WorldWideScience

Sample records for international comparative survey

  1. Institutional Contexts and International Performances in Schooling : comparing patterns and trends over time in international surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Roelande H.; Gray, John M.; Hofman, Roelande

    15 European countries were classified into four types in an international comparative study. The country profiles are based on indicators of the key concepts' funding, governance and choice. This research attempts to answer the question of how the quality of schooling of these types of education

  2. Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles. PMID:22377680

  3. Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles.

  4. A comparative survey of the impacts of extreme rainfall in two international case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Rözer, Viktor; Thieken, Annegret; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Kreibich, Heidi

    2017-08-01

    Flooding is assessed as the most important natural hazard in Europe, causing thousands of deaths, affecting millions of people and accounting for large economic losses in the past decade. Little is known about the damage processes associated with extreme rainfall in cities, due to a lack of accurate, comparable and consistent damage data. The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of extreme rainfall on residential buildings and how affected households coped with these impacts in terms of precautionary and emergency actions. Analyses are based on a unique dataset of damage characteristics and a wide range of potential damage explaining variables at the household level, collected through computer-aided telephone interviews (CATI) and an online survey. Exploratory data analyses based on a total of 859 completed questionnaires in the cities of Münster (Germany) and Amsterdam (the Netherlands) revealed that the uptake of emergency measures is related to characteristics of the hazardous event. In case of high water levels, more efforts are made to reduce damage, while emergency response that aims to prevent damage is less likely to be effective. The difference in magnitude of the events in Münster and Amsterdam, in terms of rainfall intensity and water depth, is probably also the most important cause for the differences between the cities in terms of the suffered financial losses. Factors that significantly contributed to damage in at least one of the case studies are water contamination, the presence of a basement in the building and people's awareness of the upcoming event. Moreover, this study confirms conclusions by previous studies that people's experience with damaging events positively correlates with precautionary behaviour. For improving future damage data acquisition, we recommend the inclusion of cell phones in a CATI survey to avoid biased sampling towards certain age groups.

  5. Some gender issues in educational computer use: results of an international comparative survey

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen Reinen, I.A.M.; Plomp, T.

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of the Computers in Education international study of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), data have been collected concerning the use of computers in 21 countries. This article examines some results regarding the involvement of women in the implementation and use of computers in the educational practice of elementary, lower secondary and upper secondary education in participating countries. The results show that in many countries ...

  6. The International scale interval study: improving the comparability of responses to survey questions about happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhoven, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study is about survey questions on happiness using verbal response options, such as ‘very happy’ and ‘fairly happy’. The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and Languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a 0 to 10

  7. Comparative International Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, Arndt; Noorderhaven, Niels; Koen, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The use of comparisons to explain, analyze and understand social and economic phenomena is recognized as a valuable social science tool. This textbook deals with the differences in management and organization between nations and their effects on multinational enterprises. In comparing management

  8. Results from an International Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kawase, Kazumi; Carpelan-Holmstrom, Monika; Kwong, Ava; Sanfey, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Compared with male surgeons, women have less success advancing their careers and are underrepresented in leadership positions in surgery. The purpose of this study is to identify the qualifications necessary to become leaders in surgery and the career barriers faced by women surgeons in various cultural environments. A survey was performed with women surgeons in Japan, USA, Finland, and Hong Kong, China, to assess various barriers faced by women surgeons in the respective countries. To develo...

  9. [The role of international comparison in surveying divorce trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh-szombathy, L

    1982-04-01

    In this study, the main survey methods and approaches to analyzing data on divorce in different countries are described. Some problems concerning the international comparability of divorce statistics are examined, and the value of international comparative studies for identifying common factors affecting divorce is stressed. (summary in ENG, RUS)

  10. Survey compare team based learning and lecture teaching method, on learning-teaching process nursing student\\'s, in Surgical and Internal Diseases course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Vaezi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of teaching methods on learning process of students will help teachers to improve the quality of teaching by selecting an appropriate method. This study aimed to compare the team- based learning and lecture teaching method on learning-teaching process of nursing students in surgical and internal diseases courses. Method: This quasi-experimental study was carried on the nursing students in the School of Nursing and Midwifery in Yazd and Meybod cities. Studied sample was all of the students in the sixth term in the Faculty of Nursing in Yazd (48 persons and the Faculty of Nursing in Meybod (28 persons. The rate of students' learning through lecture was measured using MCQ tests and teaching based on team-based learning (TBL method was run using MCQ tests (IRAT, GRAT, Appeals and Task group. Therefore, in order to examine the students' satisfaction about the TBL method, a 5-point Likert scale (translated questionnaire (1=completely disagree, 2= disagree, 3=not effective, 4=agree, and 5=completely agree consisted of 22 items was utilized. The reliability and validity of this translated questionnaire was measured. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 17.0 using descriptive and analytical statistic. Result: The results showed that the mean scores in team-based learning were meaningful in individual assessment (17±84 and assessment group (17.2±1.17. The mean of overall scores in TBL method (17.84±0.98% was higher compared with the lecture teaching method (16±2.31. Most of the students believed that TBL method has improved their interpersonal and group interaction skills (100%. Among them, 97.7% of students mentioned that this method (TBL helped them to understand the course content better. The lowest levels of the satisfaction have related to the continuous learning during lifelong (51.2%. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the TBL method led to improving the communication skills, understanding

  11. International survey on gas technology organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The International Survey on Gas Technology Organizations has been prepared by the IEA International Centre for Gas Technology Information. 172 companies and R and D Institutions from 41 countries have contributed to the survey. The objective of the Survey is to develop an overview of identified organizations active in the development of new gas technology. As a quick reference guide the survey offers you short descriptions of a number of the most important organizations within gas technology on a world wide basis. Many R and D institutions around the world are working with topics of relevance to the gas industry. New gas technology draws on many different scientific and technical disciplines. This first issue of the survey includes only a part of the numerous organizations and institutions active within the development of new technology of relevance to the gas industry. The preparation of this survey has been a first step in the development of the information activities of the Centre. The information regarding organizations with R and D activities of relevance to the gas industry will continuously be expanded and updated for internal use in the Centre and will also be available to external users. The Centre plans to establish on-line access to these update versions during 1995. (EG)

  12. Comparative Political Economy and International Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afonso, A.; Devitt, C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the literature connecting comparative political economy and international migration in advanced industrialized countries with a focus on the relationship between labour migration, labour markets and welfare institutions. Immigration flows and policies are

  13. International comparative studies of education and large scale change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howie, Sarah; Plomp, T.; Bascia, Nina; Cumming, Alister; Datnow, Amanda; Leithwood, Kenneth; Livingstone, David

    2005-01-01

    The development of international comparative studies of educational achievements dates back to the early 1960s and was made possible by developments in sample survey methodology, group testing techniques, test development, and data analysis (Husén & Tuijnman, 1994, p. 6). The studies involve

  14. Report on survey on international Hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Hirobumi; Hoshino, Junko; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro; Okada, Sohei

    2011-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is promoting initiative to form an international Center of Excellence in line with its aim to accept more researchers/engineers from all over the world. Establishment of 'the Committee for JAEA Internationalization Initiative' was planned in 2010 so as to intensify this initiative, and in February, 2010, we visited research institutions in Europe, which include European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the construction site of ITER in Cadarache, and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), with the intention to survey and learn their advanced activities and systems in regard to the International Hub, so that the committee will be able to make fruitful discussion. This report describes strategy taken in each institution for an International Hub, and the state of each institution regarding acceptance and management of overseas researchers and engineers, research environment, living environment/health and welfare, and PR activities/coexistence with the local community. (author)

  15. Report on survey on international hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Hirobumi; Hoshino, Junko; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro; Okada, Sohei

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is promoting initiative to form an international hub in line with its aim to accept more researchers/engineers from all over the world. Establishment of 'the Committee for JAEA Internationalization Initiative' was planned in 2010 so as to intensify this initiative, and in February, 2010, we visited research institutions in Europe, which include European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the construction site of ITER in Cadarache, and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), with the intention to survey and learn their advanced activities and systems in regard to the International Hub, so that the committee will be able to make fruitful discussion. This report describes strategy taken in each institution for an International Hub, and the state of each institution regarding acceptance and management of overseas researchers and engineers, research environment, living environment/health and welfare, and PR activities/coexistence with the local community. (author)

  16. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

  17. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  18. 77 FR 772 - International Services Surveys and Direct Investment Surveys Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... and publish in the Federal Register notices of future surveys of foreign and direct investment in the....: 111012619-1619-01] RIN 0691-AA81 International Services Surveys and Direct Investment Surveys Reporting... international trade in services and direct investment surveys provided for by the International Investment and...

  19. 77 FR 49721 - International Services Surveys and Direct Investment Surveys Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    .... See, e.g., Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the...] RIN 0691-AA81 International Services Surveys and Direct Investment Surveys Reporting AGENCY: Bureau of... BEA will follow to collect data on international trade in services and direct investment surveys. The...

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Polish and Czech International New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Danik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the characteristics of Polish and Czech companies which follow the Born Global internationalization model. More concretely, the analysis aims to discover the differences or similarities in terms of the internationalization paths of Polish and Czech SMEs in the characteristics of their managers in terms of the so-called “international vision” and in their innovativeness level. The introductory part of article provides a description of this internationalization model and the International New Ventures traits (INV and summarizes the recent studies on this topic conducted in Poland and Czech Republic. In the empirical part, the International New Ventures from the two countries are compared. The Polish sample includes 105 companies which were surveyed with use of computer assisted telephone interviews in autumn 2014. For the Czech Republic, the sample consists of 54 small and medium-sized companies, which were surveyed using the computer assisted web interviews from November 2013 till January 2014. The surveyed companies in both countries fulfilled the definition of Born Globals. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis and non-parametric tests are applied to accomplish the goals of the paper.

  1. Comparative International Communication Projects: Overcoming the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Esser

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10-20 years, comparative research in the feld of communication has almost become fashionable. Many factors are responsible for this, for example: an increased awareness of globalisation as a communication-driven process; an awareness of increased transnational conglomerization of media organizations; and the increasing use of the Internet which facilitates easier access to information around the world. But the big question is how to organize collaborative international communication research efectively? Which models of cooperation are available to us, and what are their advantages and disadvantages? In this article, I analyze fve ways of doing collaborative researches and their respective challenges.

  2. A comparative analysis of mail and internet surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin D. Poole; David K. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    Th e field of survey research is constantly evolving with the introduction of new technologies. Each new mini-revolution brings criticism about the accuracy of the new survey method. The latest development in the survey research field has been increased reliance on Internet surveys. This paper compares data collected through a mixed-mode (mail and Internet) survey of...

  3. An international survey of aquaponics practitioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Love

    Full Text Available Aquaponics, a combination of fish farming and soilless plant farming, is growing in popularity and gaining attention as an important and potentially more sustainable method of food production. The aim of this study was to document and analyze the production methods, experiences, motivations, and demographics of aquaponics practitioners in the United States (US and internationally. The survey was distributed online using a chain sampling method that relied on referrals from initial respondents, with 809 respondents meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority of respondents were from the US (80%, male (78%, and had at least a high school degree (91%. The mean age of respondents was 47±13 years old. Most respondents (52% had three years or less of aquaponics experience. Respondents typically raised tilapia or ornamental fish and a variety of leafy green vegetables, herbs, and fruiting crops. Respondents were most often motivated to become involved in aquaponics to grow their own food, for environmental sustainability reasons, and for personal health reasons. Many respondents employed more than one method to raise crops, and used alternative or environmentally sustainable sources of energy, water, and fish feed. In general, our findings suggest that aquaponics is a dynamic and rapidly growing field with participants who are actively experimenting with and adopting new technologies. Additional research and outreach is needed to evaluate and communicate best practices within the field. This survey is the first large-scale effort to track aquaponics in the US and provides information that can better inform policy, research, and education efforts regarding aquaponics as it matures and possibly evolves into a mainstream form of agriculture.

  4. An International Survey of Aquaponics Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C.; Fry, Jillian P.; Genello, Laura; Hill, Elizabeth S.; Frederick, J. Adam; Li, Ximin; Semmens, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Aquaponics, a combination of fish farming and soilless plant farming, is growing in popularity and gaining attention as an important and potentially more sustainable method of food production. The aim of this study was to document and analyze the production methods, experiences, motivations, and demographics of aquaponics practitioners in the United States (US) and internationally. The survey was distributed online using a chain sampling method that relied on referrals from initial respondents, with 809 respondents meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority of respondents were from the US (80%), male (78%), and had at least a high school degree (91%). The mean age of respondents was 47±13 years old. Most respondents (52%) had three years or less of aquaponics experience. Respondents typically raised tilapia or ornamental fish and a variety of leafy green vegetables, herbs, and fruiting crops. Respondents were most often motivated to become involved in aquaponics to grow their own food, for environmental sustainability reasons, and for personal health reasons. Many respondents employed more than one method to raise crops, and used alternative or environmentally sustainable sources of energy, water, and fish feed. In general, our findings suggest that aquaponics is a dynamic and rapidly growing field with participants who are actively experimenting with and adopting new technologies. Additional research and outreach is needed to evaluate and communicate best practices within the field. This survey is the first large-scale effort to track aquaponics in the US and provides information that can better inform policy, research, and education efforts regarding aquaponics as it matures and possibly evolves into a mainstream form of agriculture. PMID:25029125

  5. An international survey of aquaponics practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C; Fry, Jillian P; Genello, Laura; Hill, Elizabeth S; Frederick, J Adam; Li, Ximin; Semmens, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Aquaponics, a combination of fish farming and soilless plant farming, is growing in popularity and gaining attention as an important and potentially more sustainable method of food production. The aim of this study was to document and analyze the production methods, experiences, motivations, and demographics of aquaponics practitioners in the United States (US) and internationally. The survey was distributed online using a chain sampling method that relied on referrals from initial respondents, with 809 respondents meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority of respondents were from the US (80%), male (78%), and had at least a high school degree (91%). The mean age of respondents was 47±13 years old. Most respondents (52%) had three years or less of aquaponics experience. Respondents typically raised tilapia or ornamental fish and a variety of leafy green vegetables, herbs, and fruiting crops. Respondents were most often motivated to become involved in aquaponics to grow their own food, for environmental sustainability reasons, and for personal health reasons. Many respondents employed more than one method to raise crops, and used alternative or environmentally sustainable sources of energy, water, and fish feed. In general, our findings suggest that aquaponics is a dynamic and rapidly growing field with participants who are actively experimenting with and adopting new technologies. Additional research and outreach is needed to evaluate and communicate best practices within the field. This survey is the first large-scale effort to track aquaponics in the US and provides information that can better inform policy, research, and education efforts regarding aquaponics as it matures and possibly evolves into a mainstream form of agriculture.

  6. Updating systematic reviews: an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Garritty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs should be up to date to maintain their importance in informing healthcare policy and practice. However, little guidance is available about when and how to update SRs. Moreover, the updating policies and practices of organizations that commission or produce SRs are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective was to describe the updating practices and policies of agencies that sponsor or conduct SRs. An Internet-based survey was administered to a purposive non-random sample of 195 healthcare organizations within the international SR community. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The completed response rate was 58% (n = 114 from across 26 countries with 70% (75/107 of participants identified as producers of SRs. Among responders, 79% (84/107 characterized the importance of updating as high or very-high and 57% (60/106 of organizations reported to have a formal policy for updating. However, only 29% (35/106 of organizations made reference to a written policy document. Several groups (62/105; 59% reported updating practices as irregular, and over half (53/103 of organizational respondents estimated that more than 50% of their respective SRs were likely out of date. Authors of the original SR (42/106; 40% were most often deemed responsible for ensuring SRs were current. Barriers to updating included resource constraints, reviewer motivation, lack of academic credit, and limited publishing formats. Most respondents (70/100; 70% indicated that they supported centralization of updating efforts across institutions or agencies. Furthermore, 84% (83/99 of respondents indicated they favoured the development of a central registry of SRs, analogous to efforts within the clinical trials community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most organizations that sponsor and/or carry out SRs consider updating important. Despite this recognition, updating practices are not regular, and many organizations lack

  7. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  8. EPR compared to international requirements (Mainly EUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, B.

    1996-01-01

    A number of European Utilities have entered an agreement to write common requirements dedicated to future light water nuclear power plants to be built in Europe. The activities are known under the sign EUR (European Utilities Requirements). EPR, the future European Pressurized water Reactor, is the first installation of this type which will be operational from the year 2000 onwards, must fulfill the European requirements. EPR will serve as a test whether these requirements are realistic and well balanced. At the basic design stage of EPR, this paper concentrates on four main topics: the requirements which are new compared with existing reactors and which put a major challenge to the designer; the requirements today still open and the way they can be met by the EPR or not; the points for which already today the EPR special requirements exceed the EUR; the examples where the design of the EPR has given feedback which has led to a change of the EUR. EPR and EUR are different approaches to the reactor of the future. EUR is a set of requirements which leaves a flexibility to the designer while EPR is a real project which defines the technical solutions. EPR will fulfill the EUR and will at the same time serve as a test whether these requirements are realistic. EPR will also fulfill international requirements with minor changes. (J.S.). 7 figs

  9. The CHIP surveys | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... Many of the young scholars relied on data generated by the China Household Income Project (CHIP), a collaboration between Chinese and international economists that has tracked inequality in China for the past 20 years.

  10. Survey of International Trade/Economics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews 14 international economics textbooks to help instructors with selection. Includes organization and structure, topics covered, and characteristics of the texts. Suggests considerations such as course length, level of abstraction desired, opinion of numerically based graphical analysis, extensiveness of examples and applications, and whether…

  11. Profiling health-care accreditation organizations: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Charles D; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Moldovan, Max; Nicklin, Wendy; Grgic, Ileana; Fortune, Triona; Whittaker, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To describe global patterns among health-care accreditation organizations (AOs) and to identify determinants of sustainability and opportunities for improvement. Web-based questionnaire survey. Organizations offering accreditation services nationally or internationally to health-care provider institutions or networks at primary, secondary or tertiary level in 2010. s) External relationships, scope and activity public information. Forty-four AOs submitted data, compared with 33 in a survey 10 years earlier. Of the 30 AOs that reported survey activity in 2000 and 2010, 16 are still active and stable or growing. New and old programmes are increasingly linked to public funding and regulation. While the number of health-care AOs continues to grow, many fail to thrive. Successful organizations tend to complement mechanisms of regulation, health-care funding or governmental commitment to quality and health-care improvement that offer a supportive environment. Principal challenges include unstable business (e.g. limited market, low uptake) and unstable politics. Many organizations make only limited information available to patients and the public about standards, procedures or results.

  12. 75 FR 10704 - International Services Surveys: BE-180, Benchmark Survey of Financial Services Transactions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...] RIN 0691-AA73 International Services Surveys: BE-180, Benchmark Survey of Financial Services Transactions Between U.S. Financial Services Providers and Foreign Persons AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis... BE-180, Benchmark Survey of Financial Services Transactions between U.S. Financial Services Providers...

  13. 75 FR 35289 - International Services Surveys: BE-180, Benchmark Survey of Financial Services Transactions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...-AA73 International Services Surveys: BE-180, Benchmark Survey of Financial Services Transactions Between U.S. Financial Services Providers and Foreign Persons AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis... Survey of Financial Services Transactions between U.S. Financial Services Providers and Foreign Persons...

  14. Comparing International and American Students: Involvement in College Life and Overall Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Cole, Darnell

    2017-01-01

    Using longitudinal survey data, this study compares 191 international and 409 American students' involvement in college life, the extent to which the involvement is influenced by race/ethnicity, gender, and language background, and the extent to which the involvement influences overall satisfaction. Major findings include: International and…

  15. Metropolitan planning from an international comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Grønning, Marius

    2016-01-01

    policies, and thus also to the instrumental orientation within planning. A challenge stemming from this comparison is to understand how similar policies are implemented at a strategic and metropolitan level. Within the institutional framework of Copenhagen, the problem with the Finger Plan directive might...... (Faludi & van der Valk, 1994), thus integrating the archetypal land-use character of municipal plans and the strategic and growth-oriented pursuit of regional plans. A number of questions may be deduced: How explicit is the metropolitan scale? How local and how regional is the knowledge basis? Within......Over the last few years new practices of spatial strategy making at different planning scales have emerged. At the metropolitan level, such spatial strategies are reminiscent of national and supranational competitive strategies (e.g. EU policies) as well as ratifications of international...

  16. Comparing internal and external drivers in the southern Benguela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing internal and external drivers in the southern Benguela and the southern and ... during the model fitting: internal forcing by means of the trophic flow controls ... and two kinds of external forcing, namely fishing and the environment.

  17. 77 FR 24373 - International Services Surveys and Direct Investment Surveys Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... regulations governing the procurement of information on international trade in services and direct investment...) revises its rules to establish general guidelines for how BEA will collect data on international trade in services and direct investment surveys, which are provided for by the International Investment and Trade in...

  18. Papers from the International Conference on Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on different specific themes and four poster sessions gener- ally coordinated with each day's themes. The following nine papers are a representative sample of both plenary and review papers presented. Comparative animal physiology and biochemistry are areas of study largely concerned with the ways in which diverse.

  19. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques.

  20. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  1. International comparative analyses of healthcare risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Niuyun; Wang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Yuan, Qiang; Zhang, Zongjiu; Li, Youping; Liang, Minghui; Cheng, Lan; Gao, Guangming; Cui, Xiaohui

    2011-02-01

    Interpretation of the growing body of global literature on health care risk is compromised by a lack of common understanding and language. This series of articles aims to comprehensively compare laws and regulations, institutional management, and administration of incidence reporting systems on medical risk management in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, and Taiwan, so as to provide evidence and recommendations for health care risk management policy in China. We searched the official websites of the healthcare risk management agencies of the four countries and one district for laws, regulatory documents, research reports, reviews and evaluation forms concerned with healthcare risk management and assessment. Descriptive comparative analysis was performed on relevant documents. A total of 146 documents were included in this study, including 2 laws (1.4%), 17 policy documents (11.6%), 41 guidance documents (28.1%), 37 reviews (25.3%), and 49 documents giving general information (33.6%). The United States government implemented one law and one rule of patient safety management, while the United Kingdom and Australia each issued professional guidances on patient safety improvement. The four countries implemented patient safety management policy on four different levels: national, state/province, hospital, and non-governmental organization. The four countries and one district adopted four levels of patient safety management, and the administration modes can be divided into an "NGO-led mode" represented by the United States and Canada and a "government-led mode" represented by the United Kingdom, Australia, and Taiwan. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  2. International survey of cochlear implant candidacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, D; De Raeve, L; Graham, J

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this work was to determine international differences in candidacy based on audiometric and speech perception measures, and to evaluate the information in light of the funding structure and access to implants within different countries. An online questionnaire was circulated to professionals in 25 countries. There were 28 respondents, representing the candidacy practice in 17 countries. Results showed differences in the funding model between countries. Unilateral implants for both adults and children and bilateral implants for children were covered by national funding in approximately 60% of countries (30% used medical insurance, and 10% self-funding). Fewer countries provided bilateral implants routinely for adults: national funding was available in only 22% (37% used medical insurance and 41% self-funding). Main evolving candidacy areas are asymmetric losses, auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders and electro-acoustic stimulation. For countries using speech-based adult candidacy assessments, the majority (40%) used word tests, 24% used sentence tests, and 36% used a mixture of both. For countries using audiometry for candidacy (70-80% of countries), the majority used levels of 75-85 dB HL at frequencies above 1 kHz. The United Kingdom and Belgium had the most conservative audiometric criteria, and countries such as Australia, Germany, and Italy were the most lenient. Countries with a purely self-funding model had greater flexibility in candidacy requirements.

  3. Health inequalities: survey data compared to doctor defined data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westert, G.P.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare prevalence of conditions and health inequalities in one study population using two methods of data collection: health interview survey and GP registration of consultations. Methods: Data is from the Second Dutch Survey of General Practice, using a multistage sampling design with

  4. Comparative analysis of franchising in international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of franchising at the global level requires its further improvement. This business model has great business potential, especially in the Serbian market, given the current underdevelopment and inaccessibility of information. At the core of our research, we outlined the characteristics of this business model, its impact on business development and at the same time we tried to draw the attention of domestic business entities to the benefits of franchising as a modern way of doing business. We start our research with a focus on the comparative analysis of Serbia, as a very poorly developed market. We then discuss the concept of franchising in Europe, with a special focus on Poland as a country that is ready to export franchising systems, and we continue by providing comparisons with the world's largest markets, namely, the USA and Canada. In this paper, we tried to elaborate on the economic viability of this project, as well as the increasing expansion and importance franchising has been experiencing in the last few years. Emphasis is placed on the use of franchise in many areas of business where there is the possibility of implementing both business models.

  5. The Philanthropic Mission of Comparative and International Education Bequeathed by Jullien: Continuing Capstone of the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this lead article of this special issue of "Compare" is to assess the value of Jullien's vision for the field of comparative and international education today. The life, writings and ideas of Jullien are sketched, followed by a survey of the path of development of the field since the time of Jullien. In view of the exigencies…

  6. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Charl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education…

  7. International study for an international career: a survey of the motivations and aspirations of international students in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Packwood, Helen; Findlay, Allan; McCollum, David

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 435,000 international students studying in UK Universities. This paper investigates the forces driving student mobility and the relationship between student migration and future mobility plans. The research, based on a survey of over 3000 international students and interviews with senior staff in International Offices at ten UK Universities confirms the importance of understanding international student mobility as part of wider mobility trajectories.

  8. Surveys from inside: An assessment of unit nonresponse bias with internal criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kohler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article uses the so called “internal criteria of representativeness” to assess the unit nonresponse bias in five European comparative survey projects. It then goes on investigating several ideas why unit nonresponse bias might vary between surveys and countries. It is proposed that unit nonresponse bias is either caused by country characteristics or survey methodology. The empirical evidence presented speaks more in favour of the latter than of the former. Among the survey characteristics the features that strengthen the leverage to control interviewers’ behaviour have top priority

  9. TALIS 2013 Technical Report: Teaching and Learning International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Effective teaching and teachers are key to producing high-performing students worldwide. So how can countries prepare teachers to face the diverse challenges in today's schools? The Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) helps answer this question. TALIS asks teachers and schools about their working conditions and the learning…

  10. International Survey of the Status of Waldorf Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    This international survey study was the first to examine the Waldorf School movement worldwide and focused on the teaching practices, curricula, educational outcomes, and positive program features of Waldorf schools, as well as problems encountered by Waldorf staff. The role of Rudolf Steiner's philosophy, anthroposophy, and its esoteric aspects…

  11. International survey of living PSA and safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Laakso, K.; Lehtinen, E.; Bjoere, S.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains an international overview of applications of living probabilistic assessment and development of operational safety indicators. Features of an ideal living PSA tool are summarized as well as a limited survey of code systems for managing a living probabilistic safety assessment (living PSA) is included. The international survey is used as an input for planning and performance of related tasks within the nordic NKS/SIK-1 project conducted in 1990-93. The research notes are distributed to the Nordic organizations involved or interested in the subject. The report includes an overview and conclusions from technical reports and articles available and presentations and discussions related to development and use of above methods for the evaluation and management of the operational safety of nuclear power plants. A large part of this material is based on material collected and discussed in connection to international specialist meetings relating to the subject

  12. Comparing international and South African work-based assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing international and South African work-based assessment of medical interns' practice. ... in the finding that most studies in SA have dealt with the assessment of core procedural skills related to acute clinical care, while the assessment of non-clinical competencies and non-procedural skills was poorly addressed.

  13. Comparing Ourselves to Others: International Knowledge and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Jo Ann Cutler; Zandan, Peter A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a lesson for junior high social studies which uses a comparison of research findings to teach students about international political socialization. Students answer questionnaires about their own attitudes and knowledge of international political socialization and then compare and contrast their responses to responses of American,…

  14. Estimating International Poverty Lines from Comparable National Thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Jolliffe, Dean; Prydz, Espen Beer

    2016-01-01

    World Bank's international poverty line of $1.90/day, at 2011 purchasing power parity, is based on a collection of national poverty lines, which were originally used to set the international poverty line of $1.25/day at 2005 purchasing power parity. This paper proposes an approach for estimating a more recent, complete, and comparable collection of national poverty thresholds from reported...

  15. What skills should new internal medicine interns have in july? A national survey of internal medicine residency program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Steven; Vu, T Robert; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Aiyer, Meenakshy; McKown, Kevin; Chmielewski, Amy F; McDonald, Furman S

    2014-03-01

    The transition from medical student to intern may cause stress and burnout in new interns and the delivery of suboptimal patient care. Despite a formal set of subinternship curriculum guidelines, program directors have expressed concern regarding the skill set of new interns and the lack of standardization in that skill set among interns from different medical schools. To address these issues, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System focuses on the development of a competency-based education continuum spanning undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education. In 2010, the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine subinternship task force, in collaboration with the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine survey committee, surveyed internal medicine residency program directors to determine which competencies or skills they expected from new medical school graduates. The authors summarized the results using categories of interest. In both an item rank list and free-text responses, program directors were nearly uniform in ranking the skills they deemed most important for new interns-organization and time management and prioritization skills; effective communication skills; basic clinical skills; and knowing when to ask for assistance. Stakeholders should use the results of this survey as they develop a milestone-based curriculum for the fourth year of medical school and for the internal medicine subinternship. By doing so, they should develop a standardized set of skills that meet program directors' expectations, reduce the stress of transitions across the educational continuum, and improve the quality of patient care.

  16. Internationally Comparable Measures of Occupational Status for the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeboom, H.B.G.; Treiman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides operational procedures for coding internationally comparable measures of occupational status from the recently published International Standard Classification of Occupation 1988 (ISCO88) of the International Labor Office (ILO, 1990). We first discuss the nature of the ISCO88

  17. The computation of equating errors in international surveys in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseur, Christian; Berezner, Alla

    2007-01-01

    Since the IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study, one of the major objectives of international surveys in education has been to report trends in achievement. The names of the two current IEA surveys reflect this growing interest: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). Similarly a central concern of the OECD's PISA is with trends in outcomes over time. To facilitate trend analyses these studies link their tests using common item equating in conjunction with item response modelling methods. IEA and PISA policies differ in terms of reporting the error associated with trends. In IEA surveys, the standard errors of the trend estimates do not include the uncertainty associated with the linking step while PISA does include a linking error component in the standard errors of trend estimates. In other words, PISA implicitly acknowledges that trend estimates partly depend on the selected common items, while the IEA's surveys do not recognise this source of error. Failing to recognise the linking error leads to an underestimation of the standard errors and thus increases the Type I error rate, thereby resulting in reporting of significant changes in achievement when in fact these are not significant. The growing interest of policy makers in trend indicators and the impact of the evaluation of educational reforms appear to be incompatible with such underestimation. However, the procedure implemented by PISA raises a few issues about the underlying assumptions for the computation of the equating error. After a brief introduction, this paper will describe the procedure PISA implemented to compute the linking error. The underlying assumptions of this procedure will then be discussed. Finally an alternative method based on replication techniques will be presented, based on a simulation study and then applied to the PISA 2000 data.

  18. Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys : comparison of patient and physician perceptions about COPD risk and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menezes, Ana M.; Landis, Sarah H.; Han, MeiLan K.; Muellerova, Hana; Aisanov, Zaurbek; van der Molen, Thys; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Ichinose, Masakazu; Mannino, David M.; Davis, Kourtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Using data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician and Patient Surveys, this paper describes physicians' attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prognosis, and compares physician and patient perceptions with respect to COPD. Methods:

  19. Improving Comparability Of Survey Results Through Ex-Post Harmonisation A Case Study With Twelve European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Hubert, Jean-Paul; Järvi, Tuuli

    An essential prerequisite for research, decision making and effective policies in the field of sustainable transport are reliable data on travel behaviour. In particular comparative analyses over space or time allow for a better understanding of transport systems and their impact on travel...... behaviour. Further, there is an increasing need for comparable transport indicators at the international level. All along, National Travel Surveys (NTS) have been used to perform such analyses and to generate respective indicators. Despite their similar intention to elicit basic information on travel...

  20. Comparative Study of Complex Survey Estimation Software in ONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Fallows

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many official statistics across the UK Government Statistical Service (GSS are produced using data collected from sample surveys. These survey data are used to estimate population statistics through weighting and calibration techniques. For surveys with complex or unusual sample designs, the weighting can be fairly complicated. Even in more simple cases, appropriate software is required to implement survey weighting and estimation. As with other stages of the survey process, it is preferable to use a standard, generic calibration tool wherever possible. Standard tools allow for efficient use of resources and assist with the harmonisation of methods. In the case of calibration, the Office for National Statistics (ONS has experience of using the Statistics Canada Generalized Estimation System (GES across a range of business and social surveys. GES is a SAS-based system and so is only available in conjunction with an appropriate SAS licence. Given recent initiatives and encouragement to investigate open source solutions across government, it is appropriate to determine whether there are any open source calibration tools available that can provide the same service as GES. This study compares the use of GES with the calibration tool ‘R evolved Generalized software for sampling estimates and errors in surveys’ (ReGenesees available in R, an open source statistical programming language which is beginning to be used in many statistical offices. ReGenesees is a free R package which has been developed by the Italian statistics office (Istat and includes functionality to calibrate survey estimates using similar techniques to GES. This report describes analysis of the performance of ReGenesees in comparison to GES to calibrate a representative selection of ONS surveys. Section 1.1 provides a brief introduction to the current use of SAS and R in ONS. Section 2 describes GES and ReGenesees in more detail. Sections 3.1 and 3.2 consider methods for

  1. An international survey and recommendations for modern hydrokinetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Basnet, Bipin; Dunsmore, Ian

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the results of a survey on some of the advantages of the novel and uniquehydrokinetic energy generation systems over other technologies available today. Recently, a comprehensive assessment study for the application of internationally leading hydrokinetic technologies in water engineering has been conducted. The study was carried with the collaboration of the School of Engineering, University of Glasgow and Scottish Water Horizons Ltd. The assessment involved the information collection, critical analysis of various features and financial viability analysis of various hydrokinetic systems available at this time. The outcomes of the study are summarized below: - The preliminary assessment of the hydrokinetic system and their application were carried out. The technologies were divided into different categories as per their core theory, scope of application as well as positive and negatives effects of their application. - A variety of criteria were used to assess the technical, economical and ecological potential from the application of hydrokinetic systems. - A number of companies representing a wide range of technologies available worldwide were ranked considering the performance of these against the above criteria. - Only a couple of the companies could satisfy the selection condition to be adopted into select sites of low flow and low pressure head. - A more detailed assessment for specific sites and further testing of these technologies is recommended to further assess the advantages and optimal performance of the selected technologies. A preliminary evaluation of the best performing systems demonstrates its effectiveness, particularly over other existing hydrokinetic technologies, when ecology of the open water surface system is considered. Specifically it will be of interest to use the selected technology in combination with a fish passage, as compared with other technologies this system has a minimal amount of fast moving components.

  2. Intensive comprehensive aphasia programs: an international survey of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Miranda L; Cherney, Leora R; Worrall, Linda E

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need to simultaneously address multiple domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in aphasia therapy and to incorporate intensive treatment doses consistent with principles of neuroplasticity, a potentially potent treatment option termed intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) has been developed. To conduct an international survey of ICAPs to determine the extent of their use and to explore current ICAP practices. A 32-item online survey was distributed internationally through Survey Monkey between May and August 2012. The survey addressed ICAP staffing, philosophy, values, funding, admission criteria, activities, family involvement, outcome measures, and factors considered important to success. Twelve ICAPs responded: 8 from the United States, 2 from Canada, and 1 each from Australia and the United Kingdom. The majority of ICAPs are affiliated with university programs and are funded through participant self-pay. ICAPs emphasize individualized treatment goals and evidence-based practices, with a focus on applying the principles of neuroplasticity related to repetition and intensity of treatment. On average, 6 people with aphasia attend each ICAP, for 4 days per week for 4 weeks, receiving about 100 hours of individual, group, and computer-based treatment. Speech-language pathologists, students, and volunteers staff the majority of ICAPs. ICAPs are increasing in number but remain a rare service delivery option. They address the needs of individuals who want access to intensive treatment and are interested in making significant changes to their communication skills and psychosocial well-being in a short period of time. Their efficacy and cost-effectiveness require future investigation.

  3. Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Underpinned by the human needs theory, this study comparatively interrogates ... The study adopts the quantitative research design, employs survey method for data collection, and simple ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  4. Comparing Traditional and Crowdsourcing Methods for Pretesting Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive interviewing is a common method used to evaluate survey questions. This study compares traditional cognitive interviewing methods with crowdsourcing, or “tapping into the collective intelligence of the public to complete a task.” Crowdsourcing may provide researchers with access to a diverse pool of potential participants in a very timely and cost-efficient way. Exploratory work found that crowdsourcing participants, with self-administered data collection, may be a viable alternative, or addition, to traditional pretesting methods. Using three crowdsourcing designs (TryMyUI, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and Facebook, we compared the participant characteristics, costs, and quantity and quality of data with traditional laboratory-based cognitive interviews. Results suggest that crowdsourcing and self-administered protocols may be a viable way to collect survey pretesting information, as participants were able to complete the tasks and provide useful information; however, complex tasks may require the skills of an interviewer to administer unscripted probes.

  5. International Survey on the Management of Wake-Up Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Afonso, Luís Henrique; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Pontes-Neto, Octávio Marques; dos Santos, Antônio Carlos; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2016-01-01

    Patients who wake up having experienced a stroke while asleep represent around 20% of acute stroke admissions. According to international guidelines for the management of acute stroke, patients presenting with wake-up stroke are not currently eligible to receive revascularization treatments. In this study, we aimed to assess the opinions of stroke experts about the management of patients with wake-up stroke by using an international multicenter electronic survey. This study consisted of 8 questions on wake-up stroke treatment. Two hundred invitations to participate in the survey were sent by e-mail. Fifty-nine participants started the survey, 4 dropped out before completing it, and 55 completed the full questionnaire. We had 55 participants from 22 countries. In this study, most stroke experts recommended a recanalization treatment for wake-up stroke. However, there was considerable disagreement among experts regarding the best brain imaging method and the best recanalization treatment. The results of ongoing randomized trials on wake-up stroke are urgently needed.

  6. International Survey on the Management of Wake-Up Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique de Castro-Afonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who wake up having experienced a stroke while asleep represent around 20% of acute stroke admissions. According to international guidelines for the management of acute stroke, patients presenting with wake-up stroke are not currently eligible to receive revascularization treatments. In this study, we aimed to assess the opinions of stroke experts about the management of patients with wake-up stroke by using an international multicenter electronic survey. Method: This study consisted of 8 questions on wake-up stroke treatment. Results: Two hundred invitations to participate in the survey were sent by e-mail. Fifty-nine participants started the survey, 4 dropped out before completing it, and 55 completed the full questionnaire. We had 55 participants from 22 countries. Conclusions: In this study, most stroke experts recommended a recanalization treatment for wake-up stroke. However, there was considerable disagreement among experts regarding the best brain imaging method and the best recanalization treatment. The results of ongoing randomized trials on wake-up stroke are urgently needed.

  7. International Short-Term Countermeasures Survey - 2012 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, Grant

    2013-01-01

    information, general objectives and criteria, national organisation, emergency planning zones, emergency plans, implementation of short-term countermeasures, information for the public, countermeasures for special groups, and harmonisation. It is aimed at comparing countries' current approach to nuclear emergency planning, and excludes proposed arrangements for new build. In February 2012, a questionnaire was sent to NEA members to gather information on the countermeasure provisions in place. Data was obtained from 20 countries (listed in Appendix A) and this report presents the findings from this survey. The full questionnaire can be found in Appendix B. The information given in this report allows NEA member countries to compare national practices with other countries, and identify areas for further review and co-ordination. The information may also be used to understand the basis for decisions in various countries, and, if deemed necessary, as a basis for international harmonisation. This may help to explain to the public affected by an emergency why the decisions in neighbouring countries may vary. The nuclear regulator was involved in completing the questionnaire for all countries. In many cases other key government departments such as health, environment, or emergency management agencies contributed to the response. In some countries the technical nuclear agencies provided expertise where required. In some countries, competencies and duties in connection with short-term countermeasures are shared between different levels, e.g. federal and regional levels such as Laender or provinces. Most countries plan to use stable iodine, sheltering, evacuation, access controls, and food restrictions in the case of a near field accident. Countries are more likely to have planned food and water restrictions in the case of a far field accident, although many still do not rule out use of iodine and sheltering. Evacuation is much less likely but still considered. Most countries have

  8. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl Wolhuter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education on the economy. In the interwar “factors and forces” stage of Comparative Education, the economy as a shaping force of national education systems came to the fore. In the social science phase of the 1960s the focus shifted to a study of the effect of education on the economy. This was reversed again in the 1970s, when socio-economic reproduction theories assigned a deterministic place to socio-economic stratification of society. In recent years neo-liberal economics dictated the research agenda of Comparative Education. In conclusion recommendations for a future research agenda in the field are made.

  9. "Families" in International Context: Comparing Institutional Effects across Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Lynn Prince; Baxter, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    We review comparative evidence of institutional effects on families in Western societies. We focus on 2 key aspects of family life: gendered divisions of labor and people's transitions into, within, and out of relationships. Many individual-level models assume the effects are robust across countries. The international evidence over the past decade…

  10. Bystander Obligations at the Domestic and International Level Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Otto|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328454559

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether States have a legal obligation to assist victims of serious breaches of fundamental obligations owed to the international community as a whole. This so-called ‘bystander State responsibility’ is compared with a similar legal obligation to assist victims at the domestic

  11. Comparative Study of Internal Efficiency in Private and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The education sector has been undergoing regular reviews so that to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness in resource utilization. This study was designed to make a comparative study of internal efficiency in both private and public primary schools of Manga Division, Nyamira District, Kenya. Specifically, the study not ...

  12. 77 FR 10958 - International Services Surveys: BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit, Debit, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Emond, Chief, Special Surveys Branch, Balance of Payments Division (BE-50), Bureau of Economic Analysis... the International Investment and Trade in Services Survey Act, 22 U.S.C. 3101- [[Page 10959

  13. International Survey on agriculture-climate change policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernagut, M.; Priem, M.; Sorgeloos, L.

    2011-09-15

    The title study provides an international overview of agriculture-climate change policy instruments for the reduction of methane and nitrous oxide emissions. The aim of this study is to clarify how national and/or international agriculture-climate-policies could or should be instrumented during the coming three to five years to achieve significant emission reductions of methane and nitrous oxide in the Dutch agricultural sector by 2020. The study includes an international survey, a quick-scan inventory of useful and inspiring examples of policy and reduction measures to reduce non CO2 greenhouse gases. ERM used an approach consisting out of three phases. In the first phase countries were selected on the basis of emissions and Kyoto protocol targets. In the second phase policy measures of these countries were listed, based on publicly available national and international sources. In a third phase a sub-set of this selection was analyzed in-depth through communications with local focal points and additional review of policy documents, to enhance the understanding of context, impact and results of each of these policies and measures.

  14. Survey of environment related monitoring programmes of international organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report is a summary of environment-related monitoring programmes of international governmental organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes. it presents the situation as of November 1986: This survey has been prepared by a consultant for the Secretariat as a background document for the second meeting of the Environment Experts, Economic Summit in Munich, November 1986. It serves information purposes only. No claim for completeness is intended. This report may also prove to be helpful for administrators and the scientific community as regards gaining knowledge on present arrangements, approaches and environmental activities in the framework of international organizations. In this light, the present report could facilitate communication and progress in solving pressing environmental problems on the international level. (orig.)

  15. Explaining the judicial independence of international courts: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    What factors allow some international courts (ICs) to rule against the express preferences of powerful member states, whereas others routinely defer to governments? While judicial independence is not the only factor explaining the strength of a given international institution, it is a necessary...... condition. The paper first develops three sets of competing explanatory variables that potentially can explain variations in the judicial independence of ICs. The causal effects of these explanatory variables upon variance in judicial independence are investigated in a comparative analysis of the ACJ, ECJ...

  16. Palliative Care Exposure in Internal Medicine Residency Education: A Survey of ACGME Internal Medicine Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Asher; Nam, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    As the baby boomer generation ages, the need for palliative care services will be paramount and yet training for palliative care physicians is currently inadequate to meet the current palliative care needs. Nonspecialty-trained physicians will need to supplement the gap between supply and demand. Yet, no uniform guidelines exist for the training of internal medicine residents in palliative care. To our knowledge, no systematic study has been performed to evaluate how internal medicine residencies currently integrate palliative care into their training. In this study, we surveyed 338 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited internal medicine program directors. We queried how palliative care was integrated into their training programs. The vast majority of respondents felt that palliative care training was "very important" (87.5%) and 75.9% of respondents offered some kind of palliative care rotation, often with a multidisciplinary approach. Moving forward, we are hopeful that the data provided from our survey will act as a launching point for more formal investigations into palliative care education for internal medicine residents. Concurrently, policy makers should aid in palliative care instruction by formalizing required palliative care training for internal medicine residents.

  17. Mechanical ventilation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. An international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhong, Jonathan D; Telesnicki, Teagan; Munshi, Laveena; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Detsky, Michael; Fan, Eddy

    2014-07-01

    In patients with severe, acute respiratory failure undergoing venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO), the optimal strategy for mechanical ventilation is unclear. Our objective was to describe ventilation practices used in centers registered with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO). We conducted an international cross-sectional survey of medical directors and ECMO program coordinators from all ELSO-registered centers. The survey was distributed using a commercial website that collected information on center characteristics, the presence of a mechanical ventilator protocol, ventilator settings, and weaning practices. E-mails were sent out to medical directors or coordinators at each ELSO center and their responses were pooled for analysis. We analyzed 141 (50%) individual responses from the 283 centers contacted across 28 countries. Only 27% of centers reported having an explicit mechanical ventilation protocol for ECMO patients. The majority of these centers (77%) reported "lung rest" to be the primary goal of mechanical ventilation, whereas 9% reported "lung recruitment" to be their ventilation strategy. A tidal volume of 6 ml/kg or less was targeted by 76% of respondents, and 58% targeted a positive end-expiratory pressure of 6-10 cm H2O while ventilating patients on VV-ECMO. Centers prioritized weaning VV-ECMO before mechanical ventilation. Although ventilation practices in patients supported by VV-ECMO vary across ELSO centers internationally, the majority of centers used a strategy that targeted lung-protective thresholds and prioritized weaning VV-ECMO over mechanical ventilation.

  18. Efficiency analysis of energy networks: An international survey of regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Incentive regulation for networks has been an important part of the reform agenda in a number of countries. As part of this regulatory process, incentives are put in place to improve the cost efficiency of network companies by rewarding good performance relative to a pre-defined benchmark. The techniques used to establish benchmarks are central to the efficiency improvements that are ultimately achieved. Much experience has been gained internationally in the application of benchmarking techniques and we now have a solid understanding of the main indicators of best practice. What we are lacking is a more complete understanding of the factors that influence choice of methods by regulators. In this paper, we present the results of an international survey of energy regulators in 40 countries conducted electronically between June and October 2008. Regulators from European, Australasian and Latin American countries are represented in the survey. Our results show that benchmarking techniques are now widespread in the regulation of gas and electricity networks. Best practice, however, is limited to a small number of regulators. We conclude by summarising existing trends and offering some recommendations on overcoming barriers to best practice efficiency analysis.

  19. What Did We Learn about Our Teachers and Principals? Results of the TALIS-2013 International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinskaya, M. A.; Lenskaya, E. A.; Ponomareva, A. A.; Brun, I. V.; Kosaretsky, S. G.; Savelyeva, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) is a large-scale and authoritative international study of teachers. It is conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collect and compare information about teachers and principals in different countries in such key areas as the training and professional…

  20. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock markets * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath-international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  1. Survey of Careers and Achievements on Delegates in JSRT International Delegation Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Tanaka, Rie; Matsubara, Kosuke; Morioka, Shigeaki; Tsujioka, Katsumi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Ueda, Katsuhiko; Ogura, Akio; Miyati, Tosiaki

    Japanese society of radiological technology (JSRT) categorizes three international delegation projects; short-term studying abroad program (STSAP), international academic society visit program (overseas) (IASVP), and international internship visit program (Stanford University) (IIVP) for driving globalization of JSRT. In this survey, we conducted a questionnaire evaluating effectiveness of the international delegations. The survey covered 50 delegates of STSAP, 180 delegates of IASVP, and 100 delegates of IIVP. This survey includes detailed histories of career, current position, academic articles, and presentations as a first presenter before and on, and after each program. We categorized into six groups (change career, promoted in a position in hospital, kept a current position in hospital, promoted in a position in university, kept a current position in university, and others) in three programs. The response rate is approximately 58% (191/330 delegators). In all programs, almost all the delegates were radiological technologists in the hospital. They had reported a lot of academic articles and made a lot of presentations, and promoted in the hospital and/or university. STSAP, IASVP and IIVP were descending order of the average number of the articles as a first author and presentations as a first presenter. They published more the academic articles in Japanese than in English compared to JJRT and RPT. Therefore, research achievements and human resource conducted by this project provide great technologists and technique, and education. For further JRST globalization, it is desirable that we can continue these international delegations and verify the effectiveness.

  2. International survey of government decisions and recommendations following Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okyar, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    A key issue in nuclear emergency management is the need to keep decision makers informed of the details of a situation which is evolving quickly. For example, decision makers need the latest information, and periodic updates, when making decisions regarding advice to citizens, policies on the import and export of food and goods, and industries that may be affected. During the 17 March 2011 meeting of the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies (IACRNE), which was the first of a series of meetings following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, participants discussed the possibility of establishing a 'database' of the decisions and recommendations made by various governments at an early stage of the Fukushima accident, as well as updating and modifying the database as long as it remained of use. The IACRNE agreed that this information would be very useful, and mandated the NEA to try to collect it. In total, 34 countries (26 NEA members) participated in the survey. The survey results were consolidated into a single document indicating the country, the decision taken or recommendation made, the applicable date and the population concerned. It is important to note that countries submitted differing amounts of information at different points in time during the accident's progression. The survey results indicate that an international overview is required to better understand how national governmental decision-making could be further co-ordinated. The NEA has undertaken some initiatives to analyse the types of decisions made, including the information available and necessary to support such decisions, and the implications for co-ordination needs and mechanisms

  3. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history.

  4. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, R. William; Field, Dan W.; Steck, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m -3 . Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. (authors)

  5. International practices in the provision of teratology information: a survey of international teratogen information programmes and comparisons with the North American model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Rebecca L; Ungar, Wendy J; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2010-10-01

    Teratology Information Services (TIS) provide health care professionals and the public with information regarding the safety and/or risk of exposures during pregnancy and lactation, mainly via telephone consultations. An international comparison of clinical practices at TIS has never been conducted. The survey objective was to compare international TIS to North American TIS, with an aim to identify strengths and challenges that can lead to service improvement. Twenty-two international TIS were approached for participation during an international conference. TIS were surveyed on information in six categories: services, staffing, operations, data collection, knowledge transfer activities and additional information. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Statistical tests were conducted using SPSS®. Sixteen TIS from 12 countries participated. Survey results were compared with previously reported results from a similar survey of North American TIS (16 US, two Canadian). TIS exist in a variety of departments and settings, but most commonly are in university hospitals. Pregnant women were the most commonly counselled group worldwide. International TIS spent significantly more time fielding inquiries regarding medications, while North American TIS had a wider variety of inquiry categories. All TIS could improve budget tracking. Overall, service practices and goals were similar, although international TIS conducted more follow-up with service users than North American TIS. This report offers TIS the first ever opportunity to compare practices. Increased dialogue between TIS encourages sharing of best practices and improves the ability of these important public health programmes to support women and health care providers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. How Consumers and Physicians View New Medical Technology: Comparative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, Debra L; Wineinger, Nathan E; Waalen, Jill; Gollamudi, Shreya; Grossberg, Adam; Steinhubl, Steven R; McCollister-Slipp, Anna; Rogers, Marc A; Silvers, Carey; Topol, Eric J

    2015-09-14

    As a result of the digital revolution coming to medicine, a number of new tools are becoming available and are starting to be introduced in clinical practice. We aim to assess health care professional and consumer attitudes toward new medical technology including smartphones, genetic testing, privacy, and patient-accessible electronic health records. We performed a survey with 1406 health care providers and 1102 consumer responders. Consumers who completed the survey were more likely to prefer new technologies for a medical diagnosis (437/1102, 39.66%) compared with providers (194/1406, 13.80%; P<.001), with more providers (393/1406, 27.95%) than consumers (175/1102, 15.88%) reporting feeling uneasy about using technology for a diagnosis. Both providers and consumers supported genetic testing for various purposes, with providers (1234/1406, 87.77%) being significantly more likely than consumers (806/1102, 73.14%) to support genetic testing when planning to have a baby (P<.001). Similarly, 91.68% (1289/1406) of providers and 81.22% (895/1102) of consumers supported diagnosing problems in a fetus (P<.001). Among providers, 90.33% (1270/1406) were concerned that patients would experience anxiety after accessing health records, and 81.95% (1149/1406) felt it would lead to requests for unnecessary medical evaluations, but only 34.30% (378/1102; P<.001) and 24.59% (271/1102; P<.001) of consumers expressed the same concerns, respectively. Physicians (137/827, 16.6%) reported less concern about the use of technology for diagnosis compared to medical students (21/235, 8.9%; P=.03) and also more frequently felt that patients owned their medical record (323/827, 39.1%; and 30/235, 12.8%, respectively; P<.001). Consumers and health professionals differ significantly and broadly in their views of emerging medical technology, with more enthusiasm and support expressed by consumers.

  7. INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF PUBLICATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: RISING THROUGH THE BASE OF WEB SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletéia de Moura Carpes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization is an alternative to business growth, allowing its exposure to international standards of products, technologies and management methods, generating significant returns for domestic transactions (STAL, 2010. The evolution of commercial transactions between the countries have brought a lot of issues to be understood, that seek to check the reflection of international activity in the individual, company and nation experiencing this context of globalization. This article was developed from the perspective of a bibliometric research, aiming to increase awareness in the study area related to International Business (International Business and determine which topics studied by the administration on this issue are being investigated further and which are most relevant (hot topics. Analysis of data held on the approaches of qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitatively analyzed the issues addressed in the publications surveyed regarding the content, keywords and relevance of topics. As regards the figures sought to investigate the following variables: total number of publications, authors, subject areas, types of documents, the sources title, year of publications, institutions, funding agencies, languages, countries and analysis of the number of times each publication was cited by the hb index and the index m. According to Hirsch (2005, the total number of articles published measures the productivity of the author, but does not measure the importance and / or impact of their publications. Already the impact of publications is measured by the number of citations that each one receives can be measured by the h-index. The survey of publications housed in the Web of Science citation index with the ISI Citation Indexes from 1997 to 2010 (14 years resulted in 5,355 jobs related to international business, which were entered, especially in the areas of business (business and management (management and the studies analyzed showed a

  8. Scientific publications in international anaesthesiology journals: a 10-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Qiu, L-X; Wu, F-X; Yang, L-Q; Sun, S; Yu, W F

    2011-03-01

    Significant growth has been seen in the field of anaesthesiology in recent decades. The current geographic distribution of the publications on anaesthesia research may be different from ten years ago. We performed this literature survey to examine the national origin of articles published in international anaesthesiology journals and to evaluate their contribution to anaesthesia research. Articles published in 18 major anaesthesiology journals from 2000 to 2009 were identified from the PubMed database and the Science Citation Index. A total of 30,191 articles were published in the selected 18 journals from 2000 to 2009. The country responsible for the largest number of articles was the United States of America (29.4%), followed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Canada, Australia and France. Denmark, Switzerland and Finland had the largest number of articles per capita. Anesthesia & Analgesia published the most number of articles from 2000 to 2009, followed by Anesthesiology, Pain and the British Journal of Anaesthesia. The numbers of clinical studies and randomised controlled trials decreased markedly from 2000 to 2009.

  9. Lessons learned from international comparative crosscultural studies on dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Hugh C

    2006-06-01

    International and crosscultural comparative studies of Alzheimer disease (AD) offer significant advantages in elucidating risk factors for the disease by providing a wider diversity of environmental exposures as well as greater genetic diversity than do studies confined to a single ethnic group in a developed country. They also present with major methodological problems. The problems and their possible solutions are discussed in this article by describing three projects involving the Cree and English-speaking residents of Manitoba, blacks from Indianapolis, Indiana, and Yoruba from Ibadan and residents of Chinese villages. In this review, the development and harmonization of a culture fair screening instrument for dementia, the CSID, is described. The advantage of a scientific paradigm that can incorporate genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions to explore the etiology of AD is presented. The importance of developing strategies for recruitment and retention in international community-based studies is emphasized as is the necessity of establishing academic partnerships between the countries. The unique opportunity provided by geopolitical and sociocultural influences to study environmental exposures is exemplified by the ongoing study of the influence of selenium levels on cognition in Chinese villagers. Results from the Indianapolis, Indiana-Ibadan dementia project are presented suggesting that the incidence of AD is lower in Yoruba than in blacks and that this lower rate may be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

  10. Comparing econometric and survey-based methodologies in measuring offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    such as the national or regional level. Most macro analyses are based on proxies and trade statistics with limitations. Drawing on unique Danish survey data, this article demonstrates how survey data can provide important insights into the national scale and impacts of offshoring, including changes of employment...

  11. Empirical treatment of bacterial keratitis: an international survey of corneal specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ariana; Schallhorn, Julie; Geske, Mike; Mannis, Mark; Lietman, Tom; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    New antibiotic agents and changing susceptibility patterns may have changed the empirical treatment of bacterial keratitis. Our objective in this study was to survey cornea specialists' practice patterns in the initial treatment of bacterial ulcers. This study consisted of a short online survey emailed to members of the Cornea Society listserv for an international sample of cornea specialists. Data collection began July 2014 and ended October 2014. A total of 1009 surveys were emailed, and we received 140 (14%) responses. The majority of US clinicians surveyed (n=83, 80%) chose fortified antibiotics empirically, with 55% (n=57) selecting fortified vancomycin and 16% (n=17) using fluoroquinolone alone. International respondents were twice as likely to use fluoroquinolone monotherapy (31%, n=11, p=0.07) and less likely to use fortified vancomycin (33%, n=12, p=0.03). Forty-five per cent (n=46) of US respondents reported that their initial antibiotic choice covered methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , compared with 22% (n=8) of international respondents (p<0.01). Overall, respondents who were concerned about availability of antibiotics and toxicity were 20.86 (p<0.001) and 7.48 (p<0.001) times more likely to choose fluoroquinolone monotherapy, respectively. If respondents' primary considerations were broad spectrum coverage or antibiotic resistance they had 7.10 (p<0.001) and 12.51 (p<0.001) times the odds of using fortified vancomycin, respectively. Practice patterns for the initial treatment of bacterial keratitis vary with clinicians in the USA being more likely to use fortified antibiotics versus fluoroquinolone monotherapy and more concerned with resistant organisms than their international peers.

  12. Designing questionnaires: healthcare survey to compare two different response scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A widely discussed design issue in patient satisfaction questionnaires is the optimal length and labelling of the answering scale. The aim of the present study was to compare intra-individually the answers on two response scales to five general questions evaluating patients’ perception of hospital care. Methods Between November 2011 and January 2012, all in-hospital patients at a Swiss University Hospital received a patient satisfaction questionnaire on an adjectival scale with three to four labelled categories (LS) and five redundant questions displayed on an 11-point end-anchored numeric scale (NS). The scales were compared concerning ceiling effect, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), individual item answers (Spearman’s rank correlation), and concerning overall satisfaction by calculating an overall percentage score (sum of all answers related to the maximum possible sum). Results The response rate was 41% (2957/7158), of which 2400 (81%) completely filled out all questions. Baseline characteristics of the responders and non-responders were similar. Floor and ceiling effect were high on both response scales, but more pronounced on the LS than on the NS. Cronbach’s alpha was higher on the NS than on the LS. There was a strong individual item correlation between both answering scales in questions regarding the intent to return, quality of treatment and the judgement whether the patient was treated with respect and dignity, but a lower correlation concerning satisfactory information transfer by physicians or nurses, where only three categories were available in the LS. The overall percentage score showed a comparable distribution, but with a wider spread of lower satisfaction in the NS. Conclusions Since the longer scale did not substantially reduce the ceiling effect, the type of questions rather than the type of answering scale could be addressed with a focus on specific questions about concrete situations instead of general questions

  13. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy

    In recent years, there has been much discussion about U.S. commercial remoteUnder the Act, the Secretary of Commerce sensing policies and how effectively theylicenses the operations of private U.S. address U.S. national security, foreignremote sensing satellite systems, in policy, commercial, and public interests.consultation with the Secretaries of Defense, This paper will provide an overview of U.S.State, and Interior. PDD-23 provided further commercial remote sensing laws,details concerning the operation of advanced regulations, and policies, and describe recentsystems, as well as criteria for the export of NOAA initiatives. It will also addressturnkey systems and/or components. In July related foreign practices, and the overall2000, pursuant to the authority delegated to legal context for trade and investment in thisit by the Secretary of Commerce, NOAA critical industry.iss ued new regulations for the industry. Licensing and Regulationsatellite systems. NOAA's program is The 1992 Land Remote Sensing Policy Act ("the Act"), and the 1994 policy on Foreign Access to Remote Sensing Space Capabilities (known as Presidential Decision Directive-23, or PDD-23) put into place an ambitious legal and policy framework for the U.S. Government's licensing of privately-owned, high-resolution satellite systems. Previously, capabilities afforded national security and observes the international obligations of the United States; maintain positive control of spacecraft operations; maintain a tasking record in conjunction with other record-keeping requirements; provide U.S. Government access to and use of data when required for national security or foreign policy purposes; provide for U.S. Government review of all significant foreign agreements; obtain U.S. Government approval for any encryption devices used; make available unenhanced data to a "sensed state" as soon as such data are available and on reasonable cost terms and conditions; make available unenhanced data as requested

  14. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Weiss

    Full Text Available Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers.432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62% participating. The survey assessed participants' (A demographic and global health background, (B perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D potential solutions.Thirty-four (of 66 barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale, Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness.That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional

  15. Management of postoperative pseudomeningoceles: an international survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Albert; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Steinbok, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Pseudomeningoceles are common complications after posterior fossa and intradural spinal surgery and are often asymptomatic. Management guidelines are lacking, and anecdotally, we have encountered radically different suggested treatments varying from observation to immediate surgical intervention. The goal of this study was to determine the prevailing opinions among neurosurgeons on the management of this condition. Neurosurgeons from around the world were invited via an International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ISPN) and Neurosurgery ListServ e-blast to participate in a 33-question survey on the management of pseudomeningoceles, presented as simulated scenarios after posterior fossa and spinal intradural surgery. Two hundred forty-one responses were obtained. Pseudomeningoceles after posterior fossa tumor resection, in the absence of hydrocephalus, were typically managed nonoperatively for 7 to 14 days before re-exploration. Only 0.5 % of the surgeons would offer upfront repair of the pseudomeningocele. In the presence of hydrocephalus, 48 % of the neurosurgeons intervene initially with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion and would change therapy if the lesion did not resolve in 2 to 4 days. Ninety percent of the surgeons manage spinal pseudomeningoceles nonoperatively for 7-14 days before re-exploration is considered. The most common steps taken to prevent pseudomeningoceles are watertight closure, tissue glues, and duroplasty. The present zeitgeist suggests that, in the absence of hydrocephalus, initial observation is appropriate for cranial and spinal pseudomeningoceles. Operative revision should be reserved for failure of conservative treatment. If hydrocephalus is present, consideration should be made for CSF diversion. This study may serve as a guideline regarding acceptable management.

  16. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  17. The All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.; Coil, A.L.; Conselice, C.; Cooper, M.; Croton,; Eisenhardt, P.; Ellis, R.; Faber, S.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke, B.; Goss, W.M.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Lick Observ. /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-07-21

    In this the first of a series of ''Letters'', we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z {approx} 1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS{sup 30} X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX{sup 31} ultraviolet (1200-2500 A), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey{sup 32} optical (3600-9000 {angstrom}), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 {angstrom}), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS{sup 33} optical (4400-8500 {angstrom}), Palomar/WIRC{sup 34} near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC{sup 35} mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA{sup 36} radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope{sup 37}. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

  18. The All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey(AEGIS) Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.P.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.C.; Coil,A.L.; Conselice, C.J.; Cooper, M.C.; Croton, D.J.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Ellis, R.S.; Faber, S.M.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke,B.F.; Goss, W.M.; Gwyn, S.; Harker, J.; Hopkins, A.M.; Huang, J.-S.; Ivison, R.J.; Kassin, S.A.; Kirby, E.N.; Koekemoer, A.M.; Koo, D.C.; Laird, E.S.; Le Floc' h, E.; Lin, L.; Lotz, J.M.; Marshall, P.J.; Martin,D.C.; Metevier, A.J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Nandra, K.; Noeske, K.G.; Papovich, C.; Phillips, A.C.; Rich,R. M.; Rieke, G.H.; Rigopoulou, D.; Salim, S.; Schiminovich, D.; Simard, L.; Smail, I.; Small,T.A.; Weiner,B.J.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Willner, S.P.; Wilson, G.; Wright, E.L.; Yan, R.

    2006-10-13

    In this the first of a series of Letters, we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z{approx}1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX ultraviolet (1200-2500 Angstroms), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey optical (3600-9000 Angstroms), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 Angstroms), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS optical (4400-8500 Angstroms), Palomar/WIRC near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

  19. Creating the perfect intern anaesthesia rotation: a survey using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This feedback will be used to improve the current intern training programme for anaesthesia and to structure the rotation according to their needs. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to Pietermaritzburg (PMB) interns who completed their anaesthesia intern rotation between 2008 and 2010. Two data sets were collected: ...

  20. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health-related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Internationalising Nordic higher education: comparing the imagined with actual worlds of international scholar-practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeri Hellstén

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This comparative case study addresses a timely issue engaging researchers involved in the internationalisation of Nordic Higher Education, in the context of Sweden and Finland. The study examines a hypothetical imaginary in the transition between university international policy statements and their understandings from the position of a globalised episteme. The investigation forms a tag-project as part of a funded large international research project examining ethical internationalism in times of global crises, involving a partnership between more than twenty higher education institutions in excess of ten countries across five continents. The data was collected using a mixed-methods design, whilst being controlled across the matched data collection period in 2013-2014. Data consisted of policy texts, surveys and interviews. The current research inquiry reports on a within and across comparative analyses of certain policy texts and follow-up interviews with university management. The results yield logical support for a global higher education imaginary driving internationalisation in ways which reveal paradoxical associations between the imagined and the real worlds of international scholar-practitioners.

  2. International survey blauwe wijting. Elke seconde een sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faessler, S.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    IJMuiden- in 2011 wordt voor het eerst de jaarlijkse blauwe wijting survey gecoördineerd door Schascha Fässler, geboren Zwitser en sinds 2009 als 'fisheries acoustics' scientist' werkzaam bij IMARES in IJmuiden. In onderstaand artikel gaat Fässler nader in op acoustics in het algemeen en de survey

  3. Alternative Forms of International Cooperation: Comparing Their Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan

    1978-01-01

    The author, an economist, discusses nine forms of international cooperation according to their strengths, and invites representatives of other disciplines to comment on international cooperation. Discusses relevant concepts and the estimation of optimal procedures for cooperation. Available from: Unipub, Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York, New…

  4. International survey of primary and revision total knee replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtz, Steven M.; Ong, Kevin L.; Lau, Edmund; Widmer, Marcel; Maravic, Milka; Gomez-Barrena, Enrique; de Pina, Maria de Fatima; Manno, Valerio; Torre, Marina; Walter, William L.; de Steiger, Richard; Geesink, Rudolph G. T.; Peltola, Mikko; Roeder, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is currently the international standard of care for treating degenerative and rheumatologic knee joint disease, as well as certain knee joint fractures. We sought to answer the following three research questions: (1) What is the international variance in primary and

  5. Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Geneva based Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), there are ..... adequate machinery in place to address IDPs issues and the organizations ... could be deduced that the mandates and organizational structures of the National.

  6. Sources of International Courts' Legitimacy: A comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godzimirska, Zuzanna; Creamer, Cosette

    Despite ample scholarship on the legitimacy of international legal institutions, existing studies on international courts (ICs) tend to adopt normative or deductive approaches to specify their legitimacy and assess its effects. Very few adopt empirical or inductive approaches and examine the reas......Despite ample scholarship on the legitimacy of international legal institutions, existing studies on international courts (ICs) tend to adopt normative or deductive approaches to specify their legitimacy and assess its effects. Very few adopt empirical or inductive approaches and examine...... the reasons why an IC is considered more or less legitimate in the eyes of a court’s constituents. This paper addresses this scholarly gap by identifying the sources of ICs’ legitimacy within the expressed views of one category of constituents: a court’s member states. Although we emphasize the importance...

  7. Sources of International Courts' Legitimacy: A comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godzimirska, Zuzanna; Creamer, Cosette

    Despite ample scholarship on the legitimacy of international legal institutions, existing studies on international courts (ICs) tend to adopt normative or deductive approaches to specify their legitimacy and assess its effects. Very few adopt empirical or inductive approaches and examine the reas......Despite ample scholarship on the legitimacy of international legal institutions, existing studies on international courts (ICs) tend to adopt normative or deductive approaches to specify their legitimacy and assess its effects. Very few adopt empirical or inductive approaches and examine...... of supply-side factors— the features, roles and practices of a court—in assessing its legitimacy, we argue that demand-side factors—namely the characteristics of the evaluating state—also largely determine the sources of an IC’s legitimacy. To support and illustrate this argument, we examine statements...... of members on the operation of three ICs with different institutional designs and roles: the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Court, and the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization. We employ supervised learning methods of text classification to identify statements...

  8. An investigation of routes to cancer diagnosis in 10 international jurisdictions, as part of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership: survey development and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, David; Vedsted, Peter; Anandan, Chantelle; Zalounina, Alina; Fourkala, Evangelia Ourania; Desai, Rakshit; Liston, William; Jensen, Henry; Barisic, Andriana; Gavin, Anna; Grunfeld, Eva; Lambe, Mats; Law, Rebecca-Jane; Malmberg, Martin; Neal, Richard D; Kalsi, Jatinderpal; Turner, Donna; White, Victoria; Bomb, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This paper describes the methods used in the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Module 4 Survey (ICBPM4) which examines time intervals and routes to cancer diagnosis in 10 jurisdictions. We present the study design with defining and measuring time intervals, identifying patients with cancer, questionnaire development, data management and analyses. Design and setting Recruitment of participants to the ICBPM4 survey is based on cancer registries in each jurisdiction. Questionnaires draw on previous instruments and have been through a process of cognitive testing and piloting in three jurisdictions followed by standardised translation and adaptation. Data analysis focuses on comparing differences in time intervals and routes to diagnosis in the jurisdictions. Participants Our target is 200 patients with symptomatic breast, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer in each jurisdiction. Patients are approached directly or via their primary care physician (PCP). Patients’ PCPs and cancer treatment specialists (CTSs) are surveyed, and ‘data rules’ are applied to combine and reconcile conflicting information. Where CTS information is unavailable, audit information is sought from treatment records and databases. Main outcomes Reliability testing of the patient questionnaire showed that agreement was complete (κ=1) in four items and substantial (κ=0.8, 95% CI 0.333 to 1) in one item. The identification of eligible patients is sufficient to meet the targets for breast, lung and colorectal cancer. Initial patient and PCP survey response rates from the UK and Sweden are comparable with similar published surveys. Data collection was completed in early 2016 for all cancer types. Conclusion An international questionnaire-based survey of patients with cancer, PCPs and CTSs has been developed and launched in 10 jurisdictions. ICBPM4 will help to further understand international differences in cancer survival by comparing time intervals and routes to cancer

  9. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Horwitz (1987 learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to understand the differences and similarities in the learning strategies of these two groups. The sample for the study comprised of 60 local and 50 international Chinese students currently enrolled at a local private college. The Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was administered as a measure of learning strategy preferences. The study reveals that language learning experiences as well as socioeconomic status impact the learning strategy adopted by both local and international Chinese students. The findings of this study point to the need to address the needs of these students in order to enhance their English language learning experience in Malaysia.

  10. Linking Errors between Two Populations and Tests: A Case Study in International Surveys in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hastedt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This simulation study was prompted by the current increased interest in linking national studies to international large-scale assessments (ILSAs such as IEA's TIMSS, IEA's PIRLS, and OECD's PISA. Linkage in this scenario is achieved by including items from the international assessments in the national assessments on the premise that the average achievement scores from the latter can be linked to the international metric. In addition to raising issues associated with different testing conditions, administrative procedures, and the like, this approach also poses psychometric challenges. This paper endeavors to shed some light on the effects that can be expected, the linkage errors in particular, by countries using this practice. The ILSA selected for this simulation study was IEA TIMSS 2011, and the three countries used as the national assessment cases were Botswana, Honduras, and Tunisia, all of which participated in TIMSS 2011. The items selected as items common to the simulated national tests and the international test came from the Grade 4 TIMSS 2011 mathematics items that IEA released into the public domain after completion of this assessment. The findings of the current study show that linkage errors seemed to achieve acceptable levels if 30 or more items were used for the linkage, although the errors were still significantly higher compared to the TIMSS' cutoffs. Comparison of the estimated country averages based on the simulated national surveys and the averages based on the international TIMSS assessment revealed only one instance across the three countries of the estimates approaching parity. Also, the percentages of students in these countries who actually reached the defined benchmarks on the TIMSS achievement scale differed significantly from the results based on TIMSS and the results for the simulated national assessments. As a conclusion, we advise against using groups of released items from international assessments in national

  11. Auditory interfaces in automated driving: an international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazilinskyy, P.; de Winter, J.C.F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated peoples’ opinion on auditory interfaces in contemporary
    cars and their willingness to be exposed to auditory feedback in automated driving. We used an Internet-based survey to collect 1,205 responses from 91 countries. The respondents stated their attitudes towards two

  12. International survey of self-reported medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...

  13. Referral patterns, diagnosis, and disease management of patients with axial spondyloarthritis: results of an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Sieper, Joachim; Elewaut, Dirk; Deodhar, Atul; Pangan, Aileen L; Dorr, Alexander P

    2014-12-01

    Recognition, diagnosis, and management of axial spondyloarthritis (axial SpA) continue to advance. The objectives of this study were to compare referrals, diagnosis, and management of axial SpA in Western Europe (WE), North America (US and Canada), and the rest of world (RoW) in academic and community rheumatology practices and to identify areas for further education. Rheumatologists responded online to the MAXIMA (Management of Axial SpA International and Multicentric Approaches) survey. Questions pertained to referral, diagnosis, and management of axial SpA. Rheumatologists (N = 809) from 56 countries completed the survey about patients with chronic back pain (≥3 months) starting before age 45 years. Responses from academic and community practice rheumatologists were generally similar. Most referrals were from primary care providers. Symptom duration of 3 years or more at referral was reported more frequently by WE and RoW than US respondents. More WE and RoW than US rheumatologists referred to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria for axial SpA in clinical practice. Rheumatologists reported prescribing disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for the management of axial SpA. Sulfasalazine was frequently prescribed across regions; methotrexate was more commonly prescribed by US rheumatologists compared with other regions. Referral patterns, diagnosis, and disease management for axial SpA were similar among WE, North America, and RoW rheumatologists and in academic/community practices, although more WE and RoW rheumatologists referred to Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria in clinical practice. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were commonly prescribed for axial SpA patients, although it was unclear whether these were prescribed for axial or peripheral symptoms.

  14. Ethical concerns of nursing reviewers: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion; Dougherty, Molly C; Freda, Margaret C; Kearney, Margaret H; Baggs, Judith G

    2010-11-01

    Editors of scientific literature rely heavily on peer reviewers to evaluate the integrity of research conduct and validity of findings in manuscript submissions. The purpose of this study was to describe the ethical concerns of reviewers of nursing journals. This descriptive cross-sectional study was an anonymous online survey. The findings reported here were part of a larger investigation of experiences of reviewers. Fifty-two editors of nursing journals (six outside the USA) agreed to invite their review panels to participate. A 69-item forced-choice and open-ended survey developed by the authors based on the literature was pilot tested with 18 reviewers before being entered into SurveyMonkey(TM). A total of 1675 reviewers responded with useable surveys. Six questions elicited responses about ethical issues, such as conflict of interest, protection of human research participants, plagiarism, duplicate publication, misrepresentation of data and 'other'. The reviewers indicated whether they had experienced such a concern and notified the editor, and how satisfied they were with the outcome. They provided specific examples. Approximately 20% of the reviewers had experienced various ethical dilemmas. Although the majority reported their concerns to the editor, not all did so, and not all were satisfied with the outcomes. The most commonly reported concern perceived was inadequate protection of human participants. The least common was plagiarism, but this was most often reported to the editor and least often led to a satisfactory outcome. Qualitative responses at the end of the survey indicate this lack of satisfaction was most commonly related to feedback provided on resolution by the editor. The findings from this study suggest several areas that editors should note, including follow up with reviewers when they identify ethical concerns about a manuscript.

  15. International survey on attitudes toward ethics in health technology assessment: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, L.E.; Willett, J.M.; Borry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to survey international health technology assessment (HTA) professionals to determine attitudes toward ethics in HTA. Methods: An exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study design was developed. The sample population (n = 636) was

  16. Comparative survey of petroleum hydrocarbons i lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, S G

    1976-11-01

    Hydrocarbon distribution in sediments from three lakes in Washington State were studied and found to be related to the level of human activity in the respective drainage basins. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination was found in surface sediments of a lake surrounded by a major city, compared to no detectable contamination in a lake located in a National Park.

  17. Creating the perfect intern anaesthesia rotation: a survey using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used to improve the current intern training programme for anaesthesia and to structure the ... The following feedback was common: more autonomy, longer duration of the anaesthesia ... Community service had a greater impact on career choice than internship. ... Community service doctors often work unsupervised and with.

  18. 76 FR 66872 - International Services Surveys: Amendments to the BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce, would conduct the survey under the International... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Economic Analysis 15 CFR Part 801 [Docket No. 110817508-1529-01...-Border Credit, Debit, and Charge Card Transactions AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce. ACTION...

  19. Developing an International Survey of Teachers' Assessment Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renken, Maggie; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Cowie, Bronwen

    teacher education into the first years as teachers across six countries. We target the nature of programmes and changes in understanding assessment purposes, practices, principles and policy. This project builds on the ACT survey of student-teacher understandings of assessment conducted over three years......Professional standards require teachers to be assessment literate - to construct, administer, and score reliable, valid assessments, communicate interpretations and use evidence to adjust teaching to support students. This project investigates student-teachers’ assessment literacy throughout...

  20. Defining Innovation in Neurosurgery: Results from an International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Mark M; Cote, David J; Muskens, Ivo S; Smith, Timothy R; Broekman, Marike L

    2018-06-01

    Innovation is a part of the daily practice of neurosurgery. However, a clear definition of what constitutes innovation is lacking and opinions vary from continent to continent, from hospital to hospital, and from surgeon to surgeon. In this study, we distributed an online survey to neurosurgeons from multiple countries to investigate what neurosurgeons consider innovative, by gathering opinions on several hypothetical cases. The anonymous survey consisted of 52 questions and took approximately 10 minutes to complete. A total of 355 neurosurgeons across all continents excluding Antarctica completed the survey. Neurosurgeons achieved consensus (>75%) in considering specific cases to be innovative, including laser resection of meningioma, focused ultrasonography for tumor, oncolytic virus, deep brain stimulation for addiction, and photodynamic therapy for tumor. Although the new dura substitute case was not considered innovative, there was consensus among neurosurgeons indicating that institutional review board approval was still necessary to maintain ethical standards. Furthermore, although 90% of neurosurgeons considered an oncolytic virus for glioblastoma multiforme to be innovative, only 78% believed that institutional review board approval was necessary before treatment. Our results indicate that innovation is a heterogeneous concept among neurosurgeons that necessitates standardization to ensure appropriate patient safety without stifling progress. We discuss both the ethical drawbacks of not having a clear definition of innovation and the challenges in achieving a unified understanding of innovation in neurosurgery and offer suggestions for uniting the field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparative Study of Student Engagement, Satisfaction, and Academic Success among International and American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Nadia; Starobin, Soko S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between student engagement, student satisfaction, and the academic success of international and American students using 2008 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) data. It was found that international students scored slightly higher than American students on enriching educational experiences and…

  2. THE SLACS SURVEY. VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gorecki, Alexia; Marshall, Philip J.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between the internal structure of early-type galaxies and their environment using 70 strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS Survey. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is used to determine two measures of overdensity of galaxies around each lens-the projected

  3. Using Cognitive Interviews to Pilot an International Survey of Principal Preparation: A Western Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Clarke, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an example of the application of the cognitive interview, a qualitative tool for pre-testing a survey instrument to check its cognitive validity, that is, whether the items mean to respondents what they mean to the item designers. The instrument is the survey used in the final phase of the International Study of Principal…

  4. Estimating international interindustry linkages : Non-survey simulations of the Asian-Pacific economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J.; Stelder, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates a recently published semi-survey international input-output table for nine East-Asian countries and the USA with four non-survey estimation alternatives. A new generalized RAS procedure is used with stepwise increasing information from both import and export statistics as

  5. International electives in neurology training: a survey of US and Canadian program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer L; Coleman, Mary E; Engstrom, John W; Mateen, Farrah J

    2014-01-14

    To ascertain the current status of global health training and humanitarian relief opportunities in US and Canadian postgraduate neurology programs. There is a growing interest among North American trainees to pursue medical electives in low- and middle-income countries. Such training opportunities provide many educational and humanitarian benefits but also pose several challenges related to organization, human resources, funding, and trainee and patient safety. The current support and engagement of neurology postgraduate training programs for trainees to pursue international rotations is unknown. A survey was distributed to all program directors in the United States and Canada (December 2012-February 2013) through the American Academy of Neurology to assess the training opportunities, institutional partnerships, and support available for international neurology electives. Approximately half of responding programs (53%) allow residents to pursue global health-related electives, and 11% reported that at least 1 trainee participated in humanitarian relief during training (survey response rate 61%, 143/234 program directors). Canadian programs were more likely to allow residents to pursue international electives than US programs (10/11, 91% vs 65/129, 50%, p = 0.023). The number of trainees participating in international electives was low: 0%-9% of residents (55% of programs) and 10%-19% of residents (21% of programs). Lack of funding was the most commonly cited reason for residents not participating in global health electives. If funding was available, 93% of program directors stated there would be time for residents to participate. Most program directors (75%) were interested in further information on global health electives. In spite of high perceived interest, only half of US neurology training programs include international electives, mostly due to a reported lack of funding. By contrast, the majority of Canadian programs that responded allow international

  6. A SURVEY OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SETHI Narayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising global competition, increasing deregulation, and introduction of innovative products have pushed financial risk management to the forefront of today's financial landscape. Identification of different types of risks and effective management of these risks in the international financial system would help to alleviate crisis, financial losses and also helpful to the long term success of all the financial institutions. The present study aims to analyze different types of risk management strategies and throws some light on challenges and opportunities regarding implementation of Basel-II in international financial system. The present paper also attempts to discuss the different methods and techniques used to measure financial risk management. There are three types of risk faced by all financial institutions: market risk, credit risk and operational risk. In commercial banking, credit risk is the biggest risk; in investment banking, its market risk; and in asset management, it’s operational risk.

  7. Funder interference in addiction research: An international survey of authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Martino, Florentine; Gross, Samantha; Curtis, Ashlee; Mayshak, Richelle; Droste, Nicolas; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-09-01

    Scientific research is essential to the development of effective addiction treatment and drug policy. Actions that compromise the integrity of addiction science need to be understood. The aim of this study is to investigate funder (e.g. industry, government or charity) interference in addiction science internationally. Corresponding authors of all 941 papers published in an international specialist journal July 2004 to June 2009 were invited to complete a web questionnaire. A sensitivity analysis with extreme assumptions about non-respondents was undertaken. The questionnaire was completed by 322 authors (response fraction 34%), 36% (n=117) of whom had encountered at least one episode (median=3, Interquartile range=4) of funder interference in their research: 56% in Australasia, 33% in Europe, and 30% in North America. Censorship of research outputs was the most common form of interference. The wording or writing of reports and articles, as well as where, when and how findings were released were the areas in which influence was most often reported. Funder interference in addiction science appears to be common internationally. Strategies to increase transparency in the addiction science literature, including mandatory author declarations concerning the role of the funder, are necessary. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Clinical preventive services in Guatemala: a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E Corral

    Full Text Available Guatemala is currently undergoing an epidemiologic transition. Preventive services are key to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases, and smoking counseling and cessation are among the most cost-effective and wide-reaching strategies. Internal medicine physicians are fundamental to providing such services, and their knowledge is a cornerstone of non-communicable disease control.A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 to evaluate knowledge of clinical preventive services for non-communicable diseases. Interns, residents, and attending physicians of the internal medicine departments of all teaching hospitals in Guatemala completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' responses were contrasted with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MoH prevention guidelines and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommendations. Analysis compared knowledge of recommendations within and between hospitals.In response to simulated patient scenarios, all services were recommended by more than half of physicians regardless of MoH or USPSTF recommendations. Prioritization was adequate according to the MoH guidelines but not including other potentially effective services (e.g. colorectal cancer and lipid disorder screenings. With the exception of colorectal and prostate cancer screening, less frequently recommended by interns, there was no difference in recommendation rates by level.Guatemalan internal medicine physicians' knowledge on preventive services recommendations for non-communicable diseases is limited, and prioritization did not reflect cost-effectiveness. Based on these data we recommend that preventive medicine training be strengthened and development of evidence-based guidelines for low-middle income countries be a priority.

  9. Comparative analysis of international environmental liability arising from maritime accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luciana Vianna; Victorio, Glaucia Lima [Trench, Rossi e Watanabe Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The oil industry is dynamic and global, being performed worldwide and by investors from several countries. In this sense, it is essential for investors to be informed of the legal frameworks in target countries and the differences between the legislation in those countries and their own legal systems. In this article, we will analyze the main differences on the environmental liability in Brazil, which is, currently, one of the most attractive markets in the oil and gas industry, the United States of America (US), the largest consumer of oil and the third producer around the world; and the European Union (EU) which concentrates the second largest global consumer, besides being the main player in the international and diplomatic relationships. Thus, the present paper, without the intent to exhaust the subject matter, aims at presenting comparisons between the legal environment of the three main players in the international oil and gas scenario, specifying not only the legal aspects of each of them, but also outlining the economic impacts generated over business investors from the oil industry, determining that although the differences in the basis of legal framework, all players have presented the liability and the duty to compensate. (author)

  10. Survey sustainability Biomass. Appendix. Results of the international respondents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsma, G.C.; Groot, M.I.

    2006-06-15

    As part of an array of strategies to combat climate change, biomass is being used increasingly as a substitute for fossil fuels. It is important that the sustainability benefits thus accruing to the Netherlands are not at the expense of sustainable development in producer countries. Against this background the 'Sustainable biomass imports' project group is developing a set of criteria for evaluating the sustainability of biomass projects. To assess support for such criteria, CE conducted an internet survey among the various stakeholders (NGOs, industry, government), drawing a total of 104 responses. This report presents all the results and conclusions of the survey, for each category of stakeholders and overall. Among the most striking conclusions are the following: The majority of respondents see a sustainability audit on biomass as feasible, provided the sustainability criteria are adequate for the purpose (68%); Almost all the respondents are of the opinion that such sustainability criteria should apply to all applications of biomass (90%); On the issue of whether these criteria should vary according to the producer region concerned, respondents were divided (50% for, 50% against); Many NGOs state there should be different sustainability criteria in force for different biomass flows (50%), in contrast to industry, which argues for a uniform set of criteria for all flows; Most respondents hold that any biomass criteria should apply to both subsidised and unsubsidised projects; At the same time, a sizable majority of respondents state that subsidisation of biomass projects should depend on the degree of sustainability (72%) and in particular on the CO2 emission cuts achieved, this being regarded as the single most important factor; When it comes to the issue of GMO, opinions differ markedly between NGOs and industry, with some 75% of NGOs wanting this aspect included, but only 10% of industry; Respondents also commented on a number of additional issues

  11. Burnout and distress among internal medicine program directors: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Colin P; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Swenson, Sara L; McDonald, Furman S

    2013-08-01

    Physician burnout and distress has been described in national studies of practicing physicians, internal medicine (IM) residents, IM clerkship directors, and medical school deans. However, no comparable national data exist for IM residency program directors. To assess burnout and distress among IM residency program directors, and to evaluate relationships of distress with personal and program characteristics and perceptions regarding implementation and consequences of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) regulations. The 2010 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM) Annual Survey, developed by the APDIM Survey Committee, was sent in August 2010 to the 377 program directors with APDIM membership, representing 99.0 % of the 381 United States categorical IM residency programs. The 2010 APDIM Annual Survey included validated items on well-being and distress, including questions addressing quality of life, satisfaction with work-life balance, and burnout. Questions addressing personal and program characteristics and perceptions regarding implementation and consequences of ACGME regulations were also included. Of 377 eligible program directors, 282 (74.8 %) completed surveys. Among respondents, 12.4 % and 28.8 % rated their quality of life and satisfaction with work-life balance negatively, respectively. Also, 27.0 % reported emotional exhaustion, 10.4 % reported depersonalization, and 28.7 % reported overall burnout. These rates were lower than those reported previously in national studies of medical students, IM residents, practicing physicians, IM clerkship directors, and medical school deans. Aspects of distress were more common among younger program directors, women, and those reporting greater weekly work hours. Work-home conflicts were common and associated with all domains of distress, especially if not resolved in a manner effectively balancing work and home responsibilities. Associations with program characteristics

  12. International conference on comparative assessments of solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.

    1994-02-01

    Many regions in the world which lack fossil fuel resources but possess ample sunshine seek to identify near-term solar technologies capable of gradually replacing their fuel imports in cost-effective fashion. The conference addresses the following topics: technical and economical studies specifying their underlying basic assumption, methods and rules for evaluation in order to enable meaningful comparison between different technologies and systems. Detailed delineation of numerical and graphical representations, critical analysis and comparison between simulations, and test validity. Generalized performance indicators for systems and subsystems, problems of measuring and evaluating physical parameters, of terminology and conceptual tools for comparative evaluations. Advances in research development, engineering and field performance, including implications pertaining to comparative assessments and definitions of criteria and standards helpful to comparative evaluation. Assessments of the full (and hidden) cost of fossil energies as compared to solar, including environmental costs. Cost/benefit studies for remote versus centralized systems. (ed.)

  13. Laryngotracheal morphology of Afro-Madagascan geckos: a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, A P; Rittenhouse, D R; Bauer, A M

    2000-09-01

    The structural variation of the gekkonid larynx and trachea is examined within a representative subset of 17 species of Afro-Madagascan gekkonines to determine if there are underlying morphological correlates of vocalization. The documented morphology is compared to that of the tokay (Gekko gecko), which has previously been described. Data were obtained from gross anatomical observations, scanning electron microscopy, histological examinations and computer-generated, three-dimensional, skeletal reconstructions. Although there is limited variation among most Afro-Malagasy gekkonids, the larynges of Ptenopus garrulus and Uroplatus fimbriatus exhibit marked degrees of differentiation, suggesting that laryngeal and tracheal morphology may account for the documented vocal variability of gekkonid lizards. Cladistic analyses indicated that parallel adaptive trends characterize the laryngeal morphology of the examined taxa. Alternate designs and refinements to a model of gekkonid phonation are presented, and the evolution of acoustic communication in the Gekkonidae is considered. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Exploring propositions about perceptions of energy security: An international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Valentine, Scott Victor; Jain Bambawale, Malavika; Brown, Marilyn A.; Fátima Cardoso, Terezinha de; Nurbek, Sayasat; Suleimenova, Gulimzhan; Li Jinke; Xu Yang; Jain, Anil; Alhajji, A.F.; Zubiri, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how energy users from government, industry, civil society, and academia perceive of energy security challenges. It also analyzes how demographic characteristics influence such perceptions, and how geography, economic structure, modes of domestic energy production, and culture shape energy security priorities. Its primary source of data is a four-part survey distributed in seven languages (English, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, German, and Japanese) to 2167 respondents in Brazil, China, Germany, India, Kazakhstan, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and the United States. These countries were selected because they represent a mix of urban and rural populations, developed and developing economies, import- and export-oriented energy trading flows, communist and capitalist societies, liberalized and state-owned energy markets, and small and large geographic sizes. The survey results are used to test four propositions about energy security related to the education, age, occupation, and gender of respondents, as well five propositions about national energy priorities and the interconnected attributes of security of supply, energy efficiency, energy research and development, energy trade, diversification and decentralization, affordability, environmental quality, climate change, and energy governance.

  15. International variation in adherence to referral guidelines for suspected cancer: a secondary analysis of survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Brian D; Mant, David; Neal, Richard D; Hart, Nigel; Hamilton, Willie; Shinkins, Bethany; Rubin, Greg; Rose, Peter W

    2016-02-01

    Variation in cancer survival persists between comparable nations and appears to be due, in part, to primary care practitioners (PCPs) having different thresholds for acting definitively in response to cancer-related symptoms. To explore whether cancer guidelines, and adherence to them, differ between jurisdictions and impacts on PCPs' propensity to take definitive action on cancer-related symptoms. A secondary analysis of survey data from six countries (10 jurisdictions) participating in the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. PCPs' responses to five clinical vignettes presenting symptoms and signs of lung (n = 2), colorectal (n = 2), and ovarian cancer (n = 1) were compared with investigation and referral recommendations in cancer guidelines. Nine jurisdictions had guidelines covering the two colorectal vignettes. For the lung vignettes, although eight jurisdictions had guidelines for the first, the second was covered by a Swedish guideline alone. Only the UK and Denmark had an ovarian cancer guideline. Survey responses of 2795 PCPs (crude response rate: 12%) were analysed. Guideline adherence ranged from 20-82%. UK adherence was lower than other jurisdictions for the lung vignette covered by the guidance (47% versus 58%; P nations and poor guideline adherence does not explain differential survival. Guidelines that fail to cover high-risk presentations or that recommend non-definitive action may reduce definitive diagnostic action. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  16. International Activities in Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarov, E. [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1969-11-15

    During the past 10 years special attention has been paid to the problem of late effects of radiation and in particular to radiation-induced carcinogenesis and leukaemogenesis. In the UNSCEAR report of 1958-1962 this.problem was mentioned as being of considerable importance from the point of view of estimation of risk to the population from environmental radiation. In 1964 a special report was prepared by UNSCEAR on radiation- induced carcinogenesis. In the ICRP publication No. 8, a chapter dealing with assessment of somatic risks discussed the problem of leukaemia and other neoplasms and particularly stressed the problem of thyroid carcinoma-and bone sarcoma. WHO panels of experts discussed the problem in 1960-1966 and made some recommendations for international activity in this field. In spite of the amount of scientific attention that has been given in recent years to experimental radiobiology in animals and lower forms, it has become abundantly clear that information directly applicable to humans is woefully inadequate and that there is a desperate need for carefully collected data from man on which to base public health planning and day to day work in radiation protection. This has long been recognized in the technical program of WHO in the emphasis given to the practical importance of epidemiology in human radiobiology and the degree to which it depends upon international collaboration.

  17. International survey of academic library data curation practices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This survey looks closely at the data curation practices of a sample of research-oriented universities largely from the USA, the UK, Australia and Scandinavia but also including India, South Africa and other countries. The study looks at how major universities are assisting faculty in developing data curation and management plans for large scale data projects, largely in the sciences and social sciences, often as pre-conditions for major grants. The report looks at which departments of universities are shouldering the data curation burden, the personnel involved in the efforts, the costs involved, types of software used, difficulties in procuring scientific experiment logs and other hard to obtain information, types of training offered to faculty, and other issues in large scale data management.

  18. International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Education: Are We Obsessed with the International Rankings of Measured Educational Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Li, Hui-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers, policy makers, educators and the general public, who have an interest in mathematics education in different countries, pay a great deal of attention to the results from international comparative studies. Of great interest to the international studies is the results of Eastern students consistently achieving…

  19. Social Security System in India: An International Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Rupak Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Surajit

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines selected components of social security system in India and compares them with their OECD counterparts. Historically, the Indian policy makers have viewed the pension system as a welfare measure and therefore, it lacks in financial professionalism, diversification, and in the belief that pension funds can also be treated as an asset. The Indian system is biased towards the organized formal sector as workers in this sector are benefitted with the provisions under various lab...

  20. Smoothing internal migration age profiles for comparative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age patterns are a key dimension to compare migration between countries and over time. Comparative metrics can be reliably computed only if data capture the underlying age distribution of migration. Model schedules, the prevailing smoothing method, fit a composite exponential function, but are sensitive to function selection and initial parameter setting. Although non-parametric alternatives exist, their performance is yet to be established. Objective: We compare cubic splines and kernel regressions against model schedules by assessingwhich method provides an accurate representation of the age profile and best performs on metrics for comparing aggregate age patterns. Methods: We use full population microdata for Chile to perform 1,000 Monte-Carlo simulations for nine sample sizes and two spatial scales. We use residual and graphic analysis to assess model performance on the age and intensity at which migration peaks and the evolution of migration age patterns. Results: Model schedules generate a better fit when (1 the expected distribution of the age profile is known a priori, (2 the pre-determined shape of the model schedule adequately describes the true age distribution, and (3 the component curves and initial parameter values can be correctly set. When any of these conditions is not met, kernel regressions and cubic splines offer more reliable alternatives. Conclusions: Smoothing models should be selected according to research aims, age profile characteristics, and sample size. Kernel regressions and cubic splines enable a precise representation of aggregate migration age profiles for most sample sizes, without requiring parameter setting or imposing a pre-determined distribution, and therefore facilitate objective comparison.

  1. 76 FR 76029 - International Services Surveys: Amendments to the BE-120, Benchmark Survey of Transactions in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... amended regulations for the BE-120 include both definition changes and the addition of three schedules to better collect data in accordance with new international economic accounting standards. In addition, this.... The revised [[Page 76030

  2. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254

  3. Auditory interfaces in automated driving: an international survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Bazilinskyy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated peoples’ opinion on auditory interfaces in contemporary cars and their willingness to be exposed to auditory feedback in automated driving. We used an Internet-based survey to collect 1,205 responses from 91 countries. The respondents stated their attitudes towards two existing auditory driver assistance systems, a parking assistant (PA and a forward collision warning system (FCWS, as well as towards a futuristic augmented sound system (FS proposed for fully automated driving. The respondents were positive towards the PA and FCWS, and rated the willingness to have automated versions of these systems as 3.87 and 3.77, respectively (on a scale from 1 = disagree strongly to 5 = agree strongly. The respondents tolerated the FS (the mean willingness to use it was 3.00 on the same scale. The results showed that among the available response options, the female voice was the most preferred feedback type for takeover requests in highly automated driving, regardless of whether the respondents’ country was English speaking or not. The present results could be useful for designers of automated vehicles and other stakeholders.

  4. Hot topics in venous ulcer treatment: an international survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ricci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compression is the most effective treatment to promote skin ulcer healing, although there are as many different methods of performing a leg compression as the number of phlebologists, each one having personal tricks, solutions, habits. Conversely, though dressings may be done in different ways, none is considered the standard solution. We asked few (18 questions to physicians involved in this field, in Italy and abroad, looking for some common feature. The analysis of 100 replies indicated the average treatment: compression made by multilayer bandage when edema is present, knee long stocking when edema is removed, mostly based on patient’s agreement. Escharectomy should be done when ulcer bed is covered by necrotic tissue. Advanced wound care is used, with dressing changed several times a week. For highly exuding ulcers, a specific dressing is used or frequent changing is performed. The treatment in early stage of disease is done by the physician while subsequently the dressings may be performed by the patient himself, nurses or doctors. Usually no medical treatments are associated. The cost of a single dressing is often lower than 10 Euro, without any reimbursement. The compression devices aren’t reimbursed as well. The expected compression pressure is 30/40 mm Hg. Daytime compression is not reduced at night-time. The patient is always invited to walk. The same compression is used if the ABPI is <1. However the survey shows that several variations in the cookbook may occur, sometimes even contradictory.

  5. Comparative research of international exchange of plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known events which had taken place in our country over the period 1989-2001 provoked adverse effects on foreign trade exchange of the total economy, agriculture and commodities of plant origin. These effects and changes were analyzed using corresponding indices for the sub periods 1989-1992 and 1998-2001. The foreign trade exchange balance was substantially negative in both sub periods over the analyzed period showing an aggravating trend. Export covering import declined from 78.09% to only 47.71%. The positive balance of exchange of agricultural, especially commodities of plant origin in the first four years was turned into a negative balance of exchange in the second four years. Export covering import at the agricultural level declined from 164.79% to 78.58% and at the level of commodities of plant origin from 201,76% to 87.35%. There was a significant disturbance of commodity and regional structure exchange. The share of agriculture in the total export of the country was raised from 13.82% to 18.16%. The share of plant originating commodities in the total export of agriculture was raised from 71,96% to 86,34%. Basic agricultural products predominated in the export. In addition, in the domestic export the share of developed countries decreased which contributed to poor export results and increased the import dependence of the country. Considering the above said, the need arises to increase substantially agricultural production, i.e. commodities of plant origin. The structure and output of these productions should meet the needs of both domestic and foreign markets. International standards need to be applied in order to take hold of new foreign markets, exporting high technology processed products, using intensive and efficient promotive activities. Subsequently, greater investments and a planned production are needed, liberalization and especially the system of import control in foreign trade exchange of agricultural products, i

  6. An international effort to compare gas hydrate reservoir simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, J.W. [Akron Univ., Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Math; Moridis, G.J. [California Univ., Berkely, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div., Lawrence Berkely National Lab.; Wilson, S.J. [Ryder Scott Co., Denver, CO (United States); Kurihara, M. [Japan Oil Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); White, M.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Hydrology Group, Richland, WA (United States); Masuda, Y. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Geosystem Engineering; Anderson, B.J. [National Energy Technology Lab., Morgantown, WV (United States)]|[West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Collett, T.S. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Hunter, R.B. [ASRC Energy Services, Anchorage, AK (United States); Narita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, MEthane hydrate Research Lab., Sapporo (Japan); Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Rose, K.; Boswell, R. [National Energy Technology Lab., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, 5 different gas hydrate production scenarios were modeled by the CMG STARS, HydateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD and the TOUGH+HYDRATE reservoir simulators for comparative purposes. The 5 problems ranged in complexity from 1 to 3 dimensional with radial symmetry, and in horizontal dimensions of 20 meters to 1 kilometer. The scenarios included (1) a base case with non-isothermal multi-fluid transition to equilibrium, (2) a base case with gas hydrate (closed-domain hydrate dissociation), (3) dissociation in a 1-D open domain, (4) gas hydrate dissociation in a one-dimensional radial domain, similarity solutions, (5) gas hydrate dissociation in a two-dimensional radial domain. The purpose of the study was to compare the world's leading gas hydrate reservoir simulators in an effort to improve the simulation capability of experimental and naturally occurring gas hydrate accumulations. The problem description and simulation results were presented for each scenario. The results of the first scenario indicated very close agreement among the simulators, suggesting that all address the basics of mass and heat transfer, as well as overall process of gas hydrate dissociation. The third scenario produced the initial divergence among the simulators. Other differences were noted in both scenario 4 and 5, resulting in significant corrections to algorithms within several of the simulators. The authors noted that it is unlikely that these improvements would have been identified without this comparative study due to a lack of real world data for validation purposes. It was concluded that the solution for gas hydrate production involves a combination of highly coupled fluid, heat and mass transport equations combined with the potential for formation or disappearance of multiple solid phases in the system. The physical and chemical properties of the rocks containing the gas hydrate depend on the amount of gas hydrate present in the system. Each modeling and

  7. International survey on the management of esophageal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Augusto; Eaton, Simon; Hoellwarth, Michael E; Puri, Prem; Tovar, Juan; Fasching, Guenter; Bagolan, Pietro; Lukac, Marija; Wijnen, Rene; Kuebler, Joachim F; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Rintala, Risto; Pierro, Agostino

    2014-02-01

    Because many aspects of the management of esophageal atresia (EA) are still controversial, we evaluated the practice patterns of this condition across Europe. A survey was completed by 178 delegates (from 45 [27 European] countries; 88% senior respondents) at the EUPSA-BAPS 2012. Approximately 66% of respondents work in centers where more than five EA repairs are performed per year. Preoperatively, 81% of respondents request an echocardiogram, and only 43% of respondents routinely perform preoperative bronchoscopy. Approximately 94% of respondents prefer an open approach, which is extrapleural in 71% of respondents. There were no differences in use of thoracoscopy between Europeans (10%) and non-Europeans (11%, p = nonsignificant). Approximately 60% of respondents measure the gap intraoperatively. A transanastomotic tube (90%) and chest drain (69%) are left in situ. Elective paralysis is adopted by 56% of respondents mainly for anastomosis tension (65%). About 72% of respondents routinely request a contrast study on postoperative day 7 (2-14). Approximately 54% of respondents use parenteral nutrition, 40% of respondents start transanastomotic feeds on postoperative day 1, and 89% of respondents start oral feeds after postoperative day 5. Pure EA: 46% of respondents work in centers that repair two or more than two pure EA a year. About 60% of respondents opt for delayed primary anastomosis at 3 months (1-12 months) with gastrostomy formation without esophagostomy. Anastomosis is achieved with open approach by 85% of respondents. About 47% of respondents attempt elongation of esophageal ends via Foker technique (43%) or with serial dilations with bougies (41%). Approximately 67% of respondents always attempt an anastomosis. Gastric interposition is the commonest esophageal substitution. Many aspects of EA management are lacking consensus. Minimally invasive repair is still sporadic. We recommend establishment of an EA registry. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New

  8. Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Over 200 volunteers were recruited through Newspaper advertisements and other means to measure the BMD of the Lumbar Spine, Femoral Neck and Whole Body of normal healthy Canadians from the Toronto Area. All these people were carefully interviewed by trained scientists or medical personnel with respect to their medical history, life style and habits. Persons with histories that will affect bone mineral status were excluded from the study. The resulting study population consisted of 137 persons. The data was used to examine, using statistical methods, the parameters which determine bone mineral status of normal persons. The DEXA and In-vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) data on the same persons were compared. Further, the data was used to determine the age at which peak BMD is attained in this normal population. The Measurements were made using a DEXA instrument made by Hologic Inc., Model 1000 W. (author)

  9. Internal Structure Quality Control of Solid Pharmaceuticals. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative investigation by spectral and thermal analysis in order to asses a number of characteristics of different varieties ofrawmaterials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen. The different dissolution behavior of two ursodeoxycholic acid pharmaceutical product by crystallinity pattern was investigated. Methods: Raw materials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen were used. IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis were applied. Results: The results show no crystallinitydifferences for different batches of the tested drugs. No solid solid transition was proved during sample preparation for transmission IR analysis. Conclusions: A combination of two more affordabletests by IR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry lead to the same results as X-Ray diffraction analysis for crystallinity similarity assessment of the studied substances. The dissolution differences of test drugs were not related to the polymorphism of the raw materials.

  10. INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF PUBLICATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: RISING THROUGH THE BASE OF WEB SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Carpes, Aletéia de Moura; Velter, Aline Nadalin; Scherer, Flavia Luciane; Lütz, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Internationalization is an alternative to business growth, allowing its exposure to international standards of products, technologies and management methods, generating significant returns for domestic transactions (STAL, 2010). The evolution of commercial transactions between the countries have brought a lot of issues to be understood, that seek to check the reflection of international activity in the individual, company and nation experiencing this context of globalization. This article was...

  11. Pharmacological, psychological, and patient education interventions for patients with neck pain: results of an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesso, Lisa C; Gross, Anita R; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, David M; Santaguida, P Lina

    2015-01-01

    Examination of practice patterns compared to existing evidence identifies knowledge to practice gaps. To describe the utilization of pharmacological, patient education, primary psychological interventions and relaxation therapies in patients with neck pain by clinicians. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the use of these interventions amongst 326 clinicians treating patients with neck pain. Nineteen countries participated. Results were analyzed by usage amongst physical therapists (39%) and chiropractors (35%), as they were the predominant respondents. Patient education (95%) and relaxation therapies (59%) were the most utilized interventions. Tests of subgroup differences determined that physical therapists used patient education significantly more than chiropractors. Use of medications and primary psychological interventions were reported by most to be outside of scope of practice. The high rate of patient education is consistent with supporting evidence. However, usage of relaxation therapies is contrary to evidence suggesting no benefit for improved pain or function for chronic neck pain. This survey indicates that patient education and relaxation therapies are common treatments provided by chiropractors and physical therapists for patients with neck pain. Future research should address gaps associated with variable practice patterns and knowledge translation to reduce usage of interventions shown to be ineffective.

  12. Social Media in Health Science Education: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason

    2017-01-04

    Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students' opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Data were collected from the Universitas 21 "Use of social media in health education" survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media "almost always" reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education. ©Elizabeth O'Sullivan, Emily Cutts, Sushma Kavikondala, Alejandra Salcedo, Karan D'Souza, Martin Hernandez-Torre, Claire Anderson, Agnes Tiwari, Kendall

  13. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Fischer, Mary J; Capoferro, Chiara

    2006-12-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner's migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman's own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings.

  14. Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.; Sturtridge, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    In-Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) are routinely used in our laboratory for clinical and research investigation of Bone Mineral Content (BMC) and Bone Mineral Density (BMD in g/sq.cm). These two techniques differ in many respects. IVNAA is an established technique where 49 Ca radioisotope induced by the 48 Ca(n,gamma) 49 Ca reaction is measured to determine BMC. In DEXA, two X-rays of different energies are used and based on the known attenuation characteristics of bone and soft tissue and the measured attenuated signals, the BMC is calculated. Very little radiation dose (<0.1 mSv) is given in DEXA compared to IVNAA (3 to 5 mSv). Site specific information can be obtained in the former. Although DEXA is easier to use both the techniques are in use in the investigation of Osteopenia. The BMD, a clinical useful parameter, is a function of age and not height. The body calcium content determined by IVNAA is a function of height and not age. These differences are not yet clearly understood. Work is underway to determine the influence of several factors e.g. age, weight on BMD. We are also conducting experiments to determine the peak BMC and BMD of Canadians. The role of various life styles e.g. exercise, diet, ethnicity are being investigated as a determinant of BMD and BMC. Also the effects and safety of many drugs in the treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis are also being studied. (author)

  15. Comparing web and mail responses in a mixed mode survey in college alcohol use research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Diez, Alison; Boyd, Carol J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Weitzman, Elissa R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This exploratory study examined potential mode effects (web versus U.S. mail) in a mixed mode design survey of alcohol use at eight U.S. colleges. Methods Randomly selected students from eight U.S. colleges were invited to participate in a self-administered survey on their alcohol use in the spring of 2002. Data were collected initially by web survey (n =2619) and non-responders to this mode were mailed a hardcopy survey (n =628). Results College students who were male, living on-campus and under 21 years of age were significantly more likely to complete the initial web survey. Multivariate analyses revealed few substantive differences between survey modality and alcohol use measures. Conclusions The findings from this study provide preliminary evidence that web and mail surveys produce comparable estimates of alcohol use in a non-randomized mixed mode design. The results suggest that mixed mode survey designs could be effective at reaching certain college sub-populations and improving overall response rate while maintaining valid measurement of alcohol use. Web surveys are gaining popularity in survey research and more work is needed to examine whether these results can extend to web surveys generally or are specific to mixed mode designs. PMID:16460882

  16. The internal medicine clerkship and ambulatory learning experiences: results of the 2010 clerkship directors in internal medicine survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Amy; Papp, Klara K; Torre, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Education in the ambulatory setting should be an integral part of undergraduate medical education. However, previous studies have shown education in this setting has been lacking in medical school. Ambulatory education occurs on some internal medicine clerkships. The extent of this education is unclear. The purpose of this survey was to assess the structure, curriculum, assessment methods, and barriers to implementation of ambulatory education on the internal medicine clerkship. An annual survey of institutional members of the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM) was done in April 2010. The data were anonymous and descriptive statistics were used to summarize responses. Free text results were analyzed using qualitative techniques. The response rate was 75%. The majority of respondents had a required ambulatory component to the clerkship. Ambulatory experiences distinct from the inpatient internal medicine experience were common (46%). Integration with either the inpatient experiences or other departmental clerkships also occurred. The majority of ambulatory educational experiences were with generalists (74%) and/or subspecialists (45%). The most common assessment tool was the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) ambulatory shelf exam. Thematic analysis of the question about how practice based learning was taught elicited four major themes: Not taught; taught in the context of learning evidence based medicine; taught while learning chronic disease management with quality improvement; taught while learning about health care finance. Barriers to implementation included lack of faculty and financial resources. There have been significant increases in the amount of time dedicated to ambulatory internal medicine. The numbers of medical schools with ambulatory internal medicine education has increased. Integration of the ambulatory experiences with other clerkships such as family medicine occurs. Curriculum was varied but difficulties with dissemination

  17. Survey indicated that core outcome set development is increasingly including patients, being conducted internationally and using Delphi surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggane, Alice M; Brading, Lucy; Ravaud, Philippe; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-02-17

    There are numerous challenges in including patients in a core outcome set (COS) study, these can vary depending on the patient group. This study describes current efforts to include patients in the development of COS, with the aim of identifying areas for further improvement and study. Using the COMET database, corresponding authors of COS projects registered or published from 1 January 2013 to 2 February 2017 were invited via a personalised email to participate in a short online survey. The survey and emails were constructed to maximise the response rate by following the academic literature on enhancing survey responses. Personalised reminder emails were sent to non-responders. This survey explored the frequency of patient input in COS studies, who was involved, what methods were used and whether or not the COS development was international. One hundred and ninety-two COS developers were sent the survey. Responses were collected from 21 February 2017 until 7 May 2017. One hundred and forty-six unique developers responded, yielding a 76% response rate and data in relation to 195 unique COSs (as some developers had worked on multiple COSs). Of focus here are their responses regarding 162 COSs at the published, completed or ongoing stages of development. Inclusion of patient participants was indicated in 87% (141/162) of COSs in the published completed or ongoing stages and over 94% (65/69) of ongoing COS projects. Nearly half (65/135) of COSs included patient participants from two or more countries and 22% (30/135) included patient participants from five or more countries. The Delphi survey was reported as being used singularly or in combination with other methods in 85% (119/140) of projects. Almost a quarter (16/65) of ongoing studies reported using a combination of qualitative interviews, Delphi survey and consensus meeting. These findings indicated that the Delphi survey is the most popular method of facilitating patient participation, while the combination of

  18. Irish neonatal mortality statistics for 2004 and over the past 17 years: how do we compare internationally?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, P

    2012-02-01

    In the past 17 years neonatal mortality survey has provided important data on the trends in deaths of all live born infants born in Southern Ireland who are greater than 500 g birth weight and who die within the first 28 days of life. The aims of this study were to report neonatal mortality data for Southern Ireland for 2004, to examine trends in neonatal mortality over the past 17 years and compare Irish Neonatal Mortality rates to other countries around the world. The neonatal mortality rate for 2004 was 2.9\\/1000 with a corrected NMR of 1.9\\/1000. The response rate to the survey was 100%. Prematurity is now the leading cause of neonatal mortality representing a change from previous years. Deaths related to asphyxia have remained largely unchanged. When compared to international figures Ireland compares favourably to other countries around the world.

  19. Assessing experiential education factors contributing to a PGY1 residency match: Pharmacy residency program director and comparative student survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Jennifer L; Hritcko, Philip M; Feret, Brett; Yorra, Mark L; Todd, Noreen E; Kim Tanzer; Basile, Cathy; Bonaceto, Kara; Morelli, Rita; Carace, Nicole; Szumita, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    To compare and contrast experiential education perceptions of pharmacy residency program directors (RPDs) and doctor of pharmacy students in their last year of the curriculum for residency application considerations. The New England Regional Departments of Experiential Education (NERDEE) consortium developed a 17-question survey to assess residency factors, including those related to experiential education. The survey was dispersed to advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) students from six colleges/schools of pharmacy and RPDs nationwide. Students have different values on experiential preferences compared to RPDs. Sample findings include internal medicine and specialty clinical elective experiences prior to American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Midyear were extremely important to important for students, while RPDs viewed these experiences as somewhat important at best (p hinder a successful postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residency match. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative and International Education in Teacher Training Programs: The Case of North Park University in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodimas-Bartolomei, Angelyn

    2016-01-01

    For decades, scholars have claimed the importance of implementing comparative and international education courses in teacher education programs. Although there are countless benefits of doing so, information or evidence about offering comparative and international education in the teacher education curricula, is negligible. To date, it is…

  1. The Untapped Promise of Secondary Data Sets in International and Comparative Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudagr, Amita; Luschei, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this commentary is to call attention to the feasibility and importance of large-scale, systematic, quantitative analysis in international and comparative education research. We contend that although many existing databases are under- or unutilized in quantitative international-comparative research, these resources present the…

  2. Internal and external use of performance information in public organisations: Results from an international executive survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Hammerschmid (Gerhard); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); V. Štimac (Vid)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. This paper analyses determinants of public managers´ internal and external use of performance information. Using a sample of over 3100 top public sector executives in six European countries, we find evidence for significant country variations, with a more limited use of

  3. The shield of professional status: Comparing internationally educated nurses' and international medical graduates' experiences of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiterman, Elena; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2015-11-01

    This article examines the intersecting roles of gender, ethnicity, and professional status in shaping the experiences of internationally educated health professionals in Canada. The article is based on 140 semi-structured qualitative interviews with internationally trained nurses and physicians who came to Canada within past 10 years with the intention to practice their profession. Describing the challenging process of professional integration in Canada, our participants highlighted incidents of discrimination they experienced along the way. Although some of the participants from both professional groups experienced racial discrimination, the context of those experiences differed. Physicians rarely reported instances of discrimination in communication with patients or nurses. Instead, they were concerned with instances of discrimination within their own professional group. Nurses, on the other hand, reported discrimination at the hands of patients and their families as well as racialization by physicians, management, and other nurses. We conclude our article with a reflection on the role that gender and professional status play in shaping the experiences of ethnic discrimination of internationally educated health professionals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. International variation in adherence to referral guidelines for suspected cancer: a secondary analysis of survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Brian D; Mant, David; Neal, Richard D; Hart, Nigel; Hamilton, Willie; Shinkins, Bethany; Rubin, Greg; Rose, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Background Variation in cancer survival persists between comparable nations and appears to be due, in part, to primary care practitioners (PCPs) having different thresholds for acting definitively in response to cancer-related symptoms. Aim To explore whether cancer guidelines, and adherence to them, differ between jurisdictions and impacts on PCPs’ propensity to take definitive action on cancer-related symptoms. Design and setting A secondary analysis of survey data from six countries (10 jurisdictions) participating in the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Method PCPs’ responses to five clinical vignettes presenting symptoms and signs of lung (n = 2), colorectal (n = 2), and ovarian cancer (n = 1) were compared with investigation and referral recommendations in cancer guidelines. Results Nine jurisdictions had guidelines covering the two colorectal vignettes. For the lung vignettes, although eight jurisdictions had guidelines for the first, the second was covered by a Swedish guideline alone. Only the UK and Denmark had an ovarian cancer guideline. Survey responses of 2795 PCPs (crude response rate: 12%) were analysed. Guideline adherence ranged from 20–82%. UK adherence was lower than other jurisdictions for the lung vignette covered by the guidance (47% versus 58%; P <0.01) but similar (45% versus 46%) or higher (67% versus 38%; P <0.01) for the two colorectal vignettes. PCPs took definitive action least often when a guideline recommended a non-definitive action or made no recommendation. UK PCPs adhered to recommendations for definitive action less than their counterparts (P <0.01). There wasno association between jurisdictional guideline adherence and 1-year survival. Conclusion Cancer guideline content is variable between similarly developed nations and poor guideline adherence does not explain differential survival. Guidelines that fail to cover high-risk presentations or that recommend non-definitive action may reduce definitive

  5. Comparing two survey methods for estimating maternal and perinatal mortality in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Hoeuy; Heng, Yang Van; Samol, Ha; Husum, Hans

    2008-03-01

    We need solid estimates of maternal mortality rates (MMR) to monitor the impact of maternal care programs. Cambodian health authorities and WHO report the MMR in Cambodia at 450 per 100,000 live births. The figure is drawn from surveys where information is obtained by interviewing respondents about the survival of all their adult sisters (sisterhood method). The estimate is statistically imprecise, 95% confidence intervals ranging from 260 to 620/100,000. The MMR estimate is also uncertain due to under-reporting; where 80-90% of women deliver at home maternal fatalities may go undetected especially where mortality is highest, in remote rural areas. The aim of this study was to attain more reliable MMR estimates by using survey methods other than the sisterhood method prior to an intervention targeting obstetric rural emergencies. The study was carried out in rural Northwestern Cambodia where access to health services is poor and poverty, endemic diseases, and land mines are endemic. Two survey methods were applied in two separate sectors: a community-based survey gathering data from public sources and a household survey gathering data direct from primary sources. There was no statistically significant difference between the two survey results for maternal deaths, both types of survey reported mortality rates around the public figure. The household survey reported a significantly higher perinatal mortality rate as compared to the community-based survey, 8.6% versus 5.0%. Also the household survey gave qualitative data important for a better understanding of the many problems faced by mothers giving birth in the remote villages. There are detection failures in both surveys; the failure rate may be as high as 30-40%. PRINCIPLE CONCLUSION: Both survey methods are inaccurate, therefore inappropriate for evaluation of short-term changes of mortality rates. Surveys based on primary informants yield qualitative information about mothers' hardships important for the design

  6. Using Comparative International Studies for Modeling Educational Effectiveness: A Secondary Analysis of PISA-2009 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azigwe, John Bosco

    2016-01-01

    International surveys of student achievement are becoming increasingly popular with governments around the world, as they try to measure the performance of their country's education system. The main reason for this trend is the shared opinion that countries will need to be able to compete in the "knowledge economy" to assure the economic…

  7. International Energy Agency instrumented facilities survey for solar assisted low energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    Compiled are surveys outlining the instrumentation of 38 active and passive solar projects in 9 countries (Denmark, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and West Germany). After the surveys themselves are presented, the data are rearranged to compare answers from similar survey questions for each of the projects. These questions address building, solar system and instrumentation descriptions and meteorological, solar system and building system instrumentatation capabilities. (LEW)

  8. Comparing online and telephone survey results in the context of a skin cancer prevention campaign evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, L P; Pettigrew, S; Slevin, T; Strickland, M; Minto, C

    2017-03-01

    A large proportion of health promotion campaign evaluation research has historically been conducted via telephone surveys. However, there are concerns about the continued viability of this form of surveying in providing relevant and representative data. Online surveys are an increasingly popular alternative, and as such there is a need to assess the comparability between data collected using the two different methods to determine the implications for longitudinal comparisons. The present study compared these survey modes in the context of health promotion evaluation research. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviewing and an online panel. In total, 688 and 606 respondents aged between 14 and 45 years completed the online and telephone surveys, respectively. Online respondents demonstrated higher awareness of the advertisement, rated the advertisement as more personally relevant and had better behavioural outcomes compared with the telephone respondents. The results indicate significant differences between the telephone and online surveys on most measures used to assess the effectiveness of a health promotion advertising campaign. Health promotion practitioners could consider the combination of both methods to overcome the deterioration in telephone survey response rates and the likely differences in respondent outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Fundamental Concept of Crime in International Criminal Law: A Comparative Law Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective in light of the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory developed in major world legal systems on the crystallization of the substantive part...... of international criminal law. This study offers a critical overview of international and domestic jurisprudence in regards to the construal of the concept of a crime (actus reus, mens rea, defences, modes of liability) and exposes roots of confusion in international criminal law through a comprehensive...... comparative analysis of substantive criminal laws in selected legal jurisdictions....

  10. Psychometric Properties of the School Attitude Assessment Survey-Revised with International Baccalaureate High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Ferron, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In two studies (ns = 312 and 1,149) with 9- to 12-grade students in pre-International Baccalaureate (IB) and IB Diploma programs, we evaluated the reliability, factor structure, measurement invariance, and criterion-related validity of the scores from the School Attitude Assessment Survey-Revised (SAAS-R). Reliabilities of the five SAAS-R subscale…

  11. The OECD and Educational Policy Reform: International Surveys, Governance, and Policy Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis; Fazio, Xavier; Ritzen, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has increasingly influenced the nature and scope of education policies in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors around the world. Policy suggestions in these sectors primarily stem from the results of their various international surveys such as the…

  12. Towards the development of an outcome instrument for spinal trauma : An international survey of spinal surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oner, F. Cumhur; Sadiqi, Said; Lehr, A. Mechteld; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Chapman, Jens R.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: International web-based survey. OBJECTIVE.: To identify the most relevant aspects of human function and health status from the perspective of health care professionals involved in the treatment of spinal trauma patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: There is no universally accepted

  13. Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013: U.S. Technical Report. NCES 2015-010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizek, Gregory A.; Tourkin, Steve; Erberber, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This technical report is designed to provide researchers with an overview of the design and implementation of the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013. This information is meant to supplement that presented in OECD publications by describing those aspects of TALIS 2013 that are unique to the United States. Chapter 2 provides…

  14. Improving Students' Learning through School Autonomy: Evidence from the International Civic and Citizenship Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of school autonomy on multiple measures of student achievement, combining the individual data of the students participating in the International Civics and Citizenship Survey with their results in the national high stakes standardized tests at the end of eighth grade administered by the Italian National…

  15. In Defence of International Comparative Studies. on the Analytical and Explanatory Power of the Nation State in International Comparative Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmützky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is undergoing a process of globalization and new realities of a globalized higher education world are emerging. Globalization also has a profound impact on higher education research. Global and transnational topics are theoretically and empirically elaborated and seem on the rise, whereas the international comparative outlook…

  16. Care in subsequent pregnancies following stillbirth: an international survey of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, A M; Boyle, F M; Belizán, J M; Cassidy, J; Cassidy, P; Erwich, Jjhm; Farrales, L; Gross, M M; Heazell, Aep; Leisher, S H; Mills, T; Murphy, M; Pettersson, K; Ravaldi, C; Ruidiaz, J; Siassakos, D; Silver, R M; Storey, C; Vannacci, A; Middleton, P; Ellwood, D; Flenady, V

    2018-01-01

    To assess the frequency of additional care, and parents' perceptions of quality, respectful care, in pregnancies subsequent to stillbirth. Multi-language web-based survey. International. A total of 2716 parents, from 40 high- and middle-income countries. Data were obtained from a broader survey of parents' experiences following stillbirth. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and stratified by geographic region. Subgroup analyses explored variation in additional care by gestational age at index stillbirth. Frequency of additional care, and perceptions of quality, respectful care. The majority (66%) of parents conceived their subsequent pregnancy within 1 year of stillbirth. Additional antenatal care visits and ultrasound scans were provided for 67% and 70% of all parents, respectively, although there was wide variation across geographic regions. Care addressing psychosocial needs was less frequently provided, such as additional visits to a bereavement counsellor (10%) and access to named care provider's phone number (27%). Compared with parents whose stillbirth occurred at ≤ 29 weeks of gestation, parents whose stillbirth occurred at ≥ 30 weeks of gestation were more likely to receive various forms of additional care, particularly the option for early delivery after 37 weeks. Around half (47-63%) of all parents felt that elements of quality, respectful care were consistently applied, such as spending enough time with parents and involving parents in decision-making. Greater attention is required to providing thoughtful, empathic and collaborative care in all pregnancies following stillbirth. Specific education and training for health professionals is needed. More support for providing quality care in pregnancies after stillbirth is needed. Study rationale and design More than two million babies are stillborn every year. Most parents will conceive again soon after having a stillborn baby. These parents are more likely to have another stillborn baby in

  17. Comparing short versions of the AUDIT in a community-based survey of young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-10) is commonly used to monitor harmful alcohol consumption among high-risk groups, including young people. However, time and space constraints have generated interest for shortened versions. Commonly used variations are the AUDIT-C (three questions) and the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST) (four questions), but their utility in screening young people in non-clinical settings has received little attention. Methods We examined the performance of established and novel shortened versions of the AUDIT in relation to the full AUDIT-10 in a community-based survey of young people (16–29 years) attending a music festival in Melbourne, Australia (January 2010). Among those reporting drinking alcohol in the previous 12 months, the following statistics were systematically assessed for all possible combinations of three or four AUDIT items and established AUDIT variations: Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency), variance explained (R2) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (concurrent validity). For our purposes, novel shortened AUDIT versions considered were required to represent all three AUDIT domains and include item 9 on alcohol-related injury. Results We recruited 640 participants (68% female) reporting drinking in the previous 12 months. Median AUDIT-10 score was 10 in males and 9 in females, and 127 (20%) were classified as having at least high-level alcohol problems according to WHO classification. The FAST scored consistently high across statistical measures; it explained 85.6% of variance in AUDIT-10, correlation with AUDIT-10 was 0.92, and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.66. A number of novel four-item AUDIT variations scored similarly high. Comparatively, the AUDIT-C scored substantially lower on all measures except internal consistency. Conclusions Numerous abbreviated variations of the AUDIT may be a suitable alternative to the AUDIT-10 for classifying high-level alcohol problems in a

  18. Public Health Services Utilization and Its Determinants among Internal Migrants in China: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingya; Lin, Senlin; Liang, Di; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Donglan; Hou, Zhiyuan

    2017-09-01

    There have been obstacles for internal migrants in China in accessing local public health services for some time. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, and demographic characteristics and public health services utilization. Our results showed that internal migrants in more developed eastern regions used less public health services. Those with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to use public health services. The years of living in the city of residence were positively associated with the utilization of public health services. Compared to migration within the city, migration across provinces significantly reduced the probability of using health records (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90), health education (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and health education on non-communicable diseases (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) or through the Internet (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). This study concludes that public health services coverage for internal migrants has seen great improvement due to government subsidies. Internal migrants with lower socioeconomic status and across provinces need to be targeted. More attention should be given to the local government in the developed eastern regions in order to narrow the regional gaps.

  19. The strength of primary care in Europe : an international comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Bourgueil, Y.; Cartier, T.; Dedeu, T.; Hasvold, T.; Groenewegen, P.P.; et al, [No Value

    2013-01-01

    Background A suitable definition of primary care to capture the variety of prevailing international organisation and service-delivery models is lacking. Aim Evaluation of strength of primary care in Europe. Design and setting International comparative cross-sectional study performed in 2009–2010,

  20. The strength of primary care in Europe: an international comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, Dionne; Boerma, Wienke; Bourgueil, Yann; Cartier, Thomas; Dedeu, Toni; Hasvold, Toralf; Hutchinson, Allen; Lember, Margus; Oleszczyk, Marek; Rotar Pavlic, Danica; Svab, Igor; Tedeschi, Paolo; Wilm, Stefan; Wilson, Andrew; Windak, Adam; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A suitable definition of primary care to capture the variety of prevailing international organisation and service-delivery models is lacking. Evaluation of strength of primary care in Europe. International comparative cross-sectional study performed in 2009-2010, involving 27 EU member states, plus

  1. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  2. International comparative studies in mathematics education: are we obsessed with the international rankings of measured educational outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Li, Hui-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers, policy makers, educators and the general public, who have an interest in mathematics education in different countries, pay a great deal of attention to the results from international comparative studies. Of great interest to the international studies is the results of Eastern students consistently achieving higher marks among the participating countries. In recent years, we have seen a climate of intense global economic competition and a growing belief in the key role of education, which have persuaded governments to become increasingly obsessed with the international rankings of measured educational outcomes. Accordingly, educational policy is increasingly driven by national attempts to "copy" the perceived advantage associated with the educational strategies and techniques of other countries. In this note, we present a discussion of the benefits and criticisms of one of these international comparative studies: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) studies. In so doing, we attempt to call attention to a continuously growing culture of "teaching to the test" in mathematics education.

  3. International Differences in Multiple Sclerosis Health Outcomes and Associated Factors in a Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace D. Reilly

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a major cause of disability and poor quality of life (QOL. Previous studies have shown differences in MS health outcomes between countries. This study aimed to examine the associations between international regions and health outcomes in people with MS. Self-reported data were taken from the Health Outcomes and Lifestyle In a Sample of people with Multiple Sclerosis online survey collected in 2012. The 2,401 participants from 37 countries were categorized into three regions: Australasia, Europe, and North America. Differences were observed between regions in disability, physical and mental health QOL, fatigue, and depression, but most of these disappeared after adjusting for sociodemographic, disease, and lifestyle factors in multivariable regression models. However, adjusted odds for disability were higher in Europe [odds ratio (OR: 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28 to 3.67] and North America (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.51 compared to Australasia. There may be other unmeasured factors that vary between regions, including differences in access and quality of healthcare services, determining disability in MS. When assessing differences in MS health outcomes, lifestyle factors and medication use should be taken into consideration.

  4. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Callinan, Sarah; Raninen, Jonas; Pennay, Amy; Dietze, Paul M

    2018-04-01

    Survey data remain a crucial means for monitoring alcohol consumption, but there has been limited work done to ensure that surveys adequately capture changes in per-capita consumption in Australia. In this study, we explore how trends in consumption from two major Australian surveys compare with an official measure of per-capita consumption between 2001 and 2014 and examine age-specific trends in drinking. Data were from five waves of the cross-sectional National Health Survey (total n = 113 279) and 12 waves of the longitudinal Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Study (average n = 12 347). Overall and age-specific estimates of annual alcohol consumption were derived and compared with official per-capita consumption and previous analyses of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey. In terms of overall consumption, both surveys broadly reflected trends in per-capita consumption, especially the decline that has been observed since 2007/2008. Age-specific trends were broadly similar, with the recent decline in consumption clearly concentrated among teenagers and young adults. The main Australian monitoring surveys remain useful monitoring tools for alcohol consumption in Australia. There is consistent evidence that the recent declines in Australian per-capita consumption have been driven by sharp falls in drinking among young people, a trend that requires further study. [Livingston M, Callinan S, Raninen J, Pennay A, Dietze PM. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Year-End Clinic Handoffs: A National Survey of Academic Internal Medicine Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Erica; Harris, Christina; Lee, Wei Wei; Pincavage, Amber T; Ouchida, Karin; Miller, Rachel K; Chaudhry, Saima; Arora, Vineet M

    2017-06-01

    While there has been increasing emphasis and innovation nationwide in training residents in inpatient handoffs, very little is known about the practice and preparation for year-end clinic handoffs of residency outpatient continuity practices. Thus, the latter remains an identified, yet nationally unaddressed, patient safety concern. The 2014 annual Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM) survey included seven items for assessing the current year-end clinic handoff practices of internal medicine residency programs throughout the country. Nationwide survey. All internal medicine program directors registered with APDIM. Descriptive statistics of programs and tools used to formulate a year-end handoff in the ambulatory setting, methods for evaluating the process, patient safety and quality measures incorporated within the process, and barriers to conducting year-end handoffs. Of the 361 APDIM member programs, 214 (59%) completed the Transitions of Care Year-End Clinic Handoffs section of the survey. Only 34% of respondent programs reported having a year-end ambulatory handoff system, and 4% reported assessing residents for competency in this area. The top three barriers to developing a year-end handoff system were insufficient overlap between graduating and incoming residents, inability to schedule patients with new residents in advance, and time constraints for residents, attendings, and support staff. Most internal medicine programs do not have a year-end clinic handoff system in place. Greater attention to clinic handoffs and resident assessment of this care transition is needed.

  6. A Survey of Clinical Skills Evaluation Practices in Internal Medicine Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Linda L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation processes of 75 internal medicine residencies visited by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) in 1978-82 are reviewed. The methods of evaluation used by the residencies are described and compared with the findings from an earlier cycle of visits in 1972-75. (Author/MLW)

  7. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals. 71.50-3 Section 71.50-3 Shipping COAST GUARD...-3 Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam... wooden hulls must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any five year...

  8. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey : methods, COPD prevalence, and disease burden in 2012-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landis, Sarah H.; Muellerova, Hana; Mannino, David M.; Menezes, Ana M.; Han, MeiLan K.; van der Molen, Thys; Ichinose, Masakazu; Aisanov, Zaurbek; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Davis, Kourtney J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey aimed to estimate the prevalence and burden of COPD globally and to update findings from the Confronting COPD International Survey conducted in 1999-2000. Materials and methods: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

  9. International survey of methods used in health technology assessment (HTA: does practice meet the principles proposed for good research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephens JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer M Stephens,1 Bonnie Handke,2 Jalpa A Doshi3 On behalf of the HTA Principles Working Group, part of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR HTA Special Interest Group (SIG1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Medtronic Neuromodulation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Center for Evidence-Based Practice and Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAObjective: To describe research methods used internationally in health technology assessment (HTA and health-care reimbursement policies; compare the survey findings on research methods and processes to published HTA principles; and discuss important issues/trends reported by HTA bodies related to current research methods and applications of the HTA process.Methods: Representatives from HTA bodies worldwide were recruited to complete an online survey consisting of 47 items within four topics: (1 organizational information and process, (2 primary HTA methodologies and importance of attributes, (3 HTA application and dissemination, and (4 quality of HTA, including key issues. Results were presented as a comparison of current HTA practices and research methods to published HTA principles.Results: The survey was completed by 30 respondents representing 16 countries in five major regions, Australia (n = 3, Canada (n = 2, Europe (n = 17, Latin America (n = 2, and the United States (n = 6. The most common methodologies used were systematic review, meta-analysis, and economic modeling. The most common attributes evaluated were effectiveness (more commonly than efficacy, cost-effectiveness, safety, and quality of life. The attributes assessed, relative importance of the attributes, and conformance with HTA principles varied by region/country. Key issues and trends facing HTA bodies included standardizing methods for economic evaluations and grading of evidence, lack of evidence

  10. International Views of Inclusive Education: A Comparative Study of Early Childhood Educator's Perceptions in Jordan, United Arab Emirates, and the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaidi, Diala; Homidi, Moayyad; Reyes, Luis V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore and describe early childhood educators' perceptions of academic aspects and social and emotional aspects of inclusion practices. In this comparative international quantitative research an attitudinal demographic survey was distributed to 300 early childhood educators in mandated kindergartens and primary…

  11. The Future of Comparative and International Education in a Globalised World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the history and future prospects of comparative and international education with particular reference to the impact of globalisation and Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs). Connections and interactions between comparative educationists and the technologies of printing and electronic communications are examined in a historical context. The global nature of communications in comparative and international education is demonstrated both spatially and historically, using information from all regions of the world. The changing nature of technologies is noted to have broadened the audience for comparative insights. The development of textbooks, journals, conferences, international agencies, the Internet, web-based communications, and professional comparative education societies is related to the themes of communications and globalisation.

  12. Comparative Education and Research Capacity Building: Reflections on International Transfer and the Significance of Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Crossley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in comparative and international education, along with a fundamental reconceptualisation of this distinctive multidisciplinary field of study. The nature and significance of these developments are explored with particular reference to their implications for broader research capacity building initiatives worldwide. In doing so, a critique of the international transfer of globally dominant research modalities and strategies is presented--along with arguments for increased attention to context sensitivity in both international development cooperation and educational research in general. Illustrative examples that support these arguments are drawn from the author's own research, from an analysis of emergent educational policy debates in the UK, and from related studies being carried out in Malaysia. In concluding, the strategic role of comparative research traditions and perspectives in a rapidly globalizing world is highlighted, while supporting the promotion of new initiative and research centres for comparative and international education.

  13. Patellar Instability Management: A Survey of the International Patellofemoral Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Joseph N; Steinhaus, Michael E; Kalbian, Irene L; Post, William R; Green, Daniel W; Strickland, Sabrina M; Shubin Stein, Beth E

    2017-10-01

    Although patellofemoral instability is among the most prevalent knee disorders, the management of patients with this condition is complex and remains variable, given the lack of long-term, high-level clinical outcome studies to compare various operative and nonoperative modalities. To discover a consensus within treatment controversies in patellofemoral instability among experienced knee surgeons with a specific interest in the patellofemoral joint. Expert opinion; Level of evidence, 5. A 3-step modified Delphi technique was used to establish a consensus. A 34-question, case-based online survey regarding patellofemoral instability was distributed to all active members of the International Patellofemoral Study Group. Consensus statements were generated if at least 66% of the respondents agreed and then redistributed to the same panel. Modifications to the consensus statements were made based on the iterative feedback process until no discordance was encountered in the third stage. Eight consensus statements were achieved. Nonoperative management is the current standard of care for a first-time dislocation in the absence of an osteochondral fragment or loose body requiring excision (100% agreement). In patients with a first-time dislocation with an operative osteochondral fracture requiring excision or repair, patellar instability should be addressed concurrently (89% agreement). Recurrent instability should be treated surgically, with most surgeons favoring medial reconstruction (77%-86% agreement). While there is general agreement that bony procedures should be performed to correct underlying bony deformities, there is no consensus regarding the most appropriate type of procedure performed. Lateral release should not be performed in isolation for the treatment of patellar instability (89% agreement). Despite the consensus generated in this study, our current understanding remains limited by a lack of high-level evidence as well as the numerous complex variables

  14. Oral contraception and menstrual bleeding during treatment of venous thromboembolism: Expert opinion versus current practice: Combined results of a systematic review, expert panel opinion and an international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, F. A.; Schreiber, K.; Stach, K.; Ageno, W.; Middeldorp, S.; Eichinger, S.; Delluc, A.; Blondon, M.; Ay, C.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal management of oral contraception and menstrual bleeding during treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is largely unknown. We aimed to elicit expert opinion and compare that to current practice as assessed by a world-wide international web-based survey among physicians. 10

  15. The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids--an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno; Ware, Mark A; Muller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Abrams, Donald; Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, are the most important active constituents of the cannabis plant. Over recent years, cannabinoid-based medicines (CBMs) have become increasingly available to patients in many countries, both as pharmaceutical products and as herbal cannabis (marijuana). While there seems to be a demand for multiple cannabinoid-based therapeutic products, specifically for symptomatic amelioration in chronic diseases, therapeutic effects of different CBMs have only been directly compared in a few clinical studies. The survey presented here was performed by the International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines (IACM), and is meant to contribute to the understanding of cannabinoid-based medicine by asking patients who used cannabis or cannabinoids detailed questions about their experiences with different methods of intake. The survey was completed by 953 participants from 31 countries, making this the largest international survey on a wide variety of users of cannabinoid-based medicine performed so far. In general, herbal non-pharmaceutical CBMs received higher appreciation scores by participants than pharmaceutical products containing cannabinoids. However, the number of patients who reported experience with pharmaceutical products was low, limiting conclusions on preferences. Nevertheless, the reported data may be useful for further development of safe and effective medications based on cannabis and single cannabinoids.

  16. Epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1993-10-01

    This volume presents the collations tables of a six volume comparative epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose. Data are collated for the effects observed in the following irradiated groups:- Preconception irradiation, intra-uterine irradiation, childhood irradiation, adult irradiation. (UK).

  17. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e., dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.

  18. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eMann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt. Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.

  19. International Deep Planet Survey, 317 stars to determine the wide-separated planet frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicher, R.; Marois, C.; Macintosh, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Song, I.; Barman, T.; Patience, J.

    2013-09-01

    Since 2000, more than 300 nearby young stars were observed for the International Deep Planet Survey with adaptive optics systems at Gemini (NIRI/NICI), Keck (Nirc2), and VLT (Naco). Massive young AF stars were included in our sample whereas they have generally been neglected in first generation surveys because the contrast and target distances are less favorable to image substellar companions. The most significant discovery of the campaign is the now well-known HR 8799 multi-planet system. This remarkable finding allows, for the first time, an estimate of the Jovians planet population at large separations (further than a few AUs) instead of deriving upper limits. During my presentation, I will present the survey showing images of multiple stars and planets. I will then propose a statistic study of the observed stars deriving constraints on the Jupiter-like planet frequency at large separations.

  20. An International Survey of Veterinary Students to Assess Their Use of Online Learning Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Laura; Dale, Vicki H M; Powney, Sonya; Gaitskell-Phillips, Gemma H L; Short, Nick R M

    Today's veterinary students have access to a wide range of online resources that support self-directed learning. To develop a benchmark of current global student practice in e-learning, this study measured self-reported access to, and use of, these resources by students internationally. An online survey was designed and promoted via veterinary student mailing lists and international organizations, resulting in 1,070 responses. Analysis of survey data indicated that students now use online resources in a wide range of ways to support their learning. Students reported that access to online veterinary learning resources was now integral to their studies. Almost all students reported using open educational resources (OERs). Ownership of smartphones was widespread, and the majority of respondents agreed that the use of mobile devices, or m-learning, was essential. Social media were highlighted as important for collaborating with peers and sharing knowledge. Constraints to e-learning principally related to poor or absent Internet access and limited institutional provision of computer facilities. There was significant geographical variation, with students from less developed countries disadvantaged by limited access to technology and networks. In conclusion, the survey provides an international benchmark on the range and diversity in terms of access to, and use of, online learning resources by veterinary students globally. It also highlights the inequalities of access among students in different parts of the world.

  1. Gender differences in salary of internal medicine residency directors: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Lisa L; Halvorsen, Andrew J; McDonald, Furman S; Chaudhry, Saima I; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-06-01

    Whether salary disparities exist between men and women in medical education leadership roles is not known. The study objective was to determine whether salary disparities exist between male and female Internal Medicine residency program directors, and if so, to identify factors associated with the disparities and explore historical trends. The annual Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM) survey in August 2012 included items to assess the salary and demographic characteristics of program directors, which were merged with publically available program data. To assess historical trends, we used similarly obtained survey data from 2008 to 2011. The study included program directors of 370 APDIM member programs, representing 95.6% of the 387 accredited Internal Medicine training programs in the United States and Puerto Rico. Of the 370 APDIM member programs, 241 (65.1%) completed the survey, of whom 169 (70.1%) were men and 72 (29.9%) were women. Program directors' total annual salary, measured in $25,000 increments, ranged from $75,000 or less to more than $400,000. Historical trends of mode salary by gender from 2008 to 2012 were assessed. The mode salary was $200,000 to 225,000 for men and $175,000 to $200,000 for women (P = .0005). After controlling for academic rank, career in general internal medicine, and program director age, the distribution of salary remained different by gender (P = .004). Historical trends show that the difference in mode salary has persisted since 2008. Leaders in academic medical centers, residency and fellowship directors, and all faculty in medical education need to be aware that salary disparities cited decades ago persist in this sample of medical educators. Closing the gender gap will require continued advocacy for measuring and reporting salary gaps, and changing the culture of academic medical centers. Copyright © 2015 Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prepaid monetary incentives-Predictors of taking the money and completing the survey: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Kennedy, Ryan David; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-05-01

    Prepaid monetary incentives are used to address declining response rates in random-digit-dial surveys. There is concern among researchers that some respondents will accept the prepayment but not complete the survey. There is little research to understand check cashing and survey completing behaviors among respondents who receive pre-payment. Data from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Study-a longitudinal survey of smokers in Canada, the US, the UK, and Australia, were used to examine the impact of prepayment (in the form of checks, approximately $10USD) on sample profile. Approximately 14% of respondents cashed their check, but did not complete the survey, while about 14% did not cash their checks, but completed the survey. Younger adults (Canada, US), those of minority status (US), and those who had been in the survey for only two waves or less (Canada, US) were more likely to cash their checks and not complete the survey.

  3. Cross-cultural and comparative epidemiology of insomnia: the Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM), International classification of diseases (ICD) and International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Yung, Kam-Ping; Yu, Yee-Man; Kwok, Chi-Wa

    2015-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of insomnia according to symptoms, quantitative criteria, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th and 5th Edition (DSM-IV and DSM-5), International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), and International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 2nd Edition (ICSD-2), and to compare the prevalence of insomnia disorder between Hong Kong and the United States by adopting a similar methodology used by the America Insomnia Survey (AIS). Population-based epidemiological survey respondents (n = 2011) completed the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire (BIQ), a validated scale generating DSM-IV, DSM-5, ICD-10, and ICSD-2 insomnia disorder. The weighted prevalence of difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, waking up too early, and non-restorative sleep that occurred ≥3 days per week was 14.0%, 28.3%, 32.1%, and 39.9%, respectively. When quantitative criteria were included, the prevalence dropped the most from 39.9% to 8.4% for non-restorative sleep, and the least from 14.0% to 12.9% for difficulty falling asleep. The weighted prevalence of DSM-IV, ICD-10, ICSD-2, and any of the three insomnia disorders was 22.1%, 4.7%, 15.1%, and 22.1%, respectively; for DSM-5 insomnia disorder, it was 10.8%. Compared with 22.1%, 3.9%, and 14.7% for DSM-IV, ICD-10, and ICSD-2 in the AIS, cross-cultural difference in the prevalence of insomnia disorder is less than what is expected. The prevalence is reduced by half from DSM-IV to DSM-5. ICD-10 insomnia disorder has the lowest prevalence, perhaps because excessive concern and preoccupation, one of its diagnostic criteria, is not always present in people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing apples with oranges: revisiting the gender wage gap in an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Plasman; Salimata Sissoko Ndeye

    2005-01-01

    Using a rich and comparable micro-data set, we analyse international differences in gender pay gaps in the private sector for a sample of five European economies: Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy and Spain. Using different methods, we examine how wage structure, differences in the distribution of measured characteristics, occupational and industrial segregation contribute to explain the pattern of international differences. Furthermore, we take into account indirect discrimination influencing...

  5. Inside-out: comparing internally generated and externally generated basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Christian E; Radovic, Darinka; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2012-06-01

    A considerable number of mood induction (MI) procedures have been developed to elicit emotion in normal and clinical populations. Although external procedures (e.g., film clips, pictures) are widely used, a number of experiments elicit emotion by using self-generated procedures (e.g., recalling an emotional personal episode). However, no study has directly compared the effectiveness of two types of internal versus external MI across multiple discrete emotions. In the present experiment, 40 undergraduate students watched film clips (external procedure) and recalled personal events (internal procedure) inducing 4 basic emotions (fear, anger, joy, sadness) and later completed a self-report questionnaire. Remarkably, both internal and external procedures elicited target emotions selectively, compared with nontarget emotions. When contrasting the intensity of target emotions, both techniques showed no significant differences, with the exception of Joy, which was more intensely elicited by the internal procedure. Importantly, when considering the overall level of intensity, it was always greater in the internal procedure, for each stimulus. A more detailed investigation of the data suggest that recalling personal events (a type of internal procedure) generates more negative and mixed blends of emotions, which might account for the overall higher intensity of the internal mood induction.

  6. Survey of International Members of the American Thoracic Society on Climate Change and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfaty, Mona; Kreslake, Jennifer; Ewart, Gary; Guidotti, Tee L; Thurston, George D; Balmes, John R; Maibach, Edward W

    2016-10-01

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed international members of the society to assess perceptions, clinical experiences, and preferred policy responses related to global climate change. A recruitment email was sent by the ATS President in October 2015 to 5,013 international members. Subsequently, four reminder emails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from 489 members in 68 countries; the response rate was 9.8%. Half of respondents reported working in countries in Asia (25%) or Europe (25%), with the remainder in South America (18%), North America (Canada and Mexico) (18%), Australia or New Zealand (9%), and Africa (6%). Survey estimate confidence intervals were ± 5% or smaller. A high percentage of international ATS survey respondents judged that climate change is happening (96%), that it is driven by human activity (70%), and that it is relevant to patient care ("a great deal"/"a moderate amount") (80%). A majority of respondents also indicated they are already observing health impacts of climate change among their patients; most commonly as increases in chronic disease severity from air pollution (88%), allergic symptoms from exposure to plants or mold (72%), and severe weather injuries (69%). An even larger majority anticipated seeing these climate-related health impacts in the next two decades. Respondents further indicated that physicians and physician organizations should play an active role in educating patients, the public, and policy makers on the human health effects of climate change. International ATS respondents, like their counterparts in the U.S., observed that human health is already adversely affected by climate change, and support responses to address this situation.

  7. State of Global Pediatric Neurosurgery Outreach: Survey by the International Education Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew C.; Rocque, Brandon G.; Singhal, Ash; Ridder, Tom; Pattisapu, Jogi V.; Johnston, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Object Neurosurgical services are increasingly recognized as essential components of surgical care worldwide. Degree of interest among neurosurgeons regarding international work, and barriers to involvement in global neurosurgical outreach, are largely unexplored. We distributed a survey to members of the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Pediatric Neurosurgery to assess the state of global outreach among its members and identify barriers to involvement. Methods An internet-based questionnaire was developed by the International Education Subcommittee of the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Pediatric Neurosurgery, and distributed to pediatric neurosurgeons via the AANS/CNS Joint Section email contact list. Participants were surveyed on involvement in global neurosurgical outreach, geographic location, nature of participation, and barriers to further involvement. Results A 35.3% response rate was obtained, with 116 respondents completed the survey. 61% performed or taught neurosurgery in a developing country, 49% traveling at least annually. Africa was the most common region (54%), followed by South America (30%), through 29 separate organizing entities. Hydrocephalus was the most commonly treated condition (88%), followed by spinal dysraphism (74%) and tumor (68%). Most respondents obtained follow-up through communication from local surgeons (77%). 71% believed the international experience improved their practice, and 74% were very or extremely interested in working elsewhere. Interference with current practice (61%), cost (44%), and difficulty identifying international partners (43%) were the most commonly cited barriers to participation. Conclusion Any coordinated effort to expand global neurosurgical capacity begins with appreciation for the current state of outreach efforts. Increasing participation in global outreach will require addressing both real and perceived barriers to involvement. Creation and curation of a centralized online database of ongoing projects to facilitate

  8. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this report, the health effects of low-level doses of radiation are considered by reference to published epidemiological surveys. The work was carried out with three objectives in mind: 1. to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the subject; 2. to seek consistent indications of particular health effects by collating results and comparing with those from surveys at moderate-level doses; 3. to provide an authoritative view on the epidemiology of low-level radiation-induced health effects. Vol E (DRAFT A) is appended and contains group collation tables. Epidemiological surveys can be conveniently divided into four classes (A, B, C, D) according to the phase of life when irradiation occurs or the effect is diagnosed. The first of the classes (A) is addressed here; this class is concerned with possible effects arising from radiation received by a parent before conception. Possible effects of preconception irradiation were identified under four broad groupings. These are Down's syndrome, ''Indicators of Reproductive Damage'' (mainly Primary Sterility, Congenital Abnormalities, Sex Ratio, Fetal Mortality, Infant Mortality), Childhood Malignancies, and Chromosomal Changes in Abortuses. Information about each survey, and comparisons with results from moderate-level dose surveys, are contained in synopses that are set out in the Appendix. (author)

  9. Female medical physicists: The results of a survey carried out by the International Organization for Medical Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapaki, Virginia; Rehani, Madan M

    2015-06-01

    The gender composition of the existing medical physicist (MP) workforce around the world is basically unknown. The International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) performed a survey in order to investigate the number of MPs in countries around the world and the percentage of women MPs compared to total number of MPs. A simple online questionnaire prepared as a Google Forms survey asking the country, the total number of MPs, the number of female MPs and finally the gender of the person providing the data was sent in mid-March 2013 to six regional member organizations of IOMP, as well as contact points in many member countries. Sixty-six countries responded to the survey by mid-July 2013. Fifty two percent of those who filled the form were females, the rest males. The total number of MPs was 17,024, of which 28% were female (4807). The median values of percentages of females were 21% in the USA, 47% in Europe, 35% in Asia, 33% in Africa and 24% in Latin America. This is the first international survey that investigates the number and percentage of female MPs around the world. There are European countries that are far away from the target set by European Commission (40%) whereas in countries in the Middle East and Asia, female MPs actually outnumber males. This study is the first step in a more in-depth study that needs to be taken in near future. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Becker, David; Coyle, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Following Snyderman and Rothman (1987, 1988), we surveyed expert opinions on the current state of intelligence research. This report examines expert opinions on causes of international differences in student assessment and psychometric IQ test results. Experts were surveyed about the importance of culture, genes, education (quantity and quality), wealth, health, geography, climate, politics, modernization, sampling error, test knowledge, discrimination, test bias, and migration. The importance of these factors was evaluated for diverse countries, regions, and groups including Finland, East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, the Arabian-Muslim world, Latin America, Israel, Jews in the West, Roma (gypsies), and Muslim immigrants. Education was rated by N = 71 experts as the most important cause of international ability differences. Genes were rated as the second most relevant factor but also had the highest variability in ratings. Culture, health, wealth, modernization, and politics were the next most important factors, whereas other factors such as geography, climate, test bias, and sampling error were less important. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations of the survey (e.g., response rates and validity of expert opinions).

  11. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several negative

  12. [Inventory of training of internal medicine in France: Results of a national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, M; Terrier, B; Mangin, O; Mouthon, L

    2017-05-01

    To make an inventory of training of Internal Medicine in France. This study was conducted between May and September 2015 with coordinators (interviews of 45minutes) of local Internal Medicine training and fellows (online questionnaire). All coordinators (n=28) responded to the interviews. Local training of Internal Medicine exists in 86% of regions (3.1±3.1hours/month) and an interregional training in all interregions (34.7±13.9hours/year). When excluding Île-de-France, no correlation between the number of teachers and the amount of lessons was noted (P=0.61). Of the 550 fellows in Internal Medicine in 2014-2015, 223 (41%) responded to the online questionnaire. Mean level was 5.5±2.7 semesters. The rate of satisfaction (1=very dissatisfied and 5=very satisfied) was 3.0±1.0 and 3.8±0.8 for regional and interregional teaching, respectively (P<0.0001). Regional teaching satisfaction was correlated with the perceived expanse of diseases covered into the program (P<0.0001). In addition, 89% of fellows wish to evaluate themselves online, 66% wish to have a practical evaluation at the bedside and 70% in simulation centers. Finally, 91% of fellows support the establishment of a national program for the training of Internal Medicine. This survey states for the first time an inventory of training of Internal Medicine dedicated to fellows in France. This report highlights that fellows wish to have a national program, be further evaluated and have access to more interactive approach of teaching. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Harmonizing Measures of Cognitive Performance Across International Surveys of Aging Using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kitty S; Gross, Alden L; Pezzin, Liliana E; Brandt, Jason; Kasper, Judith D

    2015-12-01

    To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Data for persons ≥65 years from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N = 5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13); 9 were in common. Measurement precision was examined for IRT scores based on (a) common items, (b) common items adjusted for differential item functioning (DIF), and (c) DIF-adjusted all items. Three common items (day of date, immediate word recall, and delayed word recall) demonstrated DIF by survey. Adding survey-specific items improved precision but mainly for HRS respondents at lower cognitive levels. IRT offers a feasible strategy for harmonizing cognitive performance measures across other surveys and for other multi-item constructs of interest in studies of aging. Practical implications depend on sample distribution and the difficulty mix of in-common and survey-specific items. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. METHODS IN THE POST-METHODS ERA. REPORT ON AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY ON LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Do methods still have a place in 21" century language teaching? To answer this question, an international survey was conducted in the surnmer of 1999. A sample of 800 language teachers world-wide randomly drawn from 17,800 TESOLers were each given a 2-page survey. The return rate was 58.5% with the actual usable data set of448, which was analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Among the ten commonly recognized teaching methods surveyed, both the Communicative Language Teaching Approach and an eclectic method seem to have the highest rate in familiarity, preference, and use. But when multiple factors, such as teaching contexts, instructional settings, learners' proficiency levels, class size, teaching experience and educational backgrounds of the teachers, and the status of being a native or nonnative English speaking professional were taken into consideration, various patterns and themes emerged. One interesting finding is that Grammar Translation is still used in EFL contexts, in larger classes, and with learners at low proficiency levels, though the ratio between the actual use of this method and teachers' preference does not match. Based on the results of the survey, a new theoretical framework is proposed to conceptualize language teaching methods in the post-methods era.

  15. An international survey of cleaning and disinfection practices in the healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenters, Nikki; Gottlieb, Thomas; Hopman, Joost; Mehtar, Shaheen; Schweizer, Marin L; Tartari, Ermira; Huijskens, E G W; Voss, Andreas

    2018-05-14

    Antimicrobial resistance has become an urgent global health priority. Basic hygiene practices and cleaning and disinfection of the hospital environment are key in preventing pathogen cross-transmission. To our knowledge no studies have assessed the worldwide differences in cleaning and disinfection practices in healthcare facilities. The electronic survey described here was developed in order to evaluate differences in healthcare facility cleaning practices around the world. The International Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (ISAC, formerly ISC), Infection Prevention and Control work group developed a survey with 30 multiple-choice questions. The questions were designed to assess the current cleaning practices in healthcare settings around the world. A total of 110 healthcare professionals, representing 23 countries participated in the online survey. In 96% of the facilities a written cleaning policy was present. Training of cleaning staff occurred in 70% of the facilities at the start of employment. Cleaning practices and monitoring of these practices varied. In summary, the survey enabled assessment and recognition of widely differing global practices in approaches to environmental cleaning and disinfection. Development of guideline recommendations for cleaning and disinfection could improve practices and set minimum standards worldwide. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 5th International Conference on Engineering Surveying Brijuni, September 22-24, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Paar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 5th International Conference on Engineering Surveying was held on the Brijuni Islands from 22 to 24 September 2011. The conference organizers were the Department of Surveying Faculty of Civil Engineering at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava and the Institute for Applied Geodesy at the Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, with the FIG Commission 6. The conference was held under the patronage of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction of the Republic of Croatia. The conference took place in the Castrum Congress Hall of Hotel Neptun-Istra. The official language of the conference was English. The conference was attended by 70 representatives from Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Kosovo, Austria, Germany, Hungary, Greece, Czech Republic and Slovakia, and a total of 40 papers were presented.

  17. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution create...

  18. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution creates a better context for NPD than the in-house solution. Less forwarding of unsol...

  19. Harmonization by simulation: a contribution to comparable international migration statistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowok, B.

    2010-01-01

    In today's globalized world, there is increasing demand for reliable and comparable statistics on international migration. This book contributes to a more profound understanding of the effect of definitional variations on the figures that are reported.The framework developed here for the

  20. Comparing Chinese International and American-born Graduate Students' Beliefs about Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fangxia

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the educational beliefs about teaching and learning of Chinese international and American-born graduate students in the disciplines of pure and applied sciences and mathematics at Auburn University by comparing their similarities and differences. The study reported (a) participants' demographic characteristics, (b) the dominant…

  1. Improving the Comparability and Local Usefulness of International Assessments: A Look Back and a Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David

    2018-01-01

    Over time international large-scale assessments have grown in terms of number of studies, cycles, and participating countries, many of which are a heterogeneous mix of economies, languages, cultures, and geography. This heterogeneity has meaningful consequences for comparably measuring both achievement and non-achievement constructs, such as…

  2. Comparative and International Education and the Teaching Profession: The Case of Marc-Antoine Jullien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Konstantinos G.; Synodi, Evanthia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to prove how Jullien's ideas and concerns about education - especially about teachers and teachers education--written in his "Esquisse" still apply. Interpretations concerning Jullien's writings remain open and encourage a fertile dialogue in Comparative and International Education and Teachers Education…

  3. Comparative and International Education: Policy Transfer, Context Sensitivity and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael; Watson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the intellectual and professional contribution of comparative and international studies to the field of education. It explores the nature of the challenges that are currently being faced, and assesses its potential for the advancement of future teaching, research and professional development. Attention is paid to the place of…

  4. Commentary on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Gary; Coulson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence." The authors believe that Coulson's paper is a very interesting review of the literature on the ability of market-produced education to outperform government-produced education. Coulson's response on this commentary…

  5. Promoting University and Industry Links at the Regional Level: Comparing China's Reform and International Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Yang; Cai, Yuzhuo; Lyytinen, Anu; Hölttä, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to learn from international experiences in order to facilitating China's ongoing regional university transformation with an ultimate goal to enhance the role of university in regional economic development and innovation. In so doing, this paper compares major models of universities of applied sciences (UAS) around the world from…

  6. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  7. Nordic Internationalists' Contribution to the Field of Comparative and International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Teodora

    2016-01-01

    This paper stems from a PhD dissertation research focusing on the Nordic representatives' contribution to the field of comparative and international education (CIE) since the middle of the 20th century to the present days. Following the idea of the clear-cut distinction between the two component parts of the field in the region in question, the…

  8. Researching Civil Remedies for International Corruption: The Choice of the Functional Comparative Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Makinwa (Abiola)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper motivates the choice of the functional comparative method to research the issue of civil remedies for international corruption. It shows how the social, economic and political factors that have shaped the normative context of the research question point to the functional

  9. International survey among orthopaedic trauma surgeons: Lack of a definition of fracture-related infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, M; Moriarty, T F; Kuehl, R; Richards, R G; McNally, M A; Verhofstad, M H J; Borens, O; Zalavras, C; Raschke, M; Kates, S L; Metsemakers, W J

    2018-03-01

    Fracture-related infection (FRI) is one of the most challenging musculoskeletal complications in orthopaedic-trauma surgery. Although the orthopaedic community has developed and adopted a consensus definition of prosthetic joint infections (PJI), it still remains unclear how the trauma surgery community defines FRI in daily clinical practice or in performing clinical research studies. The central aim of this study was to survey the opinions of a global network of trauma surgeons on the definitions and criteria they routinely use, and their opinion on the need for a unified definition of FRI. The secondary aims were to survey their opinion on the utility of currently used definitions that may be at least partially applicable for FRI, and finally their opinion on the important clinical parameters that should be considered as diagnostic criteria for FRI. An 11-item questionnaire was developed to cover the above-mentioned aims. The questionnaire was administered by SurveyMonkey and was sent via blast email to all registered users of AO Trauma (Davos, Switzerland). Out of the 26'563 recipients who opened the email, 2'327 (8.8%) completed the questionnaire. Nearly 90% of respondents agreed that a consensus-derived definition for FRI is required and 66% of the surgeons also agreed that PJI and FRI are not equal with respect to diagnosis, treatment and outcome. Furthermore, "positive cultures from microbiology testing", "elevation of CRP", "purulent drainage" and "local clinical signs of infection" were voted the most important diagnostic parameters for FRI. This international survey infers the need for a consensus definition of FRI and provides insight into the clinical parameters seen by an international community of trauma surgeons as being critical for defining FRI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Man Versus Machine: Comparing Double Data Entry and Optical Mark Recognition for Processing CAHPS Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifolt, Matthew; Blackburn, Justin; Rhodes, David J; Gillespie, Shemeka; Bennett, Aleena; Wolff, Paul; Rucks, Andrew

    Historically, double data entry (DDE) has been considered the criterion standard for minimizing data entry errors. However, previous studies considered data entry alternatives through the limited lens of data accuracy. This study supplies information regarding data accuracy, operational efficiency, and cost for DDE and Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) for processing the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems 5.0 survey. To assess data accuracy, we compared error rates for DDE and OMR by dividing the number of surveys that were arbitrated by the total number of surveys processed for each method. To assess operational efficiency, we tallied the cost of data entry for DDE and OMR after survey receipt. Costs were calculated on the basis of personnel, depreciation for capital equipment, and costs of noncapital equipment. The cost savings attributed to this method were negated by the operational efficiency of OMR. There was a statistical significance between rates of arbitration between DDE and OMR; however, this statistical significance did not create a practical significance. The potential benefits of DDE in terms of data accuracy did not outweigh the operational efficiency and thereby financial savings of OMR.

  11. INTERNAL EXTINCTION IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY LATE-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jungyeon; Park, Changbom

    2009-01-01

    We study internal extinction of late-type galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the degree of internal extinction depends on both the concentration index c and K s -band absolute magnitude M K . We give simple fitting functions for internal extinction. In particular, we present analytic formulae giving the extinction-corrected magnitudes from the observed optical parameters. For example, the extinction-corrected r-band absolute magnitude can be obtained by M r,0 =-20.77 +(-1+√(1+4Δ(M r,obs +20.77+4.93Δ)))/2Δ, where Δ = 0.236{1.35(c - 2.48) 2 - 1.14} log(a/b), c = R 90 /R 50 is the the concentration index, and a/b is the isophotal axis ratio of the 25 mag arcsec -2 isophote in the i band. The 1σ error in M r,0 is 0.21 log(a/b). Late-type galaxies with very different inclinations are found to trace almost the same sequence in the (u - r)-M r diagram when our prescriptions for extinction correction are applied. We also find that (u - r) color can be a third independent parameter that determines the degree of internal extinction.

  12. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the relative number of deaths in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from international terrorism and road crashes. Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994-2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality.

  13. Regret and rationalization among smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Borland, Ron

    2009-07-01

    To test whether differences of history and strength in tobacco control policies will influence social norms, which, in turn, will influence quit intentions, by influencing smokers' regret and rationalization. The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Southeast Asia Survey, a cohort survey of representative samples of adult smokers in Thailand (N = 2,000) and Malaysia (N = 2,006). The survey used a stratified multistage sampling design. Measures included regret, rationalization, social norms, and quit intention. Thai smokers were more likely to have quit intentions than Malaysian smokers. This difference in quit intentions was, in part, explained by the country differences in social norms, regret, and rationalization. Reflecting Thailand's history of stronger tobacco control policies, Thai smokers, compared with Malaysian smokers, perceived more negative social norms toward smoking, were more likely to regret, and less likely to rationalize smoking. Mediational analyses revealed that these differences in social norms, accounted, in part, for the country-quit intention relation and that regret and rationalization accounted, in part, for the social norm-quit intention relation. The results suggest that social norms toward smoking, which are shaped by tobacco control policies, and smokers' regret and rationalization influence quit intentions.

  14. Twitter Strategies for Web-Based Surveying: Descriptive Analysis From the International Concussion Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Düking, Peter; Mellalieu, Stephen D

    2016-09-01

    Social media provides researchers with an efficient means to reach and engage with a large and diverse audience. Twitter allows for the virtual social interaction among a network of users that enables researchers to recruit and administer surveys using snowball sampling. Although using Twitter to administer surveys for research is not new, strategies to improve response rates are yet to be reported. To compare the potential and actual reach of 2 Twitter accounts that administered a Web-based concussion survey to rugby players and trainers using 2 distinct Twitter-targeting strategies. Furthermore, the study sought to determine the likelihood of receiving a retweet based on the time of the day and day of the week of posting. A survey based on previous concussion research was exported to a Web-based survey website Survey Monkey. The survey comprised 2 questionnaires, one for players, and one for those involved in the game (eg, coaches and athletic trainers). The Web-based survey was administered using 2 existing Twitter accounts, with each account executing a distinct targeting strategy. A list of potential Twitter accounts to target was drawn up, together with a list of predesigned tweets. The list of accounts to target was divided into 'High-Profile' and 'Low-Profile', based on each accounts' position to attract publicity with a high social interaction potential. The potential reach (number of followers of the targeted account), and actual reach (number of retweets received by each post) between the 2 strategies were compared. The number of retweets received by each account was further analyzed to understand when the most likely time of day, and day of the week, a retweet would be received. The number of retweets received by a Twitter account decreased by 72% when using the 'high-profile strategy' compared with the 'low-profile strategy' (incidence rate ratio (IRR); 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.37, P.001) and 6 PM to 11:59 PM (IRR 1.48, 95% CI 1

  15. International survey on the management of Chiari 1 malformation and syringomyelia: evolving worldwide opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Ash; Cheong, Alexander; Steinbok, Paul

    2018-03-12

    In 2003, pediatric neurosurgeons were surveyed under the auspices of the education committee of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ISPN) to determine prevailing opinions regarding the management of Chiari I malformation (C1M) with and without associated syringomyelia. In the ensuing years, there has been further information from multiple C1M studies, with regards to indications, success rates of different surgical interventions, and complications. The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate current opinions and practices in pediatric C1M. Pediatric neurosurgeons worldwide were surveyed, using an e-mail list provided by the ISPN communication committee chairperson. Respondents were given scenarios similar to the 2003 C1M survey in order to determine opinions regarding whether to surgically intervene, and if so, with which operations. Of 300 surveys electronically distributed, 122 responses were received (40.6% response rate)-an improvement over the 30.8% response rate in 2003. Pediatric neurosurgeons from 34 different countries responded. There was broad consensus that non-operative management is appropriate in asymptomatic C1M (> 90%) as well as asymptomatic C1M with a small syrinx (> 65%). With a large syrinx, a majority (almost 80%) recommended surgical intervention. Scoliotic patients with CIM were generally offered surgery only when there was a large syrinx. There has been a shift in the surgical management over the past decade, with a bone-only decompression now being offered more commonly. There remains, however, great variability in the operation offered. This survey, with a relatively strong response rate, and with broad geographic representation, summarizes current worldwide expert opinion regarding management of pediatric C1M. Asymptomatic C1M and C1M with a small syrinx are generally managed non-operatively. When an operation is indicated, there has been a shift towards less invasive surgical approaches.

  16. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men whohave sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey.\\ud Methods: We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men inthe same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European...

  17. Diagnostic strategy and timing of intervention in infected necrotizing pancreatitis: an international expert survey and case vignette study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, J. (Janneke); S. van Brunschot (Sandra); P. Fockens (Paul); J. van Grinsven (Janneke); O.J. Bakker (Olaf ); van Santvoort, H.C. (Hjalmar C.); T.L. Bollen (Thomas); M.A. Boermeester (Marja); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); M.G. Besselink (Marc); M.J. Bruno (Marco); C.H. Dejong (Cees); K.D. Horvath (Karen); van Eijck, C.H. (Casper H.); H. van Goor (Harry); H.G. Gooszen (Hein); Horvath, K.D. (Karen D.); K.P. van Lienden (Krijn); Abdelhafez, M.; Andersson, R.; Andren-Sandberg, A.; Ashley, S.; M.C. van Baal (Mark); Baron, T.; C. Bassi (Claudio); Bradley, E.; M.W. Buchler (M.); V.C. Cappendijk; Carter, R.; Charnley, R.; Coelho, D.; Connor, S.; Dellinger, P.; C. Dervenis (Christos); J. Devière (J.); Doctor, N.; Dudeja, V.; En-qiang, M.; Escourrou, J.; Fagenholz, P.; Farkas, G.; Forsmark, C.; Freeman, M.; P.C. Freeny (Patrick); French, J.; H. Friess; Gardner, T.; Goetzinger, P.; J.W. Haveman; S. Hofker (Sijbrand); Imrie, C.; Isaji, S.; Isenmann, R.; E. Klar (Ernst); J.S. Laméris (Johan ); M. Lerch (M.); P. Lévy (Philippe); Lillemoe, K.; Löhr, M.; J. Mayerle (Julia); Mayumi, T.; Mittal, A.; Moessner, J.; Morgan, D.; K.J. Mortele (Koenraad); Nealon, W.; J.P. Neoptolemos (John); V.B. Nieuwenhuijs (Vincent); Nordback, I.; Olah, A.; K. Oppong (K.); Padbury, R.; Papachristou, G.; Parks, R.; J.-W. Poley (Jan-Werner); Radenkovic, D.; Raraty, M.; Rau, B.; V. Rebours (Vinciane); Rische, S.; Runzi, M.; Sainani, N.; Sarr, M.; Schaapherder, S.; S. Seewald (Stefan); Seifert, H.; Shimosegawa, T.; Silverman, S.; Singh, V.; Siriwardena, A.; Steinberg, W.; Sutton, R.; Takeda, K.; R. Timmer (Robin); Vege, S.; R.P. Voermans (Rogier); J.J. De Waele (Jan J.); Wang, C. (Ch.); Warshaw, A.; J. Werner (Jens Martin); B.L. Weusten (Bas); Whitcomb, D.; Wig, J.; Windsor, J.; Zyromski, N.

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground The optimal diagnostic strategy and timing of intervention in infected necrotizing pancreatitis is subject to debate. We performed a survey on these topics amongst a group of international expert pancreatologists. Methods An online survey including case vignettes was sent to

  18. Comparing Social Media Data and Survey Data in Assessing the Attractiveness of Beijing Olympic Forest Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Together with the emerging popularity of big data in numerous studies, increasing theoretical discussions of the challenges and limitations of such data sources exist. However, there is a clear research gap in the empirical comparison studies on different data sources. The goal of this paper is to use “attractiveness” as a medium to examine the similarity and differences of Social media data (SMD and survey data in academic research, based on a case study of the Beijing Olympic Forest Park, in Beijing, China. SMD was extracted from two social media platforms and two surveys were conducted to assess the attractiveness of various locations and landscape elements. Data collection, keyword extraction and keyword prioritization were used and compared in the data gathering and analysis process. The findings revealed that SMD and survey data share many similarities. Both data sources confirm that natural ambience is more appreciated than cultural elements, particularly the naturalness of the park. Spaces of practical utility are more appreciated than facilities designed to have cultural meanings and iconic significance. Despite perceived similarities, this study concludes that SMD exhibits exaggerated and aggregated bias. This resulted from the intrinsic character of SMD as volunteered and unstructured data selected through an emotional process rather than from a rational synthesis. Exciting events were reported more often than daily experiences. Reflecting upon the strength and weakness of SMD and survey data, this study would recommend a combined landscape assessment process, which first utilizes SMD to build up an assessment framework, then applies conventional surveys for supplementary and detailed information. This would ultimately result in comprehensive understanding.

  19. Survey sequencing and comparative analysis of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrappa Venkatesh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their phylogenetic position, cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, skates, and chimaeras provide a critical reference for our understanding of vertebrate genome evolution. The relatively small genome of the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, a chimaera, makes it an attractive model cartilaginous fish genome for whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis. Here, the authors describe survey sequencing (1.4x coverage and comparative analysis of the elephant shark genome, one of the first cartilaginous fish genomes to be sequenced to this depth. Repetitive sequences, represented mainly by a novel family of short interspersed element-like and long interspersed element-like sequences, account for about 28% of the elephant shark genome. Fragments of approximately 15,000 elephant shark genes reveal specific examples of genes that have been lost differentially during the evolution of tetrapod and teleost fish lineages. Interestingly, the degree of conserved synteny and conserved sequences between the human and elephant shark genomes are higher than that between human and teleost fish genomes. Elephant shark contains putative four Hox clusters indicating that, unlike teleost fish genomes, the elephant shark genome has not experienced an additional whole-genome duplication. These findings underscore the importance of the elephant shark as a critical reference vertebrate genome for comparative analysis of the human and other vertebrate genomes. This study also demonstrates that a survey-sequencing approach can be applied productively for comparative analysis of distantly related vertebrate genomes.

  20. Influence of internal migration on reproductive health in Myanmar: results from a recent cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Thet, May Me; Aung, Tin

    2016-03-09

    Maternal and reproductive health remains a significant public health issue in Myanmar. Little data exists on women's health issues, including social and demographic influences. While past studies have demonstrated rural/urban health disparities, an increasingly important population resulting from urban growth in Myanmar is the internal migrant population, individuals moving within the country for better job or educational opportunities. Past studies suggest that women make up more than half of internal migrants, yet there is a dearth of information on this new wave of migration, particularly on women's reproductive health issues. The objective of this study is to assess the influence of women's migration in Myanmar on reproductive health outcomes, including delivering in a facility, using a skilled birth attendant, and using a modern method of family planning. Data from a cross-sectional household survey using multistage cluster sampling design conducted between September to October 2014 was used to assess the accessibility and the use of maternal and child health products and services. A total of 1800 currently married women of reproductive age, including 348 from urban and 1452 from rural areas, were recruited to complete surveys. A set of multivariable regressions was performed to assess reproductive health outcomes and predictors. Across health indicators, female migrants had better health outcomes compared to non-migrants. Controlling for demographic characteristics, migrants were 1.60 times more likely to use a modern form of family planning compared to non-migrants (p Myanmar reported better health outcomes compared to non-migrant women in regards to family planning and maternal health. Future research should focus on monitoring the outcomes of migrants and their children over time to assess long-term impacts.

  1. Emission of biocides from hospitals: comparing current survey results with European Union default values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczkiewicz, Inga; Bitsch, Annette; Hahn, Stefan; Hahn, Torsten

    2010-04-01

    Under the European Union (EU) Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC, comprehensive evaluations on substances of the Third Priority List were conducted until 31 July 2007. This list includes, among other categories, disinfectants for human hygiene (e.g., skin and surface disinfection). For environmental exposure assessment of biocides, the EU emission scenarios apply. Currently available default values for disinfectants are based on consumption data from not more than 8 hospitals and were originally assembled for other purposes. To revalidate these default values, a survey on annual consumption data was performed in 27 German hospitals. These data were analyzed to provide consumption data per bed and day and per nurse and day for particular categories of active ingredients and were compared with default values from the EU emission scenario documents. Although several deviations were detected, an overall acceptable correspondence between Emission Scenario Documents default values and the current survey data was found. (c) 2009 SETAC

  2. Venous thromboembolism management in Northeast Melbourne: how does it compare to international guidelines and data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Y; Chua, Chong C; Tacey, Mark; Sleeman, Matthew; Donnan, Geoffrey; Nandurkar, Harshal; Ho, Prahlad

    2017-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with significant heterogeneity in its management, both within our local practice and in international guidelines. To provide a holistic evaluation of 'real-world' Australian experience in the warfarin era, including how we compare to international guidelines. Retrospective evaluation of VTE from July 2011 to December 2012 at two major hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. These results were compared to recommendations in the international guidelines. A total of 752 episodes involving 742 patients was identified. Contrary to international guidelines, an unwarranted heritable thrombophilia screen was performed in 22.0% of patients, amounting to a cost of AU$29 000. The duration of anticoagulation was longer compared to international recommendations, although the overall recurrence (3.2/100 person-years) and clinically significant bleeding rates (2.4/100 person-years) were comparable to 'real-world' data. Unprovoked VTE (hazard ratio 2.06; P = 0.01) was a risk factor for recurrence, and there was no difference in recurrence between major VTE (proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism) and isolated distal DVT (3.02 vs 3.94/100 person-years; P = 0.25). Fourteen patients were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy, and patients with recurrent VTE had increased risk of prospective cancer diagnosis (relative risk 6.68; P management strategies, including excessive thrombophilia screening and longer duration of anticoagulation. This audit highlights the need for national VTE guidelines, as well as prospective auditing of VTE management, in the direct oral anticoagulant era for future comparison. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Feasibility survey on international cooperation for high efficiency energy conversion technology in fiscal 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Following cooperative researches on fuel cell jointly conducted by NEDO and EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand), the survey on international cooperation relating to high efficiency energy conversion technology was carried out for the ASEAN countries. The paper summed up the results of the survey. The study of the international cooperation is made for the following three items: a program for periodical exchange of information with EGAT, a project for cooperative research on phosphoric acid fuel cell in Indonesia, and a project for cooperative research with EGAT on electric power storage by advanced battery. In Malaysia, which is small in scale of state, part of the Ministry of Energy, Telecommunication and Posts is only in charge of the energy issue. Therefore, the situation is that they cannot answer well to many items of research/development cooperation brought in from Japan. The item of medium- and long-term developmental research in the Philippines is about the problems which are seen subsequently in the Manila metropolitan area where the problem of outage is being settled. Accordingly, it is essential to promote the cooperative research, well confirming policies and systems of the Ministry of Energy and the national electricity corporation.

  4. National survey on internal quality control for tumour markers in clinical laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; He, Falin; Du, Yuxuan; Hu, Zhehui; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-06-15

    This survey was initiated to obtain knowledge on the current situation of internal quality control (IQC) practice for tumour markers (TMs) in China. Additionally, we tried to acquire the most appropriate quality specifications. This survey was a current status survey. The IQC information had been collected via online questionnaires. All of 1821 clinical laboratories which participated in the 2016 TMs external quality assessment (EQA) programme had been enrolled. The imprecision evaluation criteria were the minimal, desirable, and optimal allowable imprecisions based on biological variations, and 1/3 total allowable error (TEa) and 1/4 TEa. A total of 1628 laboratories answered the questionnaires (89%). The coefficients of variation (CVs) of the IQC of participant laboratories varied greatly from 1% (5 th percentile) to 13% (95 th percentile). More than 82% (82 - 91%) of participant laboratories two types of CVs met 1/3 TEa except for CA 19-9. The percentiles of current CVs were smaller than cumulative CVs. A number of 1240 laboratories (76%) reported their principles and systems used. The electrochemiluminescence was the most used principle (45%) and had the smallest CVs. The performance of laboratories for TMs IQC has yet to be improved. On the basis of the obtained results, 1/3 TEa would be realistic and attainable quality specification for TMs IQC for clinical laboratories in China.

  5. Intensive Care Unit Structure Variation and Implications for Early Mobilization Practices. An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhru, Rita N; McWilliams, David J; Wiebe, Douglas J; Spuhler, Vicki J; Schweickert, William D

    2016-09-01

    Early mobilization (EM) improves outcomes for mechanically ventilated patients. Variation in structure and organizational characteristics may affect implementation of EM practices. We queried intensive care unit (ICU) environment and standardized ICU practices to evaluate organizational characteristics that enable EM practice. We recruited 151 ICUs in France, 150 in Germany, 150 in the United Kingdom, and 500 in the United States by telephone. Survey domains included respondent characteristics, hospital and ICU characteristics, and ICU practices and protocols. We surveyed 1,484 ICU leaders and received a 64% response rate (951 ICUs). Eighty-eight percent of respondents were in nursing leadership roles; the remainder were physiotherapists. Surveyed ICUs were predominantly mixed medical-surgical units (67%), and 27% were medical ICUs. ICU staffing models differed significantly (P equipment were highly variable among respondents. International ICU structure and practice is quite heterogeneous, and several factors (multidisciplinary rounds, setting daily goals for patients, presence of a dedicated physiotherapist, country, and nurse/patient staffing ratio) are significantly associated with the practice of EM. Practice and barriers may be far different based upon staffing structure. To achieve successful implementation, whether through trials or quality improvement, ICU staffing and practice patterns must be taken into account.

  6. Towards the development of an outcome instrument for spinal trauma: an international survey of spinal surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, F Cumhur; Sadiqi, Said; Lehr, A Mechteld; Dvorak, Marcel F; Aarabi, Bizhan; Chapman, Jens R; Fehlings, Michael G; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-01-15

    International web-based survey. To identify the most relevant aspects of human function and health status from the perspective of health care professionals involved in the treatment of spinal trauma patients. There is no universally accepted outcome instrument available that is specifically designed or validated for spinal trauma patients, contributing to controversies related to the optimal treatment and evaluation of many types of spinal injuries. Therefore, the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Trauma aims to develop such an instrument using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as its basis. Experts from the 5 AOSpine International world regions were asked to give their opinion on the relevance of a compilation of 143 ICF categories for spinal trauma patients on a 3-point scale: "not relevant," "probably relevant," or "definitely relevant." The responses were analyzed using frequency analysis. Possible differences in responses between the 5 world regions were analyzed with the Fisher exact test and descriptive statistics. Of the 895 invited AOSpine International members, 150 (16.8%) participated in this study. A total of 13 (9.1%) ICF categories were identified as definitely relevant by more than 80% of the participants. Most of these categories were related to the ICF component "activities and participation" (n = 8), followed by "body functions" (n = 4), and "body structures" (n = 1). Only some minor regional differences were observed in the pattern of answers. More than 80% of an international group of health care professionals experienced in the clinical care of adult spinal trauma patients indicated 13 of 143 ICF categories as definitely relevant to measure outcomes after spinal trauma. This study creates an evidence base to define a core set of ICF categories for outcome measurement in adult spinal trauma patients.

  7. Policy lessons from comparing mortality from two global forces: international terrorism and tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the mortality burdens from two global impacts on mortality: international terrorism and the major cause of preventable death in developed countries – tobacco use. We also sought to examine the similarities and differences between these two causes of mortality so as to better inform the policy responses directed at prevention. Methods Data on deaths from international terrorism were obtained from a US State Department database for 1994–2003. Estimates for tobacco-attributable deaths were based on Peto et al 2003. The countries were 37 developed and East European countries. Results and discussion The collective annualized mortality burden from tobacco was approximately 5700 times that of international terrorism. The ratio of annual tobacco to international terrorism deaths was lowest for the United States at 1700 times, followed by Russia at 12,900 times. The tobacco death burden in all these countries was equivalent to the impact of an 11 September type terrorist attack every 14 hours. Different perceptions of risk may contribute to the relative lack of a policy response to tobacco mortality, despite its relatively greater scale. The lack is also despite tobacco control having a stronger evidence base for the prevention measures used. Conclusion This comparison highlights the way risk perception may determine different policy responses to global forces causing mortality. Nevertheless, the large mortality differential between international terrorism and tobacco use has policy implications for informing the rational use of resources to prevent premature death.

  8. Support for international trade law: The US and the EU compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Elsig, Manfred

    2015-10-01

    In this article we compare US and EU support for bilateral and multilateral international trade law. We assess the support for international law of both trading blocs by focusing on the following four dimensions: leadership, consent, compliance and internalization. Although we find strong support for international trade law from both the US and the EU in general, we also witness some variation, most notably in relation to the design of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and compliance with World Trade Organization (WTO) law. Turning to explaining these (moderate) differences, we argue that outcomes in US trade policy can best be explained by a domestic political factor, namely the direct influence of interest groups. Although the involvement of societal interests also goes a long way in explaining EU behavior, it does not tell the entire story. We posit that, in EU trade policy, institutions are a particular conditioning factor that needs to be stressed. Moreover, we suggest that foreign policy considerations in managing trade relations have characterized EU's support for international trade law.

  9. Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys: comparison of patient and physician perceptions about COPD risk and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes AM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ana M Menezes,1 Sarah H Landis,2 MeiLan K Han,3 Hana Muellerova,2 Zaurbek Aisanov,4 Thys van der Molen,5 Yeon-Mok Oh,6 Masakazu Ichinose,7 David M Mannino,8 Kourtney J Davis9 1Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil; 2Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK; 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Pulmonology Research Institute, Moscow, Russia; 5University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 6University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 7Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 8University of Kentucky College of Public Health, Lexington, KY, USA; 9Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Wavre, Belgium Purpose: Using data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician and Patient Surveys, this paper describes physicians’ attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD prognosis, and compares physician and patient perceptions with respect to COPD. Methods: In 12 countries worldwide, 4,343 patients with COPD were identified through systematic screening of population samples, and 1,307 physicians who regularly saw patients with COPD were sampled from in-country professional databases. Both patients and physicians completed surveys about their COPD knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions; physicians answered further questions about diagnostic methods and treatment choices for COPD. Results: Most physicians (79% responded that the long-term health outlook for patients with COPD has improved over the past decade, largely attributed to the introduction of better medications. However, patient access to medication remains an issue in many countries, and some physicians (39% and patients (46% agreed/strongly agreed with the statement “there are no truly effective treatments for COPD”. There was strong concordance between physicians and patients

  10. Comparing NICU teamwork and safety climate across two commonly used survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Jochen; Lee, Henry C; Sharek, Paul J; Kan, Peggy; Nisbet, Courtney C; Thomas, Eric J; Etchegaray, Jason M; Sexton, Bryan

    2016-12-01

    Measurement and our understanding of safety culture are still evolving. The objectives of this study were to assess variation in safety and teamwork climate and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting, and compare measurement of safety culture scales using two different instruments (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC)). Cross-sectional survey study of a voluntary sample of 2073 (response rate 62.9%) health professionals in 44 NICUs. To compare survey instruments, we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. We also compared similar scales and items across the instruments using t tests and changes in quartile-level performance. We found significant variation across NICUs in safety and teamwork climate scales of SAQ and HSOPSC (pteamwork scales (teamwork climate and teamwork within units) of the two instruments correlated strongly (safety r=0.72, pteamwork r=0.67, p<0.001). However, the means and per cent agreements for all scale scores and even seemingly similar item scores were significantly different. In addition, comparisons of scale score quartiles between the two instruments revealed that half of the NICUs fell into different quartiles when translating between the instruments. Large variation and opportunities for improvement in patient safety culture exist across NICUs. Important systematic differences exist between SAQ and HSOPSC such that these instruments should not be used interchangeably. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Daniels

    Full Text Available Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents.This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1 and 3 years after (Group 2 the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology.131 (80.9% of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8% residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3% indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2 and residents who were not (Group 1. The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed, practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed, and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed. More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04, whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02.The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several

  12. The International Network of Obstetric Survey Systems (INOSS): benefits of multi-country studies of severe and uncommon maternal morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Marian

    2014-02-01

    The International Network of Obstetric Survey Systems (INOSS) is a multi-country collaboration formed to facilitate studies of uncommon and severe complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Collaborations such as INOSS offer many benefits in the study of rare complications. The use of uniform case definitions, common datasets, specifically collected detailed data and prospectively agreed comparative and combined analyses all add to the validity of studies and their utility to guide policy and clinical practice and hence improve the quality of care. Such multi-national collaborations allow for the conduct of robust studies less subject to many of the biases attributed to typical observational studies. For very rare conditions such collaborations may provide the only route to providing high quality evidence to guide practice. Clinicians and researchers conducting studies into rare and severe complications should consider working through a network such as INOSS to maximize the value of their research. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L

    2014-02-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou.

  14. Comparing cancer screening estimates: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ann Goding; Liu, Benmei; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Fedewa, Stacey A

    2018-01-01

    Cancer screening prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), designed to provide state-level estimates, and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), designed to provide national estimates, are used to measure progress in cancer control. A detailed description of the extent to which recent cancer screening estimates vary by key demographic characteristics has not been previously described. We examined national prevalence estimates for recommended breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening using data from the 2012 and 2014 BRFSS and the 2010 and 2013 NHIS. Treating the NHIS estimates as the reference, direct differences (DD) were calculated by subtracting NHIS estimates from BRFSS estimates. Relative differences were computed by dividing the DD by the NHIS estimates. Two-sample t-tests (2-tails), were performed to test for statistically significant differences. BRFSS screening estimates were higher than those from NHIS for breast (78.4% versus 72.5%; DD=5.9%, pNHIS, each survey has a unique and important role in providing information to track cancer screening utilization among various populations. Awareness of these differences and their potential causes is important when comparing the surveys and determining the best application for each data source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Speaking up about traditional and professionalism-related patient safety threats: a national survey of interns and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, William; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Thomas, Eric J; Etchegaray, Jason M; Shelburne, Julia T; Hickson, Gerald B; Brady, Donald W; Schleyer, Anneliese M; Best, Jennifer A; May, Natalie B; Bell, Sigall K

    2017-11-01

    Open communication between healthcare professionals about care concerns, also known as 'speaking up', is essential to patient safety. Compare interns' and residents' experiences, attitudes and factors associated with speaking up about traditional versus professionalism-related safety threats. Anonymous, cross-sectional survey. Six US academic medical centres, 2013-2014. 1800 medical and surgical interns and residents (47% responded). Attitudes about, barriers and facilitators for, and self-reported experience with speaking up. Likelihood of speaking up and the potential for patient harm in two vignettes. Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ) teamwork and safety scales; and Speaking Up Climate for Patient Safety (SUC-Safe) and Speaking Up Climate for Professionalism (SUC-Prof) scales. Respondents more commonly observed unprofessional behaviour (75%, 628/837) than traditional safety threats (49%, 410/837); pbarrier to speaking up about unprofessional behaviour compared with traditional safety threats (58%, 482/837 vs 42%, 348/837; psafety vignette, even when they perceived high potential patient harm (20%, 49/251 vs 71%, 179/251; psafety vignette (OR 1.90, 99% CI 1.36 to 2.66 and 1.46, 1.02 to 2.09, respectively), while only a positive perception of SUC-Prof was associated with speaking up in the professionalism vignette (1.76, 1.23 to 2.50). Interns and residents commonly observed unprofessional behaviour yet were less likely to speak up about it compared with traditional safety threats even when they perceived high potential patient harm. Measuring SUC-Safe, and particularly SUC-Prof, may fill an existing gap in safety culture assessment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. [Emotional climate and internal communication in a clinical management unit compared with two traditional hospital services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E; Rubio, A; March, J C; Danet, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the emotional climate, quality of communication and performance indicators in a clinical management unit and two traditional hospital services. Quantitative study. questionnaire of 94 questions. 83 health professionals (63 responders) from the clinical management unit of breast pathology and the hospital services of medical oncology and radiation oncology. descriptive statistics, comparison of means, correlation and linear regression models. The clinical management unit reaches higher values compared with the hospital services about: performance indicators, emotional climate, internal communication and evaluation of the leadership. An important gap between existing and desired sources, channels, media and subjects of communication appear, in both clinical management unit and traditional services. The clinical management organization promotes better internal communication and interpersonal relations, leading to improved performance indicators. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. The Concept of State Capacity: Comparative International Ratings against State Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gennadievich Ivanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article, the author analyzes the concept of state capacity, widely popular among political scientists and international relations specialists. The author proves that the evaluations of the level of state capacity of the developing and postcommunist countries based on popular comparative ratings are generally biased because of methodological defects and discrepancy of the whole theory as well as politicization and indoctrination of the given ratings. The negative evaluations of the quality of the government and state capacity of a country could be used to discredit and delegitimize the political regime as well as substantiation of mass protests and color revolutions and a tool of information war. The author concludes that numerous comparative international ratings are often used as a tool of political influence.

  18. Multidisciplinary Views on Applying Explicit and Implicit Motor Learning in Practice: An International Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kleynen

    Full Text Available A variety of options and techniques for causing implicit and explicit motor learning have been described in the literature. The aim of the current paper was to provide clearer guidance for practitioners on how to apply motor learning in practice by exploring experts' opinions and experiences, using the distinction between implicit and explicit motor learning as a conceptual departure point.A survey was designed to collect and aggregate informed opinions and experiences from 40 international respondents who had demonstrable expertise related to motor learning in practice and/or research. The survey was administered through an online survey tool and addressed potential options and learning strategies for applying implicit and explicit motor learning. Responses were analysed in terms of consensus (≥ 70% and trends (≥ 50%. A summary figure was developed to illustrate a taxonomy of the different learning strategies and options indicated by the experts in the survey.Answers of experts were widely distributed. No consensus was found regarding the application of implicit and explicit motor learning. Some trends were identified: Explicit motor learning can be promoted by using instructions and various types of feedback, but when promoting implicit motor learning, instructions and feedback should be restricted. Further, for implicit motor learning, an external focus of attention should be considered, as well as practicing the entire skill. Experts agreed on three factors that influence motor learning choices: the learner's abilities, the type of task, and the stage of motor learning (94.5%; n = 34/36. Most experts agreed with the summary figure (64.7%; n = 22/34.The results provide an overview of possible ways to cause implicit or explicit motor learning, signposting examples from practice and factors that influence day-to-day motor learning decisions.

  19. Private and Public Schooling in Ghana: A Census and Comparative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac

    2007-07-01

    A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered private schools were noted, including age, fee levels charged, teacher salaries and class size. A range of inputs, such as teacher activity, availability of desks, chairs, libraries, toilets and drinking water, were used to compare inputs to government, unregistered and registered private schools. Some conclusions are explored about the potential role for the private sector in helping meet "education for all" targets.

  20. How few countries will do? Comparative survey analysis from a Bayesian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop J.C.M. Hox

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meuleman and Billiet (2009 have carried out a simulation study aimed at the question how many countries are needed for accurate multilevel SEM estimation in comparative studies. The authors concluded that a sample of 50 to 100 countries is needed for accurate estimation. Recently, Bayesian estimation methods have been introduced in structural equation modeling which should work well with much lower sample sizes. The current study reanalyzes the simulation of Meuleman and Billiet using Bayesian estimation to find the lowest number of countries needed when conducting multilevel SEM. The main result of our simulations is that a sample of about 20 countries is sufficient for accurate Bayesian estimation, which makes multilevel SEM practicable for the number of countries commonly available in large scale comparative surveys.

  1. Stereoscopic Visualization of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data: A Comparative Survey of Visualization Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raslan, O.; Debnam, J.M.; Ketonen, L.; Kumar, A.J.; Schellingerhout, D.; Wang, J.

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data has traditionally been displayed as a gray scale functional anisotropy map (GSFM) or color coded orientation map (CCOM). These methods use black and white or color with intensity values to map the complex multidimensional DTI data to a two-dimensional image. Alternative visualization techniques, such as V m ax maps utilize enhanced graphical representation of the principal eigenvector by means of a headless arrow on regular non stereoscopic (VM) or stereoscopic display (VMS). A survey of clinical utility of patients with intracranial neoplasms was carried out by 8 neuro radiologists using traditional and nontraditional methods of DTI display. Pairwise comparison studies of 5 intracranial neoplasms were performed with a structured questionnaire comparing GSFM, CCOM, VM, and VMS. Six of 8 neuro radiologists favored V m ax maps over traditional methods of display (GSFM and CCOM). When comparing the stereoscopic (VMS) and the non-stereoscopic (VM) modes, 4 favored VMS, 2 favored VM, and 2 had no preference. In conclusion, processing and visualizing DTI data stereoscopically is technically feasible. An initial survey of users indicated that V m ax based display methodology with or without stereoscopic visualization seems to be preferred over traditional methods to display DTI data.

  2. Revealed Comparative Advantage and the Alternatives as Measures of International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Balassa's 'revealed comparative advantage' (RCA). It shows that when using RCA, it should be adjusted such that it becomes symmetric around its neutral value. The proposed adjusted index is called 'revealed symmetric comparative advantage' (RSCA). The theoretica...... Balance, Chi Square, and Bowen's Net Trade Index. The result of the analysis is that RSCA-on balance-is the best measure of comparative advantage....... discussion focuses on the properties of RSCA and empirical evidence, based on the Jarque-Bera test for normality of the regression error terms, using both the RCA and RSCA indices. We compare RSCA to other measures of international trade specialization including the Michaely index, the Contribution to Trade...

  3. Surgical training, duty-hour restrictions, and implications for meeting the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies: views of surgical interns compared with program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiel, Ryan M; Van Arendonk, Kyle J; Reed, Darcy A; Terhune, Kyla P; Tarpley, John L; Porterfield, John R; Hall, Daniel E; Joyce, David L; Wightman, Sean C; Horvath, Karen D; Heller, Stephanie F; Farley, David R

    2012-06-01

    To describe the perspectives of surgical interns regarding the implications of the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty-hour regulations for their training. We compared responses of interns and surgery program directors on a survey about the proposed ACGME mandates. Eleven general surgery residency programs. Two hundred fifteen interns who were administered the survey during the summer of 2011 and a previously surveyed national sample of 134 surgery program directors. Perceptions of the implications of the new duty-hour restrictions on various aspects of surgical training, including the 6 ACGME core competencies of graduate medical education, measured using 3-point scales (increase, no change, or decrease). Of 215 eligible surgical interns, 179 (83.3%) completed the survey. Most interns believed that the new duty-hour regulations will decrease continuity with patients (80.3%), time spent operating (67.4%), and coordination of patient care (57.6%), while approximately half believed that the changes will decrease their acquisition of medical knowledge (48.0%), development of surgical skills (52.8%), and overall educational experience (51.1%). Most believed that the changes will improve or will not alter other aspects of training, and 61.5% believed that the new standards will decrease resident fatigue. Surgical interns were significantly less pessimistic than surgery program directors regarding the implications of the new duty-hour restrictions on all aspects of surgical training (P training under the new paradigm of duty-hour restrictions have significant concerns about the effect of these regulations on the quality of their training.

  4. Internal Medicine Residents' Perceived Responsibility for Patients at Hospital Discharge: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric; Stickrath, Chad; McNulty, Monica C; Calderon, Aaron J; Chapman, Elizabeth; Gonzalo, Jed D; Kuperman, Ethan F; Lopez, Max; Smith, Christopher J; Sweigart, Joseph R; Theobald, Cecelia N; Burke, Robert E

    2016-12-01

    Medical residents are routinely entrusted with transitions of care, yet little is known about the duration or content of their perceived responsibility for patients they discharge from the hospital. To examine the duration and content of internal medicine residents' perceived responsibility for patients they discharge from the hospital. The secondary objective was to determine whether specific individual experiences and characteristics correlate with perceived responsibility. Multi-site, cross-sectional 24-question survey delivered via email or paper-based form. Internal medicine residents (post-graduate years 1-3) at nine university and community-based internal medicine training programs in the United States. Perceived responsibility for patients after discharge as measured by a previously developed single-item tool for duration of responsibility and novel domain-specific questions assessing attitudes towards specific transition of care behaviors. Of 817 residents surveyed, 469 responded (57.4 %). One quarter of residents (26.1 %) indicated that their responsibility for patients ended at discharge, while 19.3 % reported perceived responsibility extending beyond 2 weeks. Perceived duration of responsibility did not correlate with level of training (P = 0.57), program type (P = 0.28), career path (P = 0.12), or presence of burnout (P = 0.59). The majority of residents indicated they were responsible for six of eight transitional care tasks (85.1-99.3 % strongly agree or agree). Approximately half of residents (57 %) indicated that it was their responsibility to directly contact patients' primary care providers at discharge. and 21.6 % indicated that it was their responsibility to ensure that patients attended their follow-up appointments. Internal medicine residents demonstrate variability in perceived duration of responsibility for recently discharged patients. Neither the duration nor the content of residents' perceived responsibility was

  5. The updating of clinical practice guidelines: insights from an international survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solà Ivan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs have become increasingly popular, and the methodology to develop guidelines has evolved enormously. However, little attention has been given to the updating process, in contrast to the appraisal of the available literature. We conducted an international survey to identify current practices in CPG updating and explored the need to standardize and improve the methods. Methods We developed a questionnaire (28 items based on a review of the existing literature about guideline updating and expert comments. We carried out the survey between March and July 2009, and it was sent by email to 106 institutions: 69 members of the Guidelines International Network who declared that they developed CPGs; 30 institutions included in the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse database that published more than 20 CPGs; and 7 institutions selected by an expert committee. Results Forty-four institutions answered the questionnaire (42% response rate. In the final analysis, 39 completed questionnaires were included. Thirty-six institutions (92% reported that they update their guidelines. Thirty-one institutions (86% have a formal procedure for updating their guidelines, and 19 (53% have a formal procedure for deciding when a guideline becomes out of date. Institutions describe the process as moderately rigorous (36% or acknowledge that it could certainly be more rigorous (36%. Twenty-two institutions (61% alert guideline users on their website when a guideline is older than three to five years or when there is a risk of being outdated. Twenty-five institutions (64% support the concept of "living guidelines," which are continuously monitored and updated. Eighteen institutions (46% have plans to design a protocol to improve their guideline-updating process, and 21 (54% are willing to share resources with other organizations. Conclusions Our study is the first to describe the process of updating CPGs among prominent

  6. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. We compared 148 MSM aged 18-64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010-2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%-95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. Methods We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. Results MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%–95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. Conclusions National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. PMID:26965869

  8. Comparative Study Between Internal Ohmic Resistance and Capacity for Battery State of Health Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nisvo Ramadan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid battery failure, a battery management system (BMS is necessary. Battery state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH are part of information provided by a BMS. This research analyzes methods to estimate SOH based lithium polymer battery on change of its internal resistance and its capacity. Recursive least square (RLS algorithm was used to estimate internal ohmic resistance while coloumb counting was used to predict the change in the battery capacity. For the estimation algorithm, the battery terminal voltage and current are set as the input variables. Some tests including static capacity test, pulse test, pulse variation test and before charge-discharge test have been conducted to obtain the required data. After comparing the two methods, the obtained results show that SOH estimation based on coloumb counting provides better accuracy than SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance. However, the SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance is faster and more reliable for real application

  9. The value of the physical examination in clinical practice: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Andrew T; McManus, I Chris; Patrick, Alan; Nair, Kichu; Vaughan, Louella; Dacre, Jane

    2017-12-01

    A structured online survey was used to establish the views of 2,684 practising clinicians of all ages in multiple countries about the value of the physical examination in the contemporary practice of internal medicine. 70% felt that physical examination was 'almost always valuable' in acute general medical referrals. 66% of trainees felt that they were never observed by a consultant when undertaking physical examination and 31% that consultants never demonstrated their use of the physical examination to them. Auscultation for pulmonary wheezes and crackles were the two signs most likely to be rated as frequently used and useful, with the character of the jugular venous waveform most likely to be rated as -infrequently used and not useful. Physicians in contemporary hospital general medical practice continue to value the contribution of the physical examination to assessment of outpatients and inpatients, but, in the opinion of trainees, teaching and demonstration could be improved. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  10. Human and organisational factors influencing the reliability of non-destructive testing. An international literary survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, J.; Norros, L.

    1996-04-01

    The aim of the study is to chart human and organisational factors influencing the reliability of non-destructive testing (NDT). The emphasis will be in ultrasonic testing (UT) and in the planning and execution of in-service inspections during nuclear power plant maintenance outages. Being a literary survey this study is mainly based on the foreign and domestic research available on the topic. In consequence, the results presented in this report reflect the ideas of international research community. In addition to this, Finnish nuclear power plant operators (Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy), independent inspection organisations and the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety have provided us with valuable information on NDT theory and practice. Especially, a kind of 'big picture' of non-destructive testing has been pursued in the study. (6 figs., 2 tabs.)

  11. International survey on the management of skin stigmata and suspected tethered cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponger, Penina; Ben-Sira, Liat; Beni-Adani, Liana; Steinbok, Paul; Constantini, Shlomi

    2010-12-01

    We designed a survey to investigate current international management trends of neonates with lumbar midline skin stigmata suspicious of tethered cord, among pediatric neurosurgeons, focusing on the lower risk stigmata, simple dimples, deviated gluteal folds, and discolorations. Our findings will enable physicians to assess their current diagnosis routine and aid in clarifying management controversies. A questionnaire on the proposed diagnostic evaluation of seven case reports, each accompanied by relevant imaging, was distributed by e-mail to members of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery, the European Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery, and via the PEDS server list between March and August 2008. Sixty-two questionnaires, completed by experienced professionals with a rather uniform distribution of experience levels, were analyzed. Forty-eight percent do not recommend any imaging of simple dimples, 30% recommend US screening and 22% recommend MR. Seventy-nine percent recommend imaging of deviated gluteal fold with 30% recommending MR. Ninety-two percent recommend imaging infants with hemangiomas with 74% recommending MR. MR for sinus tracts is recommended by 90% if sacral and by 98% if lumber. Eighty-four percent recommend MR for filar cyst. Our survey demonstrates that management of low-risk skin stigmata, simple dimple, deviated gluteal fold, and discolorations lacks consensus. In addition, a significant sector of the professional community proposes a work-up of simple dimples, sacral tracts, and filar cysts that contradicts established recommendations. A simple classification system is needed to attain a better approach, enabling correct diagnosis of tethered cord without exposing neonates to unnecessary examinations.

  12. Comparative analysis of fiscal terms for Alberta oil sands and international heavy and conventional oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    There are considerable differences between international heavy oil and Alberta oil sands projects, notably the high viscosity of the bitumen in the oil sands reservoirs. The oil sands bitumen do not flow to wells without heating the bitumen, thereby adding to the already high cost of Alberta oil sand operations. This report provided an economic comparison of Alberta oil sands and international heavy oil projects. It also included a brief scoping review to compare with conventional oil regimes. Full exploration costs including the costs of dry holes were allocated to conventional oil operations in order to obtain a proper comparison. This investigation included the costs of dry holes. The report was a follow up to an earlier study released on April 12, 2007 on the preliminary fiscal evaluation of Alberta oil sand terms. The report provided an economic framework and described project selection. It then provided a discussion of production, costs and price data. Four adjusted projects were presented and compared with Alberta. The Venezuelan royalty formula was also discussed. Last, the report provided a detailed fiscal analysis. Comparisons were offered with Cold Lake and Athabasca Mine. A review of some other fiscal systems applicable to conventional oil were also outlined. It was concluded that Alberta oil sands developments are very competitive. It would be possible to modestly increase government revenues, without affecting the international competitive position of Alberta with respect to conventional oil. There is also some possibility to increase the base royalty on the Alberta oil sands without losing competitiveness. tabs., figs

  13. Health system frameworks and performance indicators in eight countries: A comparative international analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Braithwaite

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Performance indicators are a popular mechanism for measuring the quality of healthcare to facilitate both quality improvement and systems management. Few studies make comparative assessments of different countries’ performance indicator frameworks. This study identifies and compares frameworks and performance indicators used in selected Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development health systems to measure and report on the performance of healthcare organisations and local health systems. Countries involved are Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Scotland and the United States. Methods: Identification of comparable international indicators and analyses of their characteristics and of their broader national frameworks and contexts were undertaken. Two dimensions of indicators – that they are nationally consistent (used across the country rather than just regionally and locally relevant (measured and reported publicly at a local level, for example, a health service – were deemed important. Results: The most commonly used domains in performance frameworks were safety, effectiveness and access. The search found 401 indicators that fulfilled the ‘nationally consistent and locally relevant’ criteria. Of these, 45 indicators are reported in more than one country. Cardiovascular, surgery and mental health were the most frequently reported disease groups. Conclusion: These comparative data inform researchers and policymakers internationally when designing health performance frameworks and indicator sets.

  14. Cochrane Rehabilitation Methodology Committee: an international survey of priorities for future work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, William M; Meyer, Thorsten; Negrini, Stefano; Malmivaara, Antti

    2017-10-01

    Cochrane Rehabilitation aims to improve the application of evidence-based practice in rehabilitation. It also aims to support Cochrane in the production of reliable, clinically meaningful syntheses of evidence related to the practice of rehabilitation, while accommodating the many methodological challenges facing the field. To this end, Cochrane Rehabilitation established a Methodology Committee to examine, explore and find solutions for the methodological challenges related to evidence synthesis and knowledge translation in rehabilitation. We conducted an international online survey via Cochrane Rehabilitation networks to canvass opinions regarding the future work priorities for this committee and to seek information on people's current capabilities to assist with this work. The survey findings indicated strongest interest in work on how reviewers have interpreted and applied Cochrane methods in reviews on rehabilitation topics in the past, and on gathering a collection of existing publications on review methods for undertaking systematic reviews relevant to rehabilitation. Many people are already interested in contributing to the work of the Methodology Committee and there is a large amount of expertise for this work in the extended Cochrane Rehabilitation network already.

  15. Monitoring of patients treated with lithium for bipolar disorder: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederlof, M; Heerdink, E R; Egberts, A C G; Wilting, I; Stoker, L J; Hoekstra, R; Kupka, R W

    2018-04-14

    Adequate monitoring of patients using lithium is needed for optimal dosing and for early identification of patients with (potential) ADEs. The objective was to internationally assess how health care professionals monitor patients treated with lithium for bipolar disorder. Using networks of various professional organizations, an anonymous online survey was conducted among health care professionals prescribing lithium. Target lithium serum levels and frequency of monitoring was assessed together with monitoring of physical and laboratory parameters. Reasons to and not to monitor and use of guidelines and institutional protocols, and local monitoring systems were investigated. The survey was completed by 117 health care professionals incorporating responses from twenty-four countries. All prescribers reported to monitor lithium serum levels on a regular basis, with varying target ranges. Almost all (> 97%) monitored thyroid and renal function before start and during maintenance treatment. Reported monitoring of other laboratory and physical parameters was variable. The majority of respondents (74%) used guidelines or institutional protocols for monitoring. In general, the prescriber was responsible for monitoring, had to request every monitoring parameter separately and only a minority of patients was automatically invited. Lithium serum levels, renal and thyroid function were monitored by (almost) all physicians. However, there was considerable variation in other monitoring parameters. Our results help to understand why prescribers of lithium monitor patients and what their main reasons are not to monitor patients using lithium.

  16. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  17. What Factors are Important to Patients when Assessing Treatment Response: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kobyletzki, Laura B; Thomas, Kim S; Schmitt, Jochen; Chalmers, Joanne R; Deckert, Stefanie; Aoki, Valeria; Weisshaar, Elke; Ojo, Jumoke Ahubelem; Svensson, Åke

    2017-01-04

    This study investigated the perspective of international patients on individual symptoms of atopic dermatitis (eczema) in determining treatment response. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the importance of symptoms from the patient's perspective. Patients were asked: "How important are these features in deciding whether or not a treatment is working?", and rated symptoms on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients were approached via Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) collaborators and self-selected to take part in the on-line survey. Patients from 34 countries (n = 1,111) completed the survey; of these, 423 (38.3%) were parents of children with eczema. Nine items were rated as being "quite important" or "very important" by more than 80% of the respondents: itch, pain/soreness, skin feels hot or inflamed, bleeding, involvement of visible or sensitive body sites, cracks, sleep difficulties, amount of body affected, and weeping/oozing. These results may be of use in determining the face validity of scales from a cross-cultural patients' perspective.

  18. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: Economic Impact of COPD in 12 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jason; Landis, Sarah H; Maskell, Joe; Oh, Yeon-Mok; van der Molen, Thys; Han, MeiLan K; Mannino, David M; Ichinose, Masakazu; Punekar, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey estimated the prevalence and burden of COPD across 12 countries. Using data from this survey we evaluated the economic impact of COPD. This cross-sectional, population-based survey questioned 4,343 subjects aged 40 years and older, fulfilling a case definition of COPD based on self-reported physician diagnosis or symptomatology. Direct cost measures were based on exacerbations of COPD (treated and those requiring emergency department visits and/or hospitalisation), contacts with healthcare professionals, and COPD medications. Indirect costs were calculated from work loss values using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment scale. Combined direct and indirect costs estimated the total societal costs per patient. The annual direct costs of COPD ranged from $504 (South Korea) to $9,981 (USA), with inpatient hospitalisations (5 countries) and home oxygen therapy (3 countries) being the key drivers of direct costs. The proportion of patients completely prevented from working due to their COPD ranged from 6% (Italy) to 52% (USA and UK) with 8 countries reporting this to be ≥20%. Total societal costs per patient varied widely from $1,721 (Russia) to $30,826 (USA) but a consistent pattern across countries showed greater costs among those with increased burden of COPD (symptoms, health status and more severe disease) and a greater number of comorbidities. The economic burden of COPD is considerable across countries, and requires targeted resources to optimise COPD management encompassing the control of symptoms, prevention of exacerbations and effective treatment of comorbidities. Strategies to allow COPD patients to remain in work are important for addressing the substantial wider societal costs.

  19. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: Economic Impact of COPD in 12 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Foo

    Full Text Available The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey estimated the prevalence and burden of COPD across 12 countries. Using data from this survey we evaluated the economic impact of COPD.This cross-sectional, population-based survey questioned 4,343 subjects aged 40 years and older, fulfilling a case definition of COPD based on self-reported physician diagnosis or symptomatology. Direct cost measures were based on exacerbations of COPD (treated and those requiring emergency department visits and/or hospitalisation, contacts with healthcare professionals, and COPD medications. Indirect costs were calculated from work loss values using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment scale. Combined direct and indirect costs estimated the total societal costs per patient.The annual direct costs of COPD ranged from $504 (South Korea to $9,981 (USA, with inpatient hospitalisations (5 countries and home oxygen therapy (3 countries being the key drivers of direct costs. The proportion of patients completely prevented from working due to their COPD ranged from 6% (Italy to 52% (USA and UK with 8 countries reporting this to be ≥20%. Total societal costs per patient varied widely from $1,721 (Russia to $30,826 (USA but a consistent pattern across countries showed greater costs among those with increased burden of COPD (symptoms, health status and more severe disease and a greater number of comorbidities.The economic burden of COPD is considerable across countries, and requires targeted resources to optimise COPD management encompassing the control of symptoms, prevention of exacerbations and effective treatment of comorbidities. Strategies to allow COPD patients to remain in work are important for addressing the substantial wider societal costs.

  20. Definitive Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Extracranial Oligometastases: An International Survey of >1000 Radiation Oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen L; Porceddu, Sandro; Nakamura, Naoki; Palma, David A; Lo, Simon S; Hoskin, Peter; Moghanaki, Drew; Chmura, Steven J; Salama, Joseph K

    2017-08-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is often used to treat patients with oligometastases (OM). Yet, patterns of SBRT practice for OM are unknown. Therefore, we surveyed radiation oncologists internationally, to understand how and when SBRT is used for OM. A 25-question survey was distributed to radiation oncologists. Respondents using SBRT for OM were asked how long they have been treating OM, number of patients treated, organs treated, primary reason for use, doses used, and future intentions. Respondents not using SBRT for OM were asked reasons why SBRT was not used and intentions for future adoption. Data were analyzed anonymously. We received 1007 surveys from 43 countries. Eighty-three percent began using SBRT after 2005 and greater than one third after 2010. Eighty-four percent cited perceived treatment response/durability as the primary reason for using SBRT in OM patients. Commonly treated organs were lung (90%), liver (75%), and spine (70%). SBRT dose/fractionation schemes varied widely. Most would offer a second course to new OM. Nearly all (99%) planned to continue and 66% planned to increase SBRT for OM. Of those not using SBRT, 59% plan to start soon. The most common reason for not using SBRT was lack of clinical efficacy (48%) or lack of necessary image guidance equipment (34%). Radiation oncologists are increasingly using SBRT for OM. The main reason for not using SBRT for OM is a perceived lack of evidence demonstrating clinical advantages. These data strengthen the need for robust prospective clinical trials (ongoing and in development) to demonstrate clinical efficacy given the widespread adoption of SBRT for OM.

  1. Long-Term Comparative Advantages of the Eurasian Economic Union Member States in International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkowski Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 1st January 2015 the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU - a new integration block comprising initially Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and later that year also Armenia and Kyrgyzstan - appeared on the world map. This paper endeavors to identify the EAEU countries’ long-term international comparative advantages within four basic groups of goods according to the OECD classification of manufacturing industries based on technology intensity. The analysis, using B. Balassa’s RCA methodology and covering the years 2000-2014, indicates that these countries lack competitiveness, with none of them possessing any RCAs in the high-technology category whereas in the medium-hightechnology category - only Belarus. In contrast, all the EAEU countries fared the best in the medium-low-technology category, which is mostly attributable to the resources-based character of their economies. Surprisingly, dramatically low international competitiveness was recorded by Kazakhstan and Russia.

  2. Recommendations for radioembolisation after liver surgery using yttrium-90 resin microspheres based on a survey of an international expert panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim, Morsal [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Veenendaal, Linde M. van; Braat, Manon N.G.J.A.; Hoven, Andor F. van den; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den; Lam, Marnix G.E.H. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hillegersberg, Richard van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Sangro, Bruno [Clinica Universidad de Navarra-IDISNA and CIBEREHD, Liver Unit, Pamplona (Spain); Kao, Yung Hsiang [Cabrini Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); Liu, Dave [Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y. [Stanford University Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Stanford (United States); Rose, Steven C. [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego (United States); Brown, Daniel B. [Vanderbilt University, Medical Center North, Department of Radiology, Nashville (United States); Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Kim, Edward [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, New York (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Guidelines on how to adjust activity in patients with a history of liver surgery who are undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolisation ({sup 90}Y-RE) are lacking. The aim was to study the variability in activity prescription in these patients, between centres with extensive experience using resin microspheres {sup 90}Y-RE, and to draw recommendations on activity prescription based on an expert consensus. The variability in activity prescription between centres was investigated by a survey of international experts in the field of {sup 90}Y-RE. Six representative post-surgical patients (i.e. comparable activity prescription, different outcome) were selected. Information on patients' disease characteristics and data needed for activity calculation was presented to the expert panel. Reported was the used method for activity prescription and whether, how and why activity reduction was found indicated. Ten experts took part in the survey. Recommendations on activity reduction were highly variable between the expert panel. The median intra-patient range was 44 Gy (range 18-55 Gy). Reductions in prescribed activity were recommended in 68% of the cases. In consensus, a maximum D{sub Target} of 50 Gy was recommended. With a current lack of guidelines, large variability in activity prescription in post-surgical patients undergoing {sup 90}Y-RE exists. In consensus, D{sub Target} ≤50 Gy is recommended. (orig.)

  3. Recommendations for radioembolisation after liver surgery using yttrium-90 resin microspheres based on a survey of an international expert panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samim, Morsal; Veenendaal, Linde M. van; Braat, Manon N.G.J.A.; Hoven, Andor F. van den; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den; Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Hillegersberg, Richard van; Sangro, Bruno; Kao, Yung Hsiang; Liu, Dave; Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y.; Rose, Steven C.; Brown, Daniel B.; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Kim, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines on how to adjust activity in patients with a history of liver surgery who are undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolisation ( 90 Y-RE) are lacking. The aim was to study the variability in activity prescription in these patients, between centres with extensive experience using resin microspheres 90 Y-RE, and to draw recommendations on activity prescription based on an expert consensus. The variability in activity prescription between centres was investigated by a survey of international experts in the field of 90 Y-RE. Six representative post-surgical patients (i.e. comparable activity prescription, different outcome) were selected. Information on patients' disease characteristics and data needed for activity calculation was presented to the expert panel. Reported was the used method for activity prescription and whether, how and why activity reduction was found indicated. Ten experts took part in the survey. Recommendations on activity reduction were highly variable between the expert panel. The median intra-patient range was 44 Gy (range 18-55 Gy). Reductions in prescribed activity were recommended in 68% of the cases. In consensus, a maximum D Target of 50 Gy was recommended. With a current lack of guidelines, large variability in activity prescription in post-surgical patients undergoing 90 Y-RE exists. In consensus, D Target ≤50 Gy is recommended. (orig.)

  4. Benchmarking surgeon satisfaction at academic health centers: a nationwide comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachman, D A

    1996-01-01

    Forty-six academic health centers (AHCs) belonging to the University HealthSystem consortium joined forces to compare the efficiency of their surgical services and to identify best practices. In addition to measures of operational performance, surgeon satisfaction with the surgical services provided was measured by using a standardized questionnaire. From hospital records, indicators of the efficiency of surgical services were collected in three main areas: scheduling, preoperative testing and assessment, and the intraoperative process. Responding to a mail questionnaire, a sample of surgeons rated their satisfaction with key aspects of surgical services including scheduling, operating room staff, and equipment/supplies. On the basis of a review of the operational measures and the survey results, high performers were identified. Site visits were made to several of these high performers to uncover the critical factors responsible for their success. The survey revealed distinct variations in surgeon satisfaction across the participating institutions. Numerical benchmarks were obtained for surgeon satisfaction with each key component of surgical services. Scheduling was the most important component of overall surgeon satisfaction, explaining 71% of the variance in the rating of overall satisfaction with surgical services. High operational efficiency and high surgeon satisfaction were not incompatible. Several of the participating institutions were able to achieve both. These results were disseminated to all of the participants at a national meeting as well as in written form. The surgeon satisfaction survey allowed the participants to establish benchmarks for surgeon satisfaction for each key component of the surgical services they receive. The site visits revealed several common characteristics of highly efficient surgical services. Taken by themselves, the participating institutions might have been reluctant to consider adopting these best practices for fear of

  5. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." The Authors thank COST (www.cost.eu) for funding the Action TU1208 (www.GPRadar.eu). Part of this work was carried out during the Short-Term Scientific Mission STSM-TU1208-24656 "Comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines" (Dr Lara Pajewski, Italy, visiting Prof Marian Marciniak, Poland).

  6. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  7. Development of the individual agencies within international organizations: comparative-personological view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. О. Калмиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting: Personalized activity of individuals holding offices of individual organs in the structure of international organizations is an essential part of the activities of these organizations. Meanwhile, today legal science researches this problem mainly in the context of the development of separate branches of international law. Recent research and publications analysis: From Max Weber, the development of individual organs was studied as a question how one transforms institutions that are led by high-profile individuals into institutions that have a life and energy of their own". Current international legal research in this regard provided by  H. H. Koh, F. Benua-Romer, H. Klebes, R. Kicker and the others. There are no relevant Ukrainian legal studies on this issue today. Paper objective: The purpose of the article is to review the issue on the example of a relatively new international bodies - the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe. The features of organs, crucial for the study are: the features of appointment (election of candidate, term of his office and special activities scheduled for each of these positions. Paper main body: Comparing the Institute of the High Commissioner and the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe in personological view, we note that the personal characteristics and expert practices of the first, second and third Council of Europe Commissioner largely matches with the same first three (in same order United Nations High Commissioners for Human Rights. This fact suggests that the election of candidates for these positions is a part of strategic transformation of the body. There is a reason to believe that the strategy of the international organizations, not only related to their desire to be effectively involved in actions within their mandate, but also with the desire to increase their influence in comparison with the

  8. High road utilizers surveys compared to police data for road traffic crash hotspot localization in Rwanda and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Catherine A; De Silva, Vijitha; Krebs, Elizabeth; Andrade, Luciano; Rulisa, Stephen; Mallawaarachchi, Badra Chandanie; Jin, Kezhi; RicardoVissoci, Joao; Østbye, Truls

    2016-01-20

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a leading cause of death. In low and middle income countries (LMIC) data to conduct hotspot analyses and safety audits are usually incomplete, poor quality, and not computerized. Police data are often limited, but there are no alternative gold standards. This project evaluates high road utilizer surveys as an alternative to police data to identify RTC hotspots. Retrospective police RTC data was compared to prospective data from high road utilizer surveys regarding dangerous road locations. Spatial analysis using geographic information systems was used to map dangerous locations and identify RTC hotspots. We assessed agreement (Cohen's Kappa), sensitivity/specificity, and cost differences. In Rwanda police data identified 1866 RTC locations from 2589 records while surveys identified 1264 locations from 602 surveys. In Sri Lanka, police data identified 721 RTC locations from 752 records while survey data found 3000 locations from 300 surveys. There was high agreement (97 %, 83 %) and kappa (0.60, 0.60) for Rwanda and Sri Lanka respectively. Sensitivity and specificity are 92 % and 95 % for Rwanda and 74 % and 93 % for Sri Lanka. The cost per crash location identified was $2.88 for police and $2.75 for survey data in Rwanda and $2.75 for police and $1.21 for survey data in Sri Lanka. Surveys to locate RTC hotspots have high sensitivity and specificity compared to police data. Therefore, surveys can be a viable, inexpensive, and rapid alternative to the use of police data in LMIC.

  9. A qualitative comparative survey of First Cycle radiography programmes in Europe and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tatsuhito; Caruana, Carmel J.; Shimosegawa, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To qualitatively compare First Cycle Radiography programmes in Europe and Japan. Methods: This qualitative survey was conducted via a series of case-studies of university-based radiography curricula in Europe and Japan. Findings and conclusions: The main themes arising from the survey were that: (a) in Europe the freedom that most universities have in setting their own curricula and examinations means that in practice there is still a wide variability in curricula between and within states. On the other hand in Japan curricula are more uniform owing to central government guidelines regarding radiography education and a centrally administered national radiography examination. This means that student and worker mobility is much easier for Japanese radiographers. (b) in some countries in Europe principles of reporting and healthcare management are being expanded at the expense of the more technological aspects of radiography. Physical science competences on the other hand are considered highly in Japanese culture and form a major part of the curriculum. This may indicate that Japanese students would be in a much better position to cope with role developments linked to changes in imaging technology. Pragmatically oriented studies need to be carried out to determine ways in which radiographers can enhance their role without sacrificing their technological competences. The profession cannot afford to lose its technological expertise - it is neither in the interest of the profession itself and even less of the patient.

  10. A preliminary survey of M. hyopneumoniae virulence factors based on comparative genomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP, a major problem for the pig industry. The mechanisms of M. hyopneumoniae pathogenicity allow to predict the existence of several classes of virulence factors, whose study has been essentially restricted to the characterization of adhesion-related and major antigenic proteins. The now available complete sequences of the genomes of two pathogenic and one non-pathogenic strain of M. hyopneumoniae allowed to use a comparative genomics approach to putatively identify virulence genes. In this preliminary survey, we were able to identify 118 CDSs encoding putative virulence factors, based on specific criteria ranging from predicted cell surface location or variation between strains to previous functional studies showing antigenicity or involvement in host-pathogen interaction. This survey is expected to serve as a first step towards the functional characterization of new virulence genes/proteins that will be important not only for a better comprehension of M. hyopneumoniae biology, but also for the development of new and improved protocols for PEP vaccination, diagnosis and treatment.

  11. International medical students – a survey of perceived challenges and established support services at medical faculties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huhn, D.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students with a non-German background face several challenges during their studies. Besides support given by foreign student offices further specific projects for international students have been developed and are offered by medical faculties. However, so far, neither a systematic survey of the faculties’ perceived problems nor of the offered support exists.Method: All study deaneries of medical faculties in Germany were contacted between April and October 2013 and asked for their participation in a telephone interview. Interview partners were asked about 1. The percentage of non-German students at the medical faculty; 2. The perceived difficulties and problems of foreign students; 3. The offers for non-German students; and 4. The specification of further possibilities of support. Given information was noted, frequencies counted and results interpreted via frequency analysis.Results: Only 39% of the medical faculties could give detailed information about the percentage of non-German students. They reported an average share of 3.9% of students with an EU migration background and 4.9% with a non-EU background. Most frequently cited offers are student conducted tutorials, language courses and tandem-programs. The most frequently reported problem by far is the perceived lack of language skills of foreign students at the beginning of their studies. Suggested solutions are mainly the development of tutorials and the improvement of German medical terminology.Discussion: Offers of support provided by medical faculties for foreign students vary greatly in type and extent. Support offered is seen to be insufficient in coping with the needs of the international students in many cases. Hence, a better coverage of international students as well as further research efforts to the specific needs and the effectiveness of applied interventions seem to be essential.

  12. International medical students – a survey of perceived challenges and established support services at medical faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D.; Junne, F.; Zipfel, S.; Duelli, R.; Resch, F.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students with a non-German background face several challenges during their studies. Besides support given by foreign student offices further specific projects for international students have been developed and are offered by medical faculties. However, so far, neither a systematic survey of the faculties’ perceived problems nor of the offered support exists. Method: All study deaneries of medical faculties in Germany were contacted between April and October 2013 and asked for their participation in a telephone interview. Interview partners were asked about 1.) The percentage of non-German students at the medical faculty; 2.) The perceived difficulties and problems of foreign students; 3.) The offers for non-German students; and 4.) The specification of further possibilities of support. Given information was noted, frequencies counted and results interpreted via frequency analysis. Results: Only 39% of the medical faculties could give detailed information about the percentage of non-German students. They reported an average share of 3.9% of students with an EU migration background and 4.9% with a non-EU background. Most frequently cited offers are student conducted tutorials, language courses and tandem-programs. The most frequently reported problem by far is the perceived lack of language skills of foreign students at the beginning of their studies. Suggested solutions are mainly the development of tutorials and the improvement of German medical terminology. Discussion: Offers of support provided by medical faculties for foreign students vary greatly in type and extent. Support offered is seen to be insufficient in coping with the needs of the international students in many cases. Hence, a better coverage of international students as well as further research efforts to the specific needs and the effectiveness of applied interventions seem to be essential. PMID:25699112

  13. International medical students--a survey of perceived challenges and established support services at medical faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D; Junne, F; Zipfel, S; Duelli, R; Resch, F; Herzog, W; Nikendei, C

    2015-01-01

    Medical students with a non-German background face several challenges during their studies. Besides support given by foreign student offices further specific projects for international students have been developed and are offered by medical faculties. However, so far, neither a systematic survey of the faculties' perceived problems nor of the offered support exists. All study deaneries of medical faculties in Germany were contacted between April and October 2013 and asked for their participation in a telephone interview. Interview partners were asked about 1.) The percentage of non-German students at the medical faculty; 2.) The perceived difficulties and problems of foreign students; 3.) The offers for non-German students; and 4.) The specification of further possibilities of support. Given information was noted, frequencies counted and results interpreted via frequency analysis. Only 39% of the medical faculties could give detailed information about the percentage of non-German students. They reported an average share of 3.9% of students with an EU migration background and 4.9% with a non-EU background. Most frequently cited offers are student conducted tutorials, language courses and tandem-programs. The most frequently reported problem by far is the perceived lack of language skills of foreign students at the beginning of their studies. Suggested solutions are mainly the development of tutorials and the improvement of German medical terminology. Offers of support provided by medical faculties for foreign students vary greatly in type and extent. Support offered is seen to be insufficient in coping with the needs of the international students in many cases. Hence, a better coverage of international students as well as further research efforts to the specific needs and the effectiveness of applied interventions seem to be essential.

  14. Management of optic neuritis and impact of clinical trials: an international survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biousse, Valérie; Calvetti, Olivier; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: 1) To evaluate the management of acute isolated optic neuritis (ON) by ophthalmologists and neurologists; 2) to evaluate the impact of clinical trials; 3) to compare these practices among 7 countries. METHODS: A survey on diagnosis and treatment of acute isolated ON was sent to 5,443 n...... ON patients according to the best evidence from clinical research. This confirms that evaluation of the impact of major clinical trials ("translational T2 clinical research") is essential when assessing the effects of interventions designed to improve quality of care....

  15. Frameworks for comparing emissions associated with production, consumption, and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Lenzen, Manfred; Peters, Glen P; Moran, Daniel D; Geschke, Arne

    2012-01-03

    While the problem of climate change is being perceived as increasingly urgent, decision-makers struggle to agree on the distribution of responsibility across countries. In particular, representatives from countries hosting emissions-intensive exporting industries have argued that the importers of emissions-intensive goods should bear the responsibility, and ensuing penalties. Indeed, international trade and carbon leakage appear to play an increasingly important role in the carbon emissions debate. However, definitions of quantities describing the embodiment of carbon emissions in internationally traded products, and their measurement, have to be sufficiently robust before being able to underpin global policy. In this paper we critically examine a number of emissions accounting concepts, examine whether the ensuing carbon balances are compatible with monetary trade balances, discuss their different interpretations, and highlight implications for policy. In particular, we compare the emissions embodied in bilateral trade (EEBT) method which considers total trade flows with domestic emission intensities, with the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) method which considers trade only into final consumption with global emission intensities. If consumption-based emissions of different countries were to be compared, we would suggest an MRIO approach because of the global emissions coverage inherent in this method. If trade-adjusted emission inventories were to be compared, we would suggest an EEBT approach due to the consistency with a monetary trade balance.

  16. Comparing LiDAR-Generated to ground- surveyed channel cross-sectional profiles in a forested mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Dietterick; Russell White; Ryan Hilburn

    2012-01-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) holds promise to provide an alternative to traditional ground-based survey methods for stream channel characterization and some change detection purposes, even under challenging landscape conditions. This study compared channel characteristics measured at 53 ground-surveyed and LiDAR-derived crosssectional profiles located...

  17. Use of models in large-area forest surveys: comparing model-assisted, model-based and hybrid estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Stahl; Svetlana Saarela; Sebastian Schnell; Soren Holm; Johannes Breidenbach; Sean P. Healey; Paul L. Patterson; Steen Magnussen; Erik Naesset; Ronald E. McRoberts; Timothy G. Gregoire

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of models for increasing the precision of estimators in large-area forest surveys. It is motivated by the increasing availability of remotely sensed data, which facilitates the development of models predicting the variables of interest in forest surveys. We present, review and compare three different estimation frameworks where...

  18. International travel in the immunocompromised patient: a cross-sectional survey of travel advice in 254 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialy, C; Horne, K; Dendle, C; Kanellis, J; Littlejohn, G; Ratnam, I; Woolley, I

    2015-06-01

    Our primary aim was to determine the rate of overseas travel in immunocompromised individuals attending appropriate clinics at an Australian tertiary care hospital. We also aimed to characterise health-seeking behaviour prior to travel and investigated sources of pre-travel advice, compared travel patterns and activities between three specific immunosuppressed groups, and examined pre-immunosuppression patient serology. We implemented a cross-sectional survey of patients between February and August 2012. This survey was implemented among three outpatient populations at Monash Medical Centre, an Australian tertiary care hospital. We recruited 254 immunosuppressed adults from three patient populations: human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals, renal transplant patients and rheumatology patients requiring immunosuppressive therapy. No clinical intervention was performed. In the 10 years preceding the survey, 153 (60.2%) participants reported international travel. Of these, 105 (68.6%) were immunosuppressed at the time of travel. These patients were 47.6% male and 60% Australian born. Forty per cent were visiting friends and relatives as part of their travel. Fifty-four per cent of those immunocompromised at the time of travel were going to high-risk destinations. Pathology files indicated that serological screening was frequently not performed prior to immunosuppression in the renal transplant and rheumatology groups. Immunocompromised patients often travel to high-risk destinations with limited or inadequate pre-travel preparations. Doctors caring for the immunocompromised should be aware of travel risks, suitable vaccination protocols and when to refer to specialist travel clinics. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Globalisation plus Comparative and International Education: Towards a Theory of the Confluence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emefa Amoako

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to contribute to ways by which confluence, referring to a meeting point for the different agents to cooperate and communicate on education policy processes, can be understood. Pertinent national education policies in countries receiving aid, in particular, are formed and implemented in a complex nexus. Cultural and context sensitivity can be stimulated through a thorough understanding of this confluence, which subsequently can enable the different policy agents, which function at this meeting point, collaborate to alleviate some of the educational challenges. Comparative and international education, in this respect, has a significant role to play.

  20. Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Johnson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC health-related quality of life (HRQoL indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions.Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods.Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs.Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed

  1. Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lorraine; Wilcox, Spencer; Mankoff, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD) and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions. Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods. Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs. Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed by this

  2. Impact of point-of-sale tobacco display bans: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing restrictions in Australia and Canada, in relation to the United Kingdom and the United States where there were no such restrictions during the study period (2006–10). The data came from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective multi-country cohort survey of adult smokers. In jurisdictions where POS display bans were implemented, smokers’ reported exposure to tobacco marketing declined markedly....

  3. The strength of primary care in Europe: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringos, Dionne; Boerma, Wienke; Bourgueil, Yann; Cartier, Thomas; Dedeu, Toni; Hasvold, Toralf; Hutchinson, Allen; Lember, Margus; Oleszczyk, Marek; Rotar Pavlic, Danica; Svab, Igor; Tedeschi, Paolo; Wilm, Stefan; Wilson, Andrew; Windak, Adam; Van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter

    2013-11-01

    A suitable definition of primary care to capture the variety of prevailing international organisation and service-delivery models is lacking. Evaluation of strength of primary care in Europe. International comparative cross-sectional study performed in 2009-2010, involving 27 EU member states, plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey. Outcome measures covered three dimensions of primary care structure: primary care governance, economic conditions of primary care, and primary care workforce development; and four dimensions of primary care service-delivery process: accessibility, comprehensiveness, continuity, and coordination of primary care. The primary care dimensions were operationalised by a total of 77 indicators for which data were collected in 31 countries. Data sources included national and international literature, governmental publications, statistical databases, and experts' consultations. Countries with relatively strong primary care are Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, and the UK. Countries either have many primary care policies and regulations in place, combined with good financial coverage and resources, and adequate primary care workforce conditions, or have consistently only few of these primary care structures in place. There is no correlation between the access, continuity, coordination, and comprehensiveness of primary care of countries. Variation is shown in the strength of primary care across Europe, indicating a discrepancy in the responsibility given to primary care in national and international policy initiatives and the needed investments in primary care to solve, for example, future shortages of workforce. Countries are consistent in their primary care focus on all important structure dimensions. Countries need to improve their primary care information infrastructure to facilitate primary care performance management.

  4. The ‘Landscape’ of Nuclear Safeguards: A Comparative Analysis of the International and Regional Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colussi, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of “nuclear non-proliferation” is twofold. It refers to: (a) reduction of the number of existing arsenals (vertical non-proliferation), and (b) containment of the number of States that possess nuclear weapons, or control of non-state actors (horizontal non-proliferation). At the international law level, as vertical non-proliferation, there are bilateral or multilateral agreements that ban weapons of mass destruction in certain areas (e.g.: Nuclear–Weapon– Free Zones treaties). With respect to horizontal non-proliferation, beyond the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones approach, the main legal text for addressing the issue is the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). For the implementation of the principles contained in the NPT, a “nuclear safeguards” system has been created, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been assigned the role of the nuclear “watchdog” for the NPT. However, along with this international system of safeguards, there are regional safeguards bodies: (a) the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) model is the cornerstone of non-proliferation in the EU, while (b) the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) controls nuclear activities in Brazil and Argentina. Moreover, the existing nuclear weapons free-zone treaties contain safeguards provisions that are additional or complementary to IAEA safeguards. For instance, (a) the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) works for the implementation of Tlatelolco Treaty, (b) the African Commission on Nuclear Energy relates to Pelindaba Treaty, and (c) a Consultative Committee of the Parties is appointed in the context of Raratonga Treaty. The paper aims at critically analysing the different safeguards systems adopted at the international and regional level, through the adoption of a comparative approach. (author)

  5. Internal migration of Canadian immigrants, 1993–2004: Evidence from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karen M. King; K. Bruce Newbold

    2011-01-01

    Combining the 1993, 1996, and 1999 six-year panels of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics Master Files, the purpose of the paper is twofold. First, it examines the migration and distribution patterns of the foreign-born across Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs). Second, it examines how internal migration modeling results may differ whether pre- and post-migration measures are used. Results suggest that internal migration of the foreign-born generally does not increase their dispersion acr...

  6. Comparative study of the prevalence of sepsis in patients admitted to dermatology and internal medicine wards*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luiz Maurício Costa; Diniz, Michelle dos Santos; Diniz, Lorena dos Santos; Machado-Pinto, Jackson; Silva, Francisco Chagas Lima

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. The prevalence of this condition has increased significantly in different parts of the world. Patients admitted to dermatology wards often have severe loss of skin barrier and use systemic corticosteroids, which favor the development of sepsis. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence of sepsis among patients admitted to a dermatology ward compared to that among patients admitted to an internal medicine ward. METHODS It is a cross-sectional, observational, comparative study that was conducted at Hospital Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte. Data were collected from all patients admitted to four hospital beds at the dermatology and internal medicine wards between July 2008 and July 2009. Medical records were analyzed for the occurrence of sepsis, dermatologic diagnoses, comorbidities, types of pathogens and most commonly used antibiotics. RESULTS We analyzed 185 medical records. The prevalence of sepsis was 7.6% among patients admitted to the dermatology ward and 2.2% (p = 0.10) among those admitted to the internal medicine ward. Patients with comorbidities, diabetes mellitus and cancer did not show a higher incidence of sepsis. The main agent found was Staphylococcus aureus, and the most commonly used antibiotics were ciprofloxacin and oxacillin. There was a significant association between sepsis and the use of systemic corticosteroids (p <0.001). CONCLUSION It becomes clear that epidemiological studies on sepsis should be performed more extensively and accurately in Brazil so that efforts to prevent and treat this serious disease can be made more effectively. PMID:24173179

  7. Influence of internal migration on reproductive health in Myanmar: results from a recent cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sudhinaraset

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and reproductive health remains a significant public health issue in Myanmar. Little data exists on women’s health issues, including social and demographic influences. While past studies have demonstrated rural/urban health disparities, an increasingly important population resulting from urban growth in Myanmar is the internal migrant population, individuals moving within the country for better job or educational opportunities. Past studies suggest that women make up more than half of internal migrants, yet there is a dearth of information on this new wave of migration, particularly on women’s reproductive health issues. The objective of this study is to assess the influence of women’s migration in Myanmar on reproductive health outcomes, including delivering in a facility, using a skilled birth attendant, and using a modern method of family planning. Methods Data from a cross-sectional household survey using multistage cluster sampling design conducted between September to October 2014 was used to assess the accessibility and the use of maternal and child health products and services. A total of 1800 currently married women of reproductive age, including 348 from urban and 1452 from rural areas, were recruited to complete surveys. A set of multivariable regressions was performed to assess reproductive health outcomes and predictors. Results Across health indicators, female migrants had better health outcomes compared to non-migrants. Controlling for demographic characteristics, migrants were 1.60 times more likely to use a modern form of family planning compared to non-migrants (p < 0.01 and use antenatal care during pregnancy (p < 0.05. While not statistically significant, migrants were 1.29 times more likely to deliver with a skilled attendant and 1.08 times more likely to deliver in a facility. Conclusions This study found that female migrants in Myanmar reported better health outcomes compared to

  8. Comparative analysis of quality control tests on computed tomography in accordance with national and international laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Fernando S.; Vasconcelos, Rebeca S.; Goncalves, Marcel S.; Oliveira, Marcus V.L. de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis between the Brazilian legislation and internationals protocols, with respect to the quality control tests for computerized tomography. We used 07 references, published from 1998-2012: the Protocolo Brasileiro - Portaria 453/98 SVS/MS and the Guia de Radiodiagnostico Medico da ANVISA; Quality Assurance Programme for Computed Tomography: Diagnostic and Therapy Applications of the IAEA; European Protocol - European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Computed Tomography of the EUR No. 16262 EN; Radiation Protection No. 162 - Criteria for Acceptability of Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of the European Commission; the Protocols of Control de Calidad en Radiodiagnostico IAEA / ARCAL XLIX; and the Protocolo Espanol de Control de Calidad en Radiodignostico. The comparative analysis of these legislations was based on aspects of tolerance / limit, frequency and objectives of the recommended tests. Were found 18 tests in the Brazilian legislation. The tests were grouped according to their nature (dosimetric tests / exposure and geometric tests and image quality tests). Among the evaluated protocols was identified divergence between tests contained in the documents and the criteria of assessment set out in this work. It is clear, moreover, that for certain documents are not observed tolerances, well-defined methodologies and even frequency of testing. We conclude that the current legislation in Brazil differs in certain respects from international protocols analyzed, although this has a great numbers of quality control tests. However, it is necessary that the Brazilian legislation takes into account technological advances presented to time

  9. Practice Patterns Analysis of Ocular Proton Therapy Centers: The International OPTIC Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrbacek, Jan; Mishra, Kavita K.; Kacperek, Andrzej; Dendale, Remi; Nauraye, Catherine; Auger, Michel; Herault, Joel; Daftari, Inder K.; Trofimov, Alexei V.; Shih, Helen A.; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Denker, Andrea; Heufelder, Jens; Horwacik, Tomasz; Swakoń, Jan; Hoehr, Cornelia; Duzenli, Cheryl; Pica, Alessia; Goudjil, Farid; Mazal, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the planning, treatment, and follow-up strategies worldwide in dedicated proton therapy ocular programs. Methods and Materials: Ten centers from 7 countries completed a questionnaire survey with 109 queries on the eye treatment planning system (TPS), hardware/software equipment, image acquisition/registration, patient positioning, eye surveillance, beam delivery, quality assurance (QA), clinical management, and workflow. Results: Worldwide, 28,891 eye patients were treated with protons at the 10 centers as of the end of 2014. Most centers treated a vast number of ocular patients (1729 to 6369). Three centers treated fewer than 200 ocular patients. Most commonly, the centers treated uveal melanoma (UM) and other primary ocular malignancies, benign ocular tumors, conjunctival lesions, choroidal metastases, and retinoblastomas. The UM dose fractionation was generally within a standard range, whereas dosing for other ocular conditions was not standardized. The majority (80%) of centers used in common a specific ocular TPS. Variability existed in imaging registration, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rarely being used in routine planning (20%). Increased patient to full-time equivalent ratios were observed by higher accruing centers (P=.0161). Generally, ophthalmologists followed up the post–radiation therapy patients, though in 40% of centers radiation oncologists also followed up the patients. Seven centers had a prospective outcomes database. All centers used a cyclotron to accelerate protons with dedicated horizontal beam lines only. QA checks (range, modulation) varied substantially across centers. Conclusions: The first worldwide multi-institutional ophthalmic proton therapy survey of the clinical and technical approach shows areas of substantial overlap and areas of progress needed to achieve sustainable and systematic management. Future international efforts include research and development for imaging and planning software upgrades

  10. Research priorities in health communication and participation: international survey of consumers and other stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragge, Peter; Lowe, Dianne; Nunn, Jack S; O’Sullivan, Molly; Horvat, Lidia; Tong, Allison; Kay, Debra; Ghersi, Davina; McDonald, Steve; Poole, Naomi; Bourke, Noni; Lannin, Natasha; Vadasz, Danny; Oliver, Sandy; Carey, Karen; Hill, Sophie J

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify research priorities of consumers and other stakeholders to inform Cochrane Reviews in ‘health communication and participation’ (including such concepts as patient experience, shared decision-making and health literacy). Setting International. Participants We included anyone with an interest in health communication and participation. Up to 151 participants (18–80 years; 117 female) across 12 countries took part, including 48 consumers (patients, carers, consumer representatives) and 75 professionals (health professionals, policymakers, researchers) (plus 25 people who identified as both). Design Survey. Methods We invited people to submit their research ideas via an online survey open for 4 weeks. Using inductive thematic analysis, we generated priority research topics, then classified these into broader themes. Results Participants submitted 200 research ideas, which we grouped into 21 priority topics. Key research priorities included: insufficient consumer involvement in research (19 responses), ‘official’ health information is contradictory and hard to understand (18 responses), communication/coordination breakdowns in health services (15 responses), health information provision a low priority for health professionals (15 responses), insufficient eliciting of patient preferences (14 responses), health services poorly understand/implement patient-centred care (14 responses), lack of holistic care impacting healthcare quality and safety (13 responses) and inadequate consumer involvement in service design (11 responses). These priorities encompassed acute and community health settings, with implications for policy and research. Priority populations of interest included people from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, carers, and people with low educational attainment, or mental illness. Most frequently suggested interventions focused on training and cultural change activities for health services and health professionals

  11. Practice Patterns Analysis of Ocular Proton Therapy Centers: The International OPTIC Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrbacek, Jan, E-mail: Jan.hrbacek@psi.ch [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Mishra, Kavita K. [Ocular Tumor Proton Therapy Program, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Kacperek, Andrzej [National Proton Therapy Centre, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Bebington (United Kingdom); Dendale, Remi; Nauraye, Catherine; Auger, Michel [Centre de Protonthérapie d' Orsay, Institut Curie, Orsay (France); Herault, Joel [Centre Lacassagne, Nice (France); Daftari, Inder K. [Ocular Tumor Proton Therapy Program, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Trofimov, Alexei V.; Shih, Helen A.; Chen, Yen-Lin E. [F. H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Denker, Andrea [Protons for Therapy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Heufelder, Jens [BerlinProtonen am HZB, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Horwacik, Tomasz; Swakoń, Jan [Institute of Nuclear Physic, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Hoehr, Cornelia; Duzenli, Cheryl [BC Cancer Agency – TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); Pica, Alessia [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Goudjil, Farid; Mazal, Alejandro [Centre de Protonthérapie d' Orsay, Institut Curie, Orsay (France); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the planning, treatment, and follow-up strategies worldwide in dedicated proton therapy ocular programs. Methods and Materials: Ten centers from 7 countries completed a questionnaire survey with 109 queries on the eye treatment planning system (TPS), hardware/software equipment, image acquisition/registration, patient positioning, eye surveillance, beam delivery, quality assurance (QA), clinical management, and workflow. Results: Worldwide, 28,891 eye patients were treated with protons at the 10 centers as of the end of 2014. Most centers treated a vast number of ocular patients (1729 to 6369). Three centers treated fewer than 200 ocular patients. Most commonly, the centers treated uveal melanoma (UM) and other primary ocular malignancies, benign ocular tumors, conjunctival lesions, choroidal metastases, and retinoblastomas. The UM dose fractionation was generally within a standard range, whereas dosing for other ocular conditions was not standardized. The majority (80%) of centers used in common a specific ocular TPS. Variability existed in imaging registration, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rarely being used in routine planning (20%). Increased patient to full-time equivalent ratios were observed by higher accruing centers (P=.0161). Generally, ophthalmologists followed up the post–radiation therapy patients, though in 40% of centers radiation oncologists also followed up the patients. Seven centers had a prospective outcomes database. All centers used a cyclotron to accelerate protons with dedicated horizontal beam lines only. QA checks (range, modulation) varied substantially across centers. Conclusions: The first worldwide multi-institutional ophthalmic proton therapy survey of the clinical and technical approach shows areas of substantial overlap and areas of progress needed to achieve sustainable and systematic management. Future international efforts include research and development for imaging and planning software upgrades

  12. Variation in esophageal physiology testing in clinical practice: Results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, R; Heinrich, H; Fox, M

    2018-03-01

    Advances in clinical measurement of esophageal motility and function have improved the assessment of swallowing disorders and reflux symptoms. Variation in data acquisition, analysis, and reporting exists and impacts on diagnosis and management. This study examined variation in esophageal manometry methodology between institutions to establish the status in current practice. A structured survey was distributed through international NGM societies using an Internet-based platform. Questions explored infrastructure, technology, analysis, and reporting. Responses were received from 91 centers from 29 countries. Eighteen (20%) centers used "conventional" manometry, 75 (82%) high-resolution manometry, and 53 (58%) HR impedance manometry. All centers documented motility for single water swallows. The Chicago Classification was applied by 65 (71.4%) centers. In contrast, analysis of EGJ morphology varied widely. Adjunctive testing was often applied: multiple rapid swallows (77%), rapid drink challenge (77%), single solid swallows (63%), and a standard test meal (18%). Of 86 (94.5%) units that offered pH impedance (pH-Z) studies, approximately half (53.5%) performed tests on acid-suppressant medication in patients with a high pretest probability (eg, erosive esophagitis). Most (75.6%) centers manually reviewed every reflux event. Others examined pH-Z data only prior to symptoms. To assess symptom association with reflux events, 73.6% centers analyzed each symptom separately, whereas 29.7% centers pooled symptoms. There is marked variation in the data acquisition, analysis, and reporting of esophageal manometry studies. Further efforts to improve quality and uniformity in testing and reporting are required. This survey provides information upon which best-practice guidelines can be developed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Music Therapy Practice Status and Trends Worldwide: An International Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Petra; Tague, Daniel B

    2017-11-01

    The field of music therapy is growing worldwide. While there is a wealth of country-specific information available, only a few have databased workforce censuses. Currently, little to no descriptive data exists about the global development of the profession. The purpose of this study was to obtain descriptive data about current demographics, practice status, and clinical trends to inform worldwide advocacy efforts, training needs, and the sustainable development of the field. Music therapists (N = 2,495) who were professional members of organizations affiliated with the World Federation of Music Therapy (WFMT) served as a sample for this international cross-sectional survey study. A 30-item online questionnaire was designed, pilot tested by key partners, and translated into seven languages. Researchers and key partners distributed the online survey through e-mail invitations and social media announcements. Professional music therapists worldwide are well-educated, mature professionals with adequate work experience, who are confident in providing high-quality services primarily in mental health, school, and geriatric settings. Due to ongoing challenges related to recognition and government regulation of the field as an evidence-based and well-funded healthcare profession, most individuals work part-time music therapy jobs and feel underpaid. Yet, many music therapists have a positive outlook on the field's future. Continued research and advocacy efforts, as well as collaborations with lobbyists, business consultants, and credentialing/licensure experts to develop progressive strategies, will be crucial for global development and sustainability of the field. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Definition, Management, and Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury: An International Survey of Nephrologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Umar; Tober, Aaron; Chinchilli, Vernon; Reeves, W Brian; Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2017-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disease burdened by uncertainties of definition, management strategies, and prognosis. This study explores the relationship between demographic characteristics of nephrologists and their perceptions about the definition, management, and follow-up of AKI. We developed a Web-based survey, the International Survey on Acute Kidney Injury (ISAKI), consisting of 29 items in 4 categories: (1) demographic and practice characteristics, (2) definition of AKI, (3) management of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in AKI, and (4) sequelae of AKI. A multivariable stepwise logistic regression model was used to examine relationships between the dependent variables and the demographic characteristics of the respondents. Responses from 743 nephrologists from 90 countries were analyzed. The majority (60%) of respondents reported using RIFLE and/or AKIN criteria regularly to define AKI, although US nephrologists were less likely to do so (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.42-0.85). The most common initial RRT modality was intermittent hemodialysis (63.5%), followed by continuous RRT (23.8%). Faculty affiliation was associated with a higher likelihood of using a dialysis schedule of ≥4 times a week (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.20-2.55). The respondents believed that a single episode of AKI increases the likelihood of development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (55%), subsequent AKI (36%), and rapid progression of preexisting CKD (87%). US nephrologists were less likely to recommend follow-up after resolution of AKI (OR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.07-0.33). Our findings highlight the need for a widely accepted consensus definition of AKI, a uniform approach to management, and improved follow-up after resolution of AKI episodes.

  15. Worklife and Wellness in Academic General Internal Medicine: Results from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzer, Mark; Poplau, Sara; Babbott, Stewart; Collins, Tracie; Guzman-Corrales, Laura; Menk, Jeremiah; Murphy, Mary Lou; Ovington, Kay

    2016-09-01

    General internal medicine (GIM) careers are increasingly viewed as challenging and unsustainable. We aimed to assess academic GIM worklife and determine remediable predictors of stress and burnout. We conducted an email survey. Physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants in 15 GIM divisions participated. A ten-item survey queried stress, burnout, and work conditions such as electronic medical record (EMR) challenges. An open-ended question assessed stressors and solutions. Results were categorized into burnout, high stress, high control, chaos, good teamwork, high values alignment, documentation time pressure, and excessive home EMR use. Frequencies were determined for national data, Veterans Affairs (VA) versus civilian populations, and hospitalist versus ambulatory roles. A General Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) evaluated associations with burnout. A formal content analysis was performed for open-ended question responses. Of 1235 clinicians sampled, 579 responded (47 %). High stress was present in 67 %, with 38 % burned out (burnout range 10-56 % by division). Half of respondents had low work control, 60 % reported high documentation time pressure, half described too much home EMR time, and most reported very busy or chaotic workplaces. Two-thirds felt aligned with departmental leaders' values, and three-quarters were satisfied with teamwork. Burnout was associated with high stress, low work control, and low values alignment with leaders (all p less burnout than civilian counterparts (17 % vs. 40 %, p stress and burnout, division rates vary widely. Sustainability efforts within GIM could focus on visit length, staff support, schedule control, clinic chaos, and EMR stress.

  16. Critical Infrastructure Interdependency Modeling: A Survey of U.S. and International Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-01

    The Nation’s health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes, and organizations across which these goods and services move are called "critical infrastructures".1 This statement is as true in the U.S. as in any country in the world. Recent world events such as the 9-11 terrorist attacks, London bombings, and gulf coast hurricanes have highlighted the importance of stable electric, gas and oil, water, transportation, banking and finance, and control and communication infrastructure systems. Be it through direct connectivity, policies and procedures, or geospatial proximity, most critical infrastructure systems interact. These interactions often create complex relationships, dependencies, and interdependencies that cross infrastructure boundaries. The modeling and analysis of interdependencies between critical infrastructure elements is a relatively new and very important field of study. The U.S. Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) has sponsored this survey to identify and describe this current area of research including the current activities in this field being conducted both in the U.S. and internationally. The main objective of this study is to develop a single source reference of critical infrastructure interdependency modeling tools (CIIMT) that could be applied to allow users to objectively assess the capabilities of CIIMT. This information will provide guidance for directing research and development to address the gaps in development. The results will inform researchers of the TSWG Infrastructure Protection Subgroup of research and development efforts and allow a more focused approach to addressing the needs of CIIMT end-user needs. This report first presents the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis, describes the survey methodology, and presents the leading research efforts in both a cumulative table and through individual datasheets. Data was

  17. Power of tests for comparing trend curves with application to national immunization survey (NIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen

    2011-02-28

    To develop statistical tests for comparing trend curves of study outcomes between two socio-demographic strata across consecutive time points, and compare statistical power of the proposed tests under different trend curves data, three statistical tests were proposed. For large sample size with independent normal assumption among strata and across consecutive time points, the Z and Chi-square test statistics were developed, which are functions of outcome estimates and the standard errors at each of the study time points for the two strata. For small sample size with independent normal assumption, the F-test statistic was generated, which is a function of sample size of the two strata and estimated parameters across study period. If two trend curves are approximately parallel, the power of Z-test is consistently higher than that of both Chi-square and F-test. If two trend curves cross at low interaction, the power of Z-test is higher than or equal to the power of both Chi-square and F-test; however, at high interaction, the powers of Chi-square and F-test are higher than that of Z-test. The measurement of interaction of two trend curves was defined. These tests were applied to the comparison of trend curves of vaccination coverage estimates of standard vaccine series with National Immunization Survey (NIS) 2000-2007 data. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. International Evidence-Based Medicine Survey of the Veterinary Profession: Information Sources Used by Veterinarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene J Huntley

    Full Text Available Veterinarians are encouraged to use evidence to inform their practice, but it is unknown what resources (e.g. journals, electronic sources are accessed by them globally. Understanding the key places veterinarians seek information can inform where new clinically relevant evidence should most effectively be placed. An international survey was conducted to gain understanding of how veterinary information is accessed by veterinarians worldwide. There were 2137 useable responses to the questionnaire from veterinarians in 78 countries. The majority of respondents (n = 1835/2137, 85.9% undertook clinical work and worked in a high income country (n = 1576/1762, 89.4%. Respondents heard about the survey via national veterinary organisations or regulatory bodies (31.5%, online veterinary forums and websites (22.7%, regional, discipline-based or international veterinary organisations (22.7% or by direct invitation from the researchers or via friends, colleagues or social media (7.6%. Clinicians and non-clinicians reportedly used journals most commonly (65.8%, n = 1207/1835; 75.6%, n = 216/286 followed by electronic resources (58.7%, n = 1077/1835; 55.9%, n = 160/286, respectively. Respondents listed a total of 518 journals and 567 electronic sources that they read. Differences in veterinarian preference for resources in developed, and developing countries, were found. The nominated journals most read were the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (12.7% of nominations for clinicians and the Veterinary Record (5.7% for non-clinicians. The most accessed electronic resource reported was the Veterinary Information Network (25.6% for clinicians and PubMed (7.4% for non-clinicians. In conclusion, a wide array of journals and electronic resources appear to be accessed by veterinarians worldwide. Veterinary organisations appear to play an important role in global communication and outreach to veterinarians and consideration should be given to how

  19. Identification and management of chronic kidney disease complications by internal medicine residents: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Varun; Agarwal, Mohit; Ghosh, Amit K; Barnes, Michael A; McCullough, Peter A

    2011-05-01

    Many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receive care from primary care physicians. Identification and management of CKD complications in primary care is suboptimal. It is not known if current residency curriculum adequately prepares a future internist in this aspect of CKD care. We performed an online questionnaire survey of internal medicine residents in the United States to determine knowledge of CKD complications and their management. Four hundred seventy-nine residents completed the survey with postgraduate year (PGY) distribution 166 PGY1, 187 PGY2, and 126 PGY3. Most of the residents correctly recognized anemia (91%) and bone disease (82%) as complications at estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m; however, only half of the residents identified coronary artery disease (54%) as a CKD complication. For a patient with estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m, two thirds of the residents would workup for anemia (62%), whereas half of them would check for mineral and bone disorder (56%). With regard to anemia of CKD, less than half of the residents knew the CKD goal hemoglobin level of 11 to 12 g/dL (44%); most would supplement iron stores (86%), whereas fewer would consider nephrology referral (28%). For mineral and bone disorders, many residents would recommend dietary phosphorus restriction (68%) and check 25-hydroxyvitamin D (62%); fewer residents would start 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (40%) or refer to the nephrologist (45%). Residents chose to discontinue angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor for medication-related complication of greater than 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (68%) and potassium greater than 5.5 mEq/L (93%). Mean performance score improved with increasing PGY (PGY1 59.4% ± 17.6%, PGY2 63.6% ± 15.6%, and PGY3 66.2% ± 16.5%; P = 0.002). Our study identified specific gaps in knowledge of CKD complications and management among internal medicine residents. Educational

  20. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Röthlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-12-01

    Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29-62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  1. A survey. Financial accounting and internal control functions pursued by hospital boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, T A

    1984-09-01

    Justification for a board committee's existence is its ability to devote time to issues judged to be important by the full board. This seems to have happened. Multiple committees pursue more functions than the other committee structures. Boards lacking an FA/IC committee pursue significantly fewer functions than their counterparts with committees. Substantial respondent agreement exists on those functions most and least frequently pursued, those perceived to be most and least important, and those perceived to be most and least effectively undertaken. Distinctions between committee structures and the full board, noted in the previous paragraph, hold true with respect to the importance of functions. All board structures identified reviewing the budget and comparing it to actual results as important. Committee structures are generally more inclined to address functions related to the work of the independent auditor and the effectiveness of the hospital's system and controls than are full board structures. Functions related to the internal auditor are pursued least frequently by all FA/IC board structures. The following suggestions are made to help boards pay adequate attention to and obtain objective information about the financial affairs of their hospitals. Those boards that do not have some form of an FA/IC committee should consider starting one. Evidence shows chief financial officers have been a moving force in establishing and strengthening such committees. Boards having a joint or single committee structure should consider upgrading their structure to either a single committee or multiple committees respectively. The complexity of the healthcare environment requires that more FA/IC functions be addressed by the board. The board or its FA/IC committee(s) should meet with their independent CPA's, fiscal intermediary auditors, and internal auditors. Where the hospital lacks an internal audit function a study should be undertaken to determine the feasibility of

  2. Criteria for selecting implementation science theories and frameworks: results from an international survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Birken

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories provide a synthesizing architecture for implementation science. The underuse, superficial use, and misuse of theories pose a substantial scientific challenge for implementation science and may relate to challenges in selecting from the many theories in the field. Implementation scientists may benefit from guidance for selecting a theory for a specific study or project. Understanding how implementation scientists select theories will help inform efforts to develop such guidance. Our objective was to identify which theories implementation scientists use, how they use theories, and the criteria used to select theories. Methods We identified initial lists of uses and criteria for selecting implementation theories based on seminal articles and an iterative consensus process. We incorporated these lists into a self-administered survey for completion by self-identified implementation scientists. We recruited potential respondents at the 8th Annual Conference on the Science of Dissemination and Implementation in Health and via several international email lists. We used frequencies and percentages to report results. Results Two hundred twenty-three implementation scientists from 12 countries responded to the survey. They reported using more than 100 different theories spanning several disciplines. Respondents reported using theories primarily to identify implementation determinants, inform data collection, enhance conceptual clarity, and guide implementation planning. Of the 19 criteria presented in the survey, the criteria used by the most respondents to select theory included analytic level (58%, logical consistency/plausibility (56%, empirical support (53%, and description of a change process (54%. The criteria used by the fewest respondents included fecundity (10%, uniqueness (12%, and falsifiability (15%. Conclusions Implementation scientists use a large number of criteria to select theories, but there is little

  3. Criteria for selecting implementation science theories and frameworks: results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Powell, Byron J; Shea, Christopher M; Haines, Emily R; Alexis Kirk, M; Leeman, Jennifer; Rohweder, Catherine; Damschroder, Laura; Presseau, Justin

    2017-10-30

    Theories provide a synthesizing architecture for implementation science. The underuse, superficial use, and misuse of theories pose a substantial scientific challenge for implementation science and may relate to challenges in selecting from the many theories in the field. Implementation scientists may benefit from guidance for selecting a theory for a specific study or project. Understanding how implementation scientists select theories will help inform efforts to develop such guidance. Our objective was to identify which theories implementation scientists use, how they use theories, and the criteria used to select theories. We identified initial lists of uses and criteria for selecting implementation theories based on seminal articles and an iterative consensus process. We incorporated these lists into a self-administered survey for completion by self-identified implementation scientists. We recruited potential respondents at the 8th Annual Conference on the Science of Dissemination and Implementation in Health and via several international email lists. We used frequencies and percentages to report results. Two hundred twenty-three implementation scientists from 12 countries responded to the survey. They reported using more than 100 different theories spanning several disciplines. Respondents reported using theories primarily to identify implementation determinants, inform data collection, enhance conceptual clarity, and guide implementation planning. Of the 19 criteria presented in the survey, the criteria used by the most respondents to select theory included analytic level (58%), logical consistency/plausibility (56%), empirical support (53%), and description of a change process (54%). The criteria used by the fewest respondents included fecundity (10%), uniqueness (12%), and falsifiability (15%). Implementation scientists use a large number of criteria to select theories, but there is little consensus on which are most important. Our results suggest that the

  4. Treatment of AKI in developing and developed countries: An international survey of pediatric dialysis modalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Raina

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a pediatric incidence ranging from 19.3% to 24.1%. Treatment of pediatric AKI is a source of debate in varying geographical regions. Currently CRRT is the treatment for pediatric AKI, but limitations due to cost and accessibility force use of adult equipment and other therapeutic options such as peritoneal dialysis (PD and hemodialysis (HD. It was hypothesized that more cost-effective measures would likely be used in developing countries due to lesser resource availability.A 26-question internet-based survey was distributed to 650 pediatric Nephrologists. There was a response rate of 34.3% (223 responses. The survey was distributed via pedneph and pcrrt email servers, inquiring about demographics, technology, resources, pediatric-specific supplies, and preference in renal replacement therapy (RRT in pediatric AKI. The main method of analysis was to compare responses about treatments between nephrologists in developed countries and nephrologists in developing countries using difference-of-proportions tests.PD was available in all centers surveyed, while HD was available in 85.1% and 54.1% (p = 0.00, CRRT was available in 60% and 33.3% (p = 0.001, and SLED was available in 20% and 25% (p = 0.45 centers of developed and developing world respectively. In developing countries, 68.5% (p = 0.000 of physicians preferred PD to costlier therapies, while in developed countries it was found that physicians favored HD (72%, p = 0.00 or CRRT (24%, p = 0.041 in infants.Lack of availability of resources, trained physicians and funds often preclude standards of care in developing countries, and there is much development needed in terms of meeting higher global standards for treating pediatric AKI patients. PD remains the main modality of choice for treatment of AKI in infants in developing world.

  5. Men with Sexual Problems and Their Partners: Findings from the International Survey of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Heiman, Julia R; Long, J Scott; Fisher, William A; Sand, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of sexual function problems in men have focused on the individual male and related sociodemographic characteristics, individual risk factors and lifestyle concomitants, or medical comorbidities. Insufficient attention has been given to the role of sexual and relationship satisfaction and, more particularly, to the perspective of the couple as causes or correlates of sexual problems in men or women. Previously, we reported results of the first large, multi-national study of sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in 1,009 midlife and older couples in five countries (Brazil, Germany, Japan, Spain, U.S.). For the present study, we examined, within each problem, the association of four major sexual problems in men (loss of sexual desire, erectile problems, premature ejaculation, delayed/absent orgasm) and multiple problems, with male and female partners' assessments of physical intimacy, sexual satisfaction, and relationship happiness, as well as associations with well-known health and psychosocial correlates of sexual problems in men. Sexual problem rates of men in our survey were generally similar to rates observed in past surveys in the general population, and similar risk factors (age, relationship duration, overall health) were associated with lack of desire, anorgasmia, or erection difficulties in our sample. As in previous surveys, there were few correlates of premature ejaculation. As predicted, men with one or more sexual problems reported decreased relationship happiness as well as decreased sexual satisfaction compared to men without sexual problems. Moreover, female partners of men with sexual problems had reduced relationship happiness and sexual satisfaction, although these latter outcomes were less affected in the women than the men. The association of men's sexual problems with men's and women's satisfaction and relationship happiness were modest, as these couples in long-term, committed relationships were notable for their

  6. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes.

  7. Association between periodontal diseases and systemic illnesses: A survey among internal medicine residents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeizudike, Kehinde A; Iwuala, Sandra O; Ozoh, Obianuju B; Ayanbadejo, Patricia O; Fasanmade, Olufemi A

    2016-01-01

    To assess internal medicine residents' knowledge of associations between periodontal disease and systemic illnesses, and attitudes toward patients' periodontal health. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among internal medicine residents attending the Faculty of Internal Medicine 2014 Update Course organized by the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria. Participants came from all over the country. Data on respondents' demographic characteristics, periodontal disease knowledge, knowledge of associations between periodontal disease and systemic illnesses, and attitudes toward patients' periodontal health were collected. Data were analyzed using Epi INFO software. The Pearson chi square test was used to measure significant association between categorical variables such as the knowledge of periodontal disease and gender, age group and designation of the participants (p ⩽ 0.05). Of 150 questionnaires distributed, 123 were returned (82% response rate); 109 questionnaires were completed properly and included in the analysis. The most common source of residents' information on oral health was television (59.4%). Only 11.2% of respondents were aware that gingival bleeding was the earliest sign of periodontal disease. Respondents correctly identified periodontal disease as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (45.9%), stroke (43.5%), hospital-acquired pneumonia (53.2%), diabetes mellitus (13.8%), and preterm birth (11%). Increased age (p = 0.032) and male gender (p = 0.022) were associated significantly with knowledge of periodontal disease as a risk factor for stroke. Higher designation (p = 0.002) and longer duration in residency training (p = 0.004) were associated significantly with knowledge of periodontal disease as risk factor for peripheral arterial disease. The majority (90.9%) of respondents had positive attitudes toward the referral of their patients for regular periodontal care. Knowledge of

  8. Internal Quality Control Practices in Coagulation Laboratories: recommendations based on a patterns-of-practice survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, A; Aslan, B; Raby, A; Moffat, K A; Selby, R; Padmore, R

    2015-12-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) procedures are crucial for ensuring accurate patient test results. The IQMH Centre for Proficiency Testing conducted a web-based survey to gather information on the current IQC practices in coagulation testing. A questionnaire was distributed to 174 Ontario laboratories licensed to perform prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). All laboratories reported using two levels of commercial QC (CQC); 12% incorporate pooled patient plasma into their IQC program; >68% run CQC at the beginning of each shift; 56% following maintenance, with reagent changes, during a shift, or with every repeat sample; 6% only run CQC at the beginning of the day and 25% when the instruments have been idle for a defined period of time. IQC run frequency was determined by manufacturer recommendations (71%) but also influenced by the stability of test (27%), clinical impact of an incorrect test result (25%), and sample's batch number (10%). IQC was monitored using preset limits based on standard deviation (66%), precision goals (46%), or allowable performance limits (36%). 95% use multirules. Failure actions include repeating the IQC (90%) and reporting patient results; if repeat passes, 42% perform repeat analysis of all patient samples from last acceptable IQC. Variability exists in coagulation IQC practices among Ontario clinical laboratories. The recommendations presented here would be useful in encouraging standardized IQC practices. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Internet use by patients with bipolar disorder: Results from an international multisite survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, Martin; Ardau, Raffaella; Baune, Bernhard T; Berk, Michael; Bersudsky, Yuly; Bilderbeck, Amy; Bocchetta, Alberto; Bossini, Letizia; Castro, Angela M Paredes; Cheung, Eric Yw; Chillotti, Caterina; Choppin, Sabine; Del Zompo, Maria; Dias, Rodrigo; Dodd, Seetal; Duffy, Anne; Etain, Bruno; Fagiolini, Andrea; Hernandez, Miryam Fernández; Garnham, Julie; Geddes, John; Gildebro, Jonas; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Goodwin, Guy M; Grof, Paul; Harima, Hirohiko; Hassel, Stefanie; Henry, Chantal; Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Kapur, Vaisnvy; Kunigiri, Girish; Lafer, Beny; Larsen, Erik R; Lewitzka, Ute; Licht, Rasmus W; Lund, Anne Hvenegaard; Misiak, Blazej; Monteith, Scott; Munoz, Rodrigo; Nakanotani, Takako; Nielsen, René E; O'Donovan, Claire; Okamura, Yasushi; Osher, Yamima; Piotrowski, Patryk; Reif, Andreas; Ritter, Philipp; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Sagduyu, Kemal; Sawchuk, Brett; Schwartz, Elon; Scippa, Ângela M; Slaney, Claire; Sulaiman, Ahmad H; Suominen, Kirsi; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Tam, Peter; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Tondo, Leonardo; Vieta, Eduard; Vinberg, Maj; Viswanath, Biju; Volkert, Julia; Zetin, Mark; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-08-30

    There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous survey. 81% of the patients used the Internet, a percentage similar to the general public. Older age, less education, and challenges in country telecommunications infrastructure and demographics decreased the odds of using the Internet. About 78% of the Internet users looked online for information on bipolar disorder or 63% of the total sample. More years of education in relation to the country mean, and feeling very confident about managing life decreased the odds of seeking information on bipolar disorder online, while having attended support groups increased the odds. Patients who looked online for information on bipolar disorder consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 2.3 other information sources such as books, physician handouts, and others with bipolar disorder. Patients not using the Internet consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 1.6 other information sources. The percentage of patients with bipolar disorder who use the Internet is about the same as the general public. Other information sources remain important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An international sepsis survey: a study of doctors' knowledge and perception about sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeze, Martijn; Ramsay, Graham; Gerlach, Herwig; Rubulotta, Francesca; Levy, Mitchel

    2004-01-01

    Background To be able to diagnose and treat sepsis better it is important not only to improve the knowledge about definitions and pathophysiology, but also to gain more insight into specialists' perception of, and attitude towards, the current diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. Methods The study was conducted as a prospective, international survey by structured telephone interview. The subjects were intensive care physicians and other specialist physicians caring for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Results The 1058 physicians who were interviewed (including 529 intensivists) agreed that sepsis is a leading cause of death on the ICU and that the incidence of sepsis is increasing, but that the symptoms of sepsis can easily be misattributed to other conditions. Physicians were concerned that this could lead to under-reporting of sepsis. Two-thirds (67%) were concerned that a common definition is lacking and 83% said it is likely that sepsis is frequently missed. Not more than 17% agreed on any one definition. Conclusion There is a general awareness about the inadequacy of the current definitions of sepsis. Physicians caring for patients with sepsis recognise the difficulty of defining and diagnosing sepsis and are aware that they miss the diagnosis frequently. PMID:15566585

  11. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagiuri, Ruth; Boylan, Sinead; Morrice, Emily

    2015-10-16

    Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i) convened a workshop of academics (n = 25) from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii) conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii) convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation) were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities) was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms.

  12. Survey of food radioactivity and estimation of internal dose from ingestion in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingyuan; Zhu Hongda; Han Peizhen

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide necessary bases for establishing 'Radionuclide Concentration Limits in Food stuffs', survey on radionuclide contents in Chinese food and estimation of internal dose from ingestion were carried out with the cooperation of 30 radiation protection establishments during the period 1982-1986. Activity concentrations in 14 categories (27 kinds) of Chinese food for 22 radionuclides were determined. In the light of three principal types of Chinese diet, food samples were collected from normal radiation background areas in 14 provinces or autonomous regions and three similarly elevated natural background areas. Annual intake by ingestion and resultant committed dose equivalents to general public for 15 radionuclides in these areas were estimated. In normal background areas the total annual intake of the 15 radionuclides by the public (adlut males) is about 4.2 x 10 4 Bq, and the resultant total committed dose equivalent is about 3.43 x 10 -4 Sv, but in two elevated natural background area the public annual intake and resulting committed dose equivalents for some natural radionulides are much higher than those in normal areas, while no obvious radiocontamination was discoveried relative contribution of each food category or each radionuclide to the total are discussed

  13. International Heart Valve Bank Survey: A Review of Processing Practices and Activity Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Helmi; Lim, Yeong Phang; Manning, Linda

    2013-01-01

    A survey of 24 international heart valve banks was conducted to acquire information on heart valve processing techniques used and outcomes achieved. The objective was to provide an overview of heart valve banking activities for tissue bankers, tissue banking associations, and regulatory bodies worldwide. Despite similarities found for basic manufacturing processes, distinct differences in procedural details were also identified. The similarities included (1) use of sterile culture media for procedures, (2) antibiotic decontamination, (3) use of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a cryoprotectant, (4) controlled rate freezing for cryopreservation, and (5) storage at ultralow temperatures of below −135°C. Differences in procedures included (1) type of sterile media used, (2) antibiotics combination, (3) temperature and duration used for bioburden reduction, (4) concentration of DMSO used for cryopreservation, and (5) storage duration for released allografts. For most banks, the primary reasons why allografts failed to meet release criteria were positive microbiological culture and abnormal morphology. On average, 85% of allografts meeting release criteria were implanted, with valve size and type being the main reasons why released allografts were not used clinically. The wide variation in percentage of allografts meeting release requirements, despite undergoing validated manufacturing procedures, justifies the need for regular review of important outcomes as cited in this paper, in order to encourage comparison and improvements in the HVBs' processes. PMID:24163756

  14. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Colagiuri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i convened a workshop of academics (n = 25 from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms.

  15. Testing measurement invariance in the International Social Survey Program Health 2011 – the mental well-being scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deurzen, I.A.; Roosma, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In the present contribution we address the measurement invariance of a new mental well-being scale of three items that was applied in the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) Health 2011 module. Our aim is to establish if and for how many countries (partial) scalar invariance is

  16. Most Essential Wheeled Mobility Skills for Daily Life : An International Survey Among Paralympic Wheelchair Athletes With Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Vanlandewijck, Yves C.; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Fliess-Douer O, Vanlandewijck YC, Van Der Woude LHV. Most essential wheeled mobility skills for daily life: an international survey among paralympic wheelchair athletes with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:629-35. Objectives: To create a hierarchical list of the most essential

  17. Measurement Equivalence in ADL and IADL Difficulty Across International Surveys of Aging: Findings From the HRS, SHARE, and ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Judith D.; Brandt, Jason; Pezzin, Liliana E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the measurement equivalence of items on disability across three international surveys of aging. Method. Data for persons aged 65 and older were drawn from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS, n = 10,905), English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, n = 5,437), and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, n = 13,408). Differential item functioning (DIF) was assessed using item response theory (IRT) methods for activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) items. Results. HRS and SHARE exhibited measurement equivalence, but 6 of 11 items in ELSA demonstrated meaningful DIF. At the scale level, this item-level DIF affected scores reflecting greater disability. IRT methods also spread out score distributions and shifted scores higher (toward greater disability). Results for mean disability differences by demographic characteristics, using original and DIF-adjusted scores, were the same overall but differed for some subgroup comparisons involving ELSA. Discussion. Testing and adjusting for DIF is one means of minimizing measurement error in cross-national survey comparisons. IRT methods were used to evaluate potential measurement bias in disability comparisons across three international surveys of aging. The analysis also suggested DIF was mitigated for scales including both ADL and IADL and that summary indexes (counts of limitations) likely underestimate mean disability in these international populations. PMID:22156662

  18. Embodied carbon dioxide flow in international trade: A comparative analysis based on China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ruyin; Li, Jinqiu; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Linling; Li, Qianwen

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dioxide embodied flow in international trade has become an important factor in defining global carbon emission responsibility and climate policy. We conducted an empirical analysis for China and Japan for the years 2000-2014, using a multi-region input-output model and considering the rest of the world as a comparison group. We compared the two countries' direct and complete carbon dioxide emissions intensity and bilateral economic activities such as imports and exports, production and consumption to analyze the difference between China and Japan. The results showed that the intensities of carbon emissions in all sectors of China were higher than that in Japan and that China's annual production-based emissions were greater than consumption-based emissions, the opposite of these relationships in Japan. China was a typical net carbon export country, and carbon embodied in its imports and exports continued to increase throughout the study period. In contrast, Japan's volume and growth rate of embodied carbon emissions were far less than China's and Japan was a typical net carbon import country. Finally, the conclusions of this study support recommendations for the formulation of international carbon emission responsibility allocation, domestic abatement policy as well as China's trade policy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. International collaboration and comparative research on ocean top predators under CLIOTOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobday, Alistair J.; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Evans, Karen; Scales, Kylie L.; Senina, Inna; Weng, Kevin C.

    2017-06-01

    Oceanic top predators have ecological, social and economic value of global significance. These wide-ranging marine species, which include sharks, tunas and billfishes, marine mammals, turtles and seabirds, are the focus of international research attention under the Climate Impacts on Oceanic Top Predators (CLIOTOP) science programme, one of the Integrated Marine Biosphere Research (IMBeR) projects. Over more than a decade, research conducted under CLIOTOP has involved scientists from more than 30 countries, with international collaboration increasing markedly over time, and comparative analyses resulting in new knowledge and understanding of oceanic top predators. This special issue presents 27 papers arising from the 3rd CLIOTOP symposium, held in San Sebastián, Spain in September 2015, spanning topics such as conservation biology, trophic ecology, fisheries science, climate change, and adaptive management. The maturation and synthesis of CLIOTOP's collaborative research is now resulting in real-world management applications and improving understanding of potential ecological and socio-economic impacts of climate change in oceanic systems. The ultimate CLIOTOP goal of preparing both climate-sensitive predator populations and the human societies dependent on them for the impending impacts of climate change is now within reach.

  20. Interest in international surgical volunteerism: results of a survey of members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Marilyn W; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Rothstein, David H; Cusick, Robert A

    2011-12-01

    This study assesses interest in international volunteer work by members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) and attempts to identify demographics, motivations, obstacles, and institutional issues of the respondents. An online survey service was used to send a 25-question survey to all APSA members with email addresses in November 2009. An answer to all questions was not required. Written comments were encouraged. The survey was sent to 807 members of whom 316 responded, for a response rate of 39%. International work had been done previously by 48% of respondents, whereas 95% stated that they were interested or perhaps interested in doing so. Most (83%) were interested in operating with local surgeons to teach them how to perform procedures. Altruism was the chief motivation in 75% of respondents. Primary obstacles to doing international work were family obligations and lack of time, although 37% stated that a lack of information about volunteer opportunities was an issue. A significant number of respondents (48%) stated that their institution had no established international collaborations. This study suggests that there is interest in international volunteerism among many members of APSA. Understanding the issues surrounding surgical volunteerism may facilitate humanitarian involvement among pediatric surgeons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social inclusion of the people with mental health issues: Compare international results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jussara Carvalho Dos; Barros, Sônia; Huxley, Peter John

    2018-06-01

    Social inclusion of people with mental health issues is an aim of the World Health Organisation. Many countries have adopted that objective, including Brazil and the United Kingdom and both have focused treatment in the community. The aim of this article is to compare international results using the same inclusion instrument. The samples in this study were 225 people with mental health issues in community services in São Paulo, Brazil. Their results are compared to findings from 168 people with similar mental health issues in Hong Kong, China, and from the United Kingdom - a nationally representative sample of 212 people without mental health issues. The instrument used to measure a social inclusion called Social and Communities Opportunities Profile (SCOPE) has been validated for use in the United Kingdom, China and Brazil. The results are that people with mental health issues have worse social inclusion when compared to general population. Between the people with mental health issues, the sample of São Paulo has the lowest social inclusion index but, in relation to access to the Brazilian revised mental health services, that sample has a similarly high inclusion rating to the general population of the United Kingdom. Findings are important to understand mental health in the community context, as well as their adversities and potentialities.

  2. The international comparative wood treatment study WOAM Freemantle 1987 - Trondheim 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botfeldt, Knud Bo; Petersen, Maj Britt

    2016-01-01

    The project The international Comparative Wood Treatment Study was developed and launched under ICOM-WOAM by D. Grattan, Canadian Conservation Institute and F. Schweingruber, The Swiss Federal Forestry Institute. The project started in 1983 and at the Woam Conference in Freemantle in 1987 the many....... This paper evaluates and documents changes in the condition of the wood samples from the WOAM project in 1987, with focus on the PEG/water treated samples. In Trondheim, visual assessment and evaluation of the samples was performed, without removing the wood samples from the climate controlled storage...... PEG in the samples. With the exception of the samples treated with low molecular weight PEG (i.e. PEG 400), there are very few and very small changes in the samples 25 years (1987-2012) after treatment. Low molecular weight PEG has a good bulking effect on well-preserved wood, but has a negative...

  3. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries......' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random...... Affluence Scale FAS) and two macro level measures on the country's economic situation: wealth measured by Gross National Product (GNP) and distribution of income measured by the Gini coefficient. RESULTS: There was a significant socio-economic variation in health complaints in 31 of the 37 countries...

  4. A survey comparing the attitudes toward perinatal bereavement care of nurses from three Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Lou, Feng-lan; Arthur, David Gordon

    2010-12-01

    Caring for parents whose infant has died is extremely demanding, difficult, and stressful. In some situations, nurses may experience personal failure, feel helpless, and need to distance themselves from bereaved parents because they are unable to deal with the enormity of the parental feelings of loss. The aim of the study was to describe and compare attitudes toward perinatal bereavement care across a sample of nurses working in five obstetrics and gynecology settings from three Asian cities, as well as the factors associated with these attitudes. A survey was conducted, and 573 nurses were recruited from 2006 to 2007. The data were collected using the perinatal bereavement attitudes scale, which involves an 11-item self-report questionnaire. Nurses' attitudes were mainly positive, but differed across cities, with the attitude of Jinan nurses being significantly more positive than nurses from the other two cities, and the attitude of Hong Kong nurses being significantly the lowest. Positive attitudes were associated with position, and nurses who were well informed of hospital policy and received training for bereavement care were statistically significantly more likely to have a positive attitude toward perinatal bereavement care. Although nurses' attitudes to prenatal bereavement care differ significantly across the three Asian cities, they are generally similar. The differences observed could be related to the wider social, cultural, and organizational circumstances of nursing practice.

  5. A Survey Comparing Delegation of Cosmetic Procedures Between Dermatologists and Nondermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Molly B; Srivastava, Divya; Bernstein, Ira H; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2015-07-01

    How delegation of procedures varies among cosmetic specialties in the United States is not well described. To better describe current practices in delegation of procedures to nonphysicians among physicians of different cosmetic specialties in the United States. An Internet-based survey was administered to physician members of the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS), the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS), and the American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery (ASLMS). A total of 823 responses were collected. Two hundred ninety-one of the 521 dermatologists (55.9%) reported delegating cosmetic procedures compared with 223 of the 302 nondermatologists (73.8%) (p delegation occurred, dermatologists were more likely than nondermatologists to delegate the following procedures to higher level non-physician providers (NPP): chemical peels, neuromodulator and filler injections, laser hair removal, pulsed dye laser, tattoo removal, intense pulsed light, nonablative fractional laser, and sclerotherapy. No difference in delegation rate was noted between dermatologists and non-dermatologist physicians with respect to microdermabrasion, ablative fractional laser, cryolipolysis, radiofrequency skin tightening, focused ultrasound skin tightening, and focused ultrasound fat reduction. Dermatologists delegate procedures to NPP less frequently than non-dermatologist physicians, and when they do, it is typically to higher level NPP.

  6. How empathic are vegan medical professionals compared to others? Leads from a paper-pencil-survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Christian S; Michalsen, Andreas; Holler, Sophie; Murthy, Vijayendra S; Cramer, Holger

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this survey was to examine differences in personality profiles among 198 vegan (n = 64; 32.3%), vegetarian (n = 78; 39.4%) and omnivore (n = 55; 27.8%) medical professionals. Outcomes were motives for the nutritional approaches, WHO QoL-BREF, Big Five SOEP Inventory, Portraits Value Questionnaire, and Empathizing Scale. Regarding motives for particular diets, omnivores rated influence of guardians (p vegans and vegetarians. Vegans and vegetarians consumed less coffee (p = 0.007) and alcohol compared to omnivores (p = 0.017). The duration of adhering to a specific diet was significantly shorter in vegans. Data suggest that vegan medical professionals do not differ from vegetarians or omnivores regarding empathy, values or personality traits. Differences to a related internet sample were observed for a number of outcomes. Given the small sample size and potential selection bias through the specific subpopulation attending a plant-based nutrition conference, further studies are warranted to confirm these results. Particularly, potential reciprocities between empathy and individual nutritional choices deserve further attention.

  7. The POINT-AGAPE Survey: Comparing Automated Searches of Microlensing Events toward M31

    CERN Document Server

    Tsapras, Y; Weston, M J; Kerins, E; Baillon, P; Gould, A; Paulin-Henriksson, S

    2010-01-01

    Searching for microlensing in M31 using automated superpixel surveys raises a number of difficulties which are not present in more conventional techniques. Here we focus on the problem that the list of microlensing candidates is sensitive to the selection criteria or "cuts" imposed and some subjectivity is involved in this. Weakening the cuts will generate a longer list of microlensing candidates but with a greater fraction of spurious ones; strengthening the cuts will produce a shorter list but may exclude some genuine events. We illustrate this by comparing three analyses of the same data-set obtained from a 3-year observing run on the INT in La Palma. The results of two of these analyses have been already reported: Belokurov et al. (2005) obtained between 3 and 22 candidates, depending on the strength of their cuts, while Calchi Novati et al. (2005) obtained 6 candidates. The third analysis is presented here for the first time and reports 10 microlensing candidates, 7 of which are new. Only two of the cand...

  8. National Food Safety Systems in the European Union: A Comparative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hadjigeorgiou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative survey of the National Food Safety Systems (NFSS of the European Union (EU Member-States (MS and the Central EU level. The main organizational structures of the NFSS, their legal frameworks, their responsibilities, their experiences, and challenges relating to food safety are discussed. Growing concerns about food safety have led the EU itself, its MS and non-EU countries, which are EU trade-partners, to review and modify their food safety systems. Our study suggests that the EU and 22 out of 27 Member States (MS have reorganized their NFSS by establishing a single food safety authority or a similar organization on the national or central level. In addition, the study analyzes different approaches towards the establishment of such agencies. Areas where marked differences in approaches were seen included the division of responsibilities for risk assessment (RA, risk management (RM, and risk communication (RC. We found that in 12 Member States, all three areas of activity (RA, RM, and RC are kept together, whereas in 10 Member States, risk management is functionally or institutionally separate from risk assessment and risk communication. No single ideal model for others to follow for the organization of a food safety authority was observed; however, revised NFSS, either in EU member states or at the EU central level, may be more effective from the previous arrangements, because they provide central supervision, give priority to food control programs, and maintain comprehensive risk analysis as part of their activities.

  9. The Changing Landscape of International Schooling: Implications for Theory and Practice. Routledge Research in International and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    The number of English-medium international schools that deliver their curriculum wholly or partly in the English language reportedly reached 6,000 in January 2012. It is anticipated this number will rise to over 11,000 schools by 2022, employing over 500,000 English-speaking teachers. The number of children being taught in these schools reportedly…

  10. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods.

  11. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods.

  12. Methods of international health technology assessment agencies for economic evaluations--a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Tim; Jacobs, Esther; Morfeld, Jana-Carina; Pieper, Dawid

    2013-09-30

    The number of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies increases. One component of HTAs are economic aspects. To incorporate economic aspects commonly economic evaluations are performed. A convergence of recommendations for methods of health economic evaluations between international HTA agencies would facilitate the adaption of results to different settings and avoid unnecessary expense. A first step in this direction is a detailed analysis of existing similarities and differences in recommendations to identify potential for harmonization. The objective is to provide an overview and comparison of the methodological recommendations of international HTA agencies for economic evaluations. The webpages of 127 international HTA agencies were searched for guidelines containing recommendations on methods for the preparation of economic evaluations. Additionally, the HTA agencies were requested information on methods for economic evaluations. Recommendations of the included guidelines were extracted in standardized tables according to 13 methodological aspects. All process steps were performed independently by two reviewers. Finally 25 publications of 14 HTA agencies were included in the analysis. Methods for economic evaluations vary widely. The greatest accordance could be found for the type of analysis and comparator. Cost-utility-analyses or cost-effectiveness-analyses are recommended. The comparator should continuously be usual care. Again the greatest differences were shown in the recommendations on the measurement/sources of effects, discounting and in the analysis of sensitivity. The main difference regarding effects is the focus either on efficacy or effectiveness. Recommended discounting rates range from 1.5%-5% for effects and 3%-5% for costs whereby it is mostly recommended to use the same rate for costs and effects. With respect to the analysis of sensitivity the main difference is that oftentimes the probabilistic or deterministic approach is recommended

  13. International conference on research methodology for roadside surveys of drinking-driving : alcohol countermeasures workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    The basic purpose [of the conference] was to encourage more roadside surveys by furthering the research methodology and recommendations for conducting roadside surveys developed by a special group of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Deve...

  14. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Agnes E; van Winsum-Westra, Marijke; de Vries, Sjerp; van Dillen, Sonja M E

    2010-11-23

    The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP), four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends) and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening and being active, and less towards passive relaxation

  15. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Winsum-Westra Marijke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. Methods A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP, four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. Results After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening

  16. Multimorbidity in Australia: Comparing estimates derived using administrative data sources and survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Lujic

    Full Text Available Estimating multimorbidity (presence of two or more chronic conditions using administrative data is becoming increasingly common. We investigated (1 the concordance of identification of chronic conditions and multimorbidity using self-report survey and administrative datasets; (2 characteristics of people with multimorbidity ascertained using different data sources; and (3 whether the same individuals are classified as multimorbid using different data sources.Baseline survey data for 90,352 participants of the 45 and Up Study-a cohort study of residents of New South Wales, Australia, aged 45 years and over-were linked to prior two-year pharmaceutical claims and hospital admission records. Concordance of eight self-report chronic conditions (reference with claims and hospital data were examined using sensitivity (Sn, positive predictive value (PPV, and kappa (κ.The characteristics of people classified as multimorbid were compared using logistic regression modelling.Agreement was found to be highest for diabetes in both hospital and claims data (κ = 0.79, 0.78; Sn = 79%, 72%; PPV = 86%, 90%. The prevalence of multimorbidity was highest using self-report data (37.4%, followed by claims data (36.1% and hospital data (19.3%. Combining all three datasets identified a total of 46 683 (52% people with multimorbidity, with half of these identified using a single dataset only, and up to 20% identified on all three datasets. Characteristics of persons with and without multimorbidity were generally similar. However, the age gradient was more pronounced and people speaking a language other than English at home were more likely to be identified as multimorbid by administrative data.Different individuals, with different combinations of conditions, are identified as multimorbid when different data sources are used. As such, caution should be applied when ascertaining morbidity from a single data source as the agreement between self-report and administrative

  17. Multimorbidity in Australia: Comparing estimates derived using administrative data sources and survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujic, Sanja; Simpson, Judy M; Zwar, Nicholas; Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Jorm, Louisa

    2017-01-01

    Estimating multimorbidity (presence of two or more chronic conditions) using administrative data is becoming increasingly common. We investigated (1) the concordance of identification of chronic conditions and multimorbidity using self-report survey and administrative datasets; (2) characteristics of people with multimorbidity ascertained using different data sources; and (3) whether the same individuals are classified as multimorbid using different data sources. Baseline survey data for 90,352 participants of the 45 and Up Study-a cohort study of residents of New South Wales, Australia, aged 45 years and over-were linked to prior two-year pharmaceutical claims and hospital admission records. Concordance of eight self-report chronic conditions (reference) with claims and hospital data were examined using sensitivity (Sn), positive predictive value (PPV), and kappa (κ).The characteristics of people classified as multimorbid were compared using logistic regression modelling. Agreement was found to be highest for diabetes in both hospital and claims data (κ = 0.79, 0.78; Sn = 79%, 72%; PPV = 86%, 90%). The prevalence of multimorbidity was highest using self-report data (37.4%), followed by claims data (36.1%) and hospital data (19.3%). Combining all three datasets identified a total of 46 683 (52%) people with multimorbidity, with half of these identified using a single dataset only, and up to 20% identified on all three datasets. Characteristics of persons with and without multimorbidity were generally similar. However, the age gradient was more pronounced and people speaking a language other than English at home were more likely to be identified as multimorbid by administrative data. Different individuals, with different combinations of conditions, are identified as multimorbid when different data sources are used. As such, caution should be applied when ascertaining morbidity from a single data source as the agreement between self-report and administrative data

  18. Fewer specialists support using medical marijuana and CBD in treating epilepsy patients compared with other medical professionals and patients: result of Epilepsia's survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Gary W; Beninsig, Laurie; Nehlig, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    From May 20 to September 1 2014, Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions about the use of medical marijuana and cannabidiol (CBD) for people with epilepsy. This study reports the findings of that poll. The survey consisted of eight questions. Four questions asked if there were sufficient safety and efficacy data, whether responders would advise trying medical marijuana in cases of severe refractory epilepsy, and if pharmacologic grade compounds containing CBD should be available. Four questions addressed occupation, geographic region of residence, if responders had read the paper, and if they were International League Against Epilepsy/International Bureau for Epilepsy (ILAE/IBE) members. Of 776 who started or completed the survey, 58% were patients from North America, and 22% were epileptologists and general neurologists from Europe and North America. A minority of epileptologists and general neurologists said that there were sufficient safety (34%) and efficacy (28%) data, and 48% would advise using medical marijuana in severe cases of epilepsy. By comparison, nearly all patients and the public said there were sufficient safety (96%) and efficacy (95%) data, and 98% would recommend medical marijuana in cases of severe epilepsy. General physicians, basic researchers, nurses, and allied health professions sided more with patients, saying that there were sufficient safety (70%) and efficacy (71%) data, and 83% would advise using marijuana in severe cases. A majority (78%) said there should be pharmacologic grade compounds containing CBD, and there were no differences between specialists, general medical personal, and patients and the public. This survey indicates that there is a wide disparity in opinion on the use of medical marijuana and CBD in the treatment of people with epilepsy, which varied substantially, with fewer medical specialists supporting its use compared with general medical personal, and patients and the public. Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  19. Comparing Twitter and Online Panels for Survey Recruitment of E-Cigarette Users and Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Kim, Annice; Murphy, Joe; Bradfield, Brian; Nonnemaker, James; Hsieh, Yuli

    2016-11-15

    E-cigarettes have rapidly increased in popularity in recent years, driven, at least in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth discussion on Twitter. Given the rapid proliferation of e-cigarettes, researchers need timely quantitative data from e-cigarette users and smokers who may see e-cigarettes as a cessation tool. Twitter provides an ideal platform for recruiting e-cigarette users and smokers who use Twitter. Online panels offer a second method of accessing this population, but they have been criticized for recruiting too few young adults, among whom e-cigarette use rates are highest. This study compares effectiveness of recruiting Twitter users who are e-cigarette users and smokers who have never used e-cigarettes via Twitter to online panelists provided by Qualtrics and explores how users recruited differ by demographics, e-cigarette use, and social media use. Participants were adults who had ever used e-cigarettes (n=278; male: 57.6%, 160/278; age: mean 34.26, SD 14.16 years) and smokers (n=102; male: 38.2%, 39/102; age: mean 42.80, SD 14.16 years) with public Twitter profiles. Participants were recruited via online panel (n=190) or promoted tweets using keyword targeting for e-cigarette users (n=190). Predictor variables were demographics (age, gender, education, race/ethnicity), e-cigarette use (eg, past 30-day e-cigarette use, e-cigarette puffs per day), social media use behaviors (eg, Twitter use frequency), and days to final survey completion from survey launch for Twitter versus panel. Recruitment method (Twitter, panel) was the dependent variable. Across the total sample, participants were recruited more quickly via Twitter (incidence rate ratio=1.30, P=.02) than panel. Compared with young adult e-cigarette users (age 18-24 years), e-cigarette users aged 25 to 34 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.60, P=.03) and 35 to 44 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.51, P=.02) were more likely to be recruited via Twitter than panel. Smokers aged 35 to 44 years were less

  20. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. Methods We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions’ U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Results Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences

  1. International Brachytherapy Practice Patterns: A Survey of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Creutzberg, Carien L. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Craighead, Peter [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); McCormack, Mary [Department of Oncology, University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Narayan, Kailash [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Reed, Nicholas [Beatson Oncology Centre, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Long, Harry [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Kim, Hak-Jae [Department of Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Marth, Christian [Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria); Lindegaard, Jacob C. [Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Cerrotta, Annmarie [Department of Radiation Therapy, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano (Italy); Small, William [The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Trimble, Edward [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine current practice patterns with regard to gynecologic high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy among international members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) in Japan/Korea (Asia), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Europe (E), and North America (NAm). Methods and Materials: A 32-item survey was developed requesting information on brachytherapy practice patterns and standard management for Stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. The chair of each GCIG member cooperative group selected radiation oncology members to receive the survey. Results: A total of 72 responses were analyzed; 61 respondents (85%) used HDR. The three most common HDR brachytherapy fractionation regimens for Stage IB-IIA patients were 6 Gy for five fractions (18%), 6 Gy for four fractions (15%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (11%); for Stage IIB-IVA patients they were 6 Gy for five fractions (19%), 7 Gy for four fractions (8%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (8%). Overall, the mean combined external-beam and brachytherapy equivalent dose (EQD2) was 81.1 (standard deviation [SD] 10.16). The mean EQD2 recommended for Stage IB-IIA patients was 78.9 Gy (SD 10.7) and for Stage IIB-IVA was 83.3 Gy (SD 11.2) (p = 0.02). By region, the mean combined EQD2 was as follows: Asia, 71.2 Gy (SD 12.65); ANZ, 81.18 (SD 4.96); E, 83.24 (SD 10.75); and NAm, 81.66 (SD, 6.05; p = 0.02 for Asia vs. other regions).The ratio of brachytherapy to total prescribed dose was significantly higher for Japan (p = 0.0002). Conclusion: Although fractionation patterns may vary, the overall mean doses administered for cervical cancer are similar in Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and North America, with practitioners in Japan administering a significantly lower external-beam dose but higher brachytherapy dose to the cervix. Given common goals, standardization should be possible in future clinical trials.

  2. Research priorities in health communication and participation: international survey of consumers and other stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnot, Anneliese; Bragge, Peter; Lowe, Dianne; Nunn, Jack S; O'Sullivan, Molly; Horvat, Lidia; Tong, Allison; Kay, Debra; Ghersi, Davina; McDonald, Steve; Poole, Naomi; Bourke, Noni; Lannin, Natasha; Vadasz, Danny; Oliver, Sandy; Carey, Karen; Hill, Sophie J

    2018-05-08

    To identify research priorities of consumers and other stakeholders to inform Cochrane Reviews in 'health communication and participation' (including such concepts as patient experience, shared decision-making and health literacy). International. We included anyone with an interest in health communication and participation. Up to 151 participants (18-80 years; 117 female) across 12 countries took part, including 48 consumers (patients, carers, consumer representatives) and 75 professionals (health professionals, policymakers, researchers) (plus 25 people who identified as both). Survey. We invited people to submit their research ideas via an online survey open for 4 weeks. Using inductive thematic analysis, we generated priority research topics, then classified these into broader themes. Participants submitted 200 research ideas, which we grouped into 21 priority topics. Key research priorities included: insufficient consumer involvement in research (19 responses), 'official' health information is contradictory and hard to understand (18 responses), communication/coordination breakdowns in health services (15 responses), health information provision a low priority for health professionals (15 responses), insufficient eliciting of patient preferences (14 responses), health services poorly understand/implement patient-centred care (14 responses), lack of holistic care impacting healthcare quality and safety (13 responses) and inadequate consumer involvement in service design (11 responses). These priorities encompassed acute and community health settings, with implications for policy and research. Priority populations of interest included people from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, carers, and people with low educational attainment, or mental illness. Most frequently suggested interventions focused on training and cultural change activities for health services and health professionals. Consumers and other stakeholders want research addressing

  3. Archiving Legacy Images from International Tsunami Science Team (ITST) Surveys, 1946 - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, C.; Kong, L. S. L.; Elwany, H.; Arcos, N. P.; Dunbar, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    The ITIC, USC, Coastal Environments, and NOAA/NCEI have collaborated to gather legacy videos and photos from ITST surveys conducted since 1992, plus from 1946 and 1956, by the USC-TR. The images will become part of the NCEI online and searchable historical tsunami image database. The legacy videos and photos document the local conditions in the tsunami aftermath and are important resources for visualizing the tsunami and identifying patterns of impacts. The data provide invaluable insights into tsunami events, and this information will empower future generations to make informed decisions regarding the future management of ocean resources, local development, and safety protocols. Eyewitnesses are important sources for further understanding even well studied events, especially before 2000. Videos provide context - what residents were doing, what they felt, what they saw, what reactions helped them survive. Photographs document inundation extent. Together, they help to visualize the location and document human behavior and response of the built environment. For example, a flow mark inside a house that survived, versus a partially destroyed house, differentiates construction styles. While the scientific rationale behind tsunami surveys is obvious, ITST protocols strike the delicate balance between the prompt need to act to recover ephemeral scientific field evidence, and urgent priorities for search-and-rescue immediately after tsunami disasters. The data set includes over 50 videos of varying formats and over 3,000 internationally-sourced photos from 24 major tsunami events from 1946-2013: 01 April 1946 Unimak Island, Aleutians; 09 July 1956 Amorgos Island, Greece; 01 September 1992, Nicaragua; 12 December 1992, Flores; 02 June 1994, East Java; 04 October 1994, Shikotan; 14 November 1994, Mindoro, Philippines; 17 January 1994 Northridge; 09 October 1995, Manzanillo, Mexico; 17 February 1997, Biak, Indonesia; 21 February 1996 Chimbote, Peru; 17 August 1998 Aitape, PNG

  4. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Dina Fine; Smith, Tyler J S; Nachman, Keeve E

    2013-10-16

    The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions' U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences. A majority of leading U.S. trade

  5. Selective internal radiation therapy compared with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edeline, Julien [Centre Eugene Marquis, Medical Oncology Department, Rennes (France); Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Crouzet, Laurence; Pracht, Marc; Boucher, Eveline [Centre Eugene Marquis, Medical Oncology Department, Rennes (France); Campillo-Gimenez, Boris [Centre Eugene Marquis, Clinical Research Department, Rennes (France); Rolland, Yan; Rohou, Tanguy [Centre Eugene Marquis, Imaging Department, Rennes (France); Guillygomarc' h, Anne [CHU Pontchaillou, Hepatology Department, Rennes (France); Boudjema, Karim [CHU Pontchaillou, Hepatobiliary Surgery, Rennes (France); Lenoir, Laurence [Centre Eugene Marquis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France); Adhoute, Xavier [Hopital Saint-Joseph, Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Marseille (France); Clement, Bruno [Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Blanc, Jean-Frederic [Hopital Saint-Andre, Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Bordeaux (France); Garin, Etienne [Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Centre Eugene Marquis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France)

    2016-04-15

    Tumoural portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of sorafenib, the only treatment approved at an advanced stage, is limited. Based on previous data, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), or {sup 90}Y radioembolization, seems an interesting option. We aimed to compare both treatments in this population. We retrospectively compared patients treated in two centres for HCC with tumoural PVT. We compared overall survival (OS) between patients treated with SIRT and patients treated with sorafenib. Analyses were performed before and after 1:1 matching with a propensity score for controlling indication bias, using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 151 patients were analysed, 34 patients treated with SIRT and 117 patients treated with sorafenib only. In the whole population, SIRT was associated with a higher median OS as compared with sorafenib: 18.8 vs 6.5 months (log-rank p < 0.001). There was an imbalance of baseline characteristics between patients treated by SIRT and sorafenib, which justified patient matching with use of a propensity score: 24 patients treated with SIRT could be matched with 24 patients treated with sorafenib. OS was estimated with a median of 26.2 vs 8.7 months in patients treated with SIRT vs sorafenib, respectively (log-rank p = 0.054). Before and after patient matching, the adjusted hazard ratio related to treatment by SIRT was estimated at 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.97] (p = 0.037) and 0.40 (95 % CI 0.19-0.82) (p = 0.013), respectively. SIRT seems more effective than sorafenib in patients presenting with HCC and tumoural PVT. This hypothesis is being tested in prospective randomized trials. (orig.)

  6. Selective internal radiation therapy compared with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edeline, Julien; Crouzet, Laurence; Pracht, Marc; Boucher, Eveline; Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Rolland, Yan; Rohou, Tanguy; Guillygomarc'h, Anne; Boudjema, Karim; Lenoir, Laurence; Adhoute, Xavier; Clement, Bruno; Blanc, Jean-Frederic; Garin, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Tumoural portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of sorafenib, the only treatment approved at an advanced stage, is limited. Based on previous data, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), or 90 Y radioembolization, seems an interesting option. We aimed to compare both treatments in this population. We retrospectively compared patients treated in two centres for HCC with tumoural PVT. We compared overall survival (OS) between patients treated with SIRT and patients treated with sorafenib. Analyses were performed before and after 1:1 matching with a propensity score for controlling indication bias, using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 151 patients were analysed, 34 patients treated with SIRT and 117 patients treated with sorafenib only. In the whole population, SIRT was associated with a higher median OS as compared with sorafenib: 18.8 vs 6.5 months (log-rank p < 0.001). There was an imbalance of baseline characteristics between patients treated by SIRT and sorafenib, which justified patient matching with use of a propensity score: 24 patients treated with SIRT could be matched with 24 patients treated with sorafenib. OS was estimated with a median of 26.2 vs 8.7 months in patients treated with SIRT vs sorafenib, respectively (log-rank p = 0.054). Before and after patient matching, the adjusted hazard ratio related to treatment by SIRT was estimated at 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.97] (p = 0.037) and 0.40 (95 % CI 0.19-0.82) (p = 0.013), respectively. SIRT seems more effective than sorafenib in patients presenting with HCC and tumoural PVT. This hypothesis is being tested in prospective randomized trials. (orig.)

  7. Should International Classification of Diseases codes be used to survey hospital-acquired pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, A; Meier, A H; Kuster, S P; Mehra, T; Meier, M-T; Sax, H

    2018-05-01

    As surveillance of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is very resource intensive, alternatives for HAP surveillance are needed urgently. This study compared HAP rates according to routine discharge diagnostic codes of the International Classification of Diseases, 10 th Revision (ICD-10; ICD-HAP) with HAP rates according to the validated surveillance definitions of the Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS/IPSE; HELICS-HAP) by manual retrospective re-evaluation of patient records. The positive predictive value of ICD-HAP for HELICS-HAP was 0.35, and sensitivity was 0.59. Therefore, the currently available ICD-10-based routine discharge data do not allow reliable identification of patients with HAP. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. SURF - SUrvey of Risk Factor management: first report of an international audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Mt; Reiner, Z; Sheu, W; Ryden, L; Sutter, J de; De Bacquer, D; DeBacker, G; Mithal, A; Chung, N; Lim, Yt; Dudina, A; Reynolds, A; Dunney, K; Graham, I

    2014-07-01

    Despite the fact that subjects with established coronary heart disease (CHD) are at high risk of further events and deserve meticulous secondary prevention, current audits such as EUROASPIRE show poor control of major risk factors. Ongoing monitoring is required. We present a new risk factor audit system, SURF (Survey of Risk Factor management), that can be conducted much more quickly and easily than existing audit systems and has the potential to allow hospitals of all sizes to participate in a unified international audit system that will complement EUROASPIRE. Initial experience indicates that SURF is truly simple to undertake in an international setting, and this is illustrated with the results of a substantive pilot project conducted in Europe and Asia. The data collection system was designed to allow rapid and easy data collection as part of routine clinic work. Consecutive patients (aged 18 and over) with established CHD attending outpatient cardiology clinics were included. Information on demographics, previous coronary medical history, smoking history, history of hypertension, dyslipidaemia or diabetes, physical activity, attendance at cardiac rehabilitation, cardiac medications, lipid and glucose levels (and HbA1c in diabetics) if available within the last year, blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, and waist circumference were collected using a one-page data collection sheet. Years spent in full time education was added as an additional question during the pilot phase. Three European countries - Ireland (n = 251), Belgium (n = 122), and Croatia (n = 124) - and four Asian countries - Singapore (n = 142), Taiwan (n = 334), India (n = 97), and Korea (n = 45) - were included in the pilot study. The results of initial field testing were confirmed in that it proved possible to collect data within 60-90 seconds per subject. There was poor control of several risk factors including high levels of physical inactivity (41

  9. Characteristics and international comparability of the Finnish matrix sentence test in cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Aarno; Buschermöhle, Michael; Sivonen, Ville; Willberg, Tytti; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Lenarz, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The first Finnish sentence-based speech test in noise--the Finnish matrix sentence test--was recently developed. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the new test with respect to test-retest reliability, speech recognition curve, and international comparability in Finnish cochlear implant (CI) recipients. The speech reception thresholds (SRT) were measured by means of an adaptive test procedure and compared with the results of the traditional Finnish word test. Additional measurements for concurrent slope and SRT estimation were conducted to determine the speech recognition curve and to check the test-retest reliability. The measurements were performed on 78 Finnish CI recipients. In a subset of 25 patients, additional measurements for test-retest reliability and slope determination were performed. The mean SRT was -3.5 ± 1.7 dB SNR, with only a weak correlation with the Finnish word test. Test-retest reliability was within ± 1 dB and the mean slope of the speech recognition curve was 14.6 ± 3.6 %/dB. The rehabilitation results were similar to the results published for the German matrix test. The Finnish matrix test was found to be suitable and efficient in CI recipients with similar characteristics as the German matrix test.

  10. International double (non-)taxation : comparative guidelines from European legal principles

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, Van de, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The principle of fairness advocates against international double taxation and international double non-taxation. Countries and international organizations (OECD, G20 and EU) have taken several initiatives against such taxation. However, these initiatives are not always effective. Also, certain legal authors question the legitimacy of the OECD and its action plan on BEPS. The essential goal of this research is to find guidelines to address international double (non-) taxation. We fir...

  11. Comparing Two Inferential Approaches to Handling Measurement Error in Mixed-Mode Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buelens Bart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays sample survey data collection strategies combine web, telephone, face-to-face, or other modes of interviewing in a sequential fashion. Measurement bias of survey estimates of means and totals are composed of different mode-dependent measurement errors as each data collection mode has its own associated measurement error. This article contains an appraisal of two recently proposed methods of inference in this setting. The first is a calibration adjustment to the survey weights so as to balance the survey response to a prespecified distribution of the respondents over the modes. The second is a prediction method that seeks to correct measurements towards a benchmark mode. The two methods are motivated differently but at the same time coincide in some circumstances and agree in terms of required assumptions. The methods are applied to the Labour Force Survey in the Netherlands and are found to provide almost identical estimates of the number of unemployed. Each method has its own specific merits. Both can be applied easily in practice as they do not require additional data collection beyond the regular sequential mixed-mode survey, an attractive element for national statistical institutes and other survey organisations.

  12. Drain Insertion in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: An International Survey of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleman, Jehuda; Kamenova, Maria; Lutz, Katharina; Guzman, Raphael; Fandino, Javier; Mariani, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether, after the publication of grade I evidence that it reduces recurrence rates, the practice of drain insertion after burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematoma has changed. Further, we aimed to document various practice modalities concerning the insertion of a drain adopted by neurosurgeons internationally. We administered a survey to neurosurgeons worldwide with questions relating to the surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma, with an emphasis on their practices concerning the use of a drain. The preferred surgical technique was burr-hole drainage (89%). Most surgeons prefer to place a drain (80%), whereas in 56% of the cases the reason for not placing a drain was brain expansion after evacuation. Subdural drains are placed by 50% and subperiosteal drains by 27% of the responders, whereas 23% place primarily a subdural drain if possible and otherwise a subperiosteal drain. Three quarters of the responders leave the drain for 48 hours and give prophylactic antibiotic treatment, mostly a single-shot dose intraoperatively (70%). Routine postoperative computed tomography is done by 59% mostly within 24-48 hours after surgery (94%). Adjunct treatment to surgery rarely is used (4%). The publication of grade I evidence in favor of drain use influenced positively this practice worldwide. Some surgeons are still reluctant to insert a drain, especially when the subdural space is narrow after drainage of the hematoma. The insertion of a subperiosteal drain could be a good alternative solution. However, its outcome and efficacy must be evaluated in larger studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. International survey on D-dimer test reporting: a call for standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Armando; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2015-04-01

    D-dimer is the biochemical gold standard for diagnosing a variety of thrombotic disorders, but result reporting is heterogeneous in clinical laboratories. A specific five-item questionnaire was developed to gain a clear picture of the current standardization of D-dimer test results. The questionnaire was opened online (December 24, 2014-February 10, 2015) on the platform "Google Drive (Google Inc., Mountain View; CA)," and widely disseminated worldwide by newsletters and alerts. A total of 409 responses were obtained during the period of data capture, the largest of which were from Italy (136; 33%), Australia (55; 22%), Croatia (29; 7%), Serbia (26; 6%), and the United States (21; 5%). Most respondents belonged to laboratories in general hospitals (208; 51%), followed by laboratories in university hospitals (104; 26%), and the private sector (94; 23%). The majority of respondents (i.e., 246; 60%) indicated the use of fibrinogen equivalent unit for expressing D-dimer results, with significant heterogeneities across countries and health care settings. The highest prevalence of laboratories indicated they were using "ng/mL" (139; 34%), followed by "mg/L" (136; 33%), and "µg/L" (73; 18%), with significant heterogeneity across countries but not among different health care settings. Expectedly, the vast majority of laboratories (379; 93%) declared to be using a fixed cutoff rather than an age-adjusted threshold, with no significant heterogeneity across countries and health care settings. The results of this survey attest that at least 28 different combinations of measurement units are currently used to report D-dimer results worldwide, and this evidence underscores the urgent need for more effective international joined efforts aimed to promote a worldwide standardization of D-dimer results reporting. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. What is mental health? Evidence towards a new definition from a mixed methods multidisciplinary international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Laurie A; Barbic, Skye P; Roberts, Karen; Durisko, Zachary; Lee, Cheolsoon; Ware, Emma; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lack of consensus on the definition of mental health has implications for research, policy and practice. This study aims to start an international, interdisciplinary and inclusive dialogue to answer the question: What are the core concepts of mental health? Design and participants 50 people with expertise in the field of mental health from 8 countries completed an online survey. They identified the extent to which 4 current definitions were adequate and what the core concepts of mental health were. A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted of their responses. The results were validated at a consensus meeting of 58 clinicians, researchers and people with lived experience. Results 46% of respondents rated the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC, 2006) definition as the most preferred, 30% stated that none of the 4 definitions were satisfactory and only 20% said the WHO (2001) definition was their preferred choice. The least preferred definition of mental health was the general definition of health adapted from Huber et al (2011). The core concepts of mental health were highly varied and reflected different processes people used to answer the question. These processes included the overarching perspective or point of reference of respondents (positionality), the frameworks used to describe the core concepts (paradigms, theories and models), and the way social and environmental factors were considered to act. The core concepts of mental health identified were mainly individual and functional, in that they related to the ability or capacity of a person to effectively deal with or change his/her environment. A preliminary model for the processes used to conceptualise mental health is presented. Conclusions Answers to the question, ‘What are the core concepts of mental health?’ are highly dependent on the empirical frame used. Understanding these empirical frames is key to developing a useful consensus definition for diverse populations. PMID:26038353

  15. Epidemiology of atopic dermatitis in adults: Results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarot, S; Auziere, S; Gadkari, A; Girolomoni, G; Puig, L; Simpson, E L; Margolis, D J; de Bruin-Weller, M; Eckert, L

    2018-01-10

    There are gaps in our knowledge of the prevalence of adult atopic dermatitis (AD). To estimate the prevalence of AD in adults and by disease severity. This international, cross-sectional, web-based survey was performed in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, and Japan. Adult members of online respondent panels were sent a questionnaire for AD identification and severity assessment; demographic quotas ensured population representativeness for each country. A diagnosis of AD required subjects to be positive on the modified UK Working Party/ISAAC criteria and self-report of ever having an AD diagnosis by a physician. The proportion of subjects with AD who reported being treated for their condition was determined and also used to estimate prevalence. Severity scales were Patient-Oriented SCORAD, Patient-Orientated Eczema Measure, and Patient Global Assessment. Among participants by region, the point prevalence of adult AD in the overall/treated populations was 4.9%/3.9% in the US, 3.5%/2.6% in Canada, 4.4%/3.5% in the EU, and 2.1%/1.5% in Japan. The prevalence was generally lower for males vs females, and decreased with age. Regional variability was observed within countries. Severity varied by scale and region; however, regardless of the scale or region, proportion of subjects reporting severe disease was lower than mild or moderate disease. Prevalence of adult AD ranged from 2.1% to 4.9% across countries. Severe AD represented a small proportion of the overall AD population regardless of measure or region. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  16. Imaging the internal structure of fluid upflow zones with detailed digital Parasound echosounder surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, V.; Zuehlsdorff, L.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Schwenk, T.

    2001-12-01

    Sites of venting fluids both with continuous and episodic supply often reveal complex surface and internal structures, which are difficult to image and cause problems to transfer results from local sampling towards a structural reconstruction and a quantification of (average) flux rates. Detailed acoustic and seismic surveys would be required to retrieve this information, but also an appropriate environment, where fluid migration can be properly imaged from contrasts to unaffected areas. Hemipelagic sediments are most suitable, since typically reflectors are coherent and of low lateral amplitude variation and structures are continuous over distances much longer than the scale of fluid migration features. During RV Meteor Cruise M473 and RV Sonne Cruise SO 149 detailed studies were carried out in the vicinity of potential fluid upflow zones in the Lower Congo Basin at 5oS in 3000 m water depth and at the Northern Cascadia Margin in 1000 m water depth. Unexpected sampling of massive gas hydrates from the sea floor as well as of carbonate concretions, shell fragments and different liveforms indicated active fluid venting in a typically hemipelagic realm. The acoustic signature of such zones includes columnar blanking, pockmark depressions at the sea floor, association with small offset faults (ParaDigMA System for further processing and display, to image the spatial structure of the upflow zones. Due to the high data density amplitudes and other acoustic properties could be investigated in a 3D volume and time slices as well as reflector surfaces were analyzed. Pronounced lateral variations of reflection amplitudes within a complex pattern indicate potential pathways for fluid/gas migration and occurrences of near-surface gas hydrate deposits, which may be used to trace detailed surface evidence from side scan sonar imaging down to depth and support dedicated sampling.

  17. Contemporary Management of Achalasia by Pediatric Surgeons: A Survey of the International Pediatric Endosurgical Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanna L; Rentea, Rebecca M; St Peter, Shawn D

    2016-07-01

    Achalasia is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the esophagus. Surgical repair consists of esophagomyotomy, often in conjunction with an antireflux procedure. We sought to determine practice patterns in surgical treatment of pediatric achalasia. Data regarding preferences were collected as part of a comprehensive online-based survey sent to members of the International Pediatric Endosurgery Group (IPEG) completed by 191 surgeons of which 141 performed esophagomyotomies for achalasia. Procedures performed per surgeon were 1-2 (n = 21, 15%); 3-5 (n = 49, 34%); 6-10 (n = 39, 28%); 11-20 (n = 21, 15%); >20 (n = 11, 8%). Most approached the operation laparoscopically (n = 127, 90%). Workup before esophageal myotomy consisted of a diagnostic esophagram (n = 133, 94%) or manometry (n = 102, 73%). Only 60% of surgeons (n = 84) required an EGD. No preference observed in division location of the phrenoesophageal ligament for mobilization of the esophagus. There was a predominant preference for hook cautery (n = 82, 58%) over harmonic shears (n = 30, 21%), heated sealing device LigaSure™ (n = 18, 13%), and other devices (n = 11, 8%) for muscle division. Intraoperatively, 57% (n = 80) had endoscopy and 50% (n = 71) had postoperative esophagram before initiation of enteral feeding. For antireflux procedure, Thal/Dor approach was performed most frequently (n = 111, 79%) followed by the Toupet (n = 18, 13%) and Nissen (n = 4, 3%) and none (n = 7, 5%). Diet restrictions were provided in 76% (n = 107) of postoperative patients. Given the infrequency of achalasia in children, there are a range of treatment plans among pediatric surgeons. We have identified current practices as a first step in developing more standard treatment pathways.

  18. The Prosecution of Human Traffickers? : A Comparative Analysis of Enslavement Judgments Among International Courts and Tribunals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siller, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Despite its international construction and codification, the criminal offense of ‘trafficking in persons’ is absent from the statutes of international judicial institutions. Does this result in the inability to hold those who engage in the traffic of human beings accountable under international

  19. An Internationally Comparative Study of Immigration and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems : Effects of Generation and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim; Maes, Marlies; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Cavallo, Franco; Molcho, Michal

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral

  20. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2016; all rights reserved.

  1. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  2. An international survey to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of research studies most likely to change orthopaedic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, P; de Sa, D; Evaniew, N; Farrokhyar, F; Bhandari, M; Ghert, M

    2016-04-01

    Evidence -based medicine (EBM) is designed to inform clinical decision-making within all medical specialties, including orthopaedic surgery. We recently published a pilot survey of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) membership and demonstrated that the adoption of EBM principles is variable among Canadian orthopaedic surgeons. The objective of this study was to conduct a broader international survey of orthopaedic surgeons to identify characteristics of research studies perceived as being most influential in informing clinical decision-making. A 29-question electronic survey was distributed to the readership of an established orthopaedic journal with international readership. The survey aimed to analyse the influence of both extrinsic (journal quality, investigator profiles, etc.) and intrinsic characteristics (study design, sample size, etc.) of research studies in relation to their influence on practice patterns. A total of 353 surgeons completed the survey. Surgeons achieved consensus on the 'importance' of three key designs on their practices: randomised controlled trials (94%), meta-analyses (75%) and systematic reviews (66%). The vast majority of respondents support the use of current evidence over historical clinical training; however subjective factors such as journal reputation (72%) and investigator profile (68%) continue to influence clinical decision-making strongly. Although intrinsic factors such as study design and sample size have some influence on clinical decision-making, surgeon respondents are equally influenced by extrinsic factors such as investigator reputation and perceived journal quality.Cite this article: Dr M. Ghert. An international survey to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of research studies most likely to change orthopaedic practice. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:130-136. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000578. © 2016 Ghert et al.

  3. Toward an International Comparison of Economic and Educational Mobility: Recent Findings from the Japan Child Panel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabayashi, Hideo; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Naoi, Michio; Shikishima, Chizuru

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, income inequality has risen in most developed countries. There is growing interest among economists in international comparisons of economic and educational mobility. This is aided by the availability of internationally comparable, large-scale data. The present paper aims to make three contributions. First, we introduce the…

  4. Comparing data quality and cost from three modes of on-board transit passenger surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the findings from a research project investigating the relative data quality and administration costs for three : different modes of surveying bus passengers that produce results generalizable to the full passenger population. Th...

  5. Comparing survey and assessment data: Consequences for stock evaluation of Northeast Arctic Greenland halibut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Thomas Albert

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on VPA-estimates of abundance, survey data and commercial catch statistics of Northeast Arctic Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides Walbaum, the paper describes trends by year-class and age in the distribution of Greenland halibut between surveyed and not-surveyed areas. Changes in the distribution of I-group around 1990 to areas beyond the Svalbard surveys has previously been described and related to temperature changes in the Spitsbergen Current. This paper shows that this displaced distribution of the 1989-94 year-classes persisted up to age 7. The results indicate that the displacement was an extraordinary situation and other similar distribution shifts have not occurred during the last 30 years or more. Further, the shift co-occurred with extreme levels of the 137 year long time series of the index of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. The results are discussed in relation to stock management and climate change.

  6. Predictors, Quality Markers, and Economics of Volunteering Internationally: Results from a Comprehensive Survey of American Society of Plastic Surgeons Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Joyce K; Schoenbrunner, Anna R; Kelley, Kristen D; Gosman, Amanda A

    2017-09-01

    Plastic surgeons have a long history of international volunteer work. To date, there have been no outcome-based studies among surgeons who volunteer internationally. The purpose of this study was to describe predictors of volunteering, clinical quality markers, and economics of international volunteering among American plastic surgeons. A cross-sectional validated e-mail survey tool was sent to all board-certified plastic surgeons by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. The survey response rate was 15 percent (745 total individuals), of which 283 respondents traveled within the past 5 years. Analysis was performed in R. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of death/complication. Respondents reported high use of medical records, follow-up care, and host affiliation. Fewer than half of all respondents reported use of international safety surgery guidelines, and the majority of respondents reported volunteering abroad outside of their scope of practice. The majority of children younger than 5 years were not cared for by a pediatric anesthesiologist. The majority of participants reported personally spending more than $1000 on their last trip and performing surgery estimated to be worth on average $28,000 each. International surgical volunteer trips attempt to ease the global burden of surgical disease. The authors' study reports variation in quality of care provided on these trips. Most significantly, the majority of children younger than 5 years were not cared for by a pediatric anesthesiologist, and many plastic surgeons operated outside of their scope of practice.

  7. Internal Migration of Canadian Immigrants, 1993-2004: Evidence from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bruce Newbold

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the 1993, 1996, and 1999 six-year panels of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics Master Files, the purpose of the paper is twofold. First, it examines the migration and distribution patterns of the foreign-born across Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs. Second, it examines how internal migration modeling results may differ whether pre- and post-migration measures are used. Results suggest that internal migration of the foreign-born generally does not increase their dispersion across Canada, with the foreign-born primarily choosing one of the three immigrant gateway cities of Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver, or moving to other relatively large CMAs.

  8. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Developments and Innovations in Interpreting for Deafblind People (Leeuwenhorst, Netherlands, June 1999) and Report on a Comparative Study of Roles, Training of and Rights to Interpreters for Deafblind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham Univ. (England). Council for the Advancement of Communication with Deaf People.

    The proceedings of a 1999 international symposium on interpreting for deafblind people presents 15 papers and a report of a survey of 20 countries and 5 organizations concerning the roles, training, and rights of interpreters for deafblind people. The papers are: "European Deafblind Comparative Study--Interim Report" (Lynne Hawcroft,…

  9. International comparison of comparative effectiveness research in five jurisdictions: insights for the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Adrian R; Mitton, Craig; Johnston, Karissa M; Harrigan, Brian; Briggs, Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    ' interests, in that the turn-around time for assessments must be minimized, transparency must be maximized, the process must be considered fair using universally agreed standards and the process must be modifiable based on stakeholders' requirements; (ii) the assessment of medical technologies other than drugs may present different challenges and is managed separately in other HTA organizations; (iii) because of the link between HTA and reimbursement decisions, completion of the HTA process following regulatory approval can delay market access to new technologies, thus closer integration between regulatory approval and HTA processes is being explored internationally; (iv) there is a direct or indirect link to reimbursement in the jurisdictions explored - without this link the role of CER in the US will remain advisory; (v) each jurisdiction reviewed benefits from a single payer that is informed by the process - given the diverse multipayer environment in the US, CER in the US may usefully focus on generating comparative effectiveness evidence; (vi) a common metric for assessing intended and unintended effects of treatment allows comparison across different technologies; and (vii) one stated focus of CER is on therapeutic benefit among 'high-priority populations', including specific demographic groups (the elderly and children, racial and ethnic minorities) and individuals with disabilities, multiple chronic conditions and specific genomic factors. This will be difficult to achieve because epidemiological evidence of differences in therapeutic benefit among subgroups is detected through effect modification, or more specifically, statistical evidence of effect measure modification, typically on relative measures of effect. Few randomized trials have enough power to detect effect modification and these have been uncommon in the scientific literature. As consideration is given to the development of a publicly funded CER body in the US, much can be learned from the international

  10. Comparing Lay Community and Academic Survey Center Interviewers in Conducting Household Interviews in Latino Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Glik, Deborah C; Prelip, Michael L; Belin, Thomas R; Brookmeyer, Ron; Santos, Robert; Chen, Jie; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The employment of professional interviewers from academic survey centers to conduct surveys has been standard practice. Because one goal of community-engaged research is to provide professional skills to community residents, this paper considers whether employing locally trained lay interviewers from within the community may be as effective as employing interviewers from an academic survey center with regard to unit and item nonresponse rates and cost. To study a nutrition-focused intervention, 1035 in-person household interviews were conducted in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, 503 of which were completed by lay community interviewers. A chi-square test was used to assess differences in unit nonresponse rates between professional and community interviewers and Welch's t tests were used to assess differences in item nonresponse rates. A cost comparison analysis between the two interviewer groups was also conducted. Interviewers from the academic survey center had lower unit nonresponse rates than the lay community interviewers (16.2% vs. 23.3%; p < 0.01). However, the item nonresponse rates were lower for the community interviewers than the professional interviewers (1.4% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.01). Community interviewers cost approximately $415.38 per survey whereas professional interviewers cost approximately $537.29 per survey. With a lower cost per completed survey and lower item nonresponse rates, lay community interviewers are a viable alternative to professional interviewers for fieldwork in community-based research. Additional research is needed to assess other important aspects of data quality interviewer such as interviewer effects and response error.

  11. Fifteen years of the tropEd Masters in International Health programme: what has it delivered? Results of an alumni survey of masters students in international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstel, L; Zwanikken, P A C; Hoffman, A; Diederichs, C; Borchert, M; Peterhans, B

    2013-03-01

    In 2010-2011, recent graduates (2008 or earlier) of the Masters in International Health (MIH) (as offered by over 30 universities and institutions collaborating in the tropEd network) were surveyed. We aimed to examine whether the competencies gained proved appropriate for alumni's current positions and to develop the programme according to alumni's needs. An online questionnaire was sent to 327 alumni. One hundred and seventy-seven responded and 99 met the inclusion criteria. We calculated frequency distributions of the answers and performed a bivariate analysis of certain variables. Alumni feel confident in all areas covered by the MIH. Most competencies acquired are perceived as essential or very relevant to their current position. Many respondents (77%) changed jobs after graduation, mostly from curative care to public health. More African and Asian alumni work in their country of origin (66% and 63%, respectively) than alumni from other continents (42%). The respondents had mostly worked at a national or provincial level, but after graduating mostly worked at international or national level. Alumni said that the network's mobility and flexibility had important advantages and disadvantages. This is the first alumni survey of the MIH programme offered through the international network tropEd. The results suggest that competencies gained by graduates are relevant for their current careers. We recommend offering better guidance to students planning modules and to improve administration. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Cross-section analyses of attitudes towards science and nature from the International Social Survey Programme 1993, 2000, and 2010 surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Joseph Anthony L

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores public attitudes towards science and nature in twelve countries using data from the International Social Survey Programme environment modules of 1993, 2000, and 2010. Analysis of attitude items indicates technocentric and pessimistic dimensions broadly related to the Dominant Social Paradigm and New Environmental Paradigm. A bi-axial dimension scale is utilized to classify respondents among four environmental knowledge orientations. Discernible and significant patterns are found among countries and their populations. Relationships with other substantial variables in the surveys are discussed and findings show that the majority of industrialized countries are clustered in the rational ecologist categorization with respondents possessing stronger ecological consciousness and optimism towards the role of modern institutions, science, and technology in solving environmental problems. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Marius; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Factors such as an external focus of attention (EF) and augmented feedback (AF) have been shown to improve performance. However, the efficacy of providing AF to enhance motor performance has never been compared with the effects of an EF or an internal focus of attention (IF). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which of the three conditions (AF, EF or IF) leads to the highest performance in a countermovement jump (CMJ). Nineteen volunteers performed 12 series of 8 maximum CMJs. Changes in jump height between conditions and within the series were analysed. Jump heights differed between conditions (P jump heights at the end of the series in AF (+1.60%) and lower jump heights at the end of the series in EF (-1.79%) and IF (-1.68%) were observed. Muscle activity did not differ between conditions. The differences between conditions and within the series provide evidence that AF leads to higher performance and better progression within one series than EF and IF. Consequently, AF seems to outperform EF and IF when maximising jump height.

  14. Comparative analysis of acetic and citric acid on internal milieu of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Capcarova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of two organic acids (acetic and citric acid inclusion on serum parameters and the level of antioxidant status of broiler chickens. Some organic acidifiers reduce the growth of many intestinal bacteria, reduce intestinal colonisation and reduce infectious processes, decrease inflammatory processes at the intestinal mucosa, increase villus height and function of secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients. Broiler chickens hybrid Ross 308 (n=180 were divided into 3 groups: one control (C and two experimental groups (E1, E2. Experimental animals received acetic and citric acid per os in water in single dose 0.25% for 42 days. After 42 days of feeding blood samples were collected (n=10 in each group. Significant decrease of serum triglycerides in citric acid group when compared with the control group was recorded. Acetic acid administration resulted in increased sodium level. Significant increase of albumin content in both experimental groups and increase of bilirubin content in citric group was recorded. Acids administration had no significant effect on other serum and antioxidant parameters. Acetic and citric acid had no harmful influenced on internal milieu of broiler chickens. The research on the field of organic acid will be worthy of further investigation.

  15. A comparative study of ground tire rubber devulcanization using twin screw extruder and internal mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujianto, O.; Putri, D. B.; Jayatin; AWinarto, D.

    2017-07-01

    Devulcanization of ground tire rubber (GTR) was done using twin screw extruder (TSE) and internal mixer (IM). Processing parameters were varied to analyze its effect on gel content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed as qualitative technique to confirm structural change. The devulcanized rubbers with the least gel content percentage produced in both TSE and IM were then used as filler in natural rubber (NR)/coconut coir (CC) composite preparation. Effects of gel content percentage on NR/CC composite tensile strength and elongation at break were analyzed. The results show that the gel content decreased by 41% for sample processed in TSE and 50% in IM compared to control sample. Overall, the devulcanization is influenced by high energy generated by thermal or thermo-mechanical process. FTIR spectra show chemically structural changes of GTR as C=C, CH2, CH3 with higher intensity for IM sample than its counterpart indicated devulcanization. The replacement of GTR to DGTR on NR/CC/GTR composites provided less network structures and resulted better tensile strength and elongation at break.

  16. Ethical and Regulatory Challenges with Autologous Adult Stem Cells: A Comparative Review of International Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Tamra; Kerridge, Ian H; Sipp, Douglas; Porter, Gerard; Capps, Benjamin J

    2017-06-01

    Cell and tissue-based products, such as autologous adult stem cells, are being prescribed by physicians across the world for diseases and illnesses that they have neither been approved for or been demonstrated as safe and effective in formal clinical trials. These doctors often form part of informal transnational networks that exploit differences and similarities in the regulatory systems across geographical contexts. In this paper, we examine the regulatory infrastructure of five geographically diverse but socio-economically comparable countries with the aim of identifying similarities and differences in how these products are regulated and governed within clinical contexts. We find that while there are many subtle technical differences in how these regulations are implemented, they are sufficiently similar that it is difficult to explain why these practices appear more prevalent in some countries and not in others. We conclude with suggestions for how international governance frameworks might be improved to discourage the exploitation of vulnerable patient populations while enabling innovation in the clinical application of cellular therapies.

  17. Simultaneous nitrification-denitrification achieved by an innovative internal-loop airlift MBR: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y Z; He, Y L; Ohandja, D G; Ji, J; Li, J F; Zhou, T

    2008-09-01

    This study assessed the performance of different single-stage continuous aerated submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR) for nitrogen removal. Almost complete nitrification was achieved in each MBR irrespective of operating mode and biomass system. Denitrification was found to be the rate-limiting step for total nitrogen (T-N) removal. The MBR with internal-loop airlift reactor (ALR) configuration performed better as regards T-N removal compared with continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). It was demonstrated that simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) is the mechanism leading to nitrogen removal and the contribution of microenvironment on SND is more remarkable for the MBRs with hybrid biomass. Macroenvironment analyses showed that gradient distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO) level in airlift MBRs imposed a significant effect on SND. Higher mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration led to the improvement in T-N removal by enhancing anoxic microenvironment. Apparent nitrite accumulation coupled with higher nitrogen reduction was accomplished at MLSS concentration exceeded 12.6 g/L.

  18. Socio-economic variation in price minimizing behaviors: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less

  19. Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Nargis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of

  20. Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S.; Hyland, Andrew J.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less

  1. Pressure ulcer prevalence and prevention practices: a cross-sectional comparative survey in Norway and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Z; Johansen, E; Etten, M van; Strapp, H; Solbakken, T; Smith, B Eskerud; Faulstich, J

    2015-08-01

    This study explored whether the risk assessment method, structured versus clinical judgment, influences pressure ulcer (PU) prevalence or prevention strategies. A cross section survey design was employed with use of a pre-designed data collection instrument. Following ethical approval and consent, data was gathered from two acute care settings, one in Norway (clinical judgment) and one in Ireland (structured risk assessment using the Maelor Score). Data were obtained from 180 patients, 59 in Norway and 121 in Ireland. Of the patients 48% were male and 49% were female, gender was not recorded for 3%. The most common age bracket was 70-99 years of age, 46% of the study population. PU prevalence was 54% in the Norwegian site with the majority of PUs (69%) being category 1, and 12% in the Irish site with the majority (50%) being category 2. Only 8% of patients in the Norwegian site were risk assessed on admission compared with 85% in the Irish site. No dynamic mattresses and four pressure redistribution cushions were in use in the Norwegian site, whereas, in the Irish site, 27 dynamic mattresses and 11 pressure redistribution cushions were used, the majority (44%) for high-risk individuals. Of those at risk of PU development, 15% in the Norwegian site and 56% in the Irish site had a documented repositioning care plan when in bed, and 0% in the Norwegian site and 13% in the Irish site for when seated on a chair. There were inconsistencies in approach to PU risk assessment and prevention across the two clinical settings. However, prevalence rates differed, mainly relating to category 1 PU damage. Even though formal risk assessment is well established in the Irish site, this is not necessarily followed up with appropriated PU prevention. Thus, the method of risk assessment does not seem to influence subsequent care planning, questioning the role of formal risk assessment; however, despite this, risk assessment does put a focus on an important clinical problem. In the

  2. [User's perceived quality in an internal medicine service after a five-year period application of a user's satisfaction survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aparicio, J; Herrero-Herrero, J; Corral-Gudino, L; Jorge-Sánchez, R

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the quality perceived by users of the 'Los Montalvos' Internal Medicine Service (Salamanca, Spain), over its first five years of operation. A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2004 to January 2009. All in-patients (6,997) were given a survey model SERVQHOS at the time of discharge, which was anonymous and voluntary. We collected 2,435 surveys. Participation was 34.8%. Except for the item regarding accessibility, the other questions of the survey were perceived "as expected" or above expectations by over 85% of the users. A total of 90.6% of patients who completed the survey were satisfied with the care received, and 83.9% would recommend the hospital to others. The variables with higher predictive capability, in relation to overall satisfaction, were "personalised care', and the interests of staff to solve problems. The easy access to the hospital' was seen by 33.6% as below expectations. After introducing several improvement measures, the percentage of dissatisfaction regarding accessibility was 24.8% (p=0.02). Nine out of ten patients surveyed were satisfied or very satisfied with the care received, and would recommend the hospital to others. The variables more strongly associated with overall satisfaction were those related to service personnel. After identifying deficiencies and implementing measures to improve, the survey detected an increase in the level of satisfaction. Copyright 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison report of RPV pressurised thermal shock - international comparative assessment study (PTS ICAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A summary of the recently completed International Comparative Assessment Study of Pressurized- Thermal-Shock in Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV PTS ICAS) is presented here to record the results in actual and comparative fashions. The ICAS Project brought together an international group of experts from research, utility and regulatory organizations to perform a comparative evaluation of analysis methodologies employed in the assessment of RPV integrity under PTS loading conditions. The Project was sponsored jointly by Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Germany, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA, with assistance from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)/Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI)/Principal Working Group (PWG) No. 3 (Integrity of Components and Structures). The ICAS Project grew out of a strong interest expressed by participants in the previous FALSIRE II Project to proceed with further evaluations of analysis methods used in RPV integrity assessment. A Launch Meeting for the ICAS Project was held at GRS-Koeln, during June 1996, where an emphasis was placed on identifying the different approaches to RPV integrity assessment being employed within the international nuclear technology community. Also a Problem Statement was drafted that defined a Western type four-loop RPV with cladding on the inner surface. Also, a detailed task matrix was defined that included a set of transient thermal-mechanical loading conditions postulated to result from loss-of-coolant accidents. The primary focus of the analyses was on the behaviour of relatively shallow cracks under these conditions. The assessment activities based on the Problem Statement were divided under three tasks: deterministic fracture mechanics (DFM), probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) and thermal-hydraulic mixing (THM). An Intermediate Workshop was held at OECD/NEA-Paris during June 1997, to

  4. Gaps in Radiation Therapy Awareness: Results From an Educational Multi-institutional Survey of US Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaverdian, Narek; Yoo, Sun Mi; Cook, Ryan; Chang, Eric M; Jiang, Naomi; Yuan, Ye; Sandler, Kiri; Steinberg, Michael; Lee, Percy

    2017-08-01

    Internists and primary care providers play a growing role in cancer care. We therefore evaluated the awareness of radiation therapy in general and specifically the clinical utility of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among current US internal medicine residents. A web-based institutional review board-approved multi-institutional survey was distributed to US internal medicine residency programs. The survey evaluated trainee demographic characteristics, baseline radiation oncology awareness, knowledge of the role of SBRT for early-stage NSCLC, and whether the survey successfully improved awareness. Thirty US internal medicine programs participated, with an overall participant response rate of 46% (1177 of 2551). Of the trainees, 93% (n=1076) reported no radiation oncology education in their residency, 39% (n=452) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in an oncologic emergency, and 26% (n=293) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in the setting of a newly diagnosed cancer. Of the participants, 76% (n=850) correctly identified that surgical resection is the standard treatment in operable early-stage NSCLC, but only 50% (n=559) of participants would recommend SBRT to a medically inoperable patient, followed by 31% of participants (n=347) who were unsure of the most appropriate treatment, and 10% (n=117) who recommended waiting to offer palliative therapy. Ninety percent of participants (n=1029) agreed that they would benefit from further training on when to consult radiation oncology. Overall, 96% (n=1072) indicated that the survey increased their knowledge and awareness of the role of SBRT. The majority of participating trainees received no education in radiation oncology in their residency, reported a lack of confidence regarding when to consult radiation oncology, and overwhelmingly agreed that they would benefit from further training. These findings

  5. International comparative evaluation of knee replacement with fixed or mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen; Sedrakyan, Art; Baste, Valborg; Gioe, Terence J; Namba, Robert; Martínez Cruz, Olga; Stea, Susanna; Paxton, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Samprit; Isaacs, Abby J; Robertsson, Otto

    2014-12-17

    Posterior-stabilized total knee prostheses were introduced to address instability secondary to loss of posterior cruciate ligament function, and they have either fixed or mobile bearings. Mobile bearings were developed to improve the function and longevity of total knee prostheses. In this study, the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries used a distributed health data network to study a large cohort of posterior-stabilized prostheses to determine if the outcome of a posterior-stabilized total knee prosthesis differs depending on whether it has a fixed or mobile-bearing design. Aggregated registry data were collected with a distributed health data network that was developed by the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries to reduce barriers to participation (e.g., security, proprietary, legal, and privacy issues) that have the potential to occur with the alternate centralized data warehouse approach. A distributed health data network is a decentralized model that allows secure storage and analysis of data from different registries. Each registry provided data on mobile and fixed-bearing posterior-stabilized prostheses implanted between 2001 and 2010. Only prostheses associated with primary total knee arthroplasties performed for the treatment of osteoarthritis were included. Prostheses with all types of fixation were included except for those with the rarely used reverse hybrid (cementless tibial and cemented femoral components) fixation. The use of patellar resurfacing was reported. The outcome of interest was time to first revision (for any reason). Multivariate meta-analysis was performed with linear mixed models with survival probability as the unit of analysis. This study includes 137,616 posterior-stabilized knee prostheses; 62% were in female patients, and 17.6% had a mobile bearing. The results of the fixed-effects model indicate that in the first year the mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized prostheses had a significantly higher hazard

  6. A Global Oral Health Survey of professional opinion using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Alison; Molina, Gustavo F; Eschevins, Caroline; Faulks, Denise

    2015-06-01

    The concept of oral health is frequently reduced to the absence of disease, despite existing conceptual models exploring the wider determinants of oral health and quality of life. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO) is designed to qualify functional, social and environmental aspects of health. This survey aimed to reach a consensual description of adult oral health, derived from the ICF using international professional opinion. The Global Oral Health Survey involved a two-round, online survey concerning factors related to oral health including functioning, participation and social environment. Four hundred eighty-six oral health professionals from 74 countries registered online. Professionals were pooled into 18 groups of six WHO world regions and three professional groups. In a randomised stratification process, eight professionals from each pool (n=144) completed the survey. The first round consisted of eight open-ended questions. Open expression replies were analysed for meaningful concepts and linked using established rules to the ICF. In Round 2, items were rated for their relevance to oral health (88% response rate). Eighty-nine ICF items and 30 other factors were considered relevant by at least 80% of participants. International professionals reached consensus on a holistic description of oral health, which could be qualified and quantified using the ICF. These results represent the first step towards developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, which would provide a practical tool for reporting outcome measures in clinical practice, for research and epidemiology, and for the improvement of interdisciplinary communication regarding oral health. Professional consensus reached in this survey is the foundation stone for developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, allowing the holistic aspects of oral health to be qualified and quantified. This tool is necessary to widen our approach to clinical decision making

  7. An international perspective on electric transportation. Survey on electric road transport 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeda, M; Kroon, P [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Appels, D [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    To compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation has asked ECN Policy Studies and NL Agency to conduct an international assessment on electric mobility. The countries that have been considered are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles and is one of the leaders as for the envisaged number of charging points. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the assessment has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure.

  8. Comparing the Experiences and Needs of Postsecondary International Students from China and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Ping

    2015-01-01

    International students from China and South Korea are an increasingly important part of the international student body in many English-medium postsecondary institutions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences and needs of these two groups of students at a Canadian postsecondary institution. Data…

  9. Comparing internal and external run-time coupling of CFD and building energy simulation software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djunaedy, E.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between internal and external run-time coupling of CFD and building energy simulation software. Internal coupling can be seen as the "traditional" way of developing software, i.e. the capabilities of existing software are expanded by merging codes. With external

  10. Debt and Equity in Domestic and International Tax Law : A Comparative Policy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Martin; Schön, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The demarcation between debt and equity is a long-standing core constituent of company and taxation law the world over. However, its sustainability for national and international taxation regimes is increasingly the subject of doubt. Domestic and international proposals for reform are directed

  11. Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: illness or illness behavior? A comparative general health survey in two former Soviet regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, J.; Rumyantzeva, G.; Kasyanenko, A.; Kaasjager, K.; Westermann, Anneke; van den Brink, W.; van den Bout, J.; Savelkoul, J.

    1997-01-01

    Results are described of a general health survey (n = 3044) that was conducted 6.5 years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in a seriously contaminated region in Belarus and a socioeconomically comparable, but unaffected, region in the Russian Federation. The purpose of the study was to

  12. Socializing the Semantic Gap: A Comparative Survey on Image Tag Assignment, Refinement and Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Uricchio, T.; Ballan, L.; Bertini, M.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Del Bimbo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Where previous reviews on content-based image retrieval emphasize what can be seen in an image to bridge the semantic gap, this survey considers what people tag about an image. A comprehensive treatise of three closely linked problems (i.e., image tag assignment, refinement, and tag-based image

  13. Comparing Two Survey Research Approaches: E-Mail and Web-Based Technology versus Traditional Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Colleen M.; Mailloux, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Contrasted two survey methodologies: e-mail-Web and traditional mail. Found that: (1) e-mail-Web respondents were proportionately more likely to be male and enrolled in school full-time; (2) more individual question non-response was present for the e-mail-Web sample; and (3) e-mail-Web respondents value different aspects of graduate school. (EV)

  14. F247. INTERNALIZED STIGMA HAS A STRONGER RELATIONSHIP WITH INTRINSIC MOTIVATION COMPARED TO AMOTIVATION IN EARLY PHASE AND PROLONGED SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth; Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul; Vohs, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivation deficits predict decreased functioning in schizophrenia. Recent work suggests deficits reflect challenges in separate domains: intrinsic motivation (one’s internal drive to engage in a behavior out of enjoyment or interest) and amotivation (one’s broader decrease in motivated behavior linked to avolition and anhedonia). Internalized stigma is another determinant of functioning for people with schizophrenia that may impact motivation. However, little is known about these relationships, including which aspects of motivation it may impact nor when these links emerge. Identifying the link between these constructs may help to identify whether internalized stigma may be a novel treatment target to facilitate improvements in motivation. Methods Forty adults with early phase schizophrenia and 66 adults with prolonged schizophrenia completed measures of internalized stigma, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. Pearson’s correlations were examined followed by Fischer’s r-to-z transformations to compare differences in the magnitude of associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation and internalized stigma and amotivation among the first episode and prolonged samples. Next, we conducted stepwise regressions to examine whether internalized stigma was associated with intrinsic motivation above and beyond associations with amotivation in each sample. Results In the early phase sample, the association between internalized stigma was greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.48, p=.00) compared to amotivation (r=0.27, p=0.10). Associations with internalized stigma in the prolonged sample were also greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.30, p=0.02) versus amotivation (r=0.19, p=0.12). The magnitude of the associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation (z=1.03, p=0.15) and between internalized stigma and amotivation (z=0.41, p = 0.34) did not significantly differ when comparing phase of illness. Regression

  15. A Randomized Trial Comparing Mail versus In-Office Distribution of the CAHPS Clinician and Group Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastario, Michael P; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gallagher, Patricia M; Cleary, Paul D; Shaller, Dale; Rogers, William H; Bogen, Karen; Safran, Dana Gelb

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of survey distribution protocol (mail versus handout) on data quality and measurement of patient care experiences. Data Sources/Study Setting Multisite randomized trial of survey distribution protocols. Analytic sample included 2,477 patients of 15 clinicians at three practice sites in New York State. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Mail and handout distribution modes were alternated weekly at each site for 6 weeks. Principal Findings Handout protocols yielded an incomplete distribution rate (74 percent) and lower overall response rates (40 percent versus 58 percent) compared with mail. Handout distribution rates decreased over time and resulted in more favorable survey scores compared with mailed surveys. There were significant mode–physician interaction effects, indicating that data cannot simply be pooled and adjusted for mode. Conclusions In-office survey distribution has the potential to bias measurement and comparison of physicians and sites on patient care experiences. Incomplete distribution rates observed in-office, together with between-office differences in distribution rates and declining rates over time suggest staff may be burdened by the process and selective in their choice of patients. Further testing with a larger physician and site sample is important to definitively establish the potential role for in-office distribution in obtaining reliable, valid assessment of patient care experiences. PMID:20579126

  16. Development and pilot of an international survey: 'Radiation Therapists and Psychosocial Support'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Kelly L; Naehrig, Diana; Halkett, Georgia K B; Dhillon, Haryana M

    2018-06-07

    Up to one third of radiation therapy patients are reported to have unmet psychosocial needs. Radiation therapists (RTs) have daily contact with patients and can provide daily psychosocial support to reduce patient anxiety, fear and loneliness. However, RTs vary in their values, skills, training, knowledge and involvement in providing psychosocial support. The aims of this study were to: (1) develop an online survey instrument to explore RT values, skills, training and knowledge regarding patient anxiety and psychosocial support, and (2) pilot the instrument with RT professionals to assess content validity, functionality and length. An online cross-sectional survey, titled 'Radiation therapists and psychosocial support' was developed. Items included patient vignettes, embedded items from RT research, and the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL5). Four radiation oncology departments volunteered to pilot the survey; each nominated four RT staff to participate. Survey data were analysed descriptively and qualitative feedback grouped and coded to determine whether the survey needed to be refined. Thirteen of sixteen RTs completed the pilot survey and feedback form. Median time to completion was 35 mins, with 54% of respondents stating this was too long. Respondents reported content, questions and response options were relevant and appropriate. Feedback was used to: refine the survey instrument, minimise responder burden and drop out and improve functionality and quality of data collection. This pilot of the 'Radiation therapists and psychosocial support' survey instrument demonstrated content validity and usability. The main survey will be circulated to a representative sample of RTs for completion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  17. Feasibility of extracting data from electronic medical records for research: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Mastellos, Nikolaos; Majeed, Azeem; O'Donoghue, John; Car, Josip

    2016-07-13

    Electronic medical records (EMR) offer a major potential for secondary use of data for research which can improve the safety, quality and efficiency of healthcare. They also enable the measurement of disease burden at the population level. However, the extent to which this is feasible in different countries is not well known. This study aimed to: 1) assess information governance procedures for extracting data from EMR in 16 countries; and 2) explore the extent of EMR adoption and the quality and consistency of EMR data in 7 countries, using management of diabetes type 2 patients as an exemplar. We included 16 countries from Australia, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe to the Americas. We undertook a multi-method approach including both an online literature review and structured interviews with 59 stakeholders, including 25 physicians, 23 academics, 7 EMR providers, and 4 information commissioners. Data were analysed and synthesised thematically considering the most relevant issues. We found that procedures for information governance, levels of adoption and data quality varied across the countries studied. The required time and ease of obtaining approval also varies widely. While some countries seem ready for secondary uses of data from EMR, in other countries several barriers were found, including limited experience with using EMR data for research, lack of standard policies and procedures, bureaucracy, confidentiality, data security concerns, technical issues and costs. This is the first international comparative study to shed light on the feasibility of extracting EMR data across a number of countries. The study will inform future discussions and development of policies that aim to accelerate the adoption of EMR systems in high and middle income countries and seize the rich potential for secondary use of data arising from the use of EMR solutions.

  18. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lens, Eelco, E-mail: e.lens@amc.uva.nl; Horst, Astrid van der; Versteijne, Eva; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V{sub 95%} >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V{sub 10Gy}, V{sub 20Gy}, V{sub 30Gy}, V{sub 40Gy}, D{sub mean} and D{sub 2cc} for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D{sub 2cc} of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors.

  19. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lens, Eelco; Horst, Astrid van der; Versteijne, Eva; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V 95% >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V 10Gy , V 20Gy , V 30Gy , V 40Gy , D mean and D 2cc for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D 2cc of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors

  20. National survey of international electives for global health in undergraduate medical education in Japan, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomio; Nishigori, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Interest in global health in medical education is increasing in Western countries, whereas data from non-Western countries is scarce. Here, we conducted a nationwide study of international clinical electives at Japanese medical schools from 2011 to 2013. We constructed a 28-item cross-sectional survey in Japanese to investigate the rate and characteristics of both Japanese students going abroad and international students coming on exchange to Japan. The surveys were sent to the administrative offices of all 80 Japanese medical schools in each of the three years, through the Japan Medical Education Foundation. All 80 medical schools responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 100%). An average of 70 of the 80 medical universities provided exchange programs across the three years to allow students to travel abroad as part of the school curriculum and obtain academic credit. The schools provided support in the form of in- and outside-class preparatory programs, tuition fee exemptions and housing. The most popular destinations for Japanese students going abroad were Europe and North America, which may reflect the desire of Japanese students to acquire medical knowledge or experience through exposure to the English language. In contrast, the most common countries of origin of international exchange students coming to Japan were Asian countries such as South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan, with pediatrics being the most popular elective. Foreign exchange programs are becoming increasingly incorporated into the Japanese medical education curriculum and can help to strengthen international partnerships and collaborations.

  1. National survey of international electives for global health in undergraduate medical education in Japan, 2011–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomio; Nishigori, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interest in global health in medical education is increasing in Western countries, whereas data from non-Western countries is scarce. Here, we conducted a nationwide study of international clinical electives at Japanese medical schools from 2011 to 2013. We constructed a 28-item cross-sectional survey in Japanese to investigate the rate and characteristics of both Japanese students going abroad and international students coming on exchange to Japan. The surveys were sent to the administrative offices of all 80 Japanese medical schools in each of the three years, through the Japan Medical Education Foundation. All 80 medical schools responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 100%). An average of 70 of the 80 medical universities provided exchange programs across the three years to allow students to travel abroad as part of the school curriculum and obtain academic credit. The schools provided support in the form of in- and outside-class preparatory programs, tuition fee exemptions and housing. The most popular destinations for Japanese students going abroad were Europe and North America, which may reflect the desire of Japanese students to acquire medical knowledge or experience through exposure to the English language. In contrast, the most common countries of origin of international exchange students coming to Japan were Asian countries such as South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan, with pediatrics being the most popular elective. Foreign exchange programs are becoming increasingly incorporated into the Japanese medical education curriculum and can help to strengthen international partnerships and collaborations. PMID:29581617

  2. Male perception about the inconveniences associated with monthly bleeding for their partner - an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Iñaki; Lobo, Paloma; Nappi, Rossella E; Pintiaux, Axelle; Fiala, Christian; Häusler, Günther; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    To assess men's perceptions about monthly bleeding and associated inconveniences for their partner, as well as men's attitudes regarding the desired menstruation frequency for their partner and knowledge about hormonal contraceptives. A 15 min quantitative online survey was conducted among 5044 men aged 18-45 years, who had been in a relationship for more than 6 months, across 13 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland). Responses were compared to those obtained in a similar study among European women. Most men perceived that their partner considered her menstrual flow as moderate, lasting an average of 5.2 d, slightly longer than previously reported by women. Almost all men reported that their partners experience menstruation-related symptoms. However, prevalence of mood-related symptoms was perceived to be more frequent and physical symptoms less frequent, relative to women's self-reported symptoms. Given the option, 71% of men would choose longer intervals between their partner's periods. Maintaining the couple's sex life, social life and relationship quality were key factors cited in their preference. Overall, 42% of respondents stated that women taking hormonal contraceptives needed to have monthly periods. Men's perception regarding their partner's periods was generally consistent with that previously reported by women. Most men would prefer less frequent bleeding episodes for their partners. Although, the present data suggest that couples are discussing periods, knowledge about contraception could be improved. Health care professionals should intensify counselling to better inform both partners about their contraceptive options.

  3. Discrimination, internalized racism, and depression: A comparative study of African American and Afro-Caribbean adults in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Kristine M.; James, Drexler

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that both perceptions of discrimination and internalized racism (i.e., endorsement of negative stereotypes of one’s racial group) are associated with poor mental health. Yet, no studies to date have examined their effects on mental health with racial/ethnic minorities in the US in a single study. The present study examined: (a) the direct effects of everyday discrimination and internalized racism on risk of DSM-IV criteria of past-year major depressive disorder (MDD); (b) the interactive effects of everyday discrimination and internalized racism on risk of past-year MDD; and (c) the indirect effect of everyday discrimination on risk of past-year MDD via internalized racism. Further, we examined whether these associations differed by ethnic group membership. We utilized nationally representative data of Afro-Caribbean (N = 1,418) and African American (N = 3,570) adults from the National Survey of American Life. Results revealed that experiencing discrimination was associated with increased odds of past-year MDD among the total sample. Moreover, for Afro-Caribbeans, but not African Americans, internalized racism was associated with decreased odds of meeting criteria for past-year MDD. We did not find an interaction effect for everyday discrimination by internalized racism, nor an indirect effect of discrimination on risk of past-year MDD through internalized racism. Collectively, our findings suggest a need to investigate other potential mechanisms by which discrimination impacts mental health, and examine further the underlying factors of internalized racism as a potential self-protective strategy. Lastly, our findings point to the need for research that draws attention to the heterogeneity within the U.S. Black population. PMID:28405176

  4. Comparing Self-Report Measures of Internalized Weight Stigma: The Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire versus the Weight Bias Internalization Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hübner

    Full Text Available Internalized weight stigma has gained growing interest due to its association with multiple health impairments in individuals with obesity. Especially high internalized weight stigma is reported by individuals undergoing bariatric surgery. For assessing this concept, two different self-report questionnaires are available, but have never been compared: the Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (WSSQ and the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS. The purpose of the present study was to provide and to compare reliability, convergent validity with and predictive values for psychosocial health outcomes for the WSSQ and WBIS.The WSSQ and the WBIS were used to assess internalized weight stigma in N = 78 prebariatric surgery patients. Further, body mass index (BMI was assessed and body image, quality of life, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety were measured by well-established self-report questionnaires. Reliability, correlation, and regression analyses were conducted.Internal consistency of the WSSQ was acceptable, while good internal consistency was found for the WBIS. Both measures were significantly correlated with each other and body image. While only the WSSQ was correlated with overweight preoccupation, only the WBIS was correlated with appearance evaluation. Both measures were not associated with BMI. However, correlation coefficients did not differ between the WSSQ and the WBIS for all associations with validity measures. Further, both measures significantly predicted quality of life, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety, while the WBIS explained significantly more variance than the WSSQ total score for self-esteem.Findings indicate the WSSQ and the WBIS to be reliable and valid assessments of internalized weight stigma in prebariatric surgery patients, although the WBIS showed marginally more favorable results than the WSSQ. For both measures, longitudinal studies on stability and predictive validity are warranted, for example, for weight

  5. A Survey of the Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility of Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chun; Zhu, Chang; Meng, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand the factors influencing international academic mobility within the Chinese higher education context. The inventory of University Students' Perceptions of Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility was developed and tested to enquire about Chinese university students' perceptions of factors influencing…

  6. Linking Errors between Two Populations and Tests: A Case Study in International Surveys in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Dirk; Desa, Deana

    2015-01-01

    This simulation study was prompted by the current increased interest in linking national studies to international large-scale assessments (ILSAs) such as IEA's TIMSS, IEA's PIRLS, and OECD's PISA. Linkage in this scenario is achieved by including items from the international assessments in the national assessments on the premise that the average…

  7. International survey of veterinarians to assess the importance of competencies in professional practice and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, H.G.; Teunissen, P.W.; Boerboom, T.B.; Rhind, S.M.; Baillie, S.; Tegzes, J.; Annandale, H.; Matthew, S.; Torgersen, A.; Hecker, K.G.; Hardi-Landerer, C.M.; Gomez-Lucia, E.; Ahmad, B.; Muijtjens, A.M.; Jaarsma, D.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Beukelen, P. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the perceived importance of specific competencies in professional veterinary practice and education among veterinarians in several countries. DESIGN: Survey-based prospective study. SAMPLE: 1,137 veterinarians in 10 countries. PROCEDURES: Veterinarians were invited via email

  8. Bridging the gap between science and policy: an international survey of scientists and policy makers in China and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K; Li, Liping; Lu, Yaogui; Zhang, Li R; Zhu, Yao; Pak, Anita W P; Chen, Yue; Little, Julian

    2016-02-06

    Bridging the gap between science and policy is an important task in evidence-informed policy making. The objective of this study is to prioritize ways to bridge the gap. The study was based on an online survey of high-ranking scientists and policy makers who have a senior position in universities and governments in the health sector in China and Canada. The sampling frame comprised of universities with schools of public health and medicine and various levels of government in health and public health. Participants included university presidents and professors, and government deputy ministers, directors general and directors working in the health field. Fourteen strategies were presented to the participants for ranking as current ways and ideal ways in the future to bridge the gap between science and policy. Over a 3-month survey period, there were 121 participants in China and 86 in Canada with response rates of 30.0 and 15.9 %, respectively. The top strategies selected by respondents included focus on policy (conducting research that focuses on policy questions), science-policy forums, and policy briefs, both as current ways and ideal ways to bridge the gap between science and policy. Conferences were considered a priority strategy as a current way, but not an ideal way in the future. Canadian participants were more in favor of using information technology (web-based portals and email updates) than their Chinese counterparts. Among Canadian participants, two strategies that were ranked low as current ways (collaboration in study design and collaboration in analysis) became a priority as ideal ways. This could signal a change in thinking in shifting the focus from the "back end" or "downstream" (knowledge dissemination) of the knowledge transfer process to the "front end" or "upstream" (knowledge generation). Our international study has confirmed a number of previously reported priority strategies to bridge the gap between science and policy. More importantly, our

  9. The use of computers in education worldwide : results from a comparative survey in 18 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrum, W.J.; Plomp, T.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Computers in Education study collected data on computer use in elementary, and lower- and upper-secondary education in 22 countries. Although all data sets from the participating countries had not been

  10. Do employers value international study and internships? A comparative analysis of 31 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.

    2017-01-01

    International student mobility is often promoted as enhancing graduates’ employability in globalised labour markets. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on this assumed causal link remains limited. Particularly the perspectives of employers remains understudied. Therefore, in this paper I analyse (1)

  11. A Comparative Study of the International Perspectives of Six-Graders in Taipei and Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Chun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of globalization, it has become increasingly important for all citizens to possess an international perspective. The trend of internationalizing educational systems has also emerged in various countries. Thus, to explore the degree to which students can possess international perspectives is an important topic worthy of studying. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire to investigate the current status of the international perspectives of and the differences between sixth graders in Taipei and Shanghai. A total of 1,300 sixth -graders were randomly stratified from the two cities, with 1,111 valid questionnaires returned for further analysis. A significant difference was found in sixth graders’ international perspectives between the two cities. Differences of their demographic characteristics were also identified. More similarities than differences in their backgrounds and experiences were identified. Both similarities and differences were also found in their parents’ level of education and occupation.

  12. Japanese Consumer Perceptions of Genetically Modified Food: Findings From an International Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Keiko; Okamoto, Sawako; Hamada, Miki; Obana, Naoya; Samori, Mami; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2016-08-29

    Reports of food-related incidents, such as cows infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (2001) and the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), engendered significant fear among Japanese consumers and led to multiple farmer suicides, even when no actual health damage occurred. The growing availability of genetically modified (GM) food is occurring against this backdrop of concern about food safety. Consumers need information to assess risk and make informed purchasing decisions. However, we lack a clear picture of Japanese consumer perceptions of GM food. This study aims to understand Japanese consumer perceptions of GM food for risk communication. Consumer perceptions of GM food were compared among 4 nations. A Web-based survey was conducted in Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. Participants were asked about demographics, fear of health hazards, resistance to GM and breeding-improved products, perception of GM technology and products, and willingness to pay. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted, as were t tests on dichotomous variables, and 1-way analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Of 1812 individuals who agreed to participate, 1705 (94%) responded: 457 from Japan and 416 each from France, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The male/female and age group ratios were all about even. Some resistance to GM food was seen in all countries in this study. France showed the strongest resistance (Pperceptions of GM technology and products, consumers in nations other than Japan would accept GM food if it were appropriately explained, they were provided with scientific data supporting its safety, and they understood that all food carries some risk. However, Japanese consumers tended to accept GM technology but rejected its application to food (Phealth hazards are known, respondents in Japan and France strongly recognized GM food as a health risk. Price discounts of 30% and GM technology may be communication cues to start

  13. Varieties of glocalisation: the international economic strategies of Amsterdam, Manchester, and Zurich compared

    OpenAIRE

    Nico van der Heiden; Pieter Terhorst

    2007-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to explain the international strategies of cities by focusing on market conditions. Drawing on a critique of the glocalisation thesis we show that the design of these strategies can plausibly be explained by the specific characteristics of urban capitalism found in the different cities. Whereas the international strategy of Manchester must be seen as a response to problems of postindustrial restrictions, the importance of the logistic sector in Dutch capitalism strong...

  14. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent...

  15. Comparing Sexual Assult Survey Prevalence Rates at Military Service Academies and U.S. Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    and Weitzman, L. (1988). The incidence and dimensions of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 152...nonconforming,” or as something not listed on the survey. This group had high rates of being victims of nonconsensual sexual contact and harassment . However...physical harm or promised rewards, or 4) failure to obtain affirmative consent. The study also collected data on sexual harassment , stalking, and

  16. Epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1993-10-01

    This is the fifth of six volumes containing synopses of surveys, notably from the U.K., U.S.A., Canada, Japan and New Zealand, that have studied the effects of low dose irradiation of adults. The effects of radon are also considered. Incidence and mortality of cancer of the following sites are included:-Prostate, Testis, Bladder, Urinogenital tract, uterus and cervix, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, skin, connective tissue, eyes. Melanomas are also listed. (UK)

  17. Personality and professional commitment of students in nursing, social work, and teaching: A comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesje, Kjersti

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are often portrayed as possessing specific traits and dispositions associated with care and empathy. The assumption has been that possessing these traits makes nurses competent, engaged, and well suited to their job. This proposition has been mostly normative, and few studies have investigated how this plays out empirically. The aims of this study were to investigate (a) whether possessing a personality trait related to empathy and care was more common among nursing students than students in teaching and social work programs and (b) whether nursing students possessing an affirming personality trait judged themselves to be more suited to their future work - understood as commitment to the profession - than students in teaching and social work. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All first-year students attending seven Norwegian universities and university colleges were invited to participate in the study. Of the 1675 students who participated in the survey, 527 were nursing students, 668 were students in teaching, and 480 were social work students. A response rate of 65 percent was achieved. The survey was conducted by Oslo and Akershus University College in the autumn of 2012. Data collection methods included both a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and an online survey. Instruments used included Blau's Career Commitment Scale and Orlinsky and Rønnestad's Interpersonal Adjective Scale. Analysis of variance and regression analysis were performed on the data. Nursing students did not differ from students in teaching and social work programs in terms of the degree of affirming personality trait. Furthermore, the regression analysis revealed an equally strong association between having an affirming personality trait and being committed to the profession among all these student groups. The results of this study indicate that the narrative of nursing students as individuals who possess a special personality characteristic does not entirely reflect reality

  18. Interprofessional Education in the Internal Medicine Clerkship Post-LCME Standard Issuance: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandraki, Irene; Hernandez, Caridad A; Torre, Dario M; Chretien, Katherine C

    2017-08-01

    Several decades of work have detailed the value and goals of interprofessional education (IPE) within the health professions, defining IPE competencies and best practices. In 2013, the Liaison Committee for Medical Education (LCME) elevated IPE to a U.S. medical school accreditation standard. To examine the status of IPE within internal medicine (IM) clerkships including perspectives, curricular content, barriers, and assessment a year after the LCME standard issuance. Anonymous online survey. IM clerkship directors from each of the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine's 121 U.S. and Canadian member medical schools in 2014. In 2014, a section on IPE (18 items) was included in the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine annual survey of its 121 U.S. and Canadian member medical schools. Items (18) assessed clerkship director (CD) perspectives, status of IPE curricula in IM clerkships, and barriers to IPE implementation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis of free-text responses to one of the survey questions. The overall survey response rate was 78% (94/121). The majority (88%) agreed that IPE is important to the practice of IM, and 71% believed IPE should be part of the IM clerkship. Most (76%) CDs agreed there is need for faculty development programs in IPE; 27% had such a program at their institution. Lack of curricular time, scheduling conflicts, and lack of faculty trained in IPE were the most frequently cited barriers. Twenty-nine percent had formal IPE activities within their IM clerkships, and 38% were planning to make changes. Of those with formal IPE activities, over a third (37%) did not involve student assessment. Since LCME standard issuance, only a minority of IM clerkships have included formal IPE activities, with lectures as the predominant method. Opportunities exist for enhancing educational methods as well as IPE faculty development.

  19. The dark energy survey Y1 supernova search: Survey strategy compared to forecasts and the photometric type Is SN volumetric rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John Arthur

    For 70 years, the physics community operated under the assumption that the expansion of the Universe must be slowing due to gravitational attraction. Then, in 1998, two teams of scientists used Type Ia supernovae to discover that cosmic expansion was actually acceler- ating due to a mysterious "dark energy." As a result, Type Ia supernovae have become the most cosmologically important transient events in the last 20 years, with a large amount of effort going into their discovery as well as understanding their progenitor systems. One such probe for understanding Type Ia supernovae is to use rate measurements to de- termine the time delay between star formation and supernova explosion. For the last 30 years, the discovery of individual Type Ia supernova events has been accelerating. How- ever, those discoveries were happening in time-domain surveys that probed only a portion of the redshift range where expansion was impacted by dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is the first project in the "next generation" of time-domain surveys that will discovery thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to a redshift of 1.2 (where dark energy be- comes subdominant) and DES will have better systematic uncertainties over that redshift range than any survey to date. In order to gauge the discovery effectiveness of this survey, we will use the first season's 469 photometrically typed supernovee and compare it with simulations in order to update the full survey Type Ia projections from 3500 to 2250. We will then use 165 of the 469 supernovae out to a redshift of 0.6 to measure the supernovae rate both as a function of comoving volume and of the star formation rate as it evolves with redshift. We find the most statistically significant prompt fraction of any survey to date (with a 3.9? prompt fraction detection). We will also reinforce the already existing tension in the measurement of the delayed fraction between high (z > 1.2) and low red- shift rate measurements, where we find no

  20. Overnight Hospital Experiences for Medical Students: Results of the 2014 Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Eric N; Leizman, Debra S; La Rochelle, Jeffrey; Kogan, Jennifer R

    2015-09-01

    Since the 2011 Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) work hour rules for residents were implemented, 24-30 h call for interns has been replaced by shift work, including night-float. The impact of these changes on undergraduate medical education experiences in internal medicine has not been described. We aimed to determine the current status of medical students' overnight experiences in Internal Medicine clerkships and sub-internships, and to assess internal medicine educators' perceptions of the importance of overnight work during internal medicine rotations. In May 2014, the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM) conducted its annual survey. Twenty-eight questions about student participation in overnight work and perceptions of the importance of overnight work (rated on 1-5 Likert scale, 1 = very unimportant and 5 =  ery important) were included. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize responses. Free text results were analyzed qualitatively. The response rate was 78 %. A minority of respondents reported students having any overnight experience during the clerkship (38.7 %) or the sub-internship (40.7 %). Only 5 % of respondents reported having students assigned to night-float rotations outside of clerkships or sub-internships. Respondents agreed that overnight experiences were more important during the sub-internship than the clerkship, 4.0 ± 1.1 vs. 3.2 ± 1.2, p intern in particular was an important chance to practice providing emergency cross coverage and other intern roles. In the era of ACGME duty hours, there is a need to further examine whether there is a role for increased overnight hospital experiences for medical students.

  1. The increasing globalization of health librarianship: a brief survey of international trends and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Bruce; Plutchak, T Scott

    2005-09-01

    Throughout his career, Leslie Morton was interested in international developments in health librarianship. In memory of the work he did in this field, the authors examine current developments in international health librarianship and describe some current themes. The authors draw from their combined experience in international activities and the published information available from selected library associations and related organizations. Although many of the major health library associations around the world are tackling agendas specific to their own country, issues of international concern are emerging in common. These are grouped around globalization, partnerships and co-operation, electronic access, especially open access, and working with the developing world in a number of different ways. Of course, the basis of all of these initiatives is to improve the health of the population by providing the best possible access to materials. Professional associations can provide a useful institutional infrastructure for addressing issues of international interest. Librarians should encourage their associations to develop these international initiatives and to seek out new and innovative ways to work together across international boundaries.

  2. Fiscal 1996 survey of potential international cooperation for a long-term scenario on CO2 reduction; 1996 nendo CO2 sakugen ni kakawaru choki shinario ni kansuru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of working out a CO2 reduction scenario and a CO2 policy introduction scenario, a survey was conducted of comparisons between ten and several models which are world-known and models of the New Earth 21, potential international cooperation to be carried out in the future, etc. The survey included organizations which are developing CO2 policy evaluation models, survey reports made in the past, details of literature for the analysis and arrangement. From the result, details of the questionnaire survey and organizations to be surveyed were decided on for the questionnaire survey. Objects for the survey were 7 countries and 22 organizations, and survey items were places for information exchange, sending/receiving of researchers, exchange of input data, comparative calculation based on the common database, joint research work, economy, the carbon tax, impact, renewable energy, how to handle and think of the carbon isolation, etc. As a result of the survey, proposed were a workshop on CO2 reduction, a comparative study of simulation models, etc. 25 refs., 50 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Gestational age specific neonatal survival in the State of Qatar (2003-2008) - a comparative study with international benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sajjad; Salameh, Khalil; Al-Rifai, Hilal; Masoud, Ahmed; Lutfi, Samawal; Salama, Husam; Abdoh, Ghassan; Omar, Fahmi; Bener, Abdulbari

    2011-09-01

    To analyze and compare the current gestational age specific neonatal survival rates between Qatar and international benchmarks. An analytical comparative study. Women's Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, from 2003-2008. Six year's (2003-2008) gestational age specific neonatal mortality data was stratified for each completed week of gestation at birth from 24 weeks till term. The data from World Health Statistics by WHO (2010), Vermont Oxford Network (VON, 2007) and National Statistics United Kingdom (2006) were used as international benchmarks for comparative analysis. A total of 82,002 babies were born during the study period. Qatar's neonatal mortality rate (NMR) dropped from 6/1000 in 2003 to 4.3/1000 in 2008 (p Qatar were comparable with international benchmarks. The survival of Qatar (p=0.01 and p 32 weeks babies was better in UK (p=0.01) as compared to Qatar. The relative risk (RR) of death decreased with increasing gestational age (p Qatar. The current total and gestational age specific neonatal survival rates in the State of Qatar are comparable with international benchmarks. In Qatar, persistently high rates of low birth weight and lethal chromosomal and congenital anomalies significantly contribute towards neonatal mortality.

  4. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Helena Å.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Heiner-Møller, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM...... no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus...

  5. Comparative evaluation of civil liability conventions on radioactive and oil pollution and liability under international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoche, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of transfrontier radioactive pollution or oil pollution, compensation for damage may be sought under two different liability systems: there is the framework of international law of liability of international persons, and there is the liability regime established by international conventions. The latter system has adopted a very friendly attitude towards the claims of a private victim claiming compensation from the private polluter. The book first sets out the basic principles and practice of the two liability systems, also considering the latest developments and current discussions advocating the acknowledgement of the principle of strict and absolute liability in international law. The relationship of the two systems is the major issue of the book, and the Chernobyl reactor accident has made it a particularly topical issue at that. The problems arising in the wake of this accident have shown the need for clarification in this field. The author suggests as a practical approach a strict separation of the two bases of claims, so that parallel or successive procedure on the level of international law or civil law is possible. Finally the problem of avoiding duplication in the payment of compensation is discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  6. The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12: factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi Sayed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12 as a shorter alternative of the SF-36 is largely used in health outcomes surveys. The aim of this study was to validate the SF-12 in Iran. Methods A random sample of the general population aged 15 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the SF-12. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition, the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Results: In all, 5587 individuals were studied (2721 male and 2866 female. The mean age and formal education of the respondents were 35.1 (SD = 15.4 and 10.2 (SD = 4.4 years respectively. The results showed satisfactory internal consistency for both summary measures, that are the Physical Component Summary (PCS and the Mental Component Summary (MCS; Cronbach's α for PCS-12 and MCS-12 was 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P Conclusion In general the findings suggest that the SF-12 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranian population. However, further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for this alternative form of the SF-36 Health Survey in Iran.

  7. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment. V. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    These tables present data on the effects of low-level radiation dose for the following effects:- pre-conception irradiation and Down's Syndrome, pre-conception irradiation and reproductive damage, surveys of effect in relation to the source of radiation, distribution by maternal preconception exposure of the 7 most common major congenital abnormalities in the Japanese, pre-conception irradiation and childhood malignancies, parental gonadal dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in relation to leukemia, sex chromosome aneuploids in children of A-bomb survivors, untoward pregnancy outcomes by parental gonad dose, pre-conception irradiation and chromosomal abnormalities, and intra-uterine irradiation and intelligence. (author).

  8. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment. V. E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    These tables present data on the effects of low-level radiation dose for the following effects:- pre-conception irradiation and Down's Syndrome, pre-conception irradiation and reproductive damage, surveys of effect in relation to the source of radiation, distribution by maternal preconception exposure of the 7 most common major congenital abnormalities in the Japanese, pre-conception irradiation and childhood malignancies, parental gonadal dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in relation to leukemia, sex chromosome aneuploids in children of A-bomb survivors, untoward pregnancy outcomes by parental gonad dose, pre-conception irradiation and chromosomal abnormalities, and intra-uterine irradiation and intelligence. (author)

  9. How Do the Approaches to Accountability Compare for Charities Working in International Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, David

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to accountability vary between charities working to reduce under-five mortality in underdeveloped countries, and healthcare workers and facilities in Canada. Comparison reveals key differences, similarities and trade-offs. For example, while health professionals are governed by legislation and healthcare facilities have a de facto obligation to be accredited, charities and other international organizations are not subject to mandatory international laws or guidelines or to de facto international standards. Charities have policy goals similar to those found in the Canadian substudies, including access, quality, cost control, cost-effectiveness and customer satisfaction. However, the relative absence of external policy tools means that these goals may not be realized. Accountability can be beneficial, but too much or the wrong kind of accountability can divert resources and diminish returns. PMID:25305397

  10. Developing standardised treatment for adults with myositis and different phenotypes: an international survey of current prescribing preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansley, Sarah; Shaddick, Gavin; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Sharp, Charlotte; Dourmishev, Lyubomir; Maurer, Britta; Chinoy, Hector; McHugh, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The evidence base for treatment of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies is extremely limited. The rarity and heterogeneity of these diseases has hampered the development of good quality clinical trials and while a range of immunomodulatory treatments are commonly used in clinical practice, as yet there are no clear guidelines directing their use. We aimed to establish current prescribing regimens used to treat adults with myositis internationally. An electronic survey based on different clinical scenarios was distributed internationally to clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with myositis. Participants were asked to select their first-line treatment preferences in each situation. A multinomial regression analysis was used to assess the influence of clinical scenario, respondent expertise and country of origin on first-line treatment choice. 107 survey responses were received. 57% of respondents considered themselves an expert in myositis and the majority of respondents were rheumatologists although responses from other specialities were also received. Pharmacological treatment with steroids and additional immunotherapy was the preference in most scenarios. First-line immunosuppressant choice was significantly influenced by the clinical scenario, the expertise of the treating physician and country of practice. Azathioprine, methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil were the most commonly chosen agents. In the absence of available evidence, clinical experience and expert consensus often forms the basis of treatment guidelines. These results suggest that an international consensus approach would be possible in myositis and would overcome an urgent, yet unmet need for patients suffering with this difficult disease.

  11. Sovereign wealth funds – public investment vehicles, foreign policy element. Comparative evolution in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Drăniceanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign funds are an important actor occurring on international financial markets in the last decade, being, in fact, state controlled international investments. Generally, they are financed from foreign currency reserves of the emergent countries they are constituted in, being managed apart of the official reserves and used for external expansion; they are likely to be detrimental to certain strategic interests. As public financial vehicles, they own, endorse or manage public funds of some emergent countries, freely invested by them in a great number of assets, being seen as a foreign policy element.

  12. A quantitative survey of intern's knowledge of communication skills: an Iranian exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyne Owen D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a high priority that health care providers have effective communication skills. It has been well documented that the doctor-patient relationship is central to the delivery of high quality medical care, and it has been shown to affect patient satisfaction, to decrease the use of pain killers, to shorten hospital stays, to improve recovery from surgery and a variety of other biological, psychological and social outcomes. This study sought to quantify the current knowledge of interns in Iran about communication skills. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-report questionnaire was conducted among interns. Data analysis was based on 223 questionnaires. The internal consistency of the items was 0.8979. Results Overall, knowledge levels were unsatisfactory. Results indicated that interns had a limited knowledge of communication skills, including identification of communication skills. In addition, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of interns on breaking bad news and sex education. The confidence of males about their communication skills was significantly higher than for females. Analysis of the total scores by age and sex showed that there was a statistically significant main effect for sex and the interaction with age was statistically significant. Free response comments of the interns are also discussed. Conclusions It is argued that there is a real need for integrating a communication skills course, which is linked to the various different ethnic and religious backgrounds of interns, into Iranian medical curricula. Some recommendations are made and the limitations of the study are discussed.

  13. Socio-Political Influences on EFL Motivation and Attitudes: Comparative Surveys of Korean High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates Korean high school students' English learning motivation and attitudes. In this regard, the results of a 2002 study were compared with those of a 2006 study. Questionnaire data were obtained from a total of 1,037 high school students in a major city in South Korea, and the data were compared with those on the students'…

  14. Comparative and International Learning from Vanuatu Research Moratoria: A Plurilevel, Plurilocal Researcher's Auto-Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I offer a reflexive auto-ethnography to revisit questions about knowledge and research practices in international contexts, influenced differently by aspects of globalization. Specifically, I position my experience of the Vanuatu research moratorium on "foreign" researchers of 2013/2014 as a lynchpin to analyse and…

  15. Comparative Effects Of Training In External And Internal Concentration On Two Counseling Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Paul

    1973-01-01

    A training procedure that appears to facilitate both empathic understanding and selective response to client statements is one built around the training of Zen Buddhist monks. Subjects trained in Zen techniques of external and internal concentration were found to increase their ability in these two counseling behaviors. (Author/LA)

  16. Community Colleges in South Africa? Assessment of Potential from Comparative International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    While South African higher education has, in many respects, achieved remarkable achievements since 1994, a series of serious problems continue to beset the system, and a low internal (high attrition rate) and external (alignment with the employment market) efficiency. There also exist the problems of large scale youth unemployment and the policy…

  17. International Community-Based Service Learning: Two Comparative Case Studies of Benefits and Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhurst, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The drives to internationalise the UK curriculum and psychology students' desires to work in communities are brought together in this paper. International community-based learning (ICBL) links with many psychology students' motivations to make contributions to others; with the potential to enhance students' learning and cultural sensitivities. The…

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Curriculum in International Marketing and Business between Peruvian and Guatemalan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestonjee, Daanish D.; Spillan, John E.; Song, Hongwei; Virzi, Nicholas D.

    2010-01-01

    Business education is important for economic development. A skilled workforce allows for greater advancements in productivity, the creation of new business opportunities, increased employment, and enhances the quality of life of the citizenry. With the changing international business environment it is important for academics and practitioners…

  19. Reforming Investor–State Dispute Settlement: A (Comparative and International) Constitutional Law Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.

    As a result of the steep increase in investment arbitrations, and the problems this has brought to the fore, many reform efforts in international investment law focus on changes to investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS). Reform proposals, however, diverge widely (ranging from exiting the system

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  1. Management of Pediatric Delirium in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Patients: An International Survey of Current Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveski, Sandra L; Pickler, Rita H; Lin, Li; Shaw, Richard J; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Redington, Andrew; Curley, Martha A Q

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians assess and manage delirium in patients following cardiac surgery. Descriptive self-report survey. A web-based survey of pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians who are members of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. Pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians (physicians and nurses). None. One-hundred seventy-three clinicians practicing in 71 different institutions located in 13 countries completed the survey. Respondents described their clinical impression of the occurrence of delirium to be approximately 25%. Most respondents (75%) reported that their ICU does not routinely screen for delirium. Over half of the respondents (61%) have never attended a lecture on delirium. The majority of respondents (86%) were not satisfied with current delirium screening, diagnosis, and management practices. Promotion of day/night cycle, exposure to natural light, deintensification of care, sleep hygiene, and reorientation to prevent or manage delirium were among nonpharmacologic interventions reported along with the use of anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and medications for insomnia. Clinicians responding to the survey reported a range of delirium assessment and management practices in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Study results highlight the need for improvement in delirium education for pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians as well as the need for systematic evaluation of current delirium assessment and management practices.

  2. International survey of veterinarians to assess the importance of competencies in professional practice and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, Harold G. J.; Teunissen, Pim W.; Boerboom, Tobias B. B.; Rhind, Susan M.; Baillie, Sarah; Tegzes, John; Annandale, Henry; Matthew, Susan; Torgersen, Anne; Hecker, Kent G.; Härdi-Landerer, Christina M.; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Ahmad, Bashir; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; van Beukelen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To determine the perceived importance of specific competencies in professional veterinary practice and education among veterinarians in several countries. Survey-based prospective study. 1,137 veterinarians in 10 countries. Veterinarians were invited via email to participate in the study. A

  3. The role of hospital payments in the adoption of new medical technologies: an international survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna; Drummond, Michael; Torbica, Aleksandra; Callea, Giuditta; Mateus, Ceu

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of prospective payment systems in the adoption of new medical technologies across different countries. A literature review was conducted to provide background for the study and guide development of a survey instrument. The survey was disseminated to hospital payment systems experts in 15 jurisdictions. Fifty-one surveys were disseminated, with 34 returned. The surveys returned covered 14 of the 15 jurisdictions invited to participate. The majority (71%) of countries update the patient classification system and/or payment tariffs on an annual basis to try to account for new technologies. Use of short-term separate or supplementary payments for new technologies occurs in 79% of countries to ensure adequate funding and facilitate adoption. A minority (43%) of countries use evidence of therapeutic benefit and/or costs to determine or update payment tariffs, although it is somewhat more common in establishing short-term payments. The main barrier to using evidence is uncertain or unavailable clinical evidence. Almost three-fourths of respondents believed diagnosis-related group systems incentivize or deter technology adoption, depending on the particular circumstances. Improvements are needed, such as enhanced strategies for evidence generation and linking evidence of value to payments, national and international collaboration and training to improve existing practice, and flexible timelines for short-term payments. Importantly, additional research is needed to understand how different payment policies impact technology uptake as well as quality of care and costs.

  4. Hospital leadership perspectives on the contributions of Ronald McDonald Houses. Results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M; Rubin, Nicole; Mauery, D Richard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an international survey of hospital executives and administrators' perspectives on the contributions of their affiliation with a Ronald McDonald House (RMH) as an example of accommodation in family-centered care to the hospital's mission, operations and patient experience. RMHs worldwide provided the names and e-mail addresses of the people holding key leadership positions in their main hospital partner, who in turn were invited to complete an internet-based survey (530 participants; response rate of 54.5 percent). Hospital leaders reported very positive opinions about the contributions of their RMHs affiliation to their ability to serve seriously ill children and their families. This included such important outcomes as increasing family integrity and family participation in care decisions; and decreasing psychosocial stress and hospital social work resource burdens associated with lodging, food, transportation and sibling support. Hospital chief executive offices (CEOs) and medical directors reported very strong and positive opinions regarding the value-added of their RMHs affiliation in many areas, including enhanced marketing of hospital specialty services and reduced length of stay. Survey response bias is a limitation, although the results are still useful in terms of identifying multiple ways in which RMHs are perceived as contributing to hospitals' operations and provision of family-centered care. Overall, the results suggest that, internationally, hospital leaders believe that RMHs play a key and valued role in their provision of family-centered care to seriously ill children and their families. Family accommodation is more than the simple provision of lodging and plays an integral role how hospitals approach family-centered care. This international study contributes to the general literature on the role of family accommodation in hospitals' provision of family-centered care and the specific and very sparse

  5. Comparative survey of comprehensiveness of literature collection between two information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narui, Shigeko; Habara, Tadashi; Izawa, Michiyo; Naramoto, Miyoko; Kajiro, Tadashi

    1983-01-01

    To make clear a feature of INIS database for the subject areas of plasma physics and thermonuclear reactions (the INIS category A14), the overlap literature was surveyedwhich had been collected into both INIS and INSPEC databases. All of 4,454 items of literature inputted into that category of INIS during 1980 were checked on whether they had also been included in INSPEC or not. The overlap ratio of the items to those in INIS was found to be 50 % and the ratios for types of literature were 96%, 42%, 28%, 3% and 0% for journals, books, pamphlets, technical reports, and patent dissertations, respectively. Journal articles not included into INSPEC were found to be derived from the journals which were not central to INSPEC. These facts show that INIS covers various types of literature, which INSPEC collected mainly journal literature. For more warrantable conclusion, it needs further survey on those items which are collected into INSPEC but not into INIS. (author)

  6. Comparative survey of comprehensiveness of literature collection between two information systems, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narui, Shigeko; Habara, Tadashi; Izawa, Michiyo; Naramoto, Miyoko; Kajiro, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    To make clear a feature of nuclear fusion area of the INIS database in comparison with the INSPEC, a survey has been made of overlap literature included in both databases, and of unique literature included only in the INSPEC. All of the 5,774 items in the categories a50.00 and a28.50R of the INSPEC in 1980 were checked on whether each item was also included in the fusion category A14 of the INIS during four years of 1979 to 1982 or not. The ratios of literature included in the INIS were 52 % and 84 % for journal and technical report, respectively. The ratio for journal was considered in connection with differences in the scope and coverage as well as input system between the two databases. High comprehensiveness for technical report is achievable in the INIS. Comparison of language of literature included in both databases, and time lags for publication are briefly described. (author)

  7. Comparing administrative and survey data for ascertaining cases of irritable bowel syndrome: a population-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Targownick Laura E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administrative and survey data are two key data sources for population-based research about chronic disease. The objectives of this methodological paper are to: (1 estimate agreement between the two data sources for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and compare the results to those for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; (2 compare the frequency of IBS-related diagnoses in administrative data for survey respondents with and without self-reported IBS, and (3 estimate IBS prevalence from both sources. Methods This retrospective cohort study used linked administrative and health survey data for 5,134 adults from the province of Manitoba, Canada. Diagnoses in hospital and physician administrative data were investigated for respondents with self-reported IBS, IBD, and no bowel disorder. Agreement between survey and administrative data was estimated using the κ statistic. The χ2 statistic tested the association between the frequency of IBS-related diagnoses and self-reported IBS. Crude, sex-specific, and age-specific IBS prevalence estimates were calculated from both sources. Results Overall, 3.0% of the cohort had self-reported IBS, 0.8% had self-reported IBD, and 95.3% reported no bowel disorder. Agreement was poor to fair for IBS and substantially higher for IBD. The most frequent IBS-related diagnoses among the cohort were anxiety disorders (34.4%, symptoms of the abdomen and pelvis (26.9%, and diverticulitis of the intestine (10.6%. Crude IBS prevalence estimates from both sources were lower than those reported previously. Conclusions Poor agreement between administrative and survey data for IBS may account for differences in the results of health services and outcomes research using these sources. Further research is needed to identify the optimal method(s to ascertain IBS cases in both data sources.

  8. Comparing the Awareness of a New Donation System and Willingness to Pay of Japanese and International Climbers at Mount Fuji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2013, Mount Fuji was nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Subsequently, a new system was piloted encouraging climbers to make a donation of 1000 JPY to help improve environmental conservation. This research is part of a larger study from 2008 to 2014 monitoring the characteristics and behaviour of Fuji climbers. Specifically, this paper investigates Japanese and international climbers to compare their level of awareness and willingness to pay the new donation. Results revealed broad differences between Japanese and international climbers, with 71% of the latter unaware about the new fee prior to climbing, compared to only 16% of Japanese. 77% of Japanese supported the new fee compared to only 50% of international climbers. These findings seem to suggest that prior awareness is vital for compliance, as cross-analysis showed that among international climbers, 72% of those who knew in advance were willing to pay, compared to 43% of those without prior awareness. The new trial climbing fee will be extended for the entire 2014 season on a 24 hour basis, so these findings have implications for improved management based on a better understanding of market segments and more effective messaging to raise awareness, particularly among foreign climbers.

  9. A Comparative Study of International Student Engagement and Success Based on Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Institutional Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gareth Carlington

    2013-01-01

    The study examined international students' engagement and success using NSSE 2007 data. The sample consisted of 1996 first years and 2,158 seniors. These students were compared by race/ethnicity, gender, and institutional type. The study found that students' engagement differed by race/ethnicity as well as type of institution. The null hypotheses…

  10. A Response to: Global Security, Religion and Education Development--A Crisis for the Field of Comparative and International Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to "Global security, religion and education development: a crisis for the field of comparative and international education?" Prof. Lynn Davies's introduction to the Forum is interesting and provocative, and the author advances his response in the spirit of dialogue by looking at Davies's arguments, the…

  11. Institutional limits to the internalization of work systems : A comparative study of three Japanese multinational companies in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saka, A

    2002-01-01

    This study adopts a multilevel comparative approach to investigating the degree to which Japanese work systems are implemented and internalized in the UK business system. The focus is on the limits to accepting the continuous improvement schemes of Japanese multinational corporations. The article

  12. The Impact of Comparative Education Research on Institutional Theory. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David, Ed.; Wiseman, Alex, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of International Perspectives on Education and Society explores how educational research from a comparative perspective has been instrumental in broadening and testing hypotheses from institutional theory. Institutional theory has also played an increasingly influential role in developing an understanding of education in society. This…

  13. Simultaneous and Comparable Numerical Indicators of International, National and Local Collaboration Practices in English-Medium Astrophysics Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We report an investigation on collaboration practices in research papers published in the most prestigious English-medium astrophysics journals. Method: We propose an evaluation method based on three numerical indicators to study and compare, in absolute terms, three different types of collaboration (international, national and…

  14. A comparative analysis of quadratics in mathematics textbooks from Turkey, Singapore, and the international baccalaureate diploma programme

    OpenAIRE

    Sağlam, Reyhan

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Program of Curriculum and Instruction, Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references leaves 110-118. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the chapters on quadratics in three mathematics textbooks selected from Turkey, Singapore, and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) in terms of content, organization, and presentation style through content analysis. The analys...

  15. Through the Looking Glass: Realizing the Benefits of an International and Comparative Perspective on Teaching Public Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Donald E.; Washington, Charles W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses reasons why public administrators in the United States; tend to have a parochial U.S.-centered view of the public affairs discipline and the associated negative effects such views have on U.S. public affairs. Proposes an agenda for strengthening the development of an international and comparative perspective in teaching public affairs…

  16. Use of alumni and employer surveys for internal quality assurance of the DVM program at the University of Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Michèle Y; Vrins, André

    2010-01-01

    Annual alumni and employer surveys, initially designed as outcomes assessment tools, were integrated into a new internal quality assurance strategy to improve the doctor of veterinary medicine program at the University of Montreal's Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire. Data collected annually from the classes of 2004-2007 indicated that alumni and their employers were generally satisfied with their level of preparation after one year of professional activity. Specific weaknesses were found in non-technical skills such as communication and resource management. These data were used in support of other forms of feedback to guide curricular reform.

  17. Surgeon Reported Outcome Measure for Spine Trauma an International Expert Survey Identifying Parameters Relevant for The Outcome of Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit Jan; Lehr, A. M.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S.; Schnake, Klaus J.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Oner, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: International web-based survey OBJECTIVE.: To identify clinical and radiological parameters that spine surgeons consider most relevant when evaluating clinical and functional outcomes of subaxial cervical spine trauma patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: While an outcome instrument

  18. Negative and positive participant responses to the composite international diagnostic interview - Results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, R. de; Have, M.L. ten; Dorsselaer, S.A.F.M. van; Schoemaker, C.G.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the emotional responses of participants in community surveys to standardised psychiatric interviews like the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). This study investigates the proportion of subjects responding negatively or positively to the CIDI, and identifies

  19. Stress levels in parents of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during the back-to-school period: results of an international survey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprieno, Urania; Gagliano, Antonella

    2016-10-01

    The back-to-school stress survey was an international, non-clinical opinion survey, which aimed to compare stress levels in parents of children with/without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the back-to-school period. Here, we present results relating to the Italian sample, comparing them with European data. The questionnaire was built using a modified Holmes and Rahe stress scale. Parents of children with/without ADHD evaluated potentially stress-causing situations on a scale from 1 (low stress) to 10 (high stress). In Italy, 107 parents of children with ADHD (mean age ± SD 40.3±7.3 years) and 105 parents of children without ADHD (mean age 42.2±6.6 years) participated in the survey. The mean age of children with ADHD was 10.3±3.1 years; 77.6% were male, 72.9% had been diagnosed with at least one comorbid condition - in particular conduct disorder (24.3%), learning disorders/dyslexia (23.4%) and language/communication disorder (19.6%) - and 32.7% were receiving ADHD medication. Parents of children with ADHD showed significantly higher stress levels (p≤0.005) compared with the non-ADHD group in all areas analyzed that were related to the return to school. Significant differences between groups (Pchildren with ADHD suffer significantly higher stress levels compared with parents of children without ADHD. Considering parental stress is important for the management of children with ADHD, as stress can affect the control of behavioral symptoms of children.

  20. Between Nationalism and Internationalism: The German Chemical Society In Comparative Perspective, 1867-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2017-09-04

    One-hundred fifty years ago, on the eve of German unification, about one-hundred people gathered in Berlin to found the German Chemical Society (DChG) under the charismatic leadership of August Wilhelm von Hofmann, who attracted a large international membership by promoting modern organic chemistry. By 1892, when Emil Fischer succeeded Hofmann, the DChG was the world's largest chemical society. Under Fischer the Society promoted international collaboration with foreign societies, and in 1900 it opened an impressive headquarters, the Hofmann House, where it centralized its greatly expanded literary activity including abstracts and reference publications. Yet a half-century later, after war and racial-national extremism, the house lay in ruins and the Society had ceased to exist. In remembering the Society, one may well ask why its auspicious beginning should have led to this ignominious end. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Comparative analysis of internal friction and natural frequency measured by free decay and forced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Ding, X. D.; Xiong, X. M.; Zhang, J. X.

    2007-01-01

    Relations between various values of the internal friction (tgδ, Q -1 , Q -1* , and Λ/π) measured by free decay and forced vibration are analyzed systemically based on a fundamental mechanical model in this paper. Additionally, relations between various natural frequencies, such as vibration frequency of free decay ω FD , displacement-resonant frequency of forced vibration ω d , and velocity-resonant frequency of forced vibration ω 0 are calculated. Moreover, measurement of natural frequencies of a copper specimen of 99.9% purity has been made to demonstrate the relation between the measured natural frequencies of the system by forced vibration and free decay. These results are of importance for not only more accurate measurement of the elastic modulus of materials but also the data conversion between different internal friction measurements

  2. Postanalytical external quality assessment of urine albumin in primary health care: An international survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakre, K.M.; Thue, G.; Subramaniam-Haavik, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria (MA) is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal complications in diabetes. We sought to evaluate how screening for MA is conducted and how urine albumin (UA) results are interpreted in primary care internationally. METHODS: General practiti...

  3. International interest rate convergence: a survey of the issues and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Pigott

    1993-01-01

    World financial markets have become substantially integrated over the last two decades. Contrary to widespread expectations, however, this integration has not led to any greater convergence of interest rates across countries. This article examines why convergence has not occurred and more generally what financial integration does—and does not—mean for international interest rate relations.

  4. Testing Practices and Attitudes Toward Tests and Testing: An International Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evers, A.; McCormick, C. M.; Hawley, L. R.; Muñiz, J.; Balboni, G.; Bartram, D.; Boben, D.; Egeland, J.; El-Hassan, K.; Fernández-Hermida, J.R.; Fine, S.; Frans, Ö.; Gintiliéne, G.; Hagemeister, C.; Halama, P.; Iliescu, D.; Jaworowska, A.; Jiménez, P.; Manthouili, M.; Matesic, K.; Michaelsen, L.; Mogaji, A.; Morley-Kirk, J.; Rózsa, S.; Rowlands, L.; Schittekatte, M.; Sümer, H.C.; Suwartono, T.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Wechsler, S.; Zelenevska, T.; Zanev, S.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2017), s. 158-190 ISSN 1530-5058 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : psychological testing * testing practices * test use * International Test Commission * European Federation of Psychologists' Associations Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  5. The urologist view of BPH progression: results of an international survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djavan, B.; Nickel, J.C.; Rosette, J.J.M.H.C. de la; Abrams, P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the opinion amongst the international urological community on whether benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive disease.METHODS: A 15-item questionnaire was distributed to the mailing list of the publication European Urology Today as well as being accessed through the

  6. The urologist view of BPH progression: results of an international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djavan, B.; Nickel, J. C.; de la Rosette, J.; Abrams, P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the opinion amongst the international urological community on whether benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive disease.METHODS: A 15-item questionnaire was distributed to the mailing list of the publication European Urology Today as well as being accessed through the

  7. A survey on occurrence of internal and external fish parasites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The internal parasites recovered were Clinostomum, Acanthocephalues and Capillaria accounting for 15.2%, 11.2%, and 7.2% of the total infection respectively, while 4% had ... These findings demand a future focus and stretch of intervention programs for alleviation of the problems facing the Lake before its exhaustion.

  8. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: A policy and economic comparative analysis for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Husid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to achieve an overall view of Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade in Canada, analyzing both the current situation and the actions and policies being implemented by several provinces to promote this subject. This study will be valuable to companies and governments to understand what has been done and to support strategic planning to invest and trade with Canada, especially for the Brazilian market.

  9. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. Comparing hospital staff and patient perceptions of customer service: a pilot study utilizing survey and focus group data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, Myron D; Dickson, Duncan; Ford, Robert C; Bradley, Kenneth; Johnson, Lee

    2006-02-01

    The measurement of patient satisfaction is crucial to enhancing customer service and competitive advantage in the health-care industry. While there are numerous approaches to such measurement, this paper provides a case study which compares and contrasts patient and staff perceptions of customer service using both survey and focus group data. Results indicate that there is a high degree of correlation between staff and patient perceptions of customer service based on both survey and focus group data. However, the staff and patient subgroups also provided complementary information regarding patient perceptions of their service experience. Staff members tended to have more negative perceptions of service attributes than did the patients themselves. The focus group results provide complementary information to survey results in terms of greater detail and more managerially relevant information. While these results are derived from a pilot study, they suggest that diversification of data sources beyond patient surveys may enhance the utility of customer service information. If further research can affirm these findings, they create exciting possibilities for gathering valid, reliable and cost-effective customer service information.

  11. Telephone follow-up to a mail survey: when to offer an interview compared to a reminder call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a different mode of contact on the final follow-up to survey non-respondents is an identified strategy to increase response rates. This study was designed to determine if a reminder phone call or a phone interview as a final mode of contact to a mailed survey works better to increase response rates and which strategy is more cost effective. Methods A randomized study was embedded within a survey study of individuals treated with ulcerative colitis conducted in March 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota. After two mail contacts, non-respondents were randomly assigned to either a reminder telephone call or a telephone interview. Average cost per completed interview and response rates were compared between the two experimental conditions. Results The response rate in the reminder group and the interview did not differ where we considered both a completed survey and a signed form a complete (24% vs. 29%, p = 0.08. However, if such a signed form was not required, there was a substantial advantage to completing the interview over the phone (24% vs. 43%, p Conclusions The additional cost of completing an interview is worth it when an additional signed form is not required of the respondent. However, when such a signed form is required, offering an interview instead of a reminder phone call as a follow up to non-respondents does not increase response rates enough to outweigh the additional costs.

  12. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Bryant, Richard A; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  13. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Joscelyne

    Full Text Available Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  14. The quality of life after a femoral neck fracture in elderly patients: a comparative study between internal fixation and arthroplasties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sansanovicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The femoral neck fracture is a frequent pathology in the elderly population, with about of 100,000 cases per year in Brazil. The surgical treatment by internal fixation or arthroplastic hip replacement is advocated today. The non-surgical treatment is reserved for cases of exception. Objective: To compare the quality of patient postoperative life treated for femoral neck fracture by two different techniques: hip arthroplasty and internal fixation. Methods: Through the SF-36 questionnaire, we study the quality of life of 60 patients with more than 65 years, treated between 2004 and 2012 in our service. Half of the patients was submitted to internal fixation and the other half to the arthroplastic replacement. Results: Higher averages in the large majority of the parameters of the questionnaire were obtained by the group which was carried out by internal fixation, but without statistical significance in most of these differences. Some international reports indicate that patients who have suffered a fracture of the femoral neck and were treated with internal fixation may recover the quality of life they had before the fracture. Paradoxically, there is a growing trend among orthopedic surgeons to perform a hip replacement surgery in these cases. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to define which is the best surgical treatment option.

  15. Physician smoking status, attitudes toward smoking, and cessation advice to patients: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipe, Andrew; Sorensen, Michelle; Reid, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The smoking status of physicians can impact interactions with patients about smoking. The 'Smoking: The Opinions of Physicians' (STOP) survey examined whether an association existed between physician smoking status and beliefs about smoking and cessation and a physician's clinical interactions with patients relevant to smoking cessation, and perceptions of barriers to assisting with quitting. General and family practitioners across 16 countries were surveyed via telephone or face-to-face interviews using a convenience-sample methodology. Physician smoking status was self-reported. Of 4473 physicians invited, 2836 (63%) participated in the survey, 1200 (42%) of whom were smokers. Significantly fewer smoking than non-smoking physicians volunteered that smoking was a harmful activity (64% vs 77%; Pnon-smoking physicians identified willpower (37% vs 32%; P<0.001) and lack of interest (28% vs 22%; P<0.001) as barriers to quitting, more smoking physicians saw stress as a barrier (16% vs 10%; P<0.001). Smoking physicians are less likely to initiate cessation interventions. There is a need for specific strategies to encourage smoking physicians to quit, and to motivate all practitioners to adopt systematic approaches to assisting with smoking cessation.

  16. International multi-site survey on the use of online support groups in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, Martin; Ardau, Raffaella; Baune, Bernhard T; Berk, Michael; Bersudsky, Yuly; Bilderbeck, Amy; Bocchetta, Alberto; Bossini, Letizia; Castro, Angela M Paredes; Cheung, Eric Y W; Chillotti, Caterina; Choppin, Sabine; Zompo, Maria Del; Dias, Rodrigo; Dodd, Seetal; Duffy, Anne; Etain, Bruno; Fagiolini, Andrea; Hernandez, Miryam Fernández; Garnham, Julie; Geddes, John; Gildebro, Jonas; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Goodwin, Guy M; Grof, Paul; Harima, Hirohiko; Hassel, Stefanie; Henry, Chantal; Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Kapur, Vaisnvy; Kunigiri, Gi