WorldWideScience

Sample records for international child development

  1. Child Welfare in Developing Countries | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-05

    Aug 5, 2010 ... In developing countries, there has been relatively little empirical work on the analysis and measurement of child poverty. Further ... Based on original research in Africa and South America and using a ... Related content ...

  2. Healthy Child Uganda | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many children die from diarrhea, acute respiratory illness and malaria, despite the fact that there are well recognized, inexpensive and highly effective treatments for these ailments. Healthy Child Uganda (HCU), a Ugandan-Canadian partnership, has been operating a village health volunteer program ...

  3. Child Development: New Diagnoses for the NANDA International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Juliana Martins de; Cruz, Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da; Veríssimo, Maria De La Ó Ramallo

    2018-04-01

    The paper proposes new diagnoses on child development (CD) for NANDA International. The study followed the recommended steps of Developmental Processes for NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses. It was a secondary analysis study on the findings of a concept analysis study on CD. A proposal of labels and components of three diagnoses: "Delayed child development," "Risk for delayed child development," and "Readiness for enhanced child development." The proposed diagnoses represent all the complexity of CD. The proposed diagnoses can support nurses in the development of a comprehensive care plan on the health of children. OBJETIVO: propor novos diagnósticos de enfermagem para a NANDA-International que abordem o desenvolvimento infantil. MÉTODO: Este estudo seguiu as etapas recomendadas para o desenvolvimento de diagnósticos de enfermagem da NANDA-International. Foi realizado a partir dos resultados da análise de conceito do termo desenvolvimento infantil. Propostos os títulos e os componentes de três diagnósticos: "Atraso no desenvolvimento infantil," "Risco de atraso no desenvolvimento infantil," e "Disposição para desenvolvimento infantil melhorado." CONCLUSÕES: Os diagnósticos propostos contemplam toda a complexidade do desenvolvimento infantil. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA DE ENFERMAGEM: Os novos diagnósticos podem subsidiar o enfermeiro na elaboração de um plano de cuidados integrais à saúde da criança. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  4. Improving child nutrition | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They are also assessing the extent of childhood obesity and developing ... former Head of Department, Nutrition and Food Science, at the University of Ghana. ... President of the Ghana Nutrition Association, and Africa's representative on the ...

  5. Child Soldiers Initiative | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The involvement of children in fighting forces continues to be widespread, undercutting security and blocking development in many fragile states. Failure to prevent children from being recruited - and effectively reintegrate those who have been - results in their continued vulnerability, undermines peace agreements, and ...

  6. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  7. Evaluation of Follow-Up Effects of the International Child Development Programme on Caregivers in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; Sherr, Lorraine; Clucas, Claudine; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Parenting programs have been used to good effect in many settings, yet few are systematically introduced and evaluated in developing countries. This study explores the relative long-term effect of participation in the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in a group of caregivers in Mozambique. A quasi-experimental design was used to…

  8. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developmental conditions. More Child Development Basics Early Brain Development Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting Tips Infants (0-1 year) Toddlers (1-2 years) Toddlers (2-3 years) Preschoolers (3-5 years) Middle Childhood (6-8 years) Middle Childhood (9-11 years) ...

  9. Development of a mathematic phantom for a child with 10 years age for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, S.F.; Poston, J.W.; Watanabe, S.

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of this research are:1) develop the mathematic phantom project of a child with 10 years age and 2) use this phanton as calculation base of specific absorbed fractions in internal organs and in skeleton due to the radionuclides more used in nuclear medicine. The forescasting of specific absorbed fractions obtainment by the use of this phantom are compared with a more simple model, and the differences are also discussed. (C.G.C.) [pt

  10. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  11. POSITIVE INTERACTION IN AN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: MANIFESTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (ICDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Alamdar oglu Suleymanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Kind relation between a child and caregiver (parent, teacher is a critically vital point for psychological development of children. Better relations also contribute to the child’s healthy growth and intellectual, social and emotional development. Fundamental caregiving skills function as particularly important contribution to the quality and effectiveness all caregiving. In order to facilitate full development of a child, it is important that the caregiver have a positive conception of the child. In other words, a caregiver should regard a child as a person with potential for development. From this perspective International Child Development Programme (ICDP functions as a resource-based communication and mediation approach which trains caregiver to develop a positive conception of their children and gain wider and deeper insight and confidence about their responsibilities and roles. Based on the themes of ICDP, the current research studied the quality of positive interaction between teacher assistants (TA and children with special needs (CSN in an inclusive primary education in Azerbaijan. The findings suggest that some elements of ICDP approach exist in teacher-student interaction. However, these interaction patterns are unprofessional and need development through relevant in-service trainings. Methods. In this research a case study design of qualitative research was used to investigate teacher assistants’ (TA understanding of positive attitude and how they establish positive relations with the students with special needs whom they take care of. As for the research method, the case study will adopt triangulation, a multiple methods of data collection which will include interview and observation to extend confidence in its validity and improve the quality of the data and accuracy of the findings. Results. Comparative analyses of triangulation data demonstrate that TAs’ performance within the context of teacher-student positive

  12. How the Parent-Child Relationship Affects Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behavior Development in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Lauren Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parent-child relationship characteristics (attachment, involvement, discipline practices, parenting confidence, and relational frustration) and behavioral outcomes (internalizing, externalizing, and adaptive) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD presents pervasive…

  13. Mathematical development of a 10 years old child phantom for use in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, S.F.; Poston, J.W.; Watanabe, S.

    1989-08-01

    The main objectives of this work are: 1) to develop a project of a mathematical phantom representing as far as possible a child of 10 years old and 2)to use this phantom as a base for the specific absorbed fractions (SAF) calculations in the internal organs and skeleton due to the radioisotopes most used in nuclear medicine. This phantom was similar in shape to the Fisher and Snyder one, but several changes were introduced to make the phantom more realistic. Those changes included the addition of a neck region, puting the arms outside the trunk region, changes in the trunk, head and genitalia regions shapes. Several modifications were also done in the skeleton. For instance, the head bones, rib cage, pelvis, vertebral column, scapula, clavicles and the arms and legs bones were made very close to the real anatomic shapes. Some internal organs as the brain, lungs, liver, small and large intestines were also changed as a consenquence of the above modifications. In all those cases, the changes were made not only in the shapes but also in the organs and bones position in such a way to be more representative of the 10 years old anatomic age. Estimates of the SAF obtained by the use of this phantom, resulted, as expected, significantly different from those obtained by the use of a simpler model. In other words, the ratio between the SAF in the organs of the phantom developed in this project and the SAF in the organs of the phantom similar to the adult (obtained by reducing each region of the adult phantom by the use of appropriate factor) vary from 0.37 to 5. Those differences and their meaning are also discussed. (author) [pt

  14. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  15. International development and psychometric properties of the Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen (CATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Cedric; Berliner, Lucy; Holt, Tonje; Jensen, Tine K; Jungbluth, Nathaniel; Risch, Elizabeth; Rosner, Rita; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2017-03-01

    Systematic screening is a powerful means by which children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) can be detected. Reliable and valid measures based on current diagnostic criteria are needed. To investigate the internal consistency and construct validity of the Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen (CATS) in three samples of trauma-exposed children in the US (self-reports: n=249; caregiver reports: n=267; pre-school n=190), in Germany (self-reports: n=117; caregiver reports: n=95) and in Norway (self-reports: n=109; caregiver reports: n=62). Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's α. Convergent-discriminant validity was investigated using bivariate correlation coefficients with measures of depression, anxiety and externalizing symptoms. CFA was used to investigate the DSM-5 factor structure. In all three language samples the 20 item symptom score of the self-report and the caregiver report proved good to excellent reliability with α ranging between .88 and .94. The convergent-discriminant validity pattern showed medium to strong correlations with measures of depression (r =.62-.82) and anxiety (r =.40-.77) and low to medium correlations with externalizing symptoms (r =-.15-.43) within informants in all language versions. Using CFA the underlying DSM-5 factor structure with four symptom clusters (re-experiencing, avoidance, negative alterations in mood and cognitions, hyperarousal) was supported (n =475 for self-report; n =424 for caregiver reports). The external validation of the CATS with a DSM-5 based semi-structured clinical interview and corresponding determination of cut-points is pending. The CATS has satisfactory psychometric properties. Clinicians may consider the CATS as a screening tool and for symptom monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The long-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) implemented as a community-wide parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Clucas, Claudine; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-01-02

    Short-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) for parents in the general population has been studied. The aim of this paper was to investigate the longer term impact of the ICDP programme on parents looking for sustained changes 6-12 months after the programme. For this, a non-clinical caregiver group attending the ICDP programme ( N  = 79) and a non-attending comparison group ( N  = 62) completed questionnaires on parenting, psychosocial functioning, and child difficulties before, on completion and 6-12 months after the ICDP programme. Analyses compare changes in scores over time. The results revealed that the ICDP group showed significantly improved scores on parenting measures, less loneliness, and trends towards improved self-efficacy compared to the comparison group 6-12 months after programme completion. The ICDP group also reported that their children spent significantly less time on television and computer games and a trend towards fewer child difficulties. Key positive effects sustained over time but at a somewhat lower level, supporting community-wide implementation of ICDP as a general parenting programme. It is concluded that more intensive training with follow-up sessions should be considered to sustain and boost initial gains.

  17. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.T.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by

  18. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shows how implicit racial biases are adversely affecting African American students--especially boys... read more Emphasis Areas ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three ...

  19. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child's Development: Newborn Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: recién nacido From the moment ... when touched on the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's voice ...

  20. Development and analysis of the factor structure of parents' internalized stigma of neurodevelopmental disorder in child scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, frequently face public stigma which is often internalized and leads to psychological burden. However, there is a lack of data on the perceptions of internalized stigma among parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially from lower-middle-income countries like India. Aims: This study aims to develop an adapted version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale for use in parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders and to explore the factor structure of this instrument through exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient setting in a tertiary care hospital in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition were recruited for the study after screening for psychiatric disorder using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 6.0. A modified 16-item scale was constructed Parents' Internalized Stigma of Neurodevelopmental Disorder in Child (PISNC scale and applied on 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, after translation to Hindi and back-translation, in keeping with the World Health Organization's translation-back-translation methodology. Statistical Analysis: EFA was carried out using principal component analysis with orthogonal (varimax rotation. Internal consistency of the Hindi version of the scale was estimated in the form of Cronbach's alpha. Spearman–Brown coefficient and Guttman split-half coefficient were calculated to evaluate the split-half reliability. Results: The initial factor analysis yielded three-factor models with an eigenvalue of >1 and the total variance explained by these factors was 62.017%. The internal consistency of the 16-item scale was 0

  1. Fetal, neonatal, infant, and child international growth standards: an unprecedented opportunity for an integrated approach to assess growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cutberto

    2015-07-01

    The recent publication of fetal growth and gestational age-specific growth standards by the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project and the previous publication by the WHO of infant and young child growth standards based on the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study enable evaluations of growth from ∼9 wk gestation to 5 y. The most important features of these projects are the prescriptive approach used for subject selection and the rigorous testing of the assertion that growth is very similar among geographically and ethnically diverse nonisolated populations when health, nutrition, and other care needs are met and the environment imposes minimal constraints on growth. Both studies documented that with adequate controls, the principal source of variability in growth during gestation and early childhood resides among individuals. Study sites contributed much less to observed variability. The agreement between anthropometric measurements common to both studies also is noteworthy. Jointly, these studies provide for the first time, to my knowledge, a conceptually consistent basis for worldwide and localized assessments and comparisons of growth performance in early life. This is an important contribution to improving the health care of children across key periods of growth and development, especially given the appropriate interest in pursuing "optimal" health in the "first 1000 d," i.e., the period covering fertilization/implantation, gestation, and postnatal life to 2 y of age. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. The Cost of Being Mother's Ideal Child: The Role of Internalization in the Development of Perfectionism and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ying; Lam, Shui-fong

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated how children's willingness to internalize mothers' values affected the associations between mothers' performance goals for their children and the development of children's perfectionism and depression. The participants were 59 Hong Kong fifth graders and their mothers. The results showed that internalization, as a child…

  3. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  4. Child Development Program Evaluation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard J.

    The Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) is actually two scales in one, a licensing scale and a quality scale. Licensing predictor items have been found to predict overall compliance of child day care centers with state regulations in four states. Quality scale items have been found to predict the overall quality of child day care…

  5. BOOK REVIEW - International Law and Child Soldiers by Gus Waschefort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Robinson

    2015-11-01

    . Particular attention is paid to an analysis of this war crime as formulated under the Rome Statute and the scope for prosecution by the International Criminal Court. An interesting argument is further developed for the Court as a deterrent to the use and recruitment of child soldiers. Little attention is paid to the criminal responsibility of child soldiers. This is to be expected, though, as the focus of the book is indeed aimed at the effectiveness of international instruments. The relevance of the mechanisms established by the United Nations and African Union to prevent child soldiering is discussed in Chapter Six. The United Nations mechanisms represent the core of the international communities’ response to child soldiering. The chapter consequently analyses the United Nations mechanisms and pays attention to the improvement of such mechanisms. A descriptive account of mechanisms established by the AU is also presented. These mechanisms have never been used in response to child soldiering but do have the potential to contribute to the prevention of the use and recruitment of child soldiers. Chapter Seven contains a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In this chapter the conclusions reached in the previous chapters of the book are measured against the de facto situation in that country in order to establish the accuracy of those conclusions in relation to a real situation. In conclusion, this book is a sine qua non for studies of children in International Law. It enriches the reader’s understanding of the various international instruments containing proscriptive norms to prohibit the use and recruitment of child soldiers, and the excellent reference materials which are provided will definitely play an instrumental role in the research of both students and academics.

  6. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 2 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 meses Your baby develops ... pose) fists remain unclenched half of the time Social and Emotional Development comforts himself or herself, maybe ...

  7. Mother's time allocation, child care and child cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    BRILLI, Ylenia

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of maternal employment and non-parental child care on child cognitive development, taking into account the mother's time allocation between leisure and child-care time. I estimate a behavioral model, in which maternal labor supply, non-parental child care, goods expenditure and time allocation decisions are considered to be endogenous choices of the mother. The child cognitive development depends on maternal and non-parental child care and on the goods bought f...

  8. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael…

  9. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 6 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 6 meses Notice your baby ... both ways (back to front, front to back) Social and Emotional Development recognizes and responds happily to ...

  10. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 15 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 15 meses Toddlers this age ... stacks three blocks scribbles with crayon on paper Social and Emotional Development begins to show preference for ...

  11. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 9 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 9 meses Nine-month-olds ... item in each hand at the same time Social and Emotional Development might be fearful of strangers ...

  12. Development of a mathematical phantom representing a 10-year-old child for use in internal dosimetry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, S.F.; Poston, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    With the increased growth of nuclear energy generating facilities, estimates of absorbed radiation dose to human population groups (e.g., children) are required. In addition, children are being exposed to many nuclear medicine procedures and accurate dose estimates are needed. The main purpose of this research is to design a mathematical phantom representing as closely as possible a 10-year old child

  13. Piaget's Theory of Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Robbie

    1972-01-01

    This article traces Piaget's theory of child development from its philosophic foundations in Kantian organization and then describes in sequence Piaget's four stages. (A follow-up article on Piaget and educational practice will appear in a later issue.) (JA)

  14. [Child health and international cooperation: A paediatric approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Toro, M; Riaño Galan, I; Bassat, Q; Perez-Lescure Picarzo, J; de Aranzabal Agudo, M; Krauel Vidal, X; Rivera Cuello, M

    2015-05-01

    The international development cooperation in child health arouses special interest in paediatric settings. In the last 10 10 years or so, new evidence has been presented on factors associated with morbidity and mortality in the first years of life in the least developed countries. This greater knowledge on the causes of health problems and possible responses in the form of interventions with impact, leads to the need to disseminate this information among concerned professional pediatricians. Serious efforts are needed to get a deeper insight into matters related to global child health and encourage pediatricians to be aware and participate in these processes. This article aims to provide a social pediatric approach towards international cooperation and child health-related matters. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  16. [Child wellbeing and development indicators in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Filipa; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Katz, Gregorio; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    To provide evidence and input for monitoring child welfare and wellbeing in Mexico. Adjusting for sampling design, information from ENSANUT 2012 for children <10 years was compared with national and international parameters and goals. While 8.37% of infants were born with low birth weight (<2,500 g), neonatal screening was not performed on 9.4% of newborns. Of children <5 years, 78.03% were breastfed until at least four months. Among mothers of newborns, 69.5% received training in early stimulation. At the national level, 28% of children (23% in rural areas) received five medical consultations to monitor their early development. 29% of children either had a disability or were at risk of developing one. Progress has been made in Mexico in terms of services promoting early child development and wellbeing but important challenges persist. National standards and a system for monitoring, screening, referring and providing care for child development and wellbeing are necessary.

  17. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  18. Child organ trafficking: global reality and inadequate international response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    In organ transplantation, the demand for human organs has grown far faster than the supply of organs. This has opened the door for illegal organ trade and trafficking including from children. Organized crime groups and individual organ brokers exploit the situation and, as a result, black markets are becoming more numerous and organized organ trafficking is expanding worldwide. While underprivileged and vulnerable men and women in developing countries are a major source of trafficked organs, and may themselves be trafficked for the purpose of illegal organ removal and trade, children are at especial risk of exploitation. With the confirmed cases of children being trafficked for their organs, child organ trafficking, which once called a "modern urban legend", is a sad reality in today's world. By presenting a global picture of child organ trafficking, this paper emphasizes that child organ trafficking is no longer a myth but a reality which has to be addressed. It argues that the international efforts against organ trafficking and trafficking in human beings for organ removal have failed to address child organ trafficking adequately. This chapter suggests that more orchestrated international collaboration as well as development of preventive measure and legally binding documents are needed to fight child organ trafficking and to support its victims.

  19. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  20. Measuring Child Development and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Abbie

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal's "Education 2030" agenda includes an explicit focus on early childhood development. Target 4.2 states that all children are "developmentally on track" at the start of school. What does it mean for a child to be developmentally on track, and how should it be measured, especially in an…

  1. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Holiday Season School Bus Safety Second-Hand Smoke Self-Esteem Self-Esteem, Debunking the Myths, Podcast Sex Development, Disorders of, ... Sibling Rivalry Sibling Rivalry Podcast Siblings, Advice for Young, Podcast Siblings of Kids with Special Needs Siblings ...

  2. Stress and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…

  3. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  4. CHILD DEVELOPMENT BIBLIOGRAPHY. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 90 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1956 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, CONDITIONING, MATERNAL REACTIONS, GRADE PREDICTABILITY, EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES,…

  5. Stress and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability to succeed in school and in life. For example, when children are born into a world where resources are scarce and violence is a constant possibility, neurobiological changes may make them wary and vigilant, and they are likely to have a hard time controlling their emotions, focusing on tasks, and forming healthy relationships. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses to chronic stress serve them poorly in situations, such as school and work, where they must concentrate and cooperate to do well. But thanks to the plasticity of the developing brain and other biological systems, the neurobiological response to chronic stress can be buffered and even reversed, Thompson writes, especially when we intervene early in children's lives. In particular, warm and nurturing relationships between children and adults can serve as a powerful bulwark against the neurobiological changes that accompany stress, and interventions that help build such relationships have shown particular promise. These programs have targeted biological parents, of course, but also foster parents, teachers and other caregivers, and more distant relatives, such as grandparents. For this reason, Thompson suggests that the concept of two-generation programs may need to be expanded, and that we should consider a "multigenerational" approach to helping children living in poverty cope and thrive in the face of chronic stress.

  6. Huge poor-rich inequalities in maternity care: an international comparative study of maternity and child care in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Ronsmans, Carine; Campbell, Oona M. R.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals for maternal health has been slow, and accelerated progress in scaling up professional delivery care is needed. This paper describes poor-rich inequalities in the use of maternity care and seeks to understand these inequalities through

  7. Parental reflective functioning as a moderator of child internalizing difficulties in the context of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Karin; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to examine pathways from child sexual abuse (CSA) and maternal mentalizing to child internalizing and externalizing difficulties and to test a model of MRF as a moderator of the relationships between CSA and child difficulties. The sample was comprised of 154 mothers and children aged 2-12 where 64 children had experienced CSA. To assess parental mentalizing the Parental Development Interview was rated with the Parental Reflective Functioning Scale. Child internalizing and externalizing difficulties were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results indicate that there were significant inverse relationships between maternal mentalizing and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. When maternal mentalizing was considered together with CSA, only maternal mentalizing was a significant predictor of child difficulties. Furthermore, maternal mentalizing moderated the relationship between CSA and child internalizing difficulties. These findings provide evidence of the importance of the parents' mentalizing stance for psychiatric symptoms of children aged 2-12, as well as children's recovery from CSA. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Parental discipline behaviours and beliefs about their child: associations with child internalizing and mediation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, B J; Cartwright-Hatton, S

    2009-09-01

    Internalizing disorders of childhood are a common and disabling problem, with sufferers at increased risk of subsequent psychiatric morbidity. Several studies have found associations between parenting styles and children's internalizing, although few have considered the role of parental discipline. Parental discipline style may exert an effect on children's internalizing symptoms. Anxiety and depression are reliably found to run in families and parental anxiety has been shown to effect parenting behaviour. This study set out to examine the links between parental anxiety, parental discipline style and child internalizing symptoms. Eighty-eight parents of children aged 4-10 years were recruited through primary schools. All parents completed questionnaires including measures relating to: adult anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait version, Penn State Worry Questionnaire), parental depression (Beck Depression Inventory - Fastscreen), parental discipline (The Parenting Scale), parenting-related attributions (Parenting Attitudes, Beliefs and Cognitions Scale) and child psychological morbidity (Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18 version). Significant correlations were found between both parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with ineffective discipline and negative beliefs about parenting. Particularly strong correlations were found between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with harsh discipline. Parents of anxious/withdrawn children were more likely to hold negative beliefs about their child. The link between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms was mediated by harsh discipline. The link between parental anxiety and harsh discipline was mediated by parental beliefs about the child. Discipline style may be an important factor in the relationship between parent anxiety and child internalizing symptoms.

  9. Bedtime routines child wellbeing & development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsaras, George; Goodwin, Michaela; Allan, Julia; Kelly, Michael P; Pretty, Iain A

    2018-03-21

    Bedtime routines has shown important associations with areas associated with child wellbeing and development. Research into bedtime routines is limited with studies mainly focusing on quality of sleep. The objectives of the present study were to examine the relationship between bedtime routines and a variety of factors associated with child wellbeing and to examine possible determinants of bedtime routines. A total of 50 families with children between 3 and 5 years old took part in the study. Data on bedtime routines, parenting styles, school readiness, children's dental health, and executive function were collected. Children in families with optimal bedtime routines showed better performance in terms of executive function, specifically working memory (t (44)= - 8.51, p ≤ .001), inhibition and attention (t (48)= - 9.70, p ≤ .001) and cognitive flexibility (t (48)= - 13.1, p ≤ .001). Also, children in households with optimal bedtime routines scored higher in their readiness for school (t (48)= 6.92, p ≤ .001) and had better dental health (U = 85.5, p = .011). Parents in households with suboptimal bedtime routines showed worse performance on all measures of executive function including working memory (t (48)= - 10.47, p ≤ .001), inhibition-attention (t (48)= - 10.50, p ≤ .001) and cognitive flexibility (t (48)= - 13.6, p ≤ .001). Finally, parents with optimal bedtime routines for their children deployed a more positive parenting style in general (i.e. authoritative parenting) compared to those with suboptimal bedtime routines (t (48)= - 6.45, p ≤ .001). The results of the present study highlight the potentially important role of bedtime routines in a variety of areas associated with child wellbeing and the need for further research.

  10. McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (McGovern-Dole program) helps support education, child development, and food security for some of the world's poorest children. It provides for donations of U.S. agricultural products, as well as financial and technical assistance, for school feeding and maternal and…

  11. Literature Review The development of parent-infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes the form of an account of the emergence of the field of psychoanalytically informed parent-infant/child psychotherapy in South Africa. It traces the origins and the development of the South African field by locating local practice within the international field. The influential links between international ...

  12. Empathic parenting and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Simonič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our experience of the world and life is associated with our sense of ‘self’, which begins to grow in the preverbal period through the child’s primary relationships with his/her parents. Such relationships should be optimal and full of true, genuine and deep contact, marked with a parent’s empathic responsiveness. Empathic parents encourage positive development, while lack of empathy is many times associated with dysfunctional patterns of behaviour in later life. Empathy is a critical factor for the healthy development of a child, especially for the growth of a creative and genuine sense of ‘self’, which in adulthood is essential for a healthy and vibrant personality, one who is capable of coping with life and living empathic relationships. Empathy in the narrowest sense of the word is the ability to share and comprehend the feelings and thoughts of another, e.g. the ability to have insight into experiencing. In a broader sense, it is the basic dynamics of relationships that fully enable us to feel safe and accepted with others and thereby give us space for growth and development.

  13. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  14. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... produce a desired effect, such as dropping a toy over a ledge so that you can pick it up will look at a book and turn the pages When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but certain signs could indicate a delay in development. Talk to your doctor if your child shows ...

  15. Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Parents / Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... their ability to do well at things Why Self-Esteem Matters When children feel good about themselves, it ...

  16. The international development challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Markets are opening up to international competition and new opportunities will arise for companies. The first part of this international round table of the French gas association's annual conference was devoted to whether they have all necessary assets, especially in terms of know-how and new technologies. In the second part of this round table, gas industry leaders presented their ambitions and strategies on the international scene. The questions discussed related to the main areas of development from both business and geographic viewpoints; to the underlying factors such as expertise, technological know-how, market risks and potential, strategic alliances. (authors)

  17. International thermal reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The worldwide development of nuclear power plants is reviewed. Charts are presented which show the commitment to light-water reactor capacity construction with breakdown by region and country. Additional charts show the major nuclear research centers which have substantial scope in light water reactor development and extensive international activities

  18. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  19. FATHER-CHILD PLAY DURING THE PRESCHOOL YEARS AND CHILD INTERNALIZING BEHAVIORS: BETWEEN ROBUSTNESS AND VULNERABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, Lieselotte; Teufl, Lukas; Ruiz, Nina; Piskernik, Bernhard; Supper, Barbara; Remiorz, Silke; Gesing, Alexander; Nowacki, Katja

    2017-11-01

    Play observations with a total of 400 toddlers and preschoolers were videotaped and rated for Intensity and Quality of play with their parents. Parents were asked about perceived stress and personality characteristics (Big 5). Child's motor, cognitive skills, temperament, and internalizing behaviors were assessed. Study 1 investigated the robustness of play across child age and gender, and examined differences between fathers and mothers. Study 2 explored the vulnerability of play with fathers of children born preterm (PT-fathers) and fathers who had experienced adverse childhoods (AC-fathers). Study 3 investigated child internalizing behaviors. Intensity of play was maintained almost independently of child age and gender. It was similar for AC- and PT-fathers, and similar to maternal Intensity. In contrast, paternal Quality of play was higher with boys and independent of fathers' personality and perceived parenting stress whereas maternal Quality of play was higher with girls and linked to mothers' perceived parenting competence, acceptability of the child, and neuroticism. AC-fathers scored significantly low on Quality, as did PT-fathers, but the Quality of their play became better with growing child age, birth weight, and cognitive (but not motor and temperament) scores. Finally, child internalizing behaviors were negatively related to paternal Quality of play. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...

  1. Child Welfare in Developing Countries

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2010930269 ... Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, ... The Impact of the Increase in Food Prices on Child Poverty and the Policy Response in Mali ... at the General Directorate of Statistics of the National Accounting Office of Togo.

  2. Search Results | Page 942 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 9411 - 9420 of 9577 ... International Development Research Centre Government of Canada .... efficiency through strengthening competitive procurement, ... Evidence-based budgeting policy in maternal and child health programme : do they work ... political level within a favourable socio-economic and political context.

  3. Structural development of child's artistic expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Filipović; Milica Vojvodić

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Structural development implies control and capability of the expression usage in terms of independent creative expression and making. Understanding of structural development of child's artistic expression as a phenomenon (which is suitable to child's age) has some implications on methodical acts considering artistic education of children and youngsters. Therefore, it is of unexceptional importance to know these laws as well as methodical acts which encourage the structural develop...

  4. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  5. Developing International Personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Personas have become a popular method in new product development. Personas have traditionally, and are still, primarily created to represent users from a single national culture at a time during the design process. This, however, is unsatisfactory for companies operating on a global market...... as they show an increasing interest in international personas. However, research on personas in a global context is limited. To address this gap, this paper provides an overview of extant research on international personas. Secondly, it presents an empirical study on challenges Danish IT companies experience...... when using the persona method to collect and present insights about their international users. A key finding in both the literature review and the empirical study was the ambiguity concerning the concept of culture. Therefore, the paper draws on theories about culture, and especially practice theory...

  6. Producing the "International" Child: Negotiations of Language in an International Preschool in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic account of an "international preschool" in Japan, describing how ideologies of "English" and "internationalism" are produced and consumed among the parents, teachers and directors, in their common goal of socialising an "international" child. (Contains 6 notes.)

  7. Teaching about Child Labor and International Human Rights. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.; Jensen, Elizabeth S.

    An estimated 246 million children between the ages of 5 and 17 work in the agricultural, industrial, and craft sectors worldwide. Approximately 180 million of these children work under the worst forms of child labor as defined by the International Labor Organization (2002). In spite of conventions and protocols designed to eradicate the worst…

  8. Ethics in international business: multinational approaches to child labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    How do multinationals address conflicting norms and expectations? This article focuses on corporate codes of ethics in the area of child labor as possible expressions of Strategic International Human Resource Management. It analyses whether fifty leading multinational adopt universal ethical norms

  9. International labor standards and the political economy of child labor regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering domest...

  10. Child-mother and child-father attachment security: links to internalizing adjustment among children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2014-02-01

    The study examined the unique role of children's attachment with the father and with the mother, in explaining differences in internalizing features (i.e., loneliness, sense of coherence, hope and effort, and internalizing behavior syndrome) among 107 children with learning disabilities (LD) versus 98 children with typical development ages 8-12. Preliminary analyses yielded significant group differences on most measures. SEM analysis indicated high fit between the theoretical model and empirical findings, and different patterns of relations among the model's components for the two populations. As hypothesized, child-father and child-mother attachment contributed differently to children's internalizing features for the two subgroups. Discussion focused on understanding unique and complementary roles of attachment relations with fathers versus mothers among children with and without LD.

  11. Parental tobacco consumption and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine F. Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age.METHOD: One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood.RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND and the child's language development quotient; r = -0.41, p = 0.005, r2 =0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107 = 5.51, p = 0.021, ?p2 = 0.05.CONCLUSION: Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development.

  12. Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between parental employment and child cognitive development using data from multiple years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Maternal labor supply during the first three years of the child's life is predicted to have a small negative effect on the verbal ability of 3 and 4 year olds and a substantial detrimental impact on the reading and math achievement of 5 and 6 year olds. Working during the second and third years appears to have less fa...

  13. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Behavior: The Role of Maternal Psychopathology, Child Responsiveness and Maternal Attachment Style Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Corinna; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Zietlow, Anna-Lena

    Maternal depression and anxiety disorders are risk factors for the development of internalizing disorders in offspring. Maternal attachment has been discussed as one factor accounting for transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate child internalizing behavior at preschool age on a symptomatic and behavioral level and possible links to maternal mental health over time and maternal attachment style insecurity in a sample of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers. Child internalizing behavior at preschool age was rated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), and during a mother-child free-play situation. We focused on child responsiveness as it has been linked to child internalizing behavior. Maternal attachment style insecurity was tested to mediate the link between maternal mental health (assessed postpartum and at preschool age with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders, SCID-I) and child internalizing behavior/child responsiveness. Of the overall sample (n = 58), 28 women were diagnosed with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and 30 were healthy controls. Data were collected 3-9 months after delivery and at preschool age (mean = 4.6 years). At preschool age, children of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers were rated significantly higher on child internalizing behavior by mothers, fathers, and additional caregivers compared to the control group. Child internalizing behavior rated by mothers was influenced by current psychiatric symptoms; maternal attachment style insecurity did not mediate this link. During interaction, children in the clinical group displayed significantly less child responsiveness compared to the control group. Maternal attachment style insecurity mediated the relationship between maternal mental health over time and child responsiveness. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on mother-child interaction and

  15. Reading, Social Development, and the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Social development stresses the importance of working together with others in life. The home setting can emphasize social development and its objectives of instruction. How should parents assist the child in quality social development in which good human relations exist? First and foremost, parents should serve as models to children for good human…

  16. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  17. Child Labor in India, Philipine, Iran and the International Human Rights Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ali Ehsankhah

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the connections between poverty, illiteracy and child labor through the lens of international human rights discourse, particularly assessing the debate between the developed countries and The lesser developed countries (LDCs) over incorporating a ‘social clause’ articulating waged worker rights into international trade agreements. Poverty, often viewed simply as lack of income, is now being approached through the broader perspective of lack of opportunities, albeit u...

  18. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Child Passenger Safety Training for Pediatric Interns: Does it Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Dina; Riese, Alison; Violano, Pina; Lapidus, Garry; Baird, Janette; Mello, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Evaluate the efficacy of a child passenger safety (CPS) educational intervention on the CPS-related knowledge, attitude and anticipatory guidance behaviors of pediatric interns. All subjects were surveyed at baseline and 6 months. Intervention interns attended a CPS training module which included viewing an educational video, observing a car seat inspection appointment, hands-on practice and completion of a post-intervention survey. All 16 intervention interns completed the initial survey, the intervention and the immediate-post questionnaire. Thirteen (81%) completed the 6-month follow-up. The baseline survey was completed by 27/40 (67%) of control interns, 28/40 (70%) submitted a follow-up. The proportion of intervention interns who self-reported giving CPS guidance at all well-child visits increased by 31.3% (95% CI 6.1,56.5%); the control group had no change. Similar results were seen with self-reported knowledge and attitude. A CPS training module increases pediatric interns' knowledge, improves attitudes, and self-reported behaviors regarding CPS-related anticipatory guidance.

  20. Your Child's Development: 1 Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child’s Development: 1 Month Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 1 mes Have you ever ... lying on the tummy, holds head up briefly Social and Emotional Development recognizes mother's voice when upset, ...

  1. Evolving Stories of Child Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark; Nota, Laura; McMahon, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the contributions to this special issue and positions the field of child career development in terms of its past, present, and future are considered. There is an initial brief overview of past developments in the field, specifically as described in seminal reviews. The article then considers the present status of and future agenda for the…

  2. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  3. Child and Adolescent Development for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; McCormick, Christine B.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this is the first graduate-level child development text written specifically for future educators. The volume provides a solid understanding of major theories of development, focusing on how each has informed research and practice in educational contexts. Topics include the impact of biology and early experiences on the…

  4. Care for Child Development: an intervention in support of responsive caregiving and early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless

  5. Parental Separation and Child Aggressive and Internalizing Behavior: An Event History Calendar Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averdijk, Margit; Malti, Tina; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental separation and aggressive and internalizing behavior in a large sample of Swiss children drawn from the ongoing Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Parents retrospectively reported life events and problem behavior for the first 7 years of the child's life on a…

  6. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child’s Development: 3 Years Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 3 años Kids this age ... circle dresses and undresses with a little help Social and Emotional Development is toilet trained during the ...

  7. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  8. Day-care attendance and child development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  9. Maternal perception regarding child care and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the perception of mothers regarding the care and development of their children. Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted in a Basic Health Unit (UBS in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in the period from July to October, 2008. The subjects were twenty mothers who accompanied their children in childcare consultation and met with favorable clinical conditions. Data collection techniques used free observation and semistructured interview consisting of questions involving the perception of child development and care. Results: By means of data analysis the following categories emerged: “Smile and play: mother’s perception regarding the development of the child”; “Take care: emphasis on breastfeeding and body hygiene”. The main source of nonverbal communication that the child has to convey affection and love is the smile, being an essential activity to child development. We verified that the care with breastfeeding and body hygiene suggest behavioral indicators of maternal sensitivity. Final considerations: The childcare consultation held in UBS is essential, because it allows integration of ideas and actions shared with the professional-parent dyad, thus providing the arousal of new experiences in care and the influence on child development.

  10. International breeder reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1976-01-01

    For more than a decade, sodium cooled breeder reactors have now been in the focus of advanced nuclear power development in the major industrialized countries. In the sixties, a total of seven small experimental nuclear power stations were commissioned. Two of these have been shut down in the meantime, the others continue to work satisfactorily, their main purpose being the development of fuel elements. The years 1972-1974 saw the commissioning of the prototype power stations in the 300 MWe power category in France, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Presently, other experimental reactors are under construction in the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United States, plus another Soviet 600 MWe prototype reactor and the SNR 300 DeBeNeLux prototype at Kalkar. A comparison of the technological features either implemented or planned in the prototype and experimental power plants and of their fuel elements reveals a remarkable similarity in the basic concepts pursued in different countries. The two types of breeder reactors, viz. the loop and the pool types, show a closer resemblance to each other than do pressurized and boilling water reactors. The growing awareness of administrative problems emerging in the approaching phase of the introduction of large breeder power stations in a number of European countries has recently led to a streamlining effort in the structure of industries and to tentative steps towards international cooperation on a broad basis. (orig.) [de

  11. Search Results | Page 757 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7561 - 7570 of 9601 ... Child Welfare in Developing Countries. What factors affect child welfare? How can policy improve child welfare? In developing countries, there has been relatively little empirical work on the analysis and measurement of child poverty. ... Assessing the Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies: ...

  12. Employer Child Care Resources: A Guide to Developing Effective Child Care Programs and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Increasing numbers of employers are responding to employee child care needs by revising their benefit packages, work schedules, and recruitment plans to include child care options. This guide details ways to develop effective child care programs and policies. Section 1 of the guide describes employees' growing child care needs and employers'…

  13. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  14. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  15. School Influences on Child and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, David; Kendziora, Kimberly; Spier, Elizabeth; Garibaldi, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Schools play a key role in child and youth development as both social microcosms of the broader society and reciprocally influencing people and communities. As such, schools can function as a protective factor that promotes safety, motivation, relationships, and support for positive student outcomes. However, schools may also function as a risk…

  16. Insights on the Child Development Movement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Milton J. E.

    1975-01-01

    This monograph presents an oral history of selected aspects of the child development movement, based on interviews with prominent researchers since the 1920's. Topics include reactions to major figures and influences, the relationship of child development to pediatrics and child psychiatry, and the relevance of research to child care practices.…

  17. The International Epidemiology of Child Sexual Abuse: A Continuation of Finkelhor (1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…

  18. Ethnic Differences in Relations between Family Process and Child Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendlinski, Matthew; Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lane, Tonya J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family process variables have been linked to child problem behavior, but recent research suggests that child ethnicity may moderate relations between family process and child outcomes. The current study examined how ethnicity moderates relations between parent conflict, parent-child relationship quality, and internalizing problems.…

  19. Parental tobacco consumption and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nadine F; Costa, Raquel A

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age. One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood. There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND) and the child's language development quotient; r=-0.41, p=0.005, r(2)=0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107)=5.51, p=0.021, ηp(2)=0.05. Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural development of child's artistic expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Filipović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural development implies control and capability of the expression usage in terms of independent creative expression and making. Understanding of structural development of child's artistic expression as a phenomenon (which is suitable to child's age has some implications on methodical acts considering the artistic education of children and youngsters. Therefore, it is of unexceptional importance to know these laws as well as methodical acts which encourage the structural development of artistic capabilities from an early age. Various experts dealt with this phenomenon, particularly Bogomil Karlavaris. In his methodical research, he has given an unexceptional part to this problem. It has been a starting point for analysis of certain methodical questions which are included in this work.

  1. Development of otorhinological care of the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Robert J

    2004-05-01

    During the last third of the 20th century, pediatric otolaryngology became a defined specialty in many nations, resulting in focused training, fellowships, societies, journals, textbooks, etc. This development occurred as a result of an interaction between the changing sociological and economic status of the child and medical advances. In this paper the history of the status of children is investigated during the Reformation/Counter-Reformation, Enlightenment and Romantic periods, and during the recent era of Entitlement, and an analysis is made of the relationships between otolaryngological care of children during these periods, including a consideration of selected medical advances made during the 17th to 21st centuries, and the evolving status of children. Advances in education of the deaf, understanding the role of the adenoid and care of the airway were applied to the child patient not directly, as it may sometimes seem to physicians caring for a patient in a hands-on fashion, but rather via the bridge of the social and economic context of the time. This interactive process created a special body of knowledge that is now applied in a society that places a high value on the child. In the second half of the 20th century, i.e. during the period of Entitlement, the otolaryngological needs of the child became a demand, based in part upon a need for care of airway pathology in the premature infant, which fostered the establishment of pediatric otolaryngology as a specialty.

  2. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  3. Child Care and Development Block Grant Participation in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…

  4. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    , to discuss how challenges related to perceptions of culture and intercultural communication might be overcome when working with international personas. In particular, it is suggested that the persona method could benefit from creating narratives that focus more on the similar practices enacted...

  5. Do international labor standards contribute to the persistence of the child-labor problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children�s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...

  6. Parental age and child growth and development: child health check-up data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Mariko; Kira, Ryutaro; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakai, Yasunari; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Nose, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Toshimichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether parental age has any influence on child health. Well-baby check-up data at 1 month and at 12 months of age were used. The trends of parental age in association with growth measurements, incidence of physical and developmental abnormalities, occurrence of low birthweight, and maternal history of spontaneous abortion were analyzed. Associations between increasing paternal age and incidence of psychomotor developmental delay at 12 months, increasing paternal and maternal age and increasing birthweight, and increasing parental age and higher incidence of history of spontaneous abortion were found. The incidence of low-birthweight infants was significantly decreased with increasing paternal age. Not only increasing maternal age but also increasing paternal age have influences on child development and growth in the general population. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... development. Learn moreArtificial intelligence and human development ... New initiative will match climate knowledge to developing country needs. Aminata Camara ... Shadow Libraries: Access to Knowledge in Global Higher Education.

  8. The Third International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect: Conference Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharov, Douglas J.

    1981-01-01

    Presents highlights from the Third International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect. The topic of child sexual abuse dominated the Congress; other topics included malnutrition, research problems, and concerns of Third World countries. Recommendations of the Congress are summarized.

  9. The scope and practice of behaviour change communication to improve infant and young child feeding in low- and middle-income countries: results of a practitioner study in international development organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; Van Liere, Marti; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    We describe features of the landscape of behaviour change communication (BCC) practice devoted to infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in low- and middle-income countries by practitioners in international development organizations. We used an iterative, snowball sampling procedure to identify participants, and the self-administered questionnaire contained pre-coded questions and open-ended questions, relying primarily on content analysis to derive generalizations. Highlights of findings include (i) IYCF-specific BCC is usually delivered within the context of other public health messages and programmes; (ii) technical assistance with programme development and implementation are primary activities, and evaluation-related work is also common; and (iii) formative research and evaluation is universal, but process evaluation is not. With respect to scaling up nutrition: (i) use of mass media and digital technology generally play only a minor role in BCC activities and are not currently an integral part of BCC programming strategies and (ii) only 58% of the participants report activities related to communication with policy makers. The individuals who comprise the community of BCC leaders in the area of IYCF are a diverse group from the perspective of academic backgrounds and nationalities. In addition to nutrition, public health, agriculture and adult learning are common disciplinary backgrounds. In our view, this diversity is a source of strength. It facilitates continuing growth and maturation in the field by assuring inputs of different perspectives, theoretical orientations and experiences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) Sunsetted/For Reference ... page is not being updated . The Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) began as the ...

  11. Examining internal and external job resources in child welfare: Protecting against caseworker burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Phillips, Jon D; Lizano, Erica L; Rienks, Shauna; Leake, Robin

    2018-04-28

    Given intense job demands, it is not surprising that job burnout is a consistent threat to the well-being and retention of the child welfare workforce. Guided by central postulates of the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model which suggests that job burnout develops because of experiences of high work demands coupled with low resources in the workplace, we applied a conceptual model of job burnout (client and work related) that accounts for both internal and external resources available to child welfare workers. Findings among child welfare caseworkers from three states (N = 1917) indicate that job demands (stress and time pressure) were positively related to client- and work-related burnout. Additionally, both internal and external resources moderated the relationships between job demands and client- and work-related burnout. Study findings have workforce management implications in the child welfare sector, including the role resources might play in mitigating the negative impact of job demands on burnout in the child welfare workforce. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beyond Absenteeism: Father Incarceration and Child Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda; Cooper, Carey E.; Garfinkel, Irwin; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Mincy, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with high rates of fatherhood among men in prison, have motivated recent research on the effects of parental imprisonment on children’s development. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the relationship between paternal incarceration and developmental outcomes for approximately 3,000 urban children. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models that control not only for fathers’ basic demographic characteristics and a rich set of potential confounders, but also for several measures of pre-incarceration child development and family fixed effects. We find significant increases in aggressive behaviors among children whose fathers are incarcerated, and some evidence of increased attention problems. The estimated effects of paternal incarceration are stronger than those of other forms of father absence, suggesting that children with incarcerated fathers may require specialized support from caretakers, teachers, and social service providers. The estimated effects are stronger for children who lived with their fathers prior to incarceration, but are also significant for children of nonresident fathers, suggesting that incarceration places children at risk through family hardships including and beyond parent-child separation. PMID:22203452

  13. Search Results | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 11 - 20 of 1982 ... ... IDRC; and the importance of including men and boys in the journey. ... Reducing child undernutrition : which parent's education matters most? - policy brief. Reducing child undernutrition is a global development goal.

  14. Dilemmas for international mobilization around child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ann Gregory

    further development of scientific agriculture and technology. Already, however ..... sent, starting in the north, to Galilee and the regions adjoining, Lebanon and Syria, and working my ... the water, grow crops, and flocks of sheep and goats.” He says ... I served in 30 or 40 different countries throughout Asia and Africa, South.

  16. The development of psychoanalytic parent–infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of psychoanalytic parent–infant/child psychotherapy in South Africa: Adaptive responses to ... on different services currently offered in the South African parent–infant/child psychotherapy field. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Nurturing Your Child's Development from 24 to 36 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lots of conversations with your child. This will boost his language skills, introduce him to the pleasure ... self-confidence, and lang… Explore more from Healthy Minds: Nurturing Your Child's Development Resource | Disponible en español ...

  18. INTERACTION BETWEEN HAGUE CONVENTION ON THE CIVIL ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION AND DOMESTIC LITIGATIONS CONCERNING DOMICILE OF THE CHILD AND PARENTAL AUTHORITY

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Magda VOICULESCU

    2018-01-01

    In the vast majority of cases, international abduction of a child determines almost per se litigations both at international and national level, namely an international litigation based on provisions of Hague Convention on the civil aspects of international child abduction and a domestic litigation aiming at establishing the domicile of the child in the state of destination and other different measures concerning the child which fall within the area of parental authority (joint or ...

  19. Maternal and Child Health | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite progress in the past two decades, nearly 800 women die every day due ... their rights and to access the services they require to protect themselves from ... Challenges to providing equitable and accessible health services are further exacerbated in fragile settings. ... Achieve real gender equality for adolescent health.

  20. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…

  1. Search Results | Page 79 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-05

    Results 781 - 790 of 1119 ... What factors affect child welfare? How can policy improve child welfare? In developing countries, there has been relatively little empirical work on the analysis and measurement of child poverty. Publication Date. August 5, 2010. Research in Action. Climate change ...

  2. Bodily maps of emotions across child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Jari K; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-11-01

    Different basic emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise) are consistently associated with distinct bodily sensation maps, which may underlie subjectively felt emotions. Here we investigated the development of bodily sensations associated with basic emotions in 6- to 17-year-old children and adolescents (n = 331). Children as young as 6 years of age associated statistically discernible, discrete patterns of bodily sensations with happiness, fear, and surprise, as well as with emotional neutrality. The bodily sensation maps changed from less to more specific, adult-like patterns as a function of age. We conclude that emotion-related bodily sensations become increasingly discrete over child development. Developing awareness of their emotion-related bodily sensations may shape the way children perceive, label, and interpret emotions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Director, Communications | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Conceives, plans and implements a communications strategy to ensure ... understanding of the importance of international development assistance. ... other committees (Human Resources Management Committee, the Centre's ...

  4. Search Results | Page 832 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8311 - 8320 of 8494 ... ... and gender have become subjects of intense political and social struggl ... International right-to-health standards for the availability, accessibility, ... rural women, and such practices as child marriage, and women'.

  5. Childhood Construction, Child Rights and Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child rights issues are becoming very important at policy arena and remarkable efforts and resources have been, and are still being committed to them. To demonstrate the seriousness being dedicated to the issues, particularly in line with international conventions, Nigeria enacted the Child Rights Acts (CRAs) in 2003 and ...

  6. How Partnering with Your Child's Caregiver Supports Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jerlean E.

    2012-01-01

    Jerlean Daniel, PhD, executive director of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, describes what quality child care looks like and how parents and child care providers can work together to nurture young children's healthy development. Dr. Daniel shares information about what to look for in a child care provider, how to…

  7. Child and Family Development Research. OPRE Report 2014-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This catalog provides short descriptions of major Division of Child and Family Development (DCFD) projects from Fiscal Year 2014. Multiple projects are described in the areas of child care, Head Start/Early Head Start, child welfare promotion, and the recognition of cultural diversity. An additional section features projects that fall into more…

  8. The Apparel Industry and Codes of Conduct: A Solution to the International Child Labor Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of International Labor Affairs (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Corporate codes of conduct prohibiting the use of child labor are becoming more common as consumers are increasingly calling upon companies to take responsibility for the conditions under which the goods they sell are manufactured. This report (the third volume in the Bureau of International Labor Affairs' international child labor series) details…

  9. The last commodity: child prostitution in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, A

    1994-01-01

    There is an enormous supply of children and young adolescents worldwide who have sex for money and other forms of tangible compensation. Child prostitution is far from new, but it has only recently grown to become a multibillion dollar industry with children bought, sold, and traded like other mass-produced goods. Brazil has 250,000-500,000 children in the sex trade and the number of children involved in Colombia, Russia, and Benin is growing rapidly. Asia is the center of child prostitution with an estimated 60,000 child prostitutes in the Philippines, 400,000 in India, and 800,000 in Thailand. Most of the sex workers are under 16 years old and most are female, although some parts of the world offer almost exclusively young male prostitutes. Indeed, almost all of Sri Lanka's 20,000-30,000 child prostitutes are boys. The overwhelming majority of children who have sex for money do so out of economic need, particularly in the context of widespread rural poverty. Some children leave home on their own in search of opportunity, some are stolen or sold into slavery, and others are kicked out of their homes. An International Labor Organization study found that a woman in the sex industry in Thailand can make about 25 times more than she could in any other occupation open to her. Such financial reward is often hard to resist. Demand for child prostitutes comes from a range of sources. In Asia, child prostitution, and prostitution in general, is deeply embedded in many local and national cultures. For example, an Harvard University researcher has determined that 75% of all men in Thailand have had sex with a prostitute. While nationals frequent and effectively support the prostitution industry, many foreign travelers also visit countries in search of sex. Young prostitutes are in particular demand due to the myth that youngsters are somehow relatively virgin and bereft of infection with sexually transmitted diseases. The author discusses the causes of rural poverty, the

  10. Child protection and the development of child abuse pediatrics in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusci, Vincent J

    2017-11-01

    The history of child abuse pediatrics reflects the development of medicine as a profession influenced by social movements reacting to poverty, economic exploitation, and child maltreatment. As physicians began to specialize in caring for children, egregious cases led them to recognize children were affected by special medical problems and diseases which were compounded by poor conditions and abuse and neglect. They developed the fields of pediatrics and child abuse pediatrics to advocate for their needs in courts and communities. Using a history of prominent physicians and cases, the objectives of this article are to: (1) rediscover the founding of pediatrics in NYC in the context of the environment which served as the setting for its development; (2) highlight our early understanding of the medical issues surrounding child maltreatment, with advocacy and forensic medicine becoming a growing part of medical care for children; and (3) explore the development of child abuse pediatrics in light of prominent physicians making major contributions to child protection. Timelines show the early interplay among social problems, publicized cases, private and governmental agencies, and the development of child abuse pediatrics. The article concludes with potential lessons to be learned and further questions about this interplay of child protection systems and the development of child abuse pediatrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. [Homosexual parenthood and child development: present data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, G; Franc, N; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of existing studies on gay and lesbian parenthood and child development. Although 200,000 to 300,000 children could be concerned in 2010 in France, there is a lack of research on this issue in our country. Research among children raised by homosexual parents involves methodological issues, such as defining homosexual families, sampling cases and controls, and choosing structured or semi-structured evaluations. The fact that homosexual marriage, adoption and insemination are not presently legal in France could explain that only one study has been conducted in France in 2000 among 58 children raided by homosexual parents. This study concluded that these children did not show an increased rate of behavior or anxiety disorders. Concerns about lesbian parenting have focused on the absence of a father, the homosexual orientation of the mother, and their negative consequences on the development of the children. Research on parenting and child rearing has repeatedly compared lesbian and heterosexual families, and in the last 30 years a growing body of studies on lesbian parents and the development of their children has been published. Studies about child development, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender role behavior, emotional/behavioral development, social relationships and cognitive functioning showed no difference between children of lesbian mothers and those of heterosexual parents. Likewise, parental functioning, the mothers' psychological health and maternal skills were not significantly different among lesbian mothers than among heterosexual mothers. In studies concerning gay fathers, findings generally indicate no differences in sexual orientation, socialization, or psychological outcomes in children of gay fathers compared to children of heterosexual fathers. However, the first study on the adult attachment style dimensions of adult women who had gay or bisexual fathers suggested that they were

  12. Child's Attachment to Mother as the Basis of Mental Development Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Burmenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of the attachment system (child-mother interactions in development of a wide spectrum of individual personality characteristics. Emotional attachment of the child to mother is considered as a complicated system of internal regulation and a basis of typology of mental development. Results of a series of empirical studies show the connection between the type of attachment, formed at the early stages of child development, and characteristics of his/her autonomy, consciousness (self-concept and self-esteem and empathy in preschool and middle childhood.

  13. International Marketing Developing Publishing Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Chlivickas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithuanian integration in the financial Eurozone and Lithuanian publishing business development in the European Union and outside it, becomes an important problem requiring a solution. Promoting the dissemination of printed books and literacy in Lithuania and beyond, to properly introduce the achievements of Lithuania in foreign countries, it is important to ensure Lithuanian letter, educational and scientific book publishing development. The article examines the characteristics of the international marketing publishing, the world and Lithuanian state publishing houses on the basis of foreign and Lithuanian scientists theoretical insights about the instruments of international marketing opportunities, developing proposals for publishing business integration of new economic conditions.

  14. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  15. The Interaction Between Child Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Behaviors: Effects on Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sarah M; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2018-02-20

    Both child temperament and parenting have been extensively researched as predictors of child outcomes. However, theoretical models suggest that specific combinations of temperament styles and parenting behaviors are better predictors of certain child outcomes such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms than either temperament or parenting alone. The current qualitative review examines the interaction between one childhood temperamental characteristic (child behavioral inhibition) and parenting behaviors, and their subsequent impact on child psychopathology. Specifically, the moderating role of parenting on the relationship between child behavioral inhibition and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is examined, and the methodological variations which may contribute to inconsistent findings are explored. Additionally, support for the bidirectional relations between behavioral inhibition and parenting behaviors, as well as for the moderating role of temperament on the relationships between parenting and child outcomes, is briefly discussed. Finally, the clinical applicability of this overall conceptual model, specifically in regard to future research directions and potential clinical interventions, is considered.

  16. Development | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Two years ago, the International Development Research Centre created CIME, a development communication program that reflects the interrelations between Communication at the grassroots level, the exchange of Information, two-way Media, and nonformal Education. This book presents the conceptual framework that led ...

  17. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  18. 33 CFR 55.9 - Child development centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (c) Training programs shall be conducted monthly to ensure that all child development center employees complete a minimum of 20 hours of training annually with respect to early childhood development... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child development centers. 55.9...

  19. Trends in international health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars

    2002-01-01

    "... Good population health is a crucial input into poverty reduction, economic growth and long-term economic development... This point is widely recognised by analysts and policy makers, but is greatly underestimated in its qualitative and quantitative significance, and in the investment allocations of many developing country and donor governments."--Commission on Macroeconomics and Health The international health development scene has changed rapidly during the past 5 years. From being a merely bilateral effort together with a few multilateral organisations and many NGOs new global partnerships have entered the scene and become major funding agencies. The provision of aid has also changed from small-scale project basis to financial support of large programmes. The purpose of this article is to describe some of the major transformations taken place in the organising, delivery and objective of international health development. But before presenting the new international health development agenda, a short introduction to the challenges inducing the need for renewed thinking about international aid is shortly presented.

  20. Enhancing the child survival agenda to promote, protect, and support early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Bouhouch, Raschida R; Walson, Judd L; Daelmans, Bernadette; Bahl, Rajiv; Darmstadt, Gary L; Dua, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    High rates of child mortality and lost developmental potential in children under 5 years of age remain important challenges and drivers of inequity in the developing world. Substantive progress has been made toward Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to improve child survival, but as we move into the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, much more work is needed to ensure that all children can realize their full and holistic physical, cognitive, psychological, and socio-emotional development potential. This article presents child survival and development as a continuous and multifaceted process and suggests that a life-course perspective of child development should be at the core of future policy making, programming, and research. We suggest that increased attention to child development, beyond child survival, is key to operationalize the sustainable development goals (SDGs), address inequities, build on the demographic dividend, and maximize gains in human potential. An important step toward implementation will be to increase integration of existing interventions for child survival and child development. Integrated interventions have numerous potential benefits, including optimization of resource use, potential additive impacts across multiple domains of health and development, and opportunity to realize a more holistic approach to client-centered care. However, a notable challenge to integration is the continued division between the health sector and other sectors that support child development. Despite these barriers, empirical evidence is available to suggest that successful multisectoral coordination is feasible and leads to improved short- and long-term outcomes in human, social, and economic development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Practitioner review: maternal mood in pregnancy and child development--implications for child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    The empirical base suggesting a link between prenatal maternal anxiety, stress or depression and cognitive, behavioral, and biological outcomes in the infant and child has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. In this review, we consider the relevance of prenatal maternal mood for child mental health practitioners; the empirical base for a likely causal impact of the link between prenatal anxiety, depression, or stress and child outcomes; the degree to which the available evidence is sufficient for informing or altering clinical practice; and the possible role of prenatal interventions for promoting child health and development. A selective review of PubMed, Cochrane Library and other sources was undertaken. Clinically significant links between maternal prenatal distress and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes have been reported; predictions to stress physiology, immunology, and neurodevelopment have been reported but the effect sizes and clinical significance is less clear. Several candidate mechanisms have been proposed, with some supporting evidence. Many behavioral treatments for prenatal maternal distress exist, but their application to promoting child health is largely unknown. Research on maternal prenatal distress is a good example of translational research and offers a strong paradigm for promoting interdisciplinary clinical research on child health and development. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Child Internalizing Symptoms: Contributions of Child Temperament, Maternal Negative Affect, and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Nicole A.; Schrock, Matthew; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Research has traditionally focused on the role of genetic and environmental variables in the development and maintenance of childhood internalizing disorders. Temperament variables, such as negative affect and effortful control have gained considerable interest within the field of developmental psychopathology. Environmental factors such as…

  3. IDRC - International Development Research Centre |

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learn moreArtificial intelligence and human development ... Our experts share insights on the issues and approaches challenging the international ... Shadow Libraries: Access to Knowledge in Global Higher Education · Book cover: ... Social Theories of Urban Violence in the Global South: Towards Safe and Inclusive Cities.

  4. Marie Stopes International Child Spacing Clinics in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distributed > 200,000 condoms, completed programmes in more than 30 ... that men feel that child spacing is also their concern and service providers feel men are .... there is often the denial of the fact that their child is sexually active inspite of ...

  5. Marie Stopes International Child Spacing Clinics in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    programme, male involvement has the following basic aspects: Initiation of dialogue on child spacing within the ... that men feel that child spacing is also their concern and service providers feel men are not outsiders. ... pioneering work of Marie Stopes in caring for women in the poor communities of London by extending the ...

  6. Open development networked innovations in international development

    CERN Document Server

    Reilly, Katherine M A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities. Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open model...

  7. Parent-Child Co-Viewing of Television and Cognitive Development of the Chinese Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinqiu, Zhao; Xiaoming, Hao

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child co-viewing of television and the cognitive development of the child. Both survey and experiment methods were employed to determine the participants' television viewing habits and their cognitive achievements after watching a pre-recorded programme under different conditions. The…

  8. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  9. RISK FACTORS OF DELAYS OF CHILD PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Kaganova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research targeted studying risk factors for delays physical development of children (n = 70 aged 7–11 years. Control group was comprised of 30 children of normal height of the same age. Physical development was evaluated by centile method using regional and international standards, studying data of life and disease anamnesis, family anamnesis, living conditions. Children had their thyroid glands studied ultrasonically. Blood levels of calcium, phosphor, magnesium, ferrum, zinc were identified by photometry method for some children in both groups. Correlation analysis makes it possible to state risk factors of children dwarfism: low educational status of parents, child height figures at the age of 1 and 3 years, calcium and phosphor blood levels, as well as thyroid hypo plasy.Key words: dwarfism, children, risk factors, calcium deficit.

  10. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  11. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  12. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  13. Cuba | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers developed a way for community members to track mosquito ... government, and business, they bring concrete and innovative development ideas to ... areas such as maternal and child health, and sustainable water management.

  14. Empowering the family for girl child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses family interactions that devalue female children in India and the role of government in enriching family life. Child development is dependent upon the family and the social environment. Patriarchy establishes the structure, roles, and responsibilities of the family through hierarchies of age, gender, and generation. Males hold authoritative positions because of their control over resources and the assumption of their superiority. Family unity and stability is based on conformity with the community and kinship norms. The Indian family places a low priority on the development of individual family members and children. Female children are a low priority both as children and as girls. Girls carry a heavy domestic workload in the family, but girls do not receive recognition for their contributions. The family socializes children based on norms of gender and age inequalities. Deviation from patriarchal norms results in ostracism. Families without resources are vulnerable to deprivation and exploitation. Gaps have widened between rich and poor, and men and women. Particularly vulnerable groups are women in single-parent families and female-headed households. The combination of patriarchy, increased consumerism, and structural adjustment programs marginalizes girl children. Every family should be considered equal in dignity and worth and have the right to freedom, choices, life, security of person and privacy, and protection from domestic violence. Vulnerable family members need special attention. Every family member should take responsibility for promoting sensitivity and responsiveness, positive communication, companionable relationships, democratic decision making, respect for individual needs and differences, peaceful and nonviolent approaches for resolving conflicts, and support in crisis situations.

  15. State of Early Child Development Research, Practice, and Policy for Most Vulnerable Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary Eming

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to enhance development of children ages 0-6 have profound benefits for children, families, and societies. The benefits are well documented, recognized internationally, and supportive of policies and programs targeting early child development (ECD). Intervening in the early years is a critical first step toward alleviating poverty,…

  16. Research Award: Maternal and Child Health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to ... health; and; Interrelationships and root causes of poor health outcomes and ... The successful candidate will contribute to the program's work on ...

  17. Research award: Maternal and Child Health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and mentorship allow award holders ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program aims to save and ... quality, accessibility, and effectiveness of health services and care.

  18. Mother and Child Health International Research Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building a virtual global research institute to support maternal and child health ... Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia) : Building ... to information and communication technology (ICT) initiatives through its global ...

  19. Association of Parental ADHD and Depression with Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…

  20. The Relationship between Internal Teacher Profiles and the Quality of Teacher-Child Interactions in Prekindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker-Woodrow, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between internal teacher profiles and pre-K teacher-child interaction quality in the pre-K classroom. Two questions were addressed: (1) What internal profiles exist for pre-kindergarten (pre-K) teachers? and (2) Do internal profiles relate to observed structural and process quality in the pre-K classroom?…

  1. Search Results | Page 69 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 681 - 690 of 901 ... ... Maternal and Child Health 50 Apply Maternal and Child Health ... COPEH-LAC Dissemination and Institutionalization for Research, Outreach and Policy Influence ... Ageing and Development : National Transfer Accounts (Latin ... Program (LACEEP) enhances the skills of researchers, teachers ...

  2. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  3. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  4. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  5. Predicting Internalizing Problems in Chinese Children: the Unique and Interactive Effects of Parenting and Child Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing ...

  6. Impact of integrated child development scheme on child malnutrition in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arijita; Ghosh, Smritikana

    2017-10-01

    With child malnutrition detected as a persistent problem in most of the developing countries, public policy has been directed towards offering community-based supplementary feeding provision and nutritional information to caregivers. India, being no exception, has initiated these programs as early as 1970s under integrated child development scheme. Using propensity score matching technique on primary data of 390 households in two districts of West Bengal, an Eastern state in India, the study finds that impact of being included in the program and receiving supplementary feeding is insignificant on child stunting measures, though the program can break the intractable barriers of child stunting only when the child successfully receives not only just the supplementary feeding but also his caregiver collects crucial information on nutritional awareness and growth trajectory of the child. Availability of regular eggs in the feeding diet too can reduce protein-related undernutrition. Focusing on just feeding means low depth of other services offered under integrated child development scheme, including pre-school education, nutritional awareness, and hygiene behavior; thus repealing a part of the apparent food-secure population who puts far more importance on the latter services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Internet Use and Child Development: The Techno-Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Ecological systems theory assumes that child development is the consequence of ongoing reciprocal and spiraling interactions between the child and his/her microsystem (immediate home, school, and community environments). The increasing presence of digital technologies in children's immediate environments suggests the need for the proposed…

  8. Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The…

  9. Model of Early Support of Child Development in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Anna Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The development of a child, especially a child with a disability, is conditional upon the initiation of rehabilitation measures immediately after the problem has been identified. The quality of the reaction is conditioned by the functioning of the therapeutic team. The main purpose of the research was the diagnosis of early support system for…

  10. Development of Management, Child Development Centers Organization rule Local Government in Udon thani

    OpenAIRE

    Suriya Sukram; Chaiyot Ruangsuwan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to study the composition and indications 1. The Child Development Centre under the local governments in UdonThani province 2. Study the current state and the desired operating child care centers under the jurisdiction of local governments in UdonThani province. 3. Develop the child development centers under the local governments in UdonThani province. The operation is divided. Phase one of the elements and indicators, the Child Development Center. By synthesi...

  11. Developments in international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre; Wit, Marc de; Bolkesjoe, Torjus; Bradley, Douglas; Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Walter, Arnaldo da Silva; Heinimoe, Jussi; Hektor, Bo; Leistad, Oeyvind; Ling, Erik; Perry, Miles; Rosillo-Calle, Frank; Ryckmans, Yves; Schouwenberg, Peter-Paul; Solberg, Birger; Troemborg, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

  12. The Association of Parental Depressive Symptoms with Child Internalizing Problems: The Role of Parental Guilt Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Aaron; Forehand, Rex; Haker, Kelly; McKee, Laura G.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Potts, Jennifer; Hardcastle, Emily; Roberts, Lorinda; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    This study builds on prior research by Rakow et al. (2009) by examining the role of parental guilt induction in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child internalizing problems in a sample of parents with a history of major depressive disorder. One hundred and two families with 129 children (66 males; Mage = 11.42 years) were studied. The association of parental depressive symptoms with child internalizing problems was accounted for by parental guilt induction, which was assessed by behavioral observations and child report. Implications of the findings for parenting programs are discussed and future research directions are considered. PMID:21355654

  13. The Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ): development and first validation steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Sleddens, Ester Fc; Raaijmakers, Lieke Ch; Gies, Judith M; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2016-08-01

    To develop and validate a questionnaire to measure food-related and activity-related practices of child-care staff, based on existing, validated parenting practices questionnaires. A selection of items from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and the Preschooler Physical Activity Parenting Practices (PPAPP) questionnaire was made to include items most suitable for the child-care setting. The converted questionnaire was pre-tested among child-care staff during cognitive interviews and pilot-tested among a larger sample of child-care staff. Factor analyses with Varimax rotation and internal consistencies were used to examine the scales. Spearman correlations, t tests and ANOVA were used to examine associations between the scales and staff's background characteristics (e.g. years of experience, gender). Child-care centres in the Netherlands. The qualitative pre-test included ten child-care staff members. The quantitative pilot test included 178 child-care staff members. The new questionnaire, the Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ), consists of sixty-three items (forty food-related and twenty-three activity-related items), divided over twelve scales (seven food-related and five activity-related scales). The CFAPQ scales are to a large extent similar to the original CFPQ and PPAPP scales. The CFAPQ scales show sufficient internal consistency with Cronbach's α ranging between 0·53 and 0·96, and average corrected item-total correlations within acceptable ranges (0·30-0·89). Several of the scales were significantly associated with child-care staff's background characteristics. Scale psychometrics of the CFAPQ indicate it is a valid questionnaire that assesses child-care staff's practices related to both food and activities.

  14. The Development of Customary International Law by International Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermatt, Jed

    2017-01-01

    In his Fourth Report on the Identification of Customary International Law (2016), Special Rapporteur Michael Wood confirmed that ‘[i]n certain cases, the practice of international organizations also contributes to the expression, or creation, of rules of customary international law.......’ That the practice of international organizations can be relevant when identifying customary international law is relatively uncontroversial. The practice of states within international organizations such as the UN General Assembly, for example, may contribute to the development of custom. Yet, there is little...... discussion about whether and how the practice of international organizations as such may contribute to the development of customary international law. This contribution discusses the organization that is the most capable of contributing to the development of customary international law in its own right...

  15. Influences of early child nutritional status and home learning environment on child development in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa; Kim, Nicole; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development plays a key role in a child's future health, educational success, and economic status. However, suboptimal early development remains a global challenge. This study examines the influences of quality of the home learning environment (HOME) and child stunting in the first year of life on child development. We used data collected from a randomized controlled trial of preconceptional micronutrient supplementation in Vietnam (n = 1,458). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III were used to assess cognition, language, and motor development domains at 2 years. At 1 year, 14% of children were stunted, and 15%, 58%, and 28% of children lived in poor, medium, and high HOME environments, respectively. In multivariate generalized linear regression models, living in a high HOME environment was significantly associated with higher scores (0.10 to 0.13 SD) in each of the developmental domains. Stunted children scored significantly lower for cognitive, language, and motor development (-0.11 to -0.18), compared to nonstunted children. The negative associations between stunting on development were modified by HOME; the associations were strong among children living in homes with a poor learning environment whereas they were nonsignificant for those living in high-quality learning environments. In conclusion, child stunting the first year of life was negatively associated with child development at 2 years among children in Vietnam, but a high-quality HOME appeared to attenuate these associations. Early interventions aimed at improving early child growth as well as providing a stimulating home environment are critical to ensure optimal child development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Search Results | Page 43 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 421 - 430 of 8531 ... Monitoring subnational violence in Asia ... Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health Research ... on their way through Mexico are victims of sexual violence, according to reports from Amnesty International. Project. -. Violence Prevention, Access to Justice, and Economic ...

  17. Search Results | Page 18 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 171 - 180 of 197 ... Open Business Models (Latin America) - Phase II ... Mother and Child Health International Research Network ... Impact of ICTs on Local Democracy : Transparency and Citizen Participation in the Municipality of Peñalolén (Chile) ... great socioeconomic diversity and strong social networks (clubs for ...

  18. Development of coal international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    Most of the coal produced today is still for domestic consumption but international trade will grow in the future. This development requires investments and time for the realization of terminals, means of transport and preparation. Problems of land and sea transport and their influence on cost are examined. Environmental problems are briefly evolved. Charges, ship size, capacity are given for 1983/84 and estimated for 1987/90 in tables for main exporting countries (Australia, Canada, South Africa, USA and South America) and for importing European countries.

  19. Search Results | Page 51 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 501 - 510 of 1133 ... ... starch industry has resulted in increased disease prevalence, soil erosion, ... Food processing in developing countries is an important component of ... to improve child nutrition and food security in northern Malawi.

  20. Search Results | Page 45 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 441 - 450 of 9596 ... Reducing child undernutrition : which parent's education matters most? - policy brief ... Traditional science, technology and innovation systems in the context of a modern incubator research and development agency.

  1. Publications | Page 221 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The standard. ... In reality, policy making and implementation are often irrational, unpredictable and highly political. ... Background: The degree of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) is still a major problem in health development in Indonesia.

  2. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS): harbinger of safe motherhood and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S

    1993-01-01

    Editorial comment was provided on the features that made the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India unique and on whether or not the system could focus on younger age groups (e.g., 2-3 years of age). As part of a worldwide effort, India's ICDS program has been directed to human resource development. Over the past 17 years, the program has expanded to include almost 50% of the country's most vulnerable and deprived population. The focus on children aimed to improve their nutrition and health by reducing the incidence of morbidity, mortality, malnutrition, and school dropouts. The concern encompassed physical, social, and psychological development. The focus on mothers stressed enabling them to better care for the health and nutrition of their children. The program included prenatal care, safe delivery, and post natal concern for lactation, breast feeding, and physical growth monitoring in the early years. The program's unique features were its voluntary membership of community health workers, integrated services, and targeted coverage of economically weaker and deprived populations during critical child development periods. Indigenous Indian resources provided the primary financial support. Nation coverage was given for universal immunization, family welfare, child and maternal health, diarrheal disease control, vitamin A supplementation, and anemia screening and treatment. The multisectoral nature of the program has been realized at the village, sector, block, and district levels with linkages within Health, Education, and Social Welfare sectors, and with the Medical Colleges and Home Science Colleges. Feedback from operations research studies and other research activities was provided at the local program level, and interactions occurred between students in training programs and health care delivery systems. The program will be expanded to include the entire country. Health and nutrition education were considered the weakest part of ICDS

  3. Accounting for the associations between child maltreatment and internalizing problems: The role of alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Stone, Katie; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing difficulties are one of the most widely documented consequences of child maltreatment. However, there is a need for studies delineating the factors that account for this association. Despite research showing that alexithymia is associated with both child maltreatment and internalizing problems, the role of alexithymia in the link between child maltreatment and internalizing problems has not received much attention in the literature. The current study evaluated whether a history of child maltreatment was associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness in emerging adulthood, and whether alexithymia partially accounted for these associations. Participants included 339 emerging adults ranging between 18 and 25 years of age (M=19.00, SD=1.26, 51.3% male). Exposure to child maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect) was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and loneliness symptoms. Tests of indirect effects suggested that associations between emotional neglect and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness were partially explained by alexithymia. However, alexithymia did not account for any other associations between the remaining four maltreatment types and internalizing problems. Findings highlight the need for further evaluation of the factors that might account for associations between child maltreatment and internalizing difficulties. Future directions and implications for interventions are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and initial standardization of Ayurveda child personality inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. Objective: To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ. Materials and Methods: A 135-item  Ayurveda child personality inventory (ACPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vataja (A, pittaja (B, and kaphaja prakriti (C characteristics and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Ayurveda experts and three psychologists. Study was carried out in Maxwell public school, Bangalore. The scale was administered on parents of children of the age group 6-12 years . CPQ was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years. Results: The ACPI was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach′s alpha for A, B, and C scales were 0.77, 0.55, and 0.84, respectively, and the Split-half reliability scores were 0.66.0.39 and 0.84, respectively. Factor validity coefficient scores on each items was above 0.5. Scores on vataja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Items of V, P, and K scales showed significant correlation (values ranging from 0.39 to 0.84 with subscales of CPQ, which indicates that Eastern and Western psychology concept have good correspondence. Conclusions: The prakrti of the children can be measured consistently by this instrument. Scores on V and P scale showed good correlation with the anxiety primary scale of CPQ.

  5. Development and initial standardization of Ayurveda child personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchitra, S P; Jagan, Arati; Nagendra, H R

    2014-01-01

    Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution) have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ). A 135-item Ayurveda child personality inventory (ACPI) scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vataja (A), pittaja (B), and kaphaja prakriti (C) characteristics and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Ayurveda experts and three psychologists). Study was carried out in Maxwell public school, Bangalore. The scale was administered on parents of children of the age group 6-12 years. CPQ was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years. The ACPI was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B, and C scales were 0.77, 0.55, and 0.84, respectively, and the Split-half reliability scores were 0.66.0.39 and 0.84, respectively. Factor validity coefficient scores on each items was above 0.5. Scores on vataja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Items of V, P, and K scales showed significant correlation (values ranging from 0.39 to 0.84) with subscales of CPQ, which indicates that Eastern and Western psychology concept have good correspondence. The prakrti of the children can be measured consistently by this instrument. Scores on V and P scale showed good correlation with the anxiety primary scale of CPQ.

  6. Status of international HTGR development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Simon, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Programs for the development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology over the past 30 years in eight countries are briefly described. These programs have included both government sector and industrial sector participation. The programs have produced four electricity-producing prototype/demonstration reactors, two in the United States, and two in the Federal Republic of Germany. Key design parameters for these ractors are compared with the design parameters planned for follow-on commercial-scale HTGRs. The development of HTGR technology has been enhanced by numerous cooperative agreements over the years, involving both government-sponsored national laboratories and industrial participants. Current bilateral cooperative agreements are described. A relatively new component in the HTGR international cooperation is that of multinational industrial alliances focused on supplying commercial-scale HTGR power plants. Current industrial cooperative agreements are briefly discussed

  7. Evaluation of child development: beyond the neuromotor aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course.

  8. Commentary: An Asian Americanist Perspective on Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard M; Y J Kim, Adam; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    In this commentary, we put forth an Asian Americanist perspective on child development that frames, expands upon, and at times challenges the contextual, conceptual, and methodological ideas put forward by Kiang et al., Mistry et al., and Yoshikawa et al. (this volume). This Asian Americanist perspective draws upon scholarship in Asian American Studies and critical race theory to bridge the historical, conceptual, and methodological contributions of the three articles. We also aim to challenge current and future generations of scholars studying Asian American child development to look at Asian American youth and families as autonomous, self-determining agents who are capable of challenging, resisting, and affecting change in a racialized society. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, S.L.M. van der; Huizink, A.C.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  10. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L.M. van der Toorn; A.C. Huizink (Anja); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMaternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study

  11. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  12. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children : a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  13. Attributional style as a mediator between parental abuse risk and child internalizing symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2006-05-01

    This study examined a model wherein children's attributional style mediates the relationship between parental physical child-abuse risk and children's internalizing problems. Using structural equation modeling, three indices of abuse risk were selected (child abuse potential, physical discipline use, and dysfunctional parenting style) and two indices of children's internalizing problems (depression and anxiety). The sample included 75 parent-child dyads, in which parents reported on their abuse risk and children independently completed measures of depressive and anxious symptomatology and a measure on their attributional style. Findings supported the model that children's attributional style for positive events (but not negative events) partially mediated the relationship between abuse risk and internalizing symptoms, with significant direct and indirect effects of abuse risk on internalizing symptomatology. Future directions to continue evaluating additional mediators and other possible contextual variables are discussed.

  14. Child care in Vrsac and its development

    OpenAIRE

    Šljapić Živa; Šljapić-Roganović Miljana

    2002-01-01

    Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716) are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and cholera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care – "Čadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarov...

  15. Selenium status during pregnancy and child psychomotor development-Polish Mother and Child Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Sobala, Wojciech; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Brodzka, Renata; Calamandrei, Gemma; Chiarotti, Flavia; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    The studies on the impact of selenium (Se) levels in different pregnancy periods on child psychomotor functions are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of prenatal Se on child neurodevelopment. The study population consisted of 410 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Se levels were measured in each trimester of pregnancy, at delivery, and in cord blood by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of 1 and 2 y using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Plasma Se levels decreased through pregnancy (from 48.3 ± 10.6 µg/l in the first trimester to 38.4 ± 11.8 µg/l at delivery; P development (β = 0.2, P = 0.002) at 1 y of age, and language development (β = 0.2, P = 0.03) at 2 y of age was observed. The positive effect of Se levels on cognitive score at 2 y of age was of borderline significance (β = 0.2, P = 0.05). Prenatal selenium status was associated with child psychomotor abilities within the first years of life. Further epidemiological and preclinical studies are needed to confirm the association and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects.

  16. Canada Research Chairs | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    aspx. International Research Chairs Initiative. The International Research Chairs Initiative pairs top research talent from universities in Canada with their counterparts in developing countries to address key development challenges. View more

  17. Legislative Measures to Prevent and Combat Sexual Violence Against Child: National and International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Antonius PS

    2016-01-01

    Legislative measures is one of some measures commonly used as Internationally accepted on the logical framework to ensure that implementation of the International convention at the States parties to its International convention will become appropriate. In context of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, legislative measures should be afforded by an administrative and other measures that include among others: decentralisation, federalisation and delegation; training and ...

  18. Caregiver Behavior Change for Child Survival and Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Examination of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P.; Pequegnat, Willo; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Bachman, Gretchen; Bullock, Merry; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Fox, Nathan A.; Harkness, Sara; Huebner, Gillian; Lombardi, Joan; Murry, Velma McBride; Moran, Allisyn; Norton, Maureen; Mulik, Jennifer; Parks, Will; Raikes, Helen H.; Smyser, Joseph; Sugg, Caroline; Sweat, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In June of 2012, representatives from more than 80 countries promulgated a Child Survival Call to Action, which called for reducing child mortality to 20 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035. To address the problem of ending preventable child deaths, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the United Nations Children's Fund convened, on June 3–4, 2013, an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. Six evidence review teams were established on different topics related to child survival and healthy development to identify the relevant evidence-based interventions and to prepare reports. This article was developed by the evidence review team responsible for identifying the research literature on caregiver change for child survival and development. This article is organized into childhood developmental periods and cross-cutting issues that affect child survival and healthy early development across all these periods. On the basis of this review, the authors present evidence-based recommendations for programs focused on caregivers to increase child survival and promote healthy development. Last, promising directions for future research to change caregivers' behaviors are given. PMID:25315597

  19. Caregiver behavior change for child survival and development in low- and middle-income countries: an examination of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P; Pequegnat, Willo; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Bachman, Gretchen; Bullock, Merry; Carlo, Waldemar A; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Fox, Nathan A; Harkness, Sara; Huebner, Gillian; Lombardi, Joan; Murry, Velma McBride; Moran, Allisyn; Norton, Maureen; Mulik, Jennifer; Parks, Will; Raikes, Helen H; Smyser, Joseph; Sugg, Caroline; Sweat, Michael; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2014-01-01

    In June of 2012, representatives from more than 80 countries promulgated a Child Survival Call to Action, which called for reducing child mortality to 20 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035. To address the problem of ending preventable child deaths, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the United Nations Children's Fund convened, on June 3-4, 2013, an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. Six evidence review teams were established on different topics related to child survival and healthy development to identify the relevant evidence-based interventions and to prepare reports. This article was developed by the evidence review team responsible for identifying the research literature on caregiver change for child survival and development. This article is organized into childhood developmental periods and cross-cutting issues that affect child survival and healthy early development across all these periods. On the basis of this review, the authors present evidence-based recommendations for programs focused on caregivers to increase child survival and promote healthy development. Last, promising directions for future research to change caregivers' behaviors are given.

  20. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stories in Different Domains of Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjatovic, Dragana

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on the results gained from the research about the perception teachers have about stories. The study was conducted in Sweden and the main purpose was to partially fulfil the requirements for Erasmus Mundus joint degree "International Master of Early Childhood Education and Care". In accordance with previous research…

  2. Mothers’ labor market choices and child development outcomes in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Reynolds

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines associations between labor market participation of Chilean mothers and the cognitive, language, and socio-economic development of their children. Using a nationally-representative sample of 3-year-old children, we test if mothers’ work intensity in the two previous years is associated with child development outcomes; data were collected in 2010 when children were one year old, and again in 2012, when they were three years old. We find that children who were three years old with mothers who worked for higher fractions of their children’s lives in the previous two years perform significantly better on all tests (cognitive, language, socio-emotional than children whose mothers had worked less, while controlling for baseline test performance. These main effects did not remain significant with the inclusion of a wide range of socio-economic, demographic control variables, however. Our results were similarly null when using an IV analysis or a propensity score matching approach. We provide descriptive information on theoretical pathways by which maternal work may influence child development. Though several of these pathways (e.g. preschool, toys, maternal stress seem to be associated with both maternal work and child development outcomes, the pathways are not sufficiently strong to generate an association between maternal work and child development. We conclude that Chilean mothers’ employment in early childhood generally does not have an effect on child development.

  3. International regularity development partnership (IRDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melani, Ai; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Nuclear Energy enters a renaissance era. Several countries consider nuclear as one of their energy resources. For example at the present Vietnam just sign an agreement with Russia for their first nuclear power plants, Malaysia expected that the first nuclear power plant will be operated and commercially available in around the year of 2021. Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia also consider having nuclear power plant in the time frame around 2025. Each country recently tries to prepare their regulatory infrastructure for their first nuclear power plant. The problems are each country doesn't have enough human resource and experience in preparing the nuclear power plant regulations infrastructure. The remains regulations resource is from IAEA which are too general to implement and USNRC which are too detail and difficult to implement for the lack of human resources. Therefore this International Regulatory Development Partnership (IRDP) could be the solutions for the demand of regulatory infrastructure preparations for those countries who's want to emerging nuclear power plant in their country

  4. International Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    International entrepreneurship is an important vehicle for firms to reap benefits from their high productivity levels and from economies of scale by reaching new customers. International enterprises tend to be larger and more innovative, but a key question of causality remains disputed in the

  5. Maternal depression and trajectories of child internalizing and externalizing problems: the roles of child decision making and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E; Ruddy, A; Midouhas, E

    2017-04-01

    Maternal depression may affect the emotional/behavioural outcomes of children with normal neurocognitive functioning less severely than it does those without. To guide prevention and intervention efforts, research must specify which aspects of a child's cognitive functioning both moderate the effect of maternal depression and are amenable to change. Working memory and decision making may be amenable to change and are so far unexplored as moderators of this effect. Our sample was 17 160 Millennium Cohort Study children. We analysed trajectories of externalizing (conduct and hyperactivity) and internalizing (emotional and peer) problems, measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at the ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years, using growth curve models. We characterized maternal depression, also time-varying at these ages, by a high score on the K6. Working memory was measured with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Spatial Working Memory Task, and decision making (risk taking and quality of decision making) with the Cambridge Gambling Task, both at age 11 years. Maternal depression predicted both the level and the growth of problems. Risk taking and poor-quality decision making were related positively to externalizing and non-significantly to internalizing problems. Poor working memory was related to both problem types. Neither decision making nor working memory explained the effect of maternal depression on child internalizing/externalizing problems. Importantly, risk taking amplified the effect of maternal depression on internalizing problems, and poor working memory that on internalizing and conduct problems. Impaired decision making and working memory in children amplify the adverse effect of maternal depression on, particularly, internalizing problems.

  6. Search Results | Page 834 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8331 - 8340 of 8494 ... Separate analysis by type is needed to further understand social determinants of tobacco use. ... political level within a favourable socio-economic and political context. ... Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic ... NUTRITION CHILD DEVELOPMENT RURAL COMMUNITIES ...

  7. Relationship between birth spacing, child maltreatment, and child behavior and development outcomes among at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowne, Sarah Shea; Gonsalves, Kay; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne

    2012-10-01

    Prior research indicates that closely spaced births are associated with poor outcomes for the mother and subsequent child. Limited research has focused on outcomes for the index child (the child born immediately prior to a subsequent child in a birth interval). The objectives are to assess the association of short birth intervals in at-risk families with: (1) indicators of harsh and neglectful parenting behaviors towards the index child, including substantiated maltreatment reports across 6 years; and (2) the index child's behavior and development in first grade. This is a longitudinal study of 658 women screened to be at-risk for child maltreatment. Twenty percent of women had a rapid repeat birth (RRB), defined as the birth of a subsequent child within 24 months of the index child. Generalized estimating equations, survival analyses, and linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between RRB and index child outcomes. Women with an RRB were more likely than those without an RRB to report neglectful parenting of the index child. Children of mothers with an RRB were more likely than children of mothers without an RRB to have more behavioral problems and lower cognitive functioning in first grade. This study is among the first to focus on the associations of birth spacing with maltreatment, behavior and development outcomes in the index child. Future work regarding the effects of birth spacing should include a focus on the index child.

  8. Parent-Child Communication and Its Perceived Effects on the Young Child's Developing Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Victoria; Hanson, Jane; Higgins, Alice; Jarrett, Michelle

    In Australia, an exploratory study was grounded in U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective of human development and his principles of reciprocity, affective tone, and developmental opportunity and developmental risk. It used D. Baumrind's (1979) work on child rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) to explore the effect of…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Maternal and Child Internalizing Symptoms Predicting Early Adolescent Emotional Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-05-01

    To examine maternal and child internalizing symptoms as predictors of early adolescent emotional eating in a longitudinal framework spanning three critical developmental periods (preschool, elementary school, and early adolescence). Participants were 170 children recruited at preschool age for a longitudinal study. When children were 5.25 years, their mothers completed ratings of their own internalizing symptoms. During the spring of 4th grade, children completed measures of internalizing symptoms. In early adolescence, youth completed a measure of emotional eating. Maternal and child internalizing symptoms predicted adolescent emotional eating. The results indicated that child psychopathology moderated the association between maternal psychopathology (except for maternal anxiety) and early adolescent emotional eating. There was no evidence of mediation. Pediatric psychologists are encouraged to provide early screening of, and interventions for, maternal and child internalizing symptoms to prevent children's emotional eating. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. 33 CFR 55.11 - How are child development center fees established?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are child development center... HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.11 How are child development center fees established? (a) Fees for the provision of services at child development centers shall be set by...

  12. The influence of economic development level, household wealth and maternal education on child health in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael H; Racine, Yvonne; Georgiades, Katholiki; Snelling, Dana; Hong, Sungjin; Omariba, Walter; Hurley, Patricia; Rao-Melacini, Purnima

    2006-10-01

    This study estimates the relative importance to child health (indicated by weight and height for age) of economic development level [gross domestic product (GDP) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) rates: GDP-PPP], household wealth and maternal education and examines the modifying influence of national contexts on these estimates. It uses information collected from mothers aged 15-49-years participating in Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 42 developing countries. In multilevel regression models, the three study variables exhibited strong independent associations with child health: GDP-PPP accounted for the largest amount of unique variation, followed by maternal education and household wealth. There was also substantial overlap (shared variance) between maternal education and the other two study variables. The regressions of child health on household wealth and maternal education exhibited substantial cross-national variation in both strength and form of association. Although higher education levels were associated with disproportionately greater returns to child health, the pattern for household wealth was erratic: in many countries there were diminishing returns to child health at higher levels of household wealth. We conclude that there are inextricable links among different strategies for improving child health and that policy planners, associating benefits with these strategies, must take into account the strong moderating impact of national context.

  13. Growing children's bodies and minds: maximizing child nutrition and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice; Huffman, Sandra L

    2010-06-01

    For their optimal growth, and for greater long-term human capital development, children profit not only from improved nutrition but also from improved learning opportunities in the earliest years of life. This paper describes how actions to enhance optimal infant and young child nutrition can be linked with child development interventions for children under 3 years of age. In countries with high rates of malnutrition, linking these two components will result in synergies of program activities, and will bring about a greater impact at reduced cost than either activity conducted separately. New understanding of social marketing and communication strategies can increase effectiveness of linked interventions. Public-private partnerships to improve both child development and nutrition offer promise for sustainable interventions.

  14. Developing child autonomy in pediatric healthcare: towards an ethical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martakis, Kyriakos; Brand, Helmut; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The changes initiated by the new National Civil and Commercial Code in Argentina underline the pediatric task to empower children's and adolescents' developing autonomy. In this paper, we have framed a model describing autonomy in child healthcare. We carried out a literature review focusing on i) the concept of autonomy referring to the absolute value of the autonomous individual, and ii) the age-driven process of competent decisionmaking development. We summarized our findings developing a conceptual model that includes the child, the pediatrician and the parents. The pediatricianchild relationship is based on different forms of guidance and cooperation, resulting in varying levels of activity and passivity. Parental authority influences the extent of autonomy, based on the level of respect of the child's moral equality. Contextual, existential, conceptual, and socialethical conditions shall be considered when applying the model to facilitate dialogue between pediatricians, children, parents and other actors. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  15. Creativity and the Child's Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents three teacher-preschooler scenarios illustrating teacher actions that hinder creativity and social development. Discusses the connection between psychosocial and creative development in light of Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Suggests that teachers need to be flexible, consider children's feelings, foster…

  16. Applied Research in Child and Adolescent Development: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maholmes, Valerie, Ed.; Lomonaco, Carmela Gina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Developed for an NIH training institute, this volume is organized around the most frequently asked questions by researchers starting their careers in applied research in child and adolescent development. With contributions from the leading scholars in the field, actual research experiences highlight the challenges one faces in conducting such…

  17. Development of international transport in transboundary regions

    OpenAIRE

    Прокудін, Георгій; Чупайленко, Олексій

    2015-01-01

    Formation of an international cross-border transport and logistics infrastructure meets international standards, increased productivity, transport and innovation activity of enterprises in the cluster, and provide for accelerated socio - economic development of the regions.

  18. Search Results | Page 786 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7851 - 7860 of 9602 ... An international forum for Francophone youth was held in Dakar, ... and the FIPRESCI Prize (International Federation of Film Critics) at the ... and influencing the entire five-year policy development process, from ...

  19. African Journal of International Affairs and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of International Affairs and Development. ... Foreign Policy and Public Opinion: An Assessment of Ijebu Involvement in the Kiriji War ... Book Review: Critical Perspective's on Nigeria's International Economic Relations · EMAIL ...

  20. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The International Journal of Agricultureand Rural Development (IJARD) is an International Journal designed to provide ... Forestry and Wildlife resources, Soil Science, Agricultural Engineering and Food Processing.

  1. A comparative analysis of early child health and development services and outcomes in countries with different redistributive policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Hopkins, Jessica; Biscaro, Anne; Srikanthan, Cinntha; Feller, Andrea; Bremberg, Sven; Verkuijl, Nienke; Flapper, Boudien; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth Lee; Williams, Robin

    2013-11-06

    The social environment is a fundamental determinant of early child development and, in turn, early child development is a determinant of health, well-being, and learning skills across the life course. Redistributive policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, such as a welfare state and labour market policies, have shown a positive association with selected health indicators. In this study, we investigated the influence of redistributive policies specifically on the social environment of early child development in five countries with different political traditions. The objective of this analysis was to highlight similarities and differences in social and health services between the countries and their associations with other health outcomes that can inform better global early child development policies and improve early child health and development. Four social determinants of early child development were selected to provide a cross-section of key time periods in a child's life from prenatal to kindergarten. They included: 1) prenatal care, 2) maternal leave, 3) child health care, and 4) child care and early childhood education. We searched international databases and reports (e.g. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank, and UNICEF) to obtain information about early child development policies, services and outcomes. Although a comparative analysis cannot claim causation, our analysis suggests that redistributive policies aimed at reducing social inequalities are associated with a positive influence on the social determinants of early child development. Generous redistributive policies are associated with a higher maternal leave allowance and pay and more preventive child healthcare visits. A decreasing trend in infant mortality, low birth weight rate, and under five mortality rate were observed with an increase in redistributive policies. No clear influence of redistributive policies was observed on breastfeeding and immunization

  2. Fighting Child Pornography: A Review of Legal and Technological Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Eggestein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our digitally connected world, the law is arguably behind the technological developments of the Internet age.  While this causes many issues for law enforcement, it is of particular concern in the area of child pornography in the United States.  With the wide availability of technologies such as digital cameras, peer-to-peer file sharing, strong encryption, Internet anonymizers and cloud computing, the creation and distribution of child pornography has become more widespread. Simultaneously, fighting the growth of this crime has become more difficult.  This paper explores the development of both the legal and technological environments surrounding digital child pornography.  In doing so, we cover the complications that court decisions have given law enforcement who are trying to investigate and prosecute child pornographers.  We then provide a review of the technologies used in this crime and the forensic challenges that cloud computing creates for law enforcement.  We note that both legal and technological developments since the 1990s seem to be working to the advantage of users and sellers of child pornography.  Before concluding, we provide a discussion and offer observations regarding this subject.

  3. "Are you done?" Child care providers' verbal communication at mealtimes that reinforce or hinder children's internal cues of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A; Branen, Laurel J; Fletcher, Janice; Price, Elizabeth; Johnson, Susan L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    To explore the verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues. Video observation transcripts of Head Start staff (n=29) at licensed child care centers in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada were analyzed for common themes. Adults' verbal communication with children at mealtimes emphasized non-internal cues: (1) cueing children to amounts without referencing children's internal cues; (2) meal termination time; (3) asking children if they wanted more without referencing their internal cues; (4) asking children if they were done without referencing their internal cues; (5) telling children to take, try, eat, or finish food; (6) praising children for eating; and (7) telling children about food being good for you. Adults demonstrated an overriding effort to get children to eat. Training needs to be developed that gives specifics on verbally cueing young children to their internal hunger and satiation cues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Parent-child relationship quality and family transmission of parent posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and child externalizing and internalizing symptoms following fathers' exposure to combat trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James; Gewirtz, Abigail; Schrepferman, Lynn; Gird, Suzanne R; Quattlebaum, Jamie; Pauldine, Michael R; Elish, Katie; Zamir, Osnat; Hayes, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Transactional cascades among child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and fathers' and mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined in a sample of families with a male parent who had been deployed to recent military conflicts in the Middle East. The role of parents' positive engagement and coercive interaction with their child, and family members' emotion regulation were tested as processes linking cascades of parent and child symptoms. A subsample of 183 families with deployed fathers and nondeployed mothers and their 4- to 13-year-old children who participated in a randomized control trial intervention (After Deployment: Adaptive Parenting Tools) were assessed at baseline prior to intervention, and at 12 and 24 months after baseline, using parent reports of their own and their child's symptoms. Parents' observed behavior during interaction with their children was coded using a multimethod approach at each assessment point. Reciprocal cascades among fathers' and mothers' PTSD symptoms, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, were observed. Fathers' and mothers' positive engagement during parent-child interaction linked their PTSD symptoms and their child's internalizing symptoms. Fathers' and mothers' coercive behavior toward their child linked their PTSD symptoms and their child's externalizing symptoms. Each family member's capacity for emotion regulation was associated with his or her adjustment problems at baseline. Implications for intervention, and for research using longitudinal models and a family-systems perspective of co-occurrence and cascades of symptoms across family members are described.

  5. Open Development : Networked Innovations in International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open Development : Networked Innovations in International Development. Couverture du livre Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development. Directeur(s):. Matthew L. Smith et Katherine M. A. Reilly. Maison(s) d'édition: The MIT Press, CRDI. 12 décembre 2013. ISBN : 9780262525411.

  6. Evaluation of child development: beyond the neuromotor aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the epidemiology and update the scientific knowledge on the problems of development and behavior in childhood, and the recommendations for the role of the pediatrician in identifying and managing delays and disturbances in child development and mental health. Sources: A search for relevant literature was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases and publications of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Summary of the findings: With the decline in the incidence of communicable diseases in children, problems with development, behavior, and emotional regulation are increasingly becoming a part of the work of pediatricians, yet many are not trained and feel uncomfortable about this extension of their role. The available screening tools for child development and behavior are reviewed, and a ‘school readiness’ checklist is presented, together with recommendations on how the pediatrician can incorporate developmental surveillance into routine practice, aware of the need for children to acquire social, emotional, and cognitive skills so that they can develop their full potential. Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course.

  7. Child behaviour problems and childhood illness: development of the Eczema Behaviour Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A E; Morawska, A; Fraser, J A; Sillar, K

    2017-01-01

    Children with atopic dermatitis are at increased risk of both general behaviour problems, and those specific to the condition and its treatment. This can hamper the ability of parents to carry out treatment and manage the condition effectively. To date, there is no published instrument available to assess child behaviour difficulties in the context of atopic dermatitis management. Our aim was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems, and parents' self-efficacy (confidence) for managing these behaviours. The Eczema Behaviour Checklist (EBC) was developed as a 25-item questionnaire to measure (i) extent of behaviour problems (EBC Extent scale), and (ii) parents' self-efficacy for managing behaviour problems (EBC Confidence scale), in the context of child atopic dermatitis management. A community-based sample of 292 parents completed the EBC, measures of general behaviour difficulties, self-efficacy with atopic dermatitis management and use of dysfunctional parenting strategies. There was satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity for EBC Extent and Confidence scales. There was a negative correlation between atopic dermatitis-specific behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with behaviours (r = -.53, p behaviours; (ii) symptom-related behaviours; and (iii) behaviours related to impact of the illness. Variation in parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's atopic dermatitis was explained by intensity of illness-specific child behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with the behaviours. The new measure of atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems was a stronger predictor of parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's condition than was the measure of general child behaviour difficulties. Results provide preliminary evidence of reliability and validity of the EBC, which has potential for use in clinical and research settings, and

  8. Community violence as it affects child development: issues of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L

    2003-12-01

    The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.

  9. Parenting Style as a Predictor of Internal and External Behavioural Symptoms in Children : The Child's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hedstrom, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine three distinct parenting styles and their effect on children’s behavioural patterns, as perceived by the child. The parenting styles, based on Baumrind’s typologies of authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting, were measured as well as the children’s self-rated internal and external symptoms. Results indicated that there was a relationship between authoritarian parenting and all aspects of internal symptoms (depression, loneliness and self-este...

  10. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2-18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1…

  11. Giant cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a child: endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeroglu, M.; Arat, A.; Cekirge, S.; Akpinar, E. [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Eryilmaz, A.; Akmansu, H. [Ankara Numune Research and Education Hospital, ENT Department, Ankara (Turkey); Koeroglu, Kale B. [Ankara Numune Research and Education Hospital, Internal Medicine Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-10-01

    We report a child with a giant upper cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm presenting with dysphagia, respiratory distress and a sentinel mild epistaxis, then massive epistaxis. Rupture of the pseudoaneurysm during treatment occurred, as in one reported case. Prompt endovascular treatment yielded a good outcome. (orig.)

  12. Giant cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a child: endovascular treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeroglu, M.; Arat, A.; Cekirge, S.; Akpinar, E.; Eryilmaz, A.; Akmansu, H.; Koeroglu, Kale B.

    2002-01-01

    We report a child with a giant upper cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm presenting with dysphagia, respiratory distress and a sentinel mild epistaxis, then massive epistaxis. Rupture of the pseudoaneurysm during treatment occurred, as in one reported case. Prompt endovascular treatment yielded a good outcome. (orig.)

  13. Religious women's groups help promote child survival and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, L Z

    1989-07-01

    Indonesia faces the 2 major problems of high infant mortality and high child mortality at present. To improve the situation, the government urges the participation of all community members, especially those already organized in the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Because religion has a strong influence on people's daily lives in Indonesia, a special project called the Child Survival Project was established in 1986 as a joint undertaking of the government and UNICEF. Initially 12 religious NGOs (8 Islamic, 1 Hindu, 1 Protestant, and 2 Catholic) were involved as implementing agencies. The majority of members of these NGOs are women. The strategy used has been to establish, in cooperation with the 12 NGOs, a communication network through which child survival messages would be disseminated to help generate increased use of Posyandu services, especially immunization, oral rehydration therapy, and growth monitoring. Messages are incorporated into the normal activities of these religious groups, such as Al-Quran reading classes, Sunday schools, and Bible classes. In addition, guidelines for a reporting and feedback system have been prepared for use at village, subdistrict, district, and provincial levels for project monitoring. Religious women's NGOs can serve with their specific characteristics can serve as motivators, facilitators, and catalysts of child survival and development programs for their community target groups. NGOs should be considered as partners of the government in mobilizing the community to achieve a common goal. All endeavors undertaken so far in relation to child survival and development are expected to be institutionalized.

  14. Search Results | Page 8 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 71 - 80 of 9175 ... ... (5) Apply African Institute for Mathematical Sciences filter · Santé des mères et des ... of Self Sufficient schools as a model of Entrepreneurship, Skills. ... Workshop on Internet Addiction Research in Asia, June 16 to 17, ... Reducing child undernutrition is a global development goal. ... Journal articles.

  15. Publications | Page 175 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Background: Maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) program is a national priority programs in health development. In 2006 the Ministry of Health to provides the largest ... Social security for migrant labour in the Greater Mekong subregion (restricted access). The paper examines labour migration trends in ASEAN and ...

  16. Search Results | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 221 - 230 of 257 ... ... Economic and social development filter · RESEARCH NETWORKS 9 Apply ... Impact of maternal and child health private expenditure on ... Food security radio programme and videos : overview (annex 32 of final technical report) ... of growth media, and adoption of water management strategies, ...

  17. Search Results | Page 924 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 9231 - 9240 of 9602 ... ... is emphasized in identifying and communicating the importance of specific areas within watersheds. ... Regional gaps remain in the level of educational and medical ... ACCESS TO EDUCATION MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH ... Inclusive development in health and education in Laos : the ...

  18. Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    A more pessimistic assessment to study the effects of maternal employment on children's learning abilities is presented. Parental investments during infancy and childhood not only result in improved cognitive development but also in overall improvement in learning abilities.

  19. Your Child's Development: 2 Years (24 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Years (24 Months) Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 años (24 meses) Tired ... and circular scribbles feeds himself or herself well Social and Emotional Development plays alongside other children fears ...

  20. 30-36 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25–36 Months This valuable digital resource showcases growth and development by month, and offers strategies parents can tailor to ... gift helps ensure that all babies and toddlers have a strong start in life. Donate Become ...

  1. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Shendell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries. Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  2. Ideas. Innovation. Impact. | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... An Act to Establish the International Development Research Centre passed ... have been at the cutting edge of development thinking and practice. ... solve development problems at local, national, regional, and global levels.

  3. Search Results | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 221 - 230 of 374 ... Ecology of Access to Educational Material in Developing World Universities ... of and engagement with international research for development. ... was a pioneer in the discipline of economic development theory and its ...

  4. Prenatal chemical exposures and child language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey L C; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both manmade (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g., lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury-for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead, and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. Readers will gain an understanding of the literature suggesting that early exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and mercury may be associated with decrements in cognitive domains that depend on language or are critical for language development. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence regarding polybrominated diphenyl

  5. Search Results | Page 749 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7481 - 7490 of 8491 ... Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development. The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, ...

  6. Trip internalization in multi-use developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Internal trip capture refers to how the number trips to and from a development are reduced by the proximity of : complementary land uses within the development (e.g., residential to retail). Internal trips occur within the : development and do not en...

  7. A PSYCHOSOCIAL TOOL FOR CHILD'S DEVELOPMENT Nicholas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are often burdened with exceedingly great parental expectations particularly ... the life span, Smarts sees human development as: The scientific .... existence which is balance, speed and coordination. Dance: A ... In every work of art especially dance, what makes it more effective is .... The Benefits of Dance. Owerri: Ata ...

  8. Child Development and Curriculum in Waldorf Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Stegmann, Astrid

    Every educational theory has behind it a particular image of human beings and their development that supports a particular view of the learning process. This paper examines the image of children underlying Waldorf education. The paper identifies the individual and unique Self as the "third factor," that together with heredity and…

  9. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I propose a three-stage estimation model to examine the effect of parental divorce on the development of children's cognitive skills and noncognitive traits. Using a framework that includes pre-, in-, and post-divorce time periods, I disentangle the complex factors affecting children of divorce. I use the Early Childhood…

  10. Publications | Page 213 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Journal articles ... It assesses entrepreneurial environment and level of entrepreneurial activity. ... on Virtual Platforms, Knowledge Management and International Development (open access) ... Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand were.

  11. Normal motor milestone development for use to promote child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdin A. Husaini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Motor behavior is an essential aspect of child development, and usually assessed in terms of age of achievement of motor milestone. The early detection of infants experiencing subtle delays in motor maturation can allow early intervention in developmental problems. Intervention can be more effective if delays are identified early. In order to facilitate the identification of early delays, the Center of Nutrition and Foods Research and Development in Bogor has designed a simple tool to monitor the child (aged 3 to 18 months motor development. Objective To develop an observable of normal gross motor maturation for use to detect deviance or motor delay. Methods A total of 2100 healthy children, aged 3-18 months, from high socio-economic group, in urban and suburban areas, were studied. Body length, weight and motor development were measured on all children. Gross motor development was measured 17 pre selected milestones: lie, sit, crawl, creep, stand Mth assistance, walk with assistance, stand alone, walk alone, and run. Results There were no differences between males and females in the comparison of attainment motor maturation therefore a sex combined curve was developed. Conclusion The curve of normal motor milestone development can be used as a tool to evaluate motor development over time, and/or as a child development card for use in primary health care.

  12. Pakistan and the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Child Health: progress and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector.

  13. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Understanding the causal relationship between parental schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes....... By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. We find OLS to be consistently upward biased due to endowments. Further, paternal schooling has no causal effect on infant and early childhood health but increases children...

  14. Development | Page 18 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    He is presently the Regional Coordinator of the Research Network on Social ... The end of the Cold War was to usher in a new era of international peace and security. ... Globalization has had a profound effect on North-South relations buthas ...

  15. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  16. Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…

  17. Maternal Conjugal Multiplicity and Child Development in Rural Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…

  18. Using a Virtual Simulation Program to Teach Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Laura K.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the use of technology in the classroom continues to grow. The current study included 100 students who registered for a 200 level child development class at a private university in Northern Virginia. Students were from 4 different sections taught by the same professor in different semesters. Two of the sections used a textbook. The…

  19. High School Child Development Courses Provide a Valuable Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombie, Sally M.

    2009-01-01

    The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…

  20. Laboratories and Demonstrations in Child Development with Unedited Videotapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Debra Ann

    1986-01-01

    Multipurpose demonstrations of child development are easy to produce by videotaping children while they interact with parents, siblings, or friends. Unlike commercial films, videotapes without narration allow students to formulate and test their own research questions. This article describes how to use unedited videotapes for laboratories in…

  1. Word Play: Scaffolding Language Development through Child-Directed Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important activity in young children's lives. It is how children explore their world and build knowledge. Although free play, which is play that is totally child directed, contributes to children's learning, self-regulation and motivation, adults' participation in children's play is critical in their development, especially their…

  2. Child Development Knowledge and Teacher Preparation: Confronting Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.

    This paper questions the widely held assumption that acquiring knowledge of child development is an essential part of teacher preparation and teaching competence, especially among teachers of young children. After discussing the influence of culture, parenting style, and teaching style on developmental expectations and outcomes, the paper asserts…

  3. A Mechanism for Gratitude Development in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Most scholars consider gratitude as a moral emotion, with only few seeing it as a character trait. As a result, no systematic mechanism has ever been attempted to develop gratitude in children. Given the social issue of widespread lack of gratitude in the one-child generations of China, this article attempts to outline a mechanism of parental…

  4. Emotional Development: Fostering the Child's Identity. Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    "Emotional Development: Fostering the Child's Identity" is a manual for use in training families providing service to foster children. Consisting of information to be covered in eight class sessions and numerous appendices providing supplementary material, this instructor's manual contains instructor's materials and participants' course content.…

  5. Goal setting with mothers in child development services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsingdal, S; St John, W; Miller, V; Harvey, A; Wearne, P

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore mothers' perspectives of the processes of collaborative goal setting in multidisciplinary child development services involving follow-up home therapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in South East Queensland, Australia with 14 mothers of children aged 3-6 years who were accessing multidisciplinary child development services. Interviews were focussed around the process of goal setting. A grounded theory of Maternal Roles in Goal Setting (The M-RIGS Model) was developed from analysis of data. Mothers assumed Dependent, Active Participator and Collaborator roles when engaging with the therapist in goal-setting processes. These roles were characterized by the mother's level of dependence on the therapist and insight into their child's needs and therapy processes. Goal Factors, Parent Factors and Therapist Factors influenced and added complexity to the goal-setting process. The M-RIGS Model highlights that mothers take on a range of roles in the goal-setting process. Although family-centred practice encourages negotiation and collaborative goal setting, parents may not always be ready to take on highly collaborative roles. Better understanding of parent roles, goal-setting processes and influencing factors will inform better engagement with families accessing multidisciplinary child development services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Fatherhood in Kenyan Ethnic Communities: Implication for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Jon; Fite, Kathleen; Wadende, Akinyi P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the traditional and evolving constructions of fatherhood in Kenyan society, with an emphasis on fatherhood's impact on child development outcomes. Western influence and increased access to technology have changed the role of the Kenyan father, and in turn affected his role in the family. Special attention is given to…

  7. Increasing adolescent mothers' knowledge of child development: an intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, A M; Murphy, K R; Anderson, S L

    1991-01-01

    This study focused upon an intervention program that allowed adolescent mothers to have major input in identifying knowledge they needed concerning their children's growth and their own parenting skills. Seventy-six females participated in the 4-month program. A pretest-posttest design was used to measure changes in self-esteem, knowledge of child development, and tendencies toward inappropriate interactions with children. Analysis of effectiveness of this program indicated that it had been effective. Results revealed significant differences between pre- and posttest measures of child development knowledge in the areas of infant and toddler development. Further analysis indicated a significant change in the subjects' child abuse potential at the end of the program. No significant difference could be found in measures of self-esteem between the beginning and end of the program. A 10-month follow-up study coordinated between two public agencies found that none of the adolescent parents who had completed the program had been reported for child abuse or neglect. The results support the importance of short-term intervention programs for adolescent parents.

  8. Maternal height and child mortality in 42 developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan W S; Smits, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research reports mixed results about the association between maternal height and child mortality. Some studies suggest that the negative association might be stronger in contexts with fewer resources. This hypothesis has yet not been tested in a cross-nationally comparative design. We use data on 307,223 children born to 194,835 women in 444 districts of 42 developing countries to estimate the association between maternal height and child mortality and test whether this association is modified by indicators at the level of the household (like sex, age and twin status of the child and socio-economic characteristics of the mother and her partner), district (regional level of development, public health facilities and female occupational attainment) and country (GDP per capita). We find a robust negative effect of logged maternal height on child mortality. The effect of maternal health is strongest for women with least education and is more important in the first year after birth and for twin births. The indicators of development at the district and country level do not modify the effect of maternal height. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Participation Continues to Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…

  10. Internal and external factors in child second language acquisition: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unsworth, S.; Hulk, A.; Marinis, T.

    2011-01-01

    An introduction to the journal is presented in which the editor discusses various articles published within the issue including one on morphosyntactic development and vocabulary, one on acquisition of grammatical gender, and one on the importance of the low proficiency in immigrant families..

  11. A Child's Concept of Pain: An International Survey of Pediatric Pain Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Joshua W; Hush, Julia M; Hancock, Mark J; Moseley, G Lorimer; Butler, David S; Simons, Laura E; Pacey, Verity

    2018-01-15

    A child's 'concept of pain' refers to how they understand what pain actually is, what function pain serves, and what biological processes are thought to underpin it. We aimed to determine pediatric pain experts' opinions of: (1) the importance and usefulness of assessing a child's concept of pain in clinical and/or research settings; (2) the usefulness of the content of items within currently published adult-targeted resources for assessing a child's concept of pain; and (3) important domains of a child's concept of pain to assess. Forty-nine pediatric pain experts (response rate = 75.4%) completed an online survey. Descriptive statistics and frequency of responses were analyzed. Experts from all included disciplines reported that assessing a child's concept of pain is important and useful both clinically and in a research setting (>80% reported very or extremely useful for each item). Experts considered that the content of 13 items from currently published adult-targeted resources was useful, but the wording was too complex for children aged 8-12 years. Experts considered that all seven of the proposed domains of a child's concept of pain was important to assess. The findings can be used to inform the development of an assessment tool for a child's concept of pain.

  12. Celebrating partnerships for International Development Week 2018 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-31

    Jan 31, 2018 ... International Development Week, observed February 4-10 this year, is an opportunity to focus on Canada's contributions ... This event is part of the 2018 International Development Week conference at the University of Ottawa. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  13. Margaret Biggs | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Margaret served as President of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) from 2008-2013, where she oversaw Canada's international development and humanitarian assistance efforts worldwide. Previously, Margaret served as Deputy Secretary to the Cabinet and Assistant Secretary, Priorities and ...

  14. Open Data for Development | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Open Data for Development (OD4D) program brings together a network of ... other open data initiatives to ensure they benefit people in developing countries. ... that benefits everyone, empowering women and achieving gender equality, ...

  15. Development | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Theoretical Perspectives on Gender and Development demystifies the theory of gender ... and development theory, introduces competing theoretical frameworks, and ... Unfortunately, however, the research environment in the Middle East and ...

  16. Child Development in a Changing World : Risks and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Boyden, Jo; Dercon, Stefan; Singh, Abhijeet

    2015-01-01

    This review explores current understandings of child development and the consequences for children of risk exposure in low- and middle-income countries by integrating empirical evidence from development economics with insights from allied social science disciplines. It provides a holistic perspective that highlights the synergies between children's developmental domains, drawing particular attention to dimensions such as self-efficacy, self-esteem and aspirations, which have had only limited ...

  17. Benefits of music training in child development: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    María Angélica Benítez; Veronika Mariana Diaz Abrahan; Nadia Romina Justel

    2018-01-01

    There are evidences that establish that from early childhood musical education has a positive effect on the cognitive development of the child, as well as different musical components contribute to the development of psychomotor, emotional and social skills. The musical processing is a complex issue. From a cognitive point of view production, music perception and aspects of the musical discourse, such as timbre, intensity, pace, and tonality, are processed in different parts of the brain and ...

  18. Search Results | Page 948 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 9471 - 9480 of 9580 ... Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been ... Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development ... future of the information society in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  19. Search Results | Page 950 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 9491 - 9500 of 9602 ... Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been ... Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development ... future of the information society in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  20. Search Results | Page 843 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8421 - 8430 of 8531 ... Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been ... Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development ... future of the information society in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  1. International Journal of Development and Management Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Management Review ... social Development and Management practices and theories while providing an institutional ... The Igbo care for the elderly in contemporary times: an old testament evaluation ...

  2. Search Results | Page 14 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 131 - 140 of 438 ... Role of social protection in children's schooling outcomes ... for future human capital development and overall long-term development. Briefs ... International remittances, poverty and inequality : the West African case.

  3. Search Results | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 11 - 20 of 55 ... Role of social protection in children's schooling outcomes ... implication for future human capital development and overall long-term development. ... International remittances, poverty and inequality : the West African case.

  4. Publications | Page 223 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC works with developing-country researchers and institutions to build local capacity through funding, knowledge sharing, and training. ... Audio slideshow: Overview and lessons from the Canadian Learning Forum 2012 on Virtual Platforms, Knowledge Management and International Development (open access).

  5. Publications | Page 283 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    China, Jordan, Nepal, Peru) with a number of international technical and legal experts to contribute to the development and implementation of innovative policies, and laws and related practices for the fair use and... Value chain development and ...

  6. Search Results | Page 97 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 961 - 970 of 9580 ... International Development Research Centre ... Collaboration in informal settlements: tackling flooding with a local perspective. In most developing countries, solid waste management is a significant challenge, ...

  7. The International Development in Accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔志宏

    2014-01-01

    This report mainly focuses Chinese accounting system and structure.In order to analysis and evaluate the Chinese accounting system and struc-ture,a brief history of the development of Chinese accounting system will be given to know the background of Chinese accounting system development process.

  8. All projects related to | Page 80 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Saharan Africa Leadership in HIV ... Program: Maternal and Child Health ... diabetes mellitus, a temporary diabetes that develops during pregnancy, are at a ... AND CHILD HEALTH, NUTRITION, HEALTH SERVICES, PRENATAL CARE, DIET.

  9. Extending Parent–Child Interaction Therapy for Early Childhood Internalizing Problems: New Advances for an Overlooked Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliafico, Anthony C.; Kurtz, Steven M. S.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Although efficacious psychological treatments for internalizing disorders are now well established for school-aged children, until recently there have regrettably been limited empirical efforts to clarify indicated psychological intervention methods for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders presenting in early childhood. Young children lack many of the developmental capacities required to effectively participate in established treatments for mood and anxiety problems presenting in older children, making simple downward extensions of these treatments for the management of preschool internalizing problems misguided. In recent years, a number of research groups have successfully adapted and modified parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT), originally developed to treat externalizing problems in young children, to treat various early internalizing problems with a set of neighboring protocols. As in traditional PCIT, these extensions target child symptoms by directly reshaping parent–child interaction patterns associated with the maintenance of symptoms. The present review outlines this emerging set of novel PCIT adaptations and modifications for mood and anxiety problems in young children and reviews preliminary evidence supporting their use. Specifically, we cover (a) PCIT for early separation anxiety disorder; (b) the PCIT-CALM (Coaching Approach behavior and Leading by Modeling) Program for the full range of early anxiety disorders; (c) the group Turtle Program for behavioral inhibition; and (d) the PCIT-ED (Emotional Development) Program for preschool depression. In addition, emerging PCIT-related protocols in need of empirical attention—such as the PCIT-SM (selective mutism) Program for young children with SM—are also considered. Implications of these protocols are discussed with regard to their unique potential to address the clinical needs of young children with internalizing problems. Obstacles to broad dissemination are addressed, and we consider

  10. Extending parent-child interaction therapy for early childhood internalizing problems: new advances for an overlooked population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Aubrey L; Puliafico, Anthony C; Kurtz, Steven M S; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Although efficacious psychological treatments for internalizing disorders are now well established for school-aged children, until recently there have regrettably been limited empirical efforts to clarify indicated psychological intervention methods for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders presenting in early childhood. Young children lack many of the developmental capacities required to effectively participate in established treatments for mood and anxiety problems presenting in older children, making simple downward extensions of these treatments for the management of preschool internalizing problems misguided. In recent years, a number of research groups have successfully adapted and modified parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), originally developed to treat externalizing problems in young children, to treat various early internalizing problems with a set of neighboring protocols. As in traditional PCIT, these extensions target child symptoms by directly reshaping parent-child interaction patterns associated with the maintenance of symptoms. The present review outlines this emerging set of novel PCIT adaptations and modifications for mood and anxiety problems in young children and reviews preliminary evidence supporting their use. Specifically, we cover (a) PCIT for early separation anxiety disorder; (b) the PCIT-CALM (Coaching Approach behavior and Leading by Modeling) Program for the full range of early anxiety disorders; (c) the group Turtle Program for behavioral inhibition; and (d) the PCIT-ED (Emotional Development) Program for preschool depression. In addition, emerging PCIT-related protocols in need of empirical attention--such as the PCIT-SM (selective mutism) Program for young children with SM--are also considered. Implications of these protocols are discussed with regard to their unique potential to address the clinical needs of young children with internalizing problems. Obstacles to broad dissemination are addressed, and we consider

  11. Communications Advisor | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to guide the development of quality communications products and services. ... This will contribute to ensuring that service models and processes are tested, ... It also ensures a cohesive communications service offering throughout IDRC.

  12. Agricultural transformations | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Farmers from developing countries are challenged by these ... the improvement of agricultural practices and human health with the ... in Cayambe consumed more water than one urban hectare in Quito, Ecuador's capital.

  13. Strategic Partnerships in International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Tod; Hartenstine, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a framework and recommendations for development of strategic partnerships in a variety of cultural contexts. Additionally, this study elucidates barriers and possibilities in interagency collaborations. Without careful consideration regarding strategic partnerships' approaches, functions, and goals, the ability to…

  14. Web Developer | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Primary Duties or Responsibilities Web Development Leads all technical web ... design, and maintain the corporate website and any other internet properties IDRC ... and testing site for use by members of the website and social media team.

  15. Report of educational experience: integral development of the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Freitas Marchiori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary The study was conducted at the Centre Municipal Education Child (CMEI "Sinclair Phillips," located in the city of Vitoria / ES, in the quarter Caratoíra. It is worth emphasizing the importance of believing in the potential and the knowledge that each child brings from an early age, because it is a development and be in full in terms of broadening their knowledge from the opportunities given to it, aiming to form a citizen critical. It is for the purchase of motor skills, promote health, cognitive development (intellectual, literacy and transmission of knowledge and culture / art historically constituted. The creativity and autonomy of the child always been the guiding objectives of the proposed work. He had the following objectives: to consolidate the Body of Culture Movement, working with social learning; provide social inclusion, developing the creativity; lead and supporting construction of autonomy; stimulate the initiative and diversity; provoke awareness of social rules; literacy; provide access the arts; articulate knowledge lived / worked in the school; chance rescue experiences of childhood, and transmit the culture children. The classes are not based in a single perspective, but allowed diverse forms of work, taking the child and its development as the focus of work. Another point of support was the adoption of Culture, Body Movement and Critical-emancipatory to develop intervention and that enabled a rich and varied work. The results are perceived in the day-to-day life of children, demonstrated by the actions of acceptance of others, recognition of the rules of coexistence, the materialization of learning: reading, writing and interpretation of some children's stories - this includes its production / living standalone of children, beyond access to culture and arts offered during the school year. Key Words: Children's Education, Physical Education, school practice, teaching.

  16. Household and context determinants of child labor in 156 districts of 11 developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de

    2008-01-01

    We study household and context determinants of child labor for 150,000 children in 11 developing countries, with child labor rates ranging from 2 to over 20 percent. Multilevel analysis showed socio-economic factors to be still major determinants of child labor, with less child labor in households

  17. Endoscopic internal biliary drainage in a child with malignant obstructive jaundice caused by neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tadao; Yoshida, Hideo; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kouchi, Katunori; Ohtsuka, Yasuhiro; Ohnuma, Naomi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Saisho, Hiromitsu

    2003-01-01

    We describe a 13-year-old girl who underwent insertion of a Flexima biliary stent for obstructive jaundice due to compression of the extrahepatic bile duct by an enlarged lymph node secondary to neuroblastoma. This novel endoscopic internal biliary drainage procedure was safe and effective even for a child, and improved her quality of life. We further review other treatment options available for malignant obstructive jaundice in children. (orig.)

  18. Endoscopic internal biliary drainage in a child with malignant obstructive jaundice caused by neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Tadao; Yoshida, Hideo; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kouchi, Katunori; Ohtsuka, Yasuhiro; Ohnuma, Naomi [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Chiba University, School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8677 (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Saisho, Hiromitsu [First Department of Internal Medicine, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    We describe a 13-year-old girl who underwent insertion of a Flexima biliary stent for obstructive jaundice due to compression of the extrahepatic bile duct by an enlarged lymph node secondary to neuroblastoma. This novel endoscopic internal biliary drainage procedure was safe and effective even for a child, and improved her quality of life. We further review other treatment options available for malignant obstructive jaundice in children. (orig.)

  19. Speech development delay in a child with foetal alcohol syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A female foetus in her mother’s womb was exposed to high concentrations of alcohol at each stage of pregnancy on a long-term basis, which resulted in a permanent disability. In addition to a number of deficiencies in the overall functioning of the body of the child, there are serious problems pertaining to verbal communication. This thesis aims to describe foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS disease and present the basic problems with communication functions in a child, caused by damage of brain structures responsible for speech development. The thesis includes a speech diagnosis and therapy program adapted to the presented case. In the Discussion Section we have presented characteristics of communication disorders in case of children with FAS and the description of developmental malformations, neurobehavioral disorders, and environmental factors affecting the development of the child’s speech.

  20. Beliefs About Child TV Viewing in Low-Income Mexican American Parents of Preschoolers: Development of the Beliefs About Child TV Viewing Scale (B-TV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Johnson, Susan L; Schmiege, Sarah J; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Boles, Richard E; Lev, Jerusha; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Parental beliefs about child television viewing may affect the way parents regulate child television viewing. Despite this, little research has focused on the development of measures of parental beliefs about child television viewing, particularly among ethnic minority parents and parents of young children. This study's objective was to develop and test a culturally-based measure of parental beliefs about television viewing in low-income Mexican American mothers of preschoolers. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, 22 items reflecting parental beliefs about influences of TV on children were developed and assessed for psychometric properties in a sample of 312 low-income Mexican American mothers of preschoolers. Results Using exploratory factor analysis, we identified four factors reflecting four domains of parental beliefs: positive general beliefs, positive sleep-related beliefs, positive functional beliefs, and negative general beliefs. Internal reliabilities were acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.70-0.89) for all factors except negative general beliefs (Cronbach's alpha = 0.61). Positive sleep-related beliefs and Positive Functional Beliefs were correlated with children's average daily hours of TV (r = 0.16, p parental beliefs regarding child TV viewing, and has good initial reliability and validity for three factors. Future use will allow investigators to conduct more in-depth evaluations on the influence of parental beliefs on the way parents shape their child's use of the TV.

  1. International strategies for breeder development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski, C.P.; Zebroski, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the perspectives of breeder reactors development. The near term context has led some experts to the conclusion that breeder reactor technology is too far ahead of its time. Some have compared breeders to the supersonic airplane, Concorde: good technical performance but failure in its economic dimensions. In this paper, the author points out the major shortcomings of such an assessment which may be valid in the short time. However, with a short-term market-dominated perspective that uses an 8% discount rate, one can neglect every thing that is going to happen in 50 years. 6 refs., 11 figs

  2. Predicting Internalizing Problems in Chinese Children: the Unique and Interactive Effects of Parenting and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting, and the interactions of authoritarian parenting × effortful control and authoritative parenting × anger/frustration (parents’ reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that: a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting, and b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration. PMID:23880383

  3. Predicting internalizing problems in Chinese children: the unique and interactive effects of parenting and child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-08-01

    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children's internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (aged 6-9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children's internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting and the interactions of Authoritarian Parenting × Effortful Control and Authoritative Parenting × Anger/Frustration (parents' reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that (a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting and (b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration.

  4. International financial markets and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wahl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc., while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

  5. Cyberfeminism, technology, and international "development".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjala, R; Mamidipudi, A

    1999-07-01

    This article reports on the implications and benefits of Internet technology among women from developing countries. Cyberfeminism is the practice of feminism in cyberspace. Feminists believe that women should take control and augment Internet technologies to empower themselves. Learning to use the computers, getting "connected," and surfing the Internet are encouraged among all women with the aim of advancing feminist causes and empowering women. The Internet has been observed to cause radical changes in the way business and social activities are conducted. A description of how two women have engaged in cyberfeminism and worked in development and technology programs is included. One contributor, Annapurna Mamipudi, is involved in a non-governmental organization working with traditional handloom weavers in India Another contributor is Radhika Gajjala, who works in academia and creates on-line "discussion lists" and Web sites from her North American geographical location. Her job is to create spaces that provide opportunities for dialogue and collaboration among women with Internet access all over the world.

  6. US agency for international development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  7. Development | Page 28 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Dnipro River is Europe's second longest river and flows through the heartland of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. For many centuries, it has played a vital role in the historical, cultural, religious and economic development of this vast region. Indeed, it is true to say that nobody can understand this vast region of the world ...

  8. Development | Page 15 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land is an important source of security against poverty across the developing world, but, in many places, unequal rights to land put women at a disadvantage, ... Upgrading is a key concept for value chain analysis and refers to the acquisition of technological capabilities and market linkages that enable firms to improve their ...

  9. Development | Page 32 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book describes and analyzes the 3-year-long “L-20” project, whose objective ... in the environment for research and development (R&D) around the world. ... the “capability approach” of economist and Nobel Prize laureate Amartya Sen.

  10. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Topics in Development, Signaling... Review, OD, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  11. Search Results | Page 723 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7221 - 7230 of 9602 ... Economic literature has demonstrated the importance of the services sector in ... Capability, Governance and Nanotechnology : Focus on India ... on international development through its International Relations Division. ... Poverty reduction through growth is the idea behind the market-oriented ...

  12. Testing specificity among parents' depressive symptoms, parenting, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Testing Specificity Among Parents’ Depressive Symptoms, Parenting, and Child Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Meredith A.; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15-years-old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. PMID:26882467

  14. State Child Care Regulatory, Monitoring and Evaluation Systems as a Means for Ensuring Quality Child Development Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard

    The development of a checklist for use in monitoring and evaluating the quality of child care services, and the implications of use of the checklist by day care providers, are discussed. Several research studies that used the indicator checklist model have attempted to determine whether compliance with state child care regulations has a positive…

  15. 75 FR 64734 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Maternal Fetal Medicine Units... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... 64735

  16. The effects of caregiver and household HIV on child development: a community-based longitudinal study of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, L; Skeen, S; Hensels, I S; Tomlinson, M; Macedo, A

    2016-11-01

    Many studies that document child outcomes in the context of parental HIV - which has been established as a risk factor for child development - focus on older children/adolescents. Studies also concentrate on the status of the primary caregiver, not other household members who might be infected. This study examined the effects of caregiver and household HIV on child development (4-13 years) in South Africa and Malawi (2011-2014). Data were gathered from 989 children and their primary caregivers at baseline and repeated at 12-15 months follow-up (86.5% follow-up rate). Only caregivers of a single child and caregiver/child dyads without missing data were included, providing a sample of 808 dyads for analysis. Children were divided into three groups according to caregiver-reported HIV burden: having an HIV-positive primary caregiver (19.8%), having HIV in the household (14.2%) or no HIV (66%). The HIV burden was positively associated with an array of negative child outcomes, often mediated by caregiver depression levels. Family HIV burden at baseline affected child behavioural problems at follow-up indirectly through carer depression (B = 0.02; CI = 0.003, 0.06). Internalizing (B = 0.02; CI = 0.002, 0.05) and externalizing problems at follow-up (B = 0.01; CI = 0.0002, 0.03) were also indirectly affected by family HIV burden through caregiver depression. The data suggest that family HIV can affect child development, emphasizing the important role of depression in the pathway to such an effect. Community-based interventions directed at alleviating parental depression in the presence of HIV may help to interrupt the cycle of family HIV and adverse child outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Causal effects on child language development: A review of studies in communication sciences and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Clare R; Nulty, Karissa L; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; DeThorne, Laura S

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed recent studies published across key journals within the field of communication sciences and disorders (CSD) to survey what causal influences on child language development were being considered. Specifically, we reviewed a total of 2921 abstracts published within the following journals between 2003 and 2013: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools (LSHSS); American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (AJSLP); Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (JSLHR); Journal of Communication Disorders (JCD); and the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders (IJLCD). Of the 346 eligible articles that addressed causal factors on child language development across the five journals, 11% were categorized as Genetic (37/346), 83% (287/346) were categorized as Environmental, and 6% (22/346) were categorized as Mixed. The bulk of studies addressing environmental influences focused on therapist intervention (154/296=52%), family/caregiver linguistic input (65/296=22%), or family/caregiver qualities (39/296=13%). A more in-depth review of all eligible studies published in 2013 (n=34) revealed that family/caregiver qualities served as the most commonly controlled environmental factor (e.g., SES) and only 3 studies explicitly noted the possibility of gene-environment interplay. This review highlighted the need to expand the research base for the field of CSD to include a broader range of environmental influences on child language development (e.g., diet, toxin exposure, stress) and to consider more directly the complex and dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental effects. Readers will be able to highlight causal factors on child language development that have been studied over the past decade in CSD and recognize additional influences worthy of consideration. In addition, readers will become familiar with basic tenets of developmental systems theory, including the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors

  18. Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Family Transmission of Parent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Child Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms Following Fathers’ Combat-Trauma Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James; Gewirtz, Abigail; Schrepferman, Lynn; Gird, Suzanne R.; Quattlebaum, Jamie; Pauldine, Michael R.; Elish, Katie; Zamir, Osnat; Hayes, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Transactional cascades among child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and fathers’ and mothers’ post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were examined in a sample of families with a male parent who had been deployed to recent military conflicts in the Middle East. The role of parents’ positive engagement and coercive interaction with their child, and family members’ emotion regulation were tested as processes linking cascades of parent and child symptoms. A subsample of 183 families with deployed fathers and non-deployed mothers and their 4 to 13 year old children who participated in a randomized control trial intervention (After Deployment: Adaptive Parenting Tools, or ADAPT) were assessed at baseline prior to intervention, and at 12 and 24 months after baseline, using parent reports of their own and their child’s symptoms. Parents’ observed behavior during interaction with their children was coded using a multi-method approach at each assessment point. Reciprocal cascades among fathers’ and mothers’ PTSD symptoms, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms were observed. Fathers’ and mothers’ positive engagement during parent-child interaction linked their PTSD symptoms and their child’s internalizing symptoms. Fathers’ and mothers’ coercive behavior toward their child linked their PTSD symptoms and their child’s externalizing symptoms. Each family members’ capacity for emotion regulation was associated with their adjustment problems at baseline. Implications for intervention, and for research using longitudinal models and a family-systems perspective of co-occurrence and cascades of symptoms across family members are described. PMID:27739388

  19. Search Results | Page 80 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Results 791 - 800 of 8492 ... International Development Research Centre (IDRC) supported research study on Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis which was carried out between 1992 and 2001 in Kathmandu Metropolitan City Nepal. Published date. January 1, 2009. Studies.

  20. Search Results | Page 13 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Teaching Public Policy for the Arab World : final technical report. Through integrating politics, policy, economics and other social science research ... of the field, developing methodology and building a critical mass of international health syste.

  1. Search Results | Page 27 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 261 - 270 of 1368 ... ICT in the context of education system ... Statistical handbook on baseline survey : part 1; data tables; (Focus City ... Technologies (ICT) in international development assistance - issues, trends and opportunities.

  2. Search Results | Page 40 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 391 - 400 of 8491 ... The influenza virus causes upper respiratory tract infections in humans, ... inclusion of youth and women through entrepreneurship in Madagascar ... Research can help international development do more with less.

  3. Publications | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 241 - 250 of 6341 ... Journal articles. Papers. Reports. Research in Action. Studies ... Half a year later, on. ... Over the past two decades, the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) has established and subsequently devolved ...

  4. Publications | Page 343 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 3421 - 3430 of 6923 ... ... peace accords that ended decades of bloody internal conflict. ... Environmental governance argues that governments are not the only agents ... Despite notable socio-economic development in the Arab region, ...

  5. Search Results | Page 795 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7941 - 7950 of 9601 ... ... awareness of the nutrition and income benefits of indigenous vegetables. ... The political and economic environment for civil society ... international cooperation and development work and based in Canada and ...

  6. Search Results | Page 71 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Results 701 - 710 of 8531 ... Audio slideshow: Overview and lessons from the Canadian Learning Forum 2012 on Virtual Platforms, Knowledge Management and International Development. Published date. January 1, 2012. Studies.

  7. World Refugee Council | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    develop tools and institutional structures to improve the international architecture and lay a foundation for addressing both the immediate and the long-term challenges of managing refugee flows effectively and comprehensively.” States also adopted ...

  8. Search Results | Page 909 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 9081 - 9090 of 9601 ... Area yield crop insurance in Vietnam : an analysis from the demand side ... Global partnership on open data for development : IDRC technical report ... efforts will benefit the ongoing work of the International Open ...

  9. Search Results | Page 10 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 91 - 100 of 181 ... Strengthening Governance in Health Systems for Reproductive Health and ... Latin America is home to the greatest inequities in the world, ... The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) is funding the Africa ...

  10. Senior Program Specialist | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Initiative Development Identifies opportunities that will contribute to meeting the ... internal and governance committees, in-house and external research, global ... of strengthening CRVS systems, including gaps in existing CRVS infrastructure ...

  11. Search Results | Page 690 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 6891 - 6900 of 9601 ... The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development ... Institutional Support to Policy Research Organizations in India ... policy on both the content and administration of family law in the Caribbean, ...

  12. Search Results | Page 87 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 861 - 870 of 874 ... The right to privacy is a fundamental human right within democratic states. ... and living well in Bolivia : contributions to food security ... How open data and international development need to learn from one another.

  13. Search Results | Page 46 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 451 - 460 of 8518 ... Graduate education should challenge traditional modes of learning and ... Development FEMINISM WOMEN'S ECONOMIC ... The role of research in implementing Canada's Feminist International Assistance Policy.

  14. Search Results | Page 675 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 6741 - 6750 of 9602 ... ... Societies (4) Apply International Partnerships for Sustainable Societies filter ... Labour market regulations, particularly minimum wage policies, ... (think tanks) in developing countries, thereby enabling them to ... of legislation related to economic management, business activity and ... Solutions.

  15. Search Results | Page 78 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 771 - 780 of 1804 ... International Lawyers and Economists against Poverty (ILEAP) is an ... (STI) are critical elements in economic and social development. ... is a coalition of 18 Canadian environmental, social justice, church, first nations ...

  16. Search Results | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 181 - 190 of 1804 ... Next-generation models for Canadian collaboration in international development ... Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia ... While many private companies have made strides in building their own ...

  17. Search Results | Page 42 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 411 - 420 of 8531 ... Next-generation models for Canadian collaboration in international development ... Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia ... While many private companies have made strides in building their own ...

  18. Search Results | Page 119 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Flows on Poverty in Ghana ... IDRC to enhance its members' understanding of and engagement with international research for development. ... Having little or no savings can be devastating for poor families.

  19. Search Results | Page 72 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-03-01

    Results 711 - 720 of 8489 ... Assessing Organizational Performance - Level 1- International Development Research Centre. Published date. March 1, 2007. Studies. -. Novel Epidemiological Method: Using Newspapers To Provide Insight Into Climate Change And Health. Published date. June 25, 2012. Studies.

  20. Program Officer | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and the regional offices on issues of project development and management; ... IDRC's contacts with other international agencies and Canadian institutions; ... including conceptual, methodological, operational, evaluative, and financial ...

  1. Search Results | Page 10 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 91 - 100 of 172 ... The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) is ... Ecuador's Healthy Food Campaign: An Effectiveness Assessment. This innovative project will address the problem of rising obesity and ...

  2. President | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    International Development Research Centre Selection Criteria Education A ... or an acceptable combination of education, job-related training and/or experience. ... Knowledge of current corporate governance and human resource issues; ...

  3. International Journal of Medicine and Health Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Medicine and Health Development ... This is the official publication of College of Medicine, University of Nigeria under the ... Health related quality of life and sociodemographic characteristics among Iranian students ...

  4. Search Results | Page 53 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 521 - 530 of 875 ... Migration, Gender and Social Justice : Connecting Research and Practice Networks ... International Barcode of Life Project : Engaging Developing ... Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin ...

  5. Publications | Page 372 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 3711 - 3720 of 6389 ... Through books, articles, research publications, and studies, ... theory, rural development, and natural resource management. ... Drawing on internal political contexts and external influences on the policy process, ...

  6. IDRC Research Awards 2019 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Citizens of developing countries pursuing a master's or a doctoral degree at a ... and will receive hands-on experience in research and program management and ... dissemination, and use of knowledge from an international perspective.

  7. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Partnerships for Sustainable Societies are collaborations that produce high-quality research to inform academic, public, and policy debates to contribute to create just, inclusive, and sustainable social and economic development.

  8. David M. Malone President, International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    malonedm

    independent research and policy development institution in New York. From 1994 to 1998 ... His widely reviewed book The International Struggle Over Iraq: Politics in the ... also to write in a lighter vein, often for the Literary Review of Canada.

  9. Search Results | Page 847 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8461 - 8470 of 8517 ... The Centre Management Committee provides advice and guidance ... and meet the members who share a passion for international development work. ... as required under Canada's Financial Administration Act.

  10. Search Results | Page 851 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8501 - 8510 of 8531 ... Governance. IDRC is governed by global leaders and innovators with one collective aim: to empower people to find lasting solutions through international development research. Webpage.

  11. Search Results | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 31 - 40 of 1367 ... Real momentum is building around the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as ... Promoting Rural Income from Sustainable Aquaculture through ... An international research team aims to protect human health and ...

  12. Partnership Officer | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and bilateral development institutions, foundations and the private sector;; Supports ... and managing IDRC's contacts with other international and donor agencies; ... and Regional Offices), Corporate Counsel and Finance and Administration ...

  13. Search Results | Page 31 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 301 - 310 of 8491 ... ... ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 103 Apply ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH filter ... Strengthening territorial development and local management mechanisms ... Through this project, the Canadian Council for International ... and innovation, particularly in national science systems in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Search Results | Page 814 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1996-01-01

    Results 8131 - 8140 of 8490 ... Development and Global Governance. Fifty years on, the reform of the Bretton Woods institutions — the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund — has become a lively issue. Publication Date. January 1, 1996. Books.

  15. The Role of Parenting Dimensions and Child-Parent Relationship in Children's Internalized and Externalized Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سید عباس ساطوریان

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to predict and investigate the relationship between parenting dimensions and child-parent relationship with internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems; and designed with descriptive-correlative method. The sample group included 413 single-child and multi-childe elementary school students in Yazd (141 single-child, 121 two-child, 101 three-child, 50 four-child and more with their parents, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Alabama Parenting Dimensions Questionnaire (APQ, Parent ـChild Relationship Scale (PCRS and also a researcher-made form for demography information, were used for data collecting. Results of a stepwise linear regression showed that among parenting skills, dimensions of “poor control”, and “physical punishment” were better predictors for internalized behavioral problems, and dimensions of “participation” and “physical punishment” were better predictors for externalized behavioral problems in children. Among subscales of PCRS, the “dependence” in boys and the “conflict” in girls were better predictors for internalizing problems, and the subscale of “conflict” in both boys and girls was a better predictor for externalizing problems.

  16. Relations between Parenting and Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behaviour in Early Adolescence: Child Behaviour as Moderator and Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we investigated relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour during early adolescence. First, we examined parenting effects on problem behaviour, including child behaviour as a moderator. Second, we examined child behaviour as predictor of parenting, also including moderator effects.…

  17. Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Five Years by Child and Parental Factors in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Luoma, Ilona; Latva, Reija; Salmelin, Raili K.; Tamminen, Tuula

    2012-01-01

    This study examined child and parental factors in infancy and toddlerhood predicting subclinical or clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years of age. Ninety-six children and their families participated. They were assessed when the children were 4-10 weeks old (T1), 2 years (T2) and 5 years old (T3). Child risks…

  18. Labour Market Reform and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2009-01-01

    The paper is purported to examine the consequences of possible labour market reform in the developing economies on the incidence of child labour and economic well-being of the child labour supplying families. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium structure with child labour and imperfection in the market for adult labour has been used for the analytical purpose. Although this policy is likely to lower the incidence of child labour the welfare of the families supplying child labour...

  19. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. INTERACTION BETWEEN HAGUE CONVENTION ON THE CIVIL ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION AND DOMESTIC LITIGATIONS CONCERNING DOMICILE OF THE CHILD AND PARENTAL AUTHORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Magda VOICULESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the vast majority of cases, international abduction of a child determines almost per se litigations both at international and national level, namely an international litigation based on provisions of Hague Convention on the civil aspects of international child abduction and a domestic litigation aiming at establishing the domicile of the child in the state of destination and other different measures concerning the child which fall within the area of parental authority (joint or exclusive. The purpose of the article is to analyze the interaction between the international and the national case and how they influence each other from a double perspective (procedural and substantial, taking into account that the two litigations are generally pending at the same time. Even the mere coexistence of the two litigations gives rise to the question which one should have priority in solving. Therefore, the objectives of this study are, on the one hand, to examine the implications in the domestic litigation of the decision pronounced in the Hague litigation (international competence, suspension of the national case, elements which are covered by the res judicata principle, and on the other hand to identify how a national decision on domicile and parental authority may influence the solution in the Hague case.

  1. Peter Taylor | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    He leads a multidisciplinary team that strengthens policy research capacity in developing countries on issues of economic policy, governance, and health systems. Peter has more than 30 years of experience in international development, including positions at the Institute of Development Studies, UK; Helvetas Vietnam; ...

  2. Search Results | Page 65 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 641 - 650 of 902 ... Ecology of Access to Educational Material in Developing World Universities ... understanding of and engagement with international research for development. ... respondents ranked labour market problems first on a list of 10 ... a pioneer in the discipline of economic development theory and its policy ...

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    Results 161 - 170 of 9581 ... Journal of peacebuilding and development, volume 3, number 1, 2006 ... As the country embarked on a path of economic reform, care ... DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH YOUTH SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT International ... Reasons for neglect of residential land issues in Navliwadi, Maharastra, India.

  4. Search Results | Page 44 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 431 - 440 of 902 ... ... DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 19 Apply DEVELOPING COUNTRIES filter · LAW ... Final report on IDRC's participation in the 11th World Congress on ... The Centre for International Sustainable Development Law ... They plan production, procurement and commercialization but outsource production ...

  5. Anindya Chatterjee | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dr Anindya Chatterjee is Regional Director, Asia, based in New Delhi, India. He has provided leadership in research, research management, policy, and program development in the area of global health and development. Dr Chatterjee formerly worked internationally with United Nations development agencies, and ...

  6. Search Results | Page 787 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7861 - 7870 of 9606 ... A research network on telecommunications policy is playing a significant ... CSOs that are engaged in international cooperation for development but ... The study's author, Stacie Travers, also carried out four case studies on ... Development Regional development Economics Environment Food ...

  7. Emerging Donors Study | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-20

    Oct 20, 2010 ... The four countries that were studied are Brazil, India, China and South Africa. The specific objectives of the studies were to: understand each country's approach to international development assistance and cooperation in developing countries; understand their approach to research for development in ...

  8. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-H MR 1. Date: April 23... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  9. 77 FR 34394 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  10. 77 FR 37421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; PMTCT. Date: July 17-18, 2012. Time... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  11. 77 FR 33473 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-W 90. Date: June 26, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  12. 77 FR 5031 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Developmental... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  13. 75 FR 49500 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: October... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  14. 76 FR 61719 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Developmental Biology Subcommittee... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435...

  15. 77 FR 61419 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel. Date: October 30, 2012. Time: 3:00 p... Institute Of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  16. 77 FR 34393 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and Behavioral... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute o Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  17. 77 FR 26020 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Nature and Acquisition of Speech... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  18. 76 FR 61720 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, PAR-10-194, PAR10-203, PAR-11- 183... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  19. 76 FR 67469 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Molecular and Cellular Controls of... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  20. 78 FR 18996 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Alexander Disease; Mechanisms... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, 6100...

  1. 76 FR 76169 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Mentored Training in Executive... Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD...

  2. 76 FR 5595 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Biobehavioral and Behavioral... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  3. 77 FR 37422 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Z 41 2. Date: July 19, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  4. 77 FR 19677 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, ZHD1... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  5. 45 CFR 1306.30 - Provisions of comprehensive child development services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provisions of comprehensive child development... Start Program Options § 1306.30 Provisions of comprehensive child development services. (a) All Head Start grantees must provide comprehensive child development services, as defined in the Head Start...

  6. 76 FR 61721 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, Neuroplasticity and the Maternal... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  7. 77 FR 61421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: October... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  8. 78 FR 19498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and Behavioral Sciences... Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01...

  9. 75 FR 7485 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Health, Behavior, and Context... Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute For Child Health & Development, 6100 Executive...

  10. 77 FR 33474 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Academic-Community Partnership... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  11. 77 FR 73036 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel. NICHD T32 Teleconference Review... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  12. 76 FR 5594 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Developmental Biology Subcommittee... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  13. 77 FR 61420 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Population Sciences Subcommittee. Date... National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  14. 76 FR 8372 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Risk Genes and Environment... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  15. 77 FR 64817 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Y 41 1. Date: November 15... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  16. 75 FR 63498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  17. 76 FR 5593 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Prenatal Events-Postnatal... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  18. 78 FR 12765 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: March... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of, Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  19. 77 FR 64815 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Z. Date: November 13, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01...

  20. 77 FR 27471 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee Date: June 14..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  1. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel Congenital Defects Topics. Date: May..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  2. 33 CFR 55.5 - Who is eligible for child development services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible for child development services? 55.5 Section 55.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.5 Who is eligible for child development services...

  3. 77 FR 64818 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Pregnancy Adaptation and Maternal... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  4. 76 FR 43334 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Children in Rural Poverty. Date... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  5. 76 FR 43334 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, FES Controller for Upper Limb... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  6. 76 FR 37133 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Group; Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  7. 76 FR 6146 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, Maternal Fetal Medicine Units... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  8. 78 FR 47328 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asthma Cohort Support Contract. Date... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d..., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892...

  9. Voyage through Childhood into the Adult World: A Guide to Child Development. Lifeways Series. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Eva A.

    Originally written for students at St. Thomas' Hospital in London, this guide to child development offers an overview of child development for parents, teachers, and all adults concerned with raising children. Many of the book's ideas come from direct work with children and draw on Rudolf Steiner's approach to child development. The book's…

  10. Development of Probabilistic Internal Dosimetry Computer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Siwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae-Eun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai-Ki [Korean Association for Radiation Protection, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Internal radiation dose assessment involves biokinetic models, the corresponding parameters, measured data, and many assumptions. Every component considered in the internal dose assessment has its own uncertainty, which is propagated in the intake activity and internal dose estimates. For research or scientific purposes, and for retrospective dose reconstruction for accident scenarios occurring in workplaces having a large quantity of unsealed radionuclides, such as nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities in which nuclear medicine is practiced, a quantitative uncertainty assessment of the internal dose is often required. However, no calculation tools or computer codes that incorporate all the relevant processes and their corresponding uncertainties, i.e., from the measured data to the committed dose, are available. Thus, the objective of the present study is to develop an integrated probabilistic internal-dose-assessment computer code. First, the uncertainty components in internal dosimetry are identified, and quantitative uncertainty data are collected. Then, an uncertainty database is established for each component. In order to propagate these uncertainties in an internal dose assessment, a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment system that employs the Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods. Based on the developed system, we developed a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment code by using MATLAB so as to estimate the dose distributions from the measured data with uncertainty. Using the developed code, we calculated the internal dose distribution and statistical values (e.g. the 2.5{sup th}, 5{sup th}, median, 95{sup th}, and 97.5{sup th} percentiles) for three sample scenarios. On the basis of the distributions, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of each component on the resulting dose in order to identify the major component of the uncertainty in a bioassay. The results of this study can be applied to various

  11. Development of Probabilistic Internal Dosimetry Computer Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Internal radiation dose assessment involves biokinetic models, the corresponding parameters, measured data, and many assumptions. Every component considered in the internal dose assessment has its own uncertainty, which is propagated in the intake activity and internal dose estimates. For research or scientific purposes, and for retrospective dose reconstruction for accident scenarios occurring in workplaces having a large quantity of unsealed radionuclides, such as nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities in which nuclear medicine is practiced, a quantitative uncertainty assessment of the internal dose is often required. However, no calculation tools or computer codes that incorporate all the relevant processes and their corresponding uncertainties, i.e., from the measured data to the committed dose, are available. Thus, the objective of the present study is to develop an integrated probabilistic internal-dose-assessment computer code. First, the uncertainty components in internal dosimetry are identified, and quantitative uncertainty data are collected. Then, an uncertainty database is established for each component. In order to propagate these uncertainties in an internal dose assessment, a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment system that employs the Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods. Based on the developed system, we developed a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment code by using MATLAB so as to estimate the dose distributions from the measured data with uncertainty. Using the developed code, we calculated the internal dose distribution and statistical values (e.g. the 2.5 th , 5 th , median, 95 th , and 97.5 th percentiles) for three sample scenarios. On the basis of the distributions, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of each component on the resulting dose in order to identify the major component of the uncertainty in a bioassay. The results of this study can be applied to various situations. In cases

  12. The Meaning of Emotional Overinvolvement in Early Development: Prospective Relations with Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafi, Tamar Y.; Yates, Tuppett M.; Sher-Censor, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Emotional Overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS-EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS-EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive processes when parenting younger children. Thus, this study evaluated relations of each FMSS-EOI criterion with changes in child behavior problems from preschool to first grade in a community sample of 223 child-mother dyads (47.98% female; Mage_W1 = 49.08 months; 56.50% Hispanic/Latina). Maternal FMSS-EOI ratings were obtained at wave 1, and independent examiners rated child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at wave 1 and two years later. Path analyses indicated that both the Self-Sacrifice/Overprotection (SSOP) and Statements of Attitude (SOAs) FMSS-EOI criteria predicted increased externalizing problems. In contrast, Excessive Detail and Exaggerated Praise were not related to child externalizing behavior problems, and Emotional Display was not evident in this sample. None of the FMSS-EOI criteria evidenced significant relations with internalizing behavior problems. Multigroup comparisons indicated that the effect of SOAs on externalizing behavior problems was significant for boys but not for girls, and there were no significant group differences by race/ethnicity. These findings point to the salience of SSOP and SOAs for understanding the developmental significance of EOI in early development. PMID:26147935

  13. Evaluation of child development: beyond the neuromotor aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the epidemiology and update the scientific knowledge on the problems of development and behavior in childhood, and the recommendations for the role of the pediatrician in identifying and managing delays and disturbances in child development and mental health. Sources: A search for relevant literature was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases and publications of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Summary of the findings: With the decline in the incidence of communicable diseases in children, problems with development, behavior, and emotional regulation are increasingly becoming a part of the work of pediatricians, yet many are not trained and feel uncomfortable about this extension of their role. The available screening tools for child development and behavior are reviewed, and a ‘school readiness’ checklist is presented, together with recommendations on how the pediatrician can incorporate developmental surveillance into routine practice, aware of the need for children to acquire social, emotional, and cognitive skills so that they can develop their full potential. Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course. Resumo: Objetivo: Revisar a epidemiologia e atualizar os conhecimentos científicos sobre os problemas do desenvolvimento e do comportamento na infância, e das recomendações do papel do pediatra na identificação e conduta frente aos transtornos da saúde mental infantil. Fontes de dados: Pesquisamos a literatura relevante nas bases de dados PubMed e Scopus e em publicações do National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Síntese dos dados: Com o declínio na incidência de doenças transmissíveis em crianças, problemas do desenvolvimento, comportamento e regula

  14. Reconciling parenting and smoking in the context of child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Johnson, Joy L; Chan, Anna

    2013-08-01

    In this article we explore the micro-social context of parental tobacco use in the first years of a child's life and early childhood. We conducted individual interviews with 28 mothers and fathers during the 4 years following the birth of their child. Using grounded theory methods, we identified the predominant explanatory concept in parents' accounts as the need to reconcile being a parent and smoking. Desires to become smoke-free coexisted with five types of parent-child interactions: (a) protecting the defenseless child, (b) concealing smoking and cigarettes from the mimicking child, (c) reinforcing smoking as bad with the communicative child, (d) making guilt-driven promises to the fearful child, and (e) relinquishing personal responsibility to the autonomous child. We examine the agency of the child in influencing parents' smoking practices, the importance of children's observational learning in the early years, and the reciprocal nature of parent-child interactions related to parents' smoking behavior.

  15. Understanding the development of international environmental agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jens

    There are many different theoretical schools concerned with how international regimes develop, and each supplies its own interpretation focusing on one or a few aspects of the process. Such ‘one shot’ explanations may be fruitful for scientific debate, but less useful as conceptual frameworks...... for practitioners and planners manoeuvring in a complex world. On the basis of a review of selected theories of international and environmental regulation, this article initiates the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the development of internationalenvironmental agreements. The point...... of departure for developing the model is the actor-structure debate within social science and theory of international relations. Based on critical realism, a framework is developed specifying the relation between collective action problem situations and negotiation situations. It is argued that the main...

  16. An Attachment Perspective on the Child--Dog Bond: Interdisciplinary and International Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of attachment formation in young children has been a focal point in child development research for decades. However, young children's attachments are not only with human beings; they also form bonds with companion animals, particularly dogs ("Canis familiaris"). Given the number of dogs that are kept by families…

  17. The influence of causal attribution of parents on developing the child enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Causal attributions are affirmed as a cognitive element able to explain emotional and motivational aspects of behaviour of some categories of adult psychiatric patients, primarily depressive ones. Theoretical and practical success of cognitive ideas in explaining the origination of depressive disorders, and in the monitoring of depressive patient treatment has led to further development of theory, but also to the attempt to apply the learning about causal attributions to various problems. Characteristic attempts are those that the problems of child abuse, children’s depression, upbringing problems, school failure, hyperactivity, enuresis, and long-term effects of different child treatment, too, are analysed from the point of view of causal attributions. By assessing parent causal attributions regarding child night urination, we wanted to establish to what extent specific attributions for child behaviour differentiate the parents of children having this problem from those parents whose children have established control. Parents were assessed in terms of four dimensions of causal attributions for child’s problem. Those are the dimensions of globality, counter-lability, internality, and the stability of the cause of child’s problem. The analysis of parent causal attributions show that mothers and fathers in both assessed groups similarly experience the cause of enuretic problems of their children. Enuresis is seen as caused by specific, internal, and instable causes. Such a system of dimensions could correspond to the belief that the main etiological factor of the enuresis is maturing. For more reliable verification of this attitude, longitudinal strategy in research is necessary, especially to comprehend whether parental attributions have been developed as an effect of persistent enuresis, or whether the enuresis is developed as an effect of parental attributions.

  18. Pakistan and the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Child Health: progress and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-04-03

    The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector. Pakistan has to accelerate improvement of access to maternal health services, particularly contraception, emergency obstetric care and skilled birth attendance; the need to improve maternal and child nutrition cannot be over-emphasised.

  19. All projects related to egypt | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Developing civil society expertise to promote democratic governance of ... Topic: BRAIN, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, CANCER, THERAPY, CANADA ... Topic: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION, MIGRATION, GENDER ANALYSIS, ...

  20. All projects related to | Page 143 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... GROUPS, WOMEN'S HEALTH, LOW INCOME GROUPS, REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH, ... As national health systems in developing countries make progress toward ... Topic: MENTAL HEALTH, CHILDREN'S RIGHTS, CHILD ABUSE, CHILD ...

  1. Lisa Woodward | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lisa Woodward is Special Advisor to the President. Before joining IDRC, Lisa held positions in strategic planning, performance measurement, evaluation, risk management, and policy development in federal organizations, including Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the Canadian International Development Agency, and the ...

  2. Employability of Graduates from International Development Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge to shape learning This study will collect and analyze longitudinal data ... Canadian Consortium of University Programs in International Development ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... an opportunity for the awardees to develop their skills and network with some of ...

  3. Gender | Page 227 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Two years ago, the International Development Research Centre created CIME, a development communication program that reflects the interrelations between Communication at the grassroots level, the exchange of Information, two-way Media, and nonformal Education. This book presents the conceptual framework that led ...

  4. Search Results | Page 3 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 21 - 30 of 8491 ... ... use as a threat not only to global health, but also to international development efforts. ... Collaboration in informal settlements: tackling flooding with a local perspective. In most developing countries, solid waste management is a ... public service, academia, and at the Canadian Museum of History.

  5. Search Results | Page 843 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8421 - 8430 of 8531 ... The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. ... In recent years, the Internet and other network technologies have emerged as a central issue for development in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  6. Search Results | Page 52 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 511 - 520 of 658 ... ... NETWORKS filter · Economic and social development 30 Apply ... The debate over intellectual property policies and their effects is highly contested. ... It is generally acknowledged that mass media (specifically radio) play an ... by Wellcome Trust, the Department for International Development ...

  7. Search Results | Page 51 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 501 - 510 of 650 ... ... NETWORKS filter · Economic and social development 30 Apply ... Consolidating African Research and Education Networking ... The debate over intellectual property policies and their effects is highly contested. ... by Wellcome Trust, the Department for International Development (DFID) and IDRC.

  8. An International Marketing Curriculum - Development and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboushi, Suhail; Lackman, Conway; Peace, A. Graham

    1999-01-01

    Describes the process of market-driven curriculum design in the development of an undergraduate International Marketing (IM) major at Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) School of Business Administration. Reports on a market study revealing profiles and IM curriculum design preferences of exporting companies. Discusses the curriculum development,…

  9. Search Results | Page 60 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 591 - 600 of 650 ... Public Policy and Protection from Exclusion - Phase III ... International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) are ... Panafrican Research Agenda on the Integration of ICTs in Education - Phase I ... Development, the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and the ...

  10. Search Results | Page 763 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7621 - 7630 of 8532 ... DEVELOPMENT AID. The advance of history: the scholars speak. Research in Action. Innovation. Joining forces to ... Ideas. Innovation. Impact. Research in Action. Innovation REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT Capacity building International cooperation Gender. Achieving global distinction. Research ...

  11. Governance | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... appoints governors based on their interest and expertise in science, management, and development issues. The chair of the Board of Governors presents an annual report to Parliament through the Minister of International Development. IDRC's president oversees our day-to-day operations. As the chief executive officer, ...

  12. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Research Chairs Initiative pairs top research talent from universities in Canada with their counterparts in developing countries to address key development challenges. We fund researchers driving global change. Careers · Contact Us · Subscribe · Unsubscribe · Site map. Follow us; Facebook · Twitter ...

  13. Search Results | Page 787 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7861 - 7870 of 9602 ... The study's author, Stacie Travers, also carried out four case studies ... Development Regional development Economics Environment Food ... generating ideas and building international networks. ... Learning financial skills through involvement in an urban farming cooperative has improved the ...

  14. Publications | Page 403 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 4021 - 4030 of 6384 ... The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) organized this workshop to strengthen collective learning about national eHealth enterprise architecture designs and deployments - with an emphasis placed on developing country needs and experiences. It was designed to build on a ...

  15. Search Results | Page 7 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 61 - 70 of 112 ... ... 60 Apply Books filter · Journal articles 57 Apply Journal articles filter .... Developing Capacity for Agricultural Research for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa ... Canadian International Food Security Research Fund - Phase II ... of rural and environmental issues within the academic community with a ...

  16. The Co-Development of Parenting Stress and Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although the detrimental influence of parenting stress on child problem behavior is well established, it remains unknown how these constructs affect each other over time. In accordance with a transactional model, this study investigates how the development of internalizing and externalizing problems is related to the development of parenting stress in children aged 4-9. Mothers of 1582 children participated in three one-year interval data waves. Internalizing and externalizing problems as wel...

  17. 75 FR 7484 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Changing Parental Relationships and Child Well-Being. Date: March 5, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

  18. 76 FR 12125 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Corpus Luteal Contribution to...., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  19. 75 FR 36100 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel National Childrens Study. Date: July..., Scientific Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  20. 75 FR 26761 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asymmetric Robotic Gait Training and... Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  1. 78 FR 12767 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Population Sciences Subcommittee. Date...., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute, of Child...

  2. 78 FR 18997 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Social-Cognitive Skill Intervention..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  3. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Diet, Obesity.... Kandasamy, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child...

  4. 75 FR 36101 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel Slack and Slick Channels. Date: July..., PhD, Scientific Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child...

  5. 77 FR 5035 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  6. 77 FR 66076 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Environmental and Biological..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  7. 76 FR 71985 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Group, Research on Children in Military Families: The Impact of Parental Military Deployment and Reintegration on Child and Family Functioning... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...

  8. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  9. [Development of child mental health services in Lithuania: achievements and obstacles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pūras, Dainius

    2002-01-01

    In 1990, political, economic and social changes in Lithuania introduced the possibility to develop for the first time in nations's history an effective and modern system of child mental health services. During the period between 1990 and 1995 a new model of services was developed in the Department of Social pediatrics and child psychiatry of Vilnius University. The model included development of child and adolescent psychiatric services, as well as early intervention services for infants and preschool children with developmental disabilities. The emphasis, following recommendations of WHO and existing international standards, was made on deinstitutionalization and development of family-oriented and community-based services, which have been ignored by previous system. In the first half of 90's of 20th century, new training programs for professionals were introduced, more than 50 methods of assessment, treatment and rehabilitation, new for Lithuanian clinical practice, were implemented, and a new model of services, including primary, secondary and tertiary level of prevention, was introduced in demonstration sites. However, during next phase of development, in 1997-2001, serious obstacles for replicating new approaches across the country, have been identified, which threatened successful implementation of the new model of services into everyday clinical practice. Analysis of obstacles, which are blocking development of new approaches in the field of child mental health, is presented in the article. The main obstacles, identified during analysis of socioeconomic context, planning and utilization of resources, running of the system of services and evaluation of outcomes, are as follows: lack of intersectorial cooperation between health, education and social welfare systems; strong tradition of discrimination of psychosocial interventions in funding schemes of health services; societal attitudes, which tend to discriminate and stigmatize marginal groups, including

  10. Search Results | Page 837 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8361 - 8370 of 8528 ... ... promote efficiency through strengthening competitive procurement, ... FINANCING LOCAL GOVERNMENT MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH INDONESIA. Evidence-based budgeting policy in maternal and child health ... political level within a favourable socio-economic and political context.

  11. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.

  12. Do multiple micronutrient interventions improve child health, growth, and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.

  13. Child development in primary care: a surveillance proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Renato; Ferreira, José Paulo; Sukiennik, Ricardo; Halpern, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a child development surveillance tool proposal to be used in primary care, with simultaneous use of the Denver II scale. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 infants aged up to 36 months, enrolled in a public daycare in a countryside community in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Child development was assessed using the surveillance tool and the Denver II scale. The prevalence of probable developmental delay was 53%; most of these cases were in the alert group and 24% had normal development, but with risk factors. At the Denver scale, the prevalence of suspected developmental delay was 32%. When risk factors and sociodemographic variables were assessed, no significant difference was observed. The evaluation of this surveillance tool resulted in objective and comparable data, which were adequate for a screening test. It is easily applicable as a screening tool, even though it was originally designed as a surveillance tool. The inclusion of risk factors to the scoring system is an innovation that allows for the identification of children with suspected delay in addition to developmental milestones, although the definition of parameters and choice of indicators should be thoroughly studied. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Publications | Page 569 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 5681 - 5690 of 6371 ... Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in Malawi : timing, reasons, decision makers and child health consequences (restricted access). Background. In order to effectively promote exclusive breastfeeding, it is important to first understand who makes child-care and child-feeding ...

  15. Teaching corner: child family health international : the ethics of asset-based global health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.

  16. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of…

  17. Development Internal Problems of Shanghay Cooperation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Y. Kolegova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main internal problems of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Particular attention is paid to the conflict of interests of the participating countries, as well as identifying obstacles to strengthen the organization and increase its influence in the international arena. The international organizations are created by the states to meet mutual problems in the course of interstate relations requiring regular cooperation mechanism. Given the background of the Organization, it is important to emphasize that the main reason for the establishment of the Shanghai organization was the need for the united front against the strengthening of the region at the turn of centuries against dangerous trends of terrorism, extremism, separatism, the growth of organized crime. Despite the conflict of interests and the internal and external development challenges thirteen-year history of evolution of the SCO, to some extent proves its effectiveness, moreover, there are the preconditions for its consistent transition to a more comprehensive organization.

  18. Development in Danish international air traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean...... during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got...

  19. Early child care and child development: For whom it works and why

    OpenAIRE

    Felfe, Christina; Lalive, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are currently expanding access to child care for young children. But are all children equally likely to benefit from such expansions? We address this question by adopting a marginal treatment effects framework. We study the West German setting where high quality center - based care is severely rationed and use within state differences in child care supply as exogenous variation in child care attendance. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel provides comprehensive informa...

  20. Child-rights & child development in India - a socio-economic analysis under regional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Every human being below the age of eighteen years is known as ‘child’ according to the universally accepted definition of United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). The need for special safeguard for the child had been stated in the Geneva Declaration, 1924. It was also proclaimed in that declaration that the child by the reason of his physical and mental immaturity needs this special safeguard including appropriate legal protection. The need to extend particular care to th...

  1. Benefits of music training in child development: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Benítez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences that establish that from early childhood musical education has a positive effect on the cognitive development of the child, as well as different musical components contribute to the development of psychomotor, emotional and social skills. The musical processing is a complex issue. From a cognitive point of view production, music perception and aspects of the musical discourse, such as timbre, intensity, pace, and tonality, are processed in different parts of the brain and their structure may vary from one person to another, depending on their musical experience. Throughout this review, we will present the background related to the benefits of musical training in cognitive development of children during early childhood, emphasizing differences that involves receptive training compared to active, extending the effects to the field of music therapy and the use of techniques with therapeutic purposes.

  2. The Role of Physical Education in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, M. L.; Wamukhoya, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that a child's early exposure to movement activities promotes a positive self concept. Elaborates that physical education gives training to body and mind as well as providing enjoyment as the child matures. (BSR)

  3. Implications for Effective Child Development System in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Child Rights Campaign and the Nigerian Family: Implications for Effective Child .... of socialization like: day-care centres, schools, peer groups, video bars, recreational parks and new social media have taken over this role. The outcome is that ...

  4. Development of an international comorbidity education framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C; Pati, S; Green, J; Messina, G; Strömberg, A; Nante, N; Golinelli, D; Verzuri, A; White, S; Jaarsma, T; Walsh, P; Lonsdale, P; Kadam, U T

    2017-08-01

    The increasing number of people living with multiple chronic conditions in addition to an index condition has become an international healthcare priority. Health education curricula have been developed alongside single condition frameworks in health service policy and practice and need redesigning to incorporate optimal management of multiple conditions. Our aims were to evaluate current teaching and learning about comorbidity care amongst the global population of healthcare students from different disciplines and to develop an International Comorbidity Education Framework (ICEF) for incorporating comorbidity concepts into health education. We surveyed nursing, medical and pharmacy students from England, India, Italy and Sweden to evaluate their understanding of comorbidity care. A list of core comorbidity content was constructed by an international group of higher education academics and clinicians from the same disciplines, by searching current curricula and analysing clinical frameworks and the student survey data. This list was used to develop the International Comorbidity Education Framework. The survey sample consisted of 917 students from England (42%), India (48%), Italy (8%) and Sweden (2%). The majority of students across all disciplines said that they lacked knowledge, training and confidence in comorbidity care and were unable to identify specific teaching on comorbidities. All student groups wanted further comorbidity training. The health education institution representatives found no specific references to comorbidity in current health education curricula. Current clinical frameworks were used to develop an agreed list of core comorbidity content and hence an International Comorbidity Education Framework. Based on consultation with academics and clinicians and on student feedback we developed an International Comorbidity Education Framework to promote the integration of comorbidity concepts into current healthcare curricula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  5. Congenital Heart Disease and Impacts on Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Alievi Mari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the child development and evaluate a possible association with the commitment by biopsychosocial factors of children with and without congenital heart disease. Methods: Observational study of case-control with three groups: Group 1 - children with congenital heart disease without surgical correction; Group 2 - children with congenital heart disease who underwent surgery; and Group 3 - healthy children. Children were assessed by socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire and the Denver II Screening Test. Results: One hundred and twenty eight children were evaluated, 29 in Group 1, 43 in Group 2 and 56 in Group 3. Of the total, 51.56% are girls and ages ranged from two months to six years (median 24.5 months. Regarding the Denver II, the children with heart disease had more "suspicious" and "suspect/abnormal" ratings and in the group of healthy children 53.6% were considered with "normal" development (P≤0.0001. The biopsychosocial variables that were related to a possible developmental delay were gender (P=0.042, child's age (P=0.001 and income per capita (P=0.019. Conclusion: The results suggest that children with congenital heart disease are likely to have a developmental delay with significant difference between children who have undergone surgery and those awaiting surgery under clinical follow-up.

  6. ISO: international standards development for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of internationally recognized standards for nuclear technology and safety is rapidly increasing for technical as well as economical and political reasons such as public acceptance and nuclear technology transfer to developing countries. The need for such standards is also evident because of the large number of nuclear installations sited close to international borders, and the export of nuclear installations from relatively few supplier countries to a large number of user countries. It is the purpose of this report to describe briefly the history, organizational structures and procedures, goals, accomplishments, problems, and future needs of the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO is composed of the partly governmental, partly non-governmental national standards bodies of 86 countries including China. The work of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' is mostly concerned with industrial applications, contractual aspects and international communication, for the benefit of both developed and developing countries. It works in close liaison with IAEA, which develops Codes and Guides addressed mainly to the regulatory aspects of nuclear power plants in developing countries. ISO/TC 85 has four sub-committees dealing with: (a) Terminology, Definitions, Units and Symbols (Secretariat USA, four working groups (WGs)); (b) Radiation Protection (Secretariat France, ten WGs); (c) Power Reactor Technology (Secretariat Sweden, nine WGs); (d) Nuclear Fuel Technology (Secretariat F.R. Germany, seven WGs). (author)

  7. "International regime for advancing lunar development"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ

    2017-09-01

    A specific concern regarding the Moon Treaty is the provision for sharing the wealth gained from space with developing countries that have not invested and taken risks in making possible space materials utilization. Article 11, par. 7 states "The main purposes of the international regime to be established shall include: (a) The orderly and safe development of the natural resources of the moon; (b) The rational management of those resources; (c) The expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources; (d) An equitable sharing by all States Parties in the benefits derived from those resources, whereby the interests and needs of the developing countries, as well as the efforts of those countries which have contributed either directly or indirectly to the exploration of the moon, shall be given special consideration." Whether the Moon Treaty in its present form or modified to be acceptable to more parties or the Moon Treaty is ignored, the language of Article 11, paragraph 7 can be used to construct an international regime for lunar development that can meet the requirements of commercial business as well as of states that provide support for lunar development as well as developing countries that may have played a modest role in making lunar development possible. This paper will consider options for constructing an international regime for lunar development.

  8. Developing Communication with the Autistic Child Through Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxill, Edith Hillman

    The author's use of music therapy is illustrated in her account of therapy sessions with two autistic children. Music is seen to be particularly useful with the autistic child because it can make use of the child's rhythmic stereotypical actions to increase the child's self awareness. Techniques such as reflection (mimicking, through song and…

  9. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Development of an Arabic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Abduwani, Jumana; Sidebotham, Peter; Al Saadoon, Muna; Al Lawati, Mohammed; Barlow, Jane

    2017-10-01

    The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a well-validated screening tool for assessing potential for child physical abuse, and has been translated into many different languages. To date the CAPI has not been translated into Arabic or used in any studies in Arabic-speaking populations. This study reports on the process of adapting the CAPI into Arabic Language which was undertaken following the International Society of Pharma-economics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) guidelines. The translation/adaptation process was multi-stage, and involved the use of a Delphi process, cognitive debriefing, back translation, and a pilot testing of the Arabic CAPI at two primary health care centers with a population of pregnant women (n=60). Following "literal translation" 73 out of the 160 items needed re-phrasing to adapt the items to the Oman context. No differences were found when comparing results of the translated or back-translated versions to source; however, eight items needed further amendment following translated to back-translated comparison and feedback from the pilot. Iterations were resolved following in-depth interviews. Discrepancies were due to differences in culture, parenting practices, and religion. Piloting of the tool indicated mean score value of 155.8 (SD=59.4) and eleven women (18%) scored above the cut off value of 215. This Arabic translation of the CAPI was undertaken using rigorous methodology and sets the scene for further research on the Arabic CAPI within Arabic-speaking populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of integrated child development services program in rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Singh Rathore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS scheme is the largest program for promotion of maternal and child health and nutrition. Aims: The present study is aimed to evaluate ICDS program in terms of infrastructure of anganwadi centers (AWCs, characteristics of anganwadi workers (AWWs, coverage of supplementary nutrition (SN, and preschool education (PSE to the beneficiaries. Methods: A total of 39 AWCs from a rural area and 15 from the urban area were surveyed. AWWs were interviewed, and records were reviewed. Information was collected using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Results: In the selected AWCs, 88.9% were running in Pucca buildings, 38.9% had electricity, 35.1% had a separate kitchen, 1.8% had cooking gas, and toilets were available in 59.3% AWCs. All the AWW have received job training, 83.3% AWW have received refresher training. 38.8% AWW have received orientation training, 37% have received skill training in World Health Organization growth standards and 18.5% AWW have received skill training in mother and child health. 86.9% registered pregnant women, 90.7% registered lactating women, 72.6% registered adolescent girls were availing SN. 95.4% registered children 6 months to 3 years and 92.4% registered children 3-6 years of age were availing SN. Interruption in SN in last 6 months was seen in 22.2% AWCs. Appropriate and adequate PSE material was available in 59.2% AWCs. Conclusion: There are program gaps in the infrastructure of AWCs, training of AWW, coverage of SN, interruption in the supply of SN.

  11. Utilization of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme by child beneficiaries in Coastal Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sivanesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: India’s main early childhood development intervention the ICDS Scheme has been sustained for 40 years and has been successful in some ways. However, nearly half of the children under six years are still under nourished. The program in reducing the proportion of undernourished children over the past decade has been modest and slower in India than what has been achieved in other countries with comparable socio-economic indicators. Aims & Objectives: 1. To study the utilization of services offered to children under ICDS, 2. To assess the perception about the services. Materials & Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done among mothers of 271 children in the age group three to six years registered in anganwadis. Results: Median duration of absenteeism to anganwadi was five months during the last six months enquired. About 95.9% of registered child beneficiaries utilized supplementary nutrition services and only 48.7% mothers of child beneficiaries were attending nutrition and health education sessions. Among mothers who were aware of growth monitoring, only 73.6% of their children’s weight was checked regularly.  About 60% of mothers were not happy with the quality of food served to their children in the anganwadi. Among children adherent to anganwadi, 72.5% children’s weight remained normal. Conclusion: Only 75% children were regularly attending. Median duration of adherence to anganwadi services was only 12 months and the most common reason for not adhering to the services is due to their simultaneous enrollment in other private nursery school.

  12. Child care and the development of behavior problems among economically disadvantaged children in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N=349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children's development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7-11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate reductions in externalizing behavior problems. High-quality child care was especially protective against the development of behavior problems for boys and African American children. Child care type and the extent of care that children experienced were generally unrelated to behavior problems in middle childhood. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Association of prenatal exposure to benzodiazepines and child internalizing problems: A sibling-controlled cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild E Brandlistuen

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, many women experience sleep problems and anxiety that require treatment. The long-term safety for the child of maternal benzodiazepine (BZD and z-hypnotic use during pregnancy remains controversial.We conducted a cohort and a sibling control study using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Data on use of BZD and z-hypnotics, internalizing and externalizing outcomes, and covariates were collected from mothers at gestational weeks 17 and 30 and when children were 0.5, 1.5, and 3 years of age. The total sample consisted of 71,996 children (19,297 siblings at 1.5 years and 55,081 children (13,779 siblings at 3 years. Short-term use was defined as use in one pregnancy period only. Long-term use was defined as use in two or more pregnancy periods. Linear full cohort random-effect and sibling-matched fixed-effect regression models were used to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior in children prenatally exposed compared to those unexposed in the full cohort of pregnancies accounting for family clusters, as well as within sibling clusters comparing pregnancies with discordant exposures. Propensity score (PS adjustment included variables on indication for use (sleep problems, symptoms of anxiety and depression and other potential confounding factors.Long-term prenatal exposure to BZD or z-hypnotics was associated with increased internalizing behavior in crude cohort analyses and at age 1.5 years after PS adjustment in sibling-matched fixed-effect models [β 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.95]. Analyses on specific drug groups showed that prenatal exposure to BZD-anxiolytics was associated with increased internalizing problems at both 1.5 years [β 0.25, 0.01-0.49] and 3 years [β 0.26, 0.002-0.52] while exposure to z-hypnotics was not associated with any adverse outcomes after adjustment.The findings suggest a moderate association between BZD-anxiolytic exposure and child internalizing problems that is

  14. Asthma severity, child security, and child internalizing: using story stem techniques to assess the meaning children give to family and disease-specific events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Marcia A; Fiese, Barbara H; Spagnola, Mary; Anbar, Ran D

    2011-12-01

    Children with persistent asthma are at increased risk for mental health problems. Although mechanisms of effect are not yet known, it may be that children are less trusting of the family as a source of support and security when they have more severe asthma. This study tested whether asthma severity is related to children's perceptions of insecurity in the family, and whether insecurity is in turn associated with child adjustment. Children (N = 168; mean age = 8 years) completed story stems pertaining to routine family events (e.g., mealtimes) and ambiguous but potentially threatening asthma events such as tightness in the chest. Responses were evaluated for the extent to which appraisals portrayed the family as responding in cohesive, security-provoking ways. Asthma severity was assessed by both objective lung function testing and primary caregiver report. Caregivers reported child symptomatology. Beyond medication adherence, caregiver education, and child age and gender, greater asthma severity predicted more internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Greater asthma severity, assessed using spirometry (but not parent report), was related to less secure child narratives of the family, which in turn related to more child internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that asthma can take a considerable toll on children's feelings of security and mental health. Furthermore, given the difficulty in assessing young children's perceptions, this study helps demonstrate the potential of story stem techniques in assessing children's appraisals of illness threat and management in the family.

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    The Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program aims to assist targeted developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa improve maternal, newborn, and child health. Topic: HEALTH POLICY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, HEALTH SYSTEM, POLICY MAKING, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, CANADA.

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