Labor Law from human dignity is to recede to the mercantilization of human labor. Nowadays, we will enhance the search for the international protection of the Fundamental Rights of workers, standing out the vanguard of ILO. From a ...

  1. Applying the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to guide home health care services planning and delivery in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimdee, Atipong; Nualnetr, Nomjit

    2017-01-01

    Home health care is an essential service for home-bound patients in Thailand. In this action research study, we used the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to modify home health care services provided by a university hospital. Staff responsible for delivering the services (physical therapist, nurses, and Thai traditional medicine practitioners) participated in the development of an ICF-based assessment tool and home health care service procedure. After an 8-month trial of implementing these changes, professional satisfaction and empowerment were high among the home health care team members. Patients and their caregivers were also satisfied with the services. In conclusion, the ICF is an effective means of guiding home health care.

  2. Imprescribility of the action and the disciplinary sanction by violation of human rigths and infractions to the humanitarian international right.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Milena Daza-Márquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward an analysis of the problem of the imprescriptibility of action and disciplinary sanctions for grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, committed by civil servants, particularly, members of the Military Forces and the National Police. The study deals with the regulation of disciplinary action for grave conduct within the disciplinary regime applicable to the Public Forces over the past thirty years and in the current Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Proceedures. I also illustrate the legal, political, social and economic consequences—for the Colombian State—of investigation and disciplinary sanctions for crimes against humanity or war crimes being ommitted or delayed through negligence of State offi- cials. The declaration of a prescription may be considered a means to impunity for administrative sanctions and, in turn, provides proof of the State’s failure to comply with International committments that guarantee and protect Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law. Finally, given the controversy regarding diciplinary imprescriptibility, this paper proposes a llegal reform which extends the term of prescription in order to preserve the rights of victims and the disciplined.

  3. Multinomial logistic regression analysis for differentiating 3 treatment outcome trajectory groups for headache-associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kristin Nicole; Heckman, Bernadette Davantes; Himawan, Lina

    2011-08-01

    Growth mixture modeling (GMM) identified latent groups based on treatment outcome trajectories of headache disability measures in patients in headache subspecialty treatment clinics. Using a longitudinal design, 219 patients in headache subspecialty clinics in 4 large cities throughout Ohio provided data on their headache disability at pretreatment and 3 follow-up assessments. GMM identified 3 treatment outcome trajectory groups: (1) patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability levels and who reported statistically significant reductions in headache disability (high-disability improvers; 11%); (2) patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability but who reported no reductions in disability (high-disability nonimprovers; 34%); and (3) patients who initiated treatment with moderate disability and who reported statistically significant reductions in headache disability (moderate-disability improvers; 55%). Based on the final multinomial logistic regression model, a dichotomized treatment appointment attendance variable was a statistically significant predictor for differentiating high-disability improvers from high-disability nonimprovers. Three-fourths of patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability levels did not report reductions in disability after 5 months of treatment with new preventive pharmacotherapies. Preventive headache agents may be most efficacious for patients with moderate levels of disability and for patients with high disability levels who attend all treatment appointments. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Historical and conceptual evolution of disability and international legal and political support: the paradigm of human rights and accessibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío López Masís

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El marco filosófico relacionado con la temática de la discapacidad se desprende de un proceso evolutivo que puede enmarcarse en etapas históricas, las cuales han sido llamadas de diferentes maneras. Sin embargo, para efectos del presente documento, se plantean los tres paradigmas más conocidos:el tradicional, el biológico de rehabilitación y el de derechos humanos,este último con un fuerte enfoque social.

  5. Right to Social Security in Human Rights Instruments and in International Labor Organization (with a glance at some Islamic Countries Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini Almoosavi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The right to Social Security is one of the rights which appears in two important instruments of human rights—that is, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The devotion of a separate article to right of Social Security in these two universal instruments indicates that this right is essential in the views the framers of the Declaration as well as international convention. Despite the emphasis put by the Declaration on international cooperation for implementing this right, unfortunately the appropriate action has not been taken yet in international scale. The low tendency to Social Security must be related to the economic problems surrounding this right. The low tendency to Social Security can also be seen in the regional instruments of human rights. These instruments have not mentioned the term “social security” independently; just there are general indications in some famous conventions of International Labor Origination (ILO. Of course in some special protocols prepared on specific issues by regional originations, Social Security has been discussed which is not convincing at all. If regional originations had been serious about implementation of Social Security as a human right, they should have referred to it in the original and mother text. form of governance that administers public affairs and resources with utmost transparency and attention to different dimensions of human rights, as civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. حق تأمین اجتماعی از جمله حقوقی است که در دو سند مهم و مادر حقوق بشر یعنی اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر و میثاق‌نامه حقوق اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی گنجانده شده است. اختصاص ماده جداگانه به حق تأمین اجتماعی در‌این دو سند جهانی، حاوی اهمیت‌این حق از

  6. Prison Library Services in Croatia Need Improvement to Meet International Standards of Universal Rights to Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2016-09-01

    . While use of the libraries was high, most responses reflected severely limited educational, rehabilitative or cultural programming and access to the internet, and lack of space for collections and reading purposes. Conclusion – Libraries in Croatia fail to meet international standards for staffing, collections, and services. Recommendations for immediate improvement are made, including legislative advocacy and funding, improved public library involvement, and the creation of national standards aligned with international standards.

  7. [Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries associated with aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Khamlichi, A; Amrani, F; el Azzusi, M; el Oufir, M; Khamlichi, A M

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries associated with aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery in a 17 year old female patient. This anomaly was discovered following a meningeal haemorrhage, which recurred 18 months later, causing the patient's death. Surgical operation was refused by the patient and her family. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries is a rare congenital malformation (16 cases have been reported in the literature, our case constitutes the 17th). It is distinguished from aplasia by the presence of a patent but very reduced vascular lumen, while aplasia is associated with vestiges of non-patent vessels. The mechanism of development of such a malformation is unclear: some authors have suggested secondary regression of the internal carotid artery following a phase of normal development, while others consider it to represent arrest of the development of the internal carotid artery, at a given moment in time. The frequency of associated aneurysm would be due to the haemodynamic disruption induced by the malformation, especially as parietal defects are more frequent in a malformed vasculature. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries may be compatible with normal life for an indefinite period of time due to the development of a large number of collateral vessels. However, the new vasculature is threatened by rupture with meningeal haemorrhage and by acute ischaemia, which would probably involve another aetiological factor.

  8. Core Self-Evaluations as Personal Factors in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model: An Application in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmanian, Rana; Smedema, Susan Miller; Thompson, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate Chan, Gelman, Ditchman, Kim, and Chiu's (2009) revised World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model using core self-evaluations (CSE) to account for Personal Factors in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: One hundred eighty-seven adults with SCI were…

  9. Relationships between World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" Constructs and Participation in Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jennifer; Rosenthal, David A.; Chan, Fong; Brooks, Jessica; Bezyak, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" (ICF) constructs as correlates of community participation of people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). Methods: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlational techniques was used to…

  10. Reporting of right-to-use according to International Accounting standards Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Svoboda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of whether and how to report in financial statements the right to use property and the obligation to pay rent or return the used property to the lessor after leasing is a fairly complex area in which it is difficult to find a generally acceptable accounting treatment. Especially for entities that are the subject of public interest, it is being demanded that in view of space comparability operative leasing should be reported on the side of lessee in the statement on financial position, both on the liabilities side, as well as on the assets side. Some possible approaches to reporting these facts are analyzed in this paper. At first the attention was paid to the simple operational lease contracts with a fixed term lease – there were compared the impacts of this way of reporting with the impact of existing accounting solutions. Moreover, the attention was also paid to the complicated lease contracts, such contracts with an option to extend contract or leasing contracts in which rents are divided into a fixed part and a part constructed variable. There were evaluated the effects of different views on the reporting of these contracts, in particular the views of the IASB and the FASB. Many preparers of accounts, however, justifiably concerned that this solution is quite complicated and the entity would be unduly burdensome due to the benefits achieved. This problem could be even more pronounced for smaller entities for potential adjustments to standards for SMEs. Such entities are often against mere change over to the principle based on the transfer of risk and commissions connected with leasing.

  11. WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN THE POLITICAL SPHERE- MACEDONIAN AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Nikolov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality is a key issue that concernsall government entities in the world and the extent of its legal regulation depends on the inclusion of women in the political sphere of a state. Early women's rights movement dates back to the 1830s when women began speaking publicly against slavery. Since then, the performance by women on the legal and political scene is in continuous progression, but it is not sufficient. Currently the country with the largest number of women in political office is Rwanda, holding the world record with 64% representation. Other countries where women's inclusion in politics is high are the Scandinavian countries, led by Sweden. Contrary to the positive tendency in these two countries concerning this issue, there are those which are first inthe non-participationof women in the political sphere, like Ukraine with 10%, Lebanon and Iran 3% and 0.3% in Yemen. When it comes to gender equality in the Republic of Macedonia, equal opportunities for women and men are guaranteed mainly by the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia as the highest legal act, but also by a large number of laws that prohibit discrimination based on gender. The participation of women in the parliament of Macedonia for the last parliamentary term (2011- 2014 was 34.14%. Raising concern is the women’s under-representation in the executive branch, and the Republic of Macedonia cannot claim to have any significant involvement of women in the diplomatic sphere either. Nevertheless, the efforts for a step closer towards increasing women's participation in the decision-making process will not cease.

  12. A comparison of DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD prevalence, comorbidity and disability: an analysis of the Ukrainian Internally Displaced Person's Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, M; Hyland, P; Vallières, F; Bisson, J; Makhashvili, N; Javakhishvili, J; Shpiker, M; Roberts, B

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5) and the World Health Organization (ICD-11) have both revised their formulation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The primary aim of this study was to compare DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD prevalence and comorbidity rates, as well as the level of disability associated with each diagnosis. This study was based on a representative sample of adult Ukrainian internally displaced persons (IDPs: N = 2203). Post-traumatic stress disorder prevalence was assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and the International Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-11). Anxiety and depression were measured using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-Depression. Disability was measured using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The prevalence of DSM-5 PTSD (27.4%) was significantly higher than ICD-11 PTSD (21.0%), and PTSD rates for females were significantly higher using both criteria. ICD-11 PTSD was associated with significantly higher levels of disability and comorbidity. The ICD-11 diagnosis of PTSD appears to be particularly well suited to identifying those with clinically relevant levels of disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Associations of Lifestyle, Medication, and Socio-Demographic Factors with Disability in People with Multiple Sclerosis: An International Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Jelinek

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence links modifiable lifestyle risk factors to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS. We sought further evidence around this hypothesis through detailed analysis of the association with disability of lifestyle behaviours of a large international sample of people with MS.A total of 2469 people with MS from 57 countries provided self-reported data via cross-sectional online survey on lifestyle (mostly with validated tools and the primary outcome measure, disability (Patient Determined Disease Steps, categorised from 8 steps into 3 categories, mild, moderate and major disability. Multinomial logistic regression modelling derived relative risk ratios (RRRs for disability categories.RRRs of having moderate vs mild disability were: diet (per 30 points on 100 point scale 0.72 (95%CI 0.52-0.98, ever smoking 1.32 (1.06-1.65, exercise (moderate/high vs low 0.35 (0.28-0.44, latitude (per degree from the equator 1.02 (1.01-1.04, and number of comorbidities (2 vs none 1.43 (1.04-1.95, (3 vs none 1.56 (1.13-2.16. RRRs of having major vs mild disability were: exercise (moderate/high vs low 0.07 (0.04-0.11, alcohol consumption (moderate vs low 0.45 (0.30-0.68, plant-based omega 3 supplementation 0.39 (0.18-0.86, and disease-modifying medication use 0.45 (0.29-0.70.Healthier lifestyle has strong associations with disability in our large international sample of people with MS, supporting further investigation into the role of lifestyle risk factors in MS disease progression.

  14. National Law Restrictions on Family Reunification Rights of International Protection Beneficiaries from a ECHR/EU Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    n light of the refugee crisis, European countries are exploring new ways to restrict access of migrants to their territory. One such restriction relates to family reunification rights of international protection beneficiaries. Proposals in this area have already been adopted or are currently being...... considered in countries such as Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Austria and Germany most commonly in the form of waiting periods before applications for family reunification can be submitted and/or age requirements. The personal scope of these proposals differs. In some countries the restrictions apply/are intended...... to apply to international beneficiaries in general while they in other countries are applicable/envisaged applicable only to persons with subsidiary protection status or persons fleeing from generalised violence. The intention of the paper is to examine whether this legislative trend is in conformity...

  15. Towards the development of clinical measures for spinal cord injury based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health with Rasch analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballert, Carolina S; Stucki, Gerold; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Cieza, Alarcos

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories relevant to spinal cord injury (SCI) can be integrated in clinical measures and to obtain insights to guide their future operationalization. Specific aims are to find out whether the ICF categories relevant to SCI fit a Rasch model taking into consideration the dimensionality found in previous investigations, local item dependencies, or differential item functioning. All second-level ICF categories collected in the Development of ICF Core Sets for SCI project in specialized centers within 15 countries from 2006 through 2008. Secondary data analysis. Adults (N=1048) with SCI from the early postacute and long-term living context. Not applicable. Two unidimensional Rasch analyses: one for the ICF categories from body functions and body structures components and another for the ICF categories from the activities and participation component. Results support good reliability and targeting of the ICF categories in both dimensions. In each dimension, few ICF categories were subject to misfit. Local item dependency was observed between ICF categories of the same chapters. Group effects for age and sex were observed only to a small extent. The validity of ICF categories to develop measures of functioning in SCI for clinical practice and research is to some extent supported. Model adjustments were suggested to further improve their operationalization and psychometrics. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Burn patients' return to daily activities and participation as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Candice L; Meyer, Walter J; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Arcari, Christine M

    2017-06-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a universal classification system of health and health-related domains. The ICF has been successfully applied to a wide range of health conditions and diseases; however, its application in the field of burn recovery has been minimal. This systematic review uses the domains of the ICF component 'activities and participation' to explore: (1) the extent to which return to daily activities and community participation after burn has been examined in the pediatric population, (2) the most common assessments used to determine activity and participation outcomes, and (3) what activity and participation areas are most affected in the pediatric burn population after discharge from acute care. Results determined that it is difficult to draw overarching conclusions in the area of return to 'activities and participation' for children with burn based on the paucity of current evidence. Of the studies conducted, few examined the same subtopics or used similar measurements. This suggests a need for more robust studies in this area in order to inform and improve burn rehabilitation practices to meet the potential needs of burn patients beyond an acute care setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Canadian Disability Policies in a World of Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Stienstra

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Canadian disability-related policies are shaped within a global system of inequalities, including colonialism and neoliberalism. Using a critical theory framework, this article examines the complicated material inequalities experienced by people with disabilities and evident in the intersections of disability, gender, Indigenousness, race, and age. The collectively held ideas that give context to disability policies are at odds. Human rights protections are found in the foundational documents of Canadian society and part of its international commitments, yet these commitments often become window-dressing for a pervasive logic that it is better to be dead than disabled, and medical assistance in dying legislation supports this choice. While human rights protections are essential, they are not sufficient for decolonizing inclusion. Constructive actions between Indigenous peoples and settlers may help to find new ways of addressing disability and inclusion in Canada.

  18. Integral accessibility: a matter of social inclusion : recommendations on measures for Dutch policy on accessibility in the public built environment to comply with the UN "Convention of Rights of Persons with Disability"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderveen, A.; de Laat, P.; Dominicus, M.M.T.; Mohammadi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history social aspects of sustainability have received less attention than the ecological and economic dimensions. The underlying reason is that it is a fragmented notion and not clearly defined in policy and practice. The United Nations 'Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities'

  19. THE INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHT TO HOUSING & THE CANADIAN CHARTER: A CASE COMMENT ON TANUDJAJA V. CANADA (ATTORNEY GENERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David DesBaillets

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The case of Tanudjaja v. Attorney General, represents an unprecedented opportunity for Canadian legal scholars to examine the right to adequate housing in the Canadian human rights context. It is the only legal challenge that broaches directly the right to housing under Canadian law, basing its arguments on two key elements contained in Charter of Rights and Freedoms: sections 7 and 15. Moreover, the case represents an attempt by the claimants to bolster their Charter claim with reference to housing rights found in international human right’s law. For Canadian housing rights’ scholars, this decision, though ultimately quite negative in its conclusions, demonstrates the need for a better understanding of the intersection between international legal norms on human rights on the one hand, and the Charter, on the other. It does not, however, adequately portray the full extent of the former’s influence on the latter, as Justice Lederer of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, failed to address the importance of international legal doctrine with respect to the interpretation of positive social and human rights in the Canadian legal context. In particular, he ignored the growing body of Charter related cases and precedents in Canadian jurisprudence that shed light on the complex relationship between fundamental human rights enshrined in various international legal documents and the recognized positive obligations they impose on the government of Canada to implement them under such long established treaties as the Covenant of Economic Social and Cultural Rights.    In this comment, the author makes a critique of the analysis undertaken by Judge Lederer with regards to the relevance of international human rights norms in the context of Tanudaja, by comparing it with past Charter jurisprudence involving the impact of these on Canadian human rights claims.   L’affaire Tanudjaja c. Attorney General est une occasion unique pour les sp

  20. 2015 President's Plenary International Psycho-oncology Society: psychosocial care as a human rights issue-challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travado, Luzia; Breitbart, William; Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Patenaude, Andrea; Baider, Lea; Connor, Stephen; Fingeret, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) Human Rights Task Force has been working since 2008 to raise awareness and support, for the relevance of psychosocial cancer care as a human rights issue. In 2014 the "Lisbon Declaration: Psychosocial Cancer Care as a Universal Human Right" was fully endorsed by IPOS. Subsequently, the IPOS Standard on Quality Cancer Care, endorsed by 75 cancer organizations worldwide, has been updated and now includes 3 core principles: Psychosocial cancer care should be recognised as a universal human right; Quality cancer care must integrate the psychosocial domain into routine care; Distress should be measured as the 6th vital sign. The President's plenary held at the 2015 World Congress of Psycho-Oncology in Washington DC was devoted to discussing psychosocial care as a human rights issue. Many challenges and opportunities are illustrated in different continents and contexts: from Africa where resources for basic cancer treatment are scarce and children and their parents face significant difficulties with hospital detention practices; to Europe where for many countries psychosocial care is still seen as a luxury; and the Middle East where Muslim women face stigma and a culture of silence over cancer. We further discuss how to move the Lisbon Declaration forward towards its implementation into clinical practice globally, using the successful example of the World Health Assembly resolution supporting palliative care as a human right which has achieved widespread approval, and identifying the vital role the IPOS Federation of National Psychoncology Societies plays worldwide to move this agenda forward. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Federal Administrative Court denies the International Union for the Protection of Life the right to file suit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    In its decision of July 16, 1980, the Federal Administrative Court dismissed the appeal lodged by the International Union for the Protection of Life against the dismissal by the Supreme Administrative Court concerning the action to set aside the preliminary decision on the Kruemmel reactor. The Court denied its right to file suit. The amount in ligitation was fixed at 20000 DM. The appelant cannot assert that his rights are being violated. The appelent's commitment to protect life is not hindered in an administrative way by the preliminary decision. Only members of the association could put forward that the basic rights of the individual protected in Art. 2, Sect. 2 of the Basic Law are being endangered. Section 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law does not serve to protect the freedom of association, it gives third party protection for associations only in case of property damage. Neither can the right to file suit be derived for the addressee of a decision from Section 4 (2) of the Ordinance concerning the procedure for licensing nuclear installations. (HSCH) [de

  2. A systematic literature review of the situation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-Children and Youth version in education: a useful tool or a flight of fancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marta; Alves, Ines; Maxwell, Gregor

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the outcome of a systematic literature review exploring the applicability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and its Children and Youth version (ICF-CY) at various levels and in processes within the education systems in different countries. A systematic database search using selected search terms has been used. The selection of studies was then refined further using four protocols: inclusion and exclusion protocols at abstract and full text and extraction levels along with a quality protocol. Studies exploring the direct relationship between education and the ICF/ICF-CY were sought.As expected, the results show a strong presence of studies from English-speaking countries, namely from Europe and North America. The articles were mainly published in noneducational journals. The most used ICF/ICF-CY components are activity and participation, participation, and environmental factors. From the analysis of the papers included, the results show that the ICF/ICF-CY is currently used as a research tool, theoretical framework, and tool for implementing educational processes. The ICF/ICF-CY can provide a useful language to the education field where there is currently a lot of disparity in theoretical, praxis, and research issues. Although the systematic literature review does not report a high incidence of the use of the ICF/ICF-CY in education, the results show that the ICF/ICF-CY model and classification have potential to be applied in education systems.

  3. WESTERN SAHARA AND THE INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM. Power relations in the open. What would be the role of the international right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ABEDRAPO ROJAS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-proclamation of independence of the Saharawi nation was recognized by 72 states, and after that, Western Sahara was admitted in the UAO during 1982. Nevertheless, the failed negotiations between Morocco and the Polisary Front have influenced the no application of the International Judicial Court’s resolution, keeping in status quo the self-determination of the recognized Saharawi nation. At the same time, the political support for the recognition of the Saharawi, since the withdrawal of the Spanish occupation in the seventies has reduced, because, nowadays several countries have retired its support to the state-building project. The Moroccan and American strategies as a warrant of the negotiation process have been one of stop and delay the making of a referendum that may allow the manifest of the will of the Saharawis in respect of their destiny as a nation. In fact, every day is more difficult to make such referendum, because the native population composition has been altered, situation that make unfeasible the creation of an electorate register system, and thus setting away the application of the international law, that through the International Court of Justice had recognized the existence of a nation, with a right of self-determination still kept on hold, and seeming that will still be kept in the future with no changes.

  4. 2015 President's Plenary International Psycho-oncology Society: psychosocial care as a human rights issue–challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travado, Luzia; Breitbart, William; Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Patenaude, Andrea; Baider, Lea; Connor, Stephen; Fingeret, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) Human Rights Task Force has been working since 2008 to raise awareness and support, for the relevance of psychosocial cancer care as a human rights issue. In 2014 the “Lisbon Declaration: Psychosocial Cancer Care as a Universal Human Right” was fully endorsed by IPOS. Subsequently, the IPOS Standard on Quality Cancer Care, endorsed by 75 cancer organizations worldwide, has been updated and now includes 3 core principles: Psychosocial cancer care should be recognised as a universal human right; Quality cancer care must integrate the psychosocial domain into routine care; Distress should be measured as the 6th vital sign. The President's plenary held at the 2015 World Congress of Psycho-Oncology in Washington DC was devoted to discussing psychosocial care as a human rights issue. Many challenges and opportunities are illustrated in different continents and contexts: from Africa where resources for basic cancer treatment are scarce and children and their parents face significant difficulties with hospital detention practices; to Europe where for many countries psychosocial care is still seen as a luxury; and the Middle East where Muslim women face stigma and a culture of silence over cancer. We further discuss how to move the Lisbon Declaration forward towards its implementation into clinical practice globally, using the successful example of the World Health Assembly resolution supporting palliative care as a human right which has achieved widespread approval, and identifying the vital role the IPOS Federation of National Psychoncology Societies plays worldwide to move this agenda forward. PMID:27530206

  5. The Bobath Concept in Walking Activity in Chronic Stroke Measured Through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito García, Miguel; Atín Arratibel, María Ángeles; Terradillos Azpiroz, Maria Estíbaliz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a rehabilitation programme based on the Bobath concept in order to improve walking activity in patients with chronic stroke and to show the usefulness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a tool for gathering functioning information. This study is a repeated measures study. The setting of this study is an outpatient neurological rehabilitation centre based on a multidisciplinary approach. Twenty-four participants suffering from chronic stroke (>1 year and a half and Bobath concept principles with three weekly individual physiotherapy sessions of 45 min each over a 6-month period was the intervention for this study. The measures used were Modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile, 10-m walk test, 6-min walk test, muscle strength testing and subsequent codification of these results into ICF qualifiers. The results of the study showed significant improvement in activities of walking long distances, on different surfaces and around obstacles. There was no significant improvement in the activity of walking short distances or for muscle power functions. A rehabilitation programme based on the Bobath Concept improved walking activities in people with chronic stroke. For this intervention, the use of the ICF qualifiers was sensitive in perceiving post-treatment changes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Identification of health problems in patients with acute inflammatory arthritis, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochling, J; Grill, E; Scheuringer, M; Liman, W; Stucki, G; Braun, J

    2006-01-01

    To identify the most common health problems experienced by patients with acute inflammatory arthritis using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and to provide empirical data for the development of an ICF Core Set for acute inflammatory arthritis. Cross-sectional survey of patients with acute inflammatory arthritis of two or more joints requiring admission to an acute hospital. The second level categories of the ICF were used to collect information on patients' health problems. Relative frequencies of impairments, limitations and restrictions in the study population were reported for the ICF components Body Functions, Body Structures, and Activities and Participations. For the component Environmental Factors absolute and relative frequencies of perceived barriers or facilitators were reported. In total, 130 patients were included in the survey. The mean age of the population was 59.9 years (median age 63.0 years), 75% of the patients were female. Most had rheumatoid arthritis (57%) or early inflammatory polyarthritis (22%). Fifty-four second-level ICF categories had a prevalence of 30% or more: 3 (8%) belonged to the component Body Structures and 10 (13%) to the component Body Functions. Most categories were identified in the components Activities and Participation (19; 23%) and Environmental Factors (22; 56%). Patients with acute inflammatory arthritis can be well described by ICF categories and components. This study is the first step towards the development of an ICF Core Set for patients with acute inflammatory arthritis.

  7. A systematic review of functioning in vocational rehabilitation using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorpizo, Reuben; Finger, Monika E; Glässel, Andrea; Gradinger, Felix; Lückenkemper, Miriam; Cieza, Alarcos

    2011-06-01

    Vocational rehabilitation (VR) is aimed at engaging or re-engaging individuals with work participation and employment. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by the World Health Organization can be operationalized in the context of VR. The objective of this study is to review the literature to identify outcomes or measures being used in VR using a systematic review methodology and link those measures to the ICF. We applied a structured search strategy using multiple databases. Items or constructs of the measures or outcomes identified were linked to the ICF by two trained individuals. We have identified 648 measures which contained 10,582 concepts that were linked to the ICF which resulted in 87 second-level ICF categories. Out of the 87 categories, 31 (35.6%) were related to body functions, 43 (49.4%) were related to activities and participation, and 13 (14.9%) were related to environmental factors. No category was related to body structures. Our review found great diversity in the ICF contents of the measures used in different VR settings and study populations, which indicates the complexity of VR. This systematic review has provided a list of ICF categories which could be considered towards a successful VR.

  8. Hearing and Cognitive Impairment and the Role of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a Rehabilitation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Christopher; Meyer, Carly; Young, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has been applied widely in the literature to describe and differentiate the broad implications of hearing impairment (HI) and cognitive impairment (CI) on communication. As CI and HI are largely age-related conditions, the likelihood of comorbidity of these conditions is high. In the context of an aging population, the prevalence of comorbidity is likely to rise, yet much of the clinical assessment and intervention in HI and CI occur separately. The benefit of addressing the dual impact of these conditions is of increasing clinical importance for all clinicians working with older adults and for audiologists and speech pathologists in particular. In this article, the ICF model will be applied to explore the everyday implications of HI and CI. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the ICF model are explored with particular respect to communication assessment and intervention options. The potential benefit of combining activity- and participation-focused interventions currently offered for HI and CI independently is examined. PMID:27489399

  9. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika McAdam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in identifying trafficked persons among the people they encounter. Indicators of trafficking generally relate to the exploitation phase, leaving border officials with little guidance as to how persons vulnerable to trafficking can be accurately identified before any exploitation has occurred. Ultimately, this paper advocates a pragmatic rights-based approach in designating anti-trafficking functions to border officials. A rights-based approach to border control acknowledges the core work of border officials as being to uphold border integrity, while ensuring that their performance of this role does not jeopardise the rights of those they intercept nor result in missed opportunities for specialists to identify trafficked persons and other vulnerable people among them.

  10. HIV, Hepatitis C, TB, Harm Reduction, and Persons Deprived of Liberty: What Standards Does International Human Rights Law Establish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Gen; Lines, Rick

    2016-12-01

    HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and TB in prisons and other places of detention are serious public health concerns, with prevalence and incidence considerably higher than in the general community because of the overrepresentation of risky behavior, substandard conditions, overcrowding, people who inject drugs, and the wholly inadequate prevention, care, and treatment of these conditions, including the denial of harm reduction services. This is not only a severe public health crisis but also a serious human rights concern. This article works to clarify the standards established by human rights law with regards to HIV, HCV, TB, and harm reduction in prisons by examining international and regional case law, minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners and public health, as well as the work of UN treaty bodies, Special Rapporteurs, and prison monitoring bodies. It is imperative that urgent steps are taken to close the gap between human rights and public health standards on the one hand, and effective implementation in prison settings on the other.

  11. Aid conditionalities, international Good Manufacturing Practice standards and local production rights: a case study of local production in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brhlikova, Petra; Harper, Ian; Subedi, Madhusudan; Bhattarai, Samita; Rawal, Nabin; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-06-14

    Local pharmaceutical production has been endorsed by the WHO as a means of addressing health priorities of developing countries. However, local producers of essential medicines must comply with international pharmaceutical standards in order to be eligible to compete in donor tenders. These standards determine production rights for on-patent and off-patent medicines, and guide international procurement of medicines. We reviewed the literature on the impact of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) on local production; a gap analysis from the literature review indicated a need for further research. Over sixty interviews were conducted with people involved in the Nepali pharmaceutical production and distribution chain from 2006 to 2009 on the GMP areas of relevance: regulatory capacity, staffing, funding and training, resourcing of GMP, inspectors' interpretation of the rules and compliance. Although Nepal producers have increased their overall share of the domestic market, only the public manufacturer, Royal Drugs, focuses on medicines for public health programmes; private producers engage mainly in brand competition for private markets, not essential medicines. Nepali regulators and producers state that implementation of GMP standards is hindered by low regulatory capacity, insufficient training of staff in the industry, financial constraints and lack of investment for upgrading capital. The transition period to mandatory compliance with WHO GMP rules is lengthy. Less than half of private producers had WHO GMP in 2013. Producers are not directly affected by international harmonisation of standards as they do not export medicines and the Nepali regulator does not enforce the WHO standards strictly. Without an international GMP certificate they cannot tender for donor dependent health programmes. In Nepal, local private manufacturers focus mainly on brand competition for private consumption not essential medicines, the government preferentially procures essential

  12. Reforming Copyright in the Context of Exercise of the Human Right to Free Expression on the Internet: An Actual Problems of the Modern International Legal Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Shugurova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss major trends in the area of reforming of copyright in the light of full exercise of internationally recognized human right to expression regarding the digital environment, especially the Internet, and demonstrate the significant situation when intellectual property rights, mainly author’s exclusive rights, build a lot of troubles for the information human rights. The article also looks at the changes in the understanding the relation between copyright and the human right to freedom of expression and information on the Internet. Much attention is paid to new moments in the modern doctrine of intellectual property that is inspired by process of digitization of author’s rights. There is conducted the approach to addressing copyright as one of the digital human rights resulted from property rights and right of creators to protection of their moral and economic interests. However, authors of the article departure from postulate that copyright is the human rights to a certain degree only. Moreover, this article examines the international legal approach to seeking the balance between the human right to freedom of expression, opinion and information, on the one hand, and copyright, especially as regards the Internet, on the other hand. There has been argued that key role in elaborating and adopting the principled standards in this sphere belongs to international law, including international law of human rights. In addition, the latter, as authors have ascertained, must correspond to international law of intellectual property rights, international information law, and international competition law. The study focus on various aspects of solving the problem of adapting copyright to the digital environment.

  13. Participation, Democracy and Citizenship of Indigenous Peoples in the International Context Through the European systems and Inter-American Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Luiz Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the global democratization for the protection of minorities through the global promotion of European systems and Inter-American Human Rights. At the level of international human rights law, these ideas are the basis of so-called “speci- fication process rights of individuals”, according to which, in addition to general universal rights extended to all, there is need to recognize specific rights to certain groups vulne- rable in society. With the goal of achieving real equality, or at least reduce the existing factual inequalities. Thus, consolidation of protection of minorities reflects the situation of need access to fair legal system to ensure the effectiveness of fundamental rights and the full consolidation of access to justice through the international courts of justice, aimed at protection of human rights the international context.

  14. What Does the Right to Education Mean? A Look at an International Debate from Legal, Ethical, and Pedagogical Points of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, Gonzalo

    2001-01-01

    Explores the legal, ethical, and pedagogical aspects of the right to education. Describes a study aimed at learning what the global attitudes are toward the right to an education. Discusses globalization and its effects on education and examines the impact of international caucuses such as the Convention of the Rights of the Child. (Contains 17…

  15. Angiographic predictors of 3-year patency of bypass grafts implanted on the right coronary artery system: a prospective randomized comparison of gastroepiploic artery, saphenous vein, and right internal thoracic artery grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glineur, David; D'hoore, William; de Kerchove, Laurent; Noirhomme, Philippe; Price, Joel; Hanet, Claude; El Khoury, Gebrine

    2011-11-01

    Saphenous vein, in situ right gastroepiploic artery, and right internal thoracic artery grafts are routinely used to revascularize the right coronary artery. Little is known about the predictive value of objective preoperative angiographic parameters on midterm graft patency. We prospectively enrolled 210 consecutive patients undergoing coronary revascularization. Revascularization of the right coronary artery was randomly performed with the saphenous vein grafts in 81 patients and the right gastroepiploic artery in 92 patients. During the same study period, 37 patients received right coronary artery revascularization with the right internal thoracic artery used in a Y-composite fashion. All patients underwent a protocol-driven coronary angiogram 3 years after surgery. Preoperative angiographic parameters included minimum lumen diameter percent stenosis measured by quantitative angiography. A graft was considered "not functional" with patency scores of 0 to 2 and "functional" with patency scores of 3 or 4. Angiographic follow-up was 100% complete. A significant difference in the distribution of flow patterns was observed in the 3 groups. In multivariate analysis, the use of a saphenous vein graft was associated with superior graft functionality compared with the other conduits (odds ratio, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-15). Graft function was negatively influenced by the minimum lumen diameter (odds ratio, 0.11; confidence interval, 0.05-0.25). In the right gastroepiploic artery and right internal thoracic artery groups, the proportion of functional grafts was higher when the minimum lumen diameter was below a threshold value in the third minimum lumen diameter quartile (0.64-1.30 mm). Preoperative angiography predicts graft patency in the right gastroepiploic artery and right internal thoracic artery, whereas the flow pattern in saphenous vein grafts is significantly less influenced by quantitative angiographic parameters. Copyright © 2011 The American

  16. Parents' Assessments of Disability in Their Children Using World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version Joined Body Functions and Activity Codes Related to Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illum, Niels Ove; Gradel, Kim Oren

    2017-01-01

    To help parents assess disability in their own children using World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) code qualifier scoring and to assess the validity and reliability of the data sets obtained. Parents of 162 children with spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular disorders, cerebral palsy, visual impairment, hearing impairment, mental disability, or disability following brain tumours performed scoring for 26 body functions qualifiers (b codes) and activities and participation qualifiers (d codes). Scoring was repeated after 6 months. Psychometric and Rasch data analysis was undertaken. The initial and repeated data had Cronbach α of 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. Inter-code correlation was 0.54 (range: 0.23-0.91) and 0.76 (range: 0.20-0.92). The corrected code-total correlations were 0.72 (range: 0.49-0.83) and 0.75 (range: 0.50-0.87). When repeated, the ICF-CY code qualifier scoring showed a correlation R of 0.90. Rasch analysis of the selected ICF-CY code data demonstrated a mean measure of 0.00 and 0.00, respectively. Code qualifier infit mean square (MNSQ) had a mean of 1.01 and 1.00. The mean corresponding outfit MNSQ was 1.05 and 1.01. The ICF-CY code τ thresholds and category measures were continuous when assessed and reassessed by parents. Participating children had a mean of 56 codes scores (range: 26-130) before and a mean of 55.9 scores (range: 25-125) after repeat. Corresponding measures were -1.10 (range: -5.31 to 5.25) and -1.11 (range: -5.42 to 5.36), respectively. Based on measures obtained at the 2 occasions, the correlation coefficient R was 0.84. The child code map showed coherence of ICF-CY codes at each level. There was continuity in covering the range across disabilities. And, first and foremost, the distribution of codes reflexed a true continuity in disability with codes for motor functions activated first, then codes for cognitive functions

  17. Upper extremity function in stroke subjects: relationships between the international classification of functioning, disability, and health domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Fortini, Iza; Michaelsen, Stella Maris; Cassiano, Janine Gomes; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2011-01-01

    Upper limb (UL) impairments are the most common disabling deficits after stroke and have complex relationships with activity and participation domains. However, relatively few studies have applied the ICF model to identify the contributions of specific UL impairments, such as muscular weakness, pain, and sensory loss, as predictors of activity and participation. The purposes of this predictive study were to evaluate the relationships between UL variables related to body functions/structures, activity, and participation domains and to determine which would best explain activity and participation with 55 subjects with chronic stroke. Body functions/structures were assessed by measures of grip, pinch, and UL strength, finger tactile sensations, shoulder pain, and cognition (MMSE); activity domain by measures of observed performance (BBT, NHPT, and TEMPA); and participation by measures of quality of life (SSQOL). Upper-limb and grip strength were related to all activity measures (0.52 rights reserved.

  18. Disability and the post-2015 development agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardi, Rachele; Njelesani, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the extent to which disability has been recognized and included in two main documents produced to date as part of the United Nations Post-2015 Development agenda process. This is the process that is defining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which will succeed the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) after the latter reach their target date in 2015. The two documents examined in the article are the Outcome Document (July 2014) of the Open Working Group (OWG) on SDGs and the Report (August 2014) of the Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing (ICESDF). The OWG consisted of 30 seats shared by 70 UN Member States and was in charge of proposing goals and targets for the SDGs. The ICESDF worked in parallel to the OWG and its report proposed options on an effective financing strategy. The article emphasizes the importance of including persons with disabilities in the Post-2015 Agenda, especially in view of the latter's overarching focus on eradicating poverty. The inclusion of persons with disabilities is being recognized in the Post-2015 Agenda discussions as central to achieving sustainable development. Disability has been explicitly mentioned in the OWG and ICESDF documents. Although the results so far have been very good, more work still needs to be done to ensure that these explicit references are maintained in the final version of the SDGs, which will be adopted in September 2015. Furthermore, the new framework needs to have a stronger human rights foundation on which to ground these references and future indicators. Light for the World is an international confederation of national development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) aiming at an inclusive society, where the rights of persons with disabilities are realized without discrimination. Through a rights-based approach, Light for the World supports 175 programs in 25 countries in the areas of prevention of blindness, rehabilitation, inclusive

  19. Implementation of the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) in the Portuguese educational system: Attitudes and training needs of special education teachers’.

    OpenAIRE

    Saragoça, M.; Candeias, A. A.; Rosário, A.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - ICF (WHO, 2001) is the framework of reference in the assessment and intervention process with students with SEN, in the Portuguese educational system. As a consequence special education teachers’ training needs emerged from it. In this study, we characterize the received training and the special education teachers’ attitudes and training needs towards ICF. The sample consisted of 913 Portuguese special educat...

  20. A randomized comparison of the Saphenous Vein Versus Right Internal Thoracic Artery as a Y-Composite Graft (SAVE RITA) trial: early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ho Young; Kim, Jun Sung; Oh, Se Jin; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2012-11-01

    The Saphenous Vein Versus Right Internal Thoracic Artery as a Y-Composite Graft trial was designed to evaluate the saphenous vein compared with the right internal thoracic artery as a Y-composite graft anastomosed to the side of the left internal thoracic artery. In this early analysis, we compared early angiographic patency rates and clinical outcomes. From September 2008 to October 2011, 224 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease were randomized prospectively to undergo off-pump revascularization using the saphenous vein group (n = 112) or the right internal thoracic artery group (n = 112) as Y-composite grafts. Early postoperative (1.4 ± 1.1 days) angiographic patency and clinical outcomes were compared. There was 1 operative death in the right internal thoracic artery group. No statistically significant differences in postoperative morbidities, including atrial fibrillation and acute renal failure, were observed between the groups. The number of distal anastomoses using the side-arm Y-composite graft (saphenous vein vs right internal thoracic artery) were 2.3 ± 0.8 and 1.9 ± 0.7 in the saphenous vein and right internal thoracic artery groups, respectively (P < .001). A third conduit was used in 44 patients (saphenous vein group vs right internal thoracic artery group, 4/109 vs 40/110; P < .001) to extend the side-arm Y-composite graft for complete revascularization. Early angiography demonstrated an overall patency rate of 99.4% (771 of 776 distal anastomoses). Patency rates of the side-arm Y-composite graft (saphenous vein vs right internal thoracic artery) were 98.8% (245 of 248) and 99.5% (207 of 208) in the saphenous vein and right internal thoracic artery groups, respectively (P = .629). A third conduit was needed to extend the right internal thoracic artery composite graft and reach the target vessels in 36.4% (40/110) of the patients. The saphenous vein composite graft was comparable with the right internal thoracic artery composite graft