WorldWideScience

Sample records for international contract negotiations

  1. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  2. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 negotiated service agreement... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, February 11, 2013.... 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service...

  3. Successful international negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerry, G.

    1997-01-01

    These remarks on successful international trade negotiations deal with the following topics: culture and differences in psychology; building friendly relationships and letting both sides appear to win; well written proposals; security of negotiating information; the complexity and length of nuclear negotiations

  4. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19.808 Section 19.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808 Contract negotiation. ...

  5. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 Negotiated Service Agreement, December 14, 2012... history. The Commission added International Business Reply Service Contract 1 to the competitive product...

  6. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.808 Contract negotiation...

  7. Negotiating Your Syllabus: Building a Collaborative Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David M.; Renard, Monika K.

    2015-01-01

    We provide instruction for engaging students in negotiating their course syllabus. In contrast to the common conceptualization of the syllabus as an instructor-determined contract, we involve our students in developing the collaborative contract under which they will be evaluated. We discuss our successful facilitation of this activity and how to…

  8. 78 FR 11237 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-49; Order No. 1654] International Mail Contract... Service filing concerning an additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contract 1 Negotiated Service... additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 1 negotiated service agreement (Agreement).\\1\\ It...

  9. 48 CFR 570.105-1 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 570.105-1 Section 570.105-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.105-1 Contracting by negotiation. Contracting by negotiation...

  10. 78 FR 54687 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Service filing seeking to include a new International Business Reply Service (IBRS) agreement within the... Postal Service seeks to include a new International Business Reply Service (IBRS) agreement (Agreement... a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated...

  11. 77 FR 59343 - Contracting by Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 3415 Contracting by Negotiation CFR Correction In Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 29 to End, revised as of October 1, 2011, on page 150, in section 3415.605, paragraph (d) is correctly revised, and section 3415.606 is added to read as follows: 3415.605...

  12. 48 CFR 36.520 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation... by negotiation. The contracting officer shall insert in solicitations for construction the provision at 52.236-28, Preparation of Offers—Construction, when contracting by negotiation. [62 FR 51258, Sept...

  13. 48 CFR 16.103 - Negotiating contract type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Selecting Contract Types 16.103 Negotiating contract... basic profit motive of business enterprise, shall be used when the risk involved is minimal or can be...) Contracts on a firm fixed-price basis other than those for major systems or research and development, and (3...

  14. 25 CFR 89.31 - Negotiation of contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation of contract. 89.31 Section 89.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ATTORNEY CONTRACTS WITH INDIAN TRIBES Five Civilized Tribes § 89.31 Negotiation of contract. That person or governing entity recognized as having authority to act for and in behalf o...

  15. Legal issues in power sale contract negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) is the foundation of the cogeneration industry. However, few cogeneration projects could be financed on the basis of PURPA alone. PURPA guarantees project owners the right to sell power at the purchasing utility's Avoided Cost, whatever that may be from time to time. However, the development and financing of a cogeneration project requires a secure and dependable income stream, not a mere guarantee of the right to receive the spot price for power. Accordingly, developers have found that a formal power sale contract with the purchasing utility is a prerequisite to successful project development. This paper summarizes some current issues in power sale contract negotiation, with a particular emphasis on contract terms which shift risks from the utility and its ratepayers to the developer. Many of these trends originally appeared before the advent of competitive bidding systems, but most will continue to affect power sale contracts under competitive bidding, and under IPP project development as well

  16. Cultural Differences in International Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹悦

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship of cultural differences on international business negotiations. And also, it emphases on the importance of understanding and mastering cultural differences in international business negotiations.

  17. Understanding and negotiating the power contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a historical overview of power contracts in Canada and the United States, with attention to typical types of power contracts as well as the applications and trends of power contracts. The power industry has been leaning toward industry standard agreements that encourage certainty, streamline trading arrangements between parties, and increased liquidity in power markets. The most commonly used agreements in North America are the Western Systems Power Pool (WSPP), the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), and the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) agreements. The trend is for additional consolidation among these agreements, and power transactions in the future will probably be included in master commodity trading agreements. In addition, international standard commodity trading agreements are appearing which could alter the way commodities and their derivatives are contracted in North America. The provisions that require special attention include events of default, credit provisions, force majeure, and transaction procedures. 13 refs

  18. 48 CFR 53.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 53.215 Section 53.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.215 Contracting by negotiation...

  19. 48 CFR 2453.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracting by negotiation. 2453.215 Section 2453.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 2453.215 Contracting by negotiation...

  20. 48 CFR 253.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 253.215 Section 253.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 253.215 Contracting by negotiation...

  1. 48 CFR 853.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 853.215 Section 853.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 853.215 Contracting by negotiation...

  2. Negotiation and Contracting in Collaborative Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Inês; Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.

    Due to the increasing market turbulence, companies, organizations and individuals need to tune their actuation forms so that they can prevail. It is particularly essential to create alliances and partnerships for collaborative problem solving when responding to new businesses or collaborative opportunities. In all types of alliances it is necessary to establish agreements that represent the rights and duties of all involved parts in a given collaboration opportunity. Therefore, it is important to deeply understand the structures and requirements of these alliances, i.e. what kind of members does the alliance have, what kind of protocols may be implied, how conflicts may possibly be resolved, etc. Moreover to these requirements, also the required support tools and mechanisms have to be identified. For that, this paper presents a research work that is being carried in the negotiation and contracting field, in order to promote agility in collaborative networks.

  3. Innovation in international negotiation: content and style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; Tjosvold, D.

    2004-01-01

    This special issue of International Negotiation is the second in a series on innovation and negotiation. The first issue (Vol. 9, no. 1, 2004) considered innovations in the conduct and process of negotiation, whereas the present issue considers how innovation in the content, style, and strategy of

  4. Negotiated risks. International talks on hazardous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, Rudolf; Sjoestedt, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    This book fills a major gap in the risk literature, as it brings together two research strands: risks, to which IIASA's research programs have contributed significantly over the years, culminating in the Risk and Vulnerability Program, and international negotiations, on which there is an abundance of published work, much of it resulting from the work of IIASA's Processes of International Negotiations Program. Throughout the book, it is pointed out that there are actor-driven risks, namely those posed by international negotiations themselves, and issue-driven risks which are caused by large-scale human activities. In fact, negotiated risks deal with some of the most serious risks facing humanity: climate change, nuclear activities, and weapons of mass destruction. The book contains both scientific analyses on the nature of internationally negotiated risks and analyses of concrete risks, both of which are of immense practical relevance in the larger context of international negotiations. (orig.)

  5. Offer and Acceptance and the Dynamics of Negotiations: Arguments for Contract Theory from Negotiation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pannebakker, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe doctrine of offer and acceptance forms the basis of the rules of contract formation in most western legal systems. However, if parties enter into elaborate negotiations, these rules may become difficult to apply. This paper addresses the application of the doctrine of offer and acceptance to the formation of contract in the context of negotiations. The paper argues that while the doctrine of offer and acceptance is designed to assess the issues related to the substance of the ...

  6. Impact of Information and Communication Technologies in International Negotiation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alejandro Cano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article establishes relations between the level of importance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, the frequency of use of these tools, and the efficiency and efficacy achieved in the international negotiation processes. Design/methodology/approach – A research study is carried out in 180 import and / or export firms in Medellin city, and the proposed relations are explained through a theoretical model. With the information obtained, correlation and comparative analysis of efficiency and efficacy indicators are made. Findings – ICT are essential to perform international processes, therefore the increase in the importance level and frequency of use of these technologies allows perceiving better results about efficiency and efficacy increase. Practical implications – Increasing the application of ICT to the international negotiation processes generates a reduction of cost and time in negotiation and an increase of international sale contract, however ICT must be complemented by other elements such as attitude, training and experience of the negotiator to obtain satisfactory results. Originality/value – The article proposes an original model to study the effect of the importance level and frequency of use of ICT on the performance of international negotiation process.

  7. Offer and Acceptance and the Dynamics of Negotiations: Arguments for Contract Theory from Negotiation Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Pannebakker (Ekaterina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe doctrine of offer and acceptance forms the basis of the rules of contract formation in most western legal systems. However, if parties enter into elaborate negotiations, these rules may become difficult to apply. This paper addresses the application of the doctrine of offer and

  8. Negotiations and Exclusivity Contracts for Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Dukes; Esther Gal–Or

    2003-01-01

    Exclusive advertising on a given media outlet is usually profitable for an advertiser because consumers are less aware of competing products. However, for such arrangements to exist, media must benefit as well. We examine conditions under which such exclusive advertising contracts benefit both advertisers and media outlets (referred to as ) by illustrating that exclusive equilibria arise in a theoretical model of the media, advertisers, and consumers who participate in both the product and me...

  9. Analysis of international negotiations and trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Górriz Gonzalo, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze international trade agreements and negotiations. For that purpose, two agreements made by the United States are chosen to be analyzed. In the first place, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) agreement, that was signed by the United States, Canada and Mexico in 1994 in order to create a free trade area. In addition, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) will be analyze, an agreement that is still being negotiated between the United Stat...

  10. 78 FR 41331 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Publicizing Contract Actions; Contracting by Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Parts 5 and 15 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Publicizing Contract Actions; Contracting by Negotiation CFR Correction In Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1 (Parts 1 to 51), revised as of October 1, 2012, on page 115, in...

  11. Evaluating Contract Negotiation Strategy for PT XYZ

    OpenAIRE

    Gayashanti, Intan Bayu; Sunitiyoso, Yos

    2013-01-01

    Oil and Gas operations are the hazardous operation and need huge amount of capital, since then finding efficient resources for this business is critical to eliminate Non Productive Time (NPT) and incident. NPT is near to cost control failure because operation failure means deviation in cost versus budget. The resources needs in this industry should meet the International standard for Oil and Gas. While for high technology services, this is an oligopoly market as already well-known that there...

  12. Essence and resolution of international climate negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Wan Du

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In essence, international climate negotiation is a serious and responsible global effort, despite various conflicts, to establish a rational international climate regime. In essence, tackling climate changes is leading the globe to actualize sustainable development of all humankind along the low-carbon, green, and cyclic-development path. Thus, climate negotiation should be driving all parties to achieve a global climate regime arrangement in a constructive way. Therefore, this paper suggests focusing on the following three major recommendations: early developed countries take the lead in committing positively to absolute emission reduction; the developing countries contribute according to their abilities and stages of development; the developed countries perform real deeds using their funds and technology. Based on substantial breakthrough that would be made, progressive supplement and improvement could be accomplished through the mechanism of review and adjustment under the Convention framework. This path represents a combination of bottom-up and top-down. The ultimate way out of international climate negotiation lies in win-win cooperation. Profound reasons for China to participate proactively and practically in international climate negotiation, based on its actual conditions, are the internal wants and needs of its scientific and sustainable development, as well as the undertaking of international responsibilities as a responsible, large, developing country.

  13. 48 CFR 36.214 - Special procedures for price negotiation in construction contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... price negotiation in construction contracting. 36.214 Section 36.214 Federal Acquisition Regulations... negotiation in construction contracting. (a) Agencies shall follow the policies and procedures in part 15 when... scope of the work. If negotiations reveal errors in the Government estimate, the estimate shall be...

  14. Designing an International Joint Venture Negotiation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, Phil; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a simulation game that models management problems encountered in negotiating and managing international joint ventures. Designed to instruct executives of state-owned agribusinesses in Indonesia in abstract concepts such as partner rapport, transfer price conflicts, and marketing disagreements, its success suggests that simulation games…

  15. Governing climate? 20 years of international negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykut, Stefan; Dahan, Amy

    2015-01-01

    As greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere have reached a record level in 2013, the authors propose an analysis and an assessment of international negotiations and governance on the climate issue since the Kyoto protocol. They precisely describe the mechanics of these negotiations, recall their different steps (the IPCC creation, the Rio conference, the UN Convention, the Kyoto protocol), describe the emergence of the different concepts which have been used to define the negotiation framework, comment the definition of the three main structuring principles of the struggle against climate change (precautionary principle, principle of common but differentiated responsibility, right to development), and outline the role of adaptation. They discuss the negotiation context, the emergence of a European leadership, the failure of the Copenhagen conference, and the importance of domestic policies. They also address other related concerns: the maintenance of the prevailing model of economic growth, national sovereignty, the postures of some companies and sectors. The authors present and analyse the situation and posture of different countries: USA, China, emerging powers like Brazil and India, Europe, Germany and France. They make some propositions to build up a new type of international climate governance, and outline the need of a convergence of international energy, commercial and development agendas, and of the development of a bottom-up approach

  16. Tips for a physician in getting the right job, Part XXI: introduction to contract negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay A

    2015-04-01

    Those physicians who have excellent job prospects, and preferably have more than one offer, may wish to try to negotiate better terms for their employment contract than was initially offered. However, any negotiation must be done in a friendly, polite, and professional manner. This article gives many tips regarding contract negotiations. However, the employment contract should be discussed with the job seeker's family and attorney before signing it.

  17. The medium as an innovation in international negotiation : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; Kersten, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of International Negotiation addresses a new research perspective on cross-cultural and international negotiation processes – the effects of innovation. This research examines the process of negotiation in terms of the elemental human decision-making and communication acts that are

  18. International contracts within the business of MSMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia López Fonseca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to explain, in general terms, some of the possibilities for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs to internationalize, taking into consideration, among other aspects, the elaboration of the contract, preferably written. The meaning of international trade comes from the mercantilist, classical and neoclassical currents and from contemporary postulates, such as the theory of competitive advantage, which demonstrate the importance of the exchange of goods and services for economies. International trade relations of any company are based on requirements of importing or exporting raw materials, machinery, final and intermediate goods or services procurement. However, in practice, relations can cover a wider spectrum than the abovementioned operations. This essay mentions some elements that should be considered by the parties when making the negotiation and which will be reflected in the body of the contract.

  19. Examining Classroom Negotiation Strategies of International Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gwendolyn M.

    2011-01-01

    From a constructivist point of view teacher identity evolves as the teacher interacts and negotiates with others. However, before negotiation can occur, instructors must establish their own teacher identity as a starting position. This narrative study analyzes how international teaching assistants negotiated with their American undergraduate…

  20. INVESTIGATING WHAT ROMANIAN IT RECRUITERS AND EMPLOYEES VALUE WHEN THEY NEGOTIATE EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Maria CLIPA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When negotiating, people have economic as well noneconomic, subjective concerns. This study is an exploratory investigation into the objective and subjective factors influencing employment contract negotiations and the willingness to interact in future business negotiations in the case of Romanian IT employees and recruiters. The study draws on qualitative data collection and analysis methods, i.e. semi-structured interviews with 10 participants, projective techniques and content analysis. At the time, 5 of the participants held recruitment and contracting HR roles, and 5 were working as employees (programmers, business analysts, IT project managers. They all had a recent working contract negotiation experience (less than one year ago in the IT industry. Using the principles of corpus linguistics and the methods specific to discourse and critical discourse analysis, our study highlights some of the factors taken into account by Romanian IT employees and recruiters in employment contract negotiations.

  1. Climate Change and International Civil Aviation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Korber Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has discussed ways of regulating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by civil aircraft for almost 20 years. Over the past four years, a consensus has developed about a market-based mechanism in the form of a carbon offset system. This article describes the route to the agreement reached by ICAO’s 39th Assembly, in order to contextualise the results and point out some of its limitations. It points to two main factors that contributed to the consensus: the role of the European Union, which sought to lead the negotiations, and the choice of a flexible and ultimately weak mechanism that received support from the international airlines.

  2. International business: Raising cultural awareness in global negotiating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Gardašević

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The global marketplace is a fast-growing and rapidly changing field. Global negotiation is a process where each party from two or more different countries involved in negotiating tries to gain an advantage for itself by the end of the process. The process of global negotiating differs from culture to culture in terms of language, different types of communication (verbal and nonverbal, negotiating style, approaches to problem – solving, etc. The aspects of culture that are of vital importance for global negotiating are attitudes and beliefs, religion, material culture, and language. This paper should encourage better understanding of the process of negotiation: it defines the negotiation process, identifies the issues that are subject to negotiation and mentions the stages of negotiation. It discusses the importance of developing cultural awareness prior to negotiating internationally through descriptive overview of all aspects of culture. It gives examples of differences in global negotiating and doing business worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to show theoretically the connection between these terms and provide information that will prevent business people from making mistakes and pitfalls in international negotiation process.

  3. International negotiations in the foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the essence of negotiations in general, which could find it’s application in foundry engineering. The paper is the result of long cooperation of the authors with foundry engineering and their participation in negotiations between the domestic and foreign companies. In this paper the essence and the rules of negotiations have been introduced. It presents also the skills and abilities of the negotiators. The cycle of negotiations and the following stages of negotiations have been also described. The authors have presented the characteristics of negotiations led by the partners from different parts of the world with particular emphasize on Asian and European countries as with these partners the negotiations in Polish foundries are mainly led.

  4. International negotiations on climate change towards a new international deal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    This document reports the work performed by the French 'Centre d'Analyse Strategique' until the first of November within the perspective of a new international agreement to struggle against climate change beyond 2012. The basic idea is that such an agreement will have a meaning only if it is signed and ratified by the both main greenhouse gas emitting countries, the United States and China. A first part of this report describes the context and the post-2012 negotiation perspectives, as well as the status of international cooperation in the field of climate change. The two following chapters present syntheses of the climate policies and negotiation postures of China and United States. Then, the authors give an overview of the strategic interests and postures of some other big countries like India, Brazil, Russia, Canada, OPEC countries, and so on. The last part deals with issues of rights of intellectual property applied to the elaboration of 'clean' technologies and to international technological transfers

  5. 40 CFR 35.938-5 - Negotiation of contract amendments (change orders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiation of contract amendments (change orders). 35.938-5 Section 35.938-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.938-5 Negotiation of...

  6. OUTSOURCING STRATEGIES. HOW TO FORMALIZE AND NEGOTIATE THE OUTSOURCING CONTRACT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meo Colombo Carlotta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized economy multinational firms have given rise to local firms able to produce at a low cost and at acceptable quality levels. A growing number of firms have outsourced production and manufacturing activities of all types to these firms, not only to reduce production costs but also to make their organizational structures more streamlined and flexible. Outsourcing decisions, which originally were limited to production which had a modest technological content and was of marginal importance for the business in question, is increasingly adopted for activities which, requiring core competencies or belonging to the core business, were considered inseparable from the organization and thus not outsourceable. Gradually an outsourcing strategy has developed which has found it convenient to outsource even core competencies and functions, such as specialized manufacturing, which require a particular technology, marketing, product design, and the search for know-how (Prahalad and Hamel 1990: 79-91.Such an outsourcing strategy has a number of advantages, among which quality improvement, a greater focus on managing other core competencies, a greater flexibility and leverage regarding resources, along with the possibility of entering new markets, even ones with a high rate of development.This article analyzes the fundamental stages for an outsourcing strategy. It will demonstrate how, in order to achieve an outsourcing strategy, it is necessary to include outsourcing in the general strategy, gather suitable information for choosing the outsourcer, negotiate the contract with the supplier, choose the type of relationship to have with the supplier, and, finally, plan the transfer of activities and functions from the outsourcee to one or more outsourcers or providers.

  7. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... recently-filed Postal Service filing addressing a new International Business Reply Service Contract 3. It... contract within the International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 grouping.\\1\\ The... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  8. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-07

    Oct 7, 2009 ... ... pillar of Latin America's development strategy into the 21st century. ... and policy advisors involved in trade negotiations and the formulation of trade policy. ... Expanding women's financial inclusion: A win-win for women and ...

  9. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Negotiation Authorities 2515.215-70 NSF negotiation authorities. (a) Authorities. Citation: 42 U.S.C. 1870(c). (b) Application. When an NSF contract... international cooperation or national security.” Contracts or their modifications entered into under this...

  10. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual ... New funding opportunity to fight antimicrobial resistance ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  11. 48 CFR 1652.249-71 - FEHBP termination for convenience of the government-negotiated benefits contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... convenience of the government-negotiated benefits contracts. 1652.249-71 Section 1652.249-71 Federal... convenience of the government—negotiated benefits contracts. As prescribed in section 1649.101-71, the following clause shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts. FEHBP Termination for Convenience of the...

  12. 77 FR 16568 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  13. 77 FR 12888 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  14. Analysis of international oil and gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.

    1992-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to describe the main types of international petroleum contracts, to give the reader methods for comparing contract qualities and analyzing the profitability of petroleum field models under basic contract terms, to describe methods for assessing tradeoffs between various terms of a contract, to describe briefly U.S. Taxation of international petroleum extraction income, and to discuss certain special considerations that apply to the international arena

  15. Viable circumstances for financial negotiations in Pakistan contracting process

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Ejaz; Nadeem, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In Pakistan, competitive forms of procurement include only two-step sealed bidding. In the United States, negotiated procurement falls under competitive forms of procurement. Pakistan established the Pakistan Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) in 2002 on the recommendations of the World Bank and enacted PPRA rules in 2004 based on the 1994 UNCITRAL model procurement law. The purpose of PPRA rules in 2004 was twofold: First, it imp...

  16. Types of international petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on history and development of International Petroleum Contracts. The emphasis in petroleum exploration has steadily shifted away from the domestic oil patch and toward the international arena. Today an estimated 577.3 billion bbl, or approximately 83% of the world's proven oil reserves, lie outside the western hemisphere. The distribution of these proven oil reserves can be broken down into three major socioeconomic categories - developed market economies, centrally planned economies, and developing countries - indicating that fully 76.7% of the world's proven oil reserves occur in developing countries. As multinational oil companies come into contact with the various host countries around the world, their course of action, and the course of the host country's reaction to them, are unfortunately colored by events that proceeded the initial contact

  17. Impacts of Culture on International Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides practical suggestions for developing a healthy and complete working relationship between the system safety practitioner and international business partners, international vendors and international customers.

  18. A Study on the Application of Politeness Strategies in International Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋栋

    2016-01-01

    #%Under the influence of economic globalization, international business negotiation is becoming more and more fre-quent. Politeness principle is an important pragmatic strategy in international business negotiation, representing good cultural quality and professional ethics image. In the course of business negotiation, how to properly use politeness language and pay at-tention to politeness strategy will affect the result of negotiation.

  19. 77 FR 10577 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... United States Postal Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service...

  20. Communication and Negotiations as an Ssential Prerequisite for the Development of International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Maciukevičienė, Liuda; Pipirienė, Vida

    2011-01-01

    In today's global markets it is very important to understand how to communicate effectively with partners from various cultures in order to be successful in the business world. Negotiating success largely depends on: pre-negotiation of a negotiating strategy and tactics of choice and flexibility in the negotiations and the ability to make influence. The article examines the concept of negotiation in international business, makes consistent analysis of the phases of the negotiations. Negotiati...

  1. 77 FR 75200 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional international mail contract. This... contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR 3015.5. Notice at 1. The Postal...

  2. 77 FR 70849 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-2; Order No.1550] International Mail Contract... Service filing concerning a Type 2 rate adjustment in conjunction with a mail contract with China Post... Equivalent Agreement, November 15, 2012 (Notice). Contract history and scope. The Agreement is a successor to...

  3. 77 FR 75452 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional international mail contract. This... contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks to have the Agreement included within the GEPS 3 product...

  4. Trends in International Persuasion: Persuasion in the Arms Control Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, P. Terrence; Walcott, Charles

    An analysis of the bargaining process in international arms control negotiations is possible by developing a framework of interrelated hypotheses, by delineating and practicing interactions study called "Bargaining Process Analysis," and by formulating procedural steps that bridge the gap between laboratory studies and "real world" situations. In…

  5. Legal Considerations for International Collaborative Research Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section

  6. The legitimacy of leadership in international climate change negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Christer; Hjerpe, Mattias; Parker, Charles; Linner, Bjorn-Ola

    2012-01-01

    Leadeship is an essential ingredient in reaching international agreements and overcoming the collective action problems associated with responding to climate change. In this study, we aim at answering two questions that are crucial for understanding the legitimacy of leadership in international climate change negotiations. Based on the responses of the three consecutive surveys distributed at COPs 14-16, we seek first to chart which actors are actually recognized as leaders by climate change negotiation participants. Second, we aim to explain what motivates COP participants to support different actors as leaders. Both these questions are indeed crucial for understanding the role, importance, and legitimacy of leadership in the international climate change regime. Our results show that the leadership landscape in this issue area is fragmented, with no one clear-cut leader, and strongly suggest that it is imperative for any actor seeking recognition as climate change leader to be perceived as being devoted to promoting the common good.

  7. A bargaining game analysis of international climate negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smead, Rory; Sandler, Ronald L.; Forber, Patrick; Basl, John

    2014-06-01

    Climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have so far failed to achieve a robust international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Game theory has been used to investigate possible climate negotiation solutions and strategies for accomplishing them. Negotiations have been primarily modelled as public goods games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma, though coordination games or games of conflict have also been used. Many of these models have solutions, in the form of equilibria, corresponding to possible positive outcomes--that is, agreements with the requisite emissions reduction commitments. Other work on large-scale social dilemmas suggests that it should be possible to resolve the climate problem. It therefore seems that equilibrium selection may be a barrier to successful negotiations. Here we use an N-player bargaining game in an agent-based model with learning dynamics to examine the past failures of and future prospects for a robust international climate agreement. The model suggests reasons why the desirable solutions identified in previous game-theoretic models have not yet been accomplished in practice and what mechanisms might be used to achieve these solutions.

  8. Using Multi-Viewpoint Contracts for Negotiation of Embedded Software Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Holthusen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the issue of change after deployment in safety-critical embedded system applications. Our goal is to substitute lab-based verification with in-field formal analysis to determine whether an update may be safely applied. This is challenging because it requires an automated process able to handle multiple viewpoints such as functional correctness, timing, etc. For this purpose, we propose an original methodology for contract-based negotiation of software updates. The use of contracts allows us to cleanly split the verification effort between the lab and the field. In addition, we show how to rely on existing viewpoint-specific methods for update negotiation. We illustrate our approach on a concrete example inspired by the automotive domain.

  9. Beyond Linguistic Proximity: Galicia and Portugal in International Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Fernández-Souto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying the actions of several institutions, as well as the popular belief according to which Galician people and Portuguese people have enough common ground as to fully understand each other, this article considers the reality of the matter in the context of international negotiation. We will study the use of the Galician language in international business, and then refute—or not—the hypothesis which indicates that the use of Galician can be the first step in a mutual understanding, but that it is necessary to be more deeply immersed in the language before facing an international negotiation—immersed in a way that also includes cultural knowledge.

  10. Impact of Information and Communication Technologies in International Negotiation Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, Jose Alejandro; Baena, Jose Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective – This article establishes relations between the level of importance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), the frequency of use of these tools, and the efficiency and efficacy achieved in the international negotiation processes.Design/methodology/approach – A research study is carried out in 180 import and / or export firms in Medellin city, and the proposed relations are explained through a theoretical model. With the information obtained, correlation and comparative...

  11. 77 FR 73699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-24; Order No. 1566] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal... Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as the addition of several articles...

  12. 77 FR 72412 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-22; Order No. 1557] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal... Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as the deletion of an article, the...

  13. 77 FR 73062 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-23; Order No. 1562] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal.... The Postal Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as revisions to...

  14. Adverse or acceptable: negotiating access to a post-apartheid health care contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bronwyn; Eyles, John; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Thomas, Liz; Goudge, Jane

    2014-05-15

    As in many fragile and post-conflict countries, South Africa's social contract has formally changed from authoritarianism to democracy, yet access to services, including health care, remains inequitable and contested. We examine access barriers to quality health services and draw on social contract theory to explore ways in which a post-apartheid health care contract is narrated, practiced and negotiated by patients and providers. We consider implications for conceptualizing and promoting more inclusive, equitable health services in a post-conflict setting. Using in-depth interviews with 45 patients and 67 providers, and field observations from twelve health facilities in one rural and two urban sub-districts, we explore access narratives of those seeking and delivering - negotiating - maternal health, tuberculosis and antiretroviral services in South Africa. Although South Africa's right to access to health care is constitutionally guaranteed, in practice, a post-apartheid health care contract is not automatically or unconditionally inclusive. Access barriers, including poverty, an under-resourced, hierarchical health system, the nature of illness and treatment, and negative attitudes and actions, create conditions for insecure or adverse incorporation into this contract, or even exclusion (sometimes temporary) from health care services. Such barriers are exacerbated by differences in the expectations that patients and providers have of each other and the contract, leading to differing, potentially conflicting, identities of inclusion and exclusion: defaulting versus suffering patients, uncaring versus overstretched providers. Conversely, caring, respectful communication, individual acts of kindness, and institutional flexibility and leadership may mitigate key access barriers and limit threats to the contract, fostering more positive forms of inclusion and facilitating easier access to health care. Building health in fragile and post-conflict societies requires

  15. A theory of international bioethics: the negotiable and the non-negotiable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert

    1998-09-01

    The preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal presents the argument that "moral fundamentalism," the position that international bioethics rests on "basic" or "fundamental" moral prinicples that are universally accepted in all eras and cultures, collapses under a variety of multicultural and postmodern critiques. The present article looks to the contractarian tradition of Hobbes and Locke -- as reinterpreted by David Gauthier, Robert Nozick, and John Rawls -- for an alternative justification for international bioethics. Drawing on the central themes of this tradition, it is argued that international bioethics can be rationally reconstructed as a negotiated moral order that respects culturally and individually defined areas of nonnegotiability. Further, the theory of a negotiated moral order is consistent with traditional ideals about human rights, is flexible enough to absorb the genuine insights of multiculturalism and postmodernism, and yet is strong enough to justify transcultural and transtemporal moral judgments, including the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg. This theory also is consistent with the history of the ethics of human subjects experimentation and offers insights into current controversies such as the controversy over changing the consent rule for experiments in emergency medicine and the controversy over exempting certain clinical trials of inexpensive treatments for preventing the perinatal transmission of AIDS from the ethical standards of the sponsoring country.

  16. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a blanket contract for an instant-reading dosimeter system

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply, installation and maintenance of an instant-reading dosimeter system. Following a market survey (MS-3118/TIS) carried out among 28 firms in eleven Member States, a request for a quotation was sent to one firm on 3 October 2003. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket contract, without competitive tendering, with RADOS TECHNOLOGY (FI) for the supply, installation and maintenance of an instant-reading dosimeter system for a total amount not exceeding 2 100 000 euros (3 252 284 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2007. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FI - 58%; CH - 38%; GB - 4%.

  17. To tender, re-negotiate or partner: Strategies for contracting service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouldie, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    The contracting of oilfield service companies by petroleum exploration and production operating companies is different than the contracting of civil engineering, construction or other project-oriented contractors. The relationship between operating companies and oilfield service companies has had a long and unique history which has evolved since the first oil wells were drilled over a century ago. The process of contracting service companies by operating companies for petroleum exploration and production work can be split into three distinct stages: (1) decide what it is that should be contracted out and what should be kept in house; (2) determine the method to use to select the contractor(s) to perform the work; and (3) agree to the contractual structure to best reflect the relationship the operating company and the service company with to initiate and maintain. As there are ongoing changes to the business structures and corporate thinking of both operating and service companies, there are also evolving changes to what are considered core businesses and the methods of selecting and contracting service companies by operating companies. Operating companies are recognizing the high costs of tendering for contractor services in terms of personnel time and administrative effort, and are relying more on negotiating and rolling-over existing contracts with their suitable, capable contractors. Partnering, in its many forms and levels, is increasingly being recognized as a useful method to get better work done at cheaper overall costs

  18. Buyer-seller negotiations: a comparison of domestic and international conditions in a pilot study with international business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen; Kurt, Gizem; Hacioglu, Gungor

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the differences and similarities between domestic and international negotiations, using Kelley's Negotiation Game to measure the profit achieved. There were 58 participants in the international negotiation sample, 29 Turkish and 29 European students. There were 62 Turkish students in the domestic negotiations. All participants studied business or related topics at a university in Izmir. Student t tests indicated statistically significant differences in scores on misrepresentation of information, interpersonal attraction, peer evaluation of misrepresentation information, and satisfaction between domestic and international negotiations.

  19. Contracting Parties in the International Successive Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IORGA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes, the carrier, in order to accomplish the task of moving goods to its destination, he appeals to other carriers, for various reasons, concluding another contract of carriage, whichcircumscribes the initial contract and it entrusts the achievement of the entire transportation or only a part of it. Sometimes, there are precise stipulations in the main contract of carriage concerning thisissue. Besides the movement of goods, which we may call traditional, defined as using means of transportation of the same kind, lately we can observe the proliferation of more complex operations, which have the generic name of successive transportation. In such shipments, the multimodal transport plays an important role. Thus, the present approach focuses on some features of the legal relationships which may arise between the contracting carrier, surrogate carrier, consignor and consignee, and also on the results from the analysis of the concerned international conventions.

  20. The art and economics of international negotiations: Haggling meets hurrying and hanging on in buyer–seller negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula F. Ott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a theoretical model which focuses on cultural bargaining behavior. It is based on an intercultural negotiation framework of activity-based cultural types (Ott, 2011. The complexities of international negotiations are analyzed from a multi-active bargaining perspective which considers negotiation-is-an-art model. The results show the multi-active bargaining types from a seller and a buyer perspective. The differences in international negotiation behavior show the problems of cultural collisions. The possibility to circumvent these clashes is at the core of this article. The analysis proves useful as the different time perceptions, cultural activity levels and the resulting strategic behavior are clearly related to the deadlocks, stalemates, break-ups and agreements experienced in real-life scenarios. The application of the model to UK-Malaysian negotiation experiments is an example of the robustness of the theoretical results. This paper offers solutions to negotiations in an intercultural context and opens the black box of the uncertainty about cultural incompatibilities.

  1. 76 FR 72452 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2012-4; Order No. 981] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional bilateral agreement with HongKong Post Group...

  2. Legal questions about negotiating a new international climate agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljean-Dubois, Sandrine; Wemaere, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Although the last IPCC report emphasized the need for urgent action, international cooperation on the climate has stalled. The second phase (2013-2020) of the Kyoto Protocol has been merely symbolic. The Cancun agreement, which made the Copenhagen one operational, laid the basis for a more flexible system for the period up to 2020. Negotiations on the period after 2020, which started in Durban in 2011, should end with a new agreement in Paris in late 2015. This future agreement should apply to all, as stipulated in the Durban Platform. However the increasing symmetry of obligations between North and South has been achieved by significantly lowering the goals set by each country with regard to its economic situation and national priorities. What kind of agreement will come out of Paris? What legal form will it take?

  3. Virtual Power Players Internal Negotiation and Management in MASCEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    for the management of coalitions in electricity markets. This approach is tested using the multi-agent market simulator MASCEM (Multi-Agent Simulator of Competitive Electricity Markets), taking advantage of its ability to provide the means to model and simulate Virtual Power Players (VPP). VPPs are represented......Electricity Markets are not only a new reality but an evolving one as the involved players and rules change at a relatively high rate. Multi-agent simulation combined with Artificial Intelligence techniques may result in very helpful sophisticated tools. This paper presents a new methodology...... as coalitions of agents, with the capability of negotiating both in the market and internally, with their members in order to combine and manage their individual specific characteristics and goals, with the strategy and objectives of the VPP itself. A case study using real data from the Iberian Electricity...

  4. Colloquium - Where are the international climate negotiations heading to?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auverlot, Dominique; Barreau, Blandine; Olivia, Franck; Baecher, Cedric; Dutreix, Nicolas; Ioualalen, Romain; Guyot, Paul; Campagne, Jean Charles; Collomb, Etienne; Dahan, Amy; Aykut, Stefan C.

    2012-11-01

    In the context of the symposium 'Where are the international climate negotiations heading to?', the Center for Strategic Analysis publishes three notes in a mini-report. These notes are based on the main findings of two studies conducted for the CAS on the international perception of the scientific discourse on the matter and the evolution of international climate negotiations. Since the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992, the gap has been widening between the progress of negotiations to reach an agreement to organize the international fight against climate changes, and the phenomenon of climate change itself. Successive reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which highlighted the human responsibility in the matter, also highlighted the risk of irreversible disasters and the need to act quickly to limit the rise of the global average temperature. States Parties to the Convention agreed in 2010 on the development of an agreement based on countries' voluntary commitments to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. But now, the countries promises are not enough to delay the prospect of global warming and its consequences. It is now crucial to set more ambitious goals. In June, the conference 'Rio +20', organized twenty years after the Earth Summit, however, has shown that developing countries (DCs) and emerging countries regarded the fight against poverty as a priority and an essential prerequisite for sustainable development: section two of the declaration adopted at the summit clearly states so. This is why a global agreement that will effectively fight against climate change should include ambitious targets in reducing gas emissions, but it cannot stop there: it must also take into account the fight against poverty and implement financial and technological transfers as referred to Cancun in 2010, as well as measures to support adaptation to climate change to meet the demands of

  5. An Experimental Study on Internal and External Negotiation for Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankyoung Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally studies the performance of negotiation considering individual and party, like a country, share of benefit over the best ones. It experiments two-stage bargaining games, internal and external negotiations. From the experimental results, this paper shows strong tendency to select fair allocation in the internal negotiations, but the tendency would be weaker with attractive outside option. In addition, the outside option may claim difference in individual benefit. From the regressions on individual performance in the negotiations, being a proposing party would matter to enhance the performance. However, relative individual performance within party fairness matters. Still attractive no-agreement options happen to break the tendency. As policy implication for trade negotiation, this paper warns that possible loss in individual benefit from not active participation to the external negotiations, no active role of proposer in case that players stick to internal allocations, and deviation of advantageous sector due to attractive outside options.

  6. Proposal to negotiate a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of pipework for the new hostel

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate a contract for the supply and installation of new piping as preparatory work for the construction of a third on-site hostel. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve a contract with the SERVICES INDUSTRIELS DE GENEVE (SIG) (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of new piping for an amount not exceeding 700 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

  7. Impact of telephone reinforcement and negotiated contracts on behavioral predictors of exercise maintenance in older adults with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Pakaja M; Hughes, Susan L; Peters, Karen E; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2014-05-01

    To examine the impact of telephone reinforcement (TR) on predictors of physical activity (PA) maintenance in older adults with osteoarthritis. Mixed effects modeling was conducted of data from a randomized PA trial that used negotiated maintenance contracts, supplemented by TR, to test impact of TR on barriers, decisional balance, and stage of change at multiple points in time. Participants who were referred to a PA program and received TR improved the most in barriers and decisional balance. Participants who negotiated a tailored maintenance contract but did not receive TR improved the most in stage. TR appears to positively affect perceptions around engagement, whereas negotiation positively impacts PA behavior. Further research should examine the effectiveness of specific PA maintenance strategies.

  8. Negotiating dispute settlement in the international petroleum industry: the international chamber of commerce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    In general, arbitration continues to be more rapid and less expensive than litigation and has other advantages in international dispute resolution. Elements which should be considered in drafting and negotiating an arbitration clause are discussed. A pragmatic basis for this is supplied by an analysis of arbitration clauses in the 237 cases submitted to the International Chamber of Commerce Court of Arbitration in 1987 and the 215 submitted in 1989. (UK)

  9. Conceptual Framework of Crisis Negotiation Competency Development in Managers of Internal Affairs Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhnina V.V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors examine the psychological features of the development of an integral psychological concept of crisis negotiation activities from the perspective of system-situational and reflexive approaches.This research forms the basis of a new scientific direction in legal psychology, the psychology of crisis negotiation activities of employees of internal affairs bodies, as a system of coping with and preventing crisis in negotiations.The data was collected and analysed in several stages from 1995 to 2014 and included a survey of managers of internal affairs bodies as well as a systematic analysis of the data pool of 1705 crisis situations.Basing on the analysis the authors propose a matrix of negotiations which identifies priority strategies and possible crisis zones at various stages of the negotiation process depending on the characteristics of the situation, thus helping to carry out crisis negotiations effectively.

  10. Proposal to negotiate the renewal of two blanket purchase contracts for the supply of automation systems and fieldbus equipment

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the renewal of two blanket purchase contracts for the supply of automation systems and fieldbus equipment for the CERN accelerators, technical services and experiments. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of the renewal of two blanket purchase contracts with SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC (FR) and SIEMENS SUISSE (CH) for the supply of automation systems and fieldbus equipment for a period of three years. The total annual amount covering both contracts will not exceed 3 000 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision for inflation.

  11. THE TPP AND TTIP TRADE AGREEMENTS: THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free trade is one of the ultimate purposes of the free trade agreements currently negotiated over the world. Two of these trials are represented by the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The common feature of these two trade deals is represented by the United States, a global actor that is making sure that it will be able to trade in best conditions on both of its geographical shores: on the Pacific and on The Atlantic. The negotiations are still ongoing, but results are expected on both sides. An important issue for the third parties, but not only, is represented by the secrecy of the negotiations undertaken and the lack of transparency shown by the negotiating Governments. If the agreements are concluded, a major global impact on trade and investments is expected, with significant positive implications for the TPP and TTIP negotiating states.

  12. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14...

  13. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28...

  14. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January...

  15. 77 FR 3288 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... as the baseline contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the GREP Contracts 1 product... Classification Schedule language for GREP Contracts 1. The Postal Service identifies general contract terms that... methodology, the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are similar, if not the same, as the relevant...

  16. 77 FR 71458 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Contracts 1. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract (Contracts 1).\\1\\ It seeks to have the instant Contract included...

  17. International negotiations about reducing the emission of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepage, C.

    1999-01-01

    It is high time Europe proposed concrete actions within the framework of Kyoto negotiations. Europe should participate to negotiations actively, otherwise a non-efficient agreement could be applied. At Kyoto it was decided that licences for releasing greenhouse gases could be exchanged between countries but not between firms. The global efficiency and success of such a system requires to involve firms and polluters more directly. (A.C.)

  18. Using in-house expertise in negotiating power sales contracts for industrial cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yott, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Energy has always been a strategic component of Air Products and Chemicals production costs. In fact, Air Products is among the top consumers of electricity and natural gas in the U.S. Consequently, Air Products has developed a multifaceted Corporate Energy Department. The advent of PURPA in 1978 and the success enjoyed by Air Products in selling industrial gases over the fence to industrial customers as a integral part of their manufacturing system led Air Products into the industrial cogeneration business. This paper briefly summarizes Air Products entry into the industrial cogeneration market and the role that Air Products Energy Department has played in making this new business focus a success. It highlights how Air Products has been able to transfer its in-house expertise in purchasing power to the marketing, bidding, contract negotiation and avoided cost forecasting functions so critical in the successful development of industrial cogeneration opportunities. At Air Products we believe our long association with the utility industry first as a cost-conscious customer and more recently as an electric energy supplier has enhanced our competitive position. The same success story could be repeated at your company if you know what to look for and are not afraid to expand the horizons and responsibilities of your energy department

  19. Proposal to Negotiate an Amendment to an Existing Contract and Several Contracts for the Supply and Assembly of the LHC Short Straight Section Cryostats

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Following the insolvency of a major contractor, CERN proposes to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract and to place several contracts for the supply of 360 LHC arc short straight section cryostats and their assembly, eight spare cryostat units and components for 64 LHC dispersion suppressor short straight section cryostats. The Finance Committee is therefore invited to approve an amendment to an existing contract with the consortium: &8721; INTERTEC (DK) - CEGELEC (FR) - SPIE TRINDEL (FR) to include assembly of the LHC arc short straight sections, for an additional amount of 4 088 470 euros (6 205 480 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation after 31 December 2002; the consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal : DK - 52%, FR - 48%; and to the negotiation of contracts for the supply of related major components with the firms: &8721; SES (SK) for the supply of vacuum vessels for an amount of 5 538 533 euros...

  20. Recent Trends in World Trade and International Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available World trade in 2009 was dominated by the worst financial and economic crisis in decades. Global output shrank. So did the volume of international trade. Despite bearing no responsibility for the crisis, the poorer developing countries have fared the worst. China, Brazil and India saw exports drop by between a fifth and a third in the second half of 2008, but countries not belonging to the top 20 developing country exporters were hit even harder. Trade and GDP growth have started to pick up again, but some economists fear a “double-dip” recession. If unemployment continues to grow, it may become harder for governments to resist protectionist pressures. In terms of the WTO negotiations, the crisis cuts both ways. Governments are preoccupied with more immediate concerns. But the crisis has shattered the sense that protectionism was unthinkable, making a trade deal seem more valuable. The G-20 major economies have called for concluding the Doha Round in 2010, but it remains to be seen whether this pledge will amount to anything. The number of bilateral trade deals continues to grow, with Switzerland an enthusiastic participant. Some of these deals have been criticised for “WTO-plus” obligations, particularly regarding intellectual property. Meanwhile, there are real grounds for arguing that the Doha Round agenda does not reflect many current problems, especially climate change. With the US and the EU threatening to impose tariffs on exports from emerging economies with no hard emissions caps, it is clear that governments need to find some way of discussing the new challenges confronting the global economy.

  1. 77 FR 71642 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Services 3 contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... Expedited Package Services (GEPS) 3 contract (Contract).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR...

  2. The Critical Factors for Korean Freight Forwarders’ Purchasing Negotiation in International Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yong Shin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The roles of freight forwarders as intermediaries continue to expand and become significant in international logistics. Purchasing negotiation is considered an important business process for freight forwarders and achieving a successful negotiation outcome should help forwarders to manage their business more effectively. This study used the analytical hierarchy process (AHP approach to identify the critical factors for successful purchasing negotiation for freight forwarders in Korea. A three-level AHP structure was constructed to examine the successful purchasing negotiation. The findings indicate that information (specifically quality of information is the most critical factor for a successful negotiation outcome for freight forwarders. This result turned out to be the same as the result found from the literature review. Literature review also indicated information as the most important factor.

  3. The Structure of Trade in Genetic Resources: Implications for the International ABS Regime Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikyung Yun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The intensive exploitation of genetic resources at the international level has led to a negotiation of an international regime on Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS of genetic resources. Due to lack of systematic data, little is known about the structure of trade in genetic resources to inform the negotiators. This study attempts to shed a greater insight into genetic resources trade in the pharmaceutical sector in Korea, mainly relying on interviews of industry practitioners and scientists in related fields. The study finds that Korea is mainly a genetic resource importer, but that pharmaceutical firms rarely carry out bioprospecting directly, relying on semi-processed biochemicals imports trough agents. Therefore, the impact of the to-be negotiated international ABS negotiation will be larger if derivatives are included in its scope. However, the general impact on the economy as a whole would be small, given the small share of genetic resources trade compared to total trade volumes.

  4. 77 FR 26583 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... neither the fundamental service that it is offering nor the fundamental structure of the contract. Id. at..., the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are similar, if not the same, as the relevant characteristics of the contract filed in Docket No. CP2010-36. Id. at 4. The Postal Service concludes that its...

  5. Saving clauses in international contracts concerning the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virole, J.; Roubin, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns saving clauses in international contracts relating to the fuel cycle. It deals in particular with economic upheavals affecting those contracts and the usual clauses to protect the financial interests of the co-contractors. The paper also examines such economic upheavals in the context of clauses intended to preserve the contracts. (NEA) [fr

  6. Breaking the impasse in the international climate negotiations: The potential of green technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreurs, Miranda A.

    2012-01-01

    The slow pace of progress in the international climate negotiations is contrasted by the dynamic changes occurring on the ground as competition among countries for green technology leadership heats up. China, Germany, Japan, and the United States all exhibit interest in being green technology leaders although the United States could fall behind due to lack of strong federal government support for climate action. - Highlights: ► International competition for green technology and energy leadership. ► Green energy technology policy in China, Germany, Japan, and the United States. ► Dealing with the international stalemate in the climate negotiations.

  7. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when the CISG applies; • Freedom of contract under Article 6...

  8. Realizing Conflict, Negotiation, and Cooperation Concepts in the Context of International Water Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinar, Ariel; McKinney, Daene

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we offer a negotiation and cooperative game theory application to international water in the classroom. A simulation game was developed for the Aral Sea water dispute as part of a textbook prepared for teaching a diverse group of students a graduate-level International Water course. A condensed version of the Aral Sea Basin water…

  9. 78 FR 3477 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... they share similar cost and market characteristics. Id. at 5. It notes that the pricing formula and...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This document invites... announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service...

  10. 78 FR 3478 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... similar cost and market characteristics. Id. at 5. It notes that the pricing formula and classification...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This document invites... that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks...

  11. 77 FR 70850 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... three aspects of the Agreement expected to enhance performance: an anticipated revision to accounting... affect either the fundamental service being offered or the fundamental structure of the contracts. Id. at...

  12. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of superconducting wire for the LHC corrector magnets

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of superconducting wire for the LHC corrector magnets. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve an amendment to an existing contract with the firm ALSTOM (FR) for the supply of an additional 1 270 km of superconducting wire (Types 1 and 2) for an amount of 257 549 euros (402 679 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation, bringing the total to a maximum amount of 2 814 170 euros (4 399 955 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  13. Internal Dynamics in Iran. Iran, between Sanctions, Destruction, and Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kian-Thiebaut, Azadeh

    2008-01-01

    The Iranian rulers, including reformists and conservatives, are unanimous concerning the priority of obtaining nuclear technology, for the Islamic regime. In this context, the United States wants to contemplate all options, including military action, but they are emphasizing the diplomatic solution, on condition that Iran suspends its uranium enrichment program. Their position does not favor a way out of the Iranian crisis. However, the proposal for an unconditional negotiation between the United States and Iran would enable Iranian rulers not to lose face vis-a-vis Iranian, Arabic, and Muslim public opinion in light of their declaration to stand their ground and not succumb to Western pressure. This would also pave the way for a solution to avoid nuclear proliferation and instability in the Middle East

  14. Negotiation Support Systems for Facilitating International Water Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchi, A.; Madani, K.; Rouhani, O. M.

    2011-12-01

    Two decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Caspian Sea -the largest inland body of water on earth- continues to be the subject of one of the world's most insurmountable disputes, involving Iran, Russia, and the new sovereign states of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. The conflict is over the legal status of this multinational water body, which supplies almost all of the world's black caviar, and holds about 10% and 4% of the world's oil and gas reserves, respectively. Typically, proposed division methods for sharing the Caspian Sea and its valuable resources focus either on the areal shares or on the oil and gas shares of the parties. As such, total gains of littoral states under different division methods have remained unclear. In this study, we have developed the Caspian Sea Negotiation Support System (NSS) to delineate optimal boundaries for sharing the sea. The Caspian Sea NSS facilitates simultaneous consideration of the countries' areal and resource shares from the sea under different sharing methods. The developed model is run under different division scenarios to provide insights into the sensitivity of the countries' gains and locations of nautical boundaries to the proposed division rules and the economic values of the Caspian Sea resources. The results are highly sensitive to the proposed division rules, and there is an indirect relationship between the allocated area and resource shares. The main policy implication of the study is that explicit quantification of the countries' resource and areal gains under any suggested legal regime for governing the Caspian Sea is a precursor the success of the negotiations.

  15. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win....... With this monograph as their guide, lawyers and scholars who deal with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when...

  16. International trade versus public health during the FCTC negotiations, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    To examine why the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control did not include an explicit trade provision and delineate the central arguments in the debate over trade provision during the negotiations. Triangulate interviews with participants in the FCTC negotiations, the FCTC negotiations documents, and tobacco industry documents. An explicit FCTC trade provision on relation between international trade and public health became a contentious issue during the negotiations. As a result, two conflicting positions, health-over-trade and opposition to health-over-trade emerged. Opposition to explicit trade language giving health priority was by both tobacco industry and countries that generally supported strong FCTC provisions because of concerns over 'disguised protectionism' and setting a precedent whereby governments could forfeit their obligations under pre-existing treaties. Owing to lack of consensus among political actors involved in the negotiations, a compromise position eliminating any mention of trade emerged, which was predicated on belief among some in the public health community that public health would prevail in future trade versus health conflicts. The absence of an explicit FCTC trade provision was due to a political compromise rather than the impact of international trade agreements and decisions on public health and lack of consensus among health advocates. This failure to include an explicit trade provision in the FCTC suggests that the public health community should become more involved in trade and health issues at all levels of governance and press the FCTC Conference of the Parties for clarification of this critical issue.

  17. The Effects of the International Contract for Sale of Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contracts are the indispensable legal instruments for any economic transaction. The international sale contract is the main legal instrument by which international commerce is carried out and through which the movement of goods from producer to consumer is ensured within cross-border relations. The sale contract in international commerce is the legal act by which the parties, the seller and the buyer, belonging to different states, commit each other to transfer the property of a good in return for payment of a price. Regarding the general rules applicable to the contract of international sale of goods, they are regulated by the “United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods from Vienna”. The Convention has adopted uniform rules to govern the international sale of goods contract, if the parties have not chosen expressly for the application of other rules. In this study I present the effects of international sale of goods in the light of the rules of the Vienna Convention of 1980.

  18. Trancending the classrom: A practical guide to remote role plays in teaching international negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the pedagogical value of using remote role plays in cross-cultural negotiations between two classes taught simultaneously at different and geographically distant institutions. We argue that remote role-play simulations provide valuable teaching and learning experiences...... of some critical limitations of “traditional” in-class role plays, followed by a practical guide to remote role plays and a report of our experiences with them. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of remote role plays as a teaching tool for international negotiation classes and the key...

  19. Scientific Culture and Its Role in International Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Gottstein, Klaus L.

    2005-01-01

    Scientists as diplomats (historical examples). Scientists as advisors to governments and the public. Nongovernmental organisations and international conferences on security questions, initiated by scientists and based on their professional culture.

  20. Development and outlook for agriculture in international climate negotiations. Climate Report no. 48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronquet, Clothilde; Foucherot, Claudine

    2015-02-01

    Agriculture has a specific role to play in current and future climate change. This carbon-intensive sector, which is responsible for 13.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions, is also highly exposed to the impacts of climate change, including a downward trend and increasing variability in yields. Yet agriculture's capacity to adapt and potential for mitigation also make it part of the solution to climate change. The agricultural sector is often treated as a poor relation in international climate negotiations, which is inappropriate given its specific characteristics and fundamental role. The aim of this report is to consider how agriculture can participate effectively in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations and identify the main challenges faced by this sector in the coming years. An analysis of the history of negotiations and their current situation belies the idea that agriculture plays no part in the UNFCCC process, although it does not enjoy specific consideration as a sector. It falls within the scope of various mitigation and adaptation mechanisms, while its effective participation remains limited. Since 2009, agriculture has also been included in the COP negotiation process and is currently part of the UNFCCC's Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA). However, agriculture is only at the first stage of a long and complex negotiation process which cannot be expected to be completed during COP21. While we can hope for COP21 to achieve progress in dialogue regarding monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) or the adoption of a landscape approach, the SBSTA's work on agriculture will continue beyond 2015, representing a vital step before the development of any operational tools. Multilateral initiatives such as the Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture are meanwhile helping to mobilise the international community regarding agricultural issues, in parallel with

  1. Public contracts by negotiated procedure in cases of urgency – a new interpretation of the legal basis in light of experiences with organization of the 2012 European Football Championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Horubski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The negotiated procedure without publication of a contract notice is a special procedure for awarding public procurement contracts which departs from the obligation imposed on contracting authorities of respecting the freedoms of the internal market and rules of competition. The procedure may be applied in exceptional situations of extreme urgency resulting from an event which could not be foreseen. The current judicature of the Court of Justice of the EU provides interpretations of the legal basis for application of the procedure in specific cases. However, it does not address the issue of whether it is possible to regard improper performance of contractual obligations as unpredictable. It does not provide broader considerations concerning the form of regulations on the procedure of awarding public interest contracts either. These issues were subject to analysis in one of the resolutions of the National Appeal Chamber (KIO – the Polish authority issuing decisions in matters related to public procurement contracts. In resolution KIO/KD 58/10 of 6 August 2010, KIO assessed the correctness of the application of the negotiated procedure for changing the contractor of the Municipal Stadium in Wrocław in the run-up to the 2012 European Football Championships. KIO found that the significant delay in construction of the facility was unpredictably exceptional, and significantly threatened the timeliness of commissioning the facility, which resulted in termination of the agreement by the contracting authority. The resolution also included an assessment allowing for the position that such a situation was exceptional due to the scale of the threat to the public interest, including the commercial interest of the contracting authority, stemming from a lack of immediate performance of the contract if it resulted in disproportionate consequences for a specific community. The issue of acceptance of such an interpretation by EU institutions remains unresolved.

  2. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 févr. 2008 ... This is the best single summary of the political choices facing food and agriculture policymakers that has been written in this decade. Pat Mooney, Executive Director, the ETC Group An excellent resource for those mapping the increasing control of our food chain by international players. Suman Sahai ...

  3. Deal-Making 2.0: A New Experiential Simulation in Contract Negotiation and Drafting for Business Students in the Global and Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaw, Bruce W.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new contract negotiation and drafting exercise designed for undergraduate and graduate business students in a business law or legal environment of business survey course. Structured as an asset purchase and sale agreement involving a small business with intangible social media and intellectual property assets in a…

  4. MALTA: A Paradigm of Small Power International Negotiation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    anchorages in international waters: Kithara in * the Aegean, the Gulf of Hammament off Tunisia , the Hurd Bank off Malta, the Gulf of Sirte off Libya, and the...brother (Mintoff)" after the British withdrawal. 35 From 1972 until 1979, Libya provided petrol , diesel, paraffin and lubricant oils to Malta at Libyan...domestic prices, a significantly discounted price. Col. Qadhafi desired that the petrol products be sold at the same price on the local Maltese market

  5. Email Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bülow, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a set of email negotiations in order to explain a high number of deadlocks. The paper argues that one reason is the combination of cognitive effort characteristic of the e-mail genre, and the argumentative pattern found when two parties simultaneously try to persuade the other of the justice of their cause. For a negotiation involving the wording of a contract, the evidence suggests that, while there is a distinct advantage in the features of reviewability and revis...

  6. Negotiating supranational rules. The genesis of the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, A.

    1997-12-31

    The object of this study is the evolution from 1954-56 up until the mid-1970s of the nuclear safeguards system administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The main aim of the study is not to describe the IAEA safeguards system as such. The focus will be on analysing the arguments advanced in the various negotiations, and the main objective will be to single out the factors determining the result. In the course of the time span under study two international treaties were negotiated which were decisive for the development of international nuclear safeguards. These were the IAEA Stature (1956) and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968). The Statue as well as the NPT contain articles on international nuclear safeguards. These articles limit themselves to spelling out the safeguards principles. It was thus left to the IAEA Board of Governors to develop the safeguards procedures in detail. Two IAEA safeguards documents were negotiated between 1959 and 1965 in order to implement the safeguards article of the Statue. The safeguards requirements of the NPT were spelled out in a new model agreement in 1972. 58 refs.

  7. Negotiating supranational rules. The genesis of the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, A

    1998-12-31

    The object of this study is the evolution from 1954-56 up until the mid-1970s of the nuclear safeguards system administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The main aim of the study is not to describe the IAEA safeguards system as such. The focus will be on analysing the arguments advanced in the various negotiations, and the main objective will be to single out the factors determining the result. In the course of the time span under study two international treaties were negotiated which were decisive for the development of international nuclear safeguards. These were the IAEA Stature (1956) and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968). The Statue as well as the NPT contain articles on international nuclear safeguards. These articles limit themselves to spelling out the safeguards principles. It was thus left to the IAEA Board of Governors to develop the safeguards procedures in detail. Two IAEA safeguards documents were negotiated between 1959 and 1965 in order to implement the safeguards article of the Statue. The safeguards requirements of the NPT were spelled out in a new model agreement in 1972. 58 refs.

  8. Negotiating supranational rules. The genesis of the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forland, A.

    1997-01-01

    The object of this study is the evolution from 1954-56 up until the mid-1970s of the nuclear safeguards system administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The main aim of the study is not to describe the IAEA safeguards system as such. The focus will be on analysing the arguments advanced in the various negotiations, and the main objective will be to single out the factors determining the result. In the course of the time span under study two international treaties were negotiated which were decisive for the development of international nuclear safeguards. These were the IAEA Stature (1956) and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968). The Statue as well as the NPT contain articles on international nuclear safeguards. These articles limit themselves to spelling out the safeguards principles. It was thus left to the IAEA Board of Governors to develop the safeguards procedures in detail. Two IAEA safeguards documents were negotiated between 1959 and 1965 in order to implement the safeguards article of the Statue. The safeguards requirements of the NPT were spelled out in a new model agreement in 1972. 58 refs

  9. A cultural contracts perspective: examining American Indian identity negotiations in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsam, Teresa Trumbly

    2014-01-01

    Education has played a central role in identity confusion, and to this day, it is used to assimilate American Indians. For those American Indians who persist through doctoral degrees and enter academe, resisting assimilation is especially risky and often tiresome. In this conceptual exploration of identity, Cultural Contracts theory serves to illuminate the path of the American Indian academic journey. Although never applied in an American Indian context, cultural contracts theory may provide a bridge between the seemingly disparate strains of identity research and leave us with a sense of scope and potential for the theory's application.

  10. Recent Trends in World Trade and International Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Bellmann; Trineesh Biswas; Marie Chamay

    2010-01-01

    World trade in 2009 was dominated by the worst financial and economic crisis in decades. Global output shrank. So did the volume of international trade. Despite bearing no responsibility for the crisis, the poorer developing countries have fared the worst. China, Brazil and India saw exports drop by between a fifth and a third in the second half of 2008, but countries not belonging to the top 20 developing country exporters were hit even harder. Trade and GDP growth have started to pick up ag...

  11. CONSIDERATION ON THE LEGAL REGIME APPLICABLE TO INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban-Alexandru STANESCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Upon conclusion of an international tourism contract, the contracting parties - one of which (the beneficiary acts as the consumer – are facing legal difficulties, which are addressed by this study from the perspective of the interference between the national law and the European Union law. Thus, one of the primary issues considered herein is that concerning the determination of the applicable law based on which the rights and obligations of the contracting parties are to be established. Secondly, this study examines the applicable procedural rules in the case where a Romanian court is requested to settle a dispute arising from an international tourism contract. Finally, the study deals with the hypothesis where a dispute arising from such a contract is settled by a foreign court, and in particular with the effects of the judgment given by the foreign court on the territory of Romania. The above mentioned issues are the grounds behind this research on the legal status of international tourism contracts, in addition to the fact that, despite the rich contractual practice in the field under consideration, the amount of specialized literature on this subject is rather limited.

  12. An analysis of viable financial negotiations processes and related internal controls for procurement in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rafique, Abdul B.; Malik, Muhammad W.; Salman, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In Pakistan, the process of public procurement procedure standardization started in 2002 with the establishment of the Pakistan Public Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA), based on the 1994 United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law. PPRA rules allow four types of procurement procedures but limit the ability to conduct financial negotiations. PPRA rules are aimed at implemen...

  13. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket purchase contract for the supply of Burndy connectors for the LHC project and LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket purchase contract for the supply of Burndy connectors for the LHC project and LHC experiments. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of an amendment to the blanket purchase contract for the supply of Burndy connectors for the LHC project and LHC experiments with the company SOURIAU (CH), for the next three years for up to 600 000 euros (954 600 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from January 2007, bringing the total amount of the blanket purchase contract to a maximum amount of 1 200 000 euros (1 909 200 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from January 2007. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange. 2006/60/5/e

  14. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy...... but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability...... contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts...

  15. Panorama 2010: CO2 markets and the current status of international climate negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberola, E.

    2010-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere is causing climatic disturbances of increasing severity, representing risks for the entire planet. Existing GHG emissions reduction policies mainly focus on setting up cap and trade systems (carbon markets) geared to achieving such reductions. The Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty established under the auspices of the United Nations, sets forth the guiding principles, objectives and legally binding targets imposed on the parties concerned until 2012. The purpose of the international negotiations underway is to set up a new regulatory framework for the post-2012 period. (author)

  16. European Union Climate Change Policy: in the nexus of internal policy-making and itnernational negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the dissertation is to examine the European Union s climate policy in the nexus of domestic policy-making and international negotiations. I firstly test the EU s internal climate policy-making by applying the rational choice institutionalism on the model of institution and preference affect EU s policy outcomes and conclude that: as the EU has a convergent preference, the EU s unique decision-making procedure, the entrepreneurship and EU s membership had been driving EU s climate...

  17. Negotiating supranational rules - The genesis of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, Astrid

    1998-12-31

    The object of this thesis is the evolution from 1954-56 up until the mid 1970s of the nuclear safeguards system administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The evolution is traced not through the practical implementation of the safeguards system, but through the various multilateral negotiations through which it was created. The focus is on analysing the arguments advanced in the various negotiations, and the main objective is to single out the factors determining the result. The discussion is organised into the following chapters: (1) The statute of the IAEA, (2) The IAEA 1961 safeguard document (INFCIRC/26), (3) The IAEA 1965 safeguards document (INFCIRC/66), (4) The non-proliferation treaty, (5) NPT safeguards. 92 refs.

  18. International negotiation methods on climatic risks, the limits of global incentives: Natural gas example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, J.C.; Journe, V.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion on economic instruments for coordinating an international strategy for climatic risks prevention does not take sufficiently into account the importance of the relevant scientific controversies. These ones determine strongly the negotiation process for the settlement of such a system. We illustrate this point with the simple case of the natural gas whose superiority in terms of emission contents compared to the other fossil fuels, could be contested in case of too important CH 4 releases. We show that the negotiation process cannot come to a positive end if the incentive system relies only on the price signal. This process can converge only if one thinks about the combination of various tools, namely technological norms and ad hoc funds for the renewal of transmission and distribution networks combined with tax systems. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Negotiating supranational rules - The genesis of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, Astrid

    1999-12-31

    The object of this thesis is the evolution from 1954-56 up until the mid 1970s of the nuclear safeguards system administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The evolution is traced not through the practical implementation of the safeguards system, but through the various multilateral negotiations through which it was created. The focus is on analysing the arguments advanced in the various negotiations, and the main objective is to single out the factors determining the result. The discussion is organised into the following chapters: (1) The statute of the IAEA, (2) The IAEA 1961 safeguard document (INFCIRC/26), (3) The IAEA 1965 safeguards document (INFCIRC/66), (4) The non-proliferation treaty, (5) NPT safeguards. 92 refs.

  20. International Jurisdiction and Commercial Litigation: uniform rules for contract disputes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Lith (Hélène)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis book deals with judicial jurisdiction of state courts in international disputes, in particular those arising out of transnational commercial contracts entered into between private entities, individuals, and corporations.1 The present study examines whether any common grounds in

  1. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Smith, C.

    1995-01-01

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  2. The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Eiselen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it isnecessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be madeavailable to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on aproper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

  3. Advice for a career in academic gastroenterology: from fellowship application through job selection and contract negotiations to research and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, M S

    2009-03-01

    This study aims to describe a comprehensive strategy for success in academic gastroenterology by reporting common sense, but mostly previously unpublished, recommendations. The recommendation are based on expert opinion from personal experience mentoring 125 gastroenterology fellows and residents as a program director for nine years and from mentoring research while publishing more than 160 articles in peer-reviewed journals and editing 11 books during a 23-year academic career. Primary criteria for fellowship applicant selection include board scores, clinical performance, interview performance, clinical training, and research productivity. For optimal chances, select the subspecialty of gastroenterology early during residency, consult a mentor, and develop a well-planned strategy. Faculty advancement depends upon publications, grants, national recognition, interpersonal skills, and recommendations. Article categories from highest-to-lowest in prestige are original investigations, review articles, book chapters, case reports, and letters/abstracts. Articles are judged by the prestige of the journal of publication. Resubmit rejected articles to successively less prestigious journals until accepted for publication. Articles in journals without peer-review have negligible career impact. Grant support creates protected time. Institutional reputation is important in academics. Do not accept a job without a written contract. Have a lawyer review your contract. An outside offer strengthens a negotiating position. Be sociable and nonconfrontational at work. Network with colleagues. Seek a mentor. Meet your supervisor regularly for feedback. Never express anger at your boss or patients. Avoid litigation with employers. Sub-subspecialize to develop expertise in one area. Focus on this area in your research and clinical practice. In conclusion, a well-planned strategy can help you achieve a senior academic position early and efficiently.

  4. Email Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie

    the other of the justice of their cause. For a negotiation involving the wording of a contract, the evidence suggests that, while there is a distinct advantage in the features of reviewability and revisablity, the email format allows selective attention to the other party’s arguments, which can be shown...

  5. Negotiations 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce; And Others

    Reflecting the management advocacy position taken by school boards in collective bargaining procedures, this report analyzes New Jersey school labor negotiations laws and practices as of 1978. Terms and issues of special interest are defined and explained. Topics include contract language, good faith bargaining, past practice, negotiations…

  6. 48 CFR 15.405 - Price negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 15.405... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.405 Price negotiation. (a) The purpose of performing cost or price analysis is to develop a negotiation position that permits the...

  7. Negotiating a new social contract for the extractive industries: what is the role of geoscientists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2017-04-01

    questions of economic, social and environmental sustainability. Global impacts are undervalued in comparison to local ones, and global injustices are not addressed. The major IUGS initiative 'Resourcing Future Generations' provides an opportunity to identify and address the challenges that we will face in meeting future global resource needs sustainably. If these challenges are to be met, it will no longer be sufficient for companies to secure their 'social licence to operate' on a localised, case-by-case basis. Unless we take a holistic view of equitable access to resources, the wealth they generate and the associated social and environmental impacts, at a global, regional and local level, communities and commercial entities alike will suffer, and we will risk environmental catastrophe. This presentation will outline the need for a new social contract for resource extraction, involving companies, governments, civil society and communities at a global, regional and local level. It will also explore what role geoscientists should play in developing and implementing such a social contract.

  8. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of the cold masses of the LHC short straight sections

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of the main superconducting quadrupoles and assembly of the cold masses of the LHC short straight sections. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve an amendment to an existing contract with the firm ACCEL INSTRUMENTS (DE) for an amount of 1 513 618 euros (2 411 496 Swiss francs), bringing the total to a maximum amount of 40 815 743 euros (65 027 641 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  9. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an exisiting contract for the supply of additional Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) blankets for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of additional sets of MLI blankets. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve an amendment to an existing contract with JEHIER (FR) for the supply of additional MLI blanket sets for an amount of 1 020 000 euros (1 625 000 Swiss francs), bringing the total to a maximum amount of 8 954 359 euros (14 266 084 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  10. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of additional Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blankets for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of additional sets of MLI blankets. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve an amendment to an existing contract with JEHIER (FR) for the supply of an additional 2 420 MLI blankets for an amount of 1 863 400 euros (2 909 513 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation, bringing the total to a maximum amount of 7 934 359 euros (12 388 708 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  11. Negotiating a deal in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The legal and diplomatic environment surrounding oil production negotiations in Iraq was discussed with reference to the essential terms generally negotiated for upstream contracts between oil companies and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil. Legal considerations were discussed for the following upstream contracts: production sharing contracts, a risk service contract, a modified buy-back contract, a technical service contract, and a joint venture company. It was noted that negotiations in Iraq require a great amount of diplomacy as projects are very high profile and attract significant international attention. Information sharing is critical in gaining valuable government support. The main problem for interested investors in Iraq is predicting when the UN sanctions will be lifted. Once lifted, the Ministry of Oil's Development Plan is to increase oil production through the co-operative assistance of foreign oil companies. While the sanctions remain in place, Iraq is allowed to sell oil on a renewable basis every 6 months under the oil-for-food programme, which permits Iraq to spend US$600 million every 6 months for spare parts to upgrade its oil industry. 9 figs

  12. 76 FR 10628 - International Product Change-International Business Reply Service Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ...Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 to the Competitive Products List pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642.

  13. Taking credit : Canada and the role of sinks in international climate negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.

    2001-01-01

    This report serves as a guide in explaining the significant, but complicated role that terrestrial carbon sinks play in international climate negotiations and the continuing need for major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The role that terrestrial carbon sinks should play in the Kyoto Climate Change Protocol was one of the main reasons for impasse in negotiations at the treaty talks in the Hague in November 2000. The issue is based on the allowance of countries to receive credits under the Kyoto Protocol for using forests and lands to absorb and store carbon. Storing carbon could be part of a menu of options to slow the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. However, it was argued that without strong crediting rules and guidelines, countries like Canada could use interpretations that would allow them to weaken the emission reduction commitments made under the Protocol. This paper explained why some countries support expansive crediting of sinks and others are strongly opposed to their inclusion in the Protocol. The paper also provided a technical explanation of the science of sinks and the carbon cycle upon which policy decisions must be based. The five chapters of the report were entitled: (1) sinks and international climate negotiations, (2) counting carbon in the industrialized world, (3) counting carbon in the developing world, (4) terrestrial carbon sinks as carbon offset mechanisms, and (5) effects of land use practices and climate change on carbon exchange in terrestrial ecosystems. A decision regarding the allowance of carbon sinks will be reached in the talks scheduled for the end of July 2001 in Bonn, Germany. refs., tabs., figs

  14. International Commercial Contracts, by Giuditta Cordero Moss. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713......Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713...

  15. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket purchase contract for the supply and repair of subracks for the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket purchase contract for the supply and repair of subracks for the LHC experiments. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of an amendment to the blanket purchase contract for the supply and repair of subracks for the LHC experiments with the company WIENER, PLEIN & BAUS (DE), for an extension of the period of supply from four to six years for an amount exceeding the previously authorised amount of 5 600 000 euros, subject to revision for inflation from January 2003, by up to 1 880 000 euros, subject to revision for inflation, bringing the total amount of the blanket purchase contract to a maximum amount of 7 480 000 euros, subject to revision for inflation. At the present rate of exchange, the total amended amount of the blanket purchase contract is equivalent to approximately 11 800 000 Swiss francs. CERN's total financial contribution to the funding of the ...

  16. 48 CFR 15.406-3 - Documenting the negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... negotiation. 15.406-3 Section 15.406-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.406-3 Documenting the negotiation. (a) The contracting officer shall document in the contract file the principal elements of the...

  17. The Antenarrative of Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Boje, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Within organizations, there are occasions where a contract negotiation is recognizable, e.g. a job offer. However, that situation is already embedded in other structures and negotiations. This article explores the nature of such embeddedness. We extend negotiation theory by adding an analysis...... of argumentation that underlie negotiation. We study a case of New Public Management in a university, as an organization with several layers of decision-makers and distributed responsibility for resource allocation. By examining the dynamic development of antenarrative, we contribute a theory of embeddedness...... that helps to develop strategic ‘bets on the future’ that practitioners can use as a preparation tool before negotiations....

  18. Producing the "International" Child: Negotiations of Language in an International Preschool in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic account of an "international preschool" in Japan, describing how ideologies of "English" and "internationalism" are produced and consumed among the parents, teachers and directors, in their common goal of socialising an "international" child. (Contains 6 notes.)

  19. Small island developing states and international climate change negotiations: the power of moral ‘‘leadership’’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Águeda Corneloup, de I.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Being at the frontline of climate change, small island developing states (SIDS) hold a serious stake in climate negotiations. However, these countries usually are marginalized in the international political arena, due to their lack of structural power. This paper explores the strategic influence of

  20. 48 CFR 1615.070 - Negotiation authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Negotiation authority. 1615.070 Section 1615.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 1615.070 Negotiation authority. Th...

  1. 48 CFR 2115.070 - Negotiation authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Negotiation authority. 2115.070 Section 2115.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 2115.070 Negotiation...

  2. Proposal to negotiate amendments to an existing contract for the supply of steel structures for the LHC shafts, tunnels, caverns and experimental areas

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate amendments to an existing contract for the supply of additional steel structures for the LHC shafts, tunnels, caverns and experimental areas. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve amendments to the existing contract with the firm INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT) for the supply of additional steel structures for the LHC shafts, tunnels, caverns and experimental areas for an amount of 500 000 euros (775 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation, bringing the total to 6 525 745 euros (10 114 905 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  3. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of MQY-type superconducting quadrupole magnets for the LHC insertions

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of MQY-type superconducting quadrupole magnets for the LHC insertions. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve an amendment to an existing contract with the firm ACCEL (DE) for the supply of four additional MQY-type superconducting quadrupole magnets for an amount of 569 000 euros (881 950 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation, bringing the total to a maximum amount of up to 3 198 656 euros (4 957 917 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  4. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of additional vacuum vessels for the short-straight sections of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of additional vacuum vessels for the short-straight sections of the LHC. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve an amendment to an existing contract with SLOVENSKE ENERGETICKE STROJARNE (SK) for the supply of 25 additional vacuum vessels for the short-straight sections for the LHC for an amount of 140 000 euros (216 999 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation, bringing the total to a maximum amount of 6 176 855 euros (9 574 097 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  5. Contracts for the International Sale of Goods : Recent Developments at the International and European Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruisinga, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    In the globalizing economy, national borders seem to have disappeared. However, when determining which law will apply to a commercial transaction, the opposite seems true. In 1980, the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (hereafter the CISG) was specifically drafted to

  6. International contracts - private autonomy and State law: consideration of recent trends with particular attention to their effect on nuclear contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Sergio

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides a description of several types of international contracts and their clauses, in particular in relation to their limitations which are partly due to compliance with the law of the countries concerned. The actions of private business concerns are increasingly conditioned by the position taken at government level, while States in turn are governed by commitments under Treaties they have concluded, e.g. the International Monetary Fund Treaty and the 1980 Rome Convention relating to contractual obligations. The author also deals with private autonomy and international contracts in the context of the development of international economic relationships. (NEA) [fr

  7. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for civil engineering superstructure and internal construction building work

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for civil engineering superstructure and internal construction building work. Following a market survey carried out among 112 firms in fifteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2546/ST/Rev.) was sent on 12 April 2001 to eleven consortia, four consisting of four firms, three consisting of three firms and four consisting of two firms, in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from eight consortia in six Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium SPIE CITRA SUD-EST(FR)-ANTIRUST TECHNOLOGY (GR), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of three years from 1 January 2002 for an amount not exceeding 15 375 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this ...

  8. Negotiating with payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joel M

    2010-05-01

    Negotiating with payers for better reimbursement, contract language, support for practice enhancement, or changes in policies and procedures is a critical function that may greatly enhance a practice's success over time. This article discusses keys to successful negotiating and several specific areas beyond reimbursement that deserve the reader's attention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 48 CFR 315.371 - Contract preparation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.371 Contract... the contract until the finance office certifies that the funds are available for obligation. ...

  10. Impact of the formation of coalitions and fairly challenges on the international negotiations: an analysis of the economical and ethical fundaments. Final report january 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The project concerned two objectives: the analysis of the impact of the formation of coalitions on the possible equilibrium and the dynamic of the international negotiations in the framework of the climatic change; and the challenges bond to the fairly engagement decided by the countries during the negotiations in the framework of the Climate convention

  11. How employees negotiate : job autonomy and negotiation self-efficacy related to integrative negotiation and negotiation results in employment relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    To assess whether satisfaction with psychological contract breach does more depend on good negotiation skills or on a well-designed job, we first investigated the effect of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation with survey data from employees of a telecom company. We

  12. Generating Benefits and Negotiating Tensions through an International Doctoral Forum: A Sociological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglun Michael Mu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Workshops and seminars are widely-used forms of doctoral training. However, research with a particular focus on these forms of doctoral training is sporadic in the literature. There is little, if any, such research concerning the international context and participants’ own voices. Mindful of these lacunae in the literature, we write the current paper as a group of participants in one of a series of doctoral forums co-organised annually by Beijing Normal University, China and Queensland University of Technology, Australia. The paper voices our own experiences of participation in the doctoral forum. Data were drawn from reflections, journals, and group discussions of all 12 student and academic participants. These qualitative data were organised and analysed through Bourdieu’s notions of capital and field. Findings indicate that the doctoral forum created enabling and challenging social fields where participants accrued and exchanged various forms of capital and negotiated transient and complex power relations. In this respect, the sociological framework used provides a distinctive theoretical tool to conceptualise and analyse the benefits and tensions of participation in the doctoral forum. Knowledge built and lessons learned through our paper will provide implications and recommendations for future planning of, and participation in, the doctoral forum series and similar activities elsewhere.

  13. The high cost of fine print. Antitrust case against a major Blue Cross plan may redefine terms of contract negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melanie; Blesch, Gregg

    2010-10-25

    With its challenge to Michigan Blues contracts with some hospitals, the Justice Department is doing something it hasn't in more than 10 years. The move means insurers need to carefully vet contracts for similar issues. "This signals they're still in the enforcement business as it relates to healthcare insurance," says lawyer David Marx Jr.

  14. The Impacts of Climate Change Negotiation on Domestic Industrial Structure and International Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Yoon Young [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    environmental impacts on South Korea. On the whole, the Kyoto Protocol has the potential to cause profound economic changes in individual countries and the wider global economy. From an economic perspective the setting of greenhouse gas emission targets in the Kyoto Protocol was the key decision taken at Kyoto because of the significant implications on economic and trade competitiveness they hold. Now that individual Annex I country targets have been set, the international debate has shifted toward the question of cost effective and environmentally credible implementation of the Protocol and the way of participation of developing countries including South Korea to contribute to the global efforts for greenhouse gas emission reduction. It is believed that the ongoing climate change negotiation could create the structural changes of industries in South Korea. This new situation will bring South Korea to an unfamiliar economic and social environment. (author). 76 refs., 41 figs., 23 tabs.

  15. An Iterative Process for International Negotiations on Acid Rain in Northern Europe Using a General Convex Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, M.; Toint, Ph.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a game theoretical approach of international negotiations on transboundary pollution. This approach is distinguished by a discrete time formulation and by a suitable formulation of the local information assumption on cost and damage functions: at each stage of the negotiation, the parties assign the best possible cooperative state, given the available information, as an objective for the next stage. It is shown that the resulting sequences of states converges from a non-cooperative situation to an international optimum in a finite number of stages. Furthermore, a financial transfer structure is also presented that makes the desired sequence of states individually rational and strategically stable. The concepts are applied in a numerical simulation of the SO2 transboundary pollution problem related to acid rain in Northern Europe. 14 refs

  16. Negotiation within labor relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is the process we use in order to obtain things that we want and are controlled by others. Any desire we intend to fulfill, any need that we are obliged to meet is a potential bargaining situations. Between groups and individuals, negotiation occurs naturally, as some have one thing that the other wants and is willing to bargain to get it. More or less we are all involved in negotiations: closing a contract, buying a thing, obtaining sponsorships, collective decision making, conflict resolution, agreement on work plans. Within the field of labor relations, negotiation can occur on the occasion of closing / amending employment contracts or in order to regulate employment or work relations. Moreover, used properly, the negotiation can be an effective tool for solving labor disputes, with benefits for both involved parties. This paper aims to present negotiating principles and steps to follow in planning and preparing negotiations and the negotiating techniques that can lead to a successful negotiation based on a well-developed plan.

  17. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply and installation of interconnecting pipework for cryogenics and cooling of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply and installation of interconnecting pipework for cryogenics and cooling of the LHC. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve an amendment to the existing contract for the supply and installation of interconnecting pipework for cryogenics and cooling of the LHC with the firm DEMONT (IT) for an amount exceeding the previously approved amount of 3 818 877 euros (5 881 000 Swiss francs) by up to 2 157 800 euros (3 323 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation, bringing the total contract amount to a maximum amount of 5 976 677 euros (9 204 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the initial tender (CERN/FC/4322). The firm has declared the following origin of the equipment covered by this adjudication proposal: IT - 85%, CZ - 5%, SK - 4%, FR - 3%, PL - 3%.

  18. Bitcoin as an Efficient Method for the International Contract Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diachek Olga Yu.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed to study the functioning of Bitcoin in today’s world. The issue of the nature of Bitcoin and tendencies in its development have been considered. Given the growing spread of Bitcoin, the number of transactions and the size of the blocks in the system will but increase. In order to maintain correct work, according to progressive growth, consideration is given to the dynamics of the increasing role of the virtual currency, the payment channels through digital coins, and the importance of assimilating such platforms. An analysis of the methods for international contract settlements was carried out. The relevance of implementation of cryptocurrency has been substantiated. The features of functioning of Bitcoin compared to the world currencies were considered. The economic properties of the block chain were studied. In turn, cryptocurrency suggests that the true value of technology lies in its growing potential. In order to develop a complete picture of the effect and scope of Bitcoin, stages of its development and the current status both in Ukraine and the world as a whole were examined. Accordingly, recommendations have been made to improve the status of Bitcoin in Ukraine

  19. Learning Russia's ropes : 2 international negotiating pros share lessons they learned while doing business in post-Soviet Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.W.

    2007-11-15

    This article addressed the issue of oil field services negotiators who travel to Russia to establish joint ventures in post-Perestroika Russia. Canadian Fracmaster Ltd. was the first Canadian company to sign a contract with Russia's ministry of oil. The contract was based on a guarantee that the Canadian company would finance the project and ensure that Fracmaster's 2000 horsepower pumpers would boost Russian production. Increases in production were divided equally between Russians and Canadians. At their first well, the pumpers increased production levels from 70 to 350 barrels per day. The 51 per cent Russian, 49 per cent Canadian-owned joint venture became a model for future business negotiations with other companies. Not wanting to rely on the unstable ruble, Gulf Canada negotiated payment-in-kind in return for the significant investments in the Russian oil and gas sector. Negotiations were often complicated by the fact that Russian government officials were arguing over who would be in charge of new initiatives, and new Russian republics were determined to gain control over their resources from the central government. Business people negotiating with westerners were often threatened by the Russian mafia or put under surveillance by the KGB. It was concluded that companies and individuals who were involved in Russia's new economy have gone on to make lucrative contracts in other developing countries. 4 figs.

  20. Negotiating designs of multi-purpose reservoir systems in international basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel; Harou, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Given increasing agricultural and energy demands, coordinated management of multi-reservoir systems could help increase production without further stressing available water resources. However, regional or international disputes about water-use rights pose a challenge to efficient expansion and management of many large reservoir systems. Even when projects are likely to benefit all stakeholders, agreeing on the design, operation, financing, and benefit sharing can be challenging. This is due to the difficulty of considering multiple stakeholder interests in the design of projects and understanding the benefit trade-offs that designs imply. Incommensurate performance metrics, incomplete knowledge on system requirements, lack of objectivity in managing conflict and difficulty to communicate complex issue exacerbate the problem. This work proposes a multi-step hybrid multi-objective optimization and multi-criteria ranking approach for supporting negotiation in water resource systems. The approach uses many-objective optimization to generate alternative efficient designs and reveal the trade-offs between conflicting objectives. This enables informed elicitation of criteria weights for further multi-criteria ranking of alternatives. An ideal design would be ranked as best by all stakeholders. Resource-sharing mechanisms such as power-trade and/or cost sharing may help competing stakeholders arrive at designs acceptable to all. Many-objective optimization helps suggests efficient designs (reservoir site, its storage size and operating rule) and coordination levels considering the perspectives of multiple stakeholders simultaneously. We apply the proposed approach to a proof-of-concept study of the expansion of the Blue Nile transboundary reservoir system.

  1. Analysis of Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    buyer to answer include the following: 6  Does the organization want to buy or lease a product?  Does the organization want to completely...who as commander of U.S. Army Contracting Command-Korea, took thousands of dollars in bribes from contractors for favorable treatment in contract

  2. 48 CFR 315.372 - Preparation of negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of negotiation memorandum. 315.372 Section 315.372 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.372 Preparation of negotiation memorandum. The Contracting...

  3. Policy communities and allocation of internalized cost : negotiation of the Ontario acid rain program, 1982-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    The process of allocating the internalized cost of environmental protection amongst industrial concerns and governments was studied. The issue was addressed by reviewing the literature on the treatment of externalities by economists, and the literature describing the approach to policy analysis by the the policy communities. An examination of a case study in which the cost of sulphur dioxide emission reductions was allocated amongst the major Ontario sources during the development of the 1985 national and Ontario acid rain programs was presented. The study provided an insight into issues regarding Canadian environmental policy and policy communities theory and practice. The Ontario allocation was negotiated by Ontario alone, even though it was part of a national program. The environmental movement also had no role in this Ontario policy decisions. The power to influence the Ontario cabinet belonged to MOE, Inco, and Ontario Hydro through negotiations and compromise, which conforms to the basic premise of the policy communities approach.

  4. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to the existing contract for the assembly of cryomagnets for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve an amendment to the existing contract with the consortium INTERTEC (DK), CEGELEC (FR) and AMEC SPIE (FR) for the assembly of the LHC cryomagnets for an amount not exceeding 6 586 741 euros (10 284 537 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation, bringing the total amount of the contract to an amount of 24 690 595 euros (38 551 895 Swiss francs). The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  5. How Not to Lose Face in International Negotiation – Sociolinguistic and Linguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert MAGNUS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the sociolinguistic and linguistic approaches of theinternational negotiation in its details and of the argumentation in general. Several authors arethus mentioned: in alphabetical order, Jean-Michel Adam, Klaus Brinker, Karl Bühler, OswaldDucrot, Erving Goffman, Roman Jakobson, Catherine Kerbrat-Orecchioni and Eddy Roulet. In allcases of negotiation the question is to “save the face”, a notion taken from E. Goffman, and to keepa trust relationship and insurance with one’s interlocutor.

  6. Preparation of International Business Contracts in Facing the ASEAN Economic Community Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlan Sahlan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the preparation for composing and formulating the international business contracts in facing the ASEAN Economic Community era. The study used the normative approach by collecting the materials related to the international business contracts. The outcomes of the research indicate that constitutionally, the Indonesian government must provide protection and equitable legal certainty for Indonesian citizens who intend to conduct business transactions within the framework of AEC. Format and writing techniques of international business contracts is compulsory known by the business people and their legal consultants that they do not suffer losses due to errors in the preparing of contract that violates the rules and provisions of international business contract.

  7. Modelling the International Climate Change Negotiations: A Non-Technical Outline of Model Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underdal, Arild

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses in non-technical terms the overall architecture of a model that will be designed to enable the user to (1) explore systematically the political feasibility of alternative policy options and (2) to determine the set of politically feasible solutions in the global climate change negotiations. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Non-face-to face international business negotiation : how is national culture reflected in this medium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; Lincke, A.; Karakaya, Y.

    2001-01-01

    With the globalization of the world economy, it is imperative that managers, both present and future, be sensitive to differences in intercultural business communication. In particular, the context of global electronic commerce leads to an increasing use of email in negotiating deals, which to this

  9. Negotiation Games

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    Negotiations, a model of concurrency with multi party negotiation as primitive, have been recently introduced by J. Desel and J. Esparza. We initiate the study of games for this model. We study coalition problems: can a given coalition of agents force that a negotiation terminates (resp. block the negotiation so that it goes on forever)?; can the coalition force a given outcome of the negotiation? We show that for arbitrary negotiations the problems are EXPTIME-complete. Then we show that for...

  10. Financing the energy renovation of public buildings through Internal Contracting. Infinite Solutions Guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilken, Peter; Turner, Ian; Kuehnbach, Matthias; Simic, Ivan; Kuharic, Boris; Laranjeira, Celia; Rodrigues, Carlos; Couceiro, Carla; Presotto, Agnese; Mazzeschi, Alessandro; Cleto, Joao

    2017-02-01

    Meeting the European energy and climate policy objectives will require the mobilisation of substantial energy efficiency and renewable energy investments at the local level. Given both the substantial effort necessary to finance the energy transition and restricted municipal budgets, it is clear that these objectives cannot be met through traditional public financing such as grants or direct investment, but by finding a new approach to financing solutions. This Energy Cities guidebook is built upon a comprehensive analysis of Stuttgart's Internal Contracting scheme and a detailed questioning of it by the learning authorities within the INFINITE Solutions project. It is intended to offer guidelines to municipalities as well as universities, hospitals or other institutions interested in applying Internal Contracting to improve their energy consumption and efficiency performance. The approach of this guidebook is developed as follows: The concept of contracting - especially Internal Contracting - is introduced. Universal guidance is offered on how to implement an Internal Contracting scheme and keep it working over the long term. The Internal Contracting scheme is presented in practice. Several cities describe their individual approaches to Internal Contracting and the various ways they have been able to adapt the scheme

  11. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  12. The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the central commercial importance of contracts of sale and the impressive and steadily growing list of ratifications (more than 75 States), the CISG Convention must be regarded as the most significant piece of substantive contract legislation in effect at the international level....

  13. The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the central commercial importance of contracts of sale and the impressive and steadily growing list of ratifications (more than 80 States), the CISG Convention must be regarded as the most significant piece of substantive contract legislation in effect at the international level....

  14. Climate policy and ancillary benefits. A survey and integration into the modelling of international negotiations on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittel, Karen; Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Currently informal and formal international negotiations on climate change take place in an intensive way since the Kyoto Protocol expires already in 2012. A post-Kyoto regulation to combat global warming is not yet stipulated. Due to rapidly increasing greenhouse-gas emission levels, industrialized countries urge major polluters from the developing world like China and India to participate in a future agreement. Whether these developing countries will do so, depends on the prevailing incentives to participate in international climate protection efforts. This paper identifies ancillary benefits of climate policy to provide important incentives to attend a new international protocol and to positively affect the likelihood of accomplishing a post-Kyoto agreement which includes commitments of developing countries. (author)

  15. World championship in negotiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2013-01-01

    for negotiation pedagogy.These benefits include: the high level of student commitment generated by participation in a competition, which enhances the quality of negotiation; the opportunity that the competitions give students to experience authentic cultural diversity; and the networking opportunities......The last decade has seen the emergence of several new negotiation competitions around the world.We think the two major drivers of this development are a general trend toward the increasing internationalization of higher education and a recognition of the specific benefits of competitions...... for students and instructors that the competitions create.This article focuses on the role that negotiation competitions can play in negotiation pedagogy. We first present an overview of the currently most important international negotiation competitions.This is followed by an outline of the specific benefits...

  16. Winning PEMEX consulting contracts through international bidding : sharing a Canadian success strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of brief notes and overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which described how Enbridge Technology obtained a contract with Mexico's PEMEX Refining through an international open bid. The scope of the contract was to advise PEMEX on how to modernize and automate their national liquids pipeline system. The value of the contract was US$11.6 million. The time span was from April 1998 to October 1999. A flow chart was included which illustrated the typical international bidding process. Enbridge prepared their bid by paying attention to bid basis details and emphasized their technical qualifications. 1 fig

  17. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a contract for the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for the LHC. Following a market survey (MS-2602/LHC/LHC) carried out amoung 37 firms in twelve Member States and six firms in two non-Member States, a price enquiry for qualifying prototypes was sent on 20 November 1998 to nine selected firms and the received prototypes were evaluated. As a result of this process a request for quotation was sent to one firm The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm EMERSON PROCESS MANAGEMENT/FISHER-ROSEMOUNT (CH), without competitive tendering, for the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for an amount of 1 804 840 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, with options for up to 10 additional cryogenic helium mass flowmeters and an extension of the guarantee period to five years for all units for an amount of 219 090 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, bringing the total amount to 2 023 930 Swi...

  18. 48 CFR 970.1504-2 - Price negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 970.1504-2 Section 970.1504-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-2 Price negotiation. (a) Management and operating contract...

  19. Book Review: Jus Cogens – International Law and Social Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawati Handayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is based on the doctoral thesis completed by the author as an International Scholar of the Cambridge Overseas Trust at the University of Cambridge. The main idea of the books lies on the fact that jus cogens still become one of the most complex doctrines in contemporary international law. The legal foundation of jus cogens is still questionable, whether it lies on natural law, positive law or even to higher or divine origin. However, there is general agreement that jus cogens represent the fundamental value in international society or so-called higher norm in international law.

  20. Role reversal and problem solving in international negotiations: the Partial Nuclear Test Ban case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    To facilitate finding bargaining space and to reinforce cooperative potential, a number of analysts have promoted the use of role reversal and problem solving. Role reversal involves restating the positions of one's adversary to demonstrate understanding and to develop empathy, while problem solving involves searching for alternatives that promote joint interests. The case of the negotiations in the Eighteen Nation Disarmament Conference from 1962--1963 leading to the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty provided the context for examining bargaining relationships involving role reversal and problem solving. Interactions among the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, as recorded in transcripts of 112 sessions, were coded using Bargaining Process Analysis II, a content analysis instrument used to classify negotiation behaviors. Role reversal was measured by the frequency of paraphrases of the adversary's positions. Problem solving was measured by the frequency of themes promoting the exploration of alternatives and the search for mutually beneficial outcomes. The findings on the use of paraphrasing suggest that it can be used to restrict exploration as well as to promote it. The exploratory focus of problem solving was somewhat limited by its use in association with demands, suggesting that problem solving was interpreted as a sign of weakness

  1. Making the COP21 work. From international to national scope: the impact of climate negotiations on public action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Coline; Delory, Linda; Guibert, Geraud

    2015-12-01

    How to appreciate, when the time comes, the results of the COP21? What are the elements that can make it truly useful? La Fabrique Ecologique and CliMates, on the basis of an exclusive and meticulous international survey underline them: the important part of an efficient climate action does not always rely on what we believe. The most influential aspect will be the commitment to future objectives and steps, strong principles of transparency and the extent of real domestic commitments for a new development strategy. A few weeks ahead of the COP21, what can we really expect? It is very likely that, as for the previous COPs, there will be an agreement, but we still need to see if it will be satisfactory. Facing the extent of the climate challenge and the complex negotiation, it remains urgent to have a clear and precise vision of what this international conference could bring. To measure it, La Fabrique Ecologique and CliMates have led an exclusive survey on the impact in recent years of the annual meetings of the COPs on climate policies of 16 States and 5 local authorities. This survey shows several paradoxes: the legally binding character proved to be not so binding after all; the sense of failure sometimes hid real successes; the negotiation itself having a strong impact on its results. It enables to identify the most important factors which have already led to action: the creation of shared knowledge and transparency standards, the obligation of setting an example for countries willing to be included in the negotiation, the search of economic and social co-benefits of climate action with a view to a new development strategy, the emergence of a global climate civil society. Far too often, the COP21 is presented as a deadline, a final date to solve the most complex and global challenge Man has ever faced: climate deregulation. Presented as the umpteenth 'last-ditch conference', the Paris negotiation might generate many 'climate resigned people

  2. Point Climat no. 24 'International climate negotiations at COP 18: the art of the Doha-ble'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Romain; Leguet, Benoit; Bellassen, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: The Doha climate conference (November 26 - December 8, 2012) allowed the UN process to edge forward. Through the definition of the rules for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol with a foreseeable increase in the ambition of Annex I countries second period commitments by 2014, the conclusion of the negotiation process stemming from the Bali Road-map and by getting the Durban platform off the ground, the 'Doha Climate Gateway' tries to pave the way for a more ambitious international agreement in 2015. However, the need for interim financing by 2020 was not clearly nor decisively addressed in Doha. Thus, the route to a stronger agreement in 2015 remains a long one

  3. Negotiation Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Hoffmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Negotiations, a model of concurrency with multi party negotiation as primitive, have been recently introduced by J. Desel and J. Esparza. We initiate the study of games for this model. We study coalition problems: can a given coalition of agents force that a negotiation terminates (resp. block the negotiation so that it goes on forever?; can the coalition force a given outcome of the negotiation? We show that for arbitrary negotiations the problems are EXPTIME-complete. Then we show that for sound and deterministic or even weakly deterministic negotiations the problems can be solved in PTIME. Notice that the input of the problems is a negotiation, which can be exponentially more compact than its state space.

  4. 48 CFR 215.406-3 - Documenting the negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documenting the negotiation. 215.406-3 Section 215.406-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.406-3 Documenting the...

  5. 48 CFR 42.302 - Contract administration functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Office Functions 42... officer. (5) Negotiate forward pricing rate agreements (see 15.407-3). (6) Negotiate advance agreements..., packaging, and packing. (38) Ensure contractor compliance with contractual quality assurance requirements...

  6. Contract Administration of the Ice Delivery Contract between International American Products, Worldwide Services and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers during the Hurricane Katrina Recovery Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Culp, Deborah L; Wan, Bobbie S; Dutton, Gary B; Steinbauer, Jeffrey L; Herman, Rachel L; Kistler, Jonathan M; Johnson, Meredith H

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Principal Assistant Responsible for Contracting requested a review on the administration of the ice delivery process between International American Products, Worldwide Services and the U.S...

  7. Climate negotiators' and scientists' assessments of the climate negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Astrid; Zitzelsberger, Sonja; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Climate negotiation outcomes are difficult to evaluate objectively because there are no clear reference scenarios. Subjective assessments from those directly involved in the negotiations are particularly important, as this may influence strategy and future negotiation participation. Here we analyse the perceived success of the climate negotiations in a sample of 656 experts involved in international climate policy. Respondents were pessimistic when asked for specific assessments of the current approach centred on voluntary pledges, but were more optimistic when asked for general assessments of the outcomes and usefulness of the climate negotiations. Individuals who were more involved in the negotiation process tended to be more optimistic, especially in terms of general assessments. Our results indicate that two reinforcing effects are at work: a high degree of involvement changes individuals' perceptions and more optimistic individuals are more inclined to remain involved in the negotiations.

  8. Promises from Afar: A Model of International Student Psychological Contract in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Sarbari; Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their significant presence in western business schools, the needs and experiences of international students have not been adequately reflected in the business education literature. We draw upon psychological contract theory--used to understand employer-employee relationships--to develop a novel theoretical model on the international…

  9. An Analysis of Viable Financial Negotiations Processes and Related Internal Controls for Procurement in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    regulations are in accordance with UNCITRAL Model Law and are based on principles of “ accountability , transparency, fairness, efficiency and value for... account certain factors about the firm(s) for pre-qualification. These factors include past performance and experience; financial health; managerial...internal control components, along with associated principles , were discussed in detail to develop a suitable internal control system for the financial

  10. 48 CFR 1415.406-70 - Department of the Interior price negotiation memorandum (PNM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... price negotiation memorandum (PNM). 1415.406-70 Section 1415.406-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1415.406-70 Department of the Interior price negotiation memorandum (PNM). (a) Policy. In...

  11. Security negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović, Miroslav M.; Ivaniš, Željko

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary security challenges, risks and threats represent a resultant of the achieved level of interaction between various entities within the paradigm of global security relations. Asymmetry and nonlinearity are main features of contemporary challenges in the field of global security. Negotiation in the area of security, namely the security negotiation, thus goes beyond just the domain of negotiation in conflicts and takes into consideration particularly asymmetric forms of possible sour...

  12. Are we 'Nazi Germans' or 'Lazy Greeks'? Negotiating International Hierarchies in the Euro Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This chapter argues that to understand international hierarchies, we need to examine not only the type of hierarchy, but also processes of internalization of – and resistance to – hierarchies. We will then discover that many hierarchies are not simply imposed from above, but that subordinate actors....... Scholars, politicians and media see Germany as the leader and economic power-house of Europe, while Greece is represented as ‘bankrupt’ and ‘dysfunctional’ with high levels of unemployment. What we often overlook, however, is that it was not inevitable that these particular countries would occupy......’ and ‘moral sinner’. Each label positions the state very differently. Based on an in-depth analysis and contextualization of the stereotyping of self and other, the chapter suggests that rather than merely consolidating Germany’s (and Northern Europe’s) economic and political superiority and sustaining...

  13. International negotiations of natural resources on the moon and other celestial bodies : future cooperation or conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Eymork, Tania Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to assess the degree to which one can expect conflict or cooperation over the natural resources on the Moon and other celestial bodies in the future. By describing and exploring how the emerging global space industry may benefit humankind, it covers existing international space treaties and how fairer administration may help to eradicate poverty by, amongst other things, providing a clean source of environmentally friendly energy. This sixtyyear young industry is redeployi...

  14. International Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    When enterprises in different countries enter into an agreement with each other, there is always the question of governing law. One can let automatic functioning provisions regulate this question, in EU normally the Rome I Regulation. Or one can make a choice. Possible suggestions are here: My co...

  15. Information report made by the Commission for European Affairs on international negotiations on climate change. Nr 3248

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflesselles, Bernard; Lambert, Jerome; Leroy, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    In its first part, this report discusses the Lima agreement with questions left to be answered in Paris, and large divergences. It also comments the issue of national contributions and its process which has been adopted in Lima, and highlights the shortcomings of the Lima call. Then, it discusses progresses related to the creation of a Green Fund, and outlines uncertainties for the period 2015-2020. In the second part, it describes and discusses stakes and challenges faced by the Paris conference: the importance of a legally constraining treaty, the necessity of higher level of ambition regarding mitigation, the essential guarantee of control and transparency, the attention paid to the adaptation of the most vulnerable countries, and the need of a sufficient and sustainable financing. The third part addresses the situation and role of the European Union within international negotiations on climate change: position of the EU and of the European Parliament regarding the COP21, publications by Eurostat to assess and measure advances made by the EU. It also addresses the uncertain conciliation with other important interveners like the USA, China, the G7 and the G20

  16. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...

  17. Buyer Beware: Negotiating Legal and Fair Contracts between Schools and Food and Beverage Companies. A Legal Memorandum: Quarterly Law Topics for School Leaders, Fall 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Exclusive vending contracts with food and beverage companies can produce much-needed revenue for school districts. However, these pouring and vending contracts as well as other forms of exclusive vendor contracts are often the subject of contentious public debate and legal challenges. Even the language used to refer to such agreements varies:…

  18. Point Climat no. 33 'International Climate Negotiations - COP 19: do not underestimate the MRV breakthrough'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Marion; Morel, Romain; Bellassen, Valentin; Deheza, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: For those who expect 'binding' emission reductions targets in the future international climate agreement to be signed in Paris in 2015, the Warsaw Conference (November 11 to 23, 2013) yielded as much progress as it could. That means little beyond a timetable. However, for those who consider the UNFCCC as the depository of common tools on the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of emissions, actions and financing, Warsaw represents a major breakthrough. For the first time, developing countries - at least those wishing to access climate finance for forests - will abide by MRV procedures similar to those governing the greenhouse gas inventories of industrialized countries. Forestry may be seen as a first sectoral NAMA, and it would be difficult to ignore the Warsaw decisions for the future definition of MRV procedures of NAMAs. In spite of the establishment of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, low outputs on other issues show that achieving an agreement at COP 21 will require significant political progress during the next 15 months

  19. Comparison of fully internally and strongly contracted multireference configuration interaction procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Kantharuban; Krupicka, Martin; Auer, Alexander A.; Neese, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Multireference (MR) methods occupy an important class of approaches in quantum chemistry. In many instances, for example, in studying complex magnetic properties of transition metal complexes, they are actually the only physically satisfactory choice. In traditional MR approaches, single and double excitations are performed with respect to all reference configurations (or configuration state functions, CSFs), which leads to an explosive increase of computational cost for larger reference spaces. This can be avoided by the internal contraction scheme proposed by Meyer and Siegbahn, which effectively reduces the number of wavefunction parameters to their single-reference counterpart. The "fully internally contracted" scheme (FIC) is well known from the popular CASPT2 approach. An even shorter expansion of the wavefunction is possible with the "strong contraction" (SC) scheme proposed by Angeli and Malrieu in their NEVPT2 approach. Promising multireference configuration interaction formulations (MRCI) employing internal contraction and strong contraction have been reported by several authors. In this work, we report on the implementation of the FIC-MRCI and SC-MRCI methodologies, using a computer assisted implementation strategy. The methods are benchmarked against the traditional uncontracted MRCI approach for ground and excited states of small molecules (N2, O2, CO, CO+, OH, CH, and CN). For ground states, the comparison includes the "partially internally contracted" MRCI based on the Celani-Werner ansatz (PC-MRCI). For the three contraction schemes, the average errors range from 2% to 6% of the uncontracted MRCI correlation energies. Excitation energies are reproduced with ˜0.2 eV accuracy. In most cases, the agreement is better than 0.2 eV, even in cases with very large differential correlation contributions as exemplified for the d-d and ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions of a Cu [NH 3 ] 4 2 + model complex. The benchmark is supplemented with the

  20. General Principles and Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG – Uniformity under an Interpretation Umbrella?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lassila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and digitalization of international sales creates needs to harmonize rules of international commercial contracts. The question is whether the harmonization should be done by binding rules or using soft law tools or through digitalization. In this article I argue on favor of harmonization through international contracts law rules’ international interpretation.The international interpretation principles used in this article are found from on Art. 7(1 of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG which sets three interpretation rules: international character; promoting uniformity; and observance of good faith in international trade. These principles are not only principles of the CISG, but also principles commonly recognized in international commercial practice and also in domestic contract rules. I argue that by adopting an international interpretation umbrella – the meta-principle of international interpretation, cross-border contracts could be interpreted under the same principle no matter applicable substantial law. The meta-principle functions as an interpretation umbrella covering general principles and Articles of the CISG, general principles of international commercial contracts, Lex Mercatoria, and cross-border contract provision under national law.The outcomes points out that arbitral tribunals have interpreted general principles of the CISG and Lex Mercatoria in various ways. General principles and their application in case law is analyzed in connection with the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Tribunals found that general principles of the CISG are applicable even if the CISG is not. It follows Art.’s 7(2 logic to promote international standard to cross-border contracts where the closes connection is international commercial practice rather than any national jurisdiction.

  1. International political economy of climate negotiations while taking into account the mitigation and adaptation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilasca, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Our research focuses on the cooperation and climate governance in the post-Copenhagen era. Its main purpose is to observe and define the evolution of the climate regime, based on the positions of the European Union, China and the United States. These three countries can be considered as big emitters, major economies, as well as great powers. Two main drivers are taken into account in our analysis: mitigation and adaptation costs to climate change. The starting point for our research is to be found in the polarized evolution of the climate regime. The most illustrative aspect of this 'metamorphosis' is the shift, in 2009, from the top-down to the bottom-up architecture of the climate regime. Thus, we resort to a hybrid theoretical background, which consists of both international political economy and climate change economy. The joint contribution of the two approaches allows us to analyze international political economy with climate economy as an input, as well as the impact of international relations on the main economic framework of climate change. Our research is based on a specific cooperation model, known as the 'k-group' theory, as developed by Duncan Snidal (1985). Within this framework of mini-lateral cooperation, the thesis that we defend is that it is possible to have a climate k-group which may have a trigger effect in order to obtain an ambitious regime. The starting point for our argument is that this group can be considered as a 'club of the relevant', and that what it needs to achieve in order to constitute a k-group is to establish a 'coalition of the willing'. The capacity and the willingness to act are mainly influenced by the costs they have to bear, that is the costs to mitigate their emissions and to adapt to the climate change consequences. Meanwhile, the group's collective commitment depends on other countries' actions. More precisely, the incentive mechanism is built on the idea that cooperation is meant to widen, in order to eventually

  2. International global climate change negotiations. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session, July 15, 1997--The economic and environmental impact of the proposed agreement -- November 11, 1997--Status of International Global Climate Change Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In these hearings attention was focused on the following: the economic and environmental impact of the proposed agreement; and the status of international global climate change negotiations. US policy must be based on both the best scientific information available and on a clear understanding of the economic impacts of any actions that may be taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  3. Middle East meets West: Negotiating cultural difference in international educational encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Helen

    2014-10-01

    This paper sets out to evaluate a proposed twelve-month programme of development aimed at academic staff at a new university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The author uses a model of cultural difference proposed by Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede as her starting point. Reference is also made to the work of other researchers and to the views of a number of people with first-hand experience of education in Iraqi Kurdistan. Cultural differences between the Kurdish participants on the proposed programme and its British facilitator are a likely challenge in this kind of project, in particular those associated with collectivist vs. individualist traditions. Focusing on this divide, some marked differences emerge in terms of how learning is viewed and approached in the two different countries. Whilst acknowledging that cultural difference is not confined to national boundaries, the author argues that the degree of collectivism or individualism within a society can be regarded as one of the many significant components of the complex concept of "culture". She does not attempt to offer any empirical evidence to support a "best way" to approach international educational encounters. Rather, the author's aim is to draw some conclusions to inform and facilitate the design and delivery of the proposed programme. At the same time, this paper may also offer some useful insights to those who find themselves in similar situations requiring them to deliver programmes in environments which are culturally removed from their own.

  4. Negociar la paz: una síntesis de los estudios sobre la resolución negociada de conflictos armados internos Negotiating Peace: A Literature Review of Negotiated Resolutions to Internal Armed Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Darío Valencia Agudelo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Después de la Primera Guerra Mundial en el mundo surgió un interés académico por estudiar la resolución negociada de los conflictos armados. Hoy, casi un siglo después, se cuenta con una visión amplia, integral y de largo plazo sobre los acuerdos de paz, que tiene en cuenta tanto las razones del conflicto como los factores que inciden en el mantenimiento de la paz en el posconflicto. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una síntesis de la evolución de los estudios sobre la paz negociada, destacando los diversos enfoques, modelos y la forma analítica para estudiar dichos procesos, en especial en los conflictos armados internos. Al final se recogen algunas recomendaciones para aumentar las probabilidades de éxito en dichos procesos de paz.Following World War I, an academic interest surged worldwide in studying negotiated resolutions to armed conflicts. Today, almost a century afterwards, we have a comprehensive and long-term vision of peace agreements that take into account the causes of the conflict, as well as the factors necessary to maintain peace in the post-conflict scenario. The objective of this article is to present a literature review of the evolution of negotiated peace agreements of internal armed conflicts, highlighting the diverse perspectives, models and types of analysis to study these processes. In conclusion, the study presents some final recommendations to increase the probability of success in these negotiated peace processes.

  5. Exclusive contracts in the hospital setting: a two-edged sword: part 2: pros and cons, avoidance strategies, and negotiating tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Robert M

    2007-06-01

    Hospitals routinely enter into contracts with radiology groups for the right to be the exclusive providers of radiologic services at the facilities in exchange for the groups' agreeing to provide and manage all aspects of those services within the hospitals. These exclusive contracts generally result in radiology departments and associated equipment being closed off to physicians who are not part of the contracting groups. Although exclusive contracts offer obvious benefits to the physicians who receive them and obvious disadvantages for those who are excluded, they also present pitfalls for physicians in the chosen group. Part 1 of this article discussed the legal issues raised by exclusive contracts. Part 2 weighs the practical advantages and disadvantages of exclusive contracts for physicians covered and not covered by such contracts and strategies for avoiding them, as well as provisions that can be included in medical staff bylaws to protect physicians from the automatic termination of privileges when a hospital enters into or terminates an exclusive contract. The remainder of the article provides tips on specific provisions of exclusive contracts that should be included or avoided.

  6. Reflections on the international climate change negotiations: A synthesis of a working group on carbon emission policy and regulation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucon, Oswaldo; Romeiro, Viviane; Pacca, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This short communication presents a synthesis of a Working Group on Carbon Emission Policy and Regulation held at the University of Sao Paulo, in Brazil. The document looked at the problems with the international negotiations, the options for Brazil as it attempts to control emissions, and ways to leverage the mitigation process. Several options are currently being proposed, but these are neither clear in order to support a solid polycentric approach with adequate metrics, nor a robust international coordination and a sound scientific communication. Brazil has a central role in this process, for having successful initiatives on renewable energy and deforestation control. Its leadership can demonstrate how such policies might take shape. However, the country´s future is uncertain in terms of low carbon development. Although the country is still well positioned among BRICS to find practical solutions to the stalemate in international cooperation, several internal challenges need to be harmonized. - Highlights: • The work presents results of a recent climate change mitigation policies workshop. • It assesses Brazil's potential role in shaping future policies and negotiations. • Policies are evaluated based on domestic and international effects. • Suggests how Brazil's national effort could leverage the international processes

  7. 48 CFR 15.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 15.607 Section 15.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 15.607 Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. (a) A...

  8. 48 CFR 915.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 915.607 Section 915.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 915.607 Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. (c) DOE's cost...

  9. Supply Chain Sourcing Game: A Negotiation Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Love, Ernie C.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an exercise that simulates the negotiation process in a dynamic supply chain. The retailer and wholesaler roles are assigned to student groups who negotiate supply contracts in a number of rounds during a class period. Each group makes pricing, inventory, and ordering decision concurrently, and competes with others to…

  10. 40 CFR 35.937-5 - Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procurement including negotiation may be performed by the grantee directly or by another non-Federal governmental body, person or firm retained for the purpose. Contract negotiations may include the services of... be conducted by the grantee under procedures it adopts based upon Public Law 92-582, 40 U.S.C. 541...

  11. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Hake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors.

  12. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Sanjay; Shah, Tapankumar

    2011-01-01

    Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors. PMID:21897886

  13. Information report presented by the Commission of European Affairs about the international negotiations relative to climate change - No. 2391

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflesselles, Bernard; Lambert, Jerome; Leroy, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    The conclusion put forward by scientists is clear-cut and alarming: the current efforts to limit the increase in global temperature to 2 deg. C are insufficient. This was the aim which the international community set itself in order to avoid the catastrophic effect of climate change. In their fifth report, the experts of the IPCC recommend the limitation, before the end of the century, of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, to 450 parts per million. This level is equivalent, according to the scientists, to a rise in global temperature of 2 deg. C and would imply a reduction of between 40 % and 70 % of global emissions between now and 2050 and would envisage decreasing them to an 'almost zero level' before the end of the century. The last Conference of the United Nations on Climate Change which was held in Warsaw at the end of 2013 (COP19) was a 'stepping-stone' conference according to the very words of its participants. In order to remain on track concerning the global agreement on climate for 2015, two types of decision were taken there: - the notion of bringing nations together in the framework of a global initiative aiming to reduce emissions quite quickly so as to allow humanity to avoid, in the long term, the dangerous threshold concerning climate change, whilst, at the same time, strengthening the capabilities for adaptation; - the idea of moving so as to speed up and bolster the current plan of action. The Warsaw Conference managed to chart the way towards the Paris Conference on Climate in 2015 during which a new world agreement on climate should be signed. However, it also showed that the road will be long and difficult. Basic questions remain unanswered and require a high level of political commitment. The negotiations on climate change of the 20. Climate Change Conference or COP, will take place in Lima between December 1 - 12, 2014. The Conference will thus be the last within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  14. UNICEF and automobile CO2 negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seok Hun [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The EU automobile negotiation was very suggestive since it was the first international trade negotiation related with UNFCCC. It generated considerable reactions in association with {sup v}oluntary negotiation{sup i}n semiconductor sector. Most of all, such a new car negotiation shows well that it is hard to free from global environmental responsibilities even for a company in a developing country in UNFCCC.

  15. The utility of the rescission clause in the settlement of disputes arising from international trade contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the opportunities that the creditor of an obligation has in order to settle his claims by means of the commercial arbitration, as an alternative to court under common law, with a view to punishing in the most effective way the failure of the obligation by the borrower reveals the necessity to introduce the rescission clause in international commercial contracts governed by a foreign law. This paper aims to emphasize the practical utility of the institution of rescission clause in the light of the new Civil Code regulations, in whose presence the role of the court is entirely removed in as far as the decision statement is concerned.

  16. Negotiating Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Pedersen, Esben; Muniche, Mahad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how negotiations between the constituencies affect the processes and outcomes of lean projects in Danish public sector organisations. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative analysis of interviews with managers...... projects in the Danish public sector. It cannot be concluded that the findings can be generalised to reflect all types of lean projects across organisational and geographical settings. Originality/value – The paper adds value to the relatively scarce literature on lean management in the public sector...... and employees who have participated in lean projects in the Danish public sector. Negotiated order theory serves as the overarching theoretical framework for the analysis. Findings – The paper concludes that the processes and outcomes of lean depend not only on the technology itself, but also the negotiation...

  17. Characterizations of the α1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating contractions of the human internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaki, Hiroyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Takaki, Miyako

    2015-04-01

    Human internal anal sphincter (IAS) is contracted by α1-adrenoceptor stimulation and thus α1-adrenoceptor agonists may be useful in treating fecal incontinence. This study characterizes the contribution of α1-adrenoceptor subtypes in contraction of human IAS and to investigate the age-related risk of patients with fecal incontinence. IAS and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), as a predictor of systemic arterial pressure, were obtained from 11 patients. Both muscle strips were assessed by isometric-contraction experiments using phenylephrine, further in IAS, in the presence of various subtype selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Immunohistochemistry and gene expression studies were performed in the same samples. The mean pEC50 values with SEM of phenylephrine in IAS (6.30 ± 0.13) were higher than those of IMA (5.60 ± 0.10). Furthermore, the age-related pEC50 change of IAS was observed between age IAS, rightward shift of the concentration-response curves of phenylephrine was observed with three α1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Each pKB value of silodosin, BMY-7378 and prazosin was 9.36 ± 0.53, 7.28 ± 0.20 and 8.89 ± 0.12, respectively. These pKB values and gene expression studies indicated that α1A-adrenoceptor subtypes predominantly contributed to human IAS contraction. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of four additional low-noise Thyristor-Controlled Reactor coils for a new Static VAR Compensator on the 18 kV electrical network on the Meyrin site

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of four additional low-noise Thyristor-Controlled Reactor coils for a new Static VAR Compensator on the 18 kV electrical network on the Meyrin site

  19. Nuclear Energy Gradients for Internally Contracted Complete Active Space Second-Order Perturbation Theory: Multistate Extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Shiozaki, Toru

    2016-08-09

    We report the development of the theory and computer program for analytical nuclear energy gradients for (extended) multistate complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The vertical shifts are also considered in this work. This is an extension of the fully internally contracted CASPT2 nuclear gradient program recently developed for a state-specific variant by us [MacLeod and Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 051103]; in this extension, the so-called λ equation is solved to account for the variation of the multistate CASPT2 energies with respect to the change in the amplitudes obtained in the preceding state-specific CASPT2 calculations, and the Z vector equations are modified accordingly. The program is parallelized using the MPI3 remote memory access protocol that allows us to perform efficient one-sided communication. The optimized geometries of the ground and excited states of a copper corrole and benzophenone are presented as numerical examples. The code is publicly available under the GNU General Public License.

  20. Turning negotiation into a corporate capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, D

    1999-01-01

    Every company today exists in a complex web of relationships formed, one at a time, through negotiation. Purchasing and outsourcing contracts are negotiated with vendors. Marketing arrangements are negotiated with distributors. Product development agreements are negotiated with joint-venture partners. Taken together, the thousands of negotiations a typical company engages in have an enormous effect on both its strategy and its bottom line. But few companies think systematically about their negotiating activities as a whole. Instead they take a situational view, perceiving each negotiation to be a separate event with its own goals, tactics, and measures of success. Coordinating them all seems an overwhelming and impracticable job. In reality, the author argues, it is neither. A number of companies are successfully building coordinated negotiation capabilities by applying four broad changes in practice and perspective. First, they've established a company-wide negotiation infrastructure to apply the knowledge gained from forging past agreements to improve future ones. Second, they've broadened the measures they use to evaluate negotiators' performance beyond matters of cost and price. Third, they draw a clear distinction between the elements of an individual deal and the nature of the ongoing relationship between the parties. Fourth, they make their negotiators feel comfortable walking away from a deal when it's not in the company's best interests. These changes aren't radical steps. But taken together, they will let companies establish closer, more creative relationships with suppliers, customers, and other partners.

  1. On the rate of return and risk factors to international oil companies in Iran's buy-back service contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandi, Abbas; Lin Lawell, C.-Y. Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the rate of return (ROR) and risk factors faced by Shell Exploration, an international oil company (IOC), in its Soroosh and Nowrooz buy-back service contract in Iran. In particular, based on our models of cash flow, we analyze the buy-back contract specific risk factors that can contribute to a reduction in the rate of return for the international oil company. Our cash flow models resemble the cash flow of buy-back service contracts before the Iranian government changed the way it determined the capital cost ceiling and pre-defined the oil price in these contracts in 2008–2009. Our actual and contractual cash flow models reveal that Shell Exploration's actual ROR was much lower than the contractual level. Furthermore, we find that among the risk factors that we considered, a capital cost overrun has the greatest negative effect on the IOC's ROR. Moreover, we show that there is a potential for modifying the contracts in order for the IOC to face an actual ROR closer to the contractual ROR even if the contract faces cost overrun or delay, without exceeding the maximum contractual ROR that the National Iranian Oil Company is willing to give. - Highlights: • Buy-back contract specific risk factors can reduce the rate of return. • Shell Exploration's actual ROR was much lower than the contractual level. • A capital cost overrun has the greatest negative effect on the rate of return. • Contracts can be modified to better share the risk.

  2. Extreme negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeff; Donigian, Aram; Hughes, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    CEOs and other senior executives must make countless complex, high-stakes deals across functional areas and divisions, with alliance partners and critical suppliers, and with customers and regulators. The pressure of such negotiations may make them feel a lot like U.S. military officers in an Afghan village, fending off enemy fire while trying to win trust and get intelligence from the local populace. Both civilian and military leaders face what the authors call "dangerous negotiations," in which the traps are many and good advice is scarce. Although the sources of danger are quite different for executives and officers, they resort to the same kinds of behaviors. Both feel pressure to make quick progress, project strength and control (particularly when they have neither), rely on force rather than collaboration, trade resources for cooperation rather than build trust, and make unwanted compromises to minimize potential damage. The authors outline five core strategies that "in extremis" military negotiators use to resolve conflicts and influence others: maintaining a big-picture perspective; uncovering hidden agendas to improve collaboration; using facts and fairness to get buy-in; building trust; and focusing on process as well as outcomes. These strategies provide an effective framework that business executives can use to prepare for a negotiation and guide their moves at the bargaining table.

  3. Negotiating action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    After years of working towards a climate accord, the Paris Agreement of 2015 marked the shift from negotiating to reach consensus on climate action to implementation of such action. The challenge now is to ensure transparency in the processes and identify the details of what is required.

  4. Negotiating choices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    As a child in an academic family, I always had a lot of books around and read ... Overall, though, when I look back, I can see that the dominant influence in shaping my .... many others working in India, I have often felt that one's pub- lished work tends to ... The complexities of negotiating gender and professional roles tend to ...

  5. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation memorandum. 249.110 Section 249.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 249.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow...

  6. Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Christopher W

    2010-01-01

    Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation provides advice and strategies for effective cross-cultural negotiations. Written from a multicultural perspective, this guidebook explores cross-cultural communication for problem solving and negotiations. This resource includes real-life stories and examples compiled from over thirty years of domestic and global experience from both authors, including Chris Moore, a well-known international negotiator and best selling author. This step-by-step guide to negotiation provides practical recommendations, advice, and globally proven strategies to pr

  7. Do job autonomy and negotiation self-efficacy improve employment relationships?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R A Oeij

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether improving the employment relationship does more depend on negotiation selfefficacy or on task outonomy for a sample of employees from a Dutch telecom company. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation and the effect of integrative negotiation on psychological contract breach. Results indicate that employees negotiate more integratively when they have higher negotiation self-efficacy, compared to employees with more task autonomy. Empirical support was found for the prediction that higher negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy correlates with less psychological contract breach.

  8. Complex Automated Negotiations Theories, Models, and Software Competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin; Matsuo, Tokuro

    2013-01-01

    Complex Automated Negotiations are a widely studied, emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. In general, automated negotiations can be complex, since there are a lot of factors that characterize such negotiations. For this book, we solicited papers on all aspects of such complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This book includes two parts, which are Part I: Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiations and Part II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. Each chapter in Part I is an extended version of ACAN 2011 papers after peer reviews by three PC members. Part II includes ANAC 2011 (The Second Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents who have different negotiation strategies and implemented by different developers are automatically negotiate in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of...

  9. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  10. Public Internal Performance Contracting - Managing and financing energy-efficiency measures in public administrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrek, Wolfgang; Thomas, Stefan; Attali, Sophie; Benke, Georg; Borg, Nils; Figorski, Arkadiusz; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Labanca, Nicola; Pindar, Andrew; Ochoa, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    Public Internal Performance Contracting (PICO) is a type of in-house 'third-party' financing or energy performance contracting scheme. In theory, once triggered, PICO provides a 'perpetual motion' finance mechanism for public authorities by which energy efficiency savings fund new investments in an upward virtuous cycle. One unit of the public authority, e.g. the technical department, delivers the financial and technical energy efficiency service to another unit of the same public administration. Remuneration takes place through cross payments between these units, according savings made in energy costs. The initial investments require 'seed funds' to kick start the process, after which the cross payments provide sufficient means to fund further measures. How can the PICO mechanism be initiated in times of tight public budgets? What difficulties are faced during the implementation process and how can these be overcome? What kind of energy-efficiency measures is PICO best suited to? And what role can national and European policy play to facilitate implementation? These are the key questions that the EU-funded PICOLight project aimed to tackle. This was done through testing and disseminating the PICO schemes, first used in Germany, in six European countries, developing these further and making the necessary adaptations. PICO schemes were piloted in seven public administrations with the technical focus on energy-efficient lighting retrofits. The experiences gathered in these pilot projects should help to introduce PICO schemes on a larger scale in public administrations in Europe. The paper presents the preliminary results from these pilot projects

  11. Axial contraction in etched optical fiber due to internal stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kok-Sing; Yang, Hang-Zhou; Chong, Wu-Yi; Cheong, Yew-Ken; Lim, Chin-Hong; Ali, Norfizah M; Ahmad, Harith

    2013-02-11

    When an optical fiber is dipped in an etching solution, the internal stress profile in the fiber varies with the fiber diameter. We observed a physical contraction as much as 0.2% in the fiber axial dimension when the fiber was reduced from its original diameter to ~6 µm through analysis using high resolution microscope images of the grating period of an etched FBG at different fiber diameters. This axial contraction is related to the varying axial stress profile in the fiber when the fiber diameter is reduced. On top of that, the refractive index of fiber core increases with reducing fiber diameter due to stress-optic effect. The calculated index increment is as much as 1.8 × 10(-3) at the center of fiber core after the diameter is reduced down to ~6 µm. In comparison with the conventional model that assumes constant grating period and neglects the variation in stress-induced index change in fiber core, our proposed model indicates a discrepancy as much as 3nm in Bragg wavelength at a fiber diameter of ~6 µm.

  12. Negotiation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Markets in the Pacific have been relatively stable throughout 1999 compared to its Atlantic counterparts. As a result, the outcome of annual negotiations between Australian suppliers and Japanese steel mills (JSM) and utilities will not be so easy to predict this year. The article discusses factors that will affect the prices of coking coal and thermal coal. The outlook for thermal coal prices in the Pacific market looks much more promising than for coking coal. 2 photos.

  13. Coalitional negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mauleon, Ana; Vannetelbosch, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    We develop a two-stage negotiation model to study the impact of costly inspections on both the coalition formation outcome and the per-member payoffs. In the first stage, the players are forming coalitions and inside each coalition formed the members share the coalition benefits. We adopt the largest consistent set (LCS) to predict which coalition structures are possibly stable. We also introduce a refinement,the largest cautious consistent set (LCCS). In the second stage, the inspection game...

  14. THE HAGUE PRINCIPLES ON CHOICE OF LAW IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. STAMATIADIS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the one of the most important questions of the International Commercial Law. As a rule, it is widely accepted that the principle of party autonomy has been adopted, in respect of contractual obligations, by practically all national legislations in their provisions for private international law. At the same time, the Principles are silent regarding the option to choose trade usages as lex causae of the contract, and understandably so, since, from a systematic viewpoint, they cannot form a comprehensive set of rules capable of resolving basic issues of contractual obligations. Author believes that the Principles do not add any significant new features to the legal systems that have already developed and adopted the principle of party autonomy, with the exception of the possible application of non-national law before state courts. As a result, there have been formulated several useful conclusions which can be used in the science of the International Commercial Law.PRINCIPIILE DE LA HAGA PRIVIND ALEGEREA LEGILOR ÎN CONTRACTELE COMERCIALE INTERNAŢIONALEAcest articol este consacrat unor dintre cele mai importante probleme ce fac parte din dreptul internaţional comercial. De regulă, principiul autonomiei părţilor în contract este recunoscut ca unul fundamental în dreptul inter­naţional. Totodată, principiile păstrează tăcerea în ceea ce ţine de opţiunea de a alege uzanţele lex causae ale contrac­tului; prin urmare, ele nu pot fi privite ca reguli comprehensive şi susceptibile de a soluţiona problemele principale ale obligaţiilor contractuale. Autorul este de părere că principiile nu conţin nimic nou pentru legislaţiile naţionale în vigoare, deoarece nu au dezvoltat şi nu au adoptat ceva necunoscut pentru principiul autonomiei care este prevăzut în toate legislaţiile, cu excepţia unei posibile aplicări a legii supra-naţionale în instanţele naţionale de judecată. Prin urmare, au fost

  15. Certain Legal Aspects of the Himalaya Clause in the Contract of International Carriage of Goods by Sea A critical perspective on legal challenges raised by the clause under international uniform law and general contract law principles

    OpenAIRE

    Blaskovic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Description of the Himalaya clause and its benefits; considerations on benefits for third parties over international uniform law; observations on construction of the clause under the model of the contract for the benefit of a third party; remarks on circular indemnity clauses; application of rules of exclusion of liability to Himalaya clause; conclusion.

  16. Sibling negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rufus A. Johnstone; Alexandre Roulin

    2003-01-01

    Current discussions of offspring begging typically assume either that it is a signal directed at parents or that it represents a form of scramble competition to gain access to them. However, offspring might also display to inform nest mates that they will contest the next food item to be delivered; in other words, begging (possibly in the absence of parents) might serve purely as a form of negotiation among siblings. Here, we develop a game-theoretical model of this possibility. We assume tha...

  17. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how......When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  18. The Role of International Investment Law in Renewable Energy Investment; focus on Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Adetiloye, Idowu Adejoke

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is one of the ways of reducing greenhouse gas emission. There is need for more investment in this sector. However, lack of stable regulatory framework and change in policy makes it unattractive to investors. International investment laws through its protections in investment agreement can help to mitigate risks considered by investors especially those with Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) type of contracts.

  19. Novel insights in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan; Fujita, Katsuhide

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on all aspects of complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. This book consists of two parts. I: Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations, and II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. The chapters in Part I are extended versions of papers presented at the 2012 international workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN), after peer reviews by three Program Committee members. Part II examines in detail ANAC 2012 (The Third Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents that have different negotiation strategies and are implemented by different developers are automatically negotiated in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of universities and research institutes across the world, are evaluated in tournament style. The purpose of the competition is to steer the research in the area of bilate...

  20. Negotiating Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sniezek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from qualitative interviews with 40 engaged heterosexual couples, this paper examines how couples transform their relationship from “serious” to being “engaged to be married.” Social Scientists have developed relationship models designed to explain the transformation, but these models fail to adequately capture how couples transform their relationship and the context in which this behavior occurs. Using a constructionist framework, an alternative process model is offered. The five-process model captures the ongoing and fluid work couples perform to negotiate a redefinition of the relationship. Couples reflexively use a host of complex symbolic interaction including talk, rituals, relationships with others, testing, and use of time to construct their relationship in a new way. By examining the underlying reality construction process, rather than merely looking at the outcome, the social processes and human actions that shape relationships are revealed.

  1. Contract law: relationship between dermatologists and third-party payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanas, A V

    1993-04-01

    The relationship between third-party payers and dermatologists is generally governed by a written contract. That relationship can be more beneficial to the dermatologist, and chances of liability may be decreased, both for breach of contract and for malpractice, if the dermatologist pays close attention to the language in the contract. All contracts are generally negotiable; detrimental language in the contract often may be removed or changed. This article presents information to help prepare dermatologists to review and negotiate contracts.

  2. International Mediation and Negotiating Positions of Cyprus' Regional Conflict After the 1974 Turkish Invasion. Obstacles and Prospects to a Settlement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexopoulos, Konstantinos

    2000-01-01

    ... communities on the island have played serious roles in the maintenance of the conflict. The thesis illustrates the weakness of the international mediation effort and the obstacles to a settlement...

  3. The arbitration clause of the American International Petroleum Negotiators - AIPN; A clausula compromissoria do modelo AIPN 2002 (American International Petroleum Negotiators) para 'joint operating agreement' a luz da legislacao brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroli, Carla [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    After the Brazilian Petroleum Act (Lei n. 9.478/97) was enacted and the monopoly over the conduct of E and P activities in Brazil was made flexible, in addition to PETROBRAS, other national and foreign companies could participate in such activities. This participation of different players is increasing, specially by the formation o joint ventures constituted in order to the parties to jointly explore and produce hydrocarbons. Under these new circumstances and considering that it is important to develop efficient contractual rules to discipline the E and P operations, the 2002 AIPN Model Form for Joint Operating Agreement has been often used in Brazil. However, the effectiveness of the arbitration clause provided therein must be analyzed under the applicable law to the contract. Besides, since the operations are to be conducted in Brazil, sometimes the Brazilian Law will apply or decisions rendered by an arbitral tribunal may have to be executed in Brazil. Therefore, this paper intends to analyze how the arbitration clause provided by the 2002 AIPN Model Form may be adapted to fit the Brazilian Law. (author)

  4. An Analysis of Internal Controls for DoD Contract Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    alternative control activities to reduce the risk of fraud ( COSO , 2013; GAO, 2014). Also, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which contains an...force. Since 1992, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) has identified contract management within the DOD as an area for high risk in fraud...force. Since 1992, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) has identified contract management within the DOD as an area for high risk in fraud

  5. International offshore petroleum contracts: Towards the compatibility of energy need and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhiguo.

    1993-01-01

    The legal and commercial relationships between petroleum producing countries and foreign oil companies have been defined by traditional oil concession agreements before the 1950s, and since then by modern petroleum contracts. The development policies behind the evolution of various arrangements for offshore petroleum exploration are scrutinized. By studying examples of contracts in four developing countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Brazil, and China), the issues of mutuality of interests and environmental sustainability that are reflected in both the structure and substance of modern petroleum contracts are examined. Major findings are that modern petroleum contracts are generally able to achieve and maintain a necessary balance of rights, interests and benefits between the contracting parties, but have failed to produce any balance between the extraction of resources and environmental sustainability. The existing contractual systems have failed in principle to provide adequate environmental regulation and have not addressed the issue of sustainable development at all. Arrangements focusing on economic interests are inappropriate for future energy developments, but through the proper use of contract terms that contain elements favouring sustainable development, economic and environmental interests can nevertheless be accomodated and served at the same time. Future petroleum agreements should recognize explicitly the inherent independence and coexistence between commerciality and sustainable development. 288 refs., 1 fig., 24 tabs

  6. 48 CFR 970.1504 - Contract pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract pricing. 970.1504 Section 970.1504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504 Contract pricing. ...

  7. 48 CFR 852.273-71 - Alternative negotiation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative negotiation techniques. 852.273-71 Section 852.273-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-71 Alternative negotiation technique...

  8. BUSINESS NEGOTIATION IN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trajković

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Every day we are faced with some form of negotiation. Negotiation is a means of communication between two or more persons with the aim of achieving an adequate agreement that will be acceptable to both sides. Successful business negotiation in management is used in organizations of all types and sizes, at all organizational levels and in all sectors of business throughout the world. Management shall in all circumstances to plan, organize, lead and control in different ways according to their managerial position as well as the knowledge, abilities and skills that they possessed. Negotiation is an important part of communication which results should contribute to increasing the efficiency of business organizations. Any experienced negotiator in negotiation process has consciously and deliberately, and has a strategy of negotiation. The strategy represents a proactive approach to the negotiations, and the approach aims to influence the course of negotiations.

  9. Information report published by the Commission of European affairs on international negotiations related to climate change - Nr 1550

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflesselles, Bernard; Lambert, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This report first outlines the urgency of struggle against global warming. It refers the scientific results recently published by the IPCC which notably worsened the diagnosis on global warming. It discussed the mixed results of the Doha Conference. In a second part, the authors discuss the stakes of the Warsaw climate Conference while outlining the need of a global agreement in 2015. For the Warsaw conference, the main identified issues are: to operate the green fund for climate and the technological mechanism, to finance aids to adaptation and to compensation of losses and damages, a better transparency and a greater ambition for emission reductions. The third part addresses the international struggle against global warming at the ICAO level (International Civil Aviation Organization), to reach a constraining agreement (top down versus bottom up approach), at the European Union level. The last part addresses the struggle against climate scepticism

  10. Institut Pasteur v. United States: the AIDS patent dispute, the Contract Disputes Act and the international exchange of scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, H L

    1989-01-01

    In the case of Institut Pasteur v. United States, the Institut Pasteur (Pasteur) claimed that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) had breached express and implied contracts to share research on AIDS virus samples provided to NCI by Pasteur. NCI scientists allegedly used the samples to acquire information which allowed NCI to file patent applications for an AIDS blood test kit. The United States Claims Court dismissed the complaint by holding that the Institut Pasteur had not complied with certain administrative procedures required by the Contract Disputes Act before bringing its suit. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reversed the decision of the Claims Court by holding that the disputed contracts did not fit within the scope of the Contract Disputes Act. Soon after the Court of Appeals decision, President Reagan and Prime Minister Chirac announced a settlement agreement whereby the lawsuit was to be dropped, American and French scientists were to share credit for having discovered the AIDS virus, and both parties to the suit were to share the patent rights for the AIDS blood test kit. This settlement suggest that international legal disputes involving urgent scientific and medical matters may require dispute resolution techniques that serve as alternatives to national courts.

  11. Negotiating with third party payers: one community pharmacy's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridy, Kimberly; DeHart, Renee M; Monk-Tutor, Mary R

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate financial terms and legal wording in insurance contracts and negotiate their terms with companies to improve an independent pharmacy's financial position and to determine the time required to negotiate a contract and translate that time into a salary cost. An independent pharmacy in a small town in Alabama with a population of approximately 6,000. The prescription department accounts for two-thirds of the pharmacy's sales and dispenses approximately 70,000 prescriptions each year. Insurance companies paid for over 59% of these prescriptions in 2000. The pharmacy is open 7 days a week with one full-time pharmacist and a second pharmacist who works 2 days a month. A contract negotiation form was developed that addressed factors that might affect a pharmacy's decision to accept or reject a contract; the form included an area for recording the time involved in negotiating each contract. Insurance companies selected by the pharmacy owner were faxed copies of an Insurer Demographics Collection Form. Upon collection of all data and finalization of proposed changes, a copy of the contract with the proposed changes marked, along with a letter explaining and justifying the changes, was sent to the insurance company. If no response was received from the company, the contact person was called and negotiations proceeded over the telephone. Primary end points were the percentage of companies that would negotiate and the average increase in reimbursement achieved. Secondary end points included the time involved in negotiations and the translation of that time into a salary cost. None of the nine participating companies accepted any of the changes proposed. The time to negotiate each contract ranged from 28 minutes to 74 minutes, taking an average of 48.4 minutes. Depending on the division of work between the pharmacist and the technician, the salary cost for the negotiations ranged from $14.68 to $18.73 per contract. This study provides a realistic description of

  12. Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal Health Services ... the state of maternal health in the country reflects poorly on public health priorities. ... A number of international agencies and civil society organizations are ...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.900 - What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sale for economic development purposes? 102-75.900 Section 102-75.900 Public Contracts and Property... negotiated sale for economic development purposes? A negotiated sale for economic development purposes means... community's economic benefit. This type of negotiated sale is acceptable where the expected public benefits...

  14. Negotiating the Curriculum. Tutors and Students. Coombe Lodge Working Paper. Information Bank Number 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Diane

    This working paper presents guidelines for negotiating learning contracts between tutors and postsecondary students enrolled in a vocational program. The first two sections discuss the general rationale for negotiating curricula and the specific benefits of conducting such negotiations with students over the age of 16. Addressed next is the…

  15. The Navy Acquisition Contracting Officer Intern Program: A Past and Present NACO View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    section of a contracting activity is regularly a " sweatshop " that processes nearly alL procurements in the same manner. Thus, a month in a small purchase...this command, I have not been rotated through the other sections of the office. I consider this to be somewhat of a disadvantage ; however, I have

  16. Remedies for Breach Under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    For every breach of a binding contract, there must be some remedy. The gap-filling remedial structure of the 1980 Vienna Sales Convention (CISG) reflects the fact that all significant forms of remedial relief may be said to fall within three basic courses of action which modern legal systems make...

  17. Order and Mystery in Negotiation Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Linda L.; Bullis, Connie

    A preliminary study investigating the perceptions of intergroup relations in the bargaining process supports Kenneth Burke's concepts of order and mystery. Questionnaires, interviews, and direct observations of teachers' and school boards' teams involved in contract negotiations show that people closest to the bargaining saw more order in the…

  18. Negotiating Universality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steven L Bjerregård

    rights research. The dissertation argues that the breakthrough for human rights and its historical trajectory, that made it a central part of international law and politics and of our global moral imagination, has been misdated and misunderstood. In this work, therefore, Jamaica and Liberia emerge...

  19. Next frontier in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on automated negotiations based on multi-agent systems. It is intended for researchers and students in various fields involving autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as e-commerce tools, decision-making and negotiation support systems, and collaboration tools. The contents will help them to understand the concept of automated negotiations, negotiation protocols, negotiating agents’ strategies, and the applications of those strategies. In this book, some negotiation protocols focusing on the multiple interdependent issues in negotiations are presented, making it possible to find high-quality solutions for the complex agents’ utility functions. This book is a compilation of the extended versions of the very best papers selected from the many that were presented at the International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations.

  20. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  1. Defense Contract Audit Agency Reviews of Price Proposals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Auditors perform field pricing reviews of contractor price proposals when procurement office information is insufficient to perform the cost or price analysis needed to negotiate contract prices...

  2. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  3. Negotiation Skill Development Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Gregory E.; Chau, Ngan N.

    2017-01-01

    Conflict occurs naturally in all marketing related activities. When such conflict is handled well through proper negotiation, it helps solve problems and build stronger, deeper relationships between the negotiating parties. Nevertheless, many students feel uneasy about negotiating, yet they know it is a crucial skill that needs to be developed.…

  4. The internal career orientation of permanent and contracting information technology staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Havran

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between types of employment (permanent or contracting for two variables: flow and career success orientation in an information technology environment. The study was performed in a sub-division of a large telecommunications company that focuses on software development and implementation. Two questionnaires measuring flow and career success orientation, were administered to groups of 150 permanent and 150 contracting staff respectively. Factor analyses indicated that the career success orientation questionnaire measured two dimensions labeled as ‘work focus’ and ‘self focus’, and the flow questionnaire measured ‘enjoyment’ and ‘control of consciousness’. Contracting and permanent employees were compared with regard to the four dimensions and it was found that contract workers experienced their work more optimally than the permanent workers did, because they obtained higher scores on the ‘control of consciousness scale’. Opsomming Die primêre doel van die ondersoek was om die verwantskap tussen tipes indiensneming (permanent en kontraktering te ondersoek vir twee veranderlikes: vloei en beroepsuksesoriëntasie in ’n inligtingstegnologieomgewing. Die ondersoek is uitgevoer in ’n onderafdeling van ’n groot telekommunikasiemaatskappy wat fokus op programmatuurontwikkeling en -implementering. Twee vraelyste wat vloei en beroepsuksesoriëntasie meet, is toegepas op 150 permanente werknemers en 150 kontrakteurs. Faktorontledings het aangedui dat die beroepsuksesoriënteringsvraelys twee dimensies gemeet het, naamlik ‘werkfokus’ en ‘selffokus’. Die vloei-vraelys het ‘werksgenot’ en ‘bewustsheidbeheer’ gemeet. Kontrakteurs en permanente werknemers is met mekaar vergelyk in terme van die vier dimensies en die uitslae van die bewustheids beheerskaal het aangedui dat kontrakteurs hul werk meer optimaal ervaar in teenstelling met permanente werkers.

  5. Intercultural Negotiation: The “Nomadic” Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. WALKER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has a strong impact on international negotiation. Negotiators must manage situationswhere they may have to deal with several people coming from many different cultures. It is thusnecessary to manage diversity during the negotiation processes and interactions to achieve asufficiently high level of performance to be competitive in world markets.Researchers have tended to focus on the importance of cultural knowledge to internationalnegotiators. Many articles describe different styles of negotiations according to countries, regionsor even cultural groupings, such as for Anglo-Saxon or Arab negotiating partners.However, researchers have given less attention to the notion of intercultural competence and howcompanies could develop the ability to adapt to any culture, even if a negotiator has little priorinformation concerning their partners. This skill is universal across all cultures and could be addedto the profile of a successful negotiator. It is an attitude based on openness towards people comingfrom a different culture. This paper describes negotiators who adopt this attitude: the way of a‘nomad’.

  6. A Comparative Study of Legal Terminologies in French and Romanian. The Translation of International Contract Law Terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana SFERLE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our article is a comparative study investigating the main aspects of legal terminology in French and Romanian. In this context, the analysis aims at translating French - Romanian, Romanian - French, terminologies of international commercial contracts. With this study we intend to improve the knowledge of legal terminology in Romanian. Romania has been faced lately, particularly since January 1st 2007, when it joined the European Union, with a real need for terminological studies, for dictionaries and data bases in all fields relating to translation and interpreting.

  7. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  8. 48 CFR 1515.606-70 - Contracting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracting methods. 1515... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 1515.606-70 Contracting methods. The Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies Appropriation Act...

  9. Climate geopolitics. Negotiations, strategies, impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemenne, Francois

    2015-01-01

    As countries are not equal in front of the climate change issue (some contribute more than the others, some will be more heavily impacted, some are more dependent on fossil energies, some could be affected by population movements related to the degradation of their environment), and as countries are to adopt measures for a more sustainable development while facing huge geopolitical challenges which affect international negotiations, this book aims at describing and analysing these issues which illustrate serious imbalances between countries. These issues relate to the development of energy policies, to geographical and demographic constraints. The author describes how the climate has become an international political issue, and a field of complex interactions with international relationships. After having recalled the origins of greenhouse gas emissions and their main expected impacts, he analyses the various responsibilities, describes these different impacts, outlines how global warming is basically unfair: the less responsible countries will be more impacted than the responsible ones. He also discusses mechanisms of international cooperation which have been implemented to address this issue: adaptation and mitigation policies, associated negotiations. He notices that the strongest mitigation efforts are, the least necessary adaptation efforts will be. He discusses the issue of financing and necessary financial and technological transfers to help southern countries in reducing their emissions without compromising their development. He highlights the current status of negotiations, their organisation, the present actors and forces, and their main point of tension

  10. Capitation, contracts, and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  11. First formal ITER negotiations make excellent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, P.

    2001-01-01

    November 8 and 9 2001 marked the historic beginning of formal negotiations meetings on the ITER project. Delegations from Canada, the European Union, Japan and the Russian Federation met in Toronto, Canada, for the first in a series of Negotiations that is expected to lead, by the end of 2002, to an agreement on the joint implementation of ITER. This agreement will govern, under international law, the construction, operation and decommissioning of ITER. The Negotiations concluded by issuing a joint news release, reflecting a commitment to share the progress reports on the efforts to implement ITER

  12. Multireference configuration interaction theory using cumulant reconstruction with internal contraction of density matrix renormalization group wave function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitow, Masaaki; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2013-07-28

    We report development of the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method that can use active space scalable to much larger size references than has previously been possible. The recent development of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method in multireference quantum chemistry offers the ability to describe static correlation in a large active space. The present MRCI method provides a critical correction to the DMRG reference by including high-level dynamic correlation through the CI treatment. When the DMRG and MRCI theories are combined (DMRG-MRCI), the full internal contraction of the reference in the MRCI ansatz, including contraction of semi-internal states, plays a central role. However, it is thought to involve formidable complexity because of the presence of the five-particle rank reduced-density matrix (RDM) in the Hamiltonian matrix elements. To address this complexity, we express the Hamiltonian matrix using commutators, which allows the five-particle rank RDM to be canceled out without any approximation. Then we introduce an approximation to the four-particle rank RDM by using a cumulant reconstruction from lower-particle rank RDMs. A computer-aided approach is employed to derive the exceedingly complex equations of the MRCI in tensor-contracted form and to implement them into an efficient parallel computer code. This approach extends to the size-consistency-corrected variants of MRCI, such as the MRCI+Q, MR-ACPF, and MR-AQCC methods. We demonstrate the capability of the DMRG-MRCI method in several benchmark applications, including the evaluation of single-triplet gap of free-base porphyrin using 24 active orbitals.

  13. Contract W911NF-09-1-0105 (Monterey Institute of International Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-08

    the International Association for Conflict Management , in Tacoma, Washington, June 30, 2013-July 3, 2013. (This version of the paper was provided to...Extraordinary Measure or Business as Usual?” at the 26th Annual Conference of the International Association for Conflict Management , in Tacoma, Washington

  14. Patterns of Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Suresh; Pattinson, Hugh

    Traditionally, face-to-face negotiations in the real world have not been looked at as a complex systems interaction of actors resulting in a dynamic and potentially emergent system. If indeed negotiations are an outcome of a dynamic interaction of simpler behavior just as with a complex system, we should be able to see the patterns contributing to the complexities of a negotiation under study. This paper and the supporting research sets out to show B2B (business-to-business) negotiations as complex systems of interacting actors exhibiting dynamic and emergent behavior. This paper discusses the exploratory research based on negotiation simulations in which a large number of business students participate as buyers and sellers. The student interactions are captured on video and a purpose built research method attempts to look for patterns of interactions between actors using visualization techniques traditionally reserved to observe the algorithmic complexity of complex systems. Students are videoed negotiating with partners. Each video is tagged according to a recognized classification and coding scheme for negotiations. The classification relates to the phases through which any particular negotiation might pass, such as laughter, aggression, compromise, and so forth — through some 30 possible categories. Were negotiations more or less successful if they progressed through the categories in different ways? Furthermore, does the data depict emergent pathway segments considered to be more or less successful? This focus on emergence within the data provides further strong support for face-to-face (F2F) negotiations to be construed as complex systems.

  15. The duty to negotiate in good faith and the enforceability of short-term natural gas clauses in production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The exploitation of natural gas resources not associated with oil production, poses legal and ethical problems for some countries. This document examines various international oil contracts, especially Production Sharing Agreements (PSA), to establish how short-term gas provisions can be exploited. In particular the issue of breaching a PSA by failing to negotiate in good faith on such a project is debated, showing how clearly this duty falls on the government party. International oil companies are urged to create contracts which allow them to enforce short-term PSA gas clauses. (UK)

  16. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-01

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  17. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  18. The Negotiation of Basel III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2015-01-01

    While the Basel Accords of 1988 and 2004 (Basel I and Basel II) ostensibly set out to regulate bank risk at the international level, they were effectively in the grip of neoliberal beliefs in the self-regulating potential of free markets. In 2009–2011, the Basel Accords were revised once more wit...... agency, the empirical argument is substantiated through textual–intertextual analysis of the rhetorical circulation of affective signs in the Basel III negotiations....

  19. Periodic review in natural resource contracts | Mandelbaum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Periodic contract review mechanisms, which are provisions in contracts that formally require parties to meet at particular intervals to review the terms of the contract, are mechanisms that may facilitate the process of negotiating contractual changes to accommodate changing circumstances over the term of extractive ...

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CARGO INSURANCE CONTRACT IN CASE OF INTERNATIONAL LAND TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănilă Ștefan MATEI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cargo international transport is an engine for the development of the economic relations between states involving cross-border movement of goods through the crossing of at least one border of a state (international transport or by crossing at least two border crossing points, in which case we are in the presence of an international cargo transit. During the transit the goods transported may be subject to an insurance. The object of the cargo insurance is, thus, represented by the goods, the items expressly listed in the insurance policy, within the territorial limits specified in the insurance policy, both during the transport and during the storage, in the latter case, at the express request of the insured and with the acceptance of the insurer. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the cargo insurance aiming to present the theoretical and practical aspects of interest with regard to the cargo insurance concluded in case of an international land freight transport.

  1. An investigation of structural design methodology for HTGR reactor internals with ceramic materials (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2008-03-01

    To advance the performance and safety of HTGR, heat-resistant ceramic materials are expected to be used as reactor internals of HTGR. C/C composite and superplastic zirconia are the promising materials for this purpose. In order to use these new materials as reactor internals in HTGR, it is necessary to establish a structure design method to guarantee the structural integrity under environmental and load conditions. Therefore, C/C composite expected as reactor internals of VHTR is focused and an investigation on the structural design method applicable to the C/C composite and a basic applicability of the C/C composite to representative structures of HTGR were carried out in this report. As the results, it is found that the competing risk theory for the strength evaluation of the C/C composite is applicable to design method and C/C composite is expected to be used as reactor internals of HTGR. (author)

  2. Role Effects in Negotiation : The One-Down Phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donohue, William A.; Taylor, Paul J.

    Role is a concept that underlies most studies of human behavior in negotiation as subjects take on the roles of buyers and sellers or labor and management contract bargainers, for example Naturalistic studies also focus on such roles as teacher and administrator contract bargainers, hostage takers

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Procedure for negotiated price awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be furnished with the information provided for in Article 1(a) of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract. (b... Article 27 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract. ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for negotiated price awards. Sec. 5 Section 5...

  4. Final Report on the Audit of Subcontract Prices on Firm-Fixed-Price Contracts Awarded to McDonnell Aircraft Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-03

    This is our final report on the audit of Subcontract Prices on Firm-Fixed-Price Contracts Awarded to McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR). The Contract Management Directorate made the audit from October 1989 through June 1990. The objective of the audit was to compare proposed and negotiated subcontract prices and determine reasons for significant variances. We also evaluated applicable internal control procedures. For a 6-month period ending December 1989, MCAIR issued 517 subcontracts valued at $679 million.

  5. 31 CFR 10.31 - Negotiation of taxpayer checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiation of taxpayer checks. 10.31 Section 10.31 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice Before the Internal Revenue Service § 10.31 Negotiation of taxpayer checks. ...

  6. An Automated Negotiation-based Framework via Multi-Agent System for the Construction Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moamin Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an automated multi-agent negotiation framework for decision making in the construction domain. It enables software agents to conduct negotiations and autonomously make decisions. The proposed framework consists of two types of components, internal and external. Internal components are integrated into the agent architecture while the external components are blended within the environment to facilitate the negotiation process. The internal components are negotiation algorithm, negotiation style, negotiation protocol, and solution generators. The external components are the negotiation base and the conflict resolution algorithm. We also discuss the decision making process flow in such system. There are three main processes in decision making for specific projects, which are propose solutions, negotiate solutions and handling conflict outcomes (conflict resolution. We finally present the proposed architecture that enables software agents to conduct automated negotiation in the construction domain.

  7. Negotiation and management

    OpenAIRE

    Ademi, Nermin

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations are a means of how to solve conflicts and differences through direct communication. It is a structured process through which parties overcome their differences and conflicts trying to reach an agreement about which solution will be acceptable to all. The basic meaning of negotiations is to obtain what you want from others. In this work the principal aspects of negotiations are being discussed, as one of the key business processes and an essential source of competitive advanta...

  8. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contract so different from other contracts. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by these two concepts.

  9. Conflicting Perspectives in Trade and Environmental Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, B.K.; Roson, R.

    2002-09-01

    International trade negotiations have recently tackled the issue of possible free trade restrictions, justified - among others - on the basis of environmental concerns. Also, some analyses of international environmental agreements (especially in the field of climate change) have highlighted the key role played by changes in the terms of trade in determining the cost of environmental policies. Yet, secondary effects of international trade remain disregarded in many environmental policies, whereas the introduction of environmental trade barriers has been resisted, arguing that this may hide a Trojan horse of a renewed protectionism. This paper reviews the debate on trade and the environment in the two fields of environmental and trade negotiations, highlighting the different and somewhat conflicting approach adopted in the two cases. A numerical general equilibrium model is used to illustrate how different 'perceptions' (translated in terms of alternative model closures) affect the use of instruments, the distributional impact of the various policies, and the strategic interplay between negotiators in international agreements

  10. Women's Learning in Contract Work: Practicing Contradictions in Boundaryless Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Tara

    2008-01-01

    The general rise in contractors, particularly among knowledge workers negotiating "boundaryless" employment conditions, has generated interest in the nature and forms of contract work. This article explores the learning of contract workers as they negotiate these conditions, with a focus on women. Drawing from a qualitative study of…

  11. The Art of Negotiation: What the Twenty-First Century Business Student Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClendon, Bill; Burke, Debra D.; Willey, Lorrie

    2010-01-01

    Negotiation skills are vital for concluding international treaties on subjects ranging from arms agreements, and rights in outer space to trade agreements. Yet the importance of being able to negotiate effectively is not limited to international treaties or crises situations. Using negotiation exercises represents a student-centered approach to…

  12. Intelligence and negotiating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of US intelligence during arms control negotiations between 1982 and 1987. It also covers : the orchestration of intelligence projects; an evaluation of the performance of intelligence activities; the effect intelligence work had on actual arms negotiations; and suggestions for improvements in the future

  13. Preparing for Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Larry

    The school board's negotiating team is all-important in the collective bargaining process, especially in light of the unity and organization of teacher association teams. Upper echelon administrative personnel, not the board members themselves, should compose the board's negotiating team. A board inexperienced in collective bargaining can hire a…

  14. A Brief Study of the Potential Problems in Cross-cultural Business Nego-tiations and Recommendations for Chinese Negotiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明瑞强

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has become a hot topic in the world economy realm. As international trade booms worldwide, especially in China, it requires negotiators despite their genders, regions, ethics or ages to sit together around the table and achieve their goals. Various problems do occur in this process. This paper is going to study the potential problems in cross-culture business ne-gotiations and put forward some workable suggestions and recommendations for Chinese negotiators with the view to clearing the situation up.

  15. How negotiators get to yes: predicting the constellation of strategies used across cultures to negotiate conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, C H

    2001-08-01

    Individualism, hierarchy, polychronicity, and explicit-contracting values explain why managers from Germany, Japan, and the United States use a different mix of strategies to negotiate workplace conflict. Hypotheses extend prior research in showing that conflict behavior is multiply determined and that each culture uses a variety of interests, regulations, and power-based conflict management strategies. Results of actual (rather than survey-based) conflict resolution behavior suggest several fruitful avenues for future research, including examining the inferred meaning of negotiation arguments, analyzing interaction effects of cultural value dimensions, studying the effectiveness of different strategies across cultures, and examining whether strategic adjustments are made during intercultural conflict management.

  16. The negotiation of collective agreements in France: Challenges and characteristics of negotiating gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Coron , Clotilde

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The negotiation of corporate agreements in France, the cornerstone of labor relations, has been the subject of much research. However, few address the issue of the process of the negotiation of a company agreement on gender equality, a theme that has been mandatory since the Génisson 2001 Act. This issue presents certain particularities (the transversal nature of gender equality across various Human Resource areas, legal framework obligations, etc.) that may affect the...

  17. Culture and Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    The literature on cross-cultural negotiation has expanded considerably over the past few decades, but the findings are often ambiguous and sometimes even contradictory. This introduction highlights the critical areas where objections are commonly raised about the relevance of national culture......, the applicability of typologies that treat cultures as static, and the problem of ambiguous terminology. It may not be surprising that studies contradict each other given the ambiguity of the national cultural construct and variations in the context of the negotiating situations that are studied. The articles...... in this issue contribute to deepening our understanding about cross-cultural negotiation processes....

  18. Negotiating through conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    There are several major causes of conflict over the nuclear waste disposal siting process but conflict should not be ended or avoided merely to have peace. A number of issues are listed that should be addressed to ensure that negotiations can be performed in a manner that will result in agreements. During the negotiation process, participants should not reveal all secrets, but must not appear to be holding things back. The agreements reached as a result of negotiations should be spelled out clearly, in writing. The agreement should tell how to implement the decision and state how all parties will be involved. The agreement should also contain provisions for continued interaction among parties

  19. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  20. The influence of Culture on ABMP Negotiation Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations are known to proceed differently across cultures. A realistic agent model of international negotiations has to take cultural differences into account. This paper presents an agent-based model that tackles this challenge. The context is a trade game where commodities with a hidden

  1. The influence of culture on ABMP negotiation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2011-01-01

    Negotiations are known to proceed differently across cultures. A realistic agent model of international negotiations has to take cultural differences into account. This paper presents an agent-based model that tackles this challenge. The context is a trade game where commodities with a hidden

  2. The Validity of International Sales Contracts: Irrelevance of the 'Validity Exception' in Article 4 Vienna Sales Convention and a Novel Approach to Determining the Convention's Scope

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeter, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    in: Ingeborg Schwenzer and Lisa Spagnolo (eds.), Boundaries and Intersections: The 5th Annual MAA Schlechtriem CISG Conference, The Hague: Eleven International Publishing (2014), pp. 95-117 Throughout the history of uniform law for international sales, the rules governing the validity of cross-border sales contracts have proven particularly difficult to harmonize because they differ greatly between the various domestic laws. This dilemma inter alia resulted in the "validity exception" in Arti...

  3. Getting past yes: negotiating as if implementation mattered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Danny

    2004-11-01

    Many deals that look good on paper never materialize into value-creating endeavors. Often, the problem begins at the negotiating table. In fact, the very person everyone thinks is pivotal to a deal's success--the negotiator--is often the one who undermines it. That's because most negotiators have a deal maker mind-set: They see the signed contract as the final destination rather than the start of a cooperative venture. What's worse, most companies reward negotiators on the basis of the number and size of the deals they're signing, giving them no incentive to change. The author asserts that organizations and negotiators must transition from a deal maker mentality--which involves squeezing your counterpart for everything you can get--to an implementation mind-set--which sets the stage for a healthy working relationship long after the ink has dried. Achieving an implementation mind-set demands five new approaches. First, start with the end in mind: Negotiation teams should carry out a "benefit of hindsight" exercise to imagine what sorts of problems they'll have encountered 12 months down the road. Second, help your counterpart prepare. Surprise confers advantage only because the other side has no time to think through all the implications of a proposal. If they agree to something they can't deliver, it will affect you both. Third, treat alignment as a shared responsibility. After all, if the other side's interests aren't aligned, it's your problem, too. Fourth, send one unified message. Negotiators should brief implementation teams on both sides together so everyone has the same information. And fifth, manage the negotiation like a business exercise: Combine disciplined negotiation preparation with post-negotiation reviews. Above all, companies must remember that the best deals don't end at the negotiating table--they begin there.

  4. Business Negotiations Idioms

    OpenAIRE

    Юрченко, С.О.

    2013-01-01

    English idioms or idiomatic expressions have always been one of the trickiest topics. This is because the real meanings of English idioms are so far off their literal meanings. To make things more complicated, idioms are used in business negotiations.

  5. Intelligence and negotiating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper gives some background on how people from the INF went about their jobs during the last two years of negotiations, and also relates some of the goals the INF had in mind and some of their concerns

  6. Complex Business Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholst, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Most scholars agree that engaging in preparation and planning is key to a negotiation’s effectiveness but research has largely focused solely on what happens at the negotiation table, rather than in preparation for it. This thesis addresses the balance by clarifying which preparation and planning activities are undertaken to conduct a complex business negotiation. It examines not only what activities are conducted, but also by whom, and when. One important question for both pra...

  7. The extension of the international trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    INVAP, a company pertaining to the Rio Negro province and controlled by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), has been instrumental for the international expansion of the Argentine nuclear trade, including the provision of Argentine research reactors to Algeria and Egypt. The history of the negotiations carried out with about twenty countries is shortly summarized and the scope of the supply of the major contracts is described

  8. Using a Corporate Partnership to Enhance Learning in a Sourcing Negotiation Role-play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Janet L.; Eboch, Karen; Gilberg, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Although role-plays can be effective teaching tools for buyer-supplier negotiation, learning can be somewhat limited because typically novices are negotiating with each other. We describe how we collaborated with a corporate partner, CACI International, to develop and implement a repeatable sourcing and negotiation role-play that helps to address…

  9. IPP fuel contracts - creating certain contracts for uncertain times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, I. [Coddington International Pty. Ltd., Milsons Point, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Coal contracts for the new Asian Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are examined. Since most IPPs will be selling to state electricity utilities, often in competition with power plant using other fuels, coal based IPPs must negotiate advantageous coal supply contracts several years before the commissioning of a plant, and must ensure security of supply for at least the life of the construction loan. A more recent trend in the developed world is the Merchant IPP, where there is no guaranteed electricity sale. Lenders are wary of IPPs relying an imported coal, and insist on binding fuel contracts, while coal companies are wary of the quantity of information demanded by these lenders. A full understanding of the risks involved is needed; and a method of price indexation for the contracts. Contracts must also specify security of supply, coal quality, freight contracts and other details. 2 figs.

  10. 41 CFR 102-38.105 - Under what conditions may we negotiate sales of personal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property when— (a) The personal property has an estimated fair market value that does not exceed $15,000... may we negotiate sales of personal property? 102-38.105 Section 102-38.105 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Negotiated Sales § 102-38.105 Under...

  11. The Pacific coal market for 1999: it`s negotiation time again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The annual Australia-Japan Coal Conference signals the beginning of the negotiations between Asia`s coal buyers and suppliers. Drastic cuts are expected to existing contract pricing. The article discusses the present spot market. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  12. Concurrent negotiation and coordination for grid resource coallocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong; Shi, Benyun

    2010-06-01

    Bolstering resource coallocation is essential for realizing the Grid vision, because computationally intensive applications often require multiple computing resources from different administrative domains. Given that resource providers and consumers may have different requirements, successfully obtaining commitments through concurrent negotiations with multiple resource providers to simultaneously access several resources is a very challenging task for consumers. The impetus of this paper is that it is one of the earliest works that consider a concurrent negotiation mechanism for Grid resource coallocation. The concurrent negotiation mechanism is designed for 1) managing (de)commitment of contracts through one-to-many negotiations and 2) coordination of multiple concurrent one-to-many negotiations between a consumer and multiple resource providers. The novel contributions of this paper are devising 1) a utility-oriented coordination (UOC) strategy, 2) three classes of commitment management strategies (CMSs) for concurrent negotiation, and 3) the negotiation protocols of consumers and providers. Implementing these ideas in a testbed, three series of experiments were carried out in a variety of settings to compare the following: 1) the CMSs in this paper with the work of others in a single one-to-many negotiation environment for one resource where decommitment is allowed for both provider and consumer agents; 2) the performance of the three classes of CMSs in different resource market types; and 3) the UOC strategy with the work of others [e.g., the patient coordination strategy (PCS )] for coordinating multiple concurrent negotiations. Empirical results show the following: 1) the UOC strategy achieved higher utility, faster negotiation speed, and higher success rates than PCS for different resource market types; and 2) the CMS in this paper achieved higher final utility than the CMS in other works. Additionally, the properties of the three classes of CMSs in

  13. Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations - Phase III. International Lawyers and Economists against Poverty (ILEAP) is an initiative that aims to help African and Caribbean countries derive full benefit from integration into ...

  14. Duty to notify the seller of defects in title in contracts for the international sale of goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The seller must deliver the goods which are free from any right or claim of a third party. If the seller fails to do so he will be liable for the breach of the contract. However, the buyer loses the right to rely on the provisions regulating seller's liability for defects in title if he does not give notice to the seller specifying the nature of the right or claim of the third party. In order to have legal effect, the notice must fulfill conditions regarding content, form and addressee. The buyer must notify the seller in a timely manner i.e. within a reasonable time after he has become aware or, alternatively, ought to have become aware of the right or claim. Breach of the duty to notify the seller of the defects in title is followed by severe consequences for the buyer because he loses the right to rely on the defects. However, in international sales law the buyer can exercise rights arising out of defects in title even when he fails to notify the seller in two specific cases. First, the buyer retains his rights arising out of a breach of Art. 41 and 42 if the seller knew of the right or claim of the third party and the nature of it. And second, pursuant to Art. 44 of the CISG, the buyer may reduce the price in accordance with Art. 50 or claim damages, except for loss of profit, if he has reasonable excuse for his failure to give the required notice.

  15. Behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, D.; Hopmann, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    This article surveys theory and research about the process of international negotiation. The goal, of this paper is to apply behavioral science research to find ways to negotiate an improved mutual security regime between the nuclear superpowers that would make nuclear war less likely in the years ahead. When President John F. Kennedy presented the first nuclear arms control agreement, the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, to the U.S. public in 1963 he noted the ancient Chinese proverb: A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step. Just as the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty represented for Kennedy the first step on the road to nuclear arms control, so the research reviewed here represents at best the first few steps in a long journey to a better understanding of how to negotiate a regime of mutual security between the nuclear superpowers

  16. Instruments for public environment policies: The negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, S.; Squillacioti, M.T.

    1990-12-01

    The negotiation starts from the postulate that environmental conflicts are a standing datum in the future of our societies. Environmental instance is based in deep and not reversible manner inside the attitude and value changes and, consequently, inside the quality of life. The different hopes about the environmental consequences constitute an internal element of democratic development and it is not thinkable to ignore or neglect these diversities. With regard to this last point the inadequacy of the present legal systems must be underlined. They are constructed to settle a controversy about 'the facts' and not about 'the values'. Often some environmental disputes may last quite a few years without facing the real essence of the question. The environmental negotiation intends as a 'consensual approach' that should give more possibilities for the conflict solution. It is based on the presupposition to create the terms for final result. In comparison with the legislative acts, the direct negotiation table permits a best exploration of options and a best mobilization of technical competencies. At last, because the negotiators should live together on the basis of obtained agreement, they will have more sensibility for the problems attached to the application than the laymen, for which the process ends with the publication of the law. The strongest argumentation in favor of environmental negotiation is that it is more difficult to avoid the substantial questions as well as often happens inside the legislative acts. (author)

  17. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  18. Interaction as Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    In this paper we discuss recent developments in interaction design principles for ubiquitous computing environments, specifically implications related to situated and mobile aspects of work. We present 'Interaction through Negotiation' as a general Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) paradigm, aimed...... at ubiquitous/pervasive technology and environments, with focus on facilitating negotiation in and between webs of different artifacts, humans and places. This approach is concerned with the way technology presents itself to us, both as physical entities and as conceptual entities, as well as the relations...... on several extensive empirical case studies, as well as co-operative design-sessions, we present a reflective analysis providing insights into results of the "Interaction through Negotiation" design approach in action. A very promising area of application is exception handling in pervasive computing...

  19. Negotiating Life Chances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    to and negotiate both educational and labour mobility - both of which are associated with the chance of a better life. This thesis is about young people (aged 16-31): How they negotiate their life chances and how they contribute to transformations of the socio-political space of their communities in two villages...... becoming. Aspirations prevail over political interests: young people navigate and negotiate their engagement in party and community politics by making calculations concerning their own mobility, life strategies and obligations to kin. In this way, young men engage in, but also balance and shift......, conversely, can only aspire to educational mobility due to gender norms. Furthermore, many of their hopes of ‘becoming somebody’ collapse upon marriage. Women find that they cannot continue their education, nor use the skills they have acquired in local politics, as they need to follow traditional...

  20. Multi-agent framework for negotiation in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretan, Adina; Coutinho, Carlos; Bratu, Ben; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to offer support for small and medium enterprises which cannot or do not want to fulfill a big contract alone. Each organization has limited resources and in order to better accomplish a higher external demand, the managers are forced to outsource parts of their contracts even to concurrent organizations. In this concurrent environment each enterprise wants to preserve its decision autonomy and to disclose as little as possible from its business information. To describe this interaction, our approach is to define a framework for managing parallel and concurrent negotiations among independent organizations acting in the same industrial market. The complexity of our negotiation framework is done by the dynamic environment in which multi-attribute and multi-participant negotiations are racing over the same set of resources. Moreover, the proposed framework helps the organizations within the collaborative networked environment to augment their efficiency and ability to react to unforeseen situations, thus improving their market competitiveness.

  1. Electrically Stimulated Antagonist Muscle Contraction Increased Muscle Mass and Bone Mineral Density of One Astronaut - Initial Verification on the International Space Station

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Naoto; Matsuse, Hiroo; Takano, Yoshio; Yoshimitsu, Kazuhiro; Omoto, Masayuki; Hashida, Ryuki; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Inada, Tomohisa; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS). We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS) to maintain an astronaut?s musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system?s orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on a...

  2. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  3. 75 FR 15453 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Repayment Contract. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Reclamation will be initiating negotiations with the...

  4. 48 CFR 836.606-72 - Contract price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract price. 836.606-72 Section 836.606-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL...-72 Contract price. (a) Where negotiations with the top-rated firm are unsuccessful, the contracting...

  5. 46 CFR 205.5 - Contracts containing disputes article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts containing disputes article. 205.5 Section 205... AUDIT APPEALS; POLICY AND PROCEDURE § 205.5 Contracts containing disputes article. When a contract contains a disputes article, the disputes article will govern the bases for negotiating disputes regarding...

  6. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  7. Exploring Culture Theory Global Leadership and OrganizationalBehaviour Effectiveness in Cross-cultural Communication inAsian Business Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoo, Pin Lick Soo

    2016-01-01

    While certain In international business negotiations, having the knowledge of cross-cultural communication is essential especially in global business environments and thus, many researchers have spent numerous years to investigate how culture influences Asian business negotiation which has contributed to negotiation outcome. This article provides critical insight into the theoretical link of cultural dimensions of culture for international business negotiations. The proposed model suggested i...

  8. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  9. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  10. Acceptance conditions in automated negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarslag, T.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In every negotiation with a deadline, one of the negotiating parties has to accept an offer to avoid a break off. A break off is usually an undesirable outcome for both parties, therefore it is important that a negotiator employs a proficient mechanism to decide under which conditions to accept.

  11. Negotiation for Strategic Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Afiouni, Einar Nour; Øvrelid, Leif Julian

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to examine the possibilities of using game theoretic concepts and multi-agent systems in modern video games with real time demands. We have implemented a multi-issue negotiation system for the strategic video game Civilization IV, evaluating different negotiation techniques with a focus on the use of opponent modeling to improve negotiation results.

  12. Moments of Negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    'Moments of Negotiation' offers the first book-length and indepth analysis of the New Historicist reading method, which the American Shakespeare-scolar Stephen Greenblatt introduced at the beginning of the 1980s. Ever since, Greenblatt has been hailed as the prime representative of this movement,

  13. Organizational Change in Distance Higher Education: the Re-negotiation of Employee's Psychological Contract Cambio Organizacional en la Educación Superior a Distancia: la Re-negociación del Contrato Psicológico de los Empleados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Topa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore empirical relationships of employees' attitudes towards organizational change, the perceived breach of the psychological contract and outcomes such as burnout, job satisfaction and OCB. The proposed model suggests that organizational identification will be a mediator variable in these relationships. Results of an empirical study conducted among university staff (N =150 showed that the model was an adequate fit to the data. Organizational identification mediated the relationship between psychological contract breach and outcomes while attitudes towards organizational change had a direct impact on outcomes. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es explorar las relaciones empíricas entre las actitudes ante el cambio organizacional, la ruptura de contrato psicológico y los resultados tales como burnout, satisfacción laboral y conductas de ciudadanía organizacional. El modelo propuesto sugería que la identificación organizacional sería una variable mediadora en estas relaciones. Los resultados de un estudio empírico llevado a cabo con personal universitario (N=150 mostraron que el modelo ajustaba adecuadamente a los datos. La identificación organizacional mediaba la relación entre la ruptura de contrato psicológico y los resultados, mientras que las actitudes ante el cambio tenían un impacto directo en los resultados.

  14. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle thickness changes in the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles considering the influence of posture and muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.

  15. 48 CFR 2409.507-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the nature of the potential conflict and the negotiated terms and duration of the limitation. The... substantially the same as the clause at 2452.209-71, Limitation on Future Contracts, in solicitations and...

  16. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. I. Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted excited valence bond wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism.

  17. Eleventh ITER negotiations meeting (N-11) and twelfth negotiators' standing sub-group meeting (NSSG-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Delong

    2005-01-01

    The Eleventh ITER Negotiations Meeting (N-11) and the Twelfth Negotiators' Standing Sub-Group (NSSG-12 convened on October 19-25, 2005 at the Kempinski Hotel Chengdu, Sichuan Province. China was the host of this meeting. Delegations from China, the European Union, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America, as well as members from the International Team, met there to continue their work to reach agreement on the joint implementation of the ITER international fusion energy R and D project. The delegations accepted the Vice Minister of Science and Technology, Mr. LIU Yanhua, and State Councillor, Mr. SHI Dinghuan as Moderators for N-11 and NSSG-12, respectively, and Mr. LUO Delong as Secretary for both meetings. At the Meeting, delegates discussed and made substantial progress on a full range of legal, technical, and administrative topics, including staffing for ITER, policies for managing the project and its procurements, and the continuing joint drafting of the agreement on establishing the international ITER Organization to implement the project. Delegates also explored the possibility of India joining the Negotiations. In the light of the reports presented to the Meeting from the recent joint exploratory mission to India, delegates identified a series of steps for the near future leading towards a possible agreement among all the Parties to India's accession. The Negotiations Meeting also discussed the progress report of NSSG and forward planning and future tasks. The Negotiators agreed that substantial progress was made on all topics, and delegations are optimistic that the Joint Implementation Agreement and related Annexes and instruments could be initialed in spring of 2006. As decided by all delegations, the next Twelfth ITER Negotiations Meeting will be held in Korea on 6 December, 2005

  18. Conflicting Perspectives in Trade and Environmental Negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchner, B.K. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy); Roson, R. [Economics Department, Ca' Foscari University, Venice (Italy)

    2002-09-01

    International trade negotiations have recently tackled the issue of possible free trade restrictions, justified - among others - on the basis of environmental concerns. Also, some analyses of international environmental agreements (especially in the field of climate change) have highlighted the key role played by changes in the terms of trade in determining the cost of environmental policies. Yet, secondary effects of international trade remain disregarded in many environmental policies, whereas the introduction of environmental trade barriers has been resisted, arguing that this may hide a Trojan horse of a renewed protectionism. This paper reviews the debate on trade and the environment in the two fields of environmental and trade negotiations, highlighting the different and somewhat conflicting approach adopted in the two cases. A numerical general equilibrium model is used to illustrate how different 'perceptions' (translated in terms of alternative model closures) affect the use of instruments, the distributional impact of the various policies, and the strategic interplay between negotiators in international agreements.

  19. INSURGENT WAR, NEGOTIATION OF CONFLICT AND HISTORCAL MEMORY IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIEL ÁLVAREZ RUBIO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports an analysis based on the insurgent war and the process of negotiations undertaken between the government and the FARC. This study covers both conflict negotiation theories applied to the Colombian case as well as the results of these negotiations. Finally, some insights are made regarding the complex post-conflict scenario, covering issues such as the possible downsizing of the Armed Forces (Public Forces, demobilization and integration into society of the guerrillas of the FARC and the construction of the historical memory of the internal armed conflict in Colombian. Key words:  ·

  20. The Waste Negotiator's mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Christian

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the Waste Negotiator is to seek out sites for deep underground laboratories to study their potential for disposal of high level radioactive waste. Although appointed by the government, he acts independently. In 1990, faced by severe public criticism at the way that the waste disposal was being handled, and under increasing pressure to find an acceptable solution, the government stopped the work being carried out by ANDRA (Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs) and initiated a full review of the issues involved. At the same time, parliament also started its own extensive investigation to find a way forward. These efforts finally led to the provision of a detailed framework for the management of long lived radioactive waste, including the construction of two laboratories to investigate possible repository sites. The Waste Negotiator was appointed to carry out a full consultative process in the communities which are considering accepting an underground laboratory. (Author)

  1. Negotiating meaning through artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the domain of strategy making, specifically to unpacking the complexity of sociomateriality in strategy discourse. Scholars have emphasized the potential of artefacts to enhance sensemaking during strategizing. However there is a lack of insight into how artefacts...... and conversational aspects are linked at the micro‑level of discourse, also how artefacts and sensemaking shape one another. This research addresses this gap by empirically analyzing strategy discourse within a facilitated modelling workshop. Considering strategizing as a socially constructed activity, the author...... analyzes a workshop transcript to assess the extent to which stakeholders’ appropriation of artefacts supports them in engaging in negotiation of meaning with action implications. Moreover, how artefacts and negotiation of meaning shape one another is identified. The data suggest that appropriating...

  2. Negotiating Family Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom; Sonne Damkjær, Maja

    This presentation explores the question: What motivates the use of tracking technologies in families, and how does the use transform the relations between parent and child? The purpose is to investigate why tracking technologies are used in families and how these technologies potentially change...... the relation between parents and children. The use of tracking technologies in families implicate negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can lead to strategies of resistance or modification (Fotel and Thomsen, 2004; Rooney, 2010; Steeves and Jones, 2010......). In the presentation, we report from a qualitative study that focuses on intergenerational relations. The study draws on empirical data from workshops with Danish families as well as individual and group interviews. We aim to gain insights about the sharing habits and negotiations in intimate family relations...

  3. Learning as Negotiating Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Keller, Hanne Dauer

    The paper explores the contribution of Communities of Practice (COP) to Human Resource Development (HRD). Learning as negotiating identities captures the contribution of COP to HRD. In COP the development of practice happens through negotiation of meaning. The learning process also involves modes...... of belonging constitutive of our identities. We suggest that COP makes a significant contribution by linking learning and identification. This means that learning becomes much less instrumental and much more linked to fundamental questions of being. We argue that the COP-framework links learning with the issue...... of time - caught in the notion of trajectories of learning - that integrate past, present and future. Working with the learners' notion of time is significant because it is here that new learning possibilities become visible and meaningful for individuals. Further, we argue that the concept of identity...

  4. Suffering Beyond Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we argue that design in therapeutic domains (in a broad sense) depends on an understanding of the background for the engagement of the various users involved. It is specifically argued that an understanding of the life transforming process, or trajectory as opposed to design process...... center stage that is not based in the negotiation between rationalities. The paper draws examples from design based research projects over the last 5 years....

  5. Persuasion through negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Elosua, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    A building about to be demolished near the ancient town of Ciqikou (磁器口). The process of expropriation forces authorities to negotiate with the residents on a case-by-case basis. In this photo, some residents have already left apartments vacant, while others still remain in their homes wishing to better their compensation package. The gentrification of the neighbourhood is guaranteed since high prices will force most, if not all, former residents to move out of the community.

  6. Meeting competition through negotiated pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.M.; Raper, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    A fundamental premise of negotiated pricing as a demand-side management (DSM) tool is that price determines cost. As the ultimate objective of energy efficiency is to increase electromotive work while conserving resources, negotiated prices can have a significant impact as a DSM tool to force costs down. Three examples are offered of the effect of negotiated pricing as a DSM tool. The examples are a small hydroelectric company and an electric utility authority owned, a utility-to-customer example of negotiated pricing with the Public Service Company of Oklahoma's (PSO) system, and a large paper mill on PSO's system. Some of the major problems associated with negotiated pricing, outside of the human effort of finding and training knowledgeable and skilled negotiators, are: obtaining enough information about the customer or potential customer to be able to determine that in negotiating prices the utility is not giving away more benefits than the utility will gain; developing a pricing plan that fits both the customer's and utility's existing and potential future mode of operation; assuring that other customers who cannot negotiate on their own behalf are not adversely affected by utility revenue shortfalls; making such negotiated prices available to all similarly situated customers, so as not to inadvertently create unfair competitive advantages among them; and defining the shared benefits before and after the fact as a result of having negotiated prices in the first place

  7. Preference Elicitation and Negotiation in a Group Recommender System

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Márquez , Jesús ,; Ziegler , Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present a novel approach to group recommender systems that better takes into account the social interaction in a group when formulating, discussing and negotiating the features of the item to be jointly selected. Our approach provides discussion support in a collaborative preference elicitation and negotiation process. Individual preferences are continuously aggregated and immediate feedback of the resulting recommendations is provided. We also support the last stag...

  8. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  9. Socialization in the Neoliberal Academy of STEM Scholars: A Case Study of Negotiating Dispositions in an International Graduate Student in Entomology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Rabbi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how neoliberal orders of discourse shape the dispositions to academic literacies of an international graduate student in entomology. As this ideology of market logic consolidates its hegemony in universities of excellence and US culture at large, academic socialization and disciplinary activities increasingly aim to create scholarly dispositions and subjectivities that align with it. Such processes are further complicated by the backgrounds of international graduate students—an ever-larger proportion of graduate students in STEM who often hail from educational cultures significantly different from the U.S. Our analysis of an international graduate student’s literacy practices in terms of motivations and outcomes shows that his literacies echo the dispositions pushed by neoliberal ideologies, but are not over-determined by them. Rather, as our case study illustrates, his socialization is a layered process, with ambiguous implications and strategic calculations making up literacies and disciplinary outcomes. We believe closely mapping such tensions in literacies and socialization processes increases humanities scholars’ awareness both of the potential contradictions of educating international graduate students into the neoliberal model and of how the university can still be used to develop the dispositions needed to renegotiate the neoliberal order of discourse for more ethical and empowering purposes.

  10. "Is This What You're Talking About?": Identity Negotiation in International Teaching Assistants' Instructional Interactions with U.S. College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Shiao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    The instructional performance of international teaching assistants (ITA) in U.S. universities is generally considered as problematic due to linguistic and cultural differences in existing studies. Drawing on interactional sociolinguistics, conversation analysis, and positioning theory, this study aims to find out how ITAs are juxtaposed between…

  11. Compensation: Architecture for supporting dynamicity and negotiation in accounting, charging and billing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, G.B.; Kühne, R.; Meyer, U.; Ensing, H.; Zugenmaier, A.; Bibas, A.; Karasti, O.; Rumph, F.J.; Siljee, B.I.J.

    2010-01-01

    As of today, contractual agreements govern the terms of interaction between users and providers as well as between interoperating providers. Such contracts indicate usable services and resources, tariffs, payment methods, etc. Typically, these terms are negotiated once before the contract is signed

  12. 41 CFR 102-73.70 - Are Executive agencies required to acquire leased space by negotiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are Executive agencies required to acquire leased space by negotiation? 102-73.70 Section 102-73.70 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION...

  13. 48 CFR 215.404-74 - Fee requirements for cost-plus-award-fee contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fee requirements for cost... NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-74 Fee requirements for cost-plus-award-fee contracts. In developing a fee objective for cost-plus-award-fee contracts, the contracting officer shall— (a) Follow the...

  14. 48 CFR 215.404-71-3 - Contract type risk and working capital adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Cost-plus-incentive-free (4) 1.0 0 to 2. Cost-plus-fixed-fee (4) 0.5 0 to 1. Time-and-materials... considered cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts for the purposes of assigning profit values. They shall not receive... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-71-3 Contract type risk and working capital adjustment. (a...

  15. Terms of payment in the sales contract

    OpenAIRE

    Harmáčková, Iva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis makes an analysis of price and terms of payment in the sales contract. Both elements are conceived in terms of legal framework and in terms of importance for the parties to an international sales contract. The theoretical part deals with the role of the sales contract in business relations, structure and legal norms of the international sales contract. The practical part includes an analysis of specific international sales contract.

  16. Towards a Better Understanding of Climate Change Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryndís Arndal Woods

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of environmental economics literature applies non-cooperative game theory to examine the stability of International Environmental Agreements. Recently, a new trend has emerged in the literature whereby scholars use modified economic approaches to better account for ‘reality’ as such. This article builds upon the work of Hugh Ward, Frank Grundig and Ethan Zorick who conducted a mixed-method analysis to create a model of international climate change negotiations which could explain why policy change has been minimal in this issue area. The purpose of this article is to further develop the mixed-method approach in order to gain a better understanding of international climate change negotiations. Using the progression of the 2011 Durban negotiation session as our raw data, we demonstrate the usefulness of conducting qualitative and quantitative analyses simultaneously to best represent reality. Content and discourse analyses are applied to the Durban negotiations to identify the properties of the underlying game. The results are applied to the future of the negotiations in order to identify trends which need to be addressed to reach more progressive outcomes in the future. The main results of the qualitative analyses of the Durban negotiations included that players had modest expectations at the outset of the negotiations, which influenced the issues they addressed. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that players achieved a high degree of success at Durban; all players achieved their desired outcomes on at least half of the issues they addressed. Finally, the mixed-method approach identified important trends from the negotiations, most importantly the cracks exposed within the BASIC bloc and the role of the ‘middle ground’ alliance.

  17. The Risk of Goods in International Sales. An Approach from the Breach of Contract and Remedies of the Buyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Vidal Olivares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the regime risks in the CISG with the aim of showing that the regime that it is incorporated, is based on functional criteria to the interests of the parties to solve the problems that originated in the loss and prior to the transfer of risk to the buyer will have recourse to remedies system and thus achieve the connection with the breach of contract. In its development we used the dogmatic method, from the systematic analysis of the rules of the CISG, doctrine and case law.

  18. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  19. Recent advances in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Fujita, Katsuhide; Robu, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in Complex Automated Negotiations as a widely studied emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. The book includes selected revised and extended papers from the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN2014), which was held in Paris, France, in May 2014. The book also includes brief introductions about Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiation which are based on tutorials provided in the workshop, and brief summaries and descriptions about the ANAC'14 (Automated Negotiating Agents Competition) competition, where authors of selected finalist agents explain the strategies and the ideas used by them. The book is targeted to academic and industrial researchers in various communities of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as agreement technology, mechanism design, electronic commerce, related areas, as well as graduate, undergraduate, and PhD students working in those areas or having interest in them.

  20. Interdepartmental conflict management and negotiation in cardiovascular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Hansel J; Nallamshetty, Leelakrishna; Rybicki, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Although the relationship between cardiologists and radiologists has a thorny history, advanced cardiac imaging technology and the promise of cardiac computed tomography are forcing both specialties back to the negotiation table. These discussions represent an opportunity for better communication, collaboration, and resource allocation. The authors address the aspects of interdepartmental conflict management and negotiation through their radiology department's ongoing efforts to provide high-quality advanced noninvasive cardiovascular imaging services at a large academic institution. The definition and causes of conflict are defined, with a specific focus on noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, followed by a description of steps used in the negotiation process. The authors encourage radiologists to entertain an open dialogue with cardiology, because in many cases, both sides can benefit. The benefits of a negotiated outcome include minimizing internal competitors, incorporating cardiologists' expertise to cardiac imaging algorithms, and more effective training opportunities.

  1. Status of Iran's nuclear program and negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, David

    2014-01-01

    Iran's nuclear program poses immense challenges to international security. Its gas centrifuge program has grown dramatically in the last several years, bringing Iran close to a point where it could produce highly enriched uranium in secret or declared gas centrifuge plants before its breakout would be discovered and stopped. To reduce the risk posed by Iran's nuclear program, the P5+1 have negotiated with Iran short term limits on the most dangerous aspects of its nuclear programs and is negotiating long-term arrangements that can provide assurance that Iran will not build nuclear weapons. These long-term arrangements need to include a far more limited and transparent Iranian nuclear program. In advance of arriving at a long-term arrangement, the IAEA will need to resolve its concerns about the alleged past and possibly on-going military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program

  2. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  3. Dynamic Communication Resource Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward; Vatan, Farrokh; Paloulian, George; Frisbie, Steve; Srostlik, Zuzana; Kalomiris, Vasilios; Apgar, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Today's advanced network management systems can automate many aspects of the tactical networking operations within a military domain. However, automation of joint and coalition tactical networking across multiple domains remains challenging. Due to potentially conflicting goals and priorities, human agreement is often required before implementation into the network operations. This is further complicated by incompatible network management systems and security policies, rendering it difficult to implement automatic network management, thus requiring manual human intervention to the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints. This process of manual human intervention is tedious, error-prone, and slow. In order to facilitate a better solution, we are pursuing a technology which makes network management automated, reliable, and fast. Automating the negotiation of the common network communication parameters between different parties is the subject of this paper. We present the technology that enables inter-force dynamic communication resource negotiations to enable ad-hoc inter-operation in the field between force domains, without pre-planning. It also will enable a dynamic response to changing conditions within the area of operations. Our solution enables the rapid blending of intra-domain policies so that the forces involved are able to inter-operate effectively without overwhelming each other's networks with in-appropriate or un-warranted traffic. It will evaluate the policy rules and configuration data for each of the domains, then generate a compatible inter-domain policy and configuration that will update the gateway systems between the two domains.

  4. Options for change in the NHS consultant contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W; Gray, C

    The lead negotiators for the management and consultant sides in an NHS trust in northern England responded to debate in their trust about consultant contracts by offering to research the attitudes of their peers towards a variety of contract options. The options tested included the current contract; models already examined in the trust and elsewhere, such as time sensitive and mild performance related contracts; and some more radical and speculative possibilities, including consultants franchising their services to the trust. Beyond the predictable conclusion that consultants would prefer no change while managers desired it, a time sensitive contract emerged as having potential for successful negotiation. On the other hand, neither consultants nor managers favoured a strict performance related contract or a fee for service contract. There was a strong similarity of opinion between the two groups on the relative salary values of the options, though the consultants consistently priced these higher than the managers.

  5. Introduction: Negotiation in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, S.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Although conflicts most often occur between groups, research and theory on conflict management and negotiation have largely focused on the interpersonal system and ignored how groups negotiate a solution to their intergroup conflict. Thus we have a thorough understanding of the motivational,

  6. Negotiation as a metaphor for distributed problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Smith, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The authors describe the concept of distributed problem solving and defines it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. A framework is presented called the contract net that specifies communication and control in a distribution problem solver. Task distribution is viewed as an interactive process, a discussion carried on between a node with a task to be executed and a group of nodes that may be able to execute the task. The kinds of information are described that must be passed between nodes during the discussion in order to obtain effective problem-solving behavior. This discussion is the origin of the negotiation metaphor: task distribution is viewed as a form of contract negotiation. 32 references.

  7. A Multi-Agent Environment for Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Koen V.; Jonker, Catholijn M.; Tykhonov, Dmytro

    In this chapter we introduce the System for Analysis of Multi-Issue Negotiation (SAMIN). SAMIN offers a negotiation environment that supports and facilitates the setup of various negotiation setups. The environment has been designed to analyse negotiation processes between human negotiators, between human and software agents, and between software agents. It offers a range of different agents, different domains, and other options useful to define a negotiation setup. The environment has been used to test and evaluate a range of negotiation strategies in various domains playing against other negotiating agents as well as humans. We discuss some of the results obtained by means of these experiments.

  8. 48 CFR 1552.242-72 - Financial administrative contracting officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administrative Contracting Officer (FACO) is responsible for performing certain post-award functions related to the financial aspects of this contract when the EPA is the cognizant federal agency. These functions...) Negotiate advance agreements applicable to treatment of costs and to Independent Research & Development/Bid...

  9. A Manpower Model for U.S. Navy Operational Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    CLC 056 Analyzing Contract Costs CLC 057 Performance Based Payments and Value of Cash Flow HBS 428 Negotiating Education At least 24...MONTHLY METRICS 38 The heads of contracting at the seven FLCs are responsible for maintaining all of the “ dashboard ” metrics. NAVSUP GLS headquarters

  10. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...... within the cluster, in the form of cumulative ‘institutional rounds’ – the correction or disruption of existing institutions or the creation of new ones; and (iii) this process leads to a broader inclusion of local actors in the original cluster configuration. The paper challenges the prevalent argument...

  11. Prescribing safety, negotiating expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolina, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their presumed impact on the safety of high-risk installations, the interactions between regulators and the regulated are a major but seldom explored subject of research in risk management. A study by experts on human and organizational factors in nuclear safety sheds light on the various phases (and their effects) of the process whereby experts produce assessments. Light is shed on a 'negotiated expertise' typical of the French style of safety regulations in nuclear installations. It is based on an ongoing technical dialog between experts and operators ('French cooking' for Anglo-Saxons). This analysis of 'expertise' and thus of the 'logics of action' implemented by experts proposes a typology of actions that can be transposed to other sorts of risk or other fields of activity. It hands us the keys for understanding a very contemporary activity. (author)

  12. Identity negotiations in meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuß, Birte; Oshima, Sae

    of the company, and all members know (and display) that he holds some information that the rest don’t have access to. Our analysis shows that the participants evoke various identities of the manager, sometimes orienting to the structure of the organization, and other times orienting to wider social categories......Meetings are places, where identity negotiation is a central activity and where members’ local practices recurrently inform and are informed by larger categories (Antaki and Widdicombe 1998). Correspondingly, the approach to understanding organization (macro) by way of identity work (micro) has...... company, and in the data recorded over 10 days, the employees frequently complain about the many changes that have taken place. Our focus lies in a unique occasion where one of the managers makes an unusual appearance at the lunchroom. In this situation, he is the only one that is on the business side...

  13. Powers of negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, Chris

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the emerging markets for gas and electricity for business users in the UK. As well as identifying trends, advice is given on how to take advantage of changing markets and several common contract types are exemplified for electricity. (UK)

  14. Negotiation Decision Support Systems: Analysing Negotiations under the Conditions of Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Nipun Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Negotiation Theory is a research area with emphasis from three different research streams being game theory, psychology and negotiation analysis. Recently, negotiation theory research has moved towards the combination of game theory and psychology negotiation theory models that could be called Integrated Negotiation Theory (INT). As, negotiations are often impacted by external factors, there is risk associated with achieving the expected outcomes. Prospect theory and Negotiation theory are co...

  15. The Alliance Negotiation Scale: A psychometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Negotiation of identities in intercultural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janík Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation of identities in communication entails affirming the identities we want others to recognize in us and ascription of identities we mutually assign to each other in communication. The study of intercultural communication focuses on cultural identity as the principal identity component that defines intercultural communication. In this article, the assumption that cultural group membership factors determine the context of intercultural communication is questioned. The article examines how intercultural interlocutors negotiate their identities in various intercultural interactions. The aims of the research presented in this paper are: 1 to examine which identities - cultural, personal, or social - intercultural interlocutors activate in intercultural communication; 2 to determine whether interlocutors’ intercultural communication is largely influenced by their cultural identities; 3 and to identify situations in which they activate their cultural identities (3. The research data were collected from 263 international students studying at Masaryk University in Brno in the years 2010 - 2016. Although the research results are not conclusive, they indicate that cultural identities predominate in the students’ ethnocentric views and that stereotypes constrain the students’ cultural identities and affect the negotiation of identities in intercultural communication.

  17. The study of negotiation activities in foreign studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahnina V.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of studying the negotiation activities of foreign scientists. There are different trends in the study of negotiations law enforcement officers in crisis situations and the possibilities of overcoming and prevention of crisis negotiations. The author explores the different approaches of foreign scientists to the problem of negotiation in crisis situations involving the Commission of a crime. The author particularly notes the work of Slovak researchers who formed the Bank crises and analyzed the possibilities of overcoming the crisis conditions of the negotiation activities. In the article the results of research activities of scientists not only theorists but also practitioners. The leaders of the special units involved in the liberation of hostages, analyze the causes of crisis negotiations and the possibility of its overcoming. The analysis of the presented approaches allows foreign scientists to develop the concept of anti-crisis talks of employees of internal Affairs bodies and the perpetrators (the perpetrators of criminal acts.

  18. Framework for conducting environmental assessments of trade negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This document described the complex task of assessing the environmental impacts of trade negotiations with particular emphasis on the framework of the Strategic Environmental Assessment which the Government of Canada will conduct through a systematic process which can identify and evaluate possible and significant environmental impacts of an initiative. The objective of the assessment is to integrate environmental considerations into decision-making processes at the earliest possible stage. The first part of the framework identifies the importance of recognizing environmental considerations of trade and explains how the framework will contribute to environmental policy. The second part of the framework outlines the process and analytical requirements for conducting an environmental assessment of a trade negotiation. Environmental Assessment Committees will be formed by the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, and will include representatives from federal government departments and agencies. All analyses will be conducted in four stages which will include identifying the economic effect of the negotiation, identifying the likely environmental impact of such changes, assessing the significance of the likely environmental impacts, and identifying enhancement/mitigation options to inform the negotiations. The framework is designed to be flexible enough to be used at current and future trade negotiations in the World Trade Organization, the Free Trade Area of the Americas and in bilateral Free Trade Agreements. An environmental assessment of trade negotiations is considered to be an important decision-making tool for promoting sustainable development. 16 refs., 1 tab

  19. International negotiation methods on climatic risks, the limits of global incentives: Natural gas example. Procedures de negociation internationale sur les risques climatiques, les limites de la globalisation: etude autour d'un cas d'ecole, le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourcade, J.C.; Journe, V. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France))

    The discussion on economic instruments for coordinating an international strategy for climatic risks prevention does not take sufficiently into account the importance of the relevant scientific controversies. These ones determine strongly the negotiation process for the settlement of such a system. We illustrate this point with the simple case of the natural gas whose superiority in terms of emission contents compared to the other fossil fuels, could be contested in case of too important CH[sub 4] releases. We show that the negotiation process cannot come to a positive end if the incentive system relies only on the price signal. This process can converge only if one thinks about the combination of various tools, namely technological norms and ad hoc funds for the renewal of transmission and distribution networks combined with tax systems. 17 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. GATS Mode 4 Negotiation and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Sang Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics and issues of GATS Mode 4 and guesses the effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market to suggest policy options to Korea. Mode 4 negotiation started from the trade perspective, however, since Mode 4 involves international labor migration, it also has migration perspective. Thus developed countries, that have competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of skilled workers such as intra-company transferees and business visitors. On the other hand, developing countries, that have little competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of low-skilled workers. Empirical studies predict that the benefits of Mode 4 liberalization will be focused on developed countries rather than developing countries. The latter may suffer from brain drain and reduction of labor supply. Nevertheless developed countries are reluctant to Mode 4 negotiation because they can utilize skilled workers from developing countries by use of their own temporary visa programs. They are interested in Mode 4 related with Mode 3 in order to ease direct investment and movement of natural persons to developing countries. Regardless of the direction of a single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation, the net effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market may be negative. The Korean initial offer on Mode 4 is the same as the UR offer. Since Korean position on Mode 4 is most defensive, it is hard to expect that Korean position will be accepted as the single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation. Thus Korea has to prepare strategic package measures to minimize the costs of Mode 4 liberalization and improve competitiveness of service sector.

  1. Modeling and Negotiating Service Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbernou, Salima; Brandic, Ivona; Cappiello, Cinzia; Carro, Manuel; Comuzzi, Marco; Kertész, Attila; Kritikos, Kyriakos; Parkin, Michael; Pernici, Barbara; Plebani, Pierluigi

    In this chapter the research problems of specifying and negotiating QoS and its corresponding quality documents are analyzed. For this reason, this chapter is separated into two main sections, Section 6.1 and 6.2, with each dedicated to one of the two problems, i.e., QoS specification and negotiation, respectively. Each section has a similar structure: they first introduce the problem and then, in the remaining subsections, review related work. Finally, the chapter ends with Section 6.3, which identifies research gaps and presents potential research challenges in QoS modelling, specification and negotiation.

  2. Collaboration in a competitive healthcare system: negotiation 101 for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay-Williams, Robyn; Johnson, Andrew; Lane, Paul; Li, Zhicheng; Camilleri, Lauren; Winata, Teresa; Klug, Michael

    2018-04-09

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of negotiation training delivered to senior clinicians, managers and executives, by exploring whether staff members implemented negotiation skills in their workplace following the training, and if so, how and when. Design/methodology/approach This is a qualitative study involving face-to-face interviews with 18 senior clinicians, managers and executives who completed a two-day intensive negotiation skills training course. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and inductive interpretive analysis techniques were used to identify common themes. Research setting was a large tertiary care hospital and health service in regional Australia. Findings Participants generally reported positive affective and utility reactions to the training, and attempted to implement at least some of the skills in the workplace. The main enabler was provision of a Negotiation Toolkit to assist in preparing and conducting negotiations. The main barrier was lack of time to reflect on the principles and prepare for upcoming negotiations. Participants reported that ongoing skill development and retention were not adequately addressed; suggestions for improving sustainability included provision of refresher training and mentoring. Research limitations/implications Limitations include self-reported data, and interview questions positively elicited examples of training translation. Practical implications The training was well matched to participant needs, with negotiation a common and daily activity for most healthcare professionals. Implementation of the skills showed potential for improving collaboration and problem solving in the workplace. Practical examples of how the skills were used in the workplace are provided. Originality/value To the authors' knowledge, this is the first international study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of an integrative bargaining negotiation training program targeting executives, senior

  3. Analysis on How does the Culture Conflicts Influence Business Negotiation and Foreign Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔颖

    2007-01-01

    Culture is a distinguishing feature of a nation. Usually we divide culture into eastern and western categories. As the representative of eastern and western culture, China and America have a lot of incongruities in terms of cultural values which have deep influences on international business negotiation. This thesis aims to analyze the main cultural differences of the target countries on five processes of cross-cultural business negotiation. After a general view of these theories Ⅰ suggest some negotiating strategies and tactics to solve Sino-US cultural conflict appearing on the negotiating table. And with a real business invest case happened between US company of Intel and Dalian of China.

  4. Factors Affecting Peace Negotiations in Resolving Armed Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    the problems of this continent. — Nelson Mandela , former President of South Africa. This chapter analyzes the role of peace negotiations in...of international and regional organizations like the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), influential personalities ( Nelson Mandela ...important lesson for peace negotiations to be successful is summarized by the former President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela , who noted that nobody

  5. Question behaviour in monocultural and intercultural business negotiations : the Dutch-Spanish connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; Verweij, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of asking questions as an important element of international business negotiation where there are differences in cultural background. A Dutch–Spanish difference in questioning was related to differences between the two parties in uncertainty reduction and negotiation

  6. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  7. Application of the United Nations convention on contracts for TEH international sale of goods when the rules of private international law lead to the application of the law of a contracting state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the problems with respect to the application of the UN Sales Convention (CISG by virtue of its Article 1(1(b. To that effect, the author analyzes the legal nature of this provision, describes the prerequisites for its application and explains the relevance of different rules of private international law for the application of the CISG. A special attention is given to the effects of Article 95 reservation. The author presents arguments against a widely spread opinion that the Article 1(1(b is in itself a conflict-of-laws rule, suggests that this provision is suitable to be applied both by courts and arbitral tribunals and explains the importance of the rules on classification and renvoi for the application of the CISG. With respect to the effect of Article 95 reservation, the author gives precedence to the position of the applicable law, rather than the law of the forum, concerning this reservation.

  8. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-5 - Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-70-5 Special considerations—contracts with... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions). 915.404-4-70-5 Section 915.404...

  9. Multilateral Mediated Negotiation Protocols with Feedback (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydogan, R.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to bilateral negotiation in which the dispute is between only two parties. However, automated multilateral negotiation in which more than two negotiating parties need to reach a joint agreement, has received relatively less attention, even though such negotiations are

  10. 32 CFR 644.544 - Negotiated sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Negotiated sales. 644.544 Section 644.544... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.544 Negotiated sales. (a) To private parties. Negotiated sales to private parties are not viewed with favor. Generally, such negotiated sales will be approved...

  11. Bali: an agreement in principle for post-Kyoto negotiations but no emissions reduction targets - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Ten years have passed since December 1997, when the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was signed in Kyoto. It's been a decade of tough international negotiations, leading to the beginnings of an international CO 2 emissions trading market, whose future past 2012 remains uncertain. The December negotiations in Bali may not have produced a successor to the Kyoto Protocol, but they did get all parties to the Convention to sign an agreement in principle to post- Kyoto negotiations

  12. A Module Language for Typing by Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glouche, Yann; Talpin, Jean-Pierre; LeGuernic, Paul; Gautier, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Assume-guarantee reasoning is a popular and expressive paradigm for modular and compositional specification of programs. It is becoming a fundamental concept in some computer-aided design tools for embedded system design. In this paper, we elaborate foundations for contract-based embedded system design by proposing a general-purpose module language based on a Boolean algebra allowing to define contracts. In this framework, contracts are used to negotiate the correctness of assumptions made on the definition of a component at the point where it is used and provides guarantees to its environment. We illustrate this presentation with the specification of a simplified 4-stroke engine model.

  13. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  14. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  15. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  16. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 745.106 Section 745.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 745.106 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the...

  17. 48 CFR 747.507 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 747.507 Section 747.507 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Ocean Transportation by U.S.-Flag Vessels 747.507 Contract clauses. Contracting...

  18. Viable Circumstances for Financial Negotiations in Pakistan Contracting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Command NDAA National Defense Authorization Act NDMA National Disaster Management Agency NMS National Military Strategy NPRP National Procurement...Ministry of Defense and National Disaster Management Agency ( NDMA ) as a pilot project for next five years. • Give the PPRA a mandate to carry out audit

  19. OUTSOURCING STRATEGIES. HOW TO FORMALIZE AND NEGOTIATE THE OUTSOURCING CONTRACT.

    OpenAIRE

    Meo Colombo Carlotta; Pellicelli Michela

    2011-01-01

    In the globalized economy multinational firms have given rise to local firms able to produce at a low cost and at acceptable quality levels. A growing number of firms have outsourced production and manufacturing activities of all types to these firms, not only to reduce production costs but also to make their organizational structures more streamlined and flexible. Outsourcing decisions, which originally were limited to production which had a modest technological content and was of marginal i...

  20. 78 FR 12368 - Priority Mail Contract; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Counsel, at 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Notice of Filings III. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On February 13, 2013, the Postal Service filed notice... ``supporting financial documentation and financial certification initially provided in this docket remain...

  1. Is Ontario Moving to Provincial Negotiation of Teaching Contracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, the statutes governing public school teachers' collective bargaining are a combination of the provincial Labour Relations Act or Code and the respective provincial Education/School/Public Schools Act. As education is within the provincial, not federal, domain of legal responsibility, the specifics of each act or code can vary.…

  2. Changed circumstances and the renegotiation of foreign investment contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubajić Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's world is shaped by the processes of globalization and economic liberalization, which dominantly determine the social, economic, environmental and political conditions. As part of these processes, there is an increasing rhetoric about the activities of the state to build a legal system 'ideal for attracting' foreign investment, to establish state institutions in charge of 'attracting foreign investment', and to create a business environment conducive to 'attract' foreign investment. Faced with citizen requests and pressure to create conditions for employment, in initial negotiations with foreign investors state, authorities articulate their willingness to meet these requests. The affirmative stance of governments towards the investments of multinational companies easily can be changed. Once the investment begins, the pledges made by one contracting party to the other may prove to be unrealistic and economically unjustified. The tensions generated between the host state and foreign investors jeopardize the foreign investment contract concluded by the contracting parties. Further fulfillment of contractual obligations from foreign investment contracts will be possible if the contracting parties resolve the resulting conflict through mutual negotiations. Through negotiations, the contracting parties can depreciate the impact of the changed circumstances, including a range of economic, political, legislative and environmental conditions. Initiating negotiations at the right time and conducting them in good faith may lead to a solution. Even if an agreement is not reached, the renegotiation may contribute to a better understanding of contractual partners and redefining the positions of the contracting parties.

  3. THE PRE-CONTRACT OBLIGATIONS REGARDING THE FRANCHISING AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN-ALEXANDRU SITARU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paper puts into context the Government Ordinance no. 52/1997 regarding franchising with the new concepts of the Civil Code. Thus, under the old Civil Code there were no specific regulations that could be applied to a pre-contractual obligation of the parties. During any negotiation, because the parties sent each other a series of offers, counter offers, and in the end decided whether to agree or not, some parts of a professional secret, know-how, or any other important information for one or both might be revealed to the other. Under international laws, such as the one in France, or by using internationally established unwritten law, such as the Franchising Model Contract by the International Chamber of Commerce and Arbitration in Paris, such a disclosure of important or secret information is protected from future unauthorized usage by any party or affiliate if the contract is not signed. In the view of the new Civil Code, this stage in the development of an agreement, not yet binding, is now regulated and protected.

  4. Women negotiating peace in Syria | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Panelists will also address women's experience of the conflict in Syria, their ... to 2011 and headed the Labour Civil First Instance Court in Damascus just before the ... civil society, and formal and informal mediation processes.

  5. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 oct. 2009 ... The editor. Mercedes Botto is Senior Researcher at FLACSO, the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Contenus connexes. Politiques d'innovation régionales dans la zone Mercosur - obstacles et possibilités. Cette subvention soutiendra l'exécution d'une étude des ...

  6. Climate change: Update on international negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Policy

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the following: United Nations` framework convention on climatic change; the United States` climate change action plan; current issues to be resolved (targets/timetables, policies, advancing commitments of all parties, and compliance); and implications for clean coal technologies.

  7. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations : Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 oct. 2009 ... Telework and the Disabled (Latin America) ... of information and communication technologies (ICTs) have opened up many opportunities for people with disabilities, such as building solidarity, pursuing employment and.

  8. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 The Management of Knowledge in Trade Policy: The Case of Uruguay ...... or from a prime trading partner (as with the United States in Ecuador's case) so that they could ...... Foreign Ministry, Economy, Industry, Livestock, Tourism Ministries.

  9. EFL Learners’ Negotiation of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Saeed Rashid Al Hosni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating EFL learners’ frequency of negotiation of meaning when performing focused and unfocused communication tasks. The sample consists of thirty learners divided into ten groups. Three research instruments were used to collect data; communication tasks, field notes and interviews. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in the frequency of negotiation of meaning between the two task types. This is due to the fact that, learners performed both task types as unfocused tasks and they were able to use some communication strategies to keep communication flowing and to go round the target structure. Amazingly, despite the existence of the trigger of negotiation, the indicator of misunderstanding, an important negotiation phase, was absent in many cases from the conversations in both task types. Subsequently, the research findings suggest providing learners with opportunities that urge them to perform as language users rather than language learners.

  10. Negotiation platform for personalised advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Luís Ventura de; Malheiro, Benedita; Foss, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-agent brokerage platform for near real time advertising personalisation organised in three layers: user interface, agency and marketplace. The personalisation is based on the classification of viewer profiles and advertisements (ads). The goal is to provide viewers with a personalised advertising alignment during programme intervals. The enterprise interface agents upload new ads and negotiation profiles to producer agents and new user and negotiation profiles to ...

  11. Negotiation without Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El artículo propone una reflexión filosófica inspirada en la actual situación de fragilidad institucional colombiana. Se arguye en él: (1 Que hay un elemento pragmático y uno normativo en la idea de que las instituciones políticas y sociales establecen y aseguran la vida humana y la hacen duradera. (2 Que la tradición de la negociación con agentes armados en Colombia en los últimos años se ha caracterizado por la ruptura del equilibrio entre este elemento pragmático y el normativo.Abstract:The paper presents a philosophical reflection inspired by Colombia’s ongoing institutional fragility. It argues: (1 that the idea of political and social institutions for establishing and safeguarding human life contains both a pragmatic and a normative element, and (2 that Colombia’s tradition of negotiation with armed actors has been characterized in the last years by a breakdown in the balance between these pragmatic and normative elements.

  12. Informing international UNFCCC technology mechanisms from the ground up: Using biogas technology in South Africa as a case study to evaluate the usefulness of potential elements of an international technology agreement in the UNFCCC negotiations process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of low carbon technologies to developing countries is 1 approach for tackling rising global emissions. An international technology transfer mechanism has been proposed under the UNFCCC; however, it remains unclear how this international mechanism would translate into local level technology implementation. This study uses biogas technology in South Africa to obtain empirical data inductively related to technology transfer. Observations and activities specific to the biogas sector in South Africa are put forward based on site visits and stakeholder discussions in South Africa, the UK, Germany and Sweden. This paper presents empirical findings on technology transfer in the biogas sector in South Africa and analyses the role of an international technology mechanism in supporting the uptake of biogas. Many of the barriers to biogas technology in South Africa are national level constraints such as lack of supportive policy environment, financial incentives and information sharing. This case study supports the argument that it will be unrealistic for international technology mechanisms to capture the necessary specificities of individual technologies at a country level. Therefore, as demonstrated through the example of biogas technology in South Africa, there is a need for both effective national and international engagement to support technology implementation. - Highlights: ► The UNFCCC technology mechanism aims to increase low carbon technology deployment. ► The interface of global technology frameworks and national implementation is unclear. ► Biogas is a widely used technology yet its uptake in South Africa (SA) is minimal. ► Empirical data is gathered from biogas sites in SA, UK, Germany and Sweden. ► Findings show biogas uptake in SA requires national and international support

  13. 48 CFR 16.403-1 - Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (firm target) contracts. 16.403-1 Section 16.403-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts. (a) Description. A fixed-price incentive (firm target... incentive (firm target) contract is appropriate when the parties can negotiate at the outset a firm target...

  14. Contracts in the Classroom--Providing Undergraduate Business Students with Important "Real Life" Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denbo, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Many business law educators have recognized the importance of teaching students not only the rules of contract law, but the process of implementing these rules in the "real world" of business. This article discusses a contract negotiation exercise that enables students to apply the black letter law of contracts while at the same time honing their…

  15. Bounded rationality and social interaction in negotiating a climate agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gsottbauer, E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    An agreement on climate change mitigation hinges on large-scale international cooperation. Rational agents are supposed to consider the cost and benefits of cooperation, which then determine their negotiation positions. Behavioral economics provides experimental evidence that decision-making in

  16. Optimization of Multiple Related Negotiation through Multi-Negotiation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fenghui; Zhang, Minjie; Miao, Chunyan; Shen, Zhiqi

    In this paper, a Multi-Negotiation Network (MNN) and a Multi- Negotiation Influence Diagram (MNID) are proposed to optimally handle Multiple Related Negotiations (MRN) in a multi-agent system. Most popular, state-of-the-art approaches perform MRN sequentially. However, a sequential procedure may not optimally execute MRN in terms of maximizing the global outcome, and may even lead to unnecessary losses in some situations. The motivation of this research is to use a MNN to handle MRN concurrently so as to maximize the expected utility of MRN. Firstly, both the joint success rate and the joint utility by considering all related negotiations are dynamically calculated based on a MNN. Secondly, by employing a MNID, an agent's possible decision on each related negotiation is reflected by the value of expected utility. Lastly, through comparing expected utilities between all possible policies to conduct MRN, an optimal policy is generated to optimize the global outcome of MRN. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can improve the global outcome of MRN in a successful end scenario, and avoid unnecessary losses in an unsuccessful end scenario.

  17. ADSLANF: A negotiation framework for cloud management systems using a bulk negotiation behavioral learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    RAJAVEL, RAJKUMAR; THANGARATHINAM, MALA

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in cloud computing is the development of a service-level agreement (SLA) negotiation framework using an intelligent third-party broker negotiation strategy. Current frameworks exploit various negotiation strategies using game theoretic, heuristic, and argumentation-based approaches for obtaining optimal negotiation with a better success rate (negotiation commitment). However, these approaches fail to optimize the negotiation round (NR), total negotiatio...

  18. Price negotiation of coal to be loaded in 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira (Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    The Institute of Energy Economics summarized the negotiated prices for coals to be loaded in 1989 for coke making coal and non coking coal. In order to suppress the price increase of coke making coal as low as possible, five iron making companies where Nippon Steel and Kawasaki Steel are the center, started to negotiate from US showing lower markup requirement and decided to increase the price from $1.65 to $2. They agreed to increase the price for Australian coal as follows: $3.5 for coke making coal, $5.5 for slightly coking coal, $4.5 for weakly coking coal and further they contracted with $3.5 markup and $3.5 markup for China and USSR coals from December, 1988 to March, 1989. The negotiation for non coking coal started from USSR similarly and agreed with $3 markup for USSR coal, $5.3 markup for South African coal, and $3.5 markup for Australian coal but the negotiation is performing to China coal on Australian basis. The Australian share for non coking coal is higher, that is, 70% and therefore Japanese power generating companies are promoting to import non coking coal from US for the competition. 5 tabs.

  19. Explaining the contract terms of energy performance contracting in China: The importance of effective financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Qiu, Yueming; Wang, Yi David

    2014-01-01

    Energy service company (“ESCO”) uses Energy Performance Contracting (“EPC”) to provide energy-saving services to its clients. Under an EPC, both ESCO and the client invest in the energy efficiency measures, according to a negotiated share of investment. Within the length of the contract, the ESCO and its client divide up the saved energy bill according to a negotiated share. Once the contract expires, the client claims all of the saved energy bills if the energy efficiency measures still last. Different EPC projects have different contract terms, including total investment, share of investment and length of contract. These contract terms directly determine the resulted energy savings. Thus it is essential and important to look at how these contract terms are formed and what are the major influencing factors. This paper first builds a theoretical bargain model between ESCO and its client to find out the structural relationship among these contract terms. Then, using the information of about 140 EPC contracts in China in 2010 and 2011, the paper empirically estimates the impacts of various factors on the contract terms and the resulted energy savings. We find that cost of capitals for ESCOs and the clients, especially for ESCOs, is a major factor influencing contract terms and the resulted energy savings. Thus providing effective financing is critical for the development of EPC in China. - Highlights: • We build a theoretical bargain model between an ESCO and its client. • We empirically quantify the impacts of various factors on EPC contract terms. • Cost of capital is a key factor determining EPC contract terms. • Providing effective financing, especially for ESCOs is important

  20. A Comparative Analysis of the Ethos, Role and Function of Implied Obligations in Shipping Law and General Law of Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Ndi, George; Alawneh, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    The law governing the international carriage of goods by sea is deeply rooted in the doctrine of freedom of contract. The historical origins of the shipping industry itself can be traced to the era of 'laissez faire' in which contractual practice, based on negotiated terms and conditions, was free from the regulatory constraints of the state. It is for this reason that to this day modern shipping law is still rooted in the common law and customary trade usages with very limited statutory infl...

  1. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and international law. Germany's obligations under international law in matters of spent fuel reprocessing and the relevant contracts concluded with France and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintschel v Heinegg, W.

    1999-01-01

    The review presented is an excerpt from an expert opinion written by the author in December last year, in response to changes in nuclear energy policy announced by the new German government. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels from German power reactors in the reprocessing facilities of France (La Hague) and the UK (Sellafield) is not only based on contracts concluded by the German electric utilities and the French COGEMA or the British BNFL, but has been agreed as well by an exchange of diplomatic notes between the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the German ambassador in Paris, the German Foreign Ministry and the French ambassador as well as the British ambassador in Bonn. The article therefore first examines from the angle of international law the legal obligations binding the states involved, and Germany in particular, in matters of spent fuel reprocessing contracts. The next question arising in this context and discussed by the article is that of whether and how much indemnification can be demanded by the reprocessing companies, or their governments, resp., if Germany should discontinue spent fuel reprocessing and thus might be made liable for breach of the bilateral agreements. (orig/CB) [de

  2. Negotiation of coal price in 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimura, Akira

    1987-12-01

    Price and amount of coking coal for the fiscal year 1987 was announced. Contracted coals were 5 types with Australia and 4 types with Canada by end Jan, 1987. Average price came down from 47.72 US dollar/t to 43.57, i.e., 4.15 US dollar/t price decline to the previous year. In addition, the number of the branded coal are negotiated with Australia is 23 cases, 5 brands with Canada, 1 with South Australia, 2 with USSR, and 3 with China. General trend of the price is as follows: Coking coal price is influenced by the decrease of the Japanese steel production as well as the world-wide surplus of coal, and all import prices have gone down except semi-caking coal of USA. Price level is very high in USA and Canada, but is low in Australia and others. Recently, strikes are frequent in South Africa and Canada; profit of coal mines is coming down; US dollar rate is sinking; contract quantity is shrinking; these give an estimate that both general coal and coking coal prices will not so easily go down further. (10 tabs)

  3. Contract & agency labour: beyond self-regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A paper about the regulation of contract labour. Academic and legal aspects as well as case studies of global union federation work to organise and regulate contract labour in Thailand, Pakistan, Colombia, South Korea and at international level.

  4. Challenges of commissioning and contracting for integrated care in the National Health Service (NHS) in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    For many years there has been a separation between purchasing and provision of services in the English National Health Service (NHS). Many studies report that this commissioning function has been weak: purchasers have had little impact or power in negotiations with large acute providers, and have had limited strategic control over the delivery of care. Nevertheless, commissioning has become increasingly embedded in the NHS structure since the arrival of Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) in 2012. Recently, some of these CCGs have focused on how they can contract and commission in different ways to stimulate greater collaboration across providers. This paper examines experiences of commissioning and contracting for integrated care in the English NHS, based on a series of national-level interviews and case studies of five health economies that are implementing novel contracting models. The cases illustrated here demonstrate early experiments to drive innovation through contracting in the NHS that have largely relied on the vision of individual teams or leaders, in combination with external legal, procurement and actuarial support. It is unlikely that this approach will be sustainable or replicable across the country or internationally, despite the best intentions of commissioners. Designing and operating novel contractual approaches will require considerable determination, alongside advanced skills in procurement, contract management and commissioning. The cost of developing new contractual approaches is high, and as the process is difficult and resource-intensive, it is likely that dedicated teams or programs will be required to drive significant improvement.

  5. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  6. Bilateral electric energy contracts: return and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, Laura K.; Silva, Elisa B.; Correia, Paulo B. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). College of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil electricity is traded through three segments: the spot market that balances offer and demand, with prices calculated by a cost-based computational model; the regulated market , where prices are settled in public auctions, and the free market for bilateral contracts. As spot and regulated market prices are public information, a seller is able to calculate his opportunity price to trade a bilateral contract in the free market by using the non-arbitrage principle. Thus, the seller searches the price of a bilateral contract in the free market that balances his/her revenues with the value expected in case it were negotiated in the regulated and the spot market. Besides the expected revenue, the seller may also consider the CVaR to measure the risk of her/his bilateral contract in the free market. So this paper develops a binomial lattice approach to price bilateral contracts in the free market, considering the seller's opportunity of negotiations in both regulated and spot markets, and measuring the contract risk directly. (author)

  7. Contract and Game Theory: Basic Concepts for Settings with Finite Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Watson

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines a general model of contract in multi-period settings with both external and self-enforcement. In the model, players alternately engage in contract negotiation and take individual actions. A notion of contractual equilibrium, which combines a bargaining solution and individual incentive constraints, is proposed and analyzed. The modeling framework helps identify the relation between the manner in which players negotiate and the outcome of the long-term contractual relations...

  8. Negotiation: How to Be Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2017-01-01

    The art of successful negotiation is not as random or difficult as it might seem at first glance. Most negotiations end up with both sides receiving something of value as well as giving up something valuable in return. It has been said that the best negotiated outcomes occur when both parties walk away a bit disappointed or just a little bit happy. The goal of this short primer is to give some hints as to how to get a slightly better deal than the other party most of the time. There are several points to remember to be able to achieve such an outcome frequently. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. DIPLOMACY AS A SKILL OF NEGOTIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADA SIMJANOSKA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diplomacy in the XXI century is transformed and expanded from peaceful method of relations among states into a general tool of communication between globalized societies. At the beginning it was practiced only by professional diplomats as an art in leading affairs of state. Today, because of the growing number of participants in international relations (states, international organizations, non-governmental organizations, transnational companies, the media, academia, etc., focus of traditional diplomacy is augmented, while the monopoly by traditional diplomacy is fading. The policy and diplomacy have not lost their ability to actively modulate the decisions required by the state, but they need to justify their superior ability, and thus their legitimacy to solve community problems through modern means and methods such as negotiations.

  10. Obtainment of internal labelling operators as broken Casimir operators by means of contractions related to reduction chains in semisimple Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R

    2008-01-01

    We show that the Inoenue-Wigner contraction naturally associated to a reduction chain s implies s' of semisimple Lie algebras induces a decomposition of the Casimir operators into homogeneous polynomials, the terms of which can be used to obtain additional mutually commuting missing label operators for this reduction. The adjunction of these scalars that are no more invariants of the contraction allow to solve the missing label problem for those reductions where the contraction provides an insufficient number of labelling operators.

  11. 48 CFR 242.302 - Contract administration functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Contractor estimating systems (see FAR 15.407-5); and (B) Contractor material management and accounting... report identifying significant accounting system or related internal control deficiencies. (9) For... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract...

  12. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  13. Virtual reality negotiation training increases negotiation knowledge and skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, J.; Harbers, M.; Brinkman W.; Jonker, C.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally investigate learning effects of a rigourously set up virtual reality (VR) negotiation training. We discuss the design of the system in detail. Further, we present results of an experiment (between subject; three experimental conditions: control, training once,

  14. Scope of Negotiability: Index of Recent Case Law and Administrative Rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas Neil

    This listing presents court decisions and administrative rulings from the 1970s concerning the topics that are negotiable in bargaining between teachers, as public employees, and school boards, as public employers. The topics are grouped into 14 major areas: budget considerations; contracts; direct compensation; discipline; evaluation; hiring,…

  15. 78 FR 56248 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service...: The United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632... States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 7 to Competitive Product List. Documents are...

  16. 77 FR 37078 - Product Change-Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service... United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632(b)(3... Postal Service to Add Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 4 to Competitive Product List...

  17. 77 FR 66193 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service... United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632(b)(3... Postal Service To Add Parcel Select Contract 6 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  18. 78 FR 63521 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 5 to... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S...

  19. 78 FR 26406 - Product Change-Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal... United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632(b)(3... Postal Service to Add Parcel Return Service Contract 4 to Competitive Product List. Documents are...

  20. 78 FR 65392 - Product Change-Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal... INFORMATION: The United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and... States Postal Service To Add Parcel Return Service Contract 5 to Competitive Product List. Documents are...

  1. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service... United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632(b)(3... Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 3 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  2. 78 FR 12369 - Product Change-Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal...: The United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632... States Postal Service to Add Parcel Return Service Contract 3 to Competitive Product List. Documents are...

  3. 41 CFR 109-40.305-50 - Negotiations involving national security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... national security. 109-40.305-50 Section 109-40.305-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Management § 109-40.305-50 Negotiations involving national security. Title 49 U.S.C., section 10721(b)(2... rate established * * * for transportation provided to the U.S. Government would endanger the National...

  4. Joint Profit Maximization, Negotiation, and the Determinacy of Price in Bilateral Monopoly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the case of bilateral monopoly in the context of joint profit-maximizing solutions. Asserts that, although bilateral monopoly is sometimes viewed as a theoretical model with few real-world applications, the elements of negotiations it contains form the basis for contracts between input sellers and input buyers. (CFR)

  5. School District Labour Conflict and Frame Analysis: A Field Study of Contentious Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Gordon S.; Vesneske, Staci S.

    2012-01-01

    Labour conflict in school districts is a largely neglected area of educational research. This study examines the perceptions, actions, and decisions of union and district leaders using social movement theory to describe, analyze, and interpret contentious contract negotiations in three school districts in the Pacific Northwest region of the US.…

  6. Commercial negotiations in the foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of commercial negotiations paying attention to the negotiation itself as well as to its basic elements. The specificity of the Polish foundries’ main negotiation partners from The European Union, who are the deliverers of diverse casting range, was specified. The most important cultural factors, which determine the process of negotiations conducted by the representatives of various cultural groups, were analysed. The understanding of cultural differences and adapting to them while negotiating are important factors which constitute the parties’ negotiation process. The meaning of price in the commercial negotiation process was described. The elements of sale process and the factors which influence the casts price were enumerated. What is more, the main methods of determining price were characterized. The essential problems connected with conducting the price negotiations in foundries were indicated.

  7. The science of culture and negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C; Brett, Jeanne M; Gelfand, Michele J

    2016-04-01

    Recent negotiation research has produced a groundswell of insights about the effects of culture on negotiation. Yet, few frameworks exist to organize the findings. This review integrates recent research using a two-dimensional framework: The first dimension organizes the research into that which has taken: (1) a comparative intracultural approach, versus (2) an intercultural approach. The second dimension organizes the research by its emphasis on: (1) inputs into negotiation, (2) processes of negotiating, and (3) outcomes of negotiation. This framework helps to organize extant research and produces novel insights about the connections between disparate research streams, revealing both commonalities and culture-specificities in negotiation strategy and outcomes and suggesting that intercultural negotiations are difficult but not insurmountable. We conclude by discussing several areas in which more research on culture and negotiation is urgently needed in today's globalizing world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Core competencies for natural resource negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, S.C.; Lamb, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    Natural resource negotiation often involves multiple parties with overlapping interests and issues that can provide opportunities for mutually beneficial solutions. These opportunities can be missed, however, if negotiators are unable to comprehend the facts of a negotiation, understand the interests of other parties, or accurately evaluate the options that increase the size of the negotiation pie. Through structured personal interviews with more than 60 representatives from seven different hydropower negotiations, respondents identified core competencies that help negotiators succeed at accurately comprehending the facts of a negotiation, comprehending the interests of other parties, and fully understanding the available options and alternatives. We categorized those core competencies into three dimensions of negotiation - interpersonal, organizational, and operational.

  9. Enhancing Negotiation Skills Using Foreign Service Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opt, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Conflict communication, negotiation, small group. Objective: This activity will enhance students' awareness and critique of their own negotiation behaviors. A list of references and suggested readings is included.

  10. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  11. Interdependence in negotiation : Effects of exit options and social motive on distributive and integrative negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E.; de Dreu, C.K W; Van de Vliert, E.

    2000-01-01

    This study extends past research on the impact of alternatives in dyadic negotiation by (a) providing negotiators with the mere possibility to negotiate with an outside party and (b) examining the moderating role of the negotiators' social motive. Business students engaged in face-to-face

  12. A Framework on Impression Management in Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Ditte Dahl; Esbjerg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a dramaturgical framework to provide us with a new understanding of how negotiators use impression management behaviour during the negotiation process to position themselves in an endeavour to reach a desirable outcome.......In this paper we develop a dramaturgical framework to provide us with a new understanding of how negotiators use impression management behaviour during the negotiation process to position themselves in an endeavour to reach a desirable outcome....

  13. Three Tier Unified Process Model for Requirement Negotiations and Stakeholder Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Muhammad Ashraf Khan; Abbas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2012-11-01

    This research paper is focused towards carrying out a pragmatic qualitative analysis of various models and approaches of requirements negotiations (a sub process of requirements management plan which is an output of scope managementís collect requirements process) and studies stakeholder collaborations methodologies (i.e. from within communication management knowledge area). Experiential analysis encompass two tiers; first tier refers to the weighted scoring model while second tier focuses on development of SWOT matrices on the basis of findings of weighted scoring model for selecting an appropriate requirements negotiation model. Finally the results are simulated with the help of statistical pie charts. On the basis of simulated results of prevalent models and approaches of negotiations, a unified approach for requirements negotiations and stakeholder collaborations is proposed where the collaboration methodologies are embeded into selected requirements negotiation model as internal parameters of the proposed process alongside some external required parameters like MBTI, opportunity analysis etc.

  14. Managing the risks associated with natural gas purchase contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, T.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation described different styles of gas contracts. When markets opened in 1986, many contracts were between end users and producers, and a few marketers. Typically, contracts were for a fixed price and term. In 1990, when gas futures contracts began trading on NYMEX, contracts began to have floating prices, and prices linked to NYMEX prices. Standard gas contracts were developed in the mid-late 1990s. This paper described the differences between plain retail gas contracts, retail gas contracts between mass marketers and end users, wholesale contracts, contracts between producers and marketers, transportation contracts and domestic contracts. Both contracting parties obtain business and legal advice from consultants and lawyers with knowledge in energy transactions. Master agreement contracts were also described with reference to the Gas EDI contract. Examples of changing regulatory requirements were also outlined along with some traps to avoid. Bundled transportation agreements are standard documents that can be negotiated in special circumstances to charge customers who fail to deliver. They should be considered as tariffs

  15. 46 CFR 502.56 - Negotiated rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiated rulemaking. 502.56 Section 502.56 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE... its own motion, may establish a negotiated rulemaking committee to negotiate and develop consensus on...

  16. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Culture, Conflict, and Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-28

    negotiator cognition: Judgement accuracy and negotiation processes in individualistic and collectivistic cultures ", Organizational Behavior and Human...2004, Adair, Okumura, and Brett, 2001). Communication sequences are also affected by culture . Negotiators from collectivistic cultures use more... individualistic cultures (Adail and Brett, 2005; Adair, Okumura, and Brett, 2001). Research in DB/psychology has increasingly examined situational factors that

  17. Face and identity management in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, Brigitte Chantal

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation reports on a comparative study of the verbal behaviour of experienced negotiators (professionals) and inexperienced negotiators (students), negotiating in a lingua franca (English). The study centred around two corpora of speech data generated in a series of intercultural sales

  18. Complexity in electronic negotiation support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessmair, Michele; Strunk, Guido; Vetschera, Rudolf; Koeszegi, Sabine T

    2011-10-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the medium influences the way we communicate and negotiation research directs considerable attention to the impact of different electronic communication modes on the negotiation process and outcomes. Complexity theories offer models and methods that allow the investigation of how pattern and temporal sequences unfold over time in negotiation interactions. By focusing on the dynamic and interactive quality of negotiations as well as the information, choice, and uncertainty contained in the negotiation process, the complexity perspective addresses several issues of central interest in classical negotiation research. In the present study we compare the complexity of the negotiation communication process among synchronous and asynchronous negotiations (IM vs. e-mail) as well as an electronic negotiation support system including a decision support system (DSS). For this purpose, transcripts of 145 negotiations have been coded and analyzed with the Shannon entropy and the grammar complexity. Our results show that negotiating asynchronically via e-mail as well as including a DSS significantly reduces the complexity of the negotiation process. Furthermore, a reduction of the complexity increases the probability of reaching an agreement.

  19. 24 CFR 290.13 - Negotiated sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiated sales. 290.13 Section... DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS AND SALE OF HUD-HELD MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.13 Negotiated sales. When HUD conducts a negotiated sale...

  20. Turnkey contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  1. United Nations negotiations on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Climate change is a global environmental issue which is the subject of intergovernmental negotiations in the United Nations system. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) recommended to the UN General Assembly a four-track strategy relating to climate change: improved monitoring and assessment; increased research; development of internationally agreed policies to reduce greenhouse gases; and adoption of strategies to minimize impacts of climate change. The UN hosted a Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992 to attempt to find a common basis for action to protect the Earth's future and to secure a sustainable and equitable process of development. The focal point for UNCED efforts related to climate change is the Protection of the Atmosphere chapter of Agenda 21. Program A of this agenda contains responses to the WCED recommendations and Program B includes promotion of sustainable development in energy development, transportation, industry, and resource development. A framework convention on climate change was developed by an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee established in 1990 and adopted by 130-140 countries. This convention includes general and specific obligations such as stabilization and control of greenhouse gas concentrations, development of emission inventories, and provision of financial resources to aid developing countries in responding to the climate change problem. 3 refs

  2. Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before a grant can be awarded and accepted, several pre-award activities must happen to formalize the partnership. Ensuring compliance with federal laws, a review of costs and a negotiation of the appropriate funding level must all happen in order to rece

  3. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  4. Negotiations on climate in deadlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons of the failure of the negotiations on climate which took place in Warsaw in November 2013. Despite some agreements on projects (notably to avoid deforestation), evolutions are being blocked by financial issues. Besides, emerging countries and NGOs largely disagree with the posture of big countries. The future of the carbon market is also put into question again

  5. Negotiating Conventions and Creating Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Alexander Sasha; Barberá-Tomás, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the processes of negotiation and institution building through which transnational networks of learning are fashioned. It does so by examining the case of the European animation industry and the activity of an association, Cartoon, which facilitated the development of common ...

  6. Ontolology Negotiation Between Scientific Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailin, Sidney C.; Truszkowski, Walt; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to ontology negotiation between information agents. Ontologies are declarative (data driven) expressions of an agent's "world": the objects, operations, facts, and rules that constitute the logical space within which an agent performs. Ontology negotiation enables agents to cooperate in performing a task, even if they are based on different ontologies. 'Me process allows agents to discover ontology conflicts and then, though incremental interpretation, clarification, and explanation, establish a common basis for communicating with each other. The need for ontology negotiation stems from the proliferation of information sources and of agents with widely varying specialty expertise. The unmanageability of massive amounts of web-based information is already becoming apparent. It is starting to have an impact on professions that rely on distributed archived information. If the expansion continues at its present rate without an ontology negotiation process being introduced, there will soon be no way to ensure the accuracy and completeness of information that scientists obtain from sources other than their own experiments. Ontology negotiation is becoming increasingly recognized as a crucial element of scalable agent technology. This is because agents, by their very nature, are supposed to operate with a fair amount of autonomy and independence from their end-users. Part of this independence is the ability to enlist other agents for help in performing a task (such as locating information on the web). The agents enlisted for help may be "owned" by a different end-user or organization (such as a document archive), and there is no guarantee that they will use the same terminology or understand the same concepts (objects, operators, theorems, rules) as the recruiting agent. For NASA, the need for ontology negotiation arises at the boundaries between scientific disciplines. For example: modeling the effects of global warming might involve

  7. Contract Design: The problem of information asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Amelung, Volker E; Juhnke, Christin

    2018-01-12

    Integrated care systems are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. Little is known about the contractual design and the main challenges of delegating "accountability" to these new kinds of organisations and/or contracts. The research question in this article focuses on how healthcare contracts can look like and which possible problems arise in designing such contracts. In this a special interest is placed on information asymmetries. A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. This article is the first in a row of three that all contribute to a specific issue in designing healthcare contracts. Starting with the organisation of contracts and information asymmetries, part 2 focusses on financial options and risks and part 3 finally concludes with the question of risk management and evaluation. Healthcare contracting between providers and payers will have a major impact on the overall design of future healthcare systems. If Integrated care systems or any other similar concept of care delivery are to be contracted directly by payers to manage the continuum of care the costs of market utilisation play an essential role. Transaction costs also arise in the course of the negotiation and implementation of contracts. These costs are the reason why it is generally not possible to conclude perfect (complete) contracts. Problems with asymmetric distribution of information can relate to the situation before a contract is concluded (adverse selection) and after conclusion of a contract (moral hazard). Information asymmetries are seen as a major obstacle to the efficient operation of integrated care programmes. Coordination and motivation problems cannot be solved at no-costs. The presented problems in the design of selective individual contracts

  8. Natural gas pricing and contracting practices in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 5 years the natural gas industry in North America has undergone substantial change as a result of the deregulated market. A comparison is provided of the key contract parameters in gas purchase contracts utilized by local distribution companies, industrial customers, cogenerators and marketers. Issues discussed include pricing mechanisms, indexed contracts, negotiated contracts, combinations, dispute resolution, supply, government regulation, industry structures, financial considerations, perception, geological influences, demand, transmission, storage, distribution, price trends and forecasts, Order 636 in the U.S., the evolution of North American market hubs, the futures market, and 'daisy chains' of connecting pipelines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  9. International nuclear fuel cycle evaluation (INFCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlupp, C.

    1986-07-01

    The study describes and analyzes the structures, the procedures and decision making processes of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). INFCE was agreed by the Organizing Conference to be a technical and analytical study and not a negotiation. The results were to be transmitted to governments for their consideration in developing their nuclear energy policies and in international discussions concerning nuclear energy cooperation and related controls and safeguards. Thus INFCE provided a unique example for decision making by consensus in the nuclear world. It was carried through under mutual respect for each country's choices and decisions, without jeopardizing their respective fuel cycle policies or international co-operation agreements and contracts for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, provided that agreed safeguards are applied. (orig.)

  10. 78 FR 72109 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... continues negotiations on an operations, maintenance and replacement transfer contract with the Navajo... Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of... individual contract actions may be published in the Federal Register and in newspapers of general circulation...

  11. 78 FR 72111 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...: Reclamation continues negotiations on an operations, maintenance and replacement transfer contract with the... Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of... individual contract actions may be published in the Federal Register and in newspapers of general circulation...

  12. Institutional dynamics and the negotiation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    The paper develops the argument for analyzing negotiations from an institutional perspective. A major theme of the argument being advanced in the paper is that the institutional perspective provides a more comprehensive understanding of the negotiation process in its entirety. The negotiation...... process can be broken down into three distinct components, namely (a) the pre negotiation phase; (b) the negotiating phase; and (c) the post negotiation evaluation. Each of these phases is critically influenced by a specific component or components of the institutional environment. Scott's distinction...... and their implications for negotiating processes in these countries. Choosing India and China to illustrate the utility of this framework is justified by the fact that India and China are both in the process of transforming their economies and although confronted with similar challenges they have dealt with them in very...

  13. Multilateral negotiations over climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Pinto, L.M.; Harrison, G.W. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Nucleo de Investigacao em Microeconomia Aplicada, Departmento de Economia

    2000-07-01

    Negotiations in the real world have many features that tend to be ignored in policy modelling. They are often multilateral, involving many negotiating parties with preferences over outcomes that can differ substantially. They are also often multi-dimensional, in the sense that several policies are negotiated over simultaneously. Trade negotiations are a prime example, as are negotiations over environmental policies to abate CO{sub 2}. The authors demonstrate how one can formally model this type of negotiation process. They use a policy-oriented computable general equilibrium model to generate preference functions which are then used in a formal multilateral bargaining game. The case study is on climate change policy, but the main contribution is to demonstrate how one can integrate formal economic models of the impacts of policies with formal bargaining models of the negotiations over those policies. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Agents That Negotiate Proficiently with People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sarit

    Negotiation is a process by which interested parties confer with the aim of reaching agreements. The dissemination of technologies such as the Internet has created opportunities for computer agents to negotiate with people, despite being distributed geographically and in time. The inclusion of people presents novel problems for the design of autonomous agent negotiation strategies. People do not adhere to the optimal, monolithic strategies that can be derived analytically, as is the case in settings comprising computer agents alone. Their negotiation behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors, such as social attributes that influence negotiation deals (e.g., social welfare, inequity aversion) and traits of individual negotiators (e.g., altruism, trustworthiness, helpfulness). Furthermore, culture plays an important role in their decision making and people of varying cultures differ in the way they make offers and fulfill their commitments in negotiation.

  15. Climate Watchlist: Key issues for Cancun negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Siegele, Linda

    2010-11-15

    We must mitigate and adapt to climate change. On this, the international community is agreed. But exactly how to do that is still up for debate. There were high hopes that last year's UN climate talks in Copenhagen would deliver a legally binding agreement for action on climate change. But the outcome — the Copenhagen Accord — was instead a political 'statement of intent' that fell significantly short of expectations. Now, after a year of interim meetings and several negotiating texts, parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are gathering in Cancun, Mexico, to try again. Their success will largely depend on settling disputes — particularly between the developed and developing world — about six key issues: shared vision; adaptation; climate finance; technology transfer; reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation; and post-2012 emissions reduction targets.

  16. All projects related to China | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, China, India, Philippines, Viet ... GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, Gender ... Topic: International cooperation, INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS, Civil society, ...

  17. Contract-oriented software development for internet services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giambiagi, Pablo; Owe, Olaf; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    COSoDIS (Contract-Oriented Software Development for Internet Services) develops novel approaches to implement and reason about contracts in service oriented architectures (SOA). The rationale is that system developers benefit from abstraction mechanisms to work with these architectures. Therefore...... the goal is to design and test system modeling and programming language tools to empower SOA developers to deploy highly dynamic, negotiable and monitorable Internet services....

  18. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  19. RESULTS FROM THE RESEARCH ON THE COLECTIVE NEGOTIATION IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA DURING THE TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Majhoshev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents longitudinal analysis of the process of collective negotiation during the transition in Republic of Macedonia, at a time of frequent change of labor legislature. This paper presents the most important results of the role of the labor union in collective negotiation, as well as the influence of the legal framework, the ideological background of the government, the international financial institutions, the application of the collective agreements, and the reaction of the labor union in case the stipulations of the agreements weren`t respected. The paper finishes with recommendations for improvement of the process of collective negotiation in the future.

  20. A Concurrent Multiple Negotiation Protocol Based on Colored Petri Nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lei; Ren, Fenghui; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan

    2017-11-01

    Concurrent multiple negotiation (CMN) provides a mechanism for an agent to simultaneously conduct more than one negotiation. There may exist different interdependency relationships among these negotiations and these interdependency relationships can impact the outcomes of these negotiations. The outcomes of these concurrent negotiations contribute together for the agent to achieve an overall negotiation goal. Handling a CMN while considering interdependency relationships among multiple negotiations is a challenging research problem. This paper: 1) comprehensively highlights research problems of negotiations at concurrent negotiation level; 2) provides a graph-based CMN model with consideration of the interdependency relationships; and 3) proposes a colored Petri net-based negotiation protocol for conducting CMNs. With the proposed protocol, a CMN can be efficiently and concurrently processed and negotiation agreements can be efficiently achieved. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed protocol in terms of the negotiation success rate, the negotiation time and the negotiation outcome.