WorldWideScience

Sample records for international commodity markets

  1. Techniques for Analyzing the Attractiveness of International Commodity Markets Under Conditions of Economic Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Pryhara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines existing techniques and proposes its own for analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in light of the globalization of world economic processes. Taking into account the supranational nature of the world economic environment when examining categories in the attractiveness of international commodity markets, the author introduces a multilevel system of indicators: market attractiveness at the mega-level – global level; market attractiveness at the macro-level national level; market attractiveness at the mezo-level – level of an individual sector. The attractiveness of international commodity markets is considered to be the degree of conformity between market environment factors and the mega-, macro- and mezo-levels of the economic interests of enterprises concerning the entry into and strategies for their activity on the international commodity markets in the short-, medium- and long-term. The author designs a stage-by-stage technique for strategically analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in order to frame efficient market strategies of enterprises. Relying on the proposed techniques, she rates the integrated indicators of market accessibility and the possibility of realizing the economic interests of enterprises in target markets, bringing the index data into a matrix of «market accessibility – opportunity for realizing the economic interests of enterprises.» The analysis of a country’s position in the matrix makes it possible to frame efficient market strategies for enterprises.

  2. COMMODITY MARKET MATH MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Mednikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes enterprise mathmodels, its interactions with environment in commodity market and quantitativeconditions for its success and the crisis in such kind of interaction. Showed: the number of commodity market successfulparticipants should be certain, regardless of market size; any size commodity market, including monopolistic, is assuccessful as producers’ average activity dynamics is balanced with consumers’average activity dynamics.

  3. Cross-correlations between RMB exchange rate and international commodity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinsheng; Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Yubo

    2017-11-01

    This paper employs multifractal detrended analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) to study cross-correlation behaviors between China's RMB exchange rate market and four international commodity markets, using a comprehensive set of data covering the period from 22 July 2005 to 15 March 2016. Our empirical results from MF-DFA indicate that the RMB exchange rate is the most inefficient among the 4 selected markets. The results from quantitative analysis have testified the existence of cross-correlations and the result from MF-DCCA have further confirmed a strong multifractal behavior between RMB exchange rate and international commodity markets. We also demonstrate that the recent financial crisis has significant impact on the cross-correlated behavior. Through the rolling window analysis, we find that the RMB exchange rates and international commodity prices are anti-persistent cross-correlated. The main sources of multifractality in the cross-correlations are long-range correlations between RMB exchange rate and the aggregate commodity, energy and metals index.

  4. Outlook '98 - Commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, T.

    1998-01-01

    Canadian oil and natural gas producers'' participation in commodity and foreign exchange markets to alter the pricing characteristics of their commodity portfolios was reviewed. It was concluded that through the various risk management structures available from financial and physical market participants, Canadian oil and gas producers retain the ongoing ability to design, pro-actively, their desired exposure to oil and gas prices. Various industry-wide re-examination of risk management programs have taken place during the past two years. Based on these studies, the industry anticipates material volatility in West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil and Alberta natural gas prices throughout 1998. Furthermore, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the price differentials between WTI crude and Canadian oil streams, and between Alberta gas prices and other North American regional gas markets. Against this background of uncertainty, it is reasonable to predict that companies will use risk management strategies in an effort to outperform industry average prices, thereby ensuring that pro-active risk management activity will continue throughout 1998

  5. The Impact of Trade Policies on Spiraling Prices in International Agricultural Commodity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-2000s food prices have been on an upward trend. In the first months of 2011, agricultural commodity prices reached an all-time high, fuelling fears about the imminent outbreak of a new food crisis, similar to the 1973/74 and 2006/08 ones. Behind concerns about increased price levels and volatility in international agricultural commodity markets lie concerns about food security. Hence, the international community is now under pressure to urgently find solutions for tempering strong upward fluctuations in prices for many major food commodities. Trade policy changes are increasingly discussed as a major contributing factor to food price surges. This paper addresses some issues related to the recurrent global food crises from the perspective of trade policy, specifically export restrictions. After a brief review of the fundamental drivers of the upward trend in real food prices (rising global population and income, climate change, high oil prices, increasing cereal use for biofuel production, and financial speculation, it examines the upsurge in agricultural export restrictions over the recent years. Relying on WTO's trade policy monitoring exercise, it highlights typology, motivations and effects of the newly introduced export restrictions, and finds that a major factor behind their recent proliferation is the lack of effective and binding multilateral rules concerning these trade policy instruments. The paper argues that strenghtening and improving WTO's rules and disciplines is essential for mitigating increased price pressure and volatility as well as the associated food security risks. While the issue of export restrictions is currently the topic of discussions under the Doha Round, trade negotiations are in impasse since 2008. Hence, urgent and successful conclusion of the round would be an essential step. In the meanwhile, a closer regular monitoring of all forms of export restrictions would help to provide at least more

  6. Understanding international commodity price fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arezki, Rabah; Loungani, Prakash; van der Ploeg, Rick; Venables, Anthony J.

    An overview is provided of recent work on commodity prices, focusing on three themes: (i) "financialization" of commodity markets--commodities being considered by financial investors as a distinct asset class, (ii) trends and forecasts of commodity prices, and (iii) fracking-a shorthand for the

  7. AN OVERVIEW OF MAJOR SOURCES OF DATA AND ANALYSES RELATING TO PHYSICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Fajarnes

    2011-01-01

    The debate on whether price movements in commodity markets are determined by changes in physical supply and demand fundamentals or by the speculative effects of financial investors seems to find some element of agreement on one particular point: the need for increased transparency and improved information on futures markets and physical commodity markets. This discussion paper provides an assessment of the current situation with regard to availability of information on physical commodity mark...

  8. Energy and commodities market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokermann, Marcus; Prass, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The electricity markets in Central and Western Europe and in the nordic countries have further shown weak in 2014 with falling prices. The key factors were the declining quotations for coal and natural gas and the warm weather. Another driver was the growth of renewable energy. In the power markets conditions remained mostly an oversupply. The upward trending prices on the CO 2 emissions market were not formative enough to turn the market sentiment. They only caused for volatility during the year. [de

  9. COMPETITIVENESS OF METAL PRODUCTION OF RUP ‘BMZ» ON THE INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kuzmich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the received integral indices of competitiveness testify to the fact that production is on the high level of competitiveness on world markets of sales and is approximately on one position with the best goods-analogues.

  10. COMMODITY MARKET REGULATION: EXPORTING COUNTRIES VERSUS IMPORTING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Leonardo Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The high in commodity prices in the international market in the last decade, tensions escalated between exporting and importing commodities countries, the extent of having their demands and pressures discussed in the main international organizations, especially in the G20. As altas nas cotações das commodities no mercado internacional na última década acirraram as tensões entre países exportadores e importadores de commodities, a ponto de terem suas reivindicações e pressões debatidas no...

  11. Trends and prospects of international major commodity prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cartas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Trends and prospects of international major commodity prices. In 2012, the international commodity markets have seen declining prices, especially during the first half of the year, with some improvement mainly in the last quarter. On the whole, most of major commodity prices declined, following generally weaker demand and the uncertain global economic situation. The short term outlook shows broad declines of prices for all major commodity groups, including oil and excepting metal prices, which are expected to be sustained by the global economic recovery and increasing demand, mainly in China. This country represents a major player, with a great contribution to the movement of prices on most of international commodity markets, as she has a great role in the world consumption and trade of commodities, as well as in the world production of some of these goods, on the one hand, and enjoys huge financial resources, on the other.

  12. Commodity futures and market efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2014), s. 50-57 ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : commodities * efficiency * entropy * long-term memory * fractal dimension Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-0420811.pdf

  13. Managing commodity markets: the case of OPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, R.; Ferroukhi, R.

    1993-01-01

    Since primary commodity producers first took control of their natural resources, they have attempted to utilize production/price management with varying degrees of success. As a tool aimed at regulating, rather than controlling, commodity markets, this type of resource management is an essential means of achieving realistic economic returns, which, in the long run, serves the interests of the producer of the commodity in question, as well as its consumer. By regulating commodity markets in times of stable prices producing countries would benefit from a steady and constant level of export earnings, thus allowing them to achieve a sustainable level of economic development. As far as the oil market is concerned, stable prices, set in a range favourable to both producers and consumers, would give investors the confidence needed for long-term exploration. This is particularly important for a commodity such as oil, at a time when the lead time between exploration starting and actual production getting under way is increasing. Not only would producers benefit from stable export earnings, which are an essential requirement for the planning of their development process, but consuming countries would at the same time benefit in two ways: first, they would gain security of supply; and second, as fluctuations in their expenditure for this commodity are reduced, they would be a position to manage their economies more efficiently. (author)

  14. How market structure drives commodity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Chan, Amos H. M.; So, Tsz Yan; Heimonen, Hermanni; Wei, Junyi; Saad, David

    2017-11-01

    We introduce an agent-based model, in which agents set their prices to maximize profit. At steady state the market self-organizes into three groups: excess producers, consumers and balanced agents, with prices determined by their own resource level and a couple of macroscopic parameters that emerge naturally from the analysis, akin to mean-field parameters in statistical mechanics. When resources are scarce prices rise sharply below a turning point that marks the disappearance of excess producers. To compare the model with real empirical data, we study the relationship between commodity prices and stock-to-use ratios in a range of commodities such as agricultural products and metals. By introducing an elasticity parameter to mitigate noise and long-term changes in commodities data, we confirm the trend of rising prices, provide evidence for turning points, and indicate yield points for less essential commodities.

  15. The Price of Commodity Risk in Stock and Futures Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boons (Martijn); F.A. de Roon (Frans); M.K. Szymanowska (Marta)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe find that commodity risk is priced in the cross-section of US stock returns. Following the financialization of commodities, investors hedge commodity price risk directly in the futures market, primarily via commodity index investments, whereas before they gained commodity exposure

  16. Multiple commodities in statistical microeconomics: Model and market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao; Du, Xin

    2016-11-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013). In Baaquie et al. (2015), the market behavior of single commodities was analyzed and it was shown that market data provides strong support for the statistical microeconomic description of commodity prices. The case of multiple commodities is studied and a parsimonious generalization of the single commodity model is made for the multiple commodities case. Market data shows that the generalization can accurately model the simultaneous correlation functions of up to four commodities. To accurately model five or more commodities, further terms have to be included in the model. This study shows that the statistical microeconomics approach is a comprehensive and complete formulation of microeconomics, and which is independent to the mainstream formulation of microeconomics.

  17. Market risk in commodity markets. A VaR approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giot, Pierre [Department of Business Administration and CEREFIM at University of Namur, Rempart de la Vierge, 8, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Laurent, Sebastien [Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE) at Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain (Belgium)

    2003-09-01

    We put forward Value-at-Risk models relevant for commodity traders who have long and short trading positions in commodity markets. In a 5-year out-of-sample study on aluminium, copper, nickel, Brent crude oil and WTI crude oil daily cash prices and cocoa nearby futures contracts, we assess the performance of the RiskMetrics, skewed Student APARCH and skewed student ARCH models. While the skewed Student APARCH model performs best in all cases, the skewed Student ARCH model delivers good results and its estimation does not require non-linear optimization procedures. As such this new model could be relatively easily integrated in a spreadsheet-like environment and used by market practitioners.

  18. Market risk in commodity markets. A VaR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giot, Pierre; Laurent, Sebastien

    2003-01-01

    We put forward Value-at-Risk models relevant for commodity traders who have long and short trading positions in commodity markets. In a 5-year out-of-sample study on aluminium, copper, nickel, Brent crude oil and WTI crude oil daily cash prices and cocoa nearby futures contracts, we assess the performance of the RiskMetrics, skewed Student APARCH and skewed student ARCH models. While the skewed Student APARCH model performs best in all cases, the skewed Student ARCH model delivers good results and its estimation does not require non-linear optimization procedures. As such this new model could be relatively easily integrated in a spreadsheet-like environment and used by market practitioners

  19. Market risk in commodity markets: a VaR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giot, P.

    2003-01-01

    We put forward Value-at-Risk models relevant for commodity traders who have long and short trading positions in commodity markets. In a 5-year out-of-sample study on aluminium, copper, nickel, Brent crude oil and WTI crude oil daily cash prices and cocoa nearby futures contracts, we assess the performance of the RiskMetrics, skewed Student APARCH and skewed student ARCH models. While the skewed Student APARCH model performs best in all cases, the skewed Student ARCH model delivers good results and its estimation does not require non-linear optimization procedures. As such this new model could be relatively easily integrated in a spreadsheet-like environment and used by market practitioners. (author)

  20. Toward Improved Market Access for ASEAN Agricultural Commodities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... technical report, November 2009 - May 2013. Études. Towards improved market access for ASEAN agricultural commodities : donor partnerships strategy and plan. Rapports. Towards improved market access for ASEAN agricultural commodities : project inception meeting report, Palm Garden Hotel, Putrajaya, Malaysia, ...

  1. Commodity Market Inefficiencies and Inflationary Pressures - India’s Economic Policy Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar GUPTA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the current pace of growth, India would emerge as a major player in the international market in terms of commodity consumption, production and trade. Going by trade volume and also the possibly as an identifiable influence on the price making process on the essential commodities, the futures and spot markets have shown major variations. Increased volatility in asset prices has been a major reason behind the integration of domestic financial markets with the international financial sector accentuating the demand for the trading in the derivative market. Though organized commodity trading has been in from the nineteenth century in India, the commodity derivative markets in the new form with nationwide electronic trading and access have opened the gates for speculators, hedgers and other market participants to capitalize on the development. The robust growth of the commodity markets can be observed in terms of number of commodities trade volumes and growing number of both the market participants and the commodity exchanges. Liquidity booms reflected by loose monetary policy are responsible for major surge in commodity prices globally in addition to direct tangible impacts of oil prices especially in developing countries with heavy oil imports like India. Futures markets are created to fulfill genuine desires economic functions of hedging and price discovery. But, enormous futures trading observed on the commodity exchanges have raised a host of issues like inflation guided by the fuelling principle implying the direct relationship between volatility and inflation. Huge price volatility in futures segment on the commodity exchanges has therefore raised concerns relating to the market efficiencies, infrastructure and knowledge and also their consequential impact on cash markets. The demand and supply side of the commodity price mechanism is traditionally governed by numerous factors including the climatic conditions, availability of critical

  2. Limits to Arbitrage and Hedging: Evidence from Commodity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Viral V; Lochstoer, Lars; Ramadorai, Tarun

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the literature on limits-to-arbitrage, we build an equilibrium model of commodity markets in which speculators are capital constrained, and commodity producers have hedging demands for commodity futures. Increases (decreases) in producers' hedging demand (speculators' risk-capacity) increase hedging costs via price-pressure on futures, reduce producers' inventory holdings, and thus spot prices. Consistent with our model, producers' default risk forecasts futures returns, spot pri...

  3. Towards microalgal triglycerides in the commodity markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Giulia; Ruiz, Jesús; Lamers, Packo P; Bosma, Rouke; Wijffels, René H; Barbosa, Maria J

    2017-01-01

    Microalgal triglycerides (TAGs) hold great promise as sustainable feedstock for commodity industries. However, to determine research priorities and support business decisions, solid techno-economic studies are essential. Here, we present a techno-economic analysis of two-step TAG production (growth reactors are operated in continuous mode such that multiple batch-operated stress reactors are inoculated and harvested sequentially) for a 100-ha plant in southern Spain using vertically stacked tubular photobioreactors. The base case is established with outdoor pilot-scale data and based on current process technology. For the base case, production costs of 6.7 € per kg of biomass containing 24% TAG (w/w) were found. Several scenarios with reduced production costs were then presented based on the latest biological and technological advances. For instance, much effort should focus on increasing the photosynthetic efficiency during the stress and growth phases, as this is the most influential parameter on production costs (30 and 14% cost reduction from base case). Next, biological and technological solutions should be implemented for a reduction in cooling requirements (10 and 4.5% cost reduction from base case when active cooling is avoided and cooling setpoint is increased, respectively). When implementing all the suggested improvements, production costs can be decreased to 3.3 € per kg of biomass containing 60% TAG (w/w) within the next 8 years. With our techno-economic analysis, we indicated a roadmap for a substantial cost reduction. However, microalgal TAGs are not yet cost efficient when compared to their present market value. Cost-competiveness strictly relies on the valorization of the whole biomass components and on cheaper PBR designs (e.g. plastic film flat panels). In particular, further research should focus on the development and commercialization of PBRs where active cooling is avoided and stable operating temperatures are maintained by the water

  4. A dataset on tail risk of commodities markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert J; Vo, Duc H; Pham, Thach N; Singh, Abhay K

    2017-12-01

    This article contains the datasets related to the research article "The long and short of commodity tails and their relationship to Asian equity markets"(Powell et al., 2017) [1]. The datasets contain the daily prices (and price movements) of 24 different commodities decomposed from the S&P GSCI index and the daily prices (and price movements) of three share market indices including World, Asia, and South East Asia for the period 2004-2015. Then, the dataset is divided into annual periods, showing the worst 5% of price movements for each year. The datasets are convenient to examine the tail risk of different commodities as measured by Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) as well as their changes over periods. The datasets can also be used to investigate the association between commodity markets and share markets.

  5. Towards microalgal triglycerides in the commodity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benvenuti, Giulia; Ruiz, Jesús; Lamers, Packo P.; Bosma, Rouke; Wijffels, René H.; Barbosa, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Microalgal triglycerides (TAGs) hold great promise as sustainable feedstock for commodity industries. However, to determine research priorities and support business decisions, solid techno-economic studies are essential. Here, we present a techno-economic analysis of two-step TAG

  6. The Role of Incompleteness in Commodity Futures Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eKanamura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a convenience yield-based pricing for commodity futures, which embeds incompleteness of commodity futures markets in convenience yields. By using the pricing method, we conduct empirical analyses of the prices of WTI crude oil, heating oil, and natural gas futures traded on the NYMEX in order to assess the incompleteness of energy futures markets. We show that the fluctuation from the incompleteness is partly driven by the fluctuation from convenience yields. In addition, it is shown that the incompleteness of natural gas futures market is more highlighted than the incompleteness of WTI crude oil and heating oil futures markets. We apply the implied market price of risk from the NYMEX data to pricing an Asian call option written on WTI crude oil futures. Finally, we try to apply the market incompleteness analysis to the post-crisis periods after 2009.

  7. The Economics of the Commodity Market Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    32 D. HEDGING ........................................................................ 33 E. SPECULATING...Result of Chernobyl’s Nuclear Accident ........................................... 49 It. e -Mr i7s0 I LIST OF FIGURES *4. 1. Example of a Perfect Hedge ...briefly. The reason for this is the power of arbitrage . Arbitrage is the simultaneous purchase of a futures contract in one market against the sale

  8. Energy and commodities market; Energie- und Rohstoffmaerkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokermann, Marcus; Prass, Markus [Vattenfall Markets, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The electricity markets in Central and Western Europe and in the nordic countries have further shown weak in 2014 with falling prices. The key factors were the declining quotations for coal and natural gas and the warm weather. Another driver was the growth of renewable energy. In the power markets conditions remained mostly an oversupply. The upward trending prices on the CO{sub 2} emissions market were not formative enough to turn the market sentiment. They only caused for volatility during the year. [German] Die Strommaerkte in Mittel- und Westeuropa sowie in den nordischen Laendern haben sich auch im Jahr 2014 weiterhin schwach bei fallenden Preisen gezeigt. Die wesentlichen Einflussfaktoren waren die sinkenden Notierungen fuer Steinkohle und Erdgas sowie das warme Wetter. Ein weiterer Treiber war das Wachstum der erneuerbaren Energien. Auf den Strommaerkten herrschte weiterhin ueberwiegend ein Ueberangebot. Die aufwaerts tendierenden Preise auf dem CO{sub 2}-Emissionsmarkt waren nicht praegend genug, um die Marktstimmung zu drehen. Sie sorgten lediglich fuer Volatilitaet im Jahresverlauf.

  9. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  10. Dynamics of a durable commodity market involving trade at disequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, A.; Puu, T.

    2018-05-01

    The present work considers a simple model of a durable commodity market involving two agents who trade stocks of two different types. Stock commodities, in contrast to flow commodities, remain on the market from period to period and, consequently, there is neither unique demand function nor unique supply function exists. We also set up exact conditions for trade at disequilibrium, the issue being usually neglected, though a fact of reality. The induced iterative system has infinite number of fixed points and path dependent dynamics. We show that a typical orbit is either attracted to one of the fixed points or eventually sticks at a no-trade point. For the latter the stock distribution always remains the same while the price displays periodic or chaotic oscillations.

  11. GLOBAL COMMODITY CHAINS NA PERSPECTIVA DE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Régio Brambilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visa a estabelecer uma relação entre as estratégias de canais globais com aspectos do marketing, como a força da marca. Trata-se de conciliar atributos de Estratégia e Marketing. As mudanças econômicas globais levaram a transformações na competição das empresas, obrigando-as a ingressar numa discussão aprimorada acerca das estratégias e competências. Com base na ideia da detenção do conhecimento e das habilidades como verdadeiros diferenciais competitivos, muitos players passam a atuar na gestão do design e da marca como elementos centrais das políticas de negócios, onde a proposição de valor pode ser mais bem definida aos mercados consumidores.

  12. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Stevens, R.C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. (author)

  13. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, T A; Stevens, R C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs.

  14. A Marketing Approach to Commodity Futures Exchanges : A Case Study of the Dutch Hog Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a marketing strategic approach to commodity futures exchanges to optimise the (hedging) services offered. First, the environment of commodity futures exchanges is examined. Second, the threats and opportunities of commodity futures exchanges are analysed. Our analysis

  15. Hedging Price Risks of Farmers by Commodity Boards: A Simulation Applied to the Indian Natural Rubber Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates a hypothetical hedging scheme in a domestic commodity market under which a commodity board offers a forward contract to domestic producers and local traders and covers its commitments on an international futures exchange. It is aimed to quantify welfare gains to agents in the

  16. Market Structure and Price Transmission of Eggs Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purposes of this research are to determine some characteristics of distribution channel, market structure, and price maker transmission in purebred chicken egg commodity in Banyumas District, Central Java Province. Primary data applied on this research is from all channel distribution levels; from producers to final consumers. Meanwhile secondary data is collected from government official sources, such as BPS-Statistic of Banyumas Disrict, Banyumas Department of Industry, Trading and Cooperation, and previous researches which has been made by researcher team. Sample determining is directed by proportional random sampling methods. Some measurements are applied to this research, including to; Herfindahl Index (HI, Concentration Ratio (CF, and Minimum Efficiency Scale (MES to investigate market structure; and Asymmetric Price Transmission (APT to determine price transmission mechanism model. This research finds that (1 the distribution channel of egg commodity is spitted to different channel, the first channel: egg producer – retail traders – final consumers, and second channel: egg producers – whole seller – retail traders – final consumers; (2 market structure which is created to this farming specific commodity is perfect market; (3 price transmission mechanism analysis statistically shows that there is almost no existence of dominant power in price formation.

  17. DYNAMICS AND NEW CHALLENGES IN THE GLOBAL COMMODITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CARTAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economy and particularly the world production of goods depends to a large extent on the supply of raw materials, of resource inputs extracted from the environment as well as an easy access to them. Commodities play an important part in the growth of global production and in the world trade in goods and services. The access to raw materials is vital for sustaining the productive capacity of the economy and also for satisfying domestic demand for industrial goods. On the other side, increasing demand for commodities and the need for assuring a sustainable supply pose great challenges on the world economy. The issue of raw materials supply represents a high - priority theme in the political agenda of the European Union. The Raw Materials Initiative launched in 2008 by the European Commission is based on three main pillars: - to ensure the access to raw materials on world market at undistorted conditions; - to foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources; - to reduce the EU's consumption of primary raw materials. (EC, 2008. To this end, EC has started to take action in order to ensure access to resources and avoid supply shortages. A great deal of attention is being paid to the study of recent developments in the global and particular commodity markets, taking into consideration fundamental aspects as supply concentration, governance of producing countries, the pressure of demand and its impact on prices, material's substitutability, stressing the role of resource consumption efficiency, recycling and substitution of vital raw materials and thus providing policy makers and industry with reliable information on how to efficiently manage resource inputs. This paper is dealing with the main developments which occurred during the past decade or so in the global commodity market, a major driver of the world economy, with particular reference to selected key -markets - as: aluminium, copper, nickel; cotton; corn, meat - swine

  18. Estimating the commodity market price of risk for energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolos, Sergey P.; Ronn, Ehud I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the ''market price of risk'' (MPR) for energy commodities, the ratio of expected return to standard deviation. The MPR sign determines whether energy forward prices are upward- or downward-biased predictors of expected spot prices. We estimate MPRs using spot and futures prices, while accounting for the Samuelson effect. We find long-term MPRs generally positive and short-term negative, consistent with positive energy betas and hedging, respectively. In spot electricity markets, MPRs in Day-Ahead Prices agree with short-dated futures. Our results relate risk premia to informed hedging decisions, and futures prices to forecast/expected prices. (author)

  19. Multinetwork of international trade: A commodity-specific analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigozzi, Matteo; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2010-04-01

    We study the topological properties of the multinetwork of commodity-specific trade relations among world countries over the 1992-2003 period, comparing them with those of the aggregate-trade network, known in the literature as the international-trade network (ITN). We show that link-weight distributions of commodity-specific networks are extremely heterogeneous and (quasi) log normality of aggregate link-weight distribution is generated as a sheer outcome of aggregation. Commodity-specific networks also display average connectivity, clustering, and centrality levels very different from their aggregate counterpart. We also find that ITN complete connectivity is mainly achieved through the presence of many weak links that keep commodity-specific networks together and that the correlation structure existing between topological statistics within each single network is fairly robust and mimics that of the aggregate network. Finally, we employ cross-commodity correlations between link weights to build hierarchies of commodities. Our results suggest that on the top of a relatively time-invariant “intrinsic” taxonomy (based on inherent between-commodity similarities), the roles played by different commodities in the ITN have become more and more dissimilar, possibly as the result of an increased trade specialization. Our approach is general and can be used to characterize any multinetwork emerging as a nontrivial aggregation of several interdependent layers.

  20. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Robert F.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Searcy, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO 2 -limiting policy is enacted.

  1. Medieval market institutions : the organisation of commodity markets in Holland, c. 1200 - c. 1450

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, J.E.C.

    2010-01-01

    According to neo-institutional economics, markets are shaped by man-made rules and practices that determine market efficiency. Departing from this hypothesis, the dissertation examines how the organisation of commodity markets contributed to the rapid commercialisation of the county of Holland in

  2. The Influence Of Highway Transportation Infrastructure Condition Toward Commodity Production Generation for The Resilience Needs at Regional Internal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbardin, Juang; Parikesit, Danang; Riyanto, Bambang; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2018-02-01

    The poultry commodity consumption and requirement is one of the main commodities that must be fulfilled in a region to maintain the availability of meat from poultry. Poultry commodity production is one of the production sectors that have a clean environment resistance. An increasing of poultry commodity generation production requires a smooth distribution to arrive at the processing. The livestock location as a commodity production is placed at a considerable far distance from residential and market locations. Zones that have poultry commodity production have an excess potential to supply other zones that are lacking in production to the consumption of these commodities. The condition of highway transportation infrastructure that is very diverse with the damage level availability in a zone has an influence in the supply and demand of poultry commodity requirement in the regional internal of Central Java province. In order to know the effect of highway transportation infrastructure condition toward the poultry commodity movement, demography factor and availability of freight vehicles will be reviewed to estimate the amount of poultry commodity movement generation production. Thus the poultry commodity consumption requirement that located in the internal - regional zone of central java province can be adequated from the zone. So it can be minimized the negative impacts that affect the environment at the zone in terms of comparison of the movement attraction and generation production at poultry commodity in Central Java.

  3. Emergence of Commodity Derivatives as Defensive Instrument in Portfolio Risk Hedging: A Case of Indian Commodity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Shelly

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines whether commodity derivatives can be used as an alternative investment asset in India where commodity markets are at emerging state and provides the same diversification benefit as they provide in developed commodity markets. In India only commodity futures are prevalent so various commodity indices representing various sectors has been used in the study. Diversification aspect of commodity derivatives has been tested initially by using correlation analysis. Compounded Daily Growth rate and Relative Standard deviation has been used as a measure of calculating risk and return of daily data of SENSEX, BOND and four Commodity Indices (MCX Comdex, MCX AGRI, MCX Metal, MCX Energy. Markowitz Efficient Frontier theory has been used to calculate portfolio risk return and Sharpe risk adjusted ratio has been used to evaluate the various portfolios. Optimal portfolio has been obtained for the combination of equity, bond and commodity and overall results of the study indicate that an investor who is risk averse will prefer to invest in combination of SENSEX, BOND & MCX Energy whereas an investor who gets utility by taking more risk for more returns will prefer to invest in combination of SENSEX, BOND & MCX Metal. Investor having inclination towards moderate risk return would tend to invest in MCX AGRI along with SENSEX and BOND.

  4. PRICE GENERATING PROCESS AND VOLATILITY IN NIGERIAN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaihiomwan Ojogho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on agricultural commodity price volatility in Nigeria has constantly reflected that an excessive price movement is harmful for both producers and consumers, particularly for those who are not able to cope with that new source of economic uncertainty. It has also raised an extensive debate on the main determinants behind the large agricultural commodity price swings observed in the last years without recourse for the price generating process. To narrow this gap, the study examined the price generating process and volatility in the Nigerian agricultural commodities market using secondary data for price series on meat, cereals, sugar, dairy and aggregate food for the period of January 1990 to February 2014. The data were analysed using the linear Gaussian State-Space (SS model. The results of the descriptive statistics showed that the coefficients of variation for cereals (39.88%, food (32.65% and dairy price (43.08% were respectively higher during the overall time period (January 1990 to February 2014 than during the first (January 1990 to January 2002 and second (February 2002 to February 2014 sub-time periods. The results of the inferential statistics showed that authoregressive moving average (ARMA model is the most selected Nigeria agricultural commodity price generating model for the time periods, that a unit increase in the past price state of cereals, dairy, sugar, meat and aggregate food would increase the future price of sugar, meat and aggregate food by N0.14, N0.28 and N0.15 respectively but decrease future price of cereals and dairy by about N1.00 and N0.21 respectively, and that the one-step ahead predicted value for the first out-ofsample period for cereals, meat, dairy and sugar price were 6317.86, 10.24 and 2.06 respectively. The Nigerian agricultural commodity prices have experienced high variability over the period, and such volatility, price-generating process and the determinants of the Nigerian food commodities

  5. Alcohol as international commodity; Alcool como 'commodity' internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrao, Luiz Celso Parisi [Ministerio do Desenvolvimento, Industria e Comercio Exterior, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Secretaria de Tecnologia Industrial]. E-mail: luiz.negrao@desenvolvimento.gov.br; Urban, Maria Lucia de Paula

    2004-12-15

    The ethanol is able to reduce the gas emissions, mainly in CO2 balance which gives a strong contribution for this fact. Using the alcohol rather than fossil fuels is a natural choice as a important renewable energy source. Also, to have the alcohol as international environmental commodity is the goal of all interested in this matter, since the entry into force the Kyoto protocol, with the Russian approval.

  6. The changing dynamics between biofuels and commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, T.; Londo, H.M.

    2008-06-01

    The recent development of the biofuel industries coincides with significant increases in prices of basic commodities such as food and feed. Against popular perception, it appears that there is not a straightforward causal relationship between the two; there are a number of factors that determine the level and strength of the impact of the biofuels sector on other commodities. For the case of markets of agricultural raw material these factors include the amount of feedstock claimed by the biofuels industry, its relative purchasing power, the responsiveness of the agricultural sector to price incentives and availability of substitutes. For consumer food markets we must additionally consider the relative share of agricultural input costs in the retail food price and the demand elasticity. Based on the analysis of these factors and estimates of other studies that attempted to quantify the price impacts of biofuels on crop prices, we conclude that the impact of biofuels is relatively small, especially when compared with other causes that triggered the recent price increases. We end the paper with a recommendation for future efforts in curbing food price inflations while keeping ambitious biofuel targets and suggest a shift in focus of the debate around the social costs of biofuels

  7. Exchange Market Pressure, Stock Prices, and Commodity Prices East of the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. Hegerty

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - This paper aims to examine connections between the exchange, equity, commodity and commodity markets of a set of Central and Eastern European (CEE economies using monthly time-series data. In particular, we examine whether stock - or commodity - price changes might put pressure on these currencies to depreciate, and whether these pressures are transmitted within the region or from larger neighbors. Design/methodology/approach - This paper creates monthly indices of Ex-change Market Pressure (EMP from 1998 to 2017 using a combination of currency depreciation, reserve losses, and changes in interest-rate differentials for the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Ukraine, Bulgaria, and Romania. After examining these indices for evidence of currency 'crises', and their components for evidence of changes in currency policy, Vector Autoregressive (VAR methods such as Granger causality and impulse-response functions are used to examine connections between EMP, domestic and foreign stock returns, and changes in commodity prices in the first four countries listed. Findings - While EMP increased in 2008, and the degree of central banks' currency- -market interventions decreased afterward, this paper uncovers key differences among countries. In particular, the Czech Republic is relatively insulated from international transmissions, while Hungary is more susceptible to global spillovers and Poland is exposed to events originating elsewhere in the CEE region. Ukraine shows bidirectional causality between its EMP and stock indices, and finds that pressure on the hryvnia increases if commodity or oil prices decline. Research implications/limitations - This study adds to the relatively limited literature regarding this region, and highlights particular vulnerabilities for both individual countries and specific neighbors; further research is necessary to uncover the channels of transmission using economic modeling. Originality

  8. International Corporate Debt Market

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Geranio; Issam Hallak

    2012-01-01

    Research on international debt markets has chiefly investigated sovereign debt markets. We suggest a review of the different types of borrowers and the differences in the instruments. In particular we show that syndicated loans are an essential tool of international debt markets to monitor international markets borrowers. We also show by looking at the details of these instruments the mechanisms behind such tools.

  9. Agricultural and oil commodities: price transmission and market integration between US and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this article it to get some evidences of market interaction between United States and Italy using the time series analysis of spot prices spanning from January 1999 to May 2012 for crude oil and three ag-commodities: wheat, corn and soybean. These crops have been selected for their relevance in ag-commodity exchanges between US and Italy markets. The integration between US and Italy agricultural markets is hypothesized for the consistent volume of crop traded between these two countries while the price transmission is related to the leading price signals of the CBT (Chicago Board of Trade. The integration between oil and ag-commodity markets is suggested both by the large use of energy intensive inputs, (fertilizer, seed, machinery in production of these ag-commodities, and their use in biofuel production. The results suggest: a for US market the evidence of market integration between crude oil and US ag-commodities; b for Italy the integration with US ag-commodity markets and less evidence of integration with the oil market. These results are valuable information both for the agents and policy makers contributing to improve the information accuracy to predict the price movements used by marketing operators for their strategies and policy makers to set up policies to re-establish conditions of market efficiency and allocate these ag-commodities in alternative market channels.

  10. Modernisation picks up in commodities exchange market%中国商品交易市场现代化步伐提速

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ With changes in the market circulation environment and the end of a theree-year protection after its accession to the World Trade Organisation, China's commodities trade aggregate has been growing steadily and the size of individual markets has been increasing gradually.In 2004, the number of commodity markets with annual turnover exceeding RMB 100 million jumped to 3,365,100 more than in the previous year; their turnover, at RMB2.61027 trillion, surged. 21.3%. The pace of modernisation of the country's commodity markets has picked up, with their business operations becoming more international, more information-based, larger in scale and functioning as groups.

  11. A Study on Market Efficiency of Selected Commodity Derivatives Traded on NCDEX During 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajipriya, N.

    2012-10-01

    The study aims at testing the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in the context of an emerging commodity market - National Commodity Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), which is considered as the prime commodity derivatives market in India. The study considered daily spot and futures prices of five selected commodities traded on NCDEX over 12 month period (the futures contracts originating and expiring during the period January 2011 to December 2011) The five commodities chosen are Pepper, Crude palm Oil, steel silver and Chana as they account for almost two-thirds of the value of agricultural commodity derivatives traded on NCDEX. The results of Run test indicate that both spot and futures prices are weak form efficient

  12. Future markets and the two dimensions of instability in commodity markets: The oil experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabre, S.

    1991-01-01

    Public opinion and the media often suggest that futures markets have made the price of oil more unstable than it otherwise should be. It is argued that short-term price instability, associated with the functioning commodity futures markets, must be distinguished from medium-term instability, associated with the processes that adjust supply and consumption. Futures markets appear to be price destabilizing at times, although they also facilitate the management of trade in oil. In the medium term, however, stability and instability are determined by the mechanisms that adjust production and consumption. 39 refs., 4 figs

  13. The Effects of Digital Marketing of Unhealthy Commodities on Young People: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Limin Buchanan; Bridget Kelly; Heather Yeatman; Kishan Kariippanon

    2018-01-01

    The marketing of unhealthy commodities through traditional media is known to impact consumers’ product attitudes and behaviors. Less is known about the impacts of digital marketing (online promotional activities), especially among young people who have a strong online presence. This review systematically assesses the relationship between digital marketing and young people’s attitudes and behaviors towards unhealthy commodities. Literature was identified in June 2017 by searches in six electro...

  14. Market interdependence among commodity prices based on information transmission on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Guo, Jian-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviour on the Internet has become a synchro-projection of real society. In this paper, we introduce the public concern derived from query volumes on the Web to empirically analyse the influence of information on commodity markets (e.g., crude oil, heating oil, corn and gold) using multivariate GARCH models based on dynamic conditional correlations. The analysis found that the changes of public concern on the Internet can well depict the changes of market prices, as the former has significant Granger causality effects on market prices. The findings indicate that the information of external shocks to commodity markets could be transmitted quickly, and commodity markets easily absorb the public concern of the information-sensitive traders. Finally, the conditional correlation among commodity prices varies dramatically over time.

  15. COST ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE COMPUTERIZED SYSTEMS FOR THE MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION OF MULTIPLE FOOD COMMODITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Epperson, James E.; Helmreich, D.P.; Moon, Leonard C.; Carley, Dale H.; Huang, Chung L.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors make cost comparisons among alternative computerized marketing systems. The systems described could encompass any number of commodities and stages of distribution involving cash and/or futures transactions.

  16. International Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the book International Market Analysis: Theories and Methods, written by John Kuiada, professor at Centre of International Business, Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University. The book is refreshingly new in its way of looking at a classical problem. It looks at market...... analysis from the point of vie of ways of thinking about markets. Furthermore, the book includes the concept of learning in the analysis of markets og how the way we understand business reality influneces our choice of methodology for market analysis....

  17. The Effects of Digital Marketing of Unhealthy Commodities on Young People: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Kariippanon, Kishan

    2018-01-01

    The marketing of unhealthy commodities through traditional media is known to impact consumers’ product attitudes and behaviors. Less is known about the impacts of digital marketing (online promotional activities), especially among young people who have a strong online presence. This review systematically assesses the relationship between digital marketing and young people’s attitudes and behaviors towards unhealthy commodities. Literature was identified in June 2017 by searches in six electronic databases. Primary studies (both qualitative and quantitative) that examined the effect of digital marketing of unhealthy food or beverages, alcohol and tobacco products on young people’s (12 to 30 years) attitudes, intended and actual consumption were reviewed. 28 relevant studies were identified. Significant detrimental effects of digital marketing on the intended use and actual consumption of unhealthy commodities were revealed in the majority of the included studies. Findings from the qualitative studies were summarized and these findings provided insights on how digital marketing exerts effects on young people. One of the key findings was that marketers used peer-to-peer transmission of messages on social networking sites (e.g., friends’ likes and comments on Facebook) to blur the boundary between marketing contents and online peer activities. Digital marketing of unhealthy commodities is associated with young people’s use and beliefs of these products. The effects of digital marketing varied between product types and peer endorsed marketing (earned media) may exert greater negative impacts than owned or paid media marketing. PMID:29382140

  18. The Effects of Digital Marketing of Unhealthy Commodities on Young People: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather; Kariippanon, Kishan

    2018-01-29

    The marketing of unhealthy commodities through traditional media is known to impact consumers' product attitudes and behaviors. Less is known about the impacts of digital marketing (online promotional activities), especially among young people who have a strong online presence. This review systematically assesses the relationship between digital marketing and young people's attitudes and behaviors towards unhealthy commodities. Literature was identified in June 2017 by searches in six electronic databases. Primary studies (both qualitative and quantitative) that examined the effect of digital marketing of unhealthy food or beverages, alcohol and tobacco products on young people's (12 to 30 years) attitudes, intended and actual consumption were reviewed. 28 relevant studies were identified. Significant detrimental effects of digital marketing on the intended use and actual consumption of unhealthy commodities were revealed in the majority of the included studies. Findings from the qualitative studies were summarized and these findings provided insights on how digital marketing exerts effects on young people. One of the key findings was that marketers used peer-to-peer transmission of messages on social networking sites (e.g., friends' likes and comments on Facebook) to blur the boundary between marketing contents and online peer activities. Digital marketing of unhealthy commodities is associated with young people's use and beliefs of these products. The effects of digital marketing varied between product types and peer endorsed marketing (earned media) may exert greater negative impacts than owned or paid media marketing.

  19. The Effects of Digital Marketing of Unhealthy Commodities on Young People: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Buchanan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The marketing of unhealthy commodities through traditional media is known to impact consumers’ product attitudes and behaviors. Less is known about the impacts of digital marketing (online promotional activities, especially among young people who have a strong online presence. This review systematically assesses the relationship between digital marketing and young people’s attitudes and behaviors towards unhealthy commodities. Literature was identified in June 2017 by searches in six electronic databases. Primary studies (both qualitative and quantitative that examined the effect of digital marketing of unhealthy food or beverages, alcohol and tobacco products on young people’s (12 to 30 years attitudes, intended and actual consumption were reviewed. 28 relevant studies were identified. Significant detrimental effects of digital marketing on the intended use and actual consumption of unhealthy commodities were revealed in the majority of the included studies. Findings from the qualitative studies were summarized and these findings provided insights on how digital marketing exerts effects on young people. One of the key findings was that marketers used peer-to-peer transmission of messages on social networking sites (e.g., friends’ likes and comments on Facebook to blur the boundary between marketing contents and online peer activities. Digital marketing of unhealthy commodities is associated with young people’s use and beliefs of these products. The effects of digital marketing varied between product types and peer endorsed marketing (earned media may exert greater negative impacts than owned or paid media marketing.

  20. IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH INTERNAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Dumitrescu

    2009-01-01

    The paper takes into consideration the role of internal marketing in enhancing and sustaining a company’s ability to compete: · much new thinking and practice in strategic marketing is concerned with managing relationships: with the customer, and with partners in strategic alliances. However, a further aspect of relationship management and relationship marketing is the relationship with the employees and managers, upon whose skills, commitment and performance the success of a marketing strate...

  1. Dynamic international oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linde, C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic International Oil Market Developments and Structure 1860-1990 discusses the logic of changing market structures of the international oil industry. The market structures have, in the course of time, oscillated between competition and oligopoly, as the oil market expanded, matured, stagnated, and expanded again. This book provides a dynamic interpretation of the intensifying struggle among producer, and consumer governments, and oil companies, over the distribution of economic rents and profits. In particular, it shows the shifting fortunes of the governments and companies as they try to control the recurring capacity constraints between the upstream and downstream sectors, generated by the instability of the oil market. The first part of the book examines market conditions and developments between 1860 and 1990; the second part analyzes market structures after 1945

  2. The crucial relationship among energy commodity prices: Evidence from the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Victor; Vieira, Joel; Carrizo Moreira, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is twofold to analyze: (a) the long-term relation among the commodities prices and between spot electricity market price and commodity prices, and (b) the short-term dynamics among commodity prices and between electricity prices and commodity prices. Data between 2002 and 2005 from the Spanish electricity market was used. Econometric methods were used in the analysis of the commodity spot price, namely the vector autoregression model, the vector error correction model and the granger causality test. The co-integration approach was used to analyze the long-term relationship between the common stochastic trends of four fossil fuel prices. One of the findings in the long-term relation is that the prices of fuel and the prices of Brent are intertwined, though the prices of Brent ten to 'move' to reestablish the price equilibrium. Another finding is that the price of electricity is explained by the evolution of the natural gas series. - Highlights: → We model energy commodity prices in the Spanish electricity market. → We examine the short and long-term relationships among commodities prices. → We examine short and long-term relationships using co-integration techniques. → We found that in the long run the prices of fuel and Brent are intertwined. → The evolution of price of electricity is explained by the evolution of price of gas.

  3. Using Empirical Data to Estimate Potential Functions in Commodity Markets: Some Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Haven, E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on estimating real and quantum potentials from financial commodities. The log returns of six common commodities are considered. We find that some phenomena, such as the vertical potential walls and the time scale issue of the variation on returns, also exists in commodity markets. By comparing the quantum and classical potentials, we attempt to demonstrate that the information within these two types of potentials is different. We believe this empirical result is consistent with the theoretical assumption that quantum potentials (when embedded into social science contexts) may contain some social cognitive or market psychological information, while classical potentials mainly reflect `hard' market conditions. We also compare the two potential forces and explore their relationship by simply estimating the Pearson correlation between them. The Medium or weak interaction effect may indicate that the cognitive system among traders may be affected by those `hard' market conditions.

  4. Marketing CANDU internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langstaff, J.H.

    1980-06-01

    The market for CANDU reactor sales, both international and domestic, is reviewed. It is reasonable to expect that between five and ten reactors can be sold outside Canada before the end of the centry, and new domestic orders should be forthcoming as well. AECL International has been created to market CANDU, and is working together with the Canadian nuclear industry to promote the reactor and to assemble an attractive package that can be offered abroad. (L.L.)

  5. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    by the appearance of changing demands and technological opportunities, which potentially can lead to differentiation possibilities. The article describes a framework for the study of industrial buying of food commodities and the results of a conjoint study based on interviews with oil purchasers in the margarine...... and mayonnaise industries in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. The main result of the study is that the price is an omnipotent decision criterion, when vegetable fats and mayonnaise producers buy vegetable oil, but also that product and supplier criteria can be used to segment...

  6. International commodity prices and civil war outbreak: new evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    A new dataset by Bazzi and Blattman (2014) allows examining the effects of international commodity prices on the risk of civil war outbreak with more comprehensive data. I find that international commodity price downturns sparked civil wars in Sub-Saharan Africa. Another finding with the new dataset is that commodity price downturns also sparked civil wars beyond Sub-Saharan Africa since 1980. Effects are sizable relative to the baseline risk of civil war outbreak. My conclusions contrast wit...

  7. How Macroecomic Factors Influence the Commodity Market in the Financialization Period: The Case of S & P GSCI Commodity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Smolík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In connection to the process of financialization of commodity markets which is caused by the sharp increase of money flowing into the commodity markets, the question of which factors affect commodity and commodity indices prices is discussed. In this article, the importance of chosen macroeconomic determinants to the price variability of one of the most important commodity indexes S & P GSCI by using the Boosted Trees method is quantified. The results obtained in the research show that changes in the monthly values of macroeconomic determinants reflect and can, according to the model used, explain the volatility of the monthly average index S & P GSCI Total Return to more than 75%. The most important macroeconomic determinants proved to be Nominal Effective Exchange Rate of USD or US – Short-term interest rates.

  8. Managing gas plant margins through the financial commodities market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.; Lafferty, L.

    1995-01-01

    Gas processors invest capital in gas plants to condition raw natural gas for market. They also attempt to upgrade the value of natural gas streams by removing gas liquids contained in these streams and selling them for a profit. Unfortunately, this is not always possible. Gas processing profit margins swing up and down in line with the volatility of the natural gas and gas liquids markets. Consequently the return on gas processors invested capital also swings up and down through ''good years'' and ''bad years''. Until recently, gas processors have had to bear the risk associated with these swings in margins. While an efficient market exists for products like crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange, no similar market has been available for gas liquids. The NYMEX propane contract has not developed sufficient liquidity for year round hedging of propane, much less the other gas liquids. Processors in regions without access to the Belvieu market encounter an even more difficult task attempting to use the NYMEX contract to hedge. Today this inability to manage risk is beginning to change. The natural gas markets have led the way since their deregulation with an actively traded over-the-counter forwards market firmly established. An over-the-counter forwards market for gas liquids has also started to emerge. It is through these new and emerging markets that a gas plant's profitability can be hedged

  9. Internal Markets for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    of R&D to affiliated companies in the same business group. The challenges are analysed for affiliates in order to engage themselves in group-internal markets, for instance to avoid bottlenecks in the product development or to improve their technological knowledge. To research this phenomenon, a case...... study is accomplished by investigating a Multinational company whose affiliates are self-reliant and horizontally diversified. Mixed methods are applied by having structured depth interviews with the responsible R&D managers as well as by sending a survey out to associated project managers. The study...... indicates that the organizational complexity, infrastructures within the business group and the impact of external market structures play an essential role for the usage and effectiveness of group-internal markets. Hence, the insights offer valuable clues why internal markets have advantages...

  10. Speculation on commodities futures markets and destabilization of global food prices: exploring the connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jayati; Heintz, James; Pollin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Price Index surpassed its previous peak of June 2008, and prices remained at this level through September 2011. This pattern is creating justified fears of a renewal or intensification of the global food crisis. This paper reviews arguments and evidence to inform debates on how to regulate commodity futures markets in the face of such price volatility and sustained high prices. We focus on the relationship between market liquidity and price patterns in asset markets in general and in commodities futures markets in particular, as well as the relationship between spot and futures market prices for food. We find strong evidence supporting the need to limit huge increases in trading volume on futures markets through regulations. We find that arguments opposing regulation are not supported. We find no support for the claim that liquidity in futures markets stabilizes prices at "fundamental" values or that spot market prices are free of any significant influence from futures markets. Given these results, the most appropriate position for regulators is precautionary: they should enact and enforce policies capable of effectively dampening excessive speculative trading on the commodities markets for food.

  11. Manipulation of the Commodity Futures Market Delivery Process.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrong, Stephen Craig

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the futures market delivery 'end game' specifies necessary and sufficient conditions for long and short traders to manipulate futures prices at contract expiration. The empirical and welfare implications of manipulation are derived as well. Manipulation is most likely to occur in markets where economic frictions (such as transportation and transactions costs) make it inefficient to return excessive deliveries to their original owners. These consumption distortions induce price ...

  12. Brokers and brokerage in the process of trading in commodity futures markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremić Milan B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with the analysis of a very complex process of brokerage in commodity futures markets. Unlike a classical commodity market in which brokers are not a necessity, sales and purchases in commodity futures markets cannot be carried out without brokers. Brokers who act as agents of buyers and sellers of futures are a necessary condition for trading in organized markets, such as commodity futures markets. The structure of brokers in futures trading is multilayer and involves participants in futures trading from floor brokers, immediate futures traders and the members of clearing and the clearing house itself, on the one hand, to numerous other necessary actors whose activities out of the stock exchange and the clearing house contribute to the efficient functioning of futures market. The fact that transactions between buyers and sellers in futures markets are not carried out directly but through brokers means that the obligations of buyers and sellers are formally conveyed to brokers, providing at the same time the guarantee by the broker that the actual buyer and the actual seller will fulfill their contractual obligations. At the very beginning of futures trading, the relationship between the seller and the buyer is transformed into a relationship between two brokers. Since that moment on, the original relationship is conveyed to higher levels of brokerage reaching the level of the clearing house. In the process of transformation of the buyer-seller relationship and transmitting obligations and guaranteeing their fulfillment, the clearing house itself becomes the buyer relative to all sellers and the seller relative to all buyers. In this way, it guarantees that obligations regarding all transactions in futures market will be fulfilled. The whole process is carried out in accordance with the prescribed procedures conducted on the floor of commodity exchange, in its administrative departments and in the clearing house itself.

  13. The internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The briefs compile the results of the studies the Commission worked out on the subject on the basis of experiences gained on its own part, on the part of the government and on the part of the market. The briefs are based on the schematic inventory annexed which for each energy sector points out the different existing or potential obstacles to a common energy market the most comprehensive and transparent way possible. Step by step part one and part two discuss the general problems connected with the integration of energy into the internal market, priorities which according to the Commission should be investigated into, and guidelines for such investigations. (orig./UA) [de

  14. Toward Improved Market Access for ASEAN Agricultural Commodities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is highly dependent on the agricultural sector, and on exports to overseas markets. This trade in turn depends on compliance with strict plant health and safety standards established by the World Trade Organization (WTO). ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  15. Testing Commodities as Safe Haven and Hedging Instrument on ASEAN's Five Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Robiyanto, Robiyanto

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze commodity market instruments such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil’s potential as hedge and safe haven toward some stock markets in South East Asia such as in Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand. To analyze the data, GARCH (1,1) was applied. The research findings showed that gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and WTI could not play their role as hedging instrument for five South East Asi...

  16. 75 FR 16453 - Nasdaq OMX Commodities Clearing-Finance, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-914-000] Nasdaq OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Nasdaq OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance, LLC's application for market- based rate...

  17. Pairs Trading to the Commodities Futures Market Using Cointegration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Ungever

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates pairs trading strategy by using the cointegration method among the 10 most popular agricultural future markets. It is found that only in 2 pairs shows trading signal. The pairs trading strategy is performed in two stages that are the formation period and the trading period with daily futures data from 2004 to 2015. After the formation period was constructed, it is assumed that the cointegration error continues to hold the trading period same as it does for the formation period. The pairs trading strategy is created by the long position cotton and the short position coffee and also long position cotton and short position the livecattle. It is found that the profitability of this strategy worked well in both formation period and trading period.

  18. Research on the Risk Measurement for the Futures Market of Bulk Commodity – Taking the silver futures as the example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yating

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The futures transaction of bulk commodity has played an important role since China became the global manufacturing center. Taking the commodity futures market in Shanghai as the research objective, this article selects the price of silver futures, uses GARCH-VaR and Stress Testing to measure the risk tolerance of the market. The research result shows the silver price is fluctuated within the scope specified by the market and won't influence the stable operation of futures market.

  19. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaodong; Yu, Cindy L.; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  20. Guide to a Strategic Procurement Planning Approach on Regulated Commodity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Marcus; Wüst, Thorsten

    The access of Virtual Organizations to raw materials normally requires external resources. In many cases, the market for raw materials is regulated and the VO principles of trust, customer orientation etc. are not applicable. In consequence, the VO needs to provide reliable solutions for the customer while being dependent on the access to the required raw materials. The objective of the proposed paper is to present a guide to a strategic procurement planning for the manufacturing industry on regulated commodity markets. This guide can be used to evaluate specific sourcing options. The main goal of this guide is to identify the negative effects of market regulation at an early stage and reduce them by developing strategic alternatives. The successful application of this guide is demonstrated by the practical example of the refractory industry and one of their commodities, refractory grade bauxite.

  1. Dependence structure of the commodity and stock markets, and relevant multi-spread strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Sehyun; Jo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the dependence structure between the commodity and stock markets is a crucial issue in constructing a portfolio. It can also help us to discover new opportunities to implement spread trading using multiple assets classified in the two different markets. This study analyzed the dependence structure of the commodity and stock markets using the random matrix theory technique and network analysis. Our results show that the stock and commodity markets must be handled as completely separated asset classes except for the oil and gold markets, so the performance enhancement of the mean-variance portfolio is significant as expected. In light of the fact that WTI 1 month futures and four oil-related stocks are strongly correlated, they were selected as basic ingredients to complement the multi-spread convergence trading strategy using a machine learning technique called the AdaBoost algorithm. The performance of this strategy for non-myopic investors, who can endure short-term loss, can be enhanced significantly on a risk measurement basis.

  2. The Ivorian pineapple : social action within the international pineapple commodity network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, S.

    2006-01-01

    Today, a significant part of the agricultural commodities that we find at markets in the West are cultivated in developing countries. Many of these products are shipped around the world, passing through a complex network of actors involved in production, distribution and marketing activities. Who

  3. International uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1980-12-01

    Discussed in this report are 1) how one might think about uranium demand, resources and supply, 2) how producers and consumers see the market and are likely to behave, including specifics about export and import commitments, and 3) how these actors are brought together in the international market. The general conclusion is that much of current anxiety about future uranium supply results primarily from a brief but difficult period in the mid- to late-1970's; and that current conditions and trends are favorable (at least to consumers) that there is now little basis for concern. Inventories contractual positions and producer commitments--when compared with realistic (or even unrealistic) demand estimates--imply a buyer's market for at least the next decade. The result will be considerable increases in market flexibility and resilience to shock, and real prices that are low relative to those of the past few years. There is a need to reconsider assumptions about desired directions of technological development, for many current programs were planned in an era of pessimism about uranium supply and process. Similar questions must be raided about nonproliferation policies that depend on some level of control of fuel supplies by the industrial nations. With a soft and more diversified uranium market, leverage that may have existed in the past is rapidly being eroded. Finally, as world prices turn soft, there may be significant problems created for U.S. uranium producers, who have relatively high costs in relation to several large-scale foreign suppliers

  4. Estimates of immediate effects on world markets of a hypothetical disruption to Russia’s supply of six mineral commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safirova, Elena; Barry, James J.; Hastorun, Sinan; Matos, Grecia R.; Perez, Alberto Alexander; Bedinger, George M.; Bray, E. Lee; Jasinski, Stephen M.; Kuck, Peter H.; Loferski, Patricia J.

    2017-05-18

    The potential immediate effects of a hypothetical shock to Russia’s supply of selected mineral commodities on the world market and on individual countries were determined and monetized (in 2014 U.S. dollars). The mineral commodities considered were aluminum (refined primary), nickel (refined primary), palladium (refined) and platinum (refined), potash, and titanium (mill products), and the regions and countries of primary interest were the United States, the European Union (EU–28), and China. The shock is assumed to have infinite duration, but only the immediate effects, those limited by a 1-year period, are considered.A methodology for computing and monetizing the potential impacts was developed. Then the data pertaining to all six mineral commodities were collected and the most likely effects were computed. Because of the uncertainties associated with some of the data, sensitivity analyses were conducted to confirm the validity of the results.Results indicate that the impact on the United States arising from a shock to Russia’s supply, in terms of the value of net exports, would range from a gain of \\$336 million for titanium mill products to a loss of \\$237 million for potash; thus, the overall effect of a supply shock is likely to be quite modest. The study also demonstrates that, taken alone, Russia’s share in the world production of a particular commodity is not necessarily indicative of the size of potential impacts resulting from a supply shock; other factors, such as prices, domestic production, and the structure of international commodity flows were found to be important as well.

  5. Pick by click. Online-markets for commodities; Zuschlag per Mausklick. Elektronische Marktplaetze in der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, M.; Schreiber, M. [EUtech Energie- und Umweltberatung GbR, Aachen (Germany); Aixergy AG, Aachen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the German energy market has led to growing competition (among the utilities), causing prices to crumble. Consumers must intensify their search efforts considerably in order to identify the most suitable utility. Internet-based 'B2B' market-places for commodities such as electricity, gas and water help to optimise the match between demand and supply. (orig.) [German] Mit dem Wegfall der Gebietsmonopole herrscht Wettbewerb auf dem Energiemarkt. Sinkende Preise sind die Folge. Fuer die Energieverbraucher wird es immer aufwendiger, den fuer sie guenstigsten Anbieter zu ermitteln. Hier sehen internetbasierte Handelsplattformen ihre Chance. Ueber B2B-Plattformen lassen sich Strom, Gas, Heizoel oder andere Commodities vertreiben. (orig.)

  6. International commodity prices, growth and the outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Brückner; Antonio Ciccone

    2007-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries’ main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  7. International Commodity Prices, Growth, and the Outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Brückner; Antonio Ciccone

    2009-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  8. Dynamic of consumer groups and response of commodity markets by principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Alam, Shafiqul; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates financial states and group dynamics by applying principal component analysis to the cross-correlation coefficients of the daily returns of commodity futures. The eigenvalues of the cross-correlation matrix in the 6-month timeframe displays similar values during 2010-2011, but decline following 2012. A sharp drop in eigenvalue implies the significant change of the market state. Three commodity sectors, energy, metals and agriculture, are projected into two dimensional spaces consisting of two principal components (PC). We observe that they form three distinct clusters in relation to various sectors. However, commodities with distinct features have intermingled with one another and scattered during severe crises, such as the European sovereign debt crises. We observe the notable change of the position of two dimensional spaces of groups during financial crises. By considering the first principal component (PC1) within the 6-month moving timeframe, we observe that commodities of the same group change states in a similar pattern, and the change of states of one group can be used as a warning for other group.

  9. International Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doringoni, S.; Pontoni, F.

    2008-01-01

    transactions. It is also worth mentioning that for the time being LNG seems to represent the sole possibility for new competitors to enter the market according to the lack of capacity on international import pipelines. Long term import take or pay contracts held by gas incumbents play a pre-emption activity on transit pipelines and access can not be granted to third parties. Moreover, LNG could enable traditional European importers to widen their gas suppliers' portfolio, also considering that some producing countries (i.e. stranded gas) can be reached only via sea. Increased possibilities of choice for importers, the widening of the group of exporting countries, and the increased integration of the European market, thanks to the possibility of redirecting cargoes depending on single countries' supply-demand balance, would contribute decisively to security of supply, market globalization and competition in the industry. The paper presents also a cost plus comparison among different LNG supplies and those from new Russian fields, demonstrating that LNG will be even more convenient than those supplies coming from Eastern Siberia. Finally, it is important to highlight that the lack in new liquefaction capacity could undermine the growth of a florid LNG market. [it

  10. Marketing patterns of agricultural commodities in an upland area of Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. van Ommeren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the uplands of Central Java a wide variety of dry cultivated crops are produced for subsistence as well as for cash. The marketing channels for these crops are also diverse. The producers can choose between selling at the market place or at their farms; either to consumers or traders; or they can sell their products to wholesalers in the towns. However, this freedom of choice is not absolute and is determined by the quantity of the merchandise. Farmers/who can sell large amounts of produce are able to bypass some steps in the hierarchical order of market places or traders. Thus, producers with relatively large farmlands can sell their commodities in more profitable ways compared to those with /smaller farms. Moreover, the latter are often forced to sell their produce below market value to traders who provided them with advance or who bought the crop before harvest (tebasan, because of their need for cash

  11. Testing Commodities as Safe Haven and Hedging Instrument on ASEAN's Five Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiyanto Robiyanto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze commodity market instruments such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI crude oil’s potential as hedge and safe haven toward some stock markets in South East Asia such as in Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand. To analyze the data, GARCH (1,1 was applied. The research findings showed that gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and WTI could not play their role as hedging instrument for five South East Asian capital markets. WTI could act as a robust safe haven for most South East Asian capital markets. Gold could do the role as a robust safe haven in Singapore and Malaysia, whereas, platinum and silver consistently could be safe haven only for Singapore Stock Exchange. Palladium could only be safe haven for Philippines Stock Exchange.

  12. Implications of Climate Volatility for Agricultural Commodity Markets in the Presence of Biofuel Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Hertel, T. W.; Beckman, J.

    2011-12-01

    In presence of bio-fuels, link between energy and agricultural commodity markets has become more complex. An increase in ethanol production to minimum 15bn gallons a year - Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and current technically permissible maximum 10% blending limit - Blend Wall (BW); make the link even stronger. If oil prices in future do not rise significantly from their current levels, this minimum production requirement would likely be binding. In such a scenario any fluctuation in crop production will have to be absorbed by the non-ethanol usage of the crop and would translate into crop prices adjusting to clear the markets and therefore the commodity prices will be more volatile. At high oil prices it is possible that the BW may become binding, severing the link between oil prices and commodity prices as well, potentially leading to higher price volatility. Hertel and Beckman (2010) find that, with both RFS and BW simultaneously binding, corn price volatility due to supply side shocks (which could arise from extreme climate events) could be more than 50% as large as in the absence of bio-fuel policies. So energy markets are important determinants of agricultural commodity price volatility. This proposal intends to introduce the increased supply side volatility on account of climate change and volatility, in the framework. Global warming on account of increased GHG concentrations is expected to increase the intensity and frequency of hot extremes in US (Diffenbaugh et al. 2008) and therefore affect corn yields. With supply shocks expected to increase, binding RFS and BW will exacerbate the volatility, while if they are non-binding then the price changes could be cushioned. We propose to model the impacts of climate changes and volatility on commodity prices by linking three main components - a. Projections for change in temperature and precipitation using climate model b. A statistical model to predict impacts of change in climate variable on corn yields in US

  13. Will Commodity Properties Affect Seller's Creditworthy: Evidence in C2C E-commerce Market in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Ling, Min

    This paper finds out that the credit rating level shows significant difference among different sub-commodity markets in E-commerce, which provides room for sellers to get higher credit rating by entering businesses with higher average credit level before fraud. In order to study the influence of commodity properties on credit rating, this paper analyzes how commodity properties affect average crediting rating through the degree of information asymmetry, returns and costs of fraud, credibility perception and fraud tolerance. Empirical study shows that Delivery, average trading volume, average price and complaint possibility have decisive impacts on credit performance; brand market share, the degree of standardization and the degree of imitation also have a relatively less significant effect on credit rating. Finally, this paper suggests that important commodity properties should be introduced to modify reputation system, for preventing credit rating arbitrage behavior where sellers move into low-rating commodity after being assigned high credit rating.

  14. The Efficiency of the Chinese Commodity Futures Markets: Development and Empirical Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xin; Gongmeng Chen; Michael Firth

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the efficiency of the Chinese metal futures (i.e. copper and aluminum) traded on China's Shanghai Futures Exchange. First, we thoroughly analyze the development of China's commodity futures markets, which provides a fundamental background. Then we examine the random walk and unbiasedness hypotheses for two metal futures during 1999-2004. Based on the empirical evidence, we argue that China's copper and aluminum futures markets are efficient, and that they aid the process of price discovery because futures prices can be considered as unbiased predictors of future spot prices. We attribute this efficiency to the regulatory changes made in 1999 and the increased financial skills and acumen of the participants in the market.

  15. Assessment of Biotechnology Policies and International Trade in Key Markets for U.S. Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Mary A.; Song, Baohui

    2005-01-01

    The United States leads the world in agricultural biotechnology research, adoption, commercialization, and exports. Our biotech commodities are highly dependent on international markets. Thus, any biotech policy changes by key importing countries may affect U.S. agricultural biotech product exports. This article identifies key markets for U.S. agricultural exports including biotech commodities and discusses current and proposed biotech policies in key markets for U.S. agricultural exports foc...

  16. Regional and international market integration of a small open economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Fossati; Fernando Lorenzo; Cesar M. Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between a set of commodity prices in a small open economy like Uruguay and the corresponding international and regional prices. The empirical methodology used is the multivariate cointegration procedure based on maximum likelihood methods introduced by Johansen (1988) as well as estimations of half-life persistence indicators. In the case of cereals, the evidence suggests strong market integration between domestic and regional markets and, to some extent, a...

  17. Agency Theory, Futures Markets and Risk Shifting in Commodity Marketing Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Kuiper, W.E.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper applies agency theory to access risk shifting between the principal (marketing firms) and the agent (farmers) in a food marketing channel. It compares the case in which there is a futures market available for the risk-averse agents with the case in which there is no futures trading. The

  18. The impact of global oil price shocks on China’s bulk commodity markets and fundamental industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuanguo; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the reaction of aggregate commodity market to oil price shocks and also explored the effects of oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries: metals, petrochemicals, grains and oilfats. We separated the volatilities of oil price into expected, unexpected and negatively expected categories to identify how oil prices influence bulk commodity markets. We contrasted the results between different periods and among classified indices, in order to discover the significant changes in recent years and the differences at an industry level. Our results indicate that the aggregate commodity market was affected by both expected and unexpected oil price volatilities in China. The impact of unexpected oil price volatilities became more complex after 2007. The metals and grains indices did not significantly respond to the expected volatility in oil prices, in contrast to the petrochemicals and oilfats indices. These results not only contribute to advancing the existing literature, but also merit particular attention from policy makers and market investors in China. - Highlights: • We investigated the impact of global oil price shocks on China’s bulk commodity markets and fundamental industries. • The aggregate commodity market was affected by both expected and unexpected oil price volatilities. • The impact of unexpected oil price volatilities became more complex after 2007. • The metals and grains indices did not significantly respond to the expected volatility in oil prices

  19. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): the natural gas becoming a world commodity and creating international price references; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): o gas natural se tornando uma commodity mundial e criando referencias de preco internacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, Marcio Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Comercializacao de Gas e GNL; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    The transportation of large quantities of natural gas through long distances has been done more frequently by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The increase of natural gas demand and the distance of major reserves, allied to technological improvements and cost reduction through LNG supply chain, have triggered the expressive increase of LNG world market This paper tries to evaluate the influence that LNG should cause on natural gas world market dynamic, analyzing the tendency of gas to become a world commodity, creating international price references, like oil and its derivates. For this, are shown data as natural gas world reserves, the participation of LNG in natural gas world market and their increase. Furthermore, will be analyzed the interaction between major natural gas reserves and their access to major markets, still considering scheduled LNG projects, the following impacts from their implementation and price arbitrage that should be provoked on natural gas markets. (author)

  20. International Commodities Prices, Growth and the Outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Bruckner; Antonio Ciccone

    2010-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries’ main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  1. Driving factors of interactions between the exchange rate market and the commodity market: A wavelet-based complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shaobo; An, Haizhong; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Xueyong

    2017-08-01

    In traditional econometrics, a time series must be in a stationary sequence. However, it usually shows time-varying fluctuations, and it remains a challenge to execute a multiscale analysis of the data and discover the topological characteristics of conduction in different scales. Wavelet analysis and complex networks in physical statistics have special advantages in solving these problems. We select the exchange rate variable from the Chinese market and the commodity price index variable from the world market as the time series of our study. We explore the driving factors behind the behavior of the two markets and their topological characteristics in three steps. First, we use the Kalman filter to find the optimal estimation of the relationship between the two markets. Second, wavelet analysis is used to extract the scales of the relationship that are driven by different frequency wavelets. Meanwhile, we search for the actual economic variables corresponding to different frequency wavelets. Finally, a complex network is used to search for the transfer characteristics of the combination of states driven by different frequency wavelets. The results show that statistical physics have a unique advantage over traditional econometrics. The Chinese market has time-varying impacts on the world market: it has greater influence when the world economy is stable and less influence in times of turmoil. The process of forming the state combination is random. Transitions between state combinations have a clustering feature. Based on these characteristics, we can effectively reduce the information burden on investors and correctly respond to the government's policy mix.

  2. International Isotopes Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Z. Zhiznin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies world markets of stable and radioactive isotopes. Isotopes have found various applications in science, industry, agriculture and other sectors of the economy, but especially - in medicine. Nuclear medicine is developing intensively all over the world thanks to the success in the treatment of various diseases with the help of radioactive pharmaceuticals (radiopharmaceuticals. The article uses empirical data from a forecast study of the global radiopharmaceuticals market made in 2015 by a research company «Markets and Markets» for the European, North American and global markets. The paper also analyzes the statistical data on the global export and import of natural uranium, enriched and depleted uranium, plutonium, thorium and some stable isotopes of non-medical purposes, presented by a company «Trend economy» in 2014. Despite a unique industrial base for the production of isotopes created in the Soviet Union Russia occupies a modest position on the world market of nuclear medicine except for certain areas. More than 80% of isotopes, produced in USSR were consumed domestically, the export of the stable and radioactive isotopes was in equal proportions. Now the country's domestic radiopharmaceuticals market is poorly developed. To radically change the situation, it is necessary to carry out reforms that stimulate the development of nuclear medicine.

  3. Kisah Sukses Inovasi Marketing from Commodity Becomes Solution (Studi Kasus Tentang PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Martinus

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement is a strategic commodity. Indonesia as a developing country continues, cement becomes something absolute. Particularly, in the next few years, infrastructure development continues announced. To it, we need to anticipate the occurrence of scarcity (shortage of cement to meet the needs in the country in the next couple years. Fears of a shortage of cement in the country are quite groundless. Currently installed production capacity of the national cement industry around 47.5 million tons per year, spreads over nine locations in Indonesia. Meanwhile, the average utilization rate of production capacity cement plant reaches between 80% -85% or about 38-40 million per year. Meanwhile, the current level of cement consumption reached about 33 million tons (still a surplus of about 5-7 million tons. The problem is, if the shortage is met from imports, it could damage the domestic cement industry. Therefore, to meet the interests of industry and consumers, the best way is the expansion of the new plant. And to support the expansion of the factory in the country, clearly requires a major investment. Based on the assumptions above, Holcim as a newbie in the national cement market, which previously bought cement Cibinong also takes part in the national market. Now, Holcim is not half-hearted continuously expanding its new factory in Tuban to increase the strength of its two plants that are already running. A series of innovations in marketing activities are carried out, ie not just treating cement as a commodity but rather providing a range of service solutions to users via the outlet solution that provides aid earthquake resistant building design, material supply multi-brand, as well as a series of cooperation in the process of financing by establishing cooperation to the bank.  

  4. Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel N; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-01

    In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO(2) emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future.

  5. International Sport Events: Improving Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kerzaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The report and the article will be a comprehensive analysis ofthe needs to improve the international sport events marketing.Highlighting the role of international sport events in contemporarysociety and the challenges in the context of globalization,comparing opinions of various authors about aspects of classificationand the benefits for host country. The article and the reportreveals the main existing problem encountered in organizinginternational sport events, estimated perspectives for solutionof this problem. Summarizes the international sport eventsopportunities, basically modernize marketing tools according tothe marketing mix correction based on systematic synthesis ofmarketing concepts and adaptation/standardization needs, themost important factors in the marketing mix for the excretion ofthe main marketing objectives. The article is based on the latestscientific literature analysis.

  6. International marketing brand image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadijević Đorđe M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The brand is at same time a name, mark, symbol, design of their combination. In contributes to the identification and differentiation of a market product, product mix or company. The brand none exists solely in the communication and through the communication with consumers. The brand being as preferred, leads to the familiarity with the consumer who insists on buying it. In marketing communication, the brand name announces its uniqueness and permanent identity. Owning one's own brand contributes to the creation of company's positive and strong image -communicational target and profit - economic target.

  7. International energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.; Westrus, I.

    2001-01-01

    The industry, and later on households as well, are free to choose which company will be their energy supplier. The chances that it is going to be a foreign company are high. Many Dutch production companies were taken over by a foreign company. American companies, e.g. Reliant, Enron and TXU, Electrabel from Belgium and E.On from Germany all want a part of the Dutch industrial market. It is going to be a crowded market place and each company has it's own strategy to survive

  8. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  9. Individual Consequences of Internal Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi Remus Ionut

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of the concept of internal marketing in the literature there have been almost 40 years. This period was marked by a constant increase of the concerns in the internal marketing area, these efforts being evidenced by the publication of a consistent number of articles (conceptual and empirical which analyze this subject. Considering the previous empirical studies, most of them have focused on studying the relationship between internal marketing and employee satisfaction and / or organizational commitment. However, the relationship between internal marketing and its consequences has been less analyzed in the context of emergent economies. In this paper we aimed to analyze the individual consequences of the internal marketing in the Romanian economy context, focusing our attention on three constructs: employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. The research was conducted on a sample of 83 medium and large companies in various sectors of the Romanian economy. In order to proceed with the statistical data analyses we followed these steps: verifying the scales reliability, determining factor loadings and research hypotheses testing. Our research results are consistent with results of previous studies showing that the adoption of internal marketing practice has a positive effect on employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

  10. Competitiveness of Slovak agri-food commodities in third country markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Ubrežiová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impression of a single “European” market is gradually generated mainly due to action of the Common Agricultural Policy. Most of the agro-food complex enterprises see opportunities especially in the internationalization, globalization and regionalization in the agri-food sector, in pursuance of this, they are gradually smouldering innovative activities and trying to work on their competitive advantages. Based on the written we can say, that the issue of the competitiveness of enterprises, as well as of various commodities is in the current period highly current and adequate. The importance of the trade with so-called third countries is still increasing. This increase is mainly caused by the enlargement of the European Union in the term of foreign trade and it can be also confirmed from the results of the research. As the results of the research shows, the most important customers of the Slovak agri-food commodities are the Commonwealth of Independent States, where in the followed four-year period went within third countries at the average of 32.9% of the total Slovak agriculture export, also countries of EUROMED, where this proportion was 18.4%, and Croatia, with the proportion of 19.1%. These countries are the largest buyers of such Slovak agri-food commodities as are for example malt, chocolate and live cattle. On the other hand, Slovak republic is in agri-food import mostly dependent on such countries as are for example MERCOSUR countries, Mediterranean countries EUROMED, the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP, China, ASEAN and the U.S., which are the major suppliers of so-called „irreplaceable“ items, which Slovak republic can not produce.Results of the research also shows that while the importance of the trade with those countries (note- third countries is still increasing, Slovak export to third countries, in the contrast to its import, is still decreasing and that the most competitive agri-food commodities are for example live

  11. Developing organizational structures for international marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2002-01-01

    International marketing represents marketing activities performed across national boundaries. The level of involvement in international marketing can range from casual exporting to globalization of markets. Although most firms adjust their marketing mixes for differences in target markets, some firms are able to standardize their marketing efforts worldwide

  12. Relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing information system

    OpenAIRE

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2004-01-01

    Real and complete understanding relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing information system requires recognizing essentials of the both concept. The international marketing research constitutes a process with coherent phases, whereas the international marketing information system is a part of integrated company's information system. Approach to learning relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing in...

  13. International EUREKA: Market Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of the Market Segment of the EUREKA model is to simultaneously project uranium market prices, uranium supply and purchasing activities. The regional demands are extrinsic. However, annual forward contracting activities to meet these demands as well as inventory requirements are calculated. The annual price forecast is based on relatively short term, forward balances between available supply and desired purchases. The forecasted prices and extrapolated price trends determine decisions related to exploration and development, new production operations, and the operation of existing capacity. Purchasing and inventory requirements are also adjusted based on anticipated prices. The calculation proceeds one year at a time. Conditions calculated at the end of one year become the starting conditions for the calculation in the subsequent year

  14. Cross-correlations between agricultural commodity futures markets in the US and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihui; Lu, Xinsheng

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the cross-correlation properties of agricultural futures markets between the US and China using a cross-correlation statistic test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). The results show that the cross-correlations between the two geographically distant markets for four pairs of important agricultural commodities futures are significantly multifractal. By introducing the concept of a “crossover”, we find that the multifractality of cross-correlations between the two markets is not long lasting. The cross-correlations in the short term are more strongly multifractal, but they are weakly so in the long term. Moreover, cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent and those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent in the short term while cross-correlations of all kinds of fluctuations for soy bean and soy meal futures are persistent and for corn and wheat futures are anti-persistent in the long term. We also find that cross-correlation exponents are less than the averaged generalized Hurst exponent when q0 in the short term, while in the long term they are almost the same.

  15. Essays in international market segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of

  16. International markets for CCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriter, J.P. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The paper begins by describing the role of the International Energy Agency, the importance of coal, what the IEA is doing in the area of clean coal technology, and the role of the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board. The paper then discusses which coal technologies will be chosen, what the problem areas are, and what can be done to accelerate the take-up of clean coal technologies.

  17. A rapid assessment and response approach for socially marketed nutrition commodities in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Nga, Tran Thuy; Phuong, Huynh; Tung, Le Van Anh; Trang, Vu Hoang

    2017-01-01

    The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6.6% are moderately wasted. Iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency contribute to these and other malnutrition conditions. Given these factors, more evidence based approaches are required to improve understanding of current attitudes, opinions and behaviours of mothers with young children, in order to operationalise social marketing of nutrition commodities in Viet Nam. A literature review supported a rapid assessment and response method involving semi-structured interviews with 77 stakeholders and focus group discussions with 80 program beneficiaries from four geographic locations in the north and south of Viet Nam. Discussion agendas were developed to address key program issues with grounded theory utilized for data analysis. Data analysis highlighted challenges and opportunities within the six Ps of social marketing: Supply and demand side issues included: cost and the quality of products, the limited scale of interventions and promotional activities. Policy issues identified related to current policies that inhibited the broader promotion and distribution of micronutrient products, and opportunities for improved dialogue with policy partners. Partnerships further emphasized the need for public private partnerships to support the social change process. Implications for theory, policy, and practice indicates that rapid assessment and response is a cost-effective, pragmatic method of public health research, in resource constrained settings, to explore policies and behaviours amenable to change and build stakeholder engagement in the program.

  18. International marketing of CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, J.M.; Chiperzak, A.; Creighton, W.L.

    1981-06-01

    During the 1960's and 70's the nuclear industry all over the world increased its capacity to meet anticipated orders resulting from expected economic growth. When these orders did not materialize, the industry was left with excess capacity, and competition grew fierce. The outlook is good, however, since it has become imperative for the world to move away from oil to nuclear power. In advanced but oil-deficient nations such as Japan the shift to nuclear has already begun, and the same is happening in rapidly industrializing countries such as Korea, Yugoslavia and Romania. Major oil-exporting countries such as Mexico are looking at nuclear power as a method of preserving their petroleum for export. There are opportunities for Canada in all these markets, and they are being pursued aggressively. Ways in which Canada can assist in the development of a nuclear industry in a country such as Indonesia, and meet the needs of a country with a fully-developed nuclear industry such as Japan, are discussed

  19. General Equilibrium in a Segmented Market Economy with Convex Transaction Cost: Existence, Efficiency, Commodity and Fiat Money

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Ross M.

    2002-01-01

    This study derives the monetary structure of transactions, the use of commodity or fiat money, endogenously from transaction costs in a segmented market general equilibrium model. Market segmentation means there are separate budget constraints for each transaction: budgets balance in each transaction separately. Transaction costs imply differing bid and ask (selling and buying) prices. The most liquid instruments are those with the lowest proportionate bid/ask spread in equilibrium. Exist...

  20. International business theory and marketing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Soldner, Helmut

    1984-01-01

    International business theory and marketing theory : elements for internat. marketing theory building. - In: Marketing aspects of international business / Gerald M. Hampton ... (eds.). - Boston u.a. : Kluwer, 1984. - S. 25-57

  1. International Marketing Developing Publishing Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Chlivickas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithuanian integration in the financial Eurozone and Lithuanian publishing business development in the European Union and outside it, becomes an important problem requiring a solution. Promoting the dissemination of printed books and literacy in Lithuania and beyond, to properly introduce the achievements of Lithuania in foreign countries, it is important to ensure Lithuanian letter, educational and scientific book publishing development. The article examines the characteristics of the international marketing publishing, the world and Lithuanian state publishing houses on the basis of foreign and Lithuanian scientists theoretical insights about the instruments of international marketing opportunities, developing proposals for publishing business integration of new economic conditions.

  2. Commodity futures markets: are they an effective price risk management tool for the European wheat supply chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Revoredo-Giha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The instability of commodity prices and the hypothesis that speculative behaviour was one of its causes has brought renewed interest in futures markets. The paper analyses the European wheat futures markets (feed and milling and the Chicago Board of Trade’s wheat contract as a comparison. Although the main purpose of the paper is to analyse whether futures markets are still useful for hedging (considering the demands from different market participants, implicitly this can be seen as testing whether the increasing presence of speculation has made futures markets divorced from physical markets. The results indicate that hedging with futures markets is still a viable alternative for dealing with price risk. This is particularly true in short period hedges (e.g. merchants and processors, where the basis seems to have been affected by the observed price instability.

  3. UNCTAD commodity yearbook 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Commodity Yearbook is intended to provide disaggregated data at the world, regional and country levels for trade and consumption in selected agricultural primary commodities and minerals, ores and metals. Production series have been included for the latter group of commodities, since comprehensive diaggregated data are unavailable elsewhere. Basic tables have been designed, from both the commodity and the country point of view, to serve as background material to international commodity discussions and negotiations in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. The classification of countries and territories by region has been adopted for statistical convenience only, and follows that employed by the Statistical Office of the United Nations. Four main regions are defined: Developed market economy countries, Countries of Eastern Europe, Socialist countries of Asia and Developing countries and territories. For developed and developing countries and territories, the main regions have been further subdivided (e.g., EEC, EFTA, Africa, etc.) to provide additional information. The exact composition of each region is shown in section V of the general notes

  4. Relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Real and complete understanding relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing information system requires recognizing essentials of the both concept. The international marketing research constitutes a process with coherent phases, whereas the international marketing information system is a part of integrated company's information system. Approach to learning relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing information system is distinguish in domestic than in the foreign expert literature.

  5. Volatility behavior of oil, industrial commodity and stock markets in a regime-switching environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyongwook; Hammoudeh, Shawkat

    2010-01-01

    This study supplements previous regime-switching studies on WTI crude oil and finds two possible volatility regimes for the strategic commodity prices of Brent oil, WTI oil, copper, gold and silver, and the S and P 500 index, but with varying high-to-low volatility ratios. The dynamic conditional correlations (DCCs) indicate increasing correlations among all the commodities since the 2003 Iraq war but decreasing correlations with the S and P 500 index. The commodities also show different volatility persistence responses to financial and geopolitical crises, while the S and P 500 index responds to both financial and geopolitical crises. Implications are discussed.

  6. International Good Market Segmentation and Financial Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Suleyman; Croitoru, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    While financial markets have recently become more complete and international capital flows well liberalized, markets for goods remain segmented. To investigate how more complete security markets may relieve the effects of this segmentation, we examine a series of two-country economies with internationally segmented good markets, distinguished by the available financial securities. We show that, under heterogeneity within countries, the financial structure matters: even with internationally co...

  7. The Dutch pork chain: a commodity system resisting threats from the market and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, de K.H.; Casabianca, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch pork sector can be characterized as one massive, homogeneous commodity system, resisting diversification. A closer look at innovation strategies and initiatives leads to the conclusion that efforts are being made to enhance sustainability (including economic viability) through

  8. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities: A conjoint study of purchase of vegetable oils in the mayonnaise and margarine industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Skytte, Hans

    Executive summary The purpose of this working paper is to study whether current market and technological developments in the vegetable oil industry can be used as the outset for a price and/or quality based segmentation of the major industrial markets for this product. More specifically we want...... that the application of concepts from ind buying behaviour to the study of commodity buying, such as the procurement of vegetable oil, is an appropriate outset, when trying to segment the market for such commodities. The article begins with a brief discussion of why food commodity markets should be segmented......, then follows current developments in the demand and technology conditions on the market for vegetable oil. Later we discuss how concepts from industrial buying behaviour can add to the understanding of commodity buying and segmentati Following this a conjoint model of vegetable oil procurement in the vegetable...

  9. Relationship marketing and internal marketing : a theoretical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Comm. (Business Management) Marketing as field of study has developed as a vibrant and evolutionary management function over a number of decades. In the 1950's the primary focus was on consumer goods. In the ensuing three decades industrial marketing, societal orientation and the marketing of services respectively, came to the fore. It is anticipated that relationship marketing will increasingly capture the attention of marketers in the 1990's. Relationship marketing addresses internal m...

  10. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  11. Nuclear fuel cycle: international market, international constraints and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the constraints on the nuclear fuel cycle are ones arising from economic and financial reasons, those caused by uranium resources and their distribution, those arising from technical reasons, issues of public acceptance, and those quite independent of normal industrial considerations, but caused by elements of international politics. The nuclear fuel cycle and the international market, matters of nuclear non-proliferation, and international cooperation are discussed

  12. Financial states of world financial and commodities markets around sovereign debt crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-11-01

    We applied a threshold method to construct a complex network from cross-correlations coefficients of 46 daily time series comprised of 23 global indices and 23 commodity futures from 2010 - 2014. We identify financial states of both global indices and commodity futures based on the change of the network structure. The trend of the average correlation is decreasing except sharp peak during crises during the study period. The threshold networks are generated at a threshold value of θ = 0.1 and the change of degrees of each node over time is used to identify the financial state for each index. We observe that commodity futures, such as EU CO2 emission, live cattle, natural gas as well as the financial indices of Jakarta and Indonesia stock exchange (JKSE) and Kuala Lumpur stock exchange (KLSE) change states frequently. By the average change in links we identify the indices which are more reactive to crises.

  13. Volatility Modeling, Seasonality and Risk-Return Relationship in GARCH-in-Mean Framework: The Case of Indian Stock and Commodity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Brajesh Kumar; Singh, Priyanka

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on an empirical study of volatility, risk premium and seasonality in risk-return relation of the Indian stock and commodity markets. This investigation is conducted by means of the General Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity in the mean model (GARCH-in-Mean) introduced by Engle et al. (1987). A systematic approach to model volatility in returns is presented. Volatility clustering and asymmetric nature is examined for Indian stock and commodity markets. The risk-r...

  14. An Investigation of Marketing Educators' Approach to Teaching International Marketing in the Introductory Marketing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Robert J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 122 college teachers of marketing courses investigated the extent and methods of their inclusion of international marketing into the course curriculum. Findings suggest that, among those teaching international marketing, how they acquired their international knowledge had a significant effect on how they taught international marketing.…

  15. Commoditization of the international teleradiology market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Telemedicine improves access to medical care. However, telemedicine will also increase market volatility because of its ability to stimulate price competition and the insidious way it shifts liability for providing medical services. To cope with increased volatility, other economic sectors have evolved commodities markets by making greater use of standardized forward/future contracts. In the past, the need for medical services to be produced and consumed locally and a lack of an objective definition for medical quality, prohibited the use of forward contracts for health-care services. However, telemedicine, and the increasing use of statistical definitions of medical quality now make standardized forward contracts for health-care services conceivable. Commoditization of teleradiology would offer several advantages including increasing market transparency, a mechanism for ensuring medical quality, and a means for bringing capital into the health-care sector. To reap the benefits of a commodities market in teleradiology, the key will be for market stakeholders to overcome their fear of the unknown in order to organize a central exchange.

  16. Market structures in international telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures.......Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures....

  17. Development trends of the international derivatives market

    OpenAIRE

    Motorniuk, U.; Terebukh, M.; Kharchuk, V.

    2016-01-01

    The factors forming international derivatives market trends are researched in this article. The history of the formation of the global derivatives market was analyzed, in particular, events which have led to the growth of the derivatives market. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transformation of its structure, observed in recent years. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transf...

  18. International market research at the Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, M; Seltman, K

    2001-01-01

    Mayo Clinic has a long international history and has been providing care to international patients since its inception. Despite its history and reputation, however, the marketing staff continues to monitor the international market to gauge the level of awareness, reputation, and attractiveness of Mayo Clinic around the world. Here's a look at how one institution has used word-of-mouth marketing to maintain its global reputation.

  19. Outsourcing Market Research in Department of Defense Commodity Acquisition: The Issues, Concerns, and Private Industry Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skubic, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    .... It examines the feasibility of outsourcing market research functions in this acquisition arena, focusing on which elements of market research would be most practicable to outsource, and what capacity...

  20. What can price volatility tell us about market efficiency? Conditional heteroscedasticity in historical commodity price series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Földvári, P.; van Leeuwen, B.

    2011-01-01

    The development in the working of markets has been an important topic in economic history for decades. The volatility of market prices is often used as an indicator of market efficiency in the broadest sense. Yet, the way in which volatility is estimated often makes it difficult to compare price

  1. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. © 2012 Crown Copyright. Reproduced

  2. Linkages among U.S. Treasury Bond Yields, Commodity Futures and Stock Market Implied Volatility: New Nonparametric Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vychytilova Jana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore specific cross-asset market correlations over the past fifteen- yearperiod-from January 04, 1999 till April 01, 2015, and within four sub-phases covering both the crisis and the non-crisis periods. On the basis of multivariate statistical methods, we focus on investigating relations between selected well-known market indices- U.S. treasury bond yields- the 30-year treasury yield index (TYX and the 10-year treasury yield (TNX; commodity futures the TR/J CRB; and implied volatility of S&P 500 index- the VIX. We estimate relative logarithmic returns by using monthly close prices adjusted for dividends and splits and run normality and correlation analyses. This paper indicates that the TR/J CRB can be adequately modeled by a normal distribution, whereas the rest of benchmarks do not come from a normal distribution. This paper, inter alia, points out some evidence of a statistically significant negative relationship between bond yields and the VIX in the past fifteen years and a statistically significant negative linkage between the TR/J CRB and the VIX since 2009. In rather general terms, this paper thereafter supports the a priori idea- financial markets are interconnected. Such knowledge can be beneficial for building and testing accurate financial market models, and particularly for the understanding and recognizing market cycles.

  3. Gaining internal support for a marketing effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, E

    1988-06-01

    Franciscan Health System, Chadds Ford, Pa., developed a systemwide marketing initiative to assure positive participation from its internal market segments. In the first of a series, the author outlines the goals, objectives and positioning of the marketing mix used to achieve voluntary involvement from these segments.

  4. An International Marketing Curriculum - Development and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboushi, Suhail; Lackman, Conway; Peace, A. Graham

    1999-01-01

    Describes the process of market-driven curriculum design in the development of an undergraduate International Marketing (IM) major at Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) School of Business Administration. Reports on a market study revealing profiles and IM curriculum design preferences of exporting companies. Discusses the curriculum development,…

  5. Response bias in international marketing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    The saturation of domestic markets in the industrialized parts of the world, combined with increased competition in home markets from foreign competitors forces many companies to look for opportunities beyond their national boundaries. Surveys are a crucial source of data in international marketing

  6. The use of importance and performance analysis (IPA) to evaluate effectiveness of the forward auction market agro commodities: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansari, Dwi Ratna; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Hisjam, Muh.

    2018-02-01

    The empowering auction market for commodities in East Java Province is one of five auction market revitalization programs conducted by the Republic of Indonesia c.q. Ministry of Trading started in 2014. One of the districts in East Java Province, namely Magetan District utilizes the commodity auction market to improve the competitiveness of their agricultural industry by shortening the supply chain. The Magetan District needs to evaluate their support for farmers or farmer groups to participate in the forward auction market (FAM). Implementation of the FAM commodities is divided into three main processes, namely pre-auction, auction, and post-auction. The auction market is organized to shorten the trading chain. Implementation of the FAM requires good planning, among Seller (namely Farmer or Farmer Group), organizer of Auction (namely Commodity Auction Company), Buyer, and Local Government (namely the farmer facilitator). This article is aimed to develop the instrument of a Performance Measurement Model Using Important and Performance Analysis (IPA) for Improving the FAM Effectiveness of Agro Commodity from Magetan District with Supply Chain Management approach. IPA is implemented at pre-auction, auction, and post-auction. The IPA model results in the diagram to decide the strategies in improving the FAM effectiveness, and then it can encourage farmers to improve welfare and realize the competitiveness of the auctioneer.

  7. Informational segmentation in international capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Jack E.

    1988-01-01

    The economic influence of barriers to international information acquisition and, hence, of informational segmentation in international capital markets depends heavily upon the prevailing level of risk aversion. We find that these barriers are likely to have second order economic impact only. Furthermore, improving international informational integration is likely to Increase all asset prices when causing less heterogeneity of international subjective probability beliefs.

  8. Refining the focus: Alberta's international marketing strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This strategic plan is the key initiative established under 'Alberta's Framework for International Strategies'. Its objective is to ensure the wellbeing of Albertans, sustaining Alberta's environment, and economic growth through successfully taking advantage of Alberta's many opportunities for marketing its goods, products, and services. It is predicated on industry and government continuing to work together to sustain a strong market-driven economy, strengthen Alberta's economic advantages and build an economic environment conducive to investment and growth in quality jobs. At present more than 150 foreign markets buy Alberta's goods and services, but the obvious focus of any strategy must be those regions and sectors of industry that offer the greatest possibilities for new and expanded opportunities for Alberta business. Accordingly, this strategy identifies priorities, selects the best initiatives and develops activities to achieve economic growth. Adding value to Albertan commodities before they are being shipped to export markets is a particular objective of the plan. An equally important consideration is to achieve growth through expansion of existing investments, attract new investment to the province, and to increase exports in response to international market and investment opportunities for Alberta's goods and services. Major topics discussed in the document include a discussion of the importance of trade and investment, a thorough analysis of the marketing priorities, the strategic framework, and priority market profiles for the United States, Japan,China, other Asia-Pacific markets, the European Union, Mexico, the Middle East and South Asia, and South America.

  9. Evaluating cash benefits as real options for a commodity producer in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Lucena Aiube

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The amount of cash a firm should maintain is an old problem tackled by finance literature. The recent advances in finance, mainly in the derivatives area, has opened the opportunity to revisit this subject. Cossin and Hricko (2004 studied the benefits of cash holdings using the Real Options approach. We follow their ideas extending the problem to a specific commodity producer firm in an emerging economy. We evaluate the benefits considering that raising capital takes time (timing benefit and also the benefit of avoiding the issue of securities at unfavorable moments (underpricing benefit. We use numerical procedures to solve the problem. Despite the fact that the results are not totally intuitive, we verify that the timing benefit is much more relevant than that of avoiding the underpricing benefit and that firms in emerging economies have greater advantage holding cash than those in developed economies. There is empirical evidence of this last result in the literature.

  10. Value Based International Relationship Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Ulrich Scholz

    2009-01-01

    The developement of a "general theory" of relationship marketing must be considered as distant vision rather than as imminent reality.We now use the existing stock of knowledge to identify some largely unexplored,yet relevant, aspects of relationship marketing and call for these issues to be

  11. Financialization of commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Falkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic theory of price formation tells us how the price of a particular asset will change based on the adjustment to its supply and demand. However, values of assets are also determined by other business fundamentals, company’s and world events, human psychology, and investors’ belief about the possible future profit. In recent history that lead to an increase of individual and institutional investors’ interest in allocating their resources in commodity markets. With a large inflow of capital commodities’ prices started to rise making them attractive components to effective investment portfolios. The presented paper addresses the issue of so called commodities ‘financialization’ process. It looks at the main factors standing behind commodities’ price movements and to what extent financial market participants contributed to commodities price volatility in recent years. Based on the data examined it distinguishes the involvement of both commercial and non-commercial traders in short and long term periods of time. As well as explaining the impact of growing investors’ interest in commodity markets it defines other market forces - like currency appreciations and emerging markets - as being part of increased volatility in raw and soft commodity markets. Along with market examination the paper focuses on possible future outcomes in attempts to regulate commodities derivatives markets and potential effects of those efforts.

  12. A fractionally cointegrated VAR analysis of price discovery in commodity futures markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolatabadi, Sepideh; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Xu, Ke

    straightforward examination of the adjustment coefficients. In our empirical analysis we use the data from Figuerola-Ferretti and Gonzalo (2010), who conduct a similar analysis using the usual (non-fractional) CVAR model. Our first finding is that, for all markets except copper, the fractional integration......In this paper we apply the recently developed fractionally cointegrated vector autoregressive (FCVAR) model to analyze price discovery in the spot and futures markets for five non-ferrous metals (aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc). The FCVAR model allows for long memory (fractional...... to the results from the non-fractional model, we find slightly more evidence of price discovery in the spot market. Specifically, using standard likelihood ratio tests, we do not reject the hypothesis that price discovery takes place exclusively in the spot (futures) market for copper, lead, and zinc (aluminium...

  13. Resource externalities and the persistence of heterogeneous pricing behavior in an energy commodity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, Derek; Koc, Veli; Sapio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In competitive product markets, repeated interaction among producers with similar economic characteristics would be expected to result in convergence of their behaviors. If convergence does not occur, it raises fundamental questions related to the sustainability of heterogeneous competitive strategies. This paper examines the prices submitted to the British wholesale electricity market by four coal-fired plants, separately owned, approximately of the same age, size and efficiency, and located in the same transmission network zone. Due to the repetitive nature of the spot market, one would expect convergence in strategies. Yet, we find evidence of persistent price dispersion and heterogeneous strategies. We consider several propositions for these effects including market power, company size, forward commitments, vertical integration and the management of interrelated assets. - Highlights: • Time series models of offer prices from 4 companies, UK electricity spot market • Focus on coal-fired plants of similar size, efficiency, age, same network zone • Low, less volatile offers by small, not vertically integrated, only-coal company • Operational risks of nuclear plants in a portfolio imply finer tracking of PX prices • Market leadership from private information on the Anglo-French interconnector flows

  14. Spillovers among regional and international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huen, Tan Bee; Arsad, Zainudin; Chun, Ooi Po

    2014-07-01

    Realizing the greater risk by the increase in the level of financial market integration, this study investigates the dynamic of international and regional stock markets co-movement among Asian countries with the world leading market, the US. The data utilized in this study comprises of weekly closing prices for four stock indices, that consists of two developing markets (Malaysia and China) and two developed markets (Japan and the US), and encompasses the period from January 1996 to December 2012. Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) model with the BEKK parameterization is employed to investigate the mean and volatility spillover effects among the selected stock indices. The results show significant mean spillover not only from the larger developed markets to smaller developing markets but also from the smaller developing markets to larger developed markets. Volatility spillover between the developed markets is found to be smaller than that between the developing markets. Conditional correlations among the stock markets are found to increase over the sample period. The findings of significant mean and volatility spillovers are considered as bad news for international investors as it reduces the benefit from portfolio diversification but act as useful information for investors to be more aware in diversifying their investment or stock selection.

  15. Price development evaluation of chosen plant commodities in agra­rian market in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Rovný

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to evaluate the price development of the chosen commodities in plant production in Slovakia and to focus on the factors influencing the increase or decrease in the price of commodities on the domestic and foreign markets. In 2008 the prices of the products in a year–on–year plant production increased by 1.6 %. The price of the plant products, including fruits and ve­ge­tab­les recorded the biggest increase since January 2008 until October 2008. The biggest increase in prices was recorded in June (increase of 52.7%. The high prices of oil plants and legume were one of the causes in a year–on–year price increase (oil plants increase by 23.3% and legume −15.7%. Price development on the domestic market of cereals and oil plants was influenced in the first three terms by growing stock–exchange value and the high demand from the side of foreign buyers connected with the increasing production of biofuels. On the other hand, in the last term of the year 2008, there can be seen the rapid decrease of the prices of cereals and oil plants because of the high production and the development of the world prices. The prices of fruits, evaluated in 2004–2008, recorded the biggest increase in January and February 2008 (in January 2008 – increase by 22.1% and February 2008 – increase by 23.2%. Prices of vegetables slightly grew in the monitored period. The biggest increase was recorded in December 2006 and in January and February 2007 (more than 15%.

  16. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  17. Changes in the International Wine Market

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahović, Branislav; Puškarić, Anton; Tomašević, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Knowing international market is a basis for segmentation and making right and timely marketing decisions regarding wine export. In this piece, we have analized the international wine market, and determined changes in international turnover, with largest importers and exporters for the period of 2001 - 2011. The average wine export in the world was 8,4 tons, with a growth tendency of 5,0% per year. Converted in money, the average export amounted to 22 billion US Dollars, which makes wine one o...

  18. Drivers for An International Biofuels Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slingerland, S.; Van Geuns, L.

    2005-12-01

    This paper explores geopolitical and economic drivers for an international biofuels market. It is concluded that the biofuels market so far is primarily regionally oriented and policy driven. However, as demand is expected to increase in the years to come and demand and production do not coincide geographically, an international market is soon expected to arise. How quickly this market will develop is determined by several geopolitical and economic factors. Important geopolitical factors are in particular security of supply and risk abatement considerations, the contents of future emission reduction agreements, and the interaction with in new parties and policies such as those in the agricultural sector. Key economic factors are the prices of primary biomass and petroleum, as well as technological development influencing the price of conversion of biomass to end-use applications. International certification is likely to play a key role in determining whether or not this market will develop in an ecologically sound way.

  19. Market Expansion and Productivity Growth: Do New Domestic Markets Matter As Much As New International Markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, John R.; Yan, Beiling

    2012-01-01

    This paper asks how market expansion contributes to productivity growth. It investigates whether entry to both new international markets and new domestic markets is associated with greater productivity growth. It also examines whether exit from export markets is necessarily associated with deteriorating performance or whether it too can lead to success when associated with movements to new markets. Finally, the paper examines the strategy of firms that move to new markets after they withdraw ...

  20. Marketing, Management and Performance: Multilingualism as Commodity in a Tourism Call Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchene, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the ways an institution of the new economy--a tourism call centre in Switzerland--markets, manages and performs multilingual services. In particular, it explores the ways multilingualism operates as a strategic and managerial tool within tourism call centres and how the institutional regulation of language practices…

  1. 17 CFR 33.4 - Designation as a contract market for the trading of commodity options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... capable of being transferred, assigned or otherwise disposed of other than on or subject to the rules of... regulations: (A) The cash market for the underlying physical exhibits sufficient liquidity such that the... the board of trade. (b) Such board of trade adopts rules which: (1) Prescribe in regard to strike...

  2. The international marketing of professional service projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo

    2003-01-01

    Many types of commercial professional services are commonly sold as projects. Therefore this article draws on the project marketing literature to elucidate the international marketing of professional service projects. After an initial literature review, the project marketing milieu concept......, and representations to another national milieu with similarly well-developed norms, rules, and representations, yet that there also exist global milieux. Managerial implications concerning professional service firms' preparation for entering a foreign milieu as well as subsidiary or office establishment abroad...

  3. Identifying spatial segments in international markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Hofstede, F; Wedel, M; Steenkamp, JBEM

    2002-01-01

    The identification of geographic target markets is critical to the success of companies that are expanding internationally. Country borders have traditionally been used to delineate such target markets, resulting in accessible segments and cost efficient entry strategies. However, at present such

  4. Integrating Sustainability Education into International Marketing Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Chamila Roshani; Hewege, Chandana Rathnasiri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to extend the current knowledge of curriculum developments in international business and marketing curricula. Integrating sustainability into business and marketing curricula of the universities are widely debated in previous literature. Sustainability is a global phenomenon; however, curriculum development…

  5. International Trade and Labor Market Discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chisik (Richard); J.E. Namini (Julian Emami)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe embed a competitive search model with labor market discrimination, or nepotism, into a two-sector, two-country framework in order to analyze how labor market discrimination impacts the pattern of international trade and also how trade trade affects discrimination. Discrimination, or

  6. Business groups and internal capital markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonenc, Halit; Kan, Ozgur B.; Karadagli, Ece C.

    2007-01-01

    We compare the performance of firms affiliated with diversified business groups with the performance of unaffiliated firms in Turkey, all emerging market. We address the question of whether group-affiliated firms create internal capital markets or control large cash flows. Our findings indicate that

  7. Evolution of Web-based International Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Companies that have been doing international business do not usually make the transition from traditional marketers to full-blown Web marketers in one sharp step. In our study of Danish firms, we found that in terms of the evolution of their Web strategies, these Danish companies went through three...

  8. Integrating Internal Branding in Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Slavova Milanka

    2013-01-01

    Brand is a major asset of the company. Building brand equity requires a lot of efforts in brand positioning and development. In the recent years more attention is given not only to the outward branding activities but to the role of employees in the branding process. Internal branding is an essential part of the marketing strategy and branding decisions as part of the company marketing mix. It ties outward brand promise with creating employees’ brand loyalty. External and internal brand corres...

  9. International Comparisons on Internal Labor Markets and Corporate Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonmo Cho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework which demonstrates how the structures of corporate internal labor markets are formed within the broader labor and capital market context in the U.S. and Japan. This framework is then used to evaluate labor markets within Korean companies and to identify points of change which might promote greater efficiency. Prior to the Asian economic crisis, Korean conglomerates had large, closed internal labor markets. However, in the aftermath of the crisis, they have pursued structural downsizing and moved to open their labor markets. The empirical evidence introduced in this paper affirms the argument that the first step toward creating a flexible labor market in Korea should begin with establishing an efficient corporate governance structure. This implies that a simple switch from the Japanese paradigm for human resource management to an Anglo-American model or vice-versa may not improve internal labor market performance unless the change is accompanied by a solution to the problems posed by the minority controlling structure of Korean companies. The implications of this study for guiding policy in developing countries having labor market rigidities and underdeveloped corporate governance is clear. Capital market structure and corporate governance systems may provide an appropriate starting point for the development of any policies aimed at building an efficient human resource management system and a flexible labor market.

  10. The international WWER fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingold, G.E.; Goldstein, L.; Strasser, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The state of the world nuclear fuel market and its economic complexities are described. Currently the nuclear fuel market is oversupplied and nuclear fuel fabrication in the West far exceeds the anticipated demands. Actually the current demand is not much more than half of the capacity available to supply it. The Eastern Europe (excluding the plants in the Russian Federation) with its 20 WWER-440 and 12 WWER-1000 reactors in operation and additional 4 WWER-440 and 8 WWER-1000 units under construction is considered as a potential long-term market for the Western fuel fabricators. The following significant benefits of competition in the WWER fuel market for the operators of these reactors are : 1) lower cost; 2) more favorable contract terms and improved vendor cooperation with the customer; 3) accelerated technological development. A brief description of the main WWER fuel suppliers TVEL, ABB Atom, BNFL, EVF and Westinghouse, as well as the status of some new companies as CEZ and SEP is given. The principal differences between Western and WWER fuels are outlined. The advanced features offered by the Western vendors and Russian fuel supply organisations are discussed. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  11. The international WWER fuel market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingold, G E; Goldstein, L; Strasser, A A [Stoller (S.M.) Corp., Pleasantville, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The state of the world nuclear fuel market and its economic complexities are described. Currently the nuclear fuel market is oversupplied and nuclear fuel fabrication in the West far exceeds the anticipated demands. Actually the current demand is not much more than half of the capacity available to supply it. The Eastern Europe (excluding the plants in the Russian Federation) with its 20 WWER-440 and 12 WWER-1000 reactors in operation and additional 4 WWER-440 and 8 WWER-1000 units under construction is considered as a potential long-term market for the Western fuel fabricators. The following significant benefits of competition in the WWER fuel market for the operators of these reactors are : (1) lower cost; (2) more favorable contract terms and improved vendor cooperation with the customer; (3) accelerated technological development. A brief description of the main WWER fuel suppliers TVEL, ABB Atom, BNFL, EVF and Westinghouse, as well as the status of some new companies as CEZ and SEP is given. The principal differences between Western and WWER fuels are outlined. The advanced features offered by the Western vendors and Russian fuel supply organisations are discussed. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. Sustainability in global commodity trade: successful responsible entrepreneurship or fallacious market capture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2011-01-01

    In western countries NGOs have increasingly been pressing spearheaded firms to bring their corporate social responsibility into practice, especially in this international context. In response to this European and American producers and retailers are increasingly applying new forms of cooperation

  13. Brazil and uranium international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    In the post-war era fissionable material has constituted an important instrument of nuclear politics. Through its control the United States has endeavored to maintain the hegemony of nuclear technology, a policy which influenced nationalistic guidelines drawn up for the Brazilian nuclear sector in 1951. These guidelines emphasized the strategic role of fissionable material in detriment to its market value, preventing its use until such time that the country possessed nuclear technology and had dominated the fuel cycle. (author)

  14. International markets: Seizing the opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyes, A. [UK Department of Trade and Industry, London (United Kingdom). Energy Technologies Directorate

    1997-12-31

    The author begins by highlighting some of the key facts and figures mentioned in a number of papers at this conference, together with a summary of the perceived market barriers. The author believes there are a number of positive things that can be done to smooth the path of encouraging the deployment of clean coal technologies over the next few years, and he discusses a few of these.

  15. International oil market: instability and restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, A

    1988-12-01

    The three phenomena which today dominate the international oil market are: 1. the downward price trend since 1981 and the uncertainty about medium and long term price evolution; 2. chronic price instability in the short term; 3. the trend toward new forms of vertical integration and concentration which are now stabilizing a market confronted by a weakening OPEC and free markets which are volatile. The new market restructuring the present period for the international oil sector as a transition period, with the following characteristics: 1. an evident convergence in the motivations of the major oil companies and of a number of OPEC countries, to see a certain stability restored in the oil market based on vertical integration and concentration; 2. markets cannot be stabilized by political agreements between the states, but only by reciprocal financial implications and participations between companies according to the rules of the business world; 3. the market as a whole will still continue for a certain time to be governed by the OPEC-free market pair, with alternating domination by one or the other according to the economic situation. Nevertheless, the longer the market continues to be unstable, the more the trend toward concentration and integration will intensify.

  16. Price volatility, trading volume, and market depth in Asian commodity futures exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanachote Boonvorachote

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of trading activity including trading volume and open interest on price volatility in Asian futures exchanges. Trading volume and open interest represent market information for investors. This study uses three different definitions of volatility: (1 daily volatility measured by close-to-close returns, (2 non-trading volatility measured by close-to-open returns, and (3 trading volatility measured by open-to-close returns. The impact of trading volume and open interest on price volatility is investigated. Following Bessembinder and Seguin (1993, volume and open interest are divided into expected and unexpected components. The GARCH (1,1 model is employed using expected and unexpected components of trading activity (volume and open interest as explanatory variables. The results show a positive contemporaneous relationship between expected and unexpected trading volume and volatility, while open interest mitigates volatility. Policy makers can use these findings to suggest to investors that trading activity (volume and open interest is a proxy of market information flowing to exchanges, especially unexpected trading activity. New information flowing to exchanges can mostly be noticed in unexpected trading volumes and open interests.

  17. Nuclear insurance in the future Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Stein, J.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizing, it is prognosticated that nuclear insurance practice will not drastically change on account of the Internal Market. This assumption is based on the unanimous estimation of the nuclear energy risk by the international insurance industry, as is documented by their traditional good cooperation in pools. (orig.) [de

  18. International wind farm markets: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rackstraw, K. [American Wind Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    More wind energy capacity was installed in 1995 than in any previous year. Two markets, Germany and India, accounted for nearly two-thirds of those installations, while the largest single market in the world historically, the US, ground nearly to a halt. Market supports in Germany and India, however, are vulnerable to political forces largely beyond the control of the wind industry. This paper examines the growth of international wind farm markets worldwide and notes that future markets will be more broadly based, leaving the industry less vulnerable to political changes. The paper also concludes that an additional 18,500 MW could be installed by the year 2005 even without assuming a dire ecological scenario that would create environmental drivers to accelerate wind market growth. 4 figs.

  19. International marketing and export management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Albaum, Gerald; Duerr, Edwin C.

    Fremstillingen er en lærebog inden for international markedsføring. Bogen består af ialt 14 kapitler og er en 2. revideret udgave af 1989-bogen. Revisionen er gennemgribende idet den omfatter en række nye cases (også danske), der er tilføjet to nye kapitler om henholdsvis 'Eksportsamarbejde og st...

  20. Cultural context in marketing communication on international market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Hirsch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to show in what way cultural factors can determine decisions in international marketing. Particular attention is devoted to the decisions associated with marketing communication, that is, the way in which cultural factors influence our preferences concerning the style of communication and what two basic styles are distinguished within intercultural communication. On the basis of particular examples it will be shown on the one hand in what ways these styles are visible in various forms of marketing messages coming from various countries. On the other hand it will also be shown in what way these messages reflect (very often unwittingly the culture and the system of values of an organization of the place were the messages originated. Before we start discussing the above-mentioned issues, the basic assumptions of the cultural marketing, as well as the term of culture, its models and dimensions will be presented.

  1. The trading game : emissions trading schemes offer pollution as a market commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, D.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the market mechanisms for emissions trading. The concept emerged in signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol in response to their commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions trading systems allow large polluters to buy and sell pollution credits in order to meet emission reduction targets. While member states in the European Union (EU) started trading in February 2005, Canada is still developing its own proposal that will be introduced in 2008 to correspond with the first phase of the Kyoto Protocol. In contrast to the European model that places absolute limits on GHG emissions, the Canadian system is intensity-based. Heavy polluters, known as large final emitters, will have to cut emissions of the 6 GHGs covered under the Kyoto Protocol as a percentage of their total industrial output. Companies that reduce their emissions more than their defined targets can trade the surplus as credits on the open domestic market. It was argued that this allows businesses to meet their own emissions targets while failing to contribute effectively to Canada's overall Kyoto target. In addition, in order to lessen the burden to industry, Canada has imposed a $15 cap on the price of credits, which is in contrast to the European system. It was argued that businesses in Europe will be more motivated to meet their targets because of the higher value on European pollution credits. With less onus on business in Canada to reduce absolute targets, the burden of reducing GHG emissions has shifted to federal taxpayers. The paper addressed some of the factors that led to Canada's decision to use an intensity-based system. One main factor was the refusal of the United States to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and the cost disadvantage this would create for Canadian firms. However, some argue that by paying more attention to energy use, companies can reduce emissions and increase shareholder value by achieving cost savings that are greater than the

  2. 77 FR 35944 - Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... international standards for regulating futures, swaps, options, and derivatives markets, as well as..., competitive, and financially sound futures and options markets. Meetings of the Global Markets Advisory... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee AGENCY...

  3. Latvian advertising market development and international communication

    OpenAIRE

    Golovina, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the development of Latvian advertisement market, as well as Latvian internet advertisement development and its capabilities in international level. The main task of the paper is to define theoretical aspects of advertisement, as well as to define the present situation in Latvian advertisement market and to find out the most advantageous mass media for advertisement, which will be able to increase the profit of advertisers. The research emphasizes the importance of i...

  4. Creating the optimized international marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the international practice of Serbian companies still dominant approach is based on traditional foreign trade approach, which in the significant dimension ballast effective inclusion of domestic companies in the contemporary business. Such practice is a result of the modality of international trading evolved and stimulated recently including long lasting period of self managing socialism-business as well international orientation in trading was originated by the state support, which procured in the edification of so-called national corporations as a chief exporter. Long-time existing of that modality of the international trading procured in the shrinking and limitation possibilities for comprehensive development of the international orientation of domestic i.e local companies, which is an argument of objectively difficult international position of Serbian firms in the moment. Paper discuss different issues including assessment that incoming presence of regional or international investors on the domestic market will proffer possibilities for enhancement a domestic management and marketing know - how among others. So, this is a way how local management circles could make substantial progress in creating the optimized international marketing mix within domestic companies following on-going business experience.

  5. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R S

    1986-06-01

    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  6. International financial markets and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wahl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc., while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

  7. Outlook for international oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanoyan, V; French, M

    1984-01-01

    Despite increased hostilities in the Persian Gulf, there has been a slack in both petroleum product and crude markets and concern over the possibility of a wave of refinery bankruptcies. The short-term outlook recognizes that OPEC problems are not permanent. Demand is not expected to return to pre-1979 levels, and demand growth will not have an equal distribution among OPEC members. Mid-term projections are for real oil prices to be about 12% below 1982 levels, with the decline continuing through 1986. The only significant demand expansion will occur in the industrial sectors of the developing countries due to conservation efforts and fuel substitution that will continue to reduce petroleum's share of total energy consumed by developed countries. Consumption in the transport sector will probably remain at current levels. Oil production in Western countries should peak and then decline during the 1980s, with non-OPEC developing countries filling some of the demand gap and OPEC prices going up instead of production. 6 tables.

  8. International market selection and subsidiary performance : A neural network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouthers, L.E.; Wilkinson, T.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Brouthers, K.D.

    2009-01-01

    How should multinational enterprises (MNEs) select international markets? We develop a model of international market selection that adds firm-specific advantages and transaction cost considerations to previously explored target market factors based on Dunning's Eclectic Framework. Results obtained

  9. Commodities, energy and environmental finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ludkovski, Michael; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This volume is a collection of chapters covering the latest developments in applications of financial mathematics and statistics to topics in energy, commodity financial markets and environmental economics. The research presented is based on the presentations and discussions that took place during the Fields Institute Focus Program on Commodities, Energy and Environmental Finance in August 2013. The authors include applied mathematicians, economists and industry practitioners, providing for a multi-disciplinary spectrum of perspectives on the subject. The volume consists of four sections: Electricity Markets; Real Options; Trading in Commodity Markets; and Oligopolistic Models for Energy Production. Taken together, the chapters give a comprehensive summary of the current state of the art in quantitative analysis of commodities and energy finance. The topics covered include structural models of electricity markets, financialization of commodities, valuation of commodity real options, game-theory analysis of ...

  10. Neuromarketing and its internal marketing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAJDIERU (COMAN Ecaterina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to highlight the potential application of neuromarketing techniques in internal marketing, representing a qualitative and exploratory approach of specialized literature. The research results indicate that there are considerable advantages of using neuroscience research in internal marketing activities such as employee motivation, testing the job attractiveness, choosing the best candidates , promoting employer branding, employee retention and organizational career planning. The new field allows in- depth study of employee behaviour and the drawing up of strategies for their retention

  11. Scope of Internal Marketing in B2B Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, Niharika

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have focused on "internal marketing" from services marketing perspective. There is, therefore, a great dearth of in-depth research on its application to other business types. This research attempts to find the scope of internal marketing in B2B companies. The purpose of this research is to closely examine the elements, their linkage, tools and applications of Internal marketing when applied to B2B settings. Internal marketing, the application of marketing managem...

  12. The international market in TECNATOM and its national market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, J.; Ortega, J.

    2002-01-01

    The international markets have now turned into a standard activities within the current actions of Tecnatom, as it is shown by the fact that through the last decade Tecnatom has been executed several projects in the 80% of the countries with NPP in operation, using methods which have been validated by different international customers and regulatory bodies. The international market trajectory during the last decade is characterised by a continuous increment of the international activities in 1992-2001 period, reaching its maximum production in 1998, with more than 45% of the Tecnatom's sales volume, During the last three years, this trajectory has been stabilised in the 35% of the total. Facing the next years, Tecnatom has the firm intention to carry on developing an intense commercial activity based on the increasing and updating of its technological capabilities in order to boost its current leadership within the foreign market. This purpose is not only aimed to the nuclear sector but it is extended to other industrial synergic sectors, mainly the aeronautical sector. (Author)

  13. The economics of international coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-07-13

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  14. The economics of international coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  15. Integrating internal communications, human resource management and marketing concepts into the new internal marketing philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Sinčić, Dubravka; Pološki Vokić, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Successful companies attach great importance to human resource management and internal communications, because they are aware of the value of those activities and of strategic advantage they can bring to the organization. They should also realize that it is necessary to live internal marketing philosophy, if they stream to offer quality products and services to both markets: internal and external. The idea of satisfied employees for the benefit of satisfied customers is accepted and developed...

  16. Analysis of International Commodity Shipping Data and the Shipment of NORM to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Ely, James H.; Schweppe, John E.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Robinson, Sean M.

    2011-10-01

    As part of the Spreader Bar Radiation Detector project, PNNL analyzed US import data shipped through US ports collected over the 12 months of 2006 (over 4.5 million containers). Using these data, we extracted a variety of distributions that are of interest to modelers and developers of active and passive detection systems used to 'scan' IMCCs for potential contraband. This report expands on some of the analysis presented in an earlier report from LLNL, by investigation the foreign port distribution of commodities shipped to the US. The majority of containers shipped to the United States are 40 ft containers ({approx}70%); about 25% are 20 ft; and about 3.6% are 45 ft containers. A small fraction (<1%) of containers are of other more specialized sizes, and very few ports actually ship these unique size containers (a full distribution for all foreign ports is shown in Appendix A below). The primary foreign ports that ship the largest fraction of each container are shown in the table below. Given that 45 ft containers comprise 1 of out every 27 containers shipped to the US, and given the foreign ports from which they are shipped, they should not be ignored in screening; further testing and analysis of radiation measurements for national security with this size container is warranted. While a large amount of NORM is shipped in IMCCs, only a few specific commodities are shipped with enough frequency to present potential issues in screening IMCCs at ports. The majority of containers with NORM will contain fertilizers (5,700 containers), granite (59,000 containers), or ceramic (225,000 containers) materials. Fertilizers were generally shipping in either 20- or 40 ft containers with equal frequency. While granite is mostly shipped in 20 ft containers, ceramic materials can be shipped in either 20- or 40 ft containers. The size of container depended on the specific use of the ceramic or porcelain material. General construction ceramics (such as floor and roofing

  17. Analysis of International Commodity Shipping Data and the Shipment of NORM to the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciak, James E.; Ely, James H.; Schweppe, John E.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Robinson, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Spreader Bar Radiation Detector project, PNNL analyzed US import data shipped through US ports collected over the 12 months of 2006 (over 4.5 million containers). Using these data, we extracted a variety of distributions that are of interest to modelers and developers of active and passive detection systems used to 'scan' IMCCs for potential contraband. This report expands on some of the analysis presented in an earlier report from LLNL, by investigation the foreign port distribution of commodities shipped to the US. The majority of containers shipped to the United States are 40 ft containers (∼70%); about 25% are 20 ft; and about 3.6% are 45 ft containers. A small fraction (<1%) of containers are of other more specialized sizes, and very few ports actually ship these unique size containers (a full distribution for all foreign ports is shown in Appendix A below). The primary foreign ports that ship the largest fraction of each container are shown in the table below. Given that 45 ft containers comprise 1 of out every 27 containers shipped to the US, and given the foreign ports from which they are shipped, they should not be ignored in screening; further testing and analysis of radiation measurements for national security with this size container is warranted. While a large amount of NORM is shipped in IMCCs, only a few specific commodities are shipped with enough frequency to present potential issues in screening IMCCs at ports. The majority of containers with NORM will contain fertilizers (5,700 containers), granite (59,000 containers), or ceramic (225,000 containers) materials. Fertilizers were generally shipping in either 20- or 40 ft containers with equal frequency. While granite is mostly shipped in 20 ft containers, ceramic materials can be shipped in either 20- or 40 ft containers. The size of container depended on the specific use of the ceramic or porcelain material. General construction ceramics (such as floor and roofing tiles) tend to

  18. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN CONDITIONS OF INSTABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Lyasnikov; Yu. V. Lyasnikova

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the conceptual basis for the formation of international marketing, the characteristic of the main exit strategies on the world market, revealed features of international marketing that national companies are obliged to take into account the examples of international marketing strategies of international companies such as Apple, Google, Nike, the Russian company Natura Siberica.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international marketing activities of multinationa...

  19. The international uranium market - structure and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oe.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the international uranium market is immature and is subject to factors of a political, rather than economic nature. This is due largely to potential military exploitation, which has led USA, Canada and Australia to adopt a restrictive export policy. South Africa and France, on the other hand have a more liberal attitude. The history of the market, and the development of U308 prices are then discussed and related to the phases in the commercial exploitation of nuclear power. The present market structure is described, both international and within Canada, USA, Australia, South Africa and France. The future demand is then discussed, assuming three levels of demand and various price categories. It is shown that the demand will be only slightly influenced by moderate to large increases in price, assuming price rises for coal and oil. It is concluded that the price can rise to $400-500/pound U308. (JIW)

  20. Rethinking Risk in International Financial Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.J. Campbell-Pownall (Rachel)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis aims to address many of the issues raised concerning the appropriate definition and measurement of risk. An alternative approach to the estimation of risk, and the risk-return trade-off in international financial markets is investigated. Rather than focusing on the deviation

  1. Liquidity, Investors and International Capital Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Vagias

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation consists of four empirical studies that seek to furnish a better understanding over liquidity’s broader implications in the decision-making process of investors, managers and regulators in international capital markets. Chapter 2 investigates the time-series as well as

  2. First international ash marketing and technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    A total of 42 papers were presented in sessions with the following headings: production and disposal of ash - an international review; environmental, health, safety, and legal aspects of ash handling; marketing of ash; development of new uses for ash; cementitious use of ash; ash in manufactured products; and geotechnical uses of ash.

  3. Strategic Marketing Planning in International Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: International schools are a growing class of educational institution. It has been suggested that few schools of this type have a marketing plan whilst research into development planning showed that few had a long-range plan. This paper aims to investigate these issues. Design/methodology/approach: This paper deals with a survey of 32…

  4. Bootstrap Score Tests for Fractional Integration in Heteroskedastic ARFIMA Models, with an Application to Price Dynamics in Commodity Spot and Futures Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    Empirical evidence from time series methods which assume the usual I(0)/I(1) paradigm suggests that the efficient market hypothesis, stating that spot and futures prices of a commodity should cointegrate with a unit slope on futures prices, does not hold. However, these statistical methods...... fractionally integrated model we are able to find a body of evidence in support of the efficient market hypothesis for a number of commodities. Our new tests are wild bootstrap implementations of score-based tests for the order of integration of a fractionally integrated time series. These tests are designed...... principle do. A Monte Carlo simulation study demonstrates that very significant improvements infinite sample behaviour can be obtained by the bootstrap vis-à-vis the corresponding asymptotic tests in both heteroskedastic and homoskedastic environments....

  5. Modeling global and local dependence in a pair of commodity forward curves with an application to the US natural gas and heating oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohana, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model for the joint evolution of correlated commodity forward curves. Each forward curve is directed by two state variables, namely slope and level, and the model is meant to capture both the local and global dependence structures between slopes and levels. Our framework can be interpreted as an extension of the concept of cointegration to forward curves. The model is applied to a US database of heating oil and natural gas futures prices over the period February 2000-February 2009. We find the long-run slope and level relationships between natural gas and heating oil markets, analyze the lead and lag properties between the two energy commodities, the volatilities and correlations between their daily co-movements and evaluate the robustness of these observations to the turmoil experienced by energy markets since 2003. (author)

  6. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  7. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... sell the donated commodities at a reasonable market price in the economy where the sale occurs. The...

  8. Commodities and Stock Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.

  9. 22 CFR 201.64 - Application of the price rules to commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 201.64 Section 201.64 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES... purchase price of a commodity exceeds the price in comparable export sales or in comparable domestic sales... the determination of any prevailing market price of any commodity or any prevailing price or maximum...

  10. Serbia on the international fruit market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a comparative analysis of some of the most important indicators of both global and domestic fruit market. It shows the results of a study on the volume, dynamics and the structure of production, as well as the trade of fruit at the global level, that is continents and some countries. It also defines leading producers, trends in the international trade, and leading exporters and importers of these products. Besides, it analyses the position of Serbia in the international fruit market based on the spectre of the aforementioned criteria. Subsequently, balances, structure and regional trends in Serbian foreign trade exchange of fresh and processed fruit has been analyzed. Additionally, attention has been focused on the requirements, possibilities, measures and development trends of domestic production and export of analyzed products. .

  11. Internal and external market orientation as organizational resources - consequences for market and financial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Snoj

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of internal marketing has been discussed in marketing literature for over 30 years. Despite this fact there is little theoretical and empirical evidence of the way in which the internal market orientation impacts market and financial performance. On the other hand, there is considerable empirical evidence concerning the impact of the external market orientation on market and financial performance. Consequently, very few research projects have dealt with the impact of both market orientations on the performance of companies. In this paper a structural model was constructed, consisting of the internal market orientation, external market orientation, market performance and financial performance. With the help of the structural equation model the hypothesis that the internal market orientation is a significant predecessor of the external market orientation was confirmed. The external market orientation was found to significantly influence market as well as financial performance.

  12. International marketing of the CANDU system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenikov, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    In any major capital acquistion it is necessary to consider how and when payment is to be made before deciding to buy. This applies to buyers of nuclear power plants as well. Financing is sometimes the deciding factor in the selection process. In international sales export financing is involved with all its added complications. Financing in the billion dollar range must be arranged, with repayment over 25 years. Several partners usually join to form a syndicate of banks to handle loans of this magnitude. Interntional financing competition is stiff, and negotiations take years to complete. Suggestions as to how Canada can offer more competitive financial packages in the international market are offered. (LL)

  13. Gamification as a strategy of internal marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ruizalba Robledo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Theoretical analysis of the phenomenon of gamification and its possible application as a tool for internal marketing, in order to increase job satisfaction and commitment through engagement.Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, review of the literature on gamification and its background within game social reality. Secondly, presentation of several business cases where gamification has been applied.Findings: Focusing the subject of gamification within the field of internal marketing. In addition, a theoretical model of gamification as a tool to improve some consequences on employees’ behavior, such as job satisfaction and commitment through engagement, is proposed,. Various specific hypotheses for future research are proposed based on this model..Practical implications: Because of the situation of research on internal marketing and gamification, practical implications cannot be deduced in the short term, although they may arise as long as there is empirical evidence of its usefulness.Social implications: Currently there is no empirical evidence to infer social implications.Originality/value: Gamification is a very recent phenomenon that has been scarcely studied.

  14. Internal and external market orientation as organizational resources - consequences for market and financial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Snoj; Vladimir Gabrijan; Borut Milfelner

    2010-01-01

    The concept of internal marketing has been discussed in marketing literature for over 30 years. Despite this fact there is little theoretical and empirical evidence of the way in which the internal market orientation impacts market and financial performance. On the other hand, there is considerable empirical evidence concerning the impact of the external market orientation on market and financial performance. Consequently, very few research projects have dealt with the impact of both market o...

  15. European internal electricity market. What next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, K.; Hewicker, C.; Boisseleau, F.; Nabuurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    2006 has been a very active year in the development of electricity markets worldwide. In Europe the liberalisation process was moving forward driven by the European Directives implemented in the EU states. Together with security of supply and environmental protection, implementation of competitive energy markets has also been one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. A competitive internal market for electricity has been progressively implemented across the European Union since 1999-2000. This process aims at increasing competition in electricity generation and supply leading to enhanced efficiency, which is closely associated with lower production costs and ultimately lower electricity prices. The sector inquiry and the country reviews conducted by the European Commission (EC) during 2006 showed that progress has been achieved. However, there are still a number of issues that need to be resolved in order to achieve an adequately operating internal electricity market. The EC energy package from 10th January 2007 is a set of concrete proposals for action in the energy field and arises in reaction to the Green Paper published on 8th March 2006. The Green Paper 'A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy', on the one hand, identified the main problems that the European energy sector faces and, on the other hand, suggested possible actions to meet key objectives, including security of supply, environmental sustainability and competitiveness towards a unified European Energy Policy. The motivation of the EC package is the need to identify new measures or a strengthening of existing measures to reach the targets and their underlying objectives. The EC package deals with the main issues on energy policy (renewable electricity, internal electricity and gas market, sector competition, sustainable power generation from fossil fuels, nuclear energy, gas and electricity infrastructures and energy technology) and an action plan for energy

  16. The International Business Research Agenda: Recommendations from Marketing Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, William J.; White, D. Steven; Schuster, Camille P.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 250 American Marketing Association members investigated which international business research topics were seen as having high utility or importance. It also identified five latent factors (global market expansion; international marketing management; management issues in an international context; quality, values, and expectations;…

  17. Green certificate in an international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2002-01-01

    An analytical equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The main focus is on the effects of changing the percentage requirement which is in end use consumption. We start by looking briefly at an autarky market before opening the trade of electricity and certificates. The results show that the percentage requirement is a very imprecise instrument as to increase the provision of green electricity. In none of the cases considered will an increase of the percentage requirement in a country necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in the country itself. When opening for trade, the results show that the increase of the percentage requirement in one country can have a negative effect on green electricity generation in this country, but a positive effect in the other country. Further it is shown that in the case of an open certificate market where the certificates can be traded at a given international price, a country will maximise it's generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement equal to zero. (Author)

  18. International partnership at tourist services market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Mazur

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the following levels of realization of stages of the development of forms of international economic relations: international economic interaction, international economic contacts, international economic cooperation and international economic integration. Publications of modern scholars – investigators of issues of forming and development of partnership relations and the aspects of partnership in international relations.They made a great contribution in the definition of the importance and actuality of the similar way of realization of economic activity and investigation of the forms of its usage. However, it is necessary to emphasize that there is the difference of opinions of scientists concerning theoretical base of forming of partnership relations. The considerable quantity of scientific works was dedicated to the investigation of partnership relations of enterprises with commercial banks, state institutions on the level of foreign economic activity of economic subjects. The development of tourism in Ukraine has been investigated as creating of favorable organizational and legal and economic surrounding of the development to of the sphere, forming competitiveness at the world market of national tourist product on the base of the use of natural and historical and cultural potential of Ukraine and support of its social and economic interests and economic security.

  19. International positioning of South African electricity prices and commodity differentiated pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Thopila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The South African electricity industry has seen a dramatic increase in prices over the past 3 years. This increase has been blanketed across all sectors and is based on a number of factors such as sector, usage and, in the case of domestic pricing, suburb. The cost of electricity in South Africa, particularly to the industrial sector, has been among the lowest in the world. In this paper, we analyse the recent price increases in the South African electricity sector and discuss the price determination mechanism employed by Eskom, South Africa's electricity provider. We also analyse the revenue and sales of Eskom and review the electricity price from an international perspective. The concept of differential pricing and international benchmarking is analysed as a possibility for the South African industrial electricity industry, so that all sectors are not adversely affected by across-the-board increases. Our aim is to raise the question of whether South Africa's electricity prices are in line with international increases and to suggest the possibility of differentiated prices in the local electricity sector.

  20. The international power market: Myth and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, H.C.; Roseman, E.

    1992-01-01

    As the market for independent power (IP) explodes overseas, a number of companies that have been active in project development in the United States are looking hungrily abroad. Some developers view the international market as less competitive than in the U.S., and many are attracted by its size. The backlog of IP activity overseas has now reached over 140,000 MW, primarily in Asia and Europe. The U.S. has about a ten-year head start on IP projects abroad, where project activity has taken off only in the last three years. In 1978, the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Acr (PURPA) required U.S. utilities to purchase power from developers of qualified facilities (QFs), and in the process, created a business that has thrown to over $10 billion in annual sales. Since 1985, IP has added as much new capacity as utilities. The authors project that in the 1990s, IP will add 45-50 GW of new capacity, or between 40%-50% of total U.S. capacity. With nearly 3,200 IP projects (over 46,000 MW) on line in the U.S., many developers are hoping that their U.S. experience will serve them well in developing projects elsewhere. Moreover, many developers expect that such experience will give them a leg up on foreign competitors, who have few, if any, megawatts on line. Do these hopes reflect the emerging reality, or are they dangerous misinformation? As U.S. developers approach projects elsewhere, what are the key advantages and constraints their U.S. experience confers? This paper reviews five common myths about the international market for IP and compares the U.S. market with the opportunities abroad. In the process, the authors explore issues specific to IP, not general issues of doing business outside the U.S

  1. 48 CFR 470.202 - Acquisition of commodities for United States Agency for International Development (USAID) programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of commodities... Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY...) programs. (a) Lowest landed cost and delivery considerations. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(3...

  2. Relationship-oriented cultures, corruption, and international marketing success

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, JD; Graham, JL

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the general problems associated with marketing across international markets and focuses specifically on the role of corruption in deterring international marketing success. The authors do this by introducing a broader conceptualization of corruption. The dimensions of corruption and their importance in explaining the exporters' successes in international markets are developed empirically. Partial Least Squares formative indicators are used in a comprehensive model includin...

  3. MODERN TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DERIVATIVES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shelydko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to analysis of structure and peculiarities of development of the international derivatives market. The history of formation of the international derivatives market is investigated. The nature, functions and advantages of use of derivatives, and also their role in the modern international securities market are defined. Classification of financial derivatives is considered. Product lines of financial derivatives are analyzed. The regional structure of the international derivatives market and dynamics of its development are investigated. The comparative characteristic of volumes and structure of exchange and over-the-counter segments of international derivatives market are carried out. Dynamics and structure of international markets of interest-bearing derivatives and currency derivatives are analyzed. The fundamental trends of development of the modern international derivatives market are defined.

  4. Commodity Price Volatility in the Biofuel Era: An Examination of the Linkage Between Energy and Agricultural Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas W. Hertel; Jayson Beckman

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural and energy commodity prices have traditionally exhibited relatively low – even negative correlation. However, the recent increases in biofuel production have altered the agriculture-energy relationship in a fundamental way. The amount of corn utilized for ethanol production in the US has increased from 5% in 2001 to over one-third by the end of the decade. This increase has drawn corn previously sold to other uses (exports, food, feed), as well as acreage devoted to other crops (...

  5. Using commodity-indexed financing to fund OPEC/Alaska's development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essayyad, Musa

    1992-01-01

    An impediment to the process of economic diversification in OPEC and Alaska is the lack of favourable access to local and international capital markets to finance development projects, particularly mineral resource development. This paper highlights the importance of commodity-indexed bonds, including oil- and gold- indexed bonds, as a financing alternative to supplement the supply shortage of loanable funds from conventional, local and international commercial banks. The indexation concept is discussed, features of different bonds issued to date are contrasted and the benefits and risks for borrowers and investors are highlighted. An analysis is made of the experience of OPEC and Alaska in using commodity-indexed bonds and the feasibility of Alaska and some OPEC countries entering into commodity-linked-financed joint ventures is examined. Future prospects for commodity-linked bonds are explored. Not withstanding the fact that the immediate market timing is unfavourable, the long-term benefits of commodity-indexed securities are recognized. (U.K.)

  6. EFICIÊNCIA DOS MERCADOS FUTUROS DE COMMODITIES AGRÍCOLAS APLICANDO-SE O TESTE DE COINTEGRAÇÃO./ EFFICIENCY OF THE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY FUTURES MARKET BY APPLYING THE COINTEGRATION TEST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Harry Harzer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de testar a forma fraca de eficiência do mercado futuro brasileiro dacommoditie agrícola café arábica, usando a técnica de cointegração a fim de verificar se os preços futuroscorrentes são estimadores não viesados dos preços à vista esperados para o futuro. Para isso, utiliza asséries históricas de janeiro de 2005 a maio de 2011 dos preços futuros, que foram coletados na Bolsa deMercadorias e Futuros – BM&F, e os preços à vista calculados pelo CEPEA/ESALQ/USP. As métricas utilizadassão os testes ADF de Dickey e Fuller para detectar a presença de raiz unitária e o teste de cointegraçãode Johansen para verificar a existência de um relacionamento de longo prazo. Os resultados indicaram anão estacionariedade das séries de preços e a presença de cointegração. Porém, o teste dos parâmetrosα = 0 e β = 1 da regressão que comprovam a eficiência fraca e não viés encontraram indícios estatísticosde não eficiência de mercado, bem como da presença de um viés indicando a existência de um prêmioassociado ao risco./ This article aims at testing the weak form of efficiency of the commodity futures market in Arabicacoffee farming using the cointegration technique in order to check if the current futures prices arebiased estimators of spot prices expected for the future. Thereto it uses the futures prices time seriesfrom January 2005 to May 2011, which were collected in the Commodities and Futures Exchange - BM &F and spot prices, calculated by CEPEA / ESALQ / USP. Dickey and Fuller’s ADF tests are the metrics usedto detect the presence of unit root and Johansen’s cointegration test is used to verify the existence ofa long term relationship. The results indicated the non-stationarity of price series besides the presenceof cointegration. However, regression parameters testing α = 0 e β = 1 proves that weak efficiency andnon-biased found statistical evidence of non-market efficiency

  7. Embedding Marketing in International Campus Development: Lessons from UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides recommendations for embedding a market- and marketing-informed approach within the development process for a new international campus. It includes a brief outline of the current global profile of international campuses (as one form of transnational education) before highlighting the role of marketing at key stages of campus…

  8. Integrating rather than juxtaposing environmental policy and the internal market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Koutrakos, Panos; Snell, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to the research handbook on the internal market describes and analyses the case law on environmental measures that impact the internal market and notably the free movement of goods. It argues that an integration may be better for both environmental protection and market

  9. Professional Training of Specialists in International Marketing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program…

  10. Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  11. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  12. International biomass. International markets of biomass-energy - Public synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardette, Yves-Marie; Dieckhoff, Lea; Lorne, Daphne; Postec, Gwenael; Cherisey, Hugues de; RANTIEN, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at analysing the present and future place of wood-energy in the European Union as the main renewable resource used to produce heat and electricity. This study comprised an analysis of European markets of solid biomass and of regulation, case studies on wood-energy producer markets (North America, Eastern Europe, Brazil and Africa), a study of preparation modes (shredding, granulation, roasting) and biomass transport. This study is based on bibliographical searches in national and European sources, and on field data collected by the various bodies involved in this study. This synthesis notably discusses the following issues: solid biomass is the main renewable resource for the EU and has many applications; European objectives for solid biomass by 2020 are very ambitious; markets are becoming international to face the EU's increasing demand; pellet production in North America is strongly increasing; in Europe, eastern European countries are the main exporters; Brazil has an export potential which is still to be confirmed; the African trade with Europe is still in its infancy. Finally, the development perspectives of roasted wood trade are discussed

  13. Considerations on legislation, transportation and international trade of mineral commodities containing NORM; Consideracoes sobre legislacao, transporte e comercio internacional de commodities minerais contendo NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Borges, Flavia Luiza Soares; Villegas, Raul Alberto Sodre

    2016-07-01

    The radiation protection and transport procedures of the main importing countries of the Brazilian minerals, which are related to radioactive minerals are presented. The references and an overview about the safety procedures and guides, norms and regulations about NORM related to radiation limits for the public and personnel are also commented. The exemption values in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA recommendations and the legislation of the main importers of Brazilian mineral goods: China, Europe and Community and United States are introduced.

  14. Use of containers to carry bulk and break bulk commodities and its impact on gulf region ports and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The University of New Orleans Transportation Institute was tasked by the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) in mid-2012 to assess the use of containers to transport bulk and break bulk commodities and to determine what their impact would...

  15. The Formation of International Marketing Strategy of Company’s Entry Into the External Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtal Tetiana V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the theoretical and practical aspects of formation of the international marketing strategy of company’s entry into the external market. The concept of «strategy of the company» was considered in detail on the basis of studying works of the well-known foreign and domestic scientists. The use of terms of «strategic marketing» and of «marketing strategy» in the researches of many domestic and foreign economists was analyzed. The most common marketing strategies of company’s entry into the external markets have been grouped and characterized. Based on the study of a number of statements by the leading Ukrainian scientists on international marketing, a definition of strategy of international marketing has been made. The algorithm of formation of the international marketing strategy of company at the external market has been developed. The stages of the process of forming the strategy of international marketing at the company’s entry into the external market have been generalized. The directions of assessment of the international marketing activity of company according to the efficiency of development of marketing strategies at the external market have been suggested.

  16. Summer 2014 Marketing Intern Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda-Ramos, Marlee

    2014-01-01

    As a summer 2014 Marketing Intern for NASA Kennedy Space Centers (KSCs) Center Planning and Development directorate, I have gained much experience and knowledge of what is expected of me in any work environment. Throughout my time at KSC, I have had a number of responsibilities and duties, many of which involved collaborating with other directorates in order to acquire guidance and information from other NASA experts, attending and participating in meetings, and also editing and providing input to a collective project. My goal in this paper is to summarize my experience at KSC by explaining my responsibilities in detail and the skills I am able to take away as a result that will further aid me in my career path for the future.

  17. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  18. Competitiveness on the International Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper comes to present and analyse the features of tourism in the main countries in Central and Western Europe, as well as the different strategies these countries adopt in order to maintain the competitiveness of the field.In the beginning, we have defined competitiveness, as the prerequisite of market success, we have analysed its components and the main factors that determine it, as well as the competitiveness – competitive advantage relation.During the last years, competitiveness has turned into one of the common concepts used in order to approach and describe the sustainable development of the tourism and travel industry. Expert literature has defined concepts such as tourism and travel competitiveness or touristic destinations competitiveness, suggesting not only the significance of the concept but also the emphasis that touristic organizations should lay on this aspect.The competitiveness of touristic destinations and, generally speaking, the global competitiveness of the tourism industry became vital for the survival and growth of the touristic organizations on the international market, provided by the growth of spare time and the growth of the level of income that is available for spending the time.

  19. Market--what market? A review of Health Authority purchasing in the NHS internal market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P A

    1998-05-01

    This paper argues that the British NHS Reforms (the 'Reforms') set out in Working for Patients [1] largely failed to create a market, to achieve the changes that market forces might have been expected to achieve or to meet the objectives set for the NHS in Working for Patients. It draws on the available literature and the author's experience of work with the NHS during the 6 years after Working for Patients. It is hampered, as are all such reviews of the UK Reforms, by the lack of a detailed and systematic research appraisal of the internal market. Many small changes, resulting from market mechanisms, may have occurred throughout the NHS without being publicized or well documented. But overall, there is little convincing evidence that the Reforms have achieved their goals or met the objectives of the politicians who initiated them. The argument here is necessarily limited by the space available (but see [2] for a detailed analysis of the NHS Reforms). The initial sections of the paper examine the characteristics of markets and market power and the extent to which the NHS Reforms created a market, with health authorities and fund-holders as its buyers. The paper concentrates in particular on health authorities. Later sections then examine the extent to which the Reforms met the objectives set out in Working for Patients.

  20. Gauging the investment potential of international real estate markets

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stephen L.

    2005-01-01

    Investing in real estate markets overseas means venturing into the unknown, where you meet unfamiliar political and economic environments, unstable currencies, strange cultures and languages, and so although the advantages of international diversification might appear attractive, the risks of international investment must not be overlooked. However, capital markets are becoming global markets, and commercial real estate markets are no exception, accordingly despite the difficulties posed by v...

  1. Integrating Branding Strategy Across Markets: Building International Brand Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, S.P.; Craig, S.; Nijssen, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    Brands play a critical role in establishing a firm’s visibility and position in international markets. Building a coherent international brand architecture is a key component of the firm’s overall international marketing strategy, because it provides a structure to leverage strong brands into other

  2. International market selection: A cognitive mapping perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Strandskov, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    The contributes conceptually to the development of research into global market screening procedures, by developing a model of cognitive processes related to market screening.......The contributes conceptually to the development of research into global market screening procedures, by developing a model of cognitive processes related to market screening....

  3. Stock Market Integration: Are Risk Premiums of International Assets Equal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdhianto Setiawan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies previous research on capital market integration and applies a simple international capital asset pricing model by considering the incompleteness in market integration and heteroscedasticity of the market returns. When we disregarded those two factors, we found that stock markets were integrated and the law of one price on risk premiums prevails. However, when the factors were considered, the markets were just partially integrated.

  4. Internal marketing: creating quality employee experiences in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Oetjen, Dawn; Rotarius, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    To cope with the recent challenges within the health care industry, health care managers need to engage in the internal marketing of their various services. Internal marketing has been used as an effective management tool to increase employees' motivation, satisfaction, and productivity (J Mark Commun. 2010;16(5):325-344). Health care managers should understand that an intense focus on internal marketing factors will lead to a quality experience for employees that will ultimately have a positive effect on the patient experiences.

  5. Africa Rising in an Emerging World: An International Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Boso, Nathaniel; Debrah, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The primary goal of this introductory article is to highlight important contemporary themes in international marketing strategy from the perspective of Sub-Saharan African firms. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted is a review and synopsis of the existing body of research on international marketing research in Sub-Saharan African, and a discussion of the manuscripts included in the special issue. \\ud \\ud Findings: International marketing in Sub-Sahara Africa is ...

  6. Measuring the internal-market orientation in the public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Wagner Mainardes; Alexandre dos Santos Cerqueira

    2015-01-01

    The application of internal marketing in organizations has been researched by scholars for nearly three decades, but literature has little empirical research in the public sector. There is a latent debate on the relevance of internal marketing in the public sector, given the need to provide a more effective service to the citizens. Given the possibility that the internal-market orientation is an antecedent of job satisfaction, the objective of this research was to measure the level of interna...

  7. Internal marketing for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Isabel; Grayson, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether internal marketing could be a powerful tool for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey. Design/methodology/approach: In the absence of empirical work linking internal marketing efforts in organizations and employee engagement in corporate responsibility issues, a conceptual approach based on literature review is carried out to determine the existing possibilities provided by internal marketing to enhance corporate re...

  8. Using internal marketing to improve organizational commitment and service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yafang; Wu, Shih-Wang

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the structural relationships among internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality and to practically apply the findings. Internal marketing is a way to assist hospitals in improving the quality of the services that they provide while executing highly labour-intensive tasks. Through internal marketing, a hospital can enhance the organizational commitment of its employees to attain higher service quality. This research uses a cross-sectional study to survey nursing staff perceptions about internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality. The results of the survey are evaluated using equation models. The sample includes three regional hospitals in Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed and 288 valid questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 82.3%. The survey process lasted from 1 February to 9 March 2007. The data were analysed with SPSS 12.0, including descriptive statistics based on demographics. In addition, the influence of demographics on internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality is examined using one-way anova. The findings reveal that internal marketing plays a critical role in explaining employee perceptions of organizational commitment and service quality. Organizational commitment is the mediator between internal marketing and service quality. The results indicate that internal marketing has an impact on both organizational commitment and service quality. Internal marketing should be emphasized to influence frontline nursing staff, thereby helping to create better organizational commitment and service quality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. From commodity to customer value : the transition from a production-oriented to a market-oriented European dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everwand, W.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2007-01-01

    The European food industry has been regulated for a long time. Since the 1960s, the European market has been protected from imports by relatively high taxes. Companies in Europe therefore never had to fear real competition from outside the Union in their domestic markets. This changed, when, due to

  10. Pricing behavior of USA exporter in wheat international market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, R. P.; Sumono; Iddrisu, Y.; Darus, M.; Sihombing, L. P.; Jufri

    2018-02-01

    The number of wheat producing countries is changing over time. It is expected the change in wheat supply will lead world wheat market become more competitive and reduce market power of major exporter country. This paper tries to identify and examined the degree of market power on wheat international market for USA by using the Pricing to Market (PTM) method. USA is the biggest producer and exporter in wheat market. The PTM method found that USA impose noncompetitive strategy by applying price discrimination and apply market power to their importer country.

  11. The international electricity market infrastructure-insight from the nordic electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Prljaca, Zerina; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of an international electricity market for the emerging market players to understand and manipulate their roles and relationships in the market by analyzing the former, present, and future Nordic electricity market. The emerging market players...... and their relationships are also discussed in the paper. This paper outlines several suggestions for the future Nordic electricity market development. Furthermore, this paper provides a recommendation for countries interested in participating and developing the cross-national electricity markets with the discussion...... of the historical development of the Nordic electricity market....

  12. INTERNAL MARKETING STRATEGY IN A HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aléssio Bessa Sarquis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Internal marketing comprises the set of strategies to enable internally compliance of the organization's marketing promises. This study examines the use of internal marketing strategies in a higher education institution in the process of implementing a new educational model. This is one case study with qualitative and exploratory approach. The data collection techniques used were interviews and document analysis, interpreted through content analysis. The results show that the most commonly used strategies are: implementation of employee training programs; development of materials / guidance handouts; creating web blog; and the application of internal research. The testimonies indicate that the internal marketing strategies contributed to the implementation of new educational model, but there is dissatisfaction among managers with the internal marketing program of the institution.

  13. Transmission of Shock across International Stock Markets: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini TALWAR

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The risk of spillover of volatility among international stock markets has increased manifold and it needs to be diagnosed comprehensively. In this paper, the authors have used 11 stock indices to identify influential markets and detect the direction of transmission of shock across markets in different time zones using Granger causality test, Johansen cointegration test and vector autoregression. The findings of VAR show that the forecast error at the 10-day horizon explained by their own innovation is highest for the Australian and Chinese markets followed by Japan, India, Brazil and Russia.Markets of Germany, UK, USA and Canada are influenced by the Australian market. In fact, the Australian market is seen to be the most influential market among the markets under the study. The impact of Chinese and Canadian markets is found to be the least. These results can be useful for optimal option valuation, effective portfolio allocation and performance benchmarking

  14. Developing International Marketing for a Geopark Packaged Tour for the Hong Kong market

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jing; Wong, Hoi Ki

    2012-01-01

    The development of international tourism does not only show in the increasing number of international tourists but also in the diversified and specialized destinations. The thesis commissioner is Rokua Geopark in Oulu, Finland who is cooperating with other Nordic geoparks in developing international marketing of a Nordic geopark tour for Hong Kong market. The objective of the thesis is to find out possible marketing mix operations and also the features of potential customer group for the ...

  15. Foreign bond markets and financial market development: International perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Hogan, Warren P.; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2009-01-01

    The domestic bond markets of the Asia and Pacific region have grown considerably since the Asian financial crisis of 1997, although they remain undeveloped relative to the region's weight in the world economy. This paper proposes that in order to encourage further development of these markets, regulators should make them more accessible to foreign borrowers. To that end we offer insights into the nature and mechanics of foreign bond issuance by investigating the key characteristics of 3,132 f...

  16. Developing strategies to promote the Iranian international film market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Mohammadian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available International film market of Iran (IFM is one of the most important presenters of different films and television programs to be sold in the world market especially in Middle East. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate different methods to promote this market. The study uses a questionnaire and distributes it among buyers and sales agents of IFM. The results of hypothetic tests prove that the socio-cultural factors are the most important reasons for the participants. Another important criterion promoting sales of movies is different awards from various movie festivals dedicated to moviemakers. The opening date and place of market, publication and publicity are other important criteria influencing sales of movies. The paper illustrates film-marketing mix for film marketers. Indicators, which are important for participants in international film festivals, are also illustrated for international film market holders.

  17. ASSESSING THE GOVERNANCE FOR COMMODITY PRICE STABILIZATION - A RETROSPECTIVE LOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Larisa Nicoleta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The volatility of commodity prices has become once again a matter of profound and controversial debates for both political and academic spheres worldwide in the framework of the global economy severely distressed by the recent economic turbulences. Although commodity markets were already notorious for their price instability, the events the world economy experienced in the years 2000s offered new connotations to this phenomenon. In the first decade of this millennium, the commodity markets have struggled with high volatility, with prices reaching historical peaks just to crash dramatically some months later and very soon to restart their rise. The significant increase in volatility generated many debates about its triggering factors, the implications in terms of risk exposure of economic actors, but also the need for reconfiguring regulatory policy frameworks. The quest for the most appropriate means to deal with commodity price turbulences has known different stages over the years. Decision makers worldwide have sought alternatives, formulated and tested various mechanisms whose central aim was to mitigate price fluctuations. Governments formulate and implement consistent regulatory policies whose international coordination is a ‘sine qua non’ condition for stabilizing these markets. However, the turbulences on commodity markets often generate policy responses that sometimes exacerbate rather than mitigate the price instability. The purpose of this paper is to assess the subject of governance regarding commodity price stabilization, offering a retrospective look at the mechanisms implemented over the years, with a central focus on the International Commodity Agreements – instruments through which in the previous decades the producer and consumer governments worldwide pursued price stabilization for some key commodities like sugar, coffee, cocoa, tin and natural rubber. After analyzing the effectiveness of the International Agreements and

  18. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    -2010 but have since returned to the pre-crisis level close to zero. The common factor in commodity volatility is nevertheless clearly related to stock market volatility. We conclude that, while commodity markets appear to again be segmented from the equity market when only returns are considered, commodity...

  19. Risks versus savings in the international spot market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karalus, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the international spot market, some of its risks and difficulties, and examples of the ways potential savings can be realized. Fuel cycle goods and services available in the international spot market include uranium as U 3 O 8 , natural UF 6 , enriched UF 6 , conversion services, and enriching services

  20. Professional Training Of Specialists In International Marketing In Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowski Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program specifications and structures at Polish universities, namely University of Lodz and Collegium Civitas, have been analyzed. It has been defined that...

  1. Segmentation across International Equity, Bond, and Foreign Exchange Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Ning; Stephen Sapp

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the integration of international financial markets. The integration of financial markets across countries and across asset classes is assumed to hold in most empirical studies, but has only been tested for certain countries and certain asset classes. We test for the integration of international equity, bond and foreign exchange markets. Our results indicate that the three classes of assets are segmented. Investigating potential explanations for this segmentation, we ...

  2. Internal capital markets: The bright side of corporate politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, M.; Huang, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This study looks inside the internal capital market of a large retail-banking group to study how internal corporate politics affect internal capital allocation. Our data is from the firm's managerial accounting system and covers all cash flows, internal capital transfers, and investments at the

  3. Quarterly Web Interfaced Commodity Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — QWICR is a secure, online Title II commodity reporting system accessible to USAID Missions, PVO Cooperating Sponsors and Food for Peace Officers. QWICR provides PVO...

  4. Stochastic price modeling of high volatility, mean-reverting, spike-prone commodities: The Australian wholesale spot electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, Helen; Worthington, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly known that wholesale spot electricity markets exhibit high price volatility, strong mean-reversion and frequent extreme price spikes. This paper employs a basic stochastic model, a mean-reverting model and a regime-switching model to capture these features in the Australian national electricity market (NEM), comprising the interconnected markets of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Victoria. Daily spot prices from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2004 are employed. The results show that the regime-switching model outperforms the basic stochastic and mean-reverting models. Electricity prices are also found to exhibit stronger mean-reversion after a price spike than in the normal period, and price volatility is more than fourteen times higher in spike periods than in normal periods. The probability of a spike on any given day ranges between 5.16% in NSW and 9.44% in Victoria

  5. DEVELOPING INTERNET MARKETING PLAN. CASE COMPANY: ANTOREE INTERNATIONAL PTE. LTD.

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ngoc Minh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to develop a current digital marketing plan of a service provider in Vietnam called Antoree International Pte. Ltd. There presented theories about the service marketing mix in the impact of the Internet; marketing strategy for service providers and all popular types of Internet marketing. In empirical part, information about the case company would follow next. A SWOT analysis would then provide readers a comprehensive look into the current situation of Antore...

  6. 17 CFR 33.6 - Suspension or revocation of designation as a contract market for the trading of commodity options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or the underlying futures or cash markets, or is otherwise contrary to the public interest: Provided... trading presents a substantial risk to the public interest. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 3038-0007) [46 FR 54529, Nov. 3, 1981, as amended at 46 FR 63036, Dec. 30...

  7. An Interactive Microcomputer Program for Teaching the Impacts of Alternative Policy Sets in the Market for a Single Commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Elton; Stoecker, Arthur

    1995-01-01

    Describes a computer software program where students define alternative policy sets and compare their effects on the welfare of consumers, producers, and the public sector. Policy sets may be a single tax or quota or a mix of taxes, subsidies, and/or price supports implemented in the marketing chain. (MJP)

  8. Strategic approach to film marketing in international setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štavljanin Velimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the strategic aspects of the film marketing through an analysis of contemporary international theory and practice. The analysis is based on the basic principles of the film marketing and film product development. Application of marketing principles in the film industry under the new business conditions is only a prerequisite, but no more a guarantee of success. From the point of view of marketing managers, success must be ensured by the strategic approach, which is addressed in the paper. Given that the most successful marketing activities depend on the marketing mix strategies, a novel approach to film marketing mix was one of the main focuses of the paper. Attention of a separate chapter is focused on film marketing mix, taking into account technology impact on film marketing. .

  9. International portfolio diversification: United States and south Asian equity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Rizwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamic liaison between US and three developing South Asian equity markets in short and long term. To gauge the long-term relationship, we applied Johansen co-integration procedure as all the representative indices are found to be non-stationary at level. The findings illustrate that the US equity market index exhibits a reasonably different movement over time in contrast to the three developing equity markets under consideration. However, the Granger-causality test divulge that the direction of causality scamper from US equity market to the three South Asian markets. It further indicates that within the three developing equity markets the direction of causality emanates from Bombay stock market to Karachi and Colombo. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the American investors can get higher returns through international diversification into developing equity markets, while the US stock market would also be a gainful upshot for South Asian investors.

  10. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  11. Role of Indian Commodity Derivatives Market in Hedging Price Risk: Estimation of Constant and Dynamic Hedge Ratio, and Hedging Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This  paper  examines  hedging  effectiveness  of  four  agricultural  (soybean,  corn,  castor seed and guar seed and seven non-agricultural (gold, silver, aluminium, copper, zinc, crude oil  and,  natural  gas  futures  contracts  traded  in  India,  using  VECM  and  CCC-MGARCH model to estimate constant hedge ratio and dynamic hedge ratios, respectively. We ind that agricultural  futures  contracts  provide  higher  hedging  effectiveness  (30-70%  as  compared to  non-agricultural  futures  (20%.  In  the  more  recent  period,  the  hedging  effectiveness  of Indian futures markets has increased. When hedging effectiveness of non-agricultural Indian futures  contracts  with  the  world  spot  markets  (NYMEX  and  LME  is  analyzed,  hedging effectiveness  increases  dramatically  which  indicates  the  fact  that  Indian  futures  contracts are more effective for hedging exposures to global prices. Other reasons of lower hedging effectiveness  of  Indian  futures  contracts  may  be  low  awareness  of  futures  markets  among participants,  high  transaction  costs  in  the  futures  markets,  policy  restrictions,  inadequate contract design, or high transaction costs in the spot market. These are, of course, expected birth pays for a nascent futures markets in an emerging economy. ";} // -->activate javascript

  12. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    Using data on more than 750 million futures trades during 2004-2013, we analyze eight stylized facts of commodity price and volatility dynamics in the post financialization period. We pay particular attention to the factor structure in returns and volatility and to commodity market integration...... with the equity market. We find evidence of a factor structure in daily commodity futures returns. However, the factor structure in daily commodity futures volatility is even stronger than in returns. When computing model-free realized commodity betas with the stock market we find that they were high during 2008......-2010 but have since returned to the pre-crisis level close to zero. The common factor in commodity volatility is nevertheless clearly related to stock market volatility. We conclude that, while commodity markets appear to again be segmented from the equity market when only returns are considered, commodity...

  13. A strategy of the company performance in the international market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine an appropriate framework of strategic performance of companies in the international market. A company that plans to enter into the international market has to prepare well, has to choose adequate strategy, should have thought-market performance and developed marketing program which follows the activity of company. The choice of the appropriate strategy for company's entry into foreign markets affects the long term stability of the market functions and determines the scope of operations abroad by which the company can successfully develop its own abilities as well as to incur risks and uncertainties. There is a constant change in the environment, and by being aware of the changes, we choose between different options the company is opting for when selecting the international market entry strategy. The company should through the country entry analysis and entry forms; examine options that have greater significance in terms of its strategic objectives at the international market. Selecting the right strategy is the key issue that the company which wants to enter into international market is facing with.

  14. Climate variability and change scenarios for a marine commodity: Modelling small pelagic fish, fisheries and fishmeal in a globalized market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Gorka; Barange, Manuel; Mullon, Christian

    2010-04-01

    The world's small pelagic fish populations, their fisheries, fishmeal and fish oil production industries and markets are part of a globalised production and consumption system. The potential for climate variability and change to alter the balance in this system is explored by means of bioeconomic models at two different temporal scales, with the objective of investigating the interactive nature of environmental and human-induced changes on this globalised system. Short-term (interannual) environmental impacts on fishmeal production are considered by including an annual variable production rate on individual small pelagic fish stocks over a 10-year simulation period. These impacts on the resources are perceived by the fishmeal markets, where they are confronted by two aquaculture expansion hypotheses. Long-term (2080) environmental impacts on the same stocks are estimated using long-term primary production predictions as proxies for the species' carrying capacities, rather than using variable production rates, and are confronted on the market side by two alternative fishmeal management scenarios consistent with IPCC-type storylines. The two scenarios, World Markets and Global Commons, are parameterized through classic equilibrium solutions for a global surplus production bioeconomic model, namely maximum sustainable yield and open access, respectively. The fisheries explicitly modelled in this paper represent 70% of total fishmeal production, thus encapsulating the expected dynamics of the global production and consumption system. Both short and long-term simulations suggest that the sustainability of the small pelagic resources, in the face of climate variability and change, depends more on how society responds to climate impacts than on the magnitude of climate alterations per se.

  15. The system of marketing information in research of attractiveness on international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prygara О.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of forming the system of marketing information for the analysis of international market attractiveness are viewed in an article. It is stated that this system should include wide range of indicators. The author introduces a multilevel system of characteristics of attractiveness analysis on the international markets. This system consists of megalevel – world level; macrolevel – country level; mezolevel – branch level; microlevel – firm level. Sources of information which can be used for the research of international market attractiveness are viewed in the article.

  16. Bio-energy utilizes surplusses at the agricultural commodity markets. Large potentials of the biomass; Bioenergie verwertet Ueberschuesse an den Agrarmaerkten. Grosse Potenziale der Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-19

    At the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere, the situation in agricultural markets relaxes visibly. After the year 2012 was characterized by periods of drought in the United States and some Eastern European countries, in recent months good harvests in major producing countries in the southern hemisphere have provided that the stocks of major agricultural commodities are grown again. Thus, enough resources are still available for the supply of food and energy. There still exists land potential in Europe and on other continents for the use of bio-energy. In addition to new power plant crops, known arable crop cultures contribute to the exploration of such a potential: An example of this is the sugar beet. The view on the global supply balance in agricultural goods inter alia the major staple food rice shows that there exist large surpluses on the food markets. However, these surpluses do not benefit the hungry persons in the world. Hunger is a problem of distribution which is not associated with the growth of bio-energy.

  17. International coal trade: the evolution of a global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The international coal market has developed over the last 25 years to a mature stable market, largely free of government involvement. It is evident, however, that while the coal market is considered widely to be reliable and mature, there is only limited understanding of the way in which the market operates. Understanding energy market mechanisms is fundamental to encourage confidence in the continuing performance of liberalized markets. This publication seeks to address this need by providing a brief descriptive analysis of the operation of the coal market. The report draws attention to the considerable changes that have been experienced to date in the market, where freely operating market mechanisms have coped well. Further change is on the horizon. Coal demand in Europe is stagnating while growing rapidly in Asia. The once-dominant European market remains the region where price is formed but the Asian market is growing rapidly and becoming more flexible. Increasing competition for market share, low margins, and pressure on utilities to reduce costs as electricity markets are liberalized, will continue to stimulate productivity improvement and may lead to innovations in marketing to cope with stable real prices, high transport, and transaction costs

  18. International Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model......International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....

  19. Markets and Networks in International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Dow, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    is associated with a shift in the composition of trade towards goods requiring more extensive information exchange and personal interaction between buyers and sellers. An alternative explanation—‘the market view’—contends that improved availability of information and increasing transparency of markets have...... facilitated the matching of geographically more proximate buyers and sellers, and that the observed decline in average transportation distances is a reflection of increasingly efficient markets. This paper examines empirically the merits of these two arguments based on a longitudinal analysis of bilateral...... in support of the ‘market-view’, showing that the sensitivity of trade to psychic distance has declined dramatically for all categories of goods. The impact of geographic distance has increased markedly for homogenous goods, whereas for more differentiated goods it has decreased mildly....

  20. Evaluation of the International coffee market conditions

    OpenAIRE

    FISAKOVA O.S.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes analysis of coffee market and its conditions for coffee companies. Also, coffee export amounts and prices are compared and analyzed. Statistics were collected over few last years to present accurate research

  1. Conservation of ethylene feedstock for the commodity polymer market through the radiation induced production of polyketones and polysulfones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    1975-10-01

    Because of the increase in cost of foreign oil, ethylene costs have increased markedly within the last several years. There is presently a sizable incentive to reduce raw material cost for basic polymer manufacture. The polyketones, synthesized from ethylene and CO, and the polysulfones, synthesized from ethylene and SO 2 , utilizing high energy radiation, offers one such possibility. The process has the additional advantage in that CO and SO 2 usually considered as wastes and pollutants from fossil fuel burning power plants are converted to useful materials. The polyketones and polysulfones formed from the gas phase below 100 0 C have been found to be high molecular weight polymers which, depending on composition either melt with difficulty, or decompose at temperatures of 250 0 C or higher. The higher temperature (greater than 100 0 C) catalyst-induced reaction produces low molecular weight waxes. Design calculations indicate that for a G value of 10,000 and 50 percent energy deposition efficiency, it would take 331 M Ci of 60 Co to conserve 2 billion pounds of ethylene or 25 percent of the overall U.S. market by substituting CO and SO 2 . This savings amounts to as much as $280 million at today's market price. Electron machine radiation with a 25 percent energy deposition efficiency requires a total beam power of 9800 KW. The use of machine radiation is preferred because of safety, availability, and initial investment. The challenge presented by the development of the described substituted polymer systems, depends on (1) the determination of the uniqueness of the radiation process, and confirming the yields with electron machine radiation, (2) the processability and market acceptability of the substituted polymers, and (3) the ability to design an efficient radiation process reactor

  2. Internal marketing for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sanchez-Hernandez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether internal marketing could be a powerful tool for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey.Design/methodology/approach: In the absence of empirical work linking internal marketing efforts in organizations and employee engagement in corporate responsibility issues, a conceptual approach based on literature review is carried out to determine the existing possibilities provided by internal marketing to enhance corporate responsibility.Findings: Reflexion from the extant literature indicates that, because employee engagement matters, internal responsibility should be put first. The internal marketing umbrella, including “selling internally” the idea of responsibility, facilitating internal communication, enhancing corporate volunteering or the possibility to become a social intrapreneur, could help to align employees’ needs with corporate responsibility goals.Practical implications: The results suggest that managers must ensure that internal aspects of management, such as internal communication and employee commitment are taken into account in order to get success in corporate responsibility issues. Managers need to be more proactive trying to introduce the marketing function in human capital issues. Understanding employees’ wants and needs and selling internally responsibility goals would make external efforts in developing a responsible strategy much more likely to succeed.Originality/value: Reflecting the literature which highlights the importance of internal marketing, we pay particular attention to their role on promoting corporate responsibility internally. The results indicate that while organizations strive to achieve corporate responsibility goals, it is expected that effectiveness will be greater among organizations using internal marketing tools for this purpose. To the best of our knowledge is the first time this relationship has been academically discussed

  3. Internal marketing for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sanchez-Hernandez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether internal marketing could be a powerful tool for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey. Design/methodology/approach: In the absence of empirical work linking internal marketing efforts in organizations and employee engagement in corporate responsibility issues, a conceptual approach based on literature review is carried out to determine the existing possibilities provided by internal marketing to enhance corporate responsibility.Findings: Reflexion from the extant literature indicates that, because employee engagement matters, internal responsibility should be put first. The internal marketing umbrella, including ‘selling internally’ the idea of responsibility, facilitating internal communication, enhancing corporate volunteering or the possibility to become a social intrapreneur, could help to align employees´ needs with corporate responsibility goals.Practical implications: The results suggest that managers must ensure that internal aspects of management, such as internal communication and employee commitment are taken into account in order to get success in corporate responsibility issues. Managers need to be more proactive trying to introduce the marketing function in human capital issues. Understanding employees´ wants and needs and selling internally responsibility goals would make external efforts in developing a responsible strategy much more likely to succeed.Originality/value: Reflecting the literature which highlights the importance of internal marketing, we pay particular attention to their role on promoting corporate responsibility internally. The results indicate that while organizations strive to achieve corporate responsibility goals, it is expected that effectiveness will be greater among organizations using internal marketing tools for this purpose. To the best of our knowledge is the first time this relationship has been academically discussed

  4. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND LABOUR MARKET IMPACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Liana SON; Graţiela Georgiana NOJA

    2012-01-01

    The research aims to identify and analyse the impact of labour emigration on labour markets within the European Union. The analysis is based on developing double-log macroeconometric models that combine cross-section and time series in a panel structure, by using a set of indicators specific for the emigration process and labour market, as main explanatory variables. The results show that an intense emigration process has extremely negative effects on the size and structure of the labour forc...

  5. International trade standards for commodities and products derived from animals: the need for a system that integrates food safety and animal disease risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Thalwitzer, S; Mancuso, A; Atkinson, S J; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    A case is made for greater emphasis to be placed on value chain management as an alternative to geographically based disease risk mitigation for trade in commodities and products derived from animals. The geographic approach is dependent upon achievement of freedom in countries or zones from infectious agents that cause so-called transboundary animal diseases, while value chain-based risk management depends upon mitigation of animal disease hazards potentially associated with specific commodities or products irrespective of the locality of production. This commodity-specific approach is founded on the same principles upon which international food safety standards are based, viz. hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). Broader acceptance of a value chain approach enables animal disease risk management to be combined with food safety management by the integration of commodity-based trade and HACCP methodologies and thereby facilitates 'farm to fork' quality assurance. The latter is increasingly recognized as indispensable to food safety assurance and is therefore a pre-condition to safe trade. The biological principles upon which HACCP and commodity-based trade are based are essentially identical, potentially simplifying sanitary control in contrast to current separate international sanitary standards for food safety and animal disease risks that are difficult to reconcile. A value chain approach would not only enable more effective integration of food safety and animal disease risk management of foodstuffs derived from animals but would also ameliorate adverse environmental and associated socio-economic consequences of current sanitary standards based on the geographic distribution of animal infections. This is especially the case where vast veterinary cordon fencing systems are relied upon to separate livestock and wildlife as is the case in much of southern Africa. A value chain approach would thus be particularly beneficial to under-developed regions of

  6. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals Inventory) are the basis for some reserves and reserve base estimates. The USGS collects information about the quantity and quality of mineral resources but does not directly measure reserves, and companies or governments do not directly report reserves or reserve base to the USGS. Reassessment of reserves and reserve base is a continuing process, and the intensity of this process differs for mineral commodities, countries, and time period. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. A resource/reserve classification for minerals, based on USGS Circular 831 (published with the U.S. Bureau of Mines) is Appendix C, and a directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2009 are welcomed.

  7. Panorama 2014 - Overview of new carbon markets at international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Although carbon prices on the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) are at their lowest since 2008 and international negotiations in relation to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have been stagnating since the 2009 Copenhagen Agreement, nearly seventeen emissions trading markets have been identified at international level. Without counting the European ETS which has existed since 2005, eleven new markets have emerged since 2008 and a further five are set to commence trading in 2014. Of these eleven active markets, five are in Asia, three are in North America, one is in Oceania, one is in Central Asia and one is in Europe. It should be pointed out that to date, no markets are scheduled to begin trading in Africa. Although four markets have announced their intention to work together between now and 2020, the creation of an international emissions trading scheme is not on the immediate horizon. (author)

  8. A change in a competitive economy with indivisible commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Takayuki Oishi; Shin Sakaue

    2008-01-01

    We consider the relationship between a traditional competitive market and a competitive market with middlemen for trading indivisible commodities. We demonstrate that existence of many homogeneous middlemen leads to a change from the market with middlemen to the bilateral market.

  9. Developing Strategic Marketing Plan for International Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingmo

    2013-01-01

    International travel agency is the case company where I did my practical training. This thesis focuses on analyzing the case company’s current situation, market environment and competition situation in the tourism market. The main objective is to analyze the complex situation of the case company to develop a strategic marketing plan for the case company to gain competitive advantage. In order to reach the objective, the thesis finds answers to the questions of what the current strategic marke...

  10. The dynamic interdependence of international financial markets: An empirical study on twenty-seven stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwei; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the dynamic interdependence of international financial markets. Based on the data regarding daily returns of each market during the period 2006-2015 from Yahoo finance, we mainly focus on examining 27 markets from three continents, including Asia, America and Europe. By checking the dynamic interdependence between those markets, we find that markets from different continents have strong correlation at specific time shift. We also obtain that markets from different continents not only have a strong linkage with others at same day, but at a delay of one day, especially between Asia, Europe and Asia, America. In addition, we further analyze the time-varying influence strength between each two continents and observe that this value has abnormal changes during the financial crisis. These findings can provide us significant insights to understand the underlying dynamic interdependency of international financial markets and further help us make corresponding reasonable decisions.

  11. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND LABOUR MARKET IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana SON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to identify and analyse the impact of labour emigration on labour markets within the European Union. The analysis is based on developing double-log macroeconometric models that combine cross-section and time series in a panel structure, by using a set of indicators specific for the emigration process and labour market, as main explanatory variables. The results show that an intense emigration process has extremely negative effects on the size and structure of the labour force, generating its significant reduction, especially regarding the highly skilled labour. At the same time, we identified a relaxation of the labour market pressures generated by high unemployment, through a downsize of this rate and a slight increase in employment, mainly due to a general improvement of the local employment opportunities.

  12. An internal marketing and brand awareness perspective in a service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach, network and systems complexity is recognised (Gummesson et al. 2010 ... the internal marketing elements need to have a relationship with brand awareness .... implemented effectively, customers have a satisfactory experience, and ...

  13. The successful integration of the internal marketing concept / Jaana Liigand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liigand, Jaana

    2001-01-01

    Autor tutvustab organisatsioonisisese suhtekorralduse üht kontseptsiooni - "internal marketing". Eesti ettevõtete uurimisel selgus, et Eestis on antud lähenemine veel võõras - juhtimine on autokraatlik, usaldus ja teabevahetus jätavad soovida

  14. The internal competitor: Buyer motives and external supplier marketing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Sloth, Jacob Lerche; Thrane, Claus

    Abstract Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this paper is to identify buyer motives for supporting internal competitors and to suggest relevant marketing strategy elements for external suppliers confronting these internal competitors. Research method: With basis...... in a literature review we identify different buyer motives for choosing to combine external suppliers with internal production, i.e., an internal competitor. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are identified and briefly discussed. Research findings: The paper describes different buyer motives...... relevant buyer motives, the existence of different buyer motives suggests that these buyers should be targeted with different marketing strategies. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are suggested and briefly discussed. Thus, for each buyer motive it is briefly discussed (1) how...

  15. Studies on the application of ionizing radiation for the advanced quarantine management of agricultural commodities for export and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Kwang Youll; Choi, Yeong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    {Omicron} Quarantine waste of agricultural goods for export are 50 billion won per year in Korea. The major reason of quarantine waste were inspected of quarantine regulated pest or detected of pesticide residues during importation or exportation clearance. {Omicron} According to the Montreal protocol, reduce the using of chemical fumigant(Methyl Bromide) and required alternative quarantine treatment {Omicron} It is necessary for commercialization project that to practice evaluation and development of quarantine management system using irradiation as a phytosanitary measure for exportation agricultural commodities.

  16. The International Marketing Environment: Textbook Content versus Educators' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidou, Leonidas C.; Kaminarides, John S.; Panayides, Photis

    2007-01-01

    The article analyzes the content of 18 international marketing academic textbooks with regard to factors comprising the global marketing environment. Three broad categories of factors are identified, the macro (i.e., physical, demographic, and socio-cultural), meso (i.e., economic, political-legal, and technological), and micro (i.e.,…

  17. UMAMI: Understanding Mindsets Across Markets, Internationally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    In connection to this challenge session “5C: Comprehending Consumers: Computing Complexity of Cultures”, I introduce a new initiative a so called “UMAMI: Understanding Mindsets Across Markets, Internationally”, a four-year project funded by the Danish government. The project combines the existing...... secondary data such as World Value Survey and European Social Survey, primary data collected via quantitative surveys measuring constructs used in the marketing and tourism sciences, and data available from the Danish tourism industries. The project further employs machine learning technologies...

  18. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN CONDITIONS OF INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Lyasnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the conceptual basis for the formation of international marketing, the characteristic of the main exit strategies on the world market, revealed features of international marketing that national companies are obliged to take into account the examples of international marketing strategies of international companies such as Apple, Google, Nike, the Russian company Natura Siberica.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international marketing activities of multinational companies and the development of proposals for improving this process.Methodology. To complete this article, no such analysis methods were used as comparative and Economics and Statistics.Conclusions / relevance. The results are of practical value, they can be used in a lecture course teachers of educational institutions in the preparation of managers, as well as direct marketing specialists. In the study, the author was able to draw a number of conclusions that facilitate the development of the set of eff ective combinations, each of which represents a unique scenario of territorial expansion. Promising further expansion of the practice of implementation of marketing approaches in the organization of the entities of multinational companies, in Vol. H. The use of new technologies.

  19. The Romanian Municipal Bond Market and the International Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA VASILE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the bond market was set up later, comparatively to the equity market. This market is in a development process, but the international financial crisis has affected even the interest of investors in bonds. The secondary municipal bond market is not a very liquid market because these securities are bought from the primary market and held in portfolios by investors because these bonds have a low risk. The issue of these bonds is correlated with the financial independence and the level of decentralization of the local public authorities. The issuance of these bonds is correlated with financial independence and decentralization level specific to local public authorities. Under crisis conditions, the volatility of this market is more significant, the increasing deficits of local budgets decreasing the interest of the middle-class in investing in such financial instruments.

  20. The influence of internal marketing on employee engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Mekiš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: To what extent the internal marketing dimensions influence employee engagement? Purpose: This study aims at investigating the relationship between internal marketing and employee engagement in the case of the Slovenian company. Method: Using empirical data based on a survey among employees in Slovenian company this paper utilized exploratory factor analysis and regression analysis to examine the effects of internal marketing dimensions on employee engagement. Results: The results showed that two dimensions positively and significantly influence the employee engagement, namely “empathy and attention in leadership” and “work quality and awards”. Organization: The results have significant managerial implications suggesting that organizations should put the focus on internal marketing in order to enhance employee engagement. The latter is considered as an important element in achieving business excellence. Society: It is argued that internal marketing affects the important entity of society, namely employees. In addition, it could be advocated that employee engagement ultimately improve employee well-being. Originality: Although prior studies have found the evidence that internal marketing positively influences employee engagement, this paper further elaborates the research phenomenon through the lenses of business excellence. Limitations/Future Research: One research opportunity is to examine the factors (i.e. antecedents that drive or hinder the internal marketing. Furthermore, the relationship between internal marketing and employee engagement could be mediated by several factors. Future studies should search for possible mediators and moderators (e.g. job satisfaction in this relation. Increase in sample size would also improve the generalizability of the findings.

  1. How to market budget hotels in Thailand to international people

    OpenAIRE

    Pitakanonda, Weetara

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to suggest how to market budget hotels in Thailand to international people by regarding two main areas, namely the factors controlled by hotels (Marketing mix), and individual aspects of consumer behaviour. Furthermore, another purpose of this paper is to investigate the important aspects needed by international guests in order to provide important information to budget hotel owners to develop their businesses so as to provide the best services to cust...

  2. Consumer ethnocentrism in international services marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter, de J.C.; Wetzels, M.G.M.; Birgelen, van M.

    1998-01-01

    Consumer ethnocentrism is a relatively new and unknown concept in marketing theory and practice. This concept, which has its roots in sociology, leads to a nationalistic evaluation of foreign products and services. In view of the growing internationalisation of services, consumer ethnocentrism may

  3. International convergence of capital market interest rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fase, M.M.G.; Vlaar, P.J.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article investigates the extent of capital market interest rate convergence among six EU countries on the one hand, and a group of four countries with floating exchange rates - US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland - on the other. We conclude that interest rate changes within the EU have been and

  4. Commodity Price Fluctuations: A Century of Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Labys

    2005-01-01

    Commodity prices again! The twentieth century has only been the latest spectator to the impacts and importance of commodity price fluctuations. It is reasonably well known that commodity price records have come down to us from the ancient civilizations of India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome. Earlier in the century, formal research began on the relationships between agricultural demand, supply and prices in a market context. This research not only evolved in sophistication but extended ...

  5. Internal Marketing: Dampak Job Satisfaction, Organizational

    OpenAIRE

    Ribhan,

    2011-01-01

    Organizations engaged in services, the role of employees is crucial in providing customersatisfaction. This is because the process of production and consumption take place simultaneouslyon the service. Marketing services will be more easily understood approach combined elementsbetween the product and distribution, which emphasizes the dependence of mutual benefit(mutualism) between these elements. This approach allows management to focus attention on theimportance of the role of employees in ...

  6. The International Market Retirement Funds - Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Colomeischi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the global market pension was marked by the fact that pension systems in all countries have been strongly affected by the financial and economic crisis that broke out in the world, especially in 2008-2010. Its effects were felt primarily to pension schemes with definedcontributions (DC, the participants in these plans being increasingly skeptical about the ability to afford decent pensions. Type defined contribution plans requires, on the one hand, periods and higher contribution rates, and on the other investment plans and strategies for managing longevity risk appropriate to the market in which they operate and the characteristics of the participants in this market.Currently in the world there are many types of retirement plans, the most important criteria to classify them are pension plan administrator, the connection with the employer participants, method of calculation of the benefit, the perspective of the pension plan, the way the pension plan isfund or through the multi-pillar approach.Keywords: defined benefit (DB type, defined contribution (DC type, pension system, annuity rate

  7. Comparative analysis of franchising in international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of franchising at the global level requires its further improvement. This business model has great business potential, especially in the Serbian market, given the current underdevelopment and inaccessibility of information. At the core of our research, we outlined the characteristics of this business model, its impact on business development and at the same time we tried to draw the attention of domestic business entities to the benefits of franchising as a modern way of doing business. We start our research with a focus on the comparative analysis of Serbia, as a very poorly developed market. We then discuss the concept of franchising in Europe, with a special focus on Poland as a country that is ready to export franchising systems, and we continue by providing comparisons with the world's largest markets, namely, the USA and Canada. In this paper, we tried to elaborate on the economic viability of this project, as well as the increasing expansion and importance franchising has been experiencing in the last few years. Emphasis is placed on the use of franchise in many areas of business where there is the possibility of implementing both business models.

  8. ASPECTS OF ROMANIAN MARKETING ENVIRONMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL HOTEL CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Adina COSMA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of global processes on economic development is reflected in the intensity of tourist streams and in the development of the hotel companies’ strategy. Because of that, is very important for a hotel and especially for one that belongs to an international chain to analyse the micro and macro environment, to know exactly which are the opportunities and the risks taken into consideration on a specific market. On the Romanian market the hotels that belong to international chains consider that the most important opportunity is the market development potential and the biggest risk is the infrastructure. Also, the own resources are the most important factor that is influencing directly the activity of a hotel belonging to an international chain in Romania. All those criteria are taken into consideration by the hotels in order to develop a long time strategy on the Romanian market.

  9. international money transfer services market in uzbekistan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kuchkarov

    competition and entrepreneurship and International Development Research Centre. Antimonopoly ...... multiple methods of the effective usage of such money ... current type of services. .... qualitative changes as a result of scientific- technical ...

  10. Using Web-Based Foreign Advertisements in International Marketing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The author examines the use of the Web-based foreign advertisements for enhancing the international awareness of undergraduate marketing students. An analysis compares the adaptation of advertisements for identical products to the cultural perceptions and values of consumers in different countries. In a sample of 110 international marketing…

  11. National Oil Companies and their role in international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Thirteen of the top 20 international helders of oil and gas reserves are either traditional national oil company (NOC) or newly privatised NOC. The growing importance of NOC in the international energy markets raises questions about emerging policies, objectives and priorities of these organizations since, historically, geopolitical and strategic aims in addition to purely commercial considerations are factored into their foreign investment decisions [it

  12. Evaluating Knowledge and Critical Thinking in International Marketing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Edgar J.; English, Donald E.; Kernek, Courtney Russ

    2008-01-01

    In view of the increasing business globalization trend, the development and implementation of teaching/learning strategies appropriate for the international marketing curriculum is a critical factor for the success of international business students. Bloom's taxonomy is a useful tool that can assist the teacher in testing and instructional…

  13. International project marketing: an introduction to the INPM approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki

    2003-01-01

    marketing takes place. First, we discuss various definitions of projects and project marketing. Second, we consider the implications of three specific features of project business--discontinuity, uniqueness, and complexity--over multiple projects. Third, we assess three overlapping types of postures......Projects are often sold and procured. Therefore this paper reviews recent contributions of the International Network for Project Marketing and Systems Selling (INPM), emphasising the connection between the business relationships of individual projects and the wider environment in which project...... that project-selling firms can adopt in relation to their marketing activities. Finally, we make some suggestions for practitioners responsible for marketing projects and discuss avenues for future academic work in project marketing....

  14. Marketing Management: Monitoring the International Environment Factors Using Global Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of the global marketing environment in line with the factors determining its external conditions. The aim is to specify the marketing-environment indicators in the international context and interpret the use of geographical maps illustratively documenting the differences of particular parameters in various parts of the global market. The research-results help update the theoretical framework of global environment factors. These data are also important for practice. Many enterprises consider the question of optimising their sources and directing their goals towards the opportunities available thanks to global markets. The global environment mapping is thereby an important basis for the marketing activities whose implementation across national boundaries is going to be mainly influenced by peculiarities of the environment involving foreign markets and their changes.

  15. Conjoining international marketing and relationship marketing: Exploring consumers' cross-border service relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; van Herk, H.

    2009-01-01

    Research on international marketing constructs, such as consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin effects, typically focuses on consumers' initial evaluations of foreign products but ignores consumers' emerging cross-border exchange relationships with foreign service providers. The influence of

  16. Conjoining international marketing and relationship marketing : exploring consumers' cross-border service relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; Herk, van H.

    2009-01-01

    Research on international marketing constructs, such as consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin effects, typically focuses on consumers' initial evaluations of foreign products but ignores consumers' emerging cross-border exchange relationships with foreign service providers. The influence of

  17. Emerging natural gas markets in the East Asian countries - Challenges for market development and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    Energy and natural gas demand as well as the natural gas market in East Asia is analyzed. Gas distribution and long distance gas transmission pipelines are considered. International cooperation is outlined for meeting the market challenges in the region. (R.P.)

  18. Measuring the internal-market orientation in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wagner Mainardes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of internal marketing in organizations has been researched by scholars for nearly three decades, but literature has little empirical research in the public sector. There is a latent debate on the relevance of internal marketing in the public sector, given the need to provide a more effective service to the citizens. Given the possibility that the internal-market orientation is an antecedent of job satisfaction, the objective of this research was to measure the level of internal market orientation in the public sector, and the Military Fire Department of the State of Espírito Santo (MFDESS was surveyed using quantitative research. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire, which follows the model used by Gounaris (2006 in research with employees of a hotel chain in Greece. 522 firefighters were surveyed. The choice of this organization was due to the importance of the service performed and the society visibility, given the direct relationship with life and assets of the taxpayers. Therefore, the level of job satisfaction of firefighters is relevant for the achievement of excellence in their missions. The results showed that firefighters have the perception that there is little internal-market orientation in the Military Fire Department and the level of job satisfaction is low. The research result converged with the literature on the direct relationship of the internal-market orientation with job satisfaction. Furthermore, the research concluded that job satisfaction is influenced by the identification of the exchange of value, segment internal market, job description, management concern and training.

  19. Prospects of the international energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    The findings of two studies on the international prospects of energy development are discussed: 1) Energy: Global Prospects 1985-2000. Report of the Workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies (WAES) and 2) World Energy Outlook, a recent OECD energy study which is a supplement to the Energy prospects to 1985 study, which was completed in 1974. (UA) [de

  20. International nuclear markets: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1984-01-01

    International nuclear trade is now of considerable importance for the energy balances of a number of countries. From the start, it has been regulated by bilateral or multilateral agreements, ones that always included conditions to obtain non-proliferation assurances with verification requirements, now based on IAEA safeguards. Nuclear trade indeed would have been impossible without the non-proliferation regime that has been developed. Recently, non-proliferation objectives and conditions have come to dominate discussions about international nuclear trade through restrictions introduced in the 1970s as a result of developing national policies. The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) 1977-1980, and most recently the Committee of Assurances of Supply (CAS) established by the IAEA Board of Governors in 1980, have studied these matters in detail. It sometimes seems, however, that other and possibly more fundamental problems and limitations are given secondary importance. This article discusses some of these factors as regards international trade in nuclear plants and the fuel cycle, and looks at some prospects for the future

  1. Understanding Internal Capital Markets and Corporate Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, M.; Huang, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study looks inside a large retail-banking group to understand how corporate politics affect internal capital allocation. The group consists of a headquarters organization and about 150 member banks which own the headquarters. Our data is from the firm’s managerial accounting system and covers

  2. The International Higher Education Market: Mexico's Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andere, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    For years student scholarship programs to promote knowledge or international cooperation have functioned without question in Mexico. Economics of education literature has questioned the validity of similar programs, and the paradigm is shifting from scholarship support to loan schemes and from merit- to need-based grants. This article, based on…

  3. Learning organizations, internal marketing, and organizational commitment in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yafang

    2014-04-04

    Knowledge capital is becoming more important to healthcare establishments, especially for hospitals that are facing changing societal and industrial patterns. Hospital staff must engage in a process of continual learning to improve their healthcare skills and provide a superior service to their patients. Internal marketing helps hospital administrators to improve the quality of service provided by nursing staff to their patients and allows hospitals to build a learning culture and enhance the organizational commitment of its nursing staff. Our empirical study provides nursing managers with a tool to allow them to initiate a change in the attitudes of nurses towards work, by constructing a new 'learning organization' and using effective internal marketing. A cross-sectional design was employed. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in either a medical centre or a regional hospital in Taichung City, Taiwan, and 114 valid questionnaires were returned (response rate: 57%). The entire process of distribution and returns was completed between 1 October and 31 October 2009. Hypothesis testing was conducted using structural equation modelling. A significant positive correlation was found between the existence of a 'learning organization', internal marketing, and organizational commitment. Internal marketing was a mediator between creating a learning organization and organizational commitment. Nursing managers may be able to apply the creation of a learning organization to strategies that can strengthen employee organizational commitment. Further, when promoting the creation of a learning organization, managers can coordinate their internal marketing practices to enhance the organizational commitment of nurses.

  4. International Student Recruitment Marketing in Finnish UAS

    OpenAIRE

    Khadka, Sameer

    2017-01-01

    The government of Finland have been allocating huge amount of budget to provide free and quality education for their citizens. Due to non-tuition fee policy, Finland was one of the selective destination for higher education from international student’s view point. However, the government of Finland implemented a new regulation regarding tuition fees and 2017 on wards, the higher education institutions will no longer receive the funds which were previously provided by the government. As a resu...

  5. IMPORTANCE OF LOGISTICS OPERATORS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    KATARZYNA GRONDYS; RUZENA LOVASOVA; ANNA STELMASZCZYK; WIKTOR JANIK

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present role and importance of logistics operations in international arena. The article focuses on forms of outsourcing in logistics and their evolution over the years. The article discusses in detail the scope of logistics operators' activities on global scale over several years. Article also presents results of research, their analysis according to the sector of activities, their percentage share and financial benefits of using 3PL service providers. The progres...

  6. Statistical field theory of futures commodity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2018-02-01

    The statistical theory of commodity prices has been formulated by Baaquie (2013). Further empirical studies of single (Baaquie et al., 2015) and multiple commodity prices (Baaquie et al., 2016) have provided strong evidence in support the primary assumptions of the statistical formulation. In this paper, the model for spot prices (Baaquie, 2013) is extended to model futures commodity prices using a statistical field theory of futures commodity prices. The futures prices are modeled as a two dimensional statistical field and a nonlinear Lagrangian is postulated. Empirical studies provide clear evidence in support of the model, with many nontrivial features of the model finding unexpected support from market data.

  7. Drivers of the international expansion of emerging-market multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Boșcor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the drivers of the international expansion of emerging market multinationals and the strategies applied by these companies in other emerging and developed markets. The paper applies a conceptual approach combined with analyses of statistics and secondary material and presents the company and the country specific advantages. The proposals for the Romanian companies and institutions are based on the comparison between the drivers of expansion in the BRIC countries.

  8. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock markets * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath-international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  9. International Stock Market Comovements: What Happened during the Financial Crisis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Poldauf, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-21 ISSN 1524-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock market comovements * financial crisis * GARCH Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/horvath-international stock market comovements what happened during the financial crisis .pdf

  10. International trade and the role of market transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Broll, Udo; Eckwert, Bernhard; Wong, Kit Pong

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the economic role of market transparency on the decision problems of an international firm. Transparency is described in terms of the informativeness of a publicly observable signal. With higher transparency, the signal conveys more precise information about the random foreign exchange rate. We analyze the interaction between market transparency, ex ante expected production, domestic sales, and exports of the firm. Furthermore, we discuss the welfare implications of more tr...

  11. The Impact of the Asian Crisis on International Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Uck Loh

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the influences of the Asian financial crisis on the international market and its monetary policy and situation, the sharp backwash of the international private capital which has been continually related to the emerging market since the early 1990s is considered as the most important one. Though this trend is partly the result of the internal causes of the emerging countries, such as the inflexible policy of the exchange rate, the accumulation of the frequent income and expenses deficit and the stagnation of the economy in the countries hit by the Asian economic crisis, the unstable internal structure of the application system of the international monetary market probably also brought a tremendous influence. This thesis takes a look at the situation and is directed towards the direction and scale of the future international capital based on the studies of the unsteady factors of the structure of the economic market, which appeared in the period of the Asian economic crisis. After the moratorium of Russia, the liquidity of the international private capital in the international monetary market became various with the implement of the policy which lowered the exchange rate under the cooperation of the developed countries. Meanwhile, the Asian countries strived to establish the structure of enterprises and financial department in a full speed and with a high intensity after the economic crisis. So it is believed that they were fully qualified to enter the emerging market, and would be again in case of need. As the international investors experienced the Asian economic crisis, they faced and estimated the risk of investing into the emerging markets again. As the case stands, the strengthened joint of finance and trade among countries lead to a higher risk of the possibility that the crisis of one country expands to a worldwide crisis. So it is predicted that the inflow of the capital to the emerging market will be in a gradual way. The selection

  12. International expansion, market maintenance strategy used by French Winemaking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the theoretical concepts that define the maintenance strategies for the international market, this paper presents the results of a quantitative research survey conducted among Romanian consumers of wine. What is aimed at is to know their attitudes and opinions referring to wine imports in order to identify a strategy for the entrance on the Romanian market of the French wine producer Louis Latour, which is imposed by the need to maintain sales in the context of demand shrinking on the home market. The conclusion of the quantitative research conducted on a sample of 402 people from all country regions reveals the opportunity of entering the Romanian market by using indirect export as a way of entering the market.

  13. [Qualitative characteristics and classification study on commodity specification and grade standard of Panax notoginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-Hui; Xu, Na; Guo, Lan-Ping; Jin, Yan; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Ye; Zhu, Xin-Yan; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-03-01

    Through the markets investigations and literature surveying, this paper investigates and analyzes the qualitative characteristics and commodity condition of Panax notoginseng. And the samples collected from market and origin were analyzed in order to revise the commodity specification and grade standard of P. notoginseng combined with production practice. In this paper, the authors divide the P. notoginseng into 4 commodity specification which are root (including Cunqi and Dongqi ), Rhizome and rootlet according to different parts and harvest time. And the root were divided into 8 grade which are 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 120, countless and substandard. The density and internal components between the different commodity specification and grade of P. notoginseng were also compared. As well as the effect of different producing area, cultivation years and harvesting time on the commodity specification and grade of P. notoginseng were researched. On this basis, we revise and improve the commodity specification and grade standard of P. notoginseng. Moreover, we suggest the quality control indexes of P. notoginseng should be developed according to the different medicinal part and commodity specification in CHP. In order to guide the standardized production of traditional Chinese medicine and ensure the quality of medicinal materials, the cultivation years and density of each medicinal materials should also be indicated in CHP. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. COMPETITIVENESS OF INDONESIAN TEA IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Samudera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Indonesian tea has experienced a lot of problems such as land use change of plantation, lower selling prices, and low productivity. The objectives of this study are to analyze the competitiveness of tea in Indonesia and formulate priority improvements that can support the increasing competitiveness of Indonesian tea. The methods used to analyze the competitiveness were the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA and the Export Product Dynamics (EPD, and to formulate strategies to increase competitiveness, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA was applied. Based on RCA, the types of Indonesian tea which have strong competitiveness are HS 090 210 and HS 090240. The EPD analysis showed that only tea of HS 090210 is in the rising star position, while the HS 090220, HS 090230 and HS090240 tea types are on the retreat position. Based on IPA, sub-determinants which are priority to improve are in quadrant A (under act consisting of five sub-factors, namely the availability of human resources with the capbility of production management, marketing and possess an entrepreneurial spirit; availability and ease of access to capital; strengthening of the structure of Indonesian tea agribusiness; the government policies in improving domestic demand conditions and in encouraging the development of tea processing industry.Keywords: competitiveness, tea, RCA, EPD, IPA

  15. Ranking French nuclear industry on international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, B.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the success of its own ambitious nuclear power station program, France has been able to export its technology to many parts of the world, providing everything from individual components to complete power stations on a turnkey basis. Industrial partners who regurarly work together have set up the necessary structures to ensure the dovetailing of their activities during joint operations on the foreign market. These structures are matched to the needs of individual clients, and can be dispensed with completely in cases where a sole supplier is involved. Not one single unit under construction has been halted and no contract cancelled after the Chernobyl accident. France, like Japan and the USSR, is pressing on with its nuclear power program. China has ordered two PWR units for Daya Bay, while Britain has decided to construct its first PWR at Sizewell. Although a number of countries have deferred decisions in this field, this has been mainly on financial grounds. The French nuclear power industry has demonstrated its mastery of the technology, which can now be placed at the disposal of countries wishing to build nuclear power units, to improve their existing nuclear capacity, to develop parts of this future-oriented industry, or to supply their power stations with advanced nuclear fuel

  16. Perspektif Karyawan Perbankan pada Komunikasi Internal dengan Two-Way Symmetrical Communication dan Internal Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the internal communication in the two branches of foreign banks in Kelapa Gading from the perspectives of two-way symmetrical communication and internal marketing. The second problem investigated is the effectiveness of the use of email as a means of internal communication. Data were collected through interviews and literature. The results showed that the perception of employees not in accordance with the concept of two-way communication and internal marketing, but this policy has led the organization to these concepts. In the use of email, employee perceptions still see that the email is an effective internal communication media despite having many weaknesses.  

  17. Internal marketing in the function of improvement of consumers satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Milijanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in environment inflict the new conditions which need to be adjusted to, but which should be exploited too. Internal marketing is an area which provides possibilities for effective usage of personnel potentials and as such presents potential source of competitive advantage. The concept of internal marketing directs attention toward employees' satisfaction and maintaining good, longlasting relations with them. In order to use the potential of its employees, a company has to know them very well, to motivate them, and conduct appropriate educational programmes in order to create and deliver high quality service. .

  18. Global Commodity Chains and the Production of Surplus-value on a Global Scale: Bringing Back the New International Division of Labour Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Grinberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a critique of mainstream and critical versions of Global Commodity Chain analysis of post-1960s global-economy transformations claiming that they suffer from different types of methodological nationalism. After arguing that the key to overcome their intrinsic problems is to be found in the critical revision of Fröbel et al.'s New International Division of Labour theory, the paper advances a novel account of the structural dynamics of the stratified capitalist world-system developed by Iñigo Carrera (1998. Finally, the paper substantiates its main claims with an analysis of the long-term development of the global semiconductors industry.

  19. SIMULATION OF CONTROL STRATEGY FOR INTERNATIONAL MARKETING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Korzh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to develop a general model of integrated management of marketing activities from an international perspective, given the relationship of its parts to each other and the external environment and the cyclical nature of the process, and the construction of a general model for evaluating the performance of international marketing system. Results: In modern conditions high-quality products are necessity-term, but not sufficient to achieve the successful operation of the market. To optimize the above goal should be to work out issues such as the definition of the requirements of potential customers, the timing, location and conditions of the transaction, that is, the seller must offer the buyer at a particular moment only the product that the best way to satisfy existing need for the latter. This may explain the reason for the proposed buyers of high-quality goods are distributed in the market of one country and cannot find it in another. Discussion: The information presented in this article marketing management model allows you to organize all marketing activities and events, and do them not by chance, but in the complex, taking into account their relationship and interaction. As well as the opportunity to working with mesh product and market development to identify new attraction activities and evaluate them in terms of compliance with the overall objectives and company resources. In addition, the proposed method of assessing the effectiveness of a marketing system is universal, and it allows you to analyze the effectiveness of the functioning of the marketing of individual enterprises, regardless of scope, given the impact of all factors.

  20. Potential Effects of Disruptive Political Trends in International Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Öztüren

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the prospective effects of the latest political incidences on the international tourism market. In this context, the arguments are based on the implications of the USA elections and the Brexit. The methodology of this paper comprises the discussion of the debates related to the recent political experiences. International tourism activities cannot be isolated from the political environment. It is clear that the new political incidences will require novel insights and strategies in conducting international tourism business globally. This paper provides a viewpoint of the today’s political scenarios that will certainly affect the international tourism market. It can be used to comprehend insights that can be used to plan the tourism futures.

  1. Internationalization to what purposes?: Marketing to international students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Rhoades

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amidst global discourse about universities’ internationalization, how do universities position themselves and their purposes in recruiting international students?  For professionals working to establish partnerships and increase cultural enrichment both on their home campuses and through international exchange, the purposes that are often foregrounded in professional associations speak to the public good, to the broad social benefits of such activities.  However, my research on the marketing that international offices at four universities in the UK and U.S. are doing to international students suggest that as in the marketing of U.S. universities to domestic students, it is the private benefits of higher education, to the students and to the individual institutions that are predominant (Hartley and Morphew, 2008; Saichaie and Morphew, 2014. 

  2. Federal Republic of Germany: Commodities report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has compiled the facts and figures in a commodities report for 25 years. This report summarises Germany's mineral and energy commodities trading, consumption and supply situation. After fears of shortages in the early 70s, this 25-year-period was mainly characterised by the feeling that mineral resources would always be available on the international markets in adequate quantities. And although there has been no change in the situation even up to the present day, the world markets for mineral resources are currently undergoing a structural change: the old rule of thumb that 20% of humanity in Europe, the USA and Japan consumed more than 80% of resource production is no longer valid. With India, the People's Republic of China, not to mention other heavily populated emerging countries, over half of the world's population is now involved in the demand for minerals. This means that the growth in world economic demand for natural resources is at the beginning of a new growth curve. (orig.)

  3. ASSESSING INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACHES: RELATED LITERATURE AT A GLANCE AND SUGGESSTIONS FOR GLOBAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nacar, Ramazan; Uray, Nimet

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing role of globalization, international market segmentation has become a critical success factor for global companies, which aim for international market expansion. Despite the practice of numerous methods and bases for international market segmentation, international market segmentation is still a complex and an under-researched area. By considering all these issues, underdeveloped and under-researched international market segmentation bases such as social, cultural, psychol...

  4. Internal Capital Market Controls and Financial Performance in Multidivisional Firms.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Charles W L

    1988-01-01

    It is proposed that, within the population of M-form firms, the control systems necessary to realize economic benefits from interrelationships between subunits o f a firm are incompatible with the systems necessary to realize benef its from an M-form type internal capital market. This hypothesis is t ested on 156 large U.K. firms. Questionnaire data are used to classif y the firms according to their internal control characteristics. The findings provide tentative support for the hypothesis. C...

  5. The international power market: Creating a level playing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation examines current foreign government practices in international trade and the impact of these practices on US companies competitiveness in foreign energy related markets. The topics of the presentation include a statement of the problem, comparative government practices, industry trends, making the US more competitive in the international arena, and the role of USAID. The published presentation consists of the outline and slides used in the presentation

  6. Investment Returns and Economic Fundamentals in International Art Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. We examine geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. We find (i) a close connection between the country of sale and the type (e.g., nationality) of artworks sold; (ii) substantial international variation in average returns to art investments over the period 1971-2007; (iii) an impact of both global a...

  7. Current assessment and future potential of the international nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    This is a study of the current and future situation of the international nuclear market. This paper highlights the projections as seen not only by Bechtel Power Corporation, but also by the international nuclear community. It covers in particular the electric power growth projection; the percentage of probable nuclear power generation; operating services for existing nuclear power plants; and the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr

  8. Market stresses and readjustment: politics and pragmatism in the international uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    Historically, the United States uranium market was isolated from international markets; therefore, United States consumers had little incentive to look abroad. Later, the government imposed an embargo on imports of uranium for domestic use. The phase-out of the embargo and recent discovery of high-grade deposits in Australia and Western Canada, as well as large intermediate-cost deposits in Africa, assure that the United States market will be affected by international developments more than in the past. Projected uranium-consumer supply arrangements are compared with enrichment commitments to reactor requirements for several key countries. For all areas, both uranium supply and enrichment commitments exceed reactor needs until at least 1985. Inventory buildup will depend upon what adjustments are made. Uranium prices have never been set by market forces alone and governmental policies and political struggles may have a significant impact on price. 8 figures

  9. Gathering International Competitive Intelligence via Online Data Retrieval in the International Marketing Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fred

    A unit on online data retrieval techniques designed for a college course in international marketing is described. The unit is intended to teach students how to compile information on overseas markets and competitors. Online retrieval is seen as a relatively inexpensive means of gathering important data from otherwise inaccessible international…

  10. Linguistic problems in international marketing: Company experiences in the Chinese market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Goran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present certain language issues and their relevance for the implementation of marketing activities of selected companies in the Chinese market, based on the systematized data from secondary sources. The paper consists of six parts. The first part reveals the relationship between language and culture, as well as the importance of adapting companies' marketing programs to specific languages and cultures of target markets. The second part of the paper identifies and analyzes translation issues in international marketing, from the perspective of the relevant literature. In the third and fourth part we elaborate on marketing implications of correctly and incorrectly translated names of multinational companies, their brands and advertising slogans on the Chinese market. The fifth section deals with Dell's business model implementation problems within China. Final part of the paper deals with the effects of marketing activities on customers' attitudes and values in local markets, as well as the symbolic role of products and numbers in some of these activities.

  11. Integration of REDD into the international carbon market: Implications for future commitments and market regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Alistair; Anger, Niels; Holden, Rachel; Livengood, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Integrating reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) into a post-Kyoto intergovernmental carbon market could significantly decrease global carbon prices and the costs of mitigating climate change. We investigate this impact by simulating the impact of the supply of REDD units on the international carbon market in 2020 under unlimited and restricted exchange conditions. We find restricting supply or demand of REDD credits reduces such price impacts, but comes at the cost of ...

  12. License agreements: segmentation within the international market of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Díaz Vera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The self-replicating nature of seeds poses a challenge for the traditional configuration of Intellectual property rights, as it overlooks the boundary that prevents amateurs from replicating the technology embedded on it. The territorial scope of IP rights and the lack of an international consensus regarding the exhaustion of IP right aggravates the issue. This loophole enhances the segmentation of markets through license agreements of patents and plant varieties which multinationals employ to drag resources all along the market chain, by demanding payment of fees to each shackle. This might constitute an infringement of Competition Law regimes which is undertaken differently according with the tradition of each country but always with the aim of protecting the well-functioning of their internal market.

  13. Labor market flexibility, international competitiveness and patterns of trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzagalieva, Ainura; Cukrowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2006), s. 225-246 ISSN 0012-981X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market regulations * competitiveness * international trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  14. Internal capital markets and lending by multinational bank subsidiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Lelyveld, Iman

    We use new panel data on the intra-group ownership structure and the balance sheets of 45 of the largest multinational bank holdings to analyze what determines the credit growth of their subsidiaries. We find evidence for the existence of internal capital markets through which multinational banks

  15. Implementing relationship marketing and the role of internal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing relationship marketing and the role of internal and external customers: the case of small textile retailers in Northwest Province-South Africa. Fred Angels A Musika. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol. 14(2) 2006: 43-58. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. Investment returns and economic fundamentals in international art markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.; Velthuis, O.; Baia-Curioni, S.

    Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. This chapter examines geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. The chapter finds (1) a close connection between

  17. Investment Returns and Economic Fundamentals in International Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. We examine geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. We find (i) a close connection between the country

  18. The oil market and international agreements on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, K.; Fimreite, O.; Golombek, R.; Hoel, M.

    1992-01-01

    According to most scientists, greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced significantly relative to current trends to avoid dramatic adverse climatic changes during the next century. CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas, so any international agreement will certainly cover CO 2 emissions. Any international agreement to reduce emissions of CO 2 is going to have a significant impact on the markets for fossil fuels. The analysis shows that it is not only the amount of CO 2 emissions permitted in an agreement which matters for fossil fuel prices, but also the type of agreement. Two obvious forms of agreements, which under certain assumptions both are cost efficient, are (a) tradeable emission permits, and (b) an international CO 2 tax. If the fossil fuel markets were perfectly competitive, these two types of agreements would have the same effect on the producer price of fossil fuels. However, fossil fuel markets are not completely competitive. It is shown that, under imperfect competition, direct regulation of the 'tradeable quotas' type tends to imply higher producer prices and a larger efficiency loss than an international CO 2 tax giving the same total CO 2 emissions. A numerical illustration of the oil market indicates that the difference in producer prices for the two types of CO 2 agreements is quite significant. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. The influence of eleven Ps: An internal marketing and brand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of the 11 internal marketing mix elements (product, price, place, promotion, people, processes, physical evidence, personal relationships, packaging, positioning and performance) on South African car rental customers' perception of brand awareness (brand recognition, trustworthiness, overall evaluation and ...

  20. International market segmentation based on consumer-product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M

    With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain

  1. Australian Educational Institutions International Markets: A Correspondence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Timothy W.; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The global market for international students have become highly competitive and many institutions, particularly higher education institutions, rely heavily on fee income from overseas students. This study aims to examine the countries from which Australian education institutions draw such students and used this information to better…

  2. An Exploratory Study of Marketing International Education Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Liza; Murphy, Jamie

    2003-01-01

    Investigated from two perspectives the Internet's role in communicating educational opportunities: students' Internet use to facilitate information search and decision making, and educational institutions' e-business adoption and implementation. Two surveys of international students and face-to-face interviews with marketing executives from nine…

  3. Desiring TESOL and International Education: Market Abuse and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raqib; Ha, Phan Le

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses how Western universities have constructed themselves as global providers of education, and are driven to be globally competitive. It examines how the term "international" has been exploited by the market in the form of government educational policies and agencies, host institutions, academia and the mass media. The…

  4. Perceptions of internal marketing and organizational commitment by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching Sheng; Chang, Hae Ching

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study to determine whether a favourable perception of internal marketing is associated with increased organizational commitment. The role of nurses in healthcare treatment is expanding, and becoming more important as time progresses. Therefore, the primary concern of business of health care is to use internal marketing strategies effectively to enhance and develop nurses' organizational commitment and reduce turnover to promote competitive advantages for the organization. A cross-sectional design was used. Questionnaires were distributed in 2006 to a convenience sample of 450 Registered Nurses in two teaching hospitals in Taiwan, and 318 questionnaires were returned. Eighteen were excluded because of incomplete answers, which left 300 usable questionnaires (response rate 66.7%). Validity and reliability testing of the questionnaire proved satisfactory and Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyse the data. A favourable perception of internal marketing was associated with increased organizational commitment. Communication management had the greatest influence on organizational commitment and external activity had the smallest impact. Hospital managers need to recognize the importance of internal marketing for staff retention and the survival of their organizations as competitive pressure increases. As a great deal of time and costs are involved in educating nurses, the best way to retain outstanding nurses and reduce turnover costs and personnel problems is for employers to understand the needs and expectations of their nursing staff.

  5. Excellent Prospects for Beautiful Minds: Marketing International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how Finnish higher education institutions communicate market differentiation on the admissions webpages of their international business and technology programmes when attempting to appeal to prospective students and distinguish themselves from other institutions. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  6. The oil market and international agreements on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, K.; Fimreite, Oe.; Golombek, R.; Hoel, M.

    1991-01-01

    In order to avoid a relatively large risk of dramatic adverse climatic changes during the next century, greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced significantly relative to present emissions. CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas, so any international agreement will certainly cover CO 2 emissions. Any international agreement to reduce emissions of CO 2 is going to have a significant impact on the markets for fossil fuels. The analysis shows that is not only the amount of CO 2 emissions permitted in an agreement which matters for fossil fuel prices, but also the type of agreement. Two obvious forms of agreements, which under certain assumptions both are cost efficient, are (a) tradeable emission permits, and (b) an international CO 2 tax. If the fossil fuel markets were perfectly competitive, these two types of agreements would have the same effect on the producer price of fossil fuels. However, fossil fuel markets are not completely competitive. It is shown that, under imperfect competition, direct regulation of the ''tradeable quotas'' type tends to imply higher producer prices than an international CO 2 tax giving the same total CO 2 emissions. A numerical illustration of the oil market indicates that the difference in producer prices for the two types of CO 2 agreements is quite significant. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. LABOUR MARKET FLEXIBILITY IN TERMS OF INTERNAL MIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUNEA DANIELA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies have a high dynamics because of the rapid fluctuations of macroeconomic variables and parameters. Moreover, globalization emphasises the interdependencies among national economies, increasing their production capacities but, at the same time, making them more vulnerable to external perturbations. Shocks resulting from this turmoil can be absorbed depending on the degree of macromarket flexibility: goods market, labour market and money market. This flexibility becomes even more important for the member states of some optimal currency areas (OCA because it considers both the mobility of production factors and the symmetry of business cycle transmission; i.e. the correlation of macroeconomic policies. The authors of this paper intend to analyse the situation of the internal mobility of workers as a basis for labour market flexibility.

  8. International Markets: Malaysian Construction Contractors and the Stage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Awil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced demand for services, lack of finances for projects and idle resources at homehave resulted in loss of business for Malaysian construction contractors. Among the optionsthat are explored in this paper is internationalisation of services to help the contractorsgainfully employ their resources and diversify their markets. Integration of worldmarkets, faster transportation and improved means of communication have made it possiblefor contractors to undertake work in international markets. It was found that contractorswere motivated to internationalise by need to make the firm a viable one byconsidering the long-term profitability. Reputation and size of the firm were found to befactors that help contractors in winning contracts overseas. Most non-exporters were concernedwith provision of market intelligence and export credit finance. It was found thatproviding relevant market information, accessible to both exporter and non-exporters, canhelp firms make informed decisions. Any assistance provided should match the firm to thestage the firm has reached in exporting

  9. The Principles and the Specifics of Trading in Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Dušan; Herbacsková, Anita

    2012-12-01

    In the present period of instability on financial markets, investments in commodities are the solution for elimination of the consequences of inflation and ensure the yield. When investing in commodities, the use of specifics of commodities compared to other assets. The distribution of commodities we can interpret for agricultural commodities, commodities of energy, precious and other metals, and weather. Therefore, in the framework of the investment portfolio are the commodities. This is the reason why one of the most popular types of investment assets now become commodities. In the interpretation of particular commodities we talk about commodity futures. The reason is that the spot market with commodities is limited storage facilities. The growth of the popularity, which allows a wide range of commodities, has caused that in addition to from institutional investors and speculators for trade may involve even small investors. This development will be supplemented by interpretation of the charts and figers, which will be commented and used for generalization of knowledge. Finally, the article will be interpreted by the further development of the market for commodities as it by article assumes from the results of research.

  10. Measuring spill-over effects of foreign markets on the JSE before, during and after international financial crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Heymans

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a large body of research that proves the co-movement of international stock markets over time. This co-movement manifests through various instruments ranging from stocks and bonds, to soft commodities and can be visualised as returns and volatility spill-over effects. During the most recent financial crisis, it was once again highlighted that no market is immune to spill-over effects from other international markets. By employing an aggregate-shock (AS model, returns and volatility spill-over effects of the Hang Seng, London, Paris, Frankfurt and New York stock markets to the JSE are confirmed. The findings also confirm the JSE All share index is directly affected through contagion by the returns of the economic area where the crisis originates. However, the results further confirm that South Africa has progressed in shielding its stock market against financial crises in recent times. These findings hold important implications for stock portfolio managers in South Africa.

  11. Non-competitive market behaviour in the international coking coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, P.; Thorpe, S.; Hogan, L.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a primal dual programming model of international coking coal trade is constructed to test for non-competitive market behaviour. World trade in 1996 is simulated under perfect competition and various non-competitive market structures. Statistical tests are used to compare simulated trade flows with actual data. Assuming Cournot-Nash behaviour, an all consumer oligopsony market structure is preferred to alternative models. Under an all consumer oligopsony world coking coal prices and trade are lower than under perfect competition. Under an oligopsonistic structure welfare gains from productivity increases in Australian coal mines might largely accrue to coal buyers

  12. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  13. 22 CFR 201.63 - Maximum prices for commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... actually incurred in moving the commodities supplied from the point of purchase to a position alongside or... between those points. (g) Commodity price subject to escalation. If a purchase contract contains a price.... prevailing market price—U.S. source. The purchase price for a commodity, the source of which is the United...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity certificate for the marketing assistance loan collateral. (b) The exchange rate is the lesser of... assistance loan collateral. (3) Immediately exchanging the purchased commodity certificate for the outstanding loan collateral. (e) The authority to make commodity certificates available to the producer will...

  15. Support schemes and market design in international offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    International offshore grids can combine the grid connection of offshore wind parks with the possibility for international power trading in the future. This paper investigates the choice of support scheme and power market design in international offshore grids and derives resulting incentives...... support. For a stable investment framework in the near future, a tendering/feed-in tariff may be the best choice. It avoids exposing wind farms to balancing with multiple countries. In the long run, also other support scheme options may be of interest....

  16. International biodiesel markets. Developments in production and trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, P. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The global biodiesel market has shown an exponential growth in production and trade across the past decade. Nowadays, more biodiesel than ever before is sourced from abroad and procurement areas - especially of large scale producers and traders - span the globe. While this trend is bound to continue, markets and trade developments are still strongly linked to support and trade policies. Furthermore, the biodiesel industry is strongly linked to other sectors (agriculture and mineral oil industry in particular) and faces significant market disturbances some of which have led to various inefficiencies in the past. Due to the pace of this market development, a methodological assessment and understanding of the numerous influencing factors was needed to reduce uncertainties and risks for those involved. A recently published analysis by Ecofys and the Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, provided such an analysis. It evaluates how the interaction of domestic policies steered global trade streams towards different markets, in particular in connection to underlying trade policies and additional market forces, over the past decade. It provides robust data on international production and trade volumes which have already served as input to the recently published Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This market brochure was commissioned by UFOP to build upon the methodologies and findings of Lamers et al. and to provide a picture of the global biodiesel market in 2010/2011. It is structured in six sections: an overview of global production volumes (Section 2); developments of EU (Section 3) and other world (Section 4) markets and (trade) policies; global net trade volumes (Section 5); vegetable oil trade patterns and their link to biodiesel trade (Section 6); Conclusions and Outlook (Section 7)

  17. Main trends of the international market of educational services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Chinaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world education system everything will more be transformed to the multi-billion industry, one of the profitable directions of which is training of foreign students. Creation and development of successfully functioning system of the international education, attraction of a significant amount of foreign students are not only to increase the budget of higher education institution and to lift its prestige, but also and a method of promotion of policy, culture, economy, a conduct of life of the host country home. With respect there to research and practical interest has studying and the analysis of the main directions of development of the international market of educational services. This article in which changes of the main indicators reflecting the main vectors of export of education in the leading countries - exporters and in our country are considered is also devoted to these questions.The purpose of work is the analysis of development of the international market of educational services in recent years. The analysis of analytical and statistical information on the processes happening in this area, both at the international level, and in Russia is the basis.In the course of the research the methods of the analytical and logical analysis on the basis of statistical data promoting more detailed studying of dynamic and structural changes of the social and economic phenomena and processes were used.In general for the last 30 years the extent of the international student’s mobility increased more than by 6 times. The international educational market constantly develops, increasing the turnover. However flows of the international students periodically change the orientation, both on countries of source, and over the countries of training. At the same time it is possible to note that changes in structure of the largest countries recipients happen more slowly, than as a part of the countries delivering foreign students. The largest world sources of

  18. The political economy of international green certificate markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederholm, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the political economy of establishing bilateral trade in green certificate markets as one step towards harmonization of European green electricity support systems. We outline some of the economic principles of an integrated bilateral green certificates market, and then discuss a number of issues that are deemed to be critical for the effectiveness, stability and legitimacy of such a market. By drawing on some of the lessons of the fairly recent intentions to integrate a future green certificate market in Norway with the existing Swedish one, we highlight, exemplify and discuss some critical policy implementation and design issues. These include, for instance, the system's connection to climate policy targets, the role of other support schemes and the definition of what green electricity technologies should be included. Furthermore, the establishment of an international market presumes that the benefits of renewable power (e.g., its impacts on the environment, diversification of the power mix, self-sufficiency, etc.) are approached and valued from an international perspective rather than from a national one, thus implying lesser emphasis on, for instance, employment and regional development impacts. A bilateral green certificate system thus faces a number of important policy challenges, but at the same time it could provide important institutional learning effects that can be useful for future attempts aiming at achieving greater policy integration in the European renewable energy sector

  19. Tail dependence and information flow: Evidence from international equity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahahleh, Naseem; Bhatti, M. Ishaq; Adeinat, Iman

    2017-05-01

    Bhatti and Nguyen (2012) used the copula approach to measure the tail dependence between a number of international markets. They observed that some country pairs exhibit only left-tail dependence whereas others show only right-tail. However, the flow of information from uni-dimensional (one-tail) to bi-dimensional (two-tails) between various markets was not accounted for. In this study, we address the flow of information of this nature by using the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC-GARCH) model. More specifically, we use various versions of the DCC models to explain the nexus between the information flow of international equity and to explain the stochastic forward vs. backward dynamics of financial markets based on data for a 15-year period comprising 3,782 observations. We observed that the information flow between the US and Hong Kong markets and between the US and Australian markets are bi-directional. We also observed that the DCC model captures a wider co-movement structure and inter-connectedness compared to the symmetric Joe-Clayton copula.

  20. THE STABILITY OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS VERSUS EMERGING ECONOMIES VULNERABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Loredana Nastase

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If during the global economic and monetary-financial felt in the last seven-eight years was observed that the most affected countries were those with a developed economy currently it seems that the wheel turns and target countries with an emerging economy. Thus, the financial markets of advanced countries seem to be characterized by stability in opposition to those of emerging markets, which seem to become increasingly vulnerable. This paper tries to capture the current economic situation of the two categories of states, from the major aspects that determined the evolution of socio-political and macroeconomic indicators, presenting the statistical data and trying to predict future period. A special importance should be given to international markets. Given that the extension of global economic integration and cooperation on the international market participants are relative conditioning is required for a consensual approach and multilateral thereof, for reducing and avoiding imbalances in the international trading system. We will take into account the need to involve politics in parallel with the adoption of measures specific to each category of state. All these issues will be addressed further

  1. INTERNAL MARKETING IN PUBLIC SERVICE SECTOR AND ITS EFFECT ON JOB SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    DÜLGEROĞLU, İsmail; TAŞKIN, Çağatan

    2015-01-01

    Internal marketing can be interpreted to applicate marketing practices to the organization’s employees. Internal marketing is very important and related to almost any organization. Satisfying employees result in motivation so that the service quality of service provider is going to be higher and service output is going to be increased. The aim of this paper is to analyze internal marketing in public service sector in Bursa and to propose internal marketing strategies for managers based on ...

  2. 75 FR 33788 - Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... appropriate international standards for regulating futures and derivatives markets, as well as intermediaries... financially sound futures and options markets. Meetings of the Global Markets Advisory Committee are open to... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee AGENCY...

  3. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity meets the definition of “agricultural commodities” in part 772 of the EAR; (2) The commodity is... international terrorism or the transaction raises nonproliferation concerns, you may not use License Exception...

  4. European health systems and the internal market: reshaping ideology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Leite Borges, Danielle

    2011-12-01

    Departing from theories of distributive justice and their relation with the distribution of health care within society, especially egalitarianism and libertarianism, this paper aims at demonstrating that the approach taken by the European Court of Justice regarding the application of the Internal Market principles (or the market freedoms) to the field of health care services has introduced new values which are more concerned with a libertarian view of health care. Moreover, the paper also addresses the question of how these new values introduced by the Court may affect common principles of European health systems, such as equity and accessibility.

  5. Placing Brazil's heavy acid oils on international markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani; Schaeffer, Roberto; Felipe Simoes, Andre; Barboza Mariano, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies the international market niches of Brazil's heavy acid oils. It analyzes the perspectives for making wider use of heavy acid oils, assessing their importance for certain oil-producing regions such as Brazil, Venezuela, West Africa, the North Sea and China. Within this context, the oil produced in the Marlim Field offshore Brazil is of specific interest, spurred by the development of its commercial brand name for placement on international markets and backed by ample production volumes. This analysis indicates keener international competition among acid oils produced in Brazil, the North Sea and the West Coast of Africa, through to 2010. However, over the long term, refinery conversion capacity is the key factor for channeling larger volumes of heavy acid oils to the international market. In this case, the future of acid oil producers will depend on investments in refineries close to oil product consumption centers. For Brazil, this means investments in modifying its refineries and setting up partnerships in the downstream segment for consumer centers absorbing all products of high added value, such as the USA and even Southeast Asia and Western Europe

  6. Trends of shipping markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  7. On the integration of financial markets: How strong is the evidence from five international stock markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentes, Sónia R.

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the integration of financial markets using data from five international stock markets in the context of globalization. The theoretical basis of this study relies on the price theory and the Law of One Price, which was adjusted to the framework of financial markets. When price levels are nonstationary, cointegration and the error correction model constitute a powerful tool for the empirical examination of market integration. The error correction model provides a fully dynamic framework that allows to separating the long and the short run effects of the integration process. A dataset encompassing the daily stock price series of the PSI 20 (Portugal), IBEX 35 (Spain), FTSE 100 (UK), NIKKEI 225 (Japan) and SP 500 (US) indices from January 4th 1999 to September 19th 2014 is employed. The results highlight that these five stock markets are linked together by just one long-run relationship, although short-run movements are also present, which causes distinct deviations from the long-run equilibrium relationship. Endogeneity prevails in the system as a whole. While market integration in the sense of the Law of One Price holds, pairwise full price transmission has limited evidence. The results therefore show that stock market price movements are highly nonlinear and complex.

  8. Internal marketing and the antecedents of nurse satisfaction and loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W; Pointer, Lucille; Schibrowsky, John A

    2008-01-01

    Employee satisfaction and retention are critical issues that influence the success of any organization. Yet, one of the most critical problems facing the worldwide health care industry is the shortage of qualified nurses. Recent calls have been made within the traditional nursing literature for research that utilizes marketing and business models to better understand nurse satisfaction and retention. The purpose of this study is to develop scales that can be used to empirically test a model of the proposed antecedents of nurse job satisfaction and loyalty which have been used widely in the internal marketing and the relationship-marketing literature. Specifically, the study will investigate the degree to which structural bonding, social bonding, financial bonding activities, and quality of care impact how well nurses are satisfied with their job and their commitment to the organization. The results show that quality of care most impacted nurse satisfaction and loyalty, followed by structural, social, and financial bonds.

  9. Competition in electricity spot markets. Economic theory and international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Nils-Henrik von der; Harbord, David

    1998-09-01

    This publication gives a survey of economic theory and international experience connected to electricity spot markets. The main purpose is to consider the attempts that have been made to apply economic theory and empirical methods to the analysis of electricity markets, and to evaluate them in light of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence. The publication describes in simple terms the basic pool pricing mechanism, and experience with pools in a number of countries. It is worth emphasizing that it is not the purpose to treat in extensive detail the structure of electricity pools around the world. Key factors of the markets in England and Wales, Norway and Australia are described in order to allow for a comparison of design issues and evaluation of competitive performance. 80 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Commodity exchanges - Function and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the potential impacts that a futures market may have on the international trade of uranium. The discussion first centers around the New York Mercantile Exchange. The following market aspects are discussed: long-term contracting; spot market; commoditization and pricing; and advantages, disadvantages, risks, and provisions of futures market contracts

  11. Financialization at the international level: evidence from emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A. Ramos

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper focuses on the manifestations of financialization in the international sphere, which it defines as the increasing magnitude of finance and its decoupling from earlier functions and logic as the speculative motive is strengthened. With financialization the motive of finance is no longer to finance trade and production but to accumulate wealth, which in emerging market economies (EMEs takes place through innovative products and practices that have in common the focus on exchange rate returns, resulting in a strengthened speculative motive. The article reviews the financialization literature highlighting how the different closed-economy aspects impact the international sphere. It conducts empirical analyses based on the financial integration of a country and on the characteristics of its currencies’ FX markets to assess the presence of financialization and its characteristics among EMEs, indicating certain countries where this process is more intense.

  12. The European internal market and Nordic energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.; Hoier Nielsen, H.; Soerensen, H.

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to attempt to clarify the immediate consequences, and potentials for energy policy, for the authorities and supply companies in the Nordic countries in relation to the establishment of the Single Market. Potentials for the development of coordinated electricity supply and natural gas markets, and for cooperative Nordic research and initiatives are examined. Descriptions of conditions in other lands are given. It is stated that decisions on investments must now be taken within an open capital market with other traditions. There is a need for faster technology transfer. It is concluded that it will be difficult to develope trade related to natural gas between all the Nordic countries, but it should increase (also with regard to electricity) between the Nordic countries and their neighbour countries. Regarding electricity supply, lifting of existing rights of monopoly will result in weaker connections between producer and consumer and supply reliability will decrease. Natural gas supply reliability will be strengthened but producers will shoulder more market risks. Fusions will increase but a greater variation of company types and organization forms will develope. Competition will be sharper and prices for electric power could rise. Nordic energy policy will have a more international character, especially with regard to environmental protection. Long-term investment will be encouraged. The Nordic Council of Ministers will need to concentrate on information dissemination related to energy system analyses as a basis for decision-making. Export of Scandinavian hydroelectric power will contribute to international goals for environmental protection. (AB) (45 refs.)

  13. Trends in electricity markets and international investment in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, N.

    1999-01-01

    A review of current market trends in the energy sector around the world was presented. There is a global movement towards the restructuring of public utility companies. The Americas are opening new energy markets, integrating gas and electricity, privatising public utilities and making mass investments. Mexico has made a proposal to liberalize the market since extensive restructuring is needed to encourage foreign investment. Over the next ten years, energy needs are expected to reach 22,000 MW. Much of this paper focused on how Hydro-Quebec International would be a partner of choice in the Mexican energy market. Hydro-Quebec International is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hydro-Quebec. It has a wide range of expertise in hydroelectric power. The utility has completed more than 300 contracts in 80 countries. Their projects in Mexico include the ECOMEX NGV project which involves the construction of compressed stations, and the CLOROTEC project which includes the construction of a thermal generating station and cogeneration with a capacity of 105 MW. This paper also described the ideal conditions for investing as being political stability, a defined regulatory structure, an established legal system, complementary partners, and acceptable rate of return. It was determined that in order to promote a more favourable investment climate, Mexico must approve the structural reform proposed to the electrical sector

  14. The Impact of Internal Marketing on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Moghadam; Mahmood Nouraei; Abd-Al-Rasoul Torabi

    2016-01-01

    This research is trying to determine the impact of internal marketing on customer satisfaction and loyalty in Global Distribution of Bunny Chow of Qazvin Branch. The research type was applied research in terms of goal and descriptive-survey research in terms of nature. Sampling methods were census type for staffs and available non- probability for customers. It was used questionnaire to collect data. It was used Cronbach's Alpha to assess reliability of questionnaire. To test questions of...

  15. Position of Serbia on the international market of alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Đorović, Milutin; Stevanović, Simo; Lazić, Verica

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the major indicators of both the world and domestic markets of alcoholic beverages. Namely, for the last 21 years, for the observed subperiods, the method of comparative analysis were used to study quantitative and structural differences in the production and trade of analyzed product groups, at both the world and at the level of continents and some countries. The leading manufacturers and flows of international trade and the leading exporters and...

  16. Customers and markets. International components for win-win relations; Kunden und Maerkte. Internationale Bausteine fuer Win-Win-Relationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamprecht, F.

    1998-09-01

    In deregulated energy markets, power supply companies change from commodity suppliers to service providers. The core of the process of change is a change in attitude, from producer to customer-oriented marketer; the means applied in the process are a diversified and integrated marketing strategy, targeting both external and internal conditions, which fits into a comprehensive concept of an integrated communications strategy. An international conference held in mid-June in Lisbon, organised by the associations Unipede and EURELECTRIC as well as the International Energy Agency (IEA), supplied a wealth of information on this topical issue spanning a broad range of interesting aspects, as eg. approaches to identify customer needs and correspondingly develop new services, or the quest for new business segments and possibilities of finding win-win relations for both customers and power producers. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Auf liberalisierten Strommaerkten entwickeln sich die Energieversorger zu Dienstleistern. Kern des Wandels ist der Weg von der Produktions- zur Kundenorientierung, Mittel eine differenzierte und integrierte Marketingstrategie, die nach aussen wie nach innen gerichtet ist und in ein umfassendes Konzept einer integrierten Kommunikationsstrategie eingepasst ist. Eine von den Verbaenden Unipede und EURELECTRIC sowie der Internationalen Energie-Agentur (IEA) Mitte Juni in Lissabon ausgerichtete internationale Konferenz lieferte hierzu eine Fuelle an Material. Es wurde thematisch ein weiter Bogen gespannt. Von der Ermittlung unterschiedlicher Kundenbeduerfnisse ueber Methoden, sich danach auszurichten sowie speziell entwickelte Marketingstrategien, bis hin zu neuen Betaetigungsfeldern wurde nach Moeglichkeiten gesucht, Win-Win-Relationen fuer Kunden und EVU darzustellen. (orig.)

  17. Developing an international market entry strategy and tactical plan for the cultural tourism of Turkey in South Korea market

    OpenAIRE

    Alaeddinoğlu, Faruk; Can, Ali Selçuk

    2009-01-01

    Since international tourism market is more competitive and lucrative, most of countries want to give their emphasis on their promotional activities in order to increase their market share. This aim can be achieved either through the product diversification or penetrating new markets. In this regard, this paper primarily focuses on developing market entry strategy and tactical plan for cultural tourism of Turkey in Korean market. After the justification of Korean outbound tourism based on anal...

  18. Relationships between US and international uranium markets. Final report. International energy studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.

    1982-03-01

    Explored are the relationships between domestic and international uranium markets. Market issues rather than political aspects are discussed. The near term problem is that uranium production capacity has expanded well beyond what is necessary to provide fuel for existing or even planned reactors. In the long term, when inventories are down and utilities are ready to look for new supplies, the question is whether these new procurements will be increasingly with foreign producers

  19. 7 CFR 1405.9 - Commodity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commodity assessments. (a) CCC will deduct from the proceeds of a marketing assistance loan an amount equal... collected in one of the following ways, as requested by the State, but not both: (i) When the proceeds of... the State. (2) CCC will deduct from the proceeds of a marketing assistance loan an amount equal to the...

  20. Commodities Trading: An Essential Economic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue focuses on commodities trading as an essential economic tool. Activities include critical thinking about marketing decisions and discussion on how futures markets and options are used as important economic tools. Discussion questions and a special student project are included. (EH)

  1. Relationship marketing and disadvantaged health care segments: using internal marketing to improve the vocational rehabilitation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W; Scovotti, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of vocational rehabilitation (VR) is to provide disabled individuals with the training and support services needed to assimilate into the workforce. This study incorporates concepts developed in the relationship marketing and internal marketing literature to determine the factors that influence overall satisfaction of vocational training services. Results underscore the importance of social and structural bonds that develop among the multiple stakeholders involved in the VR process. Satisfaction is also influenced by the design and equipment used in the facilities and the efficiency of initiating VR services. A highly reliable instrument to measure VR participant satisfaction is presented.

  2. Internal Marketing Practices and Job Satisfaction: Evidence from a Nigerian University Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Olaleke Oluseye Ogunnaike; Omotayo Oyeniyi; Anthonia Adenike Adeniji

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated internal marketing practices and its relationship with job satisfaction in a Nigerian university environment. Results indicated internal marketing as having resultant effects on three major areas or components; understanding of organizational vision and values, quality delivery of external marketing as well as quality delivery of interactive marketing. It was also established that there was strong and positive relationship between internal marketing and job satisfactio...

  3. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  4. Implementing international experience in promoting agricultural products to foreign markets: the Russian export strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia S. Revenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all countries in the world actively regulate both import and export of agricultural products, however this process is very conflictгфд because of acute contradictions on the market. They are associated with the changing conditions of production, increase of attention of the world community to the food securitysituation, change of the used resources efficiency level, competition enhancement. Both internal and external components of agricultural producers support are important for Russia. That means the regulation should be aimed at meeting the needs of the domestic market and at increasing competitiveness of Russian products abroad. The development of the Russian export strategy for agricultural products is currently very important. This problem is closely related to the general subject of the agricultural productiondevelopment, but it has an explicit specific character. Inthiscontextexperienceofforeigncountriesisinteresting. Almost all tools of export regulation existing in the world practice are used in the foreign practice of export regulation of agricultural raw materials and food. Stimulation measures prevail in regards to the coverage of commodity items, number of episodes involving the use of agricultural export regulationmeasures, effectiveness of impact to the national agricultural sector. Holistic strategies of agricultural export development are not a widespread phenomenon abroad at the present stage of the world economy development. Their existence is typical for countries with a high level of food self-sufficiency. Special programs where export component is a harmonically built-in element are now more widely spread. Export development programs of the developed countries include a range of measures to maintain the target income level of producers and to maintain procurement and consumer prices. Export policy of the developing countries has a subordinated importance and is considered as one of the levels to develop national

  5. Sorting out commodity and macroeconomic risk in expected stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boons, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation consists of three essays in asset pricing. Chapter I is motivated by the recent surge in institutional investment in commodity futures markets. The chapter studies how commodity risk is priced in stock and futures markets and asks whether this risk premium is time-varying with these

  6. 7 CFR 1427.22 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity certificate for the marketing assistance loan collateral. This provision terminates effective... exchange the marketing assistance loan collateral, and (3) Immediately exchanging the purchased commodity certificate for the outstanding loan collateral. [67 FR 64459, Oct. 18, 2002, as amended at 73 FR 65722, Nov...

  7. Internal Marketing Practices and Job Satisfaction: Evidence from a Nigerian University Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaleke Oluseye Ogunnaike

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated internal marketing practices and its relationship with job satisfaction in a Nigerian university environment. Results indicated internal marketing as having resultant effects on three major areas or components; understanding of organizational vision and values, quality delivery of external marketing as well as quality delivery of interactive marketing. It was also established that there was strong and positive relationship between internal marketing and job satisfaction. The research measures showed good psychometric values. These findings were discussed and situated within the Nigerian university environment. It was recommended that the university should place more emphasis on internal marketing practices thereby enhancing the quality delivery of both interactive and external marketing of the university. The university was advised to promote extrinsic job satisfaction among its staff. Areas of further studies were alsosuggested.Keywords: Internal Marketing (IM, Job Satisfaction, Interactive Marketing, External Marketing, Factor Analysis, Nigeria.

  8. Introducing ICSMP, The International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project (ICSMP) began operations in October 1980 to act as a central technical assistance and funding resource for contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. CSM is an interrelationship of the public and private sectors working to improve contraceptive availability by applying commercial advertising sales and management techniques. At present Bangladesh, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and Sri Lanka have active programs. ICSMP provides the following services: 1) skilled CSM consultants to assist with studies, planning, product line expansion, management training, and marketing problems; and 2) grants and contracts to initiate or expand programs. ICSMP also sponsors regional and international conferences to provide practitioners a chance to share experiences. Its newsletter, "Update" is written to keep CSM directors in touch with developments. To communicate with "Update," write to Update, c/o CEFPA, Suite 202, 1717 Massachusetts avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20036, USA. For more information about ICSMP write: Betty Butler Howell, Project Director, ICSMP, The Futures Group, 1029 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20005, USA.

  9. Brussels' new energy package. Focus on the internal market proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeper, F.W.J.H.N.

    2007-01-01

    January 10, 2007, the European Commission presented its proposals for an integrated climate change and energy package. The proposals set out in the 'Energy Policy for Europe' document follow the Green Paper on a European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy, a consultation document launched in March 2006 by the Commission. The ideas put forward in the Green Paper have been developed and translated into a proposal for an action plan with respect to the three main objectives of a European Energy Policy: security of supply, combating climate change and the completion of the internal market for electricity and gas. This ardcle will briefly discuss the main elements of the Energy Policy for Europe proposals. The article will then focus on some aspects of the proposals for the internal energy market. In doing so it will concentrate on matters related to the natural gas market. Special attention will be given to the proposals with respect to unbundling and improved regulation of network access and the possible trade-off between the degree of unbundling and the level of regulatory involvement

  10. Is women's labor a commodity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth S

    1990-01-01

    ...A commercial surrogate mother is anyone who is paid money to bear a child for other people and terminate her parental rights, so that the others may raise the child as exclusively their own. The growth of commercial surrogacy has raised with new urgency a class of concerns regarding the proper scope of the market. Some critics have objected to commercial surrogacy on the ground that it improperly treats children and women's reproductive capacities as commodities. The prospect of reducing children to consumer durables and women to baby factories surely inspires revulsion. But are there good reasons behind the revulsion? And is this an accurate description of what commercial surrogacy implies? This article offers a theory about what things are properly regarded as commodities which supports the claim that commercial surrogacy constitutes an unconscionable commodification of children and of women's reproductive capacities.

  11. Alcohol marketing in televised international football: frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Coleman, James; White, Martin

    2014-05-20

    Alcohol marketing includes sponsorship of individuals, organisations and sporting events. Football (soccer) is one of the most popular spectator sports worldwide. No previous studies have quantified the frequency of alcohol marketing in a high profile international football tournament. The aims were to determine: the frequency and nature of visual references to alcohol in a representative sample of EURO2012 matches broadcast in the UK; and if frequency or nature varied between matches broadcast on public service and commercial channels, or between matches that did and did not feature England. Eight matches selected by stratified random sampling were recorded. All visual references to alcohol were identified using a tool with high inter-rater reliability. 1846 visual references to alcohol were identified over 1487 minutes of broadcast--an average of 1.24 references per minute. The mean number of references per minute was higher in matches that did vs did not feature England (p = 0.004), but did not differ between matches broadcast on public service vs commercial channels (p = 0.92). The frequency of visual references to alcohol was universally high and higher in matches featuring the only UK home team--England--suggesting that there may be targeting of particularly highly viewed matches. References were embedded in broadcasts, and not particular to commercial channels including paid-for advertising. New UK codes-of-conduct on alcohol marketing at sporting events will not reduce the level of marketing reported here.

  12. Culture-Laden Imports: International Market Entry and Cultural Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice William David

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study investigates American market responses to a Spanish product that is strongly culture-laden and may violate cultural taboos. Surveys were conducted in two contrasting US universities in Arkansas and California. Contrasting student majors were also chosen: Art and Business. The product is a life-sized baby doll, designed to be breast-fed rather than bottle-fed, which highlights the benefits and normality of breast-feeding babies. Although this product is popular in its original European market, US media accounts suggested strongly negative morality-based American reactions. This study found a strong overall non-acceptance of this product in all groups, but with significant differences between groups. Results quantify the market reaction and illuminate its cultural basis by comparing responses between two culturally different regions, two contrasting college majors, different genders, and different ethnicities. In doing so, this study helps to break new ground in the international marketing of culture-laden products.

  13. Market risk stress testing for internationally active financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Petar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a comprehensive framework for market risk stress testing in internationally active financial institutions. We begin by defining the scope and type of the stress test and explaining how to select risk factors and the stress time horizon. We then address challenges related to data gathering, followed by in-depth discussion of techniques for developing realistic shock scenarios. Next the process of shock application to a particular portfolio is described, followed by determination of portfolio profit and loss. We conclude by briefly discussing the issue of assigning probability to stress scenarios. We illustrate the framework by considering the development of a ‘worst case’ scenario using global financial market data from Thomson Reuters Datastream.

  14. Enriching services and uranium markets from an international supplier's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guais, J.C.; Peterson, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the past 10 yr, the international market for nuclear fuel cycle products and services, mainly yellowcake and separative work units (SWUs), has been characterized by shifting patterns in global demand and resource allocation. For suppliers as well as buyers, the analysis of the supply and demand pattern over the next 10 yr can be a useful exercise, especially if it highlights geopolitical realities and the influence of new technologies. This paper will attempt to answer two questions related to the marketing of natural uranium and enrichment services: (1) on a global basis (i.e., for the Western World), are uranium and enrichment capacities now on line sufficient to meet long-term demand. (2) On a regional basis (the US, Europe, and Far East), what is the short-to-medium term pattern of the supply-and-demand balance

  15. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-07-31

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.

  16. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, etc. The model built is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends

  17. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, ect. The model build is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil and natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends

  18. Information security policy: contributions from internal marketing for its effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ellwanger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protecting sources of information has become a great challenge to the organizations, due to the advance of the information technologies, the integration between them and the constant stream of information that flows through the communication networks. The establishment of an Information Security Policy – PSI may resolve a part of the problems related to security, but it cannot totally solve them, since the human resources present in the internal environment of the organizations may spoil the effectiveness of the PSI. Given the importance of the human aspects in the context of the information security, the present work discusses the use of internal marketing as a management strategy in order to obtain or reestablish the commitment of the users to the principles defined in the PSI, and demonstrates, through an experimental research, the impact of using internal marketing techniques to the effectiveness of that policy. The results of this experiment make quantitatively evident how relevant the use of these techniques may be in order to have the procedures described in the PSI actually carried out by the users, and demonstrates a 402,4% increase in the support to the information security policy, considering the procedures indicated in the PSI that were totally executed.

  19. Internal marketing within a health care organization: developing an implementation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallums, A

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses how the concept of internal marketing can be applied within a health care organization. In order to achieve a market orientation an organization must identify the needs and wants of its customers and how these may change in the future. In order to achieve this, internal marketing is a necessary step to the implementation of the organizations marketing strategy. An outline plan for the introduction of an internal marketing programme within an acute hospital trust is proposed. The plan identifies those individuals and departments who should be involved in the planning and implementation of the programme. The benefits of internal marketing to the Trust are also considered.

  20. Price transmission for agricultural commodities in Uganda: An empirical vector autoregressive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Kaspersen, Line; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes

    This paper investigates price transmission for agricultural commodities between world markets and the Ugandan market in an attempt to determine the impact of world market prices on the Ugandan market. Based on the realization that price formation is not a static concept, a dynamic vector...... price relations, i.e. the price variations between geographically separated markets in Uganda and the world markets. Our analysis indicates that food markets in Uganda, based on our study of sorghum price transmission, are not integrated into world markets, and that oil prices are a very determining...... autoregressive (VAR) model is presented. The prices of Robusta coffee and sorghum are examined, as both of these crops are important for the domestic economy of Uganda – Robusta as a cash crop, mainly traded internationally, and sorghum for consumption at household level. The analysis focuses on the spatial...

  1. International Asset Pricing, Currency Risk and Integration of Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema BAYRAKTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to test the conditional version of the international asset-pricing model proposed in Bayraktar (2000, 2009 by using a parsimonious multivariate GARCH process. The theoretical model, contrary to previous empirical studies that have used random selection of currency risks, determines which currencies should be included in an empirical test, thus avoids this kind of random selection bias. The results from both full and sub-samples regressions provide some weak evidence for the existence of exchange rate risks, thus partially support the theory. However, exchange rate risks' premia are found considerably smaller than that of market risk.

  2. Panorama 2012 - Biofuels update: growth in national and international markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorne, Daphne

    2011-11-01

    As the only direct substitute for fossil fuels, biofuels continue to grow in importance, despite a significant slowdown in investment. International trade remains active, with dynamic growth from the major exporting countries. However, current production technologies will very soon come up against the limits of resource availability, raising important questions regarding the ability to meet incorporation targets for 2020, especially in Europe and the USA. Current markets are therefore expected to maintain their current levels whilst waiting for the emergence of new biofuel technologies from 2015 onwards. (author)

  3. Clustering of short and long-term co-movements in international financial and commodity markets in wavelet domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim; Uddin, Gazi Salah; Bekiros, Stelios

    2017-11-01

    We propose a general framework for measuring short and long term dynamics in asset classes based on the wavelet presentation of clustering analysis. The empirical results show strong evidence of instability of the financial system aftermath of the global financial crisis. Indeed, both short and long-term dynamics have significantly changed after the global financial crisis. This study provides an interesting insights complex structure of global financial and economic system.

  4. International bioenergy trade. Scenario study on international biomass market in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinimoe, J.; Pakarinen, V.; Ojanen, V.; Kaessi, T.

    2007-07-01

    The markets of biomass for energy are developing rapidly and becoming more international. A remarkable increase in the use of biomass for energy needs parallel and positive development in several areas, and there will be plenty of challenges to overcome. The main objective of the study was to clarify the alternative future scenarios for the international biomass market until the year 2020, and based on the scenario process, to identify underlying steps needed towards the vital working and sustainable biomass market for energy purposes. Two scenario processes were conducted for this study. The first was carried out with a group of Finnish experts and the second involved an international group. A heuristic, semi structured approach, including the use of preliminary questionnaires as well as manual and computerised group support systems (GSS), was applied in the scenario processes. The scenario processes reinforced the picture of the future of international biomass and bioenergy markets as a complex and multi layer subject. The scenarios estimated that the biomass market will develop and grow rapidly as well as diversify in the future. The results of the scenario process also opened up new discussion and provided new information and collective views of experts for the purposes of policy makers. An overall view resulting from this scenario analysis are the enormous opportunities relating to the utilisation of biomass as a resource for global energy use in the coming decades. The scenario analysis shows the key issues in the field: global economic growth including the growing need for energy, environmental forces in the global evolution, possibilities of technological development to solve global problems, capabilities of the international community to find solutions for global issues and the complex interdependencies of all these driving forces. The results of the scenario processes provide a starting point for further research analysing the technological and commercial

  5. International bioenergy trade. Scenario study on international biomass market in 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinimoe, J.; Pakarinen, V.; Ojanen, V.; Kaessi, T.

    2007-01-01

    The markets of biomass for energy are developing rapidly and becoming more international. A remarkable increase in the use of biomass for energy needs parallel and positive development in several areas, and there will be plenty of challenges to overcome. The main objective of the study was to clarify the alternative future scenarios for the international biomass market until the year 2020, and based on the scenario process, to identify underlying steps needed towards the vital working and sustainable biomass market for energy purposes. Two scenario processes were conducted for this study. The first was carried out with a group of Finnish experts and the second involved an international group. A heuristic, semi structured approach, including the use of preliminary questionnaires as well as manual and computerised group support systems (GSS), was applied in the scenario processes. The scenario processes reinforced the picture of the future of international biomass and bioenergy markets as a complex and multi layer subject. The scenarios estimated that the biomass market will develop and grow rapidly as well as diversify in the future. The results of the scenario process also opened up new discussion and provided new information and collective views of experts for the purposes of policy makers. An overall view resulting from this scenario analysis are the enormous opportunities relating to the utilisation of biomass as a resource for global energy use in the coming decades. The scenario analysis shows the key issues in the field: global economic growth including the growing need for energy, environmental forces in the global evolution, possibilities of technological development to solve global problems, capabilities of the international community to find solutions for global issues and the complex interdependencies of all these driving forces. The results of the scenario processes provide a starting point for further research analysing the technological and commercial

  6. 75 FR 10332 - In the Matter of: Corridor Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc., Questron Technology, Inc. (n/k/a Quti Corp.), Tapistron International, Inc., Telscape International, Inc. (n/k/a Scapetel Debtor, Inc.), and Universal Beverages... concerning the securities of International Cosmetics Marketing Co. because it has not filed any periodic...

  7. International Market Leakage from China’s Forestry Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon leakage can be a problem when seeking to reduce carbon emissions through forest policy. International market leakage is mainly caused by supply and demand imbalances in the timber market. This paper selects China, which is implementing forestry policy changes, as the research object. We begin by offering a brief analysis of China’s forestry policy changes, such as the logging quota and Six Key Forestry Programs to determine whether those policies affect timber supply. Second, through the use of three shock variables, carbon leakage is simulated under different scenarios by the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model. The results reveal that the magnitude of leakage caused by implementing China’s forestry policies is between 79.7% and 88.8% with carbon leakage mainly displaced to Russia, Southeast Asia, and the EU. Two effective scenarios for reducing market leakage are presented: forest tenure reform and fast growing forest projects to improve domestic timber production, and raising tariffs on timber imports to reduce imports.

  8. Position of Serbia on the international market of alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the major indicators of both the world and domestic markets of alcoholic beverages. Namely, for the last 21 years, for the observed subperiods, the method of comparative analysis were used to study quantitative and structural differences in the production and trade of analyzed product groups, at both the world and at the level of continents and some countries. The leading manufacturers and flows of international trade and the leading exporters and importers of wine, beer and distilled alcoholic beverages were defined, with special emphasis on the importance of Serbia, i.e. its position in the global market for all these products. Pursuant to the above, and importance of analyzed product groups for the domestic market, i.e. agroindustry and the economy as a whole, this paper specially studies balances, structure, dynamics and regional orientation of foreign trade exchange in wine, beer, and distilled alcoholic beverages. In addition, the paper points to the needs, capabilities, measures and directions of further development of domestic production and export of products analyzed.

  9. Legal status and organizational structure of commodities excange in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petričević

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Commodities exchange is an important element of market economy of a country. Being an organized commodities and capital market, it goes beyond the trade in a trade fair and particular trade in real commodities. It includes trading in exchangeable goods by standard label. As foundation of commodities exchange is expected in Croatia, the paper will explicate its status and operation in Slovakia, an EU member state that is similar to our country. The paper will focus on the legal status and organizational structure of consumer goods market in Bratislava. Although it has existed for just over 15 years, it is important to note that it actually goes back to the pre-Second World War Czechoslovakia. Also, to provide better understanding of its functioning, regulations defining the foundation and functioning of the commodities market will also be presented as well as the profile, method and types of operations, together with its positive effects.

  10. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  11. LDC commodity risk analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Under the current operation of the new competitive electricity market in Ontario, local distribution companies (LDCs) are required to pay the monthly invoice of the Independent Market Operator (IMO) before they collect from end-users for the consumption period covered by the invoice, with no clear guarantee that the recovery will occur. This situation creates a major cash flow problem and financial risk for LDCs and threatens the integrity and stability of the electricity market. This paper described 3 features of Ontario's competitive electricity market that create financial and commodity risk. The first problem is that there is no limit on how high prices can rise. Increases in wholesale commodity prices can result in a situation where the amount of the IMO's invoice is greater than the LDC's ability to pay at the time of receipt. Secondly, the LDC bears a 100 per cent payment obligation to the IMO administrator of the wholesale market. The third problem is that LDCs bear payment default risk from all consumers in the Ontario market, including electricity retailers. This paper presents some specific policy solutions that can protect the market from this threat. It was suggested that in order to protect the integrity of Ontario's electricity market during high prices, a policy must be drafted to address the commodity price financing risk (CPFR) issue. The policy must also define what happens if prices increase past the LDCs financing obligation limit. tabs., figs

  12. Perceptual market orientation gap and its impact on relationship quality and patient loyalty: the role of internal marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-An; Weng, Rhay-Hung; Lai, Chi-Shiun; Hu, Jer-San

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptual market orientation gaps between physician and patients and its impact on relationship quality and patient loyalty, and to verify the critical role of internal marketing on developing market orientation. Self-administered questionnaires were then employed to collect the data. We used a convenience sample of physicians and patients at a medical center in central Taiwan, and 90 usable questionnaires from physicians and 450 usable questionnaires from patients were returned. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to validate the research hypotheses. Physicians' perceptual market orientation had a positive influence on physician-patient relationship quality, hospital-patient relationship quality, and patient loyalty, but the perceptual market orientation gap between physicians and their patients had a direct negative impact on these constructs. Finally, internal marketing was found to have an influence on relationship quality and patient loyalty through the mediation of market orientation. In order to enhance relationship quality and patient loyalty, hospital managers should focus their efforts on improving employees' market orientation and reducing patients' perceptual market orientation gap. In addition, internal marketing was found to be a useful pathway in developing market orientation.

  13. Preparation for Careers in International Marketing: An Empirical Investigation of Students' Attitudes and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, J. Richard; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,135 college students tested 4 hypotheses concerning the attitudes of marketing majors and nonmarketing majors (including nonbusiness majors) toward international marketing and business. Results suggest that, despite recognition of the increasing importance of international marketing to the future of American business, American…

  14. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  15. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  16. International technologies market for coal thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports a general framework of potential market of clean coal combustion technologies in thermal power plants, specially for commercialization and market penetration in developing countries [it

  17. Building credibility in international banking and financial markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm; Isaksson, Maria

    2008-01-01

    . There is also clear evidence that corporate advertising is in fact strongly focussed on communicating credibility with less than 10% of discourse and visuals devoted to credibility-free themes and issues. Research implications/limitations - The study takes a production perspective, using discourse......Purpose - The research draws a detailed picture of how international corporate banks and financial institutions approach image advertising to enhance impressions of their credibility. The purpose of the work is twofold, namely to demonstrate (1) how corporate credibility can be conceptualised...... appeal forms. A corpus of 74 print adverts was then analysed in order to establish how financial marketers use the appeal forms to strengthen their corporate reputations. The patterns of credibility appeals obtained were then linked to the supporting visuals to provide a fuller picture of the industry...

  18. Impact of Turquality Model on Branding and International Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Askin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A brand consists of name, symbol, concept, design, standard, quality or several of them which are used to distinguish a product from its competitors. Without a brand, all products have the same qualities in the eyes of the consumers. Business managers use brands to draw attention of the consumers and ensure that the consumers purchase their products again. The fundamental reason for gaining brand value for a product is that it separates the product from the other products. In the first part of this study, brand and concepts regarding the brand were discussed and the importance of the brand in terms of consumers and manufacturers was also addressed. Then, the impact of exporting with brand in the international market was mentioned. In the second part of the study, Turquality and the advantages of the companies which have Turquality Certificate were presented.

  19. Succes on the International Market Depends on Brand Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Brand strategy is vital for the succes of the company on the international market. Identity and positionning are critical in order to develop a succesufull brand strategy. These two very important dimensions of any strategy of brand are accompanying every strategical option. Creating and launching new brands depend on the strategic process of the new product development. The new brands aim at acquiring strategic advantages which are associated with the enlargement of the competence field of the company and the differentiation over existing brands. In its turn, the extension of the brand is a strategic alternative which aims at the transfer or the relaunching of the existing brands. The companies which are following the geocentric strategy need global brands. Only the companies which succesfully overcome the numerous restrictions of the global strategy development are able to get good results. Apple is a good example of a brand strategy that gained a unique position on the global market and continues to help holding it.

  20. Building an International Student Market: Educational-Balanced Scorecard Solutions for Regional Australian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Linda; Hamilton, John

    2004-01-01

    There is an international student market suitable for regional Australia, but each region is different. Hence, each region must determine, target and niche market to its best potential international student customer base. For international education there remains scant, relevant, data for regional Australia, hence complete regional approaches to…

  1. Internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment: moderating effects of work status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meiju; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-08-01

    Associations among internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment were examined, particularly with regard to the moderating effects of work status on the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation or organizational commitment, in a cross-sectional design with structural equation modeling. Two studies (Ns = 119 and 251) were conducted among full- and part-time service employees at Taipei Sports Centers. Internal marketing was associated with organizational commitment and customer orientation. Customer orientation was associated with organizational commitment and partially mediated the relation between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Furthermore, work status significantly moderated the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation but not between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Implications and directions for future research were discussed.

  2. TRANSNATIONAL EDUCATION AS TOOL OF MARKETING POLICY OF THE BRITISH EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ш В Тагирова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of academic mobility of students, professors, professionals, experts, as well as educational programs and institutions has led to the emergence of new forms of educational services in the global education market - transnational (cross-border education. International branch campuses, distance learning, joint educational programs, educational services of commercial providers are the most common types of transnational education and act as an effective tool of a national marketing strategy to promote a national education system in education global market

  3. Financialization, Crisis and Commodity Correlation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Annastiina Silvennoinen; Susan Thorp

    2010-01-01

    We study bi-variate conditional volatility and correlation dynamics for individual commodity futures and financial assets from May 1990-July 2009 using DSTCC-GARCH (Silvennoinen and Terasvirta 2009). These models allow correlation to vary smoothly between extreme states via transition functions driven by indicators of market conditions. Expected stock volatility and money manager open interest in futures markets are relevant transition variables. Results point to increasing integration betwee...

  4. Performance problems of regional labor service market in the context of international integration

    OpenAIRE

    Karlova, Оlena

    2014-01-01

    The research examines the current state of the market of legal services (by the example of Kharkiv Region). To date the market of legal services of Kharkiv Region is mature and features high professionalism of its participants, well-shaped market segments and positive market trends.The author highlights some performance problems and development opportunities of the regional market in the context of international integration. They include manifestations of unfair competition, low standards of ...

  5. The tenth CERI [Canadian Energy Research Institute] international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    At a conference on oil and gas markets, papers were presented on oil market instability and its impact on economic development, international energy policy, oil supply and demand, natural gas liquids sales, world gas trade, gas markets in Europe and Asia, petroleum industry activities and their relation to government, oil refining and product market developments, and the North American natural gas market. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 25 papers from this conference

  6. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE PENETRATION STRATEGIES AND MARKETING MIX OF INTERNATIONAL HOTEL CHAINS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Smaranda, Adina; Fleseriu, Cristina; Bota, Marius

    2016-01-01

    On the Romanian market there are 21 international hotel chains, having 51 hotels. The goal of the research paper is to analyze which are the marketing mix policies and strat-egies used by the hotels, belonging to an international hotel chain on the Romanian market. For this purpose, a descriptive research was implemented through investigation of all the hotels that are part of an international hotel chain. The research reveals that hotels operate by abiding the norms established by contract. ...

  7. Synergies and tensions between and within domestic and international market activities of firms

    OpenAIRE

    Karafyllia, Maria; Zucchella, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    The distinction between domestic and international market activities has an idiosyncratic meaning for international business research. This study examines the significant yet unclear role of domestic market activities for the internationalizing firm through the theoretical lens of exploitation and exploration. By means of five qualitative case studies, we show that both the dynamics between domestic-international market activities and the interplay between exploitation-exploration are intrins...

  8. A Preference-Free Formula to Value Commodity Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a new model of commodity prices in which the stochastic convenience yield is an affine function of past commodity returns. While preserving market completeness, the model exhibits price nonstationarity and mean reversion under the martingale measure, and, as a consequence, it is

  9. Charting the new world order: proceedings of the 15. CERI international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The 15th International Oil and Gas Markets Conference, organized by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) and held in Calgary, AB, provided a wide variety of opportunities for discussion of the global oil and gas market outlook, international oil and gas market strategies and corporate planning in the new world order, competition for investments, the re-emergence of the geopolitics of energy, energy in the Americas, international gas market strategies, and the financing of Canadian international operations. More than 100 delegates from around the world attended the conference to hear some 20 presentations. refs., tabs., figs

  10. The attractiveness of Serbian market in attracting international companies in tourism sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornjanski Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The entry of international companies in the field of tourism in the domestic market creates a huge potential for its growth, greater involvement in the international tourism, flow of people and information as well as transfer of new technologies. Furthermore, international companies in the field of tourism develop tourism in the country they enter and it is therefore necessary to prepare the domestic market for their entry. Controlled and uncontrolled factors both have impact on the attractiveness of a country as a potential market and consequently affect its business operations. Various barriers to entry may be administrative and real (actual, thus affecting the development of market for entry and business operations of companies interested in internationalization in the field of tourism. The subject of this paper is to analyze the market entry barriers of Serbia faced by international companies in the field of tourism. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate if the Serbian market is attractive for entry of international companies in the field of tourism by analysis of its market entry barriers. The results show that the Serbian market still has to work to reduce market entry barriers, in order to become more attractive for entry of international companies in tourism. Manifold advantages of the global companies' entry in the market are that they are perceived as strong incentives for countries such as Serbia to develop their market and make it more accessible to enter.

  11. Cross-commodity hedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, T.

    1999-01-01

    Energy risk management is the principal topic of this paper. Four major subjects are examined: cross-commodity trading objectives (reduce the risk of an underlying exposure in another commodity); portfolio risk reduction (an Alberta power distributor exposed to high pool prices could protect against high pool prices through a fixed price purchase of Alberta natural gas); tailoring pricing to customer needs (sell power to the gas producer indexed to the price of gas); and (4) reducing insurance costs (rather than purchasing downside protection (puts) individually against oil and gas prices, a producer could purchase a basket option). Since the key issue in cross-commodity transactions is the estimation of correlation, it is important to be prepared to alter correlation assumptions. 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. Information Technology-Based Innovation in International Marketing Education: An Exploration of Two Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, Rudolf R.; Haghirian, Parissa; Yu, Shasha

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) innovations have and continue to have a significant impact on international marketing practice and customer interactions. With the marketing environment becoming increasingly dependent on technology, marketing teaching in higher education faces a challenging task of effectively leveraging technology in diverse learning…

  13. Creating International Community Service Learning Experiences in a Capstone Marketing-Projects Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Lynn E.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a project-based capstone marketing course, specifically designed to provide marketing students with an international community service learning experience. It differs significantly from previous studies, which focus on integrating service learning into existing marketing courses and on helping local…

  14. Research on the Pricing of Bundling Information Commodity%信息产品的捆绑定价问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛彦妮; 王刊良; 王龙伟

    2003-01-01

    This article studies the characteristics of low marginal cost of information commodity and points out that bundling information commodity is surprisingly profitable. After an analysis of the three factors affecting the sales income of bundling information commodity, that is, marginal cost, distribution of consumer' s valuation of bundling commodity and bundling size, a marketing strategy for bundling information commodity is proposed.

  15. The responsibility of nuclear suppliers in the international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, C.W.; Cotton, J.D.; Tait, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of escalating oil prices, the developing countries are more and more turning to nuclear energy. As these countries become a more significant part of the international market, unique issues must be faced by the utility and country concerned and the nuclear supplier. A fundamental prerequisite of a successful supplier/customer relationship is a good relationship between their two governments. The supplier can fulfil an effective liaison function to ensure efficiency of communications in this area. In the preplanning phase the supplier can play a major role in supplying information relative to siting, unit size, system planning and plant economics. Once the nuclear choice is made, the pros and cons of purchasing plants on a turnkey versus non-turnkey basis must be weighed. The customer must balance his available resources and experience against his desires for acquisition of overall plant and systems knowledge. During the planning and procurement phase the subject of training, maintenance and service facilities can be an effective part of a comprehensive nuclear programme. In fact, local training and service centres could logically be the first step of a long-term localization effort. With respect to localization the supplier should be capable and experienced in developing this capability and willing to make a long-term commitment in this area. Through a clearer understanding of the responsibilities of the nuclear supplier and a clear delineation of his role, developing nations can more adequately assess the basis upon which to move forward on a nuclear programme. (author)

  16. Commodity risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Till

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the practical issues involved in applying a disciplined risk management methodology to commodity futures trading. Accordingly, the paper shows how to apply methodologies derived from both conventional asset management and hedge fund management to futures trading. The article also discusses some of the risk management issues that are unique to leveraged futures trading.

  17. The international heat pump market as seen from the 'Business Development' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilli, A. S.; Afjei, T.

    2002-01-01

    This article takes a close look at the prerequisites that are decisive for successful business development in the international heat pump market and the challenges placed by them. The article examines the quality of market information and data that is available, especially regarding the market potential for heating and cooling in residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The results of various national and international surveys and studies made in this area are discussed. Several characteristics of the heat pump market - both in the buying and selling areas - are examined in order to clarify the requirements for market and business development in these sectors

  18. Biofuel and Food-Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zilberman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes key findings of alternative lines of research on the relationship between food and fuel markets, and identifies gaps between two bodies of literature: one that investigates the relationship between food and fuel prices, and another that investigates the impact of the introduction of biofuels on commodity-food prices. The former body of literature suggests that biofuel prices do not affect food-commodity prices, but the latter suggests it does. We try to explain this gap, and then show that although biofuel was an important contributor to the recent food-price inflation of 2001–2008, its effect on food-commodity prices declined after the recession of 2008/09. We also show that the introduction of cross-price elasticity is important when explaining soybean price, but less so when explaining corn prices.

  19. Contagion in International Stock Markets during the Sub Prime Mortgage Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yi Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sub prime mortgages crises took place in July, 2007 in US which causes the large scare in the global financial markets, and the international stock and foreign market suffer heavy shock. Using twenty international stock indexes, this study examines whether any contagion effect occurred across international markets after the sub-prime financial mortgage crisis in US. Using the heteroscedasticity biases based on correlation coefficients to examine the existence of the contagion effect, this study shows that stock markets of some countries (namely Hong Kong, Taiwan, Australia and New Zealand did suffer from the contagion effect.

  20. Making Markets for Low-Cost Schooling: The Devices and Investments behind Bridge International Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riep, Curtis B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the market-making devices behind Bridge International Academies: a for-profit education company aiming to school millions of nursery and primary aged-students living on less than $2 per day. A wide variety of devices are utilised by Bridge International Academies to construct mass markets for low-cost schooling, including GPS…

  1. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2730-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  2. Improving internal communication between marketing and technology functions for successful new food product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Grunert, Klaus G; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the new product development (NPD) success for novel food products, it is crucial to understand how information can be optimally disseminated within companies. This systematic literature review concentrates on factors influencing internal communication between market......, and knowledge management, food companies can enhance internal communication between market and technology functions during the NPD process....

  3. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Commitment: Job Involvement and Job Satisfaction as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shueh-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: After reviewing previous research, this study found that few school or educational studies have simultaneously explored both internal marketing and organizational commitment, and of those that have, only direct effects were examined. This study clarifies the relationship between school organization's internal marketing and teachers'…

  4. 7 CFR 1425.17 - Eligible commodity and pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to generally accepted accounting principles. (l) A CMA shall not apply marketing losses from a..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.17... marketing proceeds from the commodity in accordance with § 1425.18; and (5) Members agreed to accept a...

  5. STRATEGIC APPROACHES OF INTERNATIONAL HOTEL CHAINS TO ENTER ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Smaranda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available On the Romanian market 23,9% of all accommodation structures are hotels. Among these 4% are belonging to international hotel chains which is a very small percentage. Almost all international hotel chains realized the potential of the market and that is why they intend to increase the number of hotels opened in Romania. Hotel chains attempt to control and dominate the market as result of an extremely dynamic and complex environment. The decision made by a hotel company to carry out its activity in a foreign country and the way to enter into the market can be motivated by many reasons. The paper analysis the presence of international hotel chains on the Romanian hospitality market and the strategies used to enter on the Romanian market compared with the global strategies. The paper used the comparison method to highlight different entry strategies used by international hotel chains when entering a foreign market. For data collection, the main method used was the observation of annual statistical reports with the support of international hotel chains. The first international hotel chain that came in Romania was InterContinental in 1971, but the majority entered on the Romanian market after 2000. In 2012 other chains announced the intension to penetrate this market. The study identifies strategies for penetrating the Romanian market by international hotel chains. The preferred penetration strategy on the Romanian market is management contract followed by franchise. Not least are highlighted comparative aspects of internationalization decisions taken by the chains in the world and in Romania, analyzing whether in Romania are predominantly used the same strategy as in most other countries or some specific strategies. International hotel companies want to entre on the Romanian market because they consider that in this area is need for hotels which belong to the luxury segment but also hotels that belong to the economy segment.

  6. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Employee retention in Pakistani Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed Ahmad; Nadeem Iqbal; Muhammad Sheeraz

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of internal marketing on employee retention in banking sector of district D. G. Khan, Pakistan. Marketing is the process by which the external customers are satisfied through exact identification of their needs and wants. When we do the same thing- satisfaction- with our employees then this is named as internal marketing. This approach is used to motivate, align and integrate the employees towards the achievement of organizational goals. The motto of int...

  7. Political economy of African uranium and its role in international markets. Final report. International energy studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.C.; Neff, T.L.

    1982-03-01

    The history of uranium development in Africa is briefly summarized. Today there are 4 major uranium producing countries in Africa: Gabon, Niger, Namibia, and South Africa. These nations have the possibility of political instability. In addition, the uranium market has undergone a series of radical changes over the past decade. How these African nations have responded to this changing market, and how their roles in the international market relate to domestic political and economic factors are the topics of this report

  8. Impact of Market Regulations on the Development of Wind Power - An International Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates the most important existing market regulations and market schemes regarding its influence on the development of wind power. The evaluation of the existing market regulations focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: Feed-in Tariffs, Net Metering, Bidding Process, Fixed Quotas, Green Certificate Trading, Green Power Exchange, Green Pricing. In addition, the impact of market regulations for international electricity markets with a power exchange are investigated. The analysis showed that new wind power generation can faces significant market barriers. (author)

  9. Halal Food : Thai Halal Food Products and International Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Noaman; Wanwang, Alisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine salient issues in the Halal food business with special focus on entering Thai Halal food products into international market. Market screening plays an important role in entering new market or setting up the business in the foreign country. In this paper we have analyzed the importance of Halal Food for the Muslims and explained the growth of Halal food in French markets. The study focuses attention on the identification of key areas in Halal food export and channel ...

  10. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As illustrated by the current session of the Canton Fair,China’s exports are staging a swift comeback,though uncertainties lie ahead. In its drive toward a more sustainable economy,the country bumps up lending for the western regions and small businesses. Foreign banks are losing ground in China due to a lending spree by local rivals. Online travel agents scramble to pledge the lowest prices for hotels as they tap an over-crowded market. Also under pressure is China Mobile that recorded slower profit growth for the first quarter of the year. China launches an international commodities trading platform in Beijing on April 20.

  11. In vivo imaging agents: an international market report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a global perspective of the in vivo imaging agents business to market planning executives who are working for companies that develop, produce and distribute various types of in vivo imaging agents. Others that could find this study useful include investment bankers, regulatory and governmental authorities and purchasers of these products. The study attempts to diligently provide market data by type for important geographic markets - Western Europe, the U.S.A., and Japan. A competitive intelligence section which discusses companies involved in these markets constitutes the last part of this study. These profiles are not intended to extensively evaluate each company's marketing strengths or strategies but to provide a general idea of the market presence and prospects. A combination of primary and secondary research is used for all findings. (author)

  12. Applying an international CAPM to herding behaviour model for integrated stock markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmudin Najmudin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of financial globalization in the form of stock market integration experiences a trend which is getting stronger. The analysis models in the field of finance and investments should be able to adjust to these developments. This adjustment includes the models used to detect the existence of herding behavior. All this time, the herding behavior model of individual stocks towards market consensus has been referring to CAPM theory. The basic assumption of CAPM is that financial assets at a domestic stock market are segmented from the financial assets’ movement at the global market. Therefore, this paper aims to provide an alternative view in the form of an international herding model that should be applied in the context of an integrated stock market. The model was created with reference to the international CAPM. This paper combined ICAPM method and international CSAD model to identify herding for eight stock markets, the sample period being from January 2003 to December 2016. The result found that for segmented stock markets, represented by China and the Philippines, herding happened for both overall the sample period and the market crisis period. In addition, for the integrated stock markets, represented by Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and the UK, herding behavior was only found during the market crisis period. Therefore, classification of market integrations should be considered in assessing the herding behaviour at stock markets.

  13. 7 CFR 917.122 - Qualification requirements and nominiation procedure for public members of Commodity Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits... members of Commodity Committees. (a) Public members shall not have a financial interest in or be associated with production, processing, financing, or marketing (except as consumers) of the commodities...

  14. ENUSA in the international market of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J. E.; Gonzalez, R.

    2002-01-01

    ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas, s. a. has a promising future into the nuclear fuel world market evolving from a starting model of a state owned company focused on the Spanish market and using exclusively the technology coming from their American partners, to a current model of a modern company where technological innovation, the competitiveness and the quality are key factors in the developments of his business. ENUSA is a company oriented to the export sustained by the integrated services provided to the Spanish nuclear sector,where Europe is his natural market, but open to seek opportunities together with his technological partners into the American and Japanese market. (Author)

  15. TRANSFER OF MARKETING KNOWLEDGE IN THAI INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mohamad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the transfer of marketing knowledge within Thai joint venture firms. The perspectives of Thai managers were surveyed using a structured instrument. The analysis identifies seven dimensions of marketing management knowledge: promotion management, price management, logistics management, product innovation management, strategic marketing management, cross-cultural management, and target marketing management. The incidence of transfer is highest for activities in strategic marketing management, followed by price management. Transfer in product innovation management and target marketing management tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. Joint venture firms with foreign partners originating from Western, advanced, industrialised nations recorded the highest incidence of knowledge transfer occurring within product innovation management. This trend also holds true for the management of promotion activities. The incidence of transfer in target marketing management is lowest among firms with foreign partners from neighbouring nations. The incidence of knowledge transfer within product innovation and target marketing also tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. An analysis based on industry classification revealed that the transfer of knowledge regarding logistics management occurs most for firms in the manufacturing sector. In the service sector, the highest incidence of knowledge transfer within the areas of promotion management and target marketing management occurred in the agricultural sector.

  16. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    United States, about 30 companies accounted for more than 90 percent of the silver fabricated. The consumption of silver for all fabrication uses is expected to grow slowly through the decade ending in 2010 at about 1.3 percent per year for the world and 2.4 percent per year for the United States. World and U.S. reserves and reserve bases are more than adequate to satisfy the demand for newly mined silver through 2010. The other components of supply will be silver recovered from scrap, silver from industrial stocks, and silver bullion that is sold into the market from commodity exchange and private stocks.

  17. THE MODEL OF MANAGEMENT OF THE INTERNAL MARKETING OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Viktorovna Naurazbaeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is the development of methods and models of management of the internal marketing of a higher education institute based on complex approach that includes strategic management methods and staff marketing and also technologies of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP.Method or methodology of the research. Adapted models and methods of Neuro-Linguistic Programming, strategic management and marketing to management of marketing of the university which are presented as a complex of models that are reveling through the interrelation «external labor-market – higher education institute – internal labor-market».Results:1. The mechanism of management of the internal marketing of higher education institute based on the interrelation «external labor – market – higher education institute – internal labor-market» is offered that assumes solving problem of miscomparison between market conditions, university’s opportunities and demands of an employee of this educational institute.2. Methodical bases of formation of NLP-model that coordinates the requirements of labor collective as internal consumers of the educational service and needs of higher education institute in order to provide high quality services at all stages of creation and realization of an educational service are developed.3. The infological model of construction and choosing the strategy of the internal marketing of educational institute is presented.Practical implications. The received results can be used in practical management of higher education institute when forming the strategy of the internal marketing taking into account the specific features of concrete university.

  18. Linguistic problems in international marketing: Company experiences in the Chinese market

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović Goran; Krstić Bojan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present certain language issues and their relevance for the implementation of marketing activities of selected companies in the Chinese market, based on the systematized data from secondary sources. The paper consists of six parts. The first part reveals the relationship between language and culture, as well as the importance of adapting companies' marketing programs to specific languages and cultures of target markets. The second part of the paper identifies and an...

  19. International Markets Boosted in The 9th Chitec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ The UK, Small Country with Largest European Market Mr. Corin Wilson, Inward Investment Manager, British embassy Beijing General Bureau of Trade and Investment in UK(Accessing the UK Market and Beyond): In 2006, there are many reasons why China and Chinese companies are looking for the opportunities of investment in the UK, which includes very good trade organizations.

  20. Pengaruh Pemberian Insentif terhadap Semangat Kerja Karyawan Departemen Marketing pada PT. Federal International Finance Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Heriyanto, Meyzi; Atmaja, Surya

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted in PT. Federal International Finance Pekanbaru. The setting of this problem is the influence the granting of incentives to employeer morale the Department of Marketing at PT. Federal International Finance Pekanbaru. The purpose of this research is to know the granting of incentives, morale, and know how the granting of incentives to employeer morale the Department of Marketing at PT. Federal International Finance Pekanbaru.The author uses descriptive quantitative m...

  1. Empirical analysis of the constituent factors of internal marketing orientation at Spanish hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo, José Luis Ruizalba; Arán, María Vallespín

    2014-01-01

    This study, which draws upon specialized literature and empirical evidence, aims to characterize the underlying structure of the construct ‘Internal Marketing Orientation’ (IMO). As a consequence six underlying factors are identified: exchange of values, segmentation of the internal market, internal communication, management concern, implementation of management concern and training. It also evaluates the degree of Spanish hotels’ IMO, classifying them into three different groups according to...

  2. Cultural Differences Applied in International Marketing : Cases Of McDonalds and Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkerimova, Assiyat

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate how culture and cultural differences influence on the international marketing. Also, it demonstrates how international companies deal with cross-cultural issues and problems. First, the importance of culture and two models of cultural dimensions like Hofstede and Trompenaars will be analyzed and discussed. Second, the marketing activities of two international corporations- McDonald's and Red Bull will be discussed and analyzed. The research wi...

  3. Modeling Multi-commodity Trade Information Exchange Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Traczyk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Market mechanisms are entering into new fields of economy, in which some constraints of physical world, e.g. Kirchoffs Law in power grid, must be taken into account during trading. On such markets, some of commodities, like telecommunication bandwidth or electrical energy, appear to be non-storable, and must be exchanged in real-time. On the other hand, the markets tend to react at shortest possible time, so an idea to delegate some competency to autonomous software agents is very attractive. Multi-commodity mechanism addresses the aforementioned requirements. Modeling the relationships between the commodities allows to formulate new, more sophisticated models and mechanisms, which reflect decision situations in a better manner. Application of multi-commodity approach requires solving several issues related to data modeling, communication, semantics aspects of communication, reliability, etc. This book answers some of the questions and points out promising paths for implementation and development. Presented s...

  4. International and Domestic Market Opportunities for Biomass Power: Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-09-01

    This report examines the domestic and international markets for biopower. Domestic and foreign markets present fundamentally different challenges to private power developers. Volume I focuses on the domestic market for biopower. The domestic challenge lies in finding economically viable opportunities for biopower. Vol. I outlines the current state of the U.S. biomass industry, discusses policies affecting biomass development, describes some demonstration projects currently underway, and discusses the future direction of the industry. Volume II focuses on the international market for biopower. Recent literature states that the electricity investment and policy climate in foreign markets are the key elements in successful private project development. Vol. II discusses the financing issues, policy climate, and business incentives and barriers to biopower development. As India and China are the largest future markets for biopower, they are the focus of this volume. Three other top markets- -Brazil, Indonesia, and the Philippines--are also discussed. Potential financial resources wrap up the discussion.

  5. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  6. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  7. Rambutan Commodity Development Strategy as Regional Potential Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential product of a region needs to be developed in order to improve the social welfare. Commonly, at harvest time, there is abundant horticulture commodity. Unluckily, the price of the commodity drops significantly. In other words, it costs extremely cheap. The purpose of research is analyzing the internal and external factors and determining an appropriate strategy for developing rambutan in Central Java, especially at Gunungpati District, Semarang, Central Java Province. The primary data of this research is obtained from 58 rambutan farmers that have been interviewed and have filled out the questionnaire forms. The secondary data is taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the monograph of the village and the internet by implementing the literature study method. Then, SWOT analysis is implemented for analizing the data. The internal factors that become the strengths are fertilized land for rambutan to grow and the farmers’ hereditary experiences in cultivating rambutan. Further, the lack of absorbing power of knowledge and technologies and the low existence of rambutan business are the weaknesses. Next, the external factor that becomes opportunity is the continuous increasing market demand, while the threat is the young generations having no interest in rambutan business. Finally, the stability (hold and maintain strategy should be implemented for developing rambutan business

  8. Rambutan Commodity Development Strategy as Regional Potential Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential product of a region needs to be developed in order to improve the social welfare. Commonly, at harvest time, there is abundant horticulture commodity. Unluckily, the price of the commodity drops significantly. In other words, it costs  extremely cheap. The purpose of research is analyzing the internal and external factors and determining an appropriate strategy for developing rambutan in Central Java, especially at Gunungpati District, Semarang, Central Java Province. The primary data of this research is obtained from 58 rambutan farmers that have been interviewed and have filled out the questionnaire forms. The secondary data is taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the monograph of the village and the internet by implementing the literature study method. Then, SWOT analysis is implemented for analizing the data. The internal factors that become the strengths are fertilized land for rambutan to grow and the farmers’ hereditary experiences in cultivating rambutan. Further, the lack of absorbing power of knowledge and technologies and the low existence of rambutan business are the weaknesses. Next, the external factor that becomes opportunity is the continuous increasing market demand, while the threat is the young generations having no interest in rambutan business. Finally, the stability (hold and maintain strategy should be implemented for developing rambutan business

  9. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Reducing post-harvest food losses is becoming increasingly important for sustaining food supplies. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for improving food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation involves controlled application of energy of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, food products and ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. The process employs either gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or high-energy electrons or X-rays generated from machine sources

  10. Qualitative assessment of the commodity risk for spread of foot-and-mouth disease associated with international trade in deboned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, D J; Sinclair, M; Rodríguez, R

    2010-06-01

    The risk of importing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) restricts trade in livestock and their products from parts of the world where the virus is present. This reduces trade opportunities and investment in the livestock sector of many developing countries and constrains global food supply. This review focuses on the risks associated with trade in deboned beef (DB) from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-infected cattle, countries or zones. A definition of DB is provided along with a description of the procedures for its preparation within beef slaughtering operations. Evidence is reviewed for circumstances under which DB can be contaminated with FMDV, and a commodity risk factor approach is used to consider the mitigating efficacy of slaughterhouse procedures. A combination of pre-slaughter and slaughterhouse measures has enabled DB to be safely imported into FMD-free countries from countries that were not nationally or zonally FMD-free. Nevertheless, current evidence does not provide absolute assurance that abattoir procedures for producing DB can result, by themselves, in a commodity with a negligible risk of transmitting FMDV without complementary measures to reduce the likelihood of slaughtering infected cattle. The main areas of uncertainty are the amounts of residual FMDV-harbouring tissues within DB, and our understanding of what constitutes a safe level of contamination. More detailed guidance should be developed to specify the mitigating measures needed in support of the export of DB from regions that are not officially FMD-free. This will help to avoid differences in interpretation of what is needed that give rise to obstacles to trade.

  11. 7 CFR 1599.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.9... commodities, the participant shall arrange for the recovery of that portion of the donated commodities...

  12. Optimal Commodity Taxation and Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Benassi, Corrado; Randon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    We consider the interplay between income distribution and optimal commodity taxation, linking equity issues to optimal taxes through the effect of income distribution on market demand and its price elasticity. We find conditions to conciliate the equity and efficiency tradeoff and to assess the impact of inequality changes on the optimal taxation of necessity and luxury goods. We show that the regressivity or progressivity of the tax system is determined by the distribution of luxuries and ne...

  13. LNG: a commodity in the making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrelie, M.F

    2006-07-01

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  14. LNG: a commodity in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  15. LNG: a commodity in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Although still far being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realization of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7% year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  16. Unhealthy marketing of pharmaceutical products: An international public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinari, Shai

    2016-05-01

    I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care.

  17. Flavored alcoholic beverages: an international marketing campaign that targets youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, James F; Johnsson, Diane

    2005-09-01

    Flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) were first introduced into the alcohol market in the early I980s in the form of wine coolers. FABs are sweet, relatively low alcohol content beverages that are designed for "entry-level" drinkers. The alcohol industry has introduced new products and production methods to expand the category's popularity. Research suggests that they are popular with underage drinkers, particularly teenage girls, and that the industry uses marketing practices that appear to target youth. FABs are now marketed globally, and their production and marketing vary by country based on national regulatory restraints. In the United States, industry representations that the products are malt beverages for regulatory purposes appears to violate many state laws because the alcohol in the FABs is derived from distilled spirits. Recommendations for regulatory reform, including new legal definitions of FABs, increased taxes, and restrictions on availability, are applicable at both national and state levels.

  18. Reshaping globalisation: a new order for international financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter, Heribert

    2002-01-01

    Since the Mexican crisis in 1994/95, a large number of developing countries and emerging markets have been hit by financial crises. Argentina is the last country that is suffering from dramatic economic problems. The main cause of these crises are the deregulation and liberalisation of financial markets that have been associated with the current model of globalisation. This model is not sustainable: Is has contributed to massive economic problems in the developing world without providing the ...

  19. Long-run equilibrium relationships in the international stock market factor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Suk Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the international linkages among local, country-specific stock market factors in order to better understand the dependence structure of increasingly integrated world financial markets. The seeming discordance between Fama and French (1998 and Griffin (2002 regarding the multi-factor model in the international stock markets motivates us to study the international relationship among local factors. With the individual stock data from the six major developed countries in the international stock market, we compose daily returns to the Fama-French three factors (i.e. market, size, and value and the momentum factor over the period from January 2000 to June 2010. We investigate the international linkages among local stock market factors, focusing on their equilibrium relationship in the integrated world financial market. The cointegration analysis indicates that local factor indices, constructed from the cumulative factor returns, are cointegrated for each of the four factor classes. Thus, we conclude that local factors are globally bound to each other through a long-run equilibrium relationship and that although stock market factors may be local, rather than global, individual stock returns are driven by common global stochastic trends.

  20. A review of international green power markets: recent experience, trends, and market drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, L.; Aabakken, J.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Green power marketing-the act of differentially selling electricity generated wholly or in part from renewable sources - has emerged in more than a dozen countries around the world. Almost two million customers worldwide buy green power today. This paper reviews green power marketing activity in Australia, Canada, Japan, the US, and in a number of countries in Europe to gain an understanding of consumer demand for electricity generated from renewable sources. It also examines key factors that influence market penetration of green power products, such as product designs, pricing, incentives, marketing strategies, policies, and product certification.(author)