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Sample records for international carotid stenting

  1. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study) : an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Joerg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Bradbury, A.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molynewc, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; Hendriks, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid

  2. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, J.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R.L.; Bonati, L.H.; Worp, H.B. van der; Borst, G.J. de; Lo, T.H.; Gaines, P.; Dorman, P.J.; Macdonald, S.; Lyrer, P.A.; Hendriks, J.M.; McCollum, C.; Nederkoorn, P.J.; Brown, M.M.; Blankensteijn, J.D.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; et al.,

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The International

  3. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Jörg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; van Schil, P.; St Blasius, A. Z.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; de Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J.-F.; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M.-F.; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L.-H.; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Albäck, A.; Harno, H.; Ijäs, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepäntalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Hendriks, J. M.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R. H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; Bruijninckx, C. M. A.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S. P.; van Hasselt, B. A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; van Otterloo, J. C. A. de Mol; de Vries, A. C.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. J.; van der Kallen, B. F. W.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; de Leeuw, F. E.; Kool, L. J. Schultze; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. B.; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sørensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennøe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, Jordi; Gaibar, A. Gimenez; Perendreu, J.; Björses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T.-B.; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Engelter, S. T.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E.-W.; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, M.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Varty, K.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, J. A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nasser, H.-C.; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dorman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Venables, G.; Belli, A.; Cloud, G.; Halliday, A.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Thompson, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Malik, I.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Brookes, J.; Jäger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The International

  4. Mechanism of Procedural Stroke Following Carotid Endarterectomy or Carotid Artery Stenting Within the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibers, A; Calvet, D; Kennedy, F; Czuriga-Kovács, K R; Featherstone, R L; Moll, F L; Brown, M M; Richards, T; de Borst, G J

    2015-09-01

    To decrease the procedural risk of carotid revascularisation it is crucial to understand the mechanisms of procedural stroke. This study analysed the features of procedural strokes associated with carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) within the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) to identify the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis (1,713) were randomly allocated to CAS or CEA. Procedural strokes were classified by type (ischaemic or haemorrhagic), time of onset (intraprocedural or after the procedure), side (ipsilateral or contralateral), severity (disabling or non-disabling), and patency of the treated artery. Only patients in whom the allocated treatment was initiated were included. The most likely pathophysiological mechanism was determined using the following classification system: (1) carotid-embolic, (2) haemodynamic, (3) thrombosis or occlusion of the revascularised carotid artery, (4) hyperperfusion, (5) cardio-embolic, (6) multiple, and (7) undetermined. Procedural stroke occurred within 30 days of revascularisation in 85 patients (CAS 58 out of 791 and CEA 27 out of 819). Strokes were predominately ischaemic (77; 56 CAS and 21 CEA), after the procedure (57; 37 CAS and 20 CEA), ipsilateral to the treated artery (77; 52 CAS and 25 CEA), and non-disabling (47; 36 CAS and 11 CEA). Mechanisms of stroke were carotid-embolic (14; 10 CAS and 4 CEA), haemodynamic (20; 15 CAS and 5 CEA), thrombosis or occlusion of the carotid artery (15; 11 CAS and 4 CEA), hyperperfusion (9; 3 CAS and 6 CEA), cardio-embolic (5; 2 CAS and 3 CEA) and multiple causes (3; 3 CAS). In 19 patients (14 CAS and 5 CEA) the cause of stroke remained undetermined. Although the mechanism of procedural stroke in both CAS and CEA is diverse, haemodynamic disturbance is an important mechanism. Careful attention to blood pressure control could lower the incidence of procedural stroke. Copyright © 2015

  5. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ederle, Jörg

    2010-03-20

    Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy.

  6. Carotid angioplasty with stenting for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion: technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Nozomu; Tanasawa, Toshihiko; Okada, Takeshi; Endo, Otone; Yamamoto, Naohito; Miyachi, Shigeru; Hattori, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is becoming accepted as an effective and reliable treatment option for severe carotid artery stenosis. However, it is rarely applied for carotid occlusion, especially in its chronic stage. We report our experience of CAS for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion representing compromised cerebral blood flow using various protection methods. A 77-year-old woman, who was already diagnosed with severe left internal carotid artery stenosis, suddenly had right hemiparesis and aphasia. At that time, she was treated conservatively because her neurological status was quite good, in spite of left carotid artery occlusion. Her symptoms improved in the short term, except slight aphasia, but deteriorated again 18 days from the onset, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new ischemic lesions. CAS was then performed for the occluded carotid artery on the 23rd day from the first onset. Using the proximal protection technique, the occluded lesion was crossed carefully with a microguidewire. Stents were also placed successfully with the distal protection technique. The occluded carotid artery was completely recanalized without any unfavorable events or neurological deterioration. In this patient, CAS was successfully to treat chronic carotid artery occlusion. These procedures and techniques are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  7. Carotid angioplasty with stenting for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Nozomu; Tanasawa, Toshihiko; Okada, Takeshi; Endo, Otone; Yamamoto, Naohito [Kainan Hospital Aichi Prefectural Welfare Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives, Department of Neurosurgery, Aichi (Japan); Miyachi, Shigeru; Hattori, Kenichi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is becoming accepted as an effective and reliable treatment option for severe carotid artery stenosis. However, it is rarely applied for carotid occlusion, especially in its chronic stage. We report our experience of CAS for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion representing compromised cerebral blood flow using various protection methods. A 77-year-old woman, who was already diagnosed with severe left internal carotid artery stenosis, suddenly had right hemiparesis and aphasia. At that time, she was treated conservatively because her neurological status was quite good, in spite of left carotid artery occlusion. Her symptoms improved in the short term, except slight aphasia, but deteriorated again 18 days from the onset, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new ischemic lesions. CAS was then performed for the occluded carotid artery on the 23rd day from the first onset. Using the proximal protection technique, the occluded lesion was crossed carefully with a microguidewire. Stents were also placed successfully with the distal protection technique. The occluded carotid artery was completely recanalized without any unfavorable events or neurological deterioration. In this patient, CAS was successfully to treat chronic carotid artery occlusion. These procedures and techniques are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  8. Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonati, L.H.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R.L.; Ederle, J.; Worp, H.B. van der; Borst, G.J. de; Mali, W.P.; Beard, J.D.; Cleveland, T.; Engelter, S.T.; Lyrer, P.A.; Ford, G.A.; Dorman, P.J.; Brown, M.M.; Leeuw, F.E. de; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for treatment of carotid artery stenosis, but long-term efficacy is uncertain. We report long-term data from the randomised International Carotid Stenting Study comparison of these treatments. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic carotid

  9. Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonati, Leo H.; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Ederle, Jörg; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Mali, Willem P. Th M.; Beard, Jonathan D.; Cleveland, Trevor; Engelter, Stefan T.; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Ford, Gary A.; Dorman, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Doig, D.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Kennedy, F.; Tindall, H.; Turner, E.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davis, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; van, P.; St, A. Z.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; Brugge-Oostende, A. Z. Sint Jan; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verhelst, R.; Ziekenhuis, Imelda; DeJaegher, L.; Daneault, N.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L.-H.; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Wong, J.; Albäck, A.; Curtze, S.; Harno, H.; Ijäs, P.; Lappalainen, K.; Lepäntalo, M.; Meretoja, A.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; van Hasselt, A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; Lycklama, G. J.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; de Leeuw, F. E.; Schultze, L. J.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennøe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Buczek, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; San, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Perendreu, J.; Björses, K.; Gottsäter, A.; Mätzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Bonati, L. H.; Engelter, S. T.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Varty, K.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, J. A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dorman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Belli, A.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Jäger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.; Rogers, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for treatment of carotid artery stenosis, but long-term efficacy is uncertain. We report long-term data from the randomised International Carotid Stenting Study comparison of these treatments. Methods Patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis

  10. In-stent restenosis of innominate artery with critical stenosis of right internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Raza, A.; Ahmed, W.

    2011-01-01

    A lady with aortitis syndrome developed in-stent restenosis (ISR) of the innominate artery stent and critical stenosis of right internal carotid artery. The therapeutic challenge was gaining access to the carotid vessel, after treating the innominate artery ISR and all the while using distal protection to circumvent potential cerebral embolism. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without stenting is a safe therapeutic option for re-vascularization of the supra aortic vessels. In the event of re-stenosis, re-treatment with PTA and stenting is safe. Ample evidence-base exists now for carotid artery stenting (CAS) in preference to carotid endarterectomy in patients with stenotic lesions of the carotid vessels. (author)

  11. Predictors of antegrade flow at internal carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with proximal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kei; Kakumoto, Kosuke; Oshikata, Shogo; Fukuyama, Kozo

    2018-02-16

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) with proximal occlusion effectively prevent distal cerebral embolism by flow arrest at internal carotid artery (ICA); however, the method can expose antegrade flow at ICA due to incomplete flow arrest. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of antegrade flow during CAS with proximal protection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and angiographic data among 143 lesions treated with CAS with proximal protection by occluding the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA). Flow arrest or antegrade flow at ICA was confirmed by contrast injection during proximal protection. Antegrade flow at ICA was observed in 12 lesions (8.4%). Compared with lesions in which flow arrest of ICA was achieved, the diameter of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was significantly larger (2.4 ± 0.34 vs. 1.4 ± 0.68 mm, p flow. Distal filter protection should be combined with proximal protection for the lesions with antegrade flow to prevent distal migration of the carotid debris.

  12. Carotid Artery Stenting in a Patient with Spontaneous Recanalization of a Proximal Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Jong; Koh, Jun Seok; Choi, Woo Suk

    2006-01-01

    We report here on a rare case of carotid artery angioplasty and stenting in a patient with spontaneous recanalization after complete occlusion of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient initially showed severe stenosis at the left proximal ICA on MR angiography (MRA). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) performed three days after MRA showed complete occlusion of the proximal ICA. The follow-up DSA after four weeks showed recanalization of the ICA, and then carotid artery stenting was successfully performed. There has been no neurologic complication during more than one year follow-up. cute internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions may result in profound disability and death (1). An occluded ICA can spontaneously recanalize, but this doesn't happen frequently, and the natural course of a proximal ICA occlusion and its possibility of recanalization, including the exact time of recanalization after occlusion, are not well known (2, 3). A few studies have reported the incidence of spontaneous recanalization of the proximal internal carotid artery, which has mostly occurred in patients with ICA dissections (4 6). A few limited studies have reported a considerable incidence of spontaneous recanalization in patients with underlying atherosclerotic lesion or atherothombotic diseases (2). The possibility of repeated occlusion and repeated cerebral ischemic infarction may exist for the patients exhibiting spontaneous recanalization of the ICA and underlying atherosclerosis. We report here on a case of carotid artery stenting (CAS) in a patient who exhibited underlying atherosclerosis with spontaneous recanalization after complete occlusion of the proximal ICA

  13. Enterprise stent in recanalizing non-acute atherosclerotic intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhigang; Ji, Yong; Ding, Xuan; Zang, Yizheng; Wang, Chengwei

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the safety and effectiveness of recanalization in non-acute occlusion of intracranial internal carotid arteries using the flexible Enterprise self-expanding stent. From June 2014 to June 2016, 12 consecutive patients with non-acute occlusion of intracranial internal carotid arteries received endovascular recanalization with Enterprise stenting. All patients received medication for anti-platelet aggregation therapy before and after the operation. The perioperative complications and recanalization efficacy were evaluated with the modified Rankin scoring system and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) follow-up, respectively. Endovascular recanalization was successfully performed in 10 out of 12 patients with Enterprise stenting. Stent implantation following balloon dilatation failed in one patient because the lumen diameter was too small. Another recanalization failed because the guide wire could not pass through the occlusion. No perioperative mortality was observed. One case of acute thrombosis and one case of intraoperative carotid spasm occurred, but these were resolved with thrombolytic therapy by microcatheter exposure treatment and antispasmodic medications, respectively. DSA follow-up in seven patients revealed no re-occlusion. One stroke event occurred in the 10 patients who completed the follow-up. A meaningful improvement in the modified Rankin score during follow-up was suggested by Wilcoxon signed-rank test results. The Enterprise stent was shown to be safe and efficient in recanalizing non-acute atherosclerotic intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion. However, the long-term outcomes need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stent implantation for the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms located at internal carotid artery bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Ming; Yang Pengfei; Huang Qinghai; Zhao Wenyuan; Hong Bo; Xu Yi; Liu Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of stent placement for the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms located at internal carotid artery bifurcation. Methods: Eleven patients with wide-necked aneurysms located at internal carotid artery bifurcation, who were encountered during the period from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2010 in hospital, were collected. A total of 16 intracranial aneurysms were detected, of which 11 were wide-necked and were located at internal carotid artery bifurcation. The diameters of the aneurysms ranged from 2.5 mm to 18 mm. Individual stent type and stenting technique was employed for each patient. Follow-up at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure was conducted. Results: A total of 11 different stents were successfully deployed in the eleven patients. The stents included balloon expandable stent (n=1) and self-expanding stent (n=10). According to Raymond grading for the immediate occlusion of the aneurysm, grade Ⅰ (complete obliteration) was obtained in 4, grade Ⅱ (residual neck) in 2 and grade Ⅲ (residual aneurysm) in 5 cases. No procedure-related complications occurred. At the time of discharge, the modified Rankin score was 0-1 in the eleven patients. During the follow-up period lasting for 1-108 months, all the patients were in stable condition and no newly-developed neurological dysfunction or bleeding observed. Follow-up examination with angiography (1-48 months) showed that the aneurysms were cured (no visualization) in 4 cases, improved in 2 cases and in stable condition in one case. Conclusion: For the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms located at internal carotid artery bifurcation, stent implantation is clinically feasible, safe and effective. Further studies are required to evaluate its long-term efficacy. (authors)

  15. [Case of internal carotid artery stenosis complicated with shower embolism during filter-protected carotid artery stenting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Naoki; Morikawa, Minoru; Hiu, Takeshi; Morofuji, Yoichi; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, carotid artery stenting (CAS) has gained a lot of interest as a potentially valuable minimally invasive alternative to carotid endarterectomy. Since the occurrence of distal embolization as a result of CAS is still a major concern, an embolus protection device is usually employed during the procedure. Here, we report a case of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis complicated with shower embolism during CAS with an embolus protection filter. A 77-year-old man who had a history of coronary bypass surgery was referred to our department for the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. Angiography showed high-grade stenosis at the origin of the right ICA. Plaque magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hyperintense lesion at the right ICA stenosis, indicating the presence of a lipid-rich plaque. Since cerebral circulation was impaired significantly in the right cerebral hemisphere, CAS was performed for the right ICA stenosis, with an embolus protection filter. A self-expandable stent was placed in the right ICA following predilation. During stenting, plaque protrusion was identified and treated with balloon angioplasty. The patient developed right hemiparesis postoperatively. MRI showed multiple infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere. The symptom resoeved 7 days later. A potential disadvantage of the filter device is incomplete protection from emboli or failure to protect against soluble mediators. An embolus protection filter is not suitable for capturing the debris from lipid-rich plaques.

  16. Optimal training strategies for carotid stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Peter A

    2005-06-01

    Future participation in the treatment of carotid occlusive disease is dependent on training to perform carotid stent placement. Reviewed herein are strategies for training in carotid stenting. Included in this discussion are; the skills required for carotid stenting, the carotid stent learning curve, a comparison of training and credentialing, and the roles of simulators, courses, and hands-on experience in carotid stent training.

  17. Pseudoaneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery: Treatment with a Covered Stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scavee, Vincent; Wispelaere, Jean-Francois de; Mormont, Eric; Coulier, Bruno; Trigaux, Jean-Paul; Schoevaerdts, Jean-Claude

    2001-01-01

    Dissection of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery may occur spontaneously or after trauma. We report the management of a 53-year-old right-handed man with progressive dizziness and neck pain 6 weeks after a motor vehicle collision. The clinical and neurologic examinations were normal. The CT scan led to the diagnosis of a pseudoaneurysm of the right internal carotid artery near the skull base. We successfully treated this post-traumatic lesion with a covered stent. The patient underwent the endovascular procedure under general anesthesia and transcranial Doppler monitoring. No neurologic event was observed. Obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm with preservation of the carotid artery was achieved. The patient was discharged from the hospital 72 hr later with no complications. Clinical and imaging follow-up at 6 months was unremarkable

  18. Carotid stent infection: a rare but potentially fatal complication of carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seungnam; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Oh Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Infections involving endovascular devices are rare and, to our knowledge, only three cases of infection with an inserted carotid stent have ever been reported. A 68-year-old man underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS) of the left proximal internal carotid artery. Two days after CAS the patient developed a high fever and investigation showed that the inserted carotid stent was infected. The infection could not be controlled despite adequate antibiotic therapy. Eventually a rupture of the carotid artery occurred and the patient underwent emergency resection of the left carotid bifurcation in addition to stent removal and reconstruction with a saphenous vein interposition graft. The patient recovered fully without any neurological sequelae. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Clinical results of carotid artery stenting with a nitinol self-expanding stent (SMART stent)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, Robert; Mathias, Klaus D.; Jaeger, Horst J.; Bockisch, Georg; Demirel, Eren; Gissler, Martin H.; Hauth, Elke [Department of Radiology, Staedtische Kliniken Dortmund, Beurhausstrasse 40, 44139 Dortmund (Germany); Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, University Witten/Herdecke (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Our objective was to assess the technical feasibility and the clinical results of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenting using a nitinol self-expanding stent (SMART stent). In 13 patients 13 high-grade stenoses of the internal carotid artery were treated via an implantation of a SMART stent. In all cases a predilation of the stenosis and a postdilation within the stent were performed. Follow-up examinations were carried out in all patients after a period of 6 months. In each case the implantation of the stent was performed without technical complications. In 12 of 13 cases the stent was placed in the patients' internal carotid artery, in 1 case from the internal to the common carotid artery (CCA). The average degree of stenosis of 78% (70-95%) was reduced to an average of 2.8% (0-21%). The 6-month follow-up angiography showed an average degree of restenosis of 11.8% (0-29%) in 8 of 13 patients. Duplex sonography in the remaining 5 patients demonstrated patent stents. One patient showed brief neurological symptoms during the intervention. No further complications occurred during follow-up time. Treatment of internal carotid artery stenosis with the SMART stent seems technically feasible, safe, and promises long-term patency. (orig.)

  20. Bilateral spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection managed with endovascular stenting – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Agarwala

    2016-09-01

    We describe a patient with ischemic stroke from spontaneous bilateral ICAD with completely occluded left ICA. Having failed medical therapy with antiplatelets and anticoagulants due to extensive loss of carotid vascular supply, he was managed successfully with endovascular stenting with good neurological recovery.

  1. Effect of white-matter lesions on the risk of periprocedural stroke after carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS): a prespecified analysis of data from a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, J.; Davagnanam, I.; Worp, H.B. van der; Venables, G.S.; Lyrer, P.A.; Featherstone, R.L.; Brown, M.M.; Jager, H.R.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from randomised trials have shown a higher early risk of stroke after carotid artery stenting than after carotid endarterectomy. We assessed whether white-matter lesions affect the perioperative risk of stroke in patients treated with carotid artery stenting versus carotid

  2. Effect of white-matter lesions on the risk of periprocedural stroke after carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS): a prespecified analysis of data from a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Jörg; Davagnanam, Indran; van der Worp, H. Bart; Venables, Graham S.; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Featherstone, Roland L.; Brown, Martin M.; Jäger, H. Rolf; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Bradbury, A.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; van Schil, P.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; de Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verhelst, R.; DeJaegher, L.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J.-F.; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M.-F.; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L.-H.; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Albäck, A.; Harno, H.; Ijäs, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepäntalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Hendriks, J. M.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R. H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; Bruijninckx, C. M. A.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S. P.; van Hasselt, B. A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; de Mol van Otterloo, J. C. A.; de Vries, A. C.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. J.; van der Kallen, B. F. W.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; de Leeuw, F. E.; Schultze Kool, L. J.; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. B.; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sørensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennøe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, Jordi; Gimenez Gaibar, A.; Perendreu, J.; Björses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T.-B.; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Engelter, S. T.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E.-W.; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, N.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Varty, K.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, J. A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nasser, H.-C.; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dorman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Belli, A.; Cloud, G.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Thompson, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Brookes, J.; Jäger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.; Rogers, P.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from randomised trials have shown a higher early risk of stroke after carotid artery stenting than after carotid endarterectomy. We assessed whether white-matter lesions affect the perioperative risk of stroke in patients treated with carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy.

  3. Stenting of Extracranial Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimae, N.; Morimoto, T.; Nagata, K.

    2003-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study is to evaluate our cases of cervical internal carotid artery stenosis for safty stenting. We investigate the preoperative internal carotid artery stenosis using by integrated backscatter (IBS) method of ultra sonography, comparing with the thirty five surgical specimens as to their nature, histological structure, thickness of fibrous cap. We choose the protection method according to plaque structure, and placed Easy-Wall stent or Smart stent after prePTA. We added post PTA according to the extent of expansion and IVUS findings. Calibrated IBS = IBS value (ROI) /intinal IBS value of ‘bleeding’, ‘lipiď, ‘thrombus’, fiber, ‘hyalinization’ were -27.5, -22.5, -15.2, -11.1, +2.1. That of the thin fibrous cap were -10.9*, that of thic fibrous cap were -2.4 (*p safty stenting. PMID:20591243

  4. Clinical Comparison of Outcomes of Early versus Delayed Carotid Artery Stenting for Symptomatic Cerebral Watershed Infarction due to Stenosis of the Proximal Internal Carotid Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huakun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of early versus delayed carotid artery stenting (CAS for symptomatic cerebral watershed infarction (sCWI patients due to stenosis of the proximal internal carotid artery. We retrospectively collected clinical data of those who underwent early or delayed CAS from March 2011 to April 2014. The time of early CAS and delayed CAS was within a week of symptom onset and after four weeks from symptom onset. Clinical data such as second stroke, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NHISS score, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS score and periprocedural complications were collected. The rate of second stroke in early CAS group is lower when compared to that of delayed CAS group. There was no significant difference regarding periprocedural complications in both groups. There was a significant difference regarding mean NHISS score 90 days after CAS in two groups. Early CAS group had a significant better good outcome (mRS score ≤ 2 than delayed CAS group. We suggest early CAS for sCWI due to severe proximal internal carotid artery stenosis as it provides lower rate of second stroke, comparable periprocedural complications, and better functional outcomes compared to that of delayed CAS.

  5. Headache after carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suller Marti, A; Bellosta Diago, E; Velázquez Benito, A; Tejero Juste, C; Santos Lasaosa, S

    2017-04-18

    Headache after carotid artery stenting is a headache with onset during the procedure or in the first few hours after it, and where there is no evidence to suggest a complication of that procedure. The purpose of this study is to describe the main features of these headaches based on our clinical experience. Observational prospective study of a sample of patients undergoing carotid artery stenting at Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa, in Zaragoza, Spain. We recorded sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, carotid artery disease, and history of primary headache; data were gathered using structured interviews completed before and 24hours after the procedure. We included 56 patients (mean age 67±9.52 years); 84% were men. Twelve patients (21.4%) experienced headache, 83.3% of whom were men; mean age was 60.58±9.31 years. Headache appeared within the first 6hours in 7 patients (58.4%) and during the procedure in 4 (33.3%). Pain lasted less than 10minutes in 4 patients (33.3%) and between 10 and 120minutes in 5 (41.7%). Headache affected the frontotemporal area in 7 patients (58.3%); 7 patients (58.3%) described pain as unilateral. It was oppressive in 8 patients (66.7%) and of moderate intensity in 6 (50%). Nine patients (75%) required no analgesics. We found no statistically significant associations with any of the variables except for age (P=.007; t test). In our sample, headache after carotid artery stenting was mild to moderate in intensity, unilateral, oppressive, and short-lasting. Further studies are necessary to gain a deeper knowledge of its characteristics and associated risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk Factors For Stroke, Myocardial Infarction, or Death Following Carotid Endarterectomy: Results From the International Carotid Stenting Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doig, D.; Turner, E. L.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R. L.; de Borst, G. J.; Stansby, G.; Beard, J. D.; Engelter, S. T.; Richards, T.; Brown, M. M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M.; van Schil, P.; St Blasius, A. Z.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; de Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J. F.; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M. F.; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L. H.; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Albäck, A.; Harno, H.; Ijäs, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepäntalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Reekers, J. A.; Roos, Y. B.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J.; Bruijninckx, C. M.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S.; van Hasselt, B. A.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; van Otterloo, J. C.; de Vries, A. C.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. J.; van der Kallen, B. F.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; de Leeuw, F. E.; Kool, L. J.; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Kort, G. A.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. B.; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sørensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennøe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, J.; Gaibar, A. G.; Perendreu, J.; Björses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T. B.; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E. W.; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, M.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Varty, K.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, J. A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nahser, H. C.; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dorman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Venables, G.; Belli, A.; Cloud, G.; Halliday, A.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Thompson, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Malik, I.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Brookes, J.; Jäger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is standard treatment for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis but carries a risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. This study investigated risk factors for these procedural complications occurring within 30 days of endarterectomy in the

  7. Comparison of enterprise and neuroform stent-assisted coil embolization of distal internal carotid artery aneurysms: Midterm results from a single-center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Jin; Baik, Seung Kug; Yeom, Jeong A; Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Sang Weon

    2014-01-01

    To compare the mid-term follow-up angiographic findings in distal internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms treated by stent-assisted coil embolization using the Enterprise or Neuroform stent. We included 68 patients with 70 aneurysms: 31 cases with Enterprise and 39 cases with Neuroform. Inclusion criteria were 1) location of the stent within the distal ICA, including the carotid siphon; 2) follow-up angiogram after > 6 months, and 3) single use of the stent for 1 parent artery. The patients' mean age was 54.9 years (16 male and 52 female). Mean follow-up duration was 9.1 months. At follow-up, there were intraluminal filling defects of the parent artery in 19.4% of the Enterprise group and no filling defect in the Neuroform group. There was no significant in-stent stenosis in either group. Straightening of the parent artery was seen in 35.5% of the Enterprise group and 20.5% of the Neuroform group. Two Enterprise cases showed delayed migration. The Enterprise showed statistically significant intraluminal filling defects of the parent artery compared with the Neuroform. The rates of significant in-stent stenosis and straightening of the parent artery were not significantly different between the Enterprise and the Neuroform groups.

  8. Late in-stent thrombosis following carotid angioplasty and stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhk, Jan-Hendrik; Wellmer, Andreas; Knauth, Michael

    2006-05-23

    Acute in-stent thrombosis is a well-known complication of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) and often due to resistance to or inadequate treatment with platelet-inhibiting agents. The authors report three cases of a delayed in-stent thrombosis after more than a week but less than 3 months after CAS. In all cases, the postprocedural antiplatelet regimen was discontinued to enable the treatment of a relevant comorbidity.

  9. Impact of Endovascular Technique on Fluoroscopy Usage: Stent-Assisted Coiling versus Flow Diversion for Paraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy R; Jindal, Gaurav; Krejza, Jaroslaw; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2014-01-01

    Summary Flow diversion is increasingly being utilized for the treatment of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of endovascular technique--flow diversion versus stent-assisted coiling (SAC) on fluoroscopy time in patients treated for wide-neck paraclinoid ICA aneurysms. A retrospective review identified the 20 most recent consecutive patients treated for wide-neck paraclinoid ICA aneurysms by flow diversion and SAC respectively. Fluoroscopy time, cumulative dose area-product (DAP), contrast usage, intra-procedural complications, and total procedure time were collected and compared between the two treatment techniques. Treatment groups were comparable in terms of demographics, contrast usage, and clinical and angiographic outcomes. Flow diversion was associated with a significant reduction in fluoroscopy time (52.0 minutes versus 77.4 minutes), and demonstrated a strong trend towards shorter total procedure time (172 minutes versus 202 minutes). Average patient radiation exposure as measured by DAP was lower in the flow diversion group, 13225 mGyxcm2 versus 15124 mGyxcm2, although this finding was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in contrast usage between the two groups, 152 ml and 159 (flow diversion and SAC respectively). The rate of complete aneurysm occlusion was higher in the flow diversion group (80% versus 60%). Endovascular treatment of paraclinoid ICA aneurysms with flow diversion is associated with shorter fluoroscopy times compared to stent-assisted coiling. There is also a likely reduction in overall procedure time. These results should be considered when recommending a treatment course for patients with such lesions. PMID:25489897

  10. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How to read food labels Low-salt diet Mediterranean diet Surgical wound care - open Images Atherosclerosis of internal carotid artery Carotid stenosis, x-ray of the right artery Cholesterol producers References Amarenco P, Labreuche ...

  11. Thalamic hemorrhage following carotid angioplasty and stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Jonathan A.; Kallmes, David F.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative treatment of carotid stenosis for patients poorly suited for endarterectomy. Intracerebral hemorrhage following carotid revascularization is rare and thought to be related to hyperperfusion injury in most cases. Early experience suggests an increased incidence of hemorrhage following CAS as compared to endarterectomy. We describe a patient who suffered a thalamic hemorrhage following CAS. Because this hemorrhage occurred in a vascular territory unlikely to have been supplied by the treated artery, this case suggests that the mechanism of intracerebral hemorrhage following CAS may in some cases be different from the hyperperfusion hemorrhage classically described following endarterectomy. (orig.)

  12. Comparison Between Balloon-Assisted and Stent-Assisted Technique for Treatment of Unruptured Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keun Young; Kim, Byung Moon; Kim, Dong Joon

    2016-09-01

    To compare clinical and angiographic outcomes between balloon-assisted (BAC) and stent-assisted coiling for internal carotid artery unruptured aneurysms (ICA-UA). A total of 227 ICA-UA in 190 patients were treated with BAC (120 patients, 141 ICA-UA) or SAC (70 patients, 86 ICA-UA. We compared characteristics of patients and ICA-UA, and clinical and angiographic outcomes between groups. Aneurysm size and neck diameter were greater for SAC than in BAC, but aneurysm volume and coil packing density were not different between groups. Immediate angiographic occlusion grade was better for BAC than for SAC. Periprocedural thromboembolic events were more frequent during SAC (11.6%) than BAC (2.4%) per aneurysm, but hemorrhagic events were the opposite (2.4% for BAC and none for SAC per aneurysm) (p < 0.05). At discharge, treatment-related morbi-mortality rates were 1.6% for BAC and 1.4% per patient for SAC. At clinical follow-up (BAC, 118 patients [98.3%] for a mean of 48.4 months; SAC, 69 patients [98.6%], for a mean of 37.4 months), 1 additional treatment-related infarction occurred during SAC, resulting in a modified Rankin scale score of 4. Thus, overall treatment-related morbi-mortality rates were 1.7% in BAC and 2.9% in SAC. At imaging follow-up (BAC, 135 aneurysms [95.7%] for 28.3 months; SAC, 81 aneurysms [94.1%] for 23.9 months), BAC and SAC showed stable or improved occlusion in 94.1% and 95.0%, minor recurrence in 4.4% and 2.5%, and major recurrence in 1.5% and 2.5%, respectively. Both BAC and SAC were safe and effective techniques for ICA-UA. There were no differences in morbi-mortality and recurrence rates between groups.

  13. A Case of Pseudoaneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery Following Endoscopic Endonasal Pituitary Surgery: Endovascular Treatment with Flow-Diverting Stent Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karadag

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Internal carotid artery (ICA pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of endoscopic endonasal surgery occurring in 0.4–1.1% of cases. Pseudoaneurysms can subsequently result in other complications, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, epistaxis, and caroticocavernous fistula with resultant death or permanent neurologic deficit. In this case, we illustrate endovascular treatment with a flow-diverting stent for an ICA pseudoaneurysm after endoscopic endonasal surgery for a pituitary adenoma in a 56-year-old male. Surgery was complicated by excessive intraoperative bleeding and emergent CT angiography confirmed an iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm on the anteromedial surface of the ICA. The pseudoaneurysm was treated endovascularly with flow-diverting stent implantation only. Follow-up CT angiography after three months demonstrated occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm.

  14. Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid stent angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Reith, W.; Krick, C.; Karp, K.; Zimmer, A.; Struffert, T.; Kuehn, A.L.; Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Haass, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the incidence and causes of hyperperfusion syndrome occurring after carotid artery stenting (CAS). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical database of 417 consecutive patients who were treated with CAS in our department to identify patients who developed hyperperfusion syndrome and/or intracranial hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging was performed before and after CAS in 269 cases. A Spearman's rho nonparametric correlation was performed to determine whether there was a correlation between the occurrence/development of hyperperfusion syndrome and the patient's age, degree of stenosis on the stented and contralateral side, risk factors such as diabetes, smoking, hypertension, adiposity, gender and fluoroscopy time, and mean area of postprocedural lesions as well as preexisting lesions. Significance was established at p < 0.05. Of the 417 carotid arteries stented and where MRI was also completed, we found hyperperfusion syndrome in 2.4% (ten cases). Patients who had preexisting brain lesions (previous or acute stroke) were at a higher risk of developing hyperperfusion syndrome (p = 0.022; Spearman's rho test). We could not validate any correlation with the other patient characteristics. Extensive microvascular disease may be a predictor of hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid stent placement. We believe that further studies are warranted to predict more accurately which patients are at greater risk of developing this often fatal complication. (orig.)

  15. For-Profit Hospital Status and Carotid Artery Stent Utilization in US Hospitals Performing Carotid Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Justin V; George, Benjamin P; Kelly, Adam G; Holloway, Robert G

    2017-11-01

    Carotid artery stenting may be an economically attractive procedure for hospitals and physicians. We sought to identify the association of hospital ownership (nonprofit versus for-profit) on carotid artery stenting (CAS) versus carotid endarterectomy utilization in US hospitals. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample admissions for cerebrovascular disease from 2008 to 2011, we identified all private, nonfederal US hospitals performing at least 20 carotid revascularization procedures annually, including carotid artery stenting ( International Classification of Diseases -Ninth Revision 00.63) or carotid endarterectomy ( International Classification of Diseases -Ninth Revision 38.12). We used a multilevel multivariable logistic regression controlling for patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics, to assess the effect of hospital ownership on CAS use. Across 723 hospitals (600 nonprofit, 123 for-profit), 66 731 carotid revascularization admissions were identified. Approximately 1 in 5 (n=11 641; 17.4%) revascularizations received CAS. The mean CAS rate among nonprofit hospitals was 17.5 per 100 revascularizations (median, 11.5; interquartile range, 5.2-24.5), and the mean CAS rate among for-profit hospitals was 24.2 per 100 revascularizations (median, 16.0; interquartile range, 6.7-33.3; P hospital characteristics, for-profit hospital designation was associated with greater odds of CAS (adjusted odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.98). For-profit hospital ownership is associated with a higher rate of CAS compared to nonprofit hospitals in those receiving carotid revascularization. Further research is needed to understand the individual- and system-level factors driving this difference. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Acute Carotid Artery Stent Thrombosis Due to Dual Antiplatelet Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köklü, Erkan; Arslan, Şakir; Yüksel, İsa Öner; Bayar, Nermin; Koç, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a revascularization modality that is an alternative to carotid endarterectomy. The efficacy of CAS in primary and secondary prevention from ischemic stroke has been demonstrated in various trials. Acute thrombosis of CAS is a rare complication that can lead to dramatic and catastrophic consequences. We discuss a case of acute CAS thrombosis in a patient who had previously undergone successful CAS. CAS was performed in a 73-year-old man who had had dysarthria lasting 2 weeks with 95 % stenosis in his left internal carotid artery. An acute cerebrovascular event resulting in right-sided hemiplegia developed 24 h after the procedure. Computed tomographic carotid angiography revealed complete occlusion of the stent with thrombus. The cause of stent thrombosis was thought to be antiaggregant resistance to both acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel. The most important cause of acute CAS thrombosis is inadequate or ineffective antiaggregant therapy. Evaluating patients who are candidates for CAS for acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel resistance may preclude this complication

  17. Acute Carotid Artery Stent Thrombosis Due to Dual Antiplatelet Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köklü, Erkan, E-mail: drerkankoklu@gmail.com; Arslan, Şakir; Yüksel, İsa Öner; Bayar, Nermin [Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Clinic of Cardiology (Turkey); Koç, Pınar [Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Clinic of Radiology (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a revascularization modality that is an alternative to carotid endarterectomy. The efficacy of CAS in primary and secondary prevention from ischemic stroke has been demonstrated in various trials. Acute thrombosis of CAS is a rare complication that can lead to dramatic and catastrophic consequences. We discuss a case of acute CAS thrombosis in a patient who had previously undergone successful CAS. CAS was performed in a 73-year-old man who had had dysarthria lasting 2 weeks with 95 % stenosis in his left internal carotid artery. An acute cerebrovascular event resulting in right-sided hemiplegia developed 24 h after the procedure. Computed tomographic carotid angiography revealed complete occlusion of the stent with thrombus. The cause of stent thrombosis was thought to be antiaggregant resistance to both acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel. The most important cause of acute CAS thrombosis is inadequate or ineffective antiaggregant therapy. Evaluating patients who are candidates for CAS for acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel resistance may preclude this complication.

  18. Pharmacotherapy for patients undergoing carotid stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, Deepa; Thomas, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide [Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Mortality by cause for eight regions of the World: Global Burden of Disease Study, Lancet 1997;349:1269-76. ] and remains one of the most common and disabling neurological disorders, particularly in the elderly. Survivors of stroke remain at high risk for developing further vascular events including recurrent strokes, myocardial infarction and vascular deaths. Treatment modalities for such patients include life style modifications, drug therapy and where applicable, surgical or endovascular intervention. Carotid artery disease is implicated in 20-30% of the population as the aetiology for stroke [De Bakey ME. Carotid endarterectomy revisited, J Endovasc Surg 1996;3:4. ]. This article examines the pharmacotherapy for patients undergoing carotid stenting. This will be divided into best medical therapy for these patients, and is the same as that that should be given to all patients following transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke. It will provide a concise description of the safety profile, dosage, indications and contraindications of the various drugs that are currently available to reduce the risk of further TIA or stroke. Then the specific drugs used in the peri-procedural period during carotid stenting will be described, along with the evidence supporting their use

  19. Pharmacotherapy for patients undergoing carotid stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalan, Deepa [Sheffield Vascular Institute, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Thomas, Steven M. [Sheffield Vascular Institute, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: S.M.Thomas@sheffield.ac.uk

    2006-10-15

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide [Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Mortality by cause for eight regions of the World: Global Burden of Disease Study, Lancet 1997;349:1269-76. ] and remains one of the most common and disabling neurological disorders, particularly in the elderly. Survivors of stroke remain at high risk for developing further vascular events including recurrent strokes, myocardial infarction and vascular deaths. Treatment modalities for such patients include life style modifications, drug therapy and where applicable, surgical or endovascular intervention. Carotid artery disease is implicated in 20-30% of the population as the aetiology for stroke [De Bakey ME. Carotid endarterectomy revisited, J Endovasc Surg 1996;3:4. ]. This article examines the pharmacotherapy for patients undergoing carotid stenting. This will be divided into best medical therapy for these patients, and is the same as that that should be given to all patients following transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke. It will provide a concise description of the safety profile, dosage, indications and contraindications of the various drugs that are currently available to reduce the risk of further TIA or stroke. Then the specific drugs used in the peri-procedural period during carotid stenting will be described, along with the evidence supporting their use.

  20. Cognitive changes after carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Struffert, T.; Krick, C.; Backens, M.; Supprian, T.; Falkai, P.; Reith, W.

    2006-01-01

    We aimed to test changes in cognitive performance after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Ten patients were neuropsychologically tested at least 24 h before and 48 h after CAS. To diminish thromboembolic events, we used a proximal protection device. The following neuropsychological tests were selected: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), symbol digit test and subtests of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery (verbal fluency, constructional practice, word list memory and delayed recall). Affective state was determined by the Beck Depression Score (BDS). No patient suffered from depression (BDS <1) or dementia (MMSE 29.9±1.5). Nine of the ten patients (P=0.12) showed increased speed in the Number Connection Test (NCT) (corresponding to trail making test). Most patients showed better or similar results concerning delayed recall (P=0.31). No change was observed in the symbol digit test, word list memory, verbal fluency or constructional practice. Better results concerning NCT and delayed recall after carotid stenting might be due to improved brain perfusion. After CAS, cognitive and memory performance seem to improve. Further studies with different time intervals and more refined testing, as well as perfusion-weighted imaging, are needed. (orig.)

  1. Flow-diverting stent-assisted coil embolization of a ruptured internal carotid artery blister aneurysm with the pipeline flex embolization device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal carotid artery (ICA blister aneurysms are rare and challenging to successfully treat, using contemporary surgical or endovascular approaches, without partial or complete compromise of the parent vessel. We describe the use of a resheathable flow diverter, the Pipeline Flex Embolization Device (PFED to perform stent-assisted coiling of a ruptured supraclinoid ICA blister aneurysm in a 56-year-old female who presented with a high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. The first PFED was deployed across the aneurysm neck to jail a microcatheter within the aneurysm dome, and then, two small coils were delivered into the aneurysm. After removing the coiling microcatheter, the second PFED was telescoped into the first PFED. There were no postprocedural complications, and follow-up magnetic resonance angiography 15 months after embolization showed complete aneurysm obliteration. Flow-diverting stent-assisted coiling should be considered as a reconstructive, vessel-preserving, endovascular treatment option for appropriately selected patients with ruptured ICA blister aneurysms. However, future studies are necessary to assess the periprocedural safety in the setting of acute SAH.

  2. Efficacy and safety of carotid artery stenting for stroke prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Elserwi, Ahmed; Amer, Talal; Soliman, Nermin; Gaballa, Ghada M.; Elmokadem, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extracranial carotid artery stenosis is a leading cause of ischemic stroke. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the gold-standard management for secondary stroke prevention yet carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged in the last decade as an alternative for high surgical risk patients. Purpose: To assess the effectiveness, safety and outcomes of CAS in extra-cranial carotid artery stenosis patients in terms of stroke prevention. Methodology: Twenty patients with symptomatic an...

  3. Technical options for treatment of in-stent restenosis after carotid artery stenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourier, Vanessa E C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413970310; de Borst, Gert J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/237108151

    2016-01-01

    Objective This review summarizes the available evidence and analyzes the current trends on treatments for carotid in-stent restenosis (ISR) after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Methods An update of a 2010 review of the literature (which included 20 articles) was conducted using PubMed and Embase.

  4. Comparison of closed-cell and hybrid-cell stent designs in carotid artery stenting: clinical and procedural outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan TatlI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carotid artery stenting (CAS is a promising alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. However, the impact of stent cell design on outcomes in CAS is a matter of continued debate. Aim : To compare the periprocedural and clinical outcomes of different stent designs for CAS with distal protection devices. Material and methods : All CAS procedures with both closed- and hybrid-cell stents performed at our institution between February 2010 and December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Adverse events were defined as death, major stroke, minor stroke, transient ischemic attack and myocardial infarction. Periprocedural and 30-day adverse events and internal carotid artery (ICA vasospasm rates were compared between the closed-cell and hybrid-cell stent groups. Results : The study included 234 patients comprising 146 patients with a closed-cell stent (Xact stent, Abbott Vascular (mean age: 68.5 ±8.6; 67.1% male and 88 patients with a hybrid-cell stent (Cristallo Ideale, Medtronic (mean age: 67.2 ±12.8; 68.2% male. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to periprocedural or 30-day adverse event rates. While there was no difference in terms of tortuosity index between the groups, there was a higher procedural ICA vasospasm rate in the closed-cell stent group (35 patients, 23% compared with the hybrid-cell stent group (10 patients, 11% (p = 0.017. Conclusions : The results of this study showed no significant difference in the clinical adverse event rates after CAS between the closed-cell stent group and the hybrid-cell stent group. However, procedural ICA vasospasm was more common in the closed-cell stent group.

  5. Carotid artery stenting vs carotid endarterectomy: meta-analysis and diversity-adjusted trial sequential analysis of randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Kumar, Sunil; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    The role of carotid artery stenting (CAS) when compared with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is controversial, with recent trials showing an increased risk of harm with CAS.......The role of carotid artery stenting (CAS) when compared with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is controversial, with recent trials showing an increased risk of harm with CAS....

  6. Impact on outcome of different types of carotid stent: results from the European Registry of Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Eugenio; Giugliano, Giuseppe; Cremonesi, Alberto; Bosiers, Marc; Reimers, Bernhard; Setacci, Carlo; Cao, Piergiorgio; Schmidt, Andrej; Sievert, Horst; Peeters, Patrick; Nikas, Dimitrios; Sannino, Anna; de Donato, Gianmarco; Parlani, Giambattista; Castriota, Fausto; Hornung, Marius; Rubino, Paolo; Esposito, Giovanni; Tesorio, Tullio

    2016-06-12

    Conflicting data exist on the impact on outcome of the use of different stent types during carotid artery stenting (CAS). The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes according to different carotid stent design among the population of the European Registry of Carotid Artery Stenting (ERCAS). The present study was conducted in 1,604 patients who underwent neuroprotected CAS in ERCAS. All types of commercially available carotid stent were used. Open-cell design stents were classified according to free cell area into 7.5 mm2. A total of 713 closed-cell, 456 hybrid-cell, 238 7.5 mm2 open-cell stents were implanted. Overall, the 30-day stroke and death rate was 1.37%. At 30 days, 19 strokes occurred (1.18%): eight in the group of patients treated with a closed-cell (1.12%), two in those with a hybrid-cell (0.44%), three in those with a 7.5 mm2 open-cell stent (3.05%) (p=0.045). Data of the present study suggest that, in the setting of neuroprotected CAS performed in high-volume centres by properly trained operators, the use of an open-cell design stent with a free cell area >7.5 mm2 may be associated with an increased 30-day stroke risk.

  7. Clinical experience of cerebral protection with balloon occlusion during carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, H.J.; Mathias, K.D.; Drescher, R.; Bockisch, G.; Hauth, E.; Demirel, E.; Gissler, H.M.; Witten/Herdecke Univ.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To asses the technical feasibility and the results of cerebral protection with the GuardWire Plus Temporary Occlusion and Aspiration System during carotid artery stenting for high-grade stenosis. Patients and Methods: In 20 patients 20 carotid artery stenoses were treated with stent placement under cerebral protection. A contralateral carotid occlusion was an exclusion criteria for the use of the protection device. In all cases only aspiration, but no flushing was used before deflation of the occlusion balloon. In 17 of 20 patients diffusion-weighted (DW-)MRT imaging of the brain was performed before and 24 hours after the procedure. Results: The stent implantation was successfully performed in all patients. In 3 patients neurologic symptoms occurred during the occlusion time. In these 3 patients the symptoms immediately disappeared after deflation of the balloon. In one case there was dilatation of the internal carotid artery at the site of the balloon inflation. In 3 of the 17 DW-MR images new ipsilateral cerebral lesions, in one case a new contralateral lesion occurred after the procedure. Conclusions: The cerebral protection procedure is technically feasible. The occlusion of the internal carotid artery was not tolerated by all patients. The DW-MR imaging demonstrated cerebral lesions indicating the occurrence of cerebral microemboli during the procedure. Further investigations are necessary to determine if the use of the cerebral protection device will improve the results of the carotid artery stenting for high-grade stenoses. (orig.) [de

  8. Meta-analysis of the costs of carotid artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E. E.; Baldew, V. G.M.; den Ruijter, H. M.; de Borst, G. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is currently associated with an increased risk of 30-day stroke compared with carotid endarterectomy (CEA), whereas both interventions seem equally durable beyond the periprocedural period. Although the clinical outcomes continue to be scrutinized, there are

  9. Self expandable polytetrafluoroethylene stent for carotid blowout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, E C; Yildirim, U M; Dündar, Y; Ozdek, A; Işik, E; Korkmaz, H

    2012-01-01

    Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is an emergency complication in patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancers. The classical management of CBS is the ligation of the common carotid artery, because suturing is not be possible due to infection and necrosis of the field. In this case report, we present a patient with CBS, in whom we applied a self-expandable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) stent and observed no morbidity. Endovascular stent is a life-saving technique with minimum morbidity that preserves blood flow to the brain. We believe that this method is preferable to ligation of the artery in CBS.

  10. Outpatient primary stent-PTA in a symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis under protection; Ambulante primaere Stent-PTA einer symptomatischen Arteria-carotis-interna-Stenose unter Protektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, R. [Abt. fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionelle Radiologie, Guestrower Krankenhaus (Germany); Roth, M. [Abt. Neurologie, Guestrower Krankenhaus (Germany); Brinckmann, W. [Gefaesschirurgie, Guestrower Krankenhaus (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In a 69 year old patient, with a symptomatic ICA stenosis a stent implantation was performed under outpatient conditions. An interdisciplinary consensus was reached that the patient was suitable for outpatient therapy. In accordance with the NASCET criteria, the patient was to be classified to the high-risk group. Within 120 days before the intervention, the following clinical symptoms had occurred: 1 TIA, 2 amaurosis fugax. In the diagnostic angiography a right postbulbar ICA stenosis of 97% was verified. The stent application and subsequent PTA were performed under protection using a filter system. The transfemoral route was always fitted with an endovascular closure system. The neck vessels were followed-up by means of colour coded duplex sonography (CCDS) on days 1, 30, 180 and 360. A contrast-medium intensified MRI was performed on the 5{sup th} day post-intervention. The implantation of the stent and PTA were done without any complications. Atheromatous plaque fragments were found in the protection system. A plaque embolism was excluded clinically and in the contrast-medium intensified MRI 5 days after the intervention. After 360 days, no restenosis was found in the CCDS, the ECA was perfused. The method presented is low in complications and shows a high success rate. If patient recruitment is adequate, this intervention can be performed on an outpatient basis. (orig.) [German] Bei einem 69-jaehrigen Patienten mit symptomatischer Arteria-carotis-interna- (ACI-) Stenose erfolgte unter ambulanten Bedingungen eine primaere Stentimplantation. In einem interdisziplinaeren Konsens, bestehend aus interventionellem Radiologen, Neurologen und Gefaesschirurgen, wurde festgelegt, ob der Patient sich fuer eine ambulante Therapie eignet. Gemaess den NASCET-Kriterien war der Patient der High-Risk-Gruppe zuzuordnen. Innerhalb der letzten 120 Tage vor der Intervention traten folgende Symptome auf: 1 TIA, 2 Amaurosis fugax. In der diagnostischen selektiven 4-Gefaess

  11. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of tandem carotid artery stenoses: Investigation of neurological complications after carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Yukinao; Takao, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Kouichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Takayama, Sho; Fujimura, Soichiro; Masuda, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Mituyoshi; Suzuki, Tomoaki; Dahmani, Chihebeddine; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Makoto; Murayama, Yuichi

    2016-09-14

    Combined extra- and intracranial carotid artery stenoses, particularly involving multiple lesions, show complex hemodynamic properties and represent a therapeutic dilemma. We used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate whether insufficient cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a 70-year-old man with tandem stenoses was the cause of aphasia and right hemiparesis after carotid artery stenting (CAS) of the extracranial stenosis. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D-DSA) was performed before and after balloon angioplasty and CAS in the patient. The geometrical and rheological conditions of the carotid arteries were determined, and computational meshes were generated from the patient-specific 3D-DSA datasets. CFD analysis was performed, and hemodynamic parameters such as mass flow, pressure, fractional flow reserve, and streamlines were calculated. Post-CAS simulations showed that the percentage of internal carotid artery mass flow from common carotid artery mass flow increased from 9% to 14% and CBF improved by only 5%. CFD analysis suggested that the neurological complications were caused by insufficient CBF rather than embolic events, and in tandem carotid stenoses, CAS for an extracranial lesion alone may not always sufficiently increase CBF. CFD enabled the noninvasive quantitative estimation of the effects of CAS of each stenotic segment on carotid flow.

  12. Carotid Artery Stenting Trials: Conduct, Results, Critique, and Current Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Sumaira

    2012-01-01

    The carotid stenting trialists have demonstrated persistence and determination in comparing an evolving technique, carotid artery stenting (CAS), against a mature and exacting standard for carotid revascularisation, carotid endarterectomy (CEA). This review focuses on their endeavours. A total of 12 1-on-1 randomised trials comparing CAS and CEA have been reported; 6 of these can be considered major, and 5 of these reflect (in part) current CAS standards of practice and form the basis of this review. At least 18 meta-analyses seeking to compare CAS and CEA exist. These are limited by the quality and heterogeneity of the data informing them (e.g., five trials were stopped prematurely such that they collectively failed to reach recruitment target by >4000 patients). The Carotid Stenting Trialists’ Collaboration Publication represents a prespecified meta-analysis of European trials that were sufficiently similar to allow valid conclusions to be drawn; these trials and conclusions will be explored. When the rate of myocardial infarction (MI) is rigorously assessed, CAS and CEA are equivalent for the composite end point of stroke/death and MI, with more minor strokes for CAS and more MIs for CEA. These outcomes have a discrepant impact on quality of life and subsequent mortality. The all-stroke death outcomes for patients <70 years old are equivalent, with more minor strokes occurring in the elderly during CAS than CEA. There are significantly more severe haematomas and cranial nerve injuries after CEA. The influence of experience on outcome cannot be underestimated.

  13. Carotid Web (Intimal Fibromuscular Dysplasia) Has High Stroke Recurrence Risk and Is Amenable to Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussen, Diogo C; Grossberg, Jonathan A; Bouslama, Mehdi; Pradilla, Gustavo; Belagaje, Samir; Bianchi, Nicolas; Allen, Jason W; Frankel, Michael; Nogueira, Raul G

    2017-11-01

    Carotid webs have been increasingly recognized as a cause of recurrent stroke, but evidence remains scarce. We aim to report the clinical outcomes and first series of carotid stenting in a cohort of patients with strokes from symptomatic carotid webs. Prospective and consecutive data of patients stroke admitted within September 2014 to May 2017. Carotid web was defined by a shelf-like/linear filling defect in the posterior internal carotid artery bulb by computed tomographic angiography. Twenty-four patients were identified (91.6% strokes/8.4% transient ischemic attacks [TIAs]). Median age was 46 (41-59) years, 61% were female, and 75% were black. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 10.5 (3.0-16.0) and ASPECTS (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score) was 8 (7-8). There were no parenchymal hemorrhages, and 96% of patients were independent at 3 months. All webs caused stroke/TIA involving the territory of the previously symptomatic web occurred in 7 (32%; 6 strokes/1 TIA) patients: 3 1 year of follow-up. Two recurrences occurred on dual antiplatelet therapy, 3 on antiplatelet monotherapy, 1 within 24 hours of thrombolysis, and 1 off antithrombotics. Median follow-up was 12.2 (8.0-18.0) months. Sixteen (66%) patients were stented at a median 12.2 (7.0-18.7) days after stroke with no periprocedural complications. No recurrent strokes/TIAs occurred in stented individuals (median follow-up of 4 [2.4-12.0] months). Carotid web is associated with high recurrent stroke/TIA risk, despite antithrombotic use, and is amenable to carotid stenting. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Carotid angioplasty and stenting vs carotid endarterectomy for treatment of asymptomatic disease: single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gale L; Matsumura, Jon S; Morasch, Mark D; Pearce, William H; Nguyen, Antoinette; Amaranto, Daniel; Eskandari, Mark K

    2008-07-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) with embolic protection is an acceptable alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in selected patients with symptomatic cervical carotid artery disease. Whether outcomes after CAS are comparable to those after CEA in the larger population of patients with asymptomatic disease is unclear. Carotid angioplasty and stenting performed in patients with asymptomatic disease will result in early outcomes equivalent to those with CEA performed in patients with asymptomatic disease at our center and in 2 landmark studies of CEA. Single-center retrospective review. Urban hospital. Three hundred twenty-six patients (202 men [62%] and 124 women [38%]; mean age, 71 years) with asymptomatic carotid artery stenoses treated with either CAS (n = 120) or CEA (n = 206) between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006. Overall mean degree of stenosis was 81.2%. Carotid angioplasty and stenting was performed using self-expanding nitinol stents coupled with a mechanical embolic protection system. Carotid endarterectomy was performed using general anesthesia with selective shunting based on carotid stump pressure. Stroke, myocardial infarction, and death rates at 30 days after surgery. At 30 days after surgery, there was no statistical difference between outcomes after CAS (2 strokes [1.7%], 2 myocardial infarctions [1.7%], and 1 death [0.8%]) compared with CEA (2 strokes [1.0%], 3 myocardial infarctions [1.5%], and no deaths). Vascular surgeons who have advanced catheter-based skills can safely perform CAS in patients with asymptomatic disease with periprocedural results comparable to those with CEA.

  15. Carotid artery stenting versus no stenting assisting thrombectomy for acute ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Arnholm, Henrik; Holtmannspötter, Markus; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    stroke. METHODS: International and regional electronic databases will be searched to identify eligible randomised clinical trials. To identify further published, unpublished, or on-going and planned trials searches of Google Scholar, Worldwide Food and Drug Administrations, Worldwide Medicines Agencies...... will be applied to these searches. Randomised clinical trials will be included for assessing benefits and harms and quasi-randomised studies, and observational studies will be included for assessing harms of the intervention. Meta-analyses will be performed according to the recommendations of the Cochrane...... and harms of this intervention and assesses whether carotid stenting should be encouraged or avoided in acute ischaemic stroke and identify targets for further research. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016033346....

  16. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have also had a stent (a tiny wire mesh tube) placed in the blocked area to keep ... Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical ...

  17. Stent-graft treatment of a common carotid artery pseudoaneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionato, F; Righi, C; Melissano, G; Rolli, A; Chiesa, R; Scotti, G

    2000-04-01

    To report a case demonstrating successful endovascular treatment of a right common carotid artery pseudoaneurysm using a commercially prepared balloon-expandable covered stent. A 50-year-old man was evaluated for syncopal episodes. He had a history of severe trauma sustained in a motor vehicle accident 3 years before symptom onset. Doppler ultrasound scanning detected a pseudoaneurysm at the origin of the right common carotid artery. The defect measured 25 mm x 20 mm with a 22-mm-long neck on angiography and computed tomography; there was no evidence of carotid stenosis or associated vascular pathology. Via a percutaneous femoral access, 2 Jostent peripheral stent-grafts were placed at the level of the aneurysm, safely achieving complete repair of the arterial wall defect. The patient was asymptomatic at his 12-month evaluation. Color flow duplex scans showed continued exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm. Wide-necked aneurysms in the extracranial carotid arteries may be treated with stent-grafts, which can achieve complete and permanent reconstruction of the arterial wall by excluding the aneurysm.

  18. Outcomes of emergent carotid artery stenting within 6 hours of symptom onset in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Won Gi; Yoon, Woong; Yim, Nam Yeol; Jung, Min Young; Jung, Se Hee; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate clinical outcomes following the emergent carotid artery stenting for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Twenty-eight consecutive patients with acute stroke due to atherosclerotic steno-occlusive diseases of extracranial internal carotid artery underwent emergent carotid artery stenting. Of these, 23 patients had tandem intracranial arterial occlusions. Extracranial carotid stenting was successful in all patients. From the 13 patients who underwent intracranial recanalization procedures, successful recanalization occurred in 84.6% (11/13). 57% of patients (16/28) had a good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) after 3 months. Patients with successful intracranial/extracranial recanalization had a significantly higher rate of good outcome than those without recanalization after 3 months (75% vs. 33%, p = 0.027). Patients without intracranial tandem occlusions had a more favorable clinical outcome than those with intracranial tandem occlusions (100% vs. 48%, p = 0.033). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in one patient (3.6%). Mortality rate was 0% (0/28) after 3 months. Emergent carotid artery stenting in setting of acute stroke was a safe and effective treatment modality. Successful recanalization (extracranial and intracranial) and absence of intracranial tandem occlusion are significantly associated with a good outcome for our cohort of patients whom undergone emergent carotid artery stenting.

  19. Outcome of Carotid Artery Stenting for Radiation-Induced Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorresteijn, Lucille; Vogels, Oscar; Leeuw, Frank-Erik de; Vos, Jan-Albert; Christiaans, Marleen H.; Ackerstaff, Rob; Kappelle, Arnoud C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Patients who have been irradiated at the neck have an increased risk of symptomatic stenosis of the carotid artery during follow-up. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) can be a preferable alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy, which is associated with increased operative risks in these patients. Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective cohort study of 24 previously irradiated patients who underwent CAS for symptomatic carotid stenosis. We assessed periprocedural and nonprocedural events including transient ischemic attack (TIA), nondisabling stroke, disabling stoke, and death. Patency rates were evaluated on duplex ultrasound scans. Restenosis was defined as a stenosis of >50% at the stent location. Results: Periprocedural TIA rate was 8%, and periprocedural stroke (nondisabling) occurred in 4% of patients. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years (range, 0.3-11.0 years), only one ipsilateral incident event (TIA) had occurred (4%). In 12% of patients, a contralateral incident event was present: one TIA (4%) and two strokes (12%, two disabling strokes). Restenosis was apparent in 17%, 33%, and 42% at 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively, although none of the patients with restenosed vessels became symptomatic. The length of the irradiation to CAS interval proved the only significant risk factor for restenosis. Conclusions: The results of CAS for radiation-induced carotid stenosis are favorable in terms of recurrence of cerebrovascular events at the CAS site.

  20. A suggested training programme for carotid artery stenting (CAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, Peter; Nicholson, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting as an alternative to traditional carotid endartrectomy is becoming increasingly important in the treatment of transient ischemic attack and stroke. Physicians from several different medical disciplines are interested in treating appropriate patients by this method. Patients are entitled to know what training and experience the surgeon or clinician has before giving consent. This should involve endovascular experience in all systems and experience and knowledge of cerebral angiography and intervention. A multidisciplinary approach and reporting of adverse events is vital for patient safety

  1. Treatment of carotid artery aneurysms with covered stents; Aneurysmabehandlung der Arteria carotis interna mit gecoverten Stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, A.; Alfke, K.; Doerner, L.; Jansen, O. [UKSH Kiel (Germany). Neurochirurgie Neuroradiologie; Bartsch, T.; Stingele, R. [UKSH Kiel (Germany). Neurologie

    2007-10-15

    Purpose: Evaluation of the use of covered stents in treating pseudoaneurysms of the cervical and intracranial/extradural carotid artery and determination of the periprocedural and short- to mid-term complication rate. Materials and Methods: 8 patients with 9 spontaneous dissecting aneurysms of the cervical carotid artery - 5 of which were symptomatic - plus one patient with ofthalmoplegia due to an aneurysm of the cavernous carotid artery were studied. While the latter was treated with a PTFE-covered balloon-mounted stainless steel stent (Jostent/Graftmaster), a self-expanding PTFE-covered Nitonol Stent (Symbiot) was used in all other cases. Intervention was performed with local anesthesia. Aspirin and Clopidogrel were both used as antiplatelet drugs. Clinical signs and symptoms and vascular imaging with DS, MR, CT angiography and ultrasound were recorded during patient follow-up, with a mean follow-up period of 14.6 months (4 - 30). Results: We were able to treat 8 out of 10 aneurysms (80 %) using covered stents. The aneurysms were immediately occluded and the associated stenoses of the parent vessel were eliminated. No clinically relevant complications occurred during the procedure or in the follow-up interval. In two cases, elongation of the carotid artery prevented the stent from being positioned over the aneurysm neck. These cases were shown to be stable with the use of antiplatelet drugs. Conclusion: Covered stents can be used in the treatment of pseudoaneurysms of the carotid artery as an alternative to long-term antithrombotic medication or surgery. In our study treatment was effective (80 %) and free of complications in the short- and mid-term follow-up. Possible indications, technique and the use of imaging modalities for patient follow-up are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Investigation into drivers of cost of stenting for carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Brinjikji, Waleed; Cloft, Harry; DeMartino, Randall R; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to identify factors associated with cost of carotid artery stenting (CAS). Patient and hospital characteristics affecting cost of admission for CAS were identified using the Vizient national database of hospital-reported outcomes. Patients who underwent CAS for either asymptomatic or symptomatic carotid stenosis were identified using surgical Medicare Severity-Diagnosis Related Groups and appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Tenth Revision codes. There were 166 hospitals that reported outcomes from 7369 inpatient admissions for CAS. Each institution reported a mean value for cost related to patient care per admission for CAS; the average cost across all reporting institutions was $12,834.14 (standard error of the mean [SEM], 492.88). Institutions in the lowest 25th percentile with respect to frequency of intensive care unit admission after CAS had lower cost of admission than institutions above the 75th percentile ($10,971.30 [SEM, 460.67] vs $14,992.90 [964.29]; P = .002), without any differences in incidence of stroke during admission (2.2% [SEM, 0.3] vs 2.0% [0.4]; P = .877) or 30-day readmission (1.9% [SEM, 0.4] vs 2.5 [0.6]; P = .329). Admissions for patients with symptomatic stenosis were more expensive than those with asymptomatic stenosis ($20,462.10 [SEM, 819.93] vs $11,285.20 [347.11]; P costs of admission ($14,176.20 [SEM, 597.13] vs $12,287.10 [395.73]; P care unit, symptomatic stenosis, and obesity were associated with increased costs in patients undergoing CAS. These data may aid in identifying opportunities to improve the cost-effectiveness of this procedure. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carotid Artery Stenting prior to Cardiac Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heyden, J.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the strategy of the management and treatment of patients with concomitant significant carotid and coronary artery disease. The short and long term outcome of a single centre experience is reported and compared with general common practise. The author conducted different

  4. Early outcomes after carotid angioplasty with stenting performed by neurologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathala Lokesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the results of carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS in treating extracranial carotid artery stenosis performed by neurologists in our center and compare the results with other large published series. Materials and Methods: Data for all patients who underwent CAS from January 2003 through November 2007, was retrieved from the Nanjing Stroke Registry. Perioperative and post-procedural complications within 30 days following stenting were analyzed and compared with that from other series. A total number of 75 patients were enrolled, with a mean age of 65.9 ± 8.8 years, and 64 (85.3% of them were male. Results: Procedural success was achieved in 74 patients (98.7%. Pre-treatment stenosis was 73.8 ± 14.9 and post-treatment residual stenosis was less than 10%. Thirty-four patients (45.3% had bilateral carotid artery disease and seven (9.3% had tandem stenosis. The neurological complication rate was 3.9% (one major and two minor strokes. Bradycardia in four (5.3% and hypotension in 13 (17.3% were observed during procedures. Using the Fischer′s exact t test, the complication rate compared with the large published series did not reveal any statistically significant difference (P > 0.05. Conclusions: We conclude that neurologists, with adequate training, can develop and add this technical skill to the existing cognitive skill of vascular neurology and safely perform stenting.

  5. Thrombectomy assisted by carotid stenting in acute ischemic stroke management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Arnholm, Henrik; Holtmannspötter, Markus; Kondziella, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Extracranial carotid artery occlusion or high-grade stenosis with concomitant intracranial embolism causes severe ischemic stroke and shows poor response rates to intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Endovascular therapy (EVT) utilizing thrombectomy assisted by carotid stenting was long considered risky......-center analysis of 47 consecutive stroke patients with carotid occlusion or high-grade stenosis and concomitant intracranial embolus treated between September 2011 and December 2014. Benefits included early improvement of stroke severity (NIHSS ≥ 10) or complete remission within 72 h and favorable long......-term outcome (mRS ≤ 2). Harms included complications during and following EVT. Mean age was 64.3 years (standard deviation ±12.5), 40 (85%) patients received IVT initially. Median NIHSS was 16 (inter-quartile range 14-19). Mean time from stroke onset to recanalization was 311 min (standard deviation ±78...

  6. Complications in percutaneous transluminal stenting for carotid artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shenmao; Miao Zhongrong; Zhu Fengshui; Ji Xunming; Jiao Liqun; Qi Jianshu; Ling Feng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the complications of endovascular stenting for carotid artery stenosis. Methods: Cerebral vascular angiography and cervical Doppler sonography were performed in 648 patients with carotid artery stenosis. Emboli-protected device was used in 365 patients and none in 283 patients. Results: All 648 patients were technically successful (100%). Symptoms disappeared or improved in 78.7% patients. Slow heart rate during operation existed in 26.4% patients. Embolism caused by dislodgment of emboli occurred in 5 patients, 3 of them recovered after treatment and 2 had unilateral dyskinesias. Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 3 patients. Stroke or death within 30 days after operation occurred in 6 patients(1.24%). 322 patients (77.8%)were followed up. Restenosis occurred in 17 patients(3.3%). Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal stenting is a safe option for carotid artery stenosis. Correct evaluation of clinical and angiographic data before operation, together with normative manipulation and nursing during and after operation are the key points to avoid complications. (authors)

  7. Carotid stenting using tapered and nontapered stents: associated neurological complications and restenosis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine E; Usman, Asad; Kibbe, Melina R; Morasch, Mark D; Matsumura, Jon S; Pearce, William H; Amaranto, Daniel J; Eskandari, Mark K

    2009-01-01

    Self-expanding stent design systems for carotid artery stenting (CAS) have morphed from nontapered (NTS) to tapered (TS); however, the impact of this change is unknown. We reviewed the outcomes of CAS with these two broad categories of stents in a single-center retrospective review of 308 CAS procedures from May 2001 to July 2007. Nitinol self-expanding TS or NTS coupled with cerebral embolic protection devices were used to treat extracranial carotid occlusive disease. Data analysis included demographics, procedural records, duplex exams, and conventional arteriography. Mean follow-up was 18 months (range 1-69). Restenosis was defined as >or=80% in-stent carotid artery stenosis by angiography. The mean age of the entire cohort was 71.3 years (75% men, 25% women). Of the 308 cases, 233 were de novo lesions and 75 had a prior ipsilateral carotid endarterectomy (n = 44) or external beam radiation exposure (n = 31). Preprocedure neurological symptoms were present in 30% of patients. TS were used in 156 procedures and NTS in 152 procedures. The 30-day ipsilateral stroke and death rates were 1.3% and 0.3%, respectively. An additional three (1.0%) posterior circulation strokes occurred. There was no statistically significant difference in the 30-day total stroke rates between TS (3.2%, n = 5) and NTS (1.3%, n = 2) (p = 0.5). At midterm follow-up, restenosis or asymptomatic occlusion was detected in eight cases (2.6%). All occurred in arteries treated with NTS, and this was statistically different when compared to arteries treated with TS (p = 0.03). Furthermore, a post-hoc subgroup analysis revealed significant correlation (chi(2) = 0.02) for restenosis in "hostile necks" when separated by TS vs. NTS. Early CAS outcomes between TS and NTS are comparable. In contrast, self-expanding nitinol TS may have a lower incidence of significant restenosis or asymptomatic occlusion when compared to NTS.

  8. Cerebral hemodynamics and baroreflex sensitivity after carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L-C; Chang, F-C; Kuo, T B J; Wong, W-J; Hu, H-H

    2013-01-01

    The long-term hemodynamic effects of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) are unclear. We performed a longitudinal study to investigate the variations in cerebral hemodynamics in patients undergoing CAS. We performed prospective evaluation of 63 symptomatic male patients (19 patients had transient ischemic attack and 44 had minor stroke; mean age: 77.3 ± 6.3 years [range: 51-86]). The mean blood flow velocities (MBFV) and pulsatility index (PI) of the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) on both sides were evaluated using transcranial color-coded Doppler (TCCD) ultrasonography. Cardiac autonomic activities were evaluated by measuring baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). All parameters were measured at baseline prior to CAS and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after CAS. The preoperative MBFV and PI of the ipsilateral MCA were significantly lower than those of the contralateral side. However, after CAS, MBFV in the ipsilateral MCA increased significantly until 2 weeks after stenting, after which the MBFV gradually decreased and remained stable for 1 year after CAS. Further, we observed a nonsignificant increase in MBFV in the contralateral MCA after CAS. In contrast to the MBFV, the BRS values decreased significantly 1 month after stenting and returned to baseline levels 6 months after CAS. Patients with CAS showed improved global cerebral hemodynamic status. However, the BRS did not normalize initially, and baseline value was achieved at 6 months after stenting. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Lesion-Related Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting with Closed-Cell Design without Embolic Protection Devices in High-Risk Elderly Patients-Can This Concept Work Out? A Single Center Experience Focusing on Stent Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf-Jensen, Silke; Marques, Leonardo; Preiß, Michael; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    To compare the performance differences of three carotid artery stents in high-risk elderly patients without embolic protection devices (EPDs) on the basis of stent design, procedure-related complications, conveniences in handling, in-stent restenosis, 30-day outcome, and long-term follow-up. A total of 101 symptomatic internal carotid stenoses of 94 patients were prospectively treated with stent-protected angioplasty to 94 patients. Three closed-cell stents, one of those being hybrid cell design, were chosen depending on vascular anatomy: curved vessel, lesion length > 1 cm: 64 Carotid Wallstent (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA); curved vessel, lesion length  1 cm: 16 Xact (Vascular Abbott, Santa Clara, CA). Comparisons of demographics, procedures, and outcomes were performed. The mean age of patients was 73.1 years (standard deviation [SD], ± 7.9; range, 58-87 years), 71% of the patients were older than 70 years and 20% were octogenarians. Male/female ratio was 3.1:1. About 13.9% (14/101) had contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion. Overall peri-interventional complication rate was 2.9% and 30-day mortality rate was 1%. During the long-term follow-up (34 months, range 1-59) no ipsilateral stroke was documented. Ten deaths (three after MI) were recognized. Two in-stent restenosis were detected (> 70% North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial) during follow-up, one patient was detected with previous carotid endarterectomy. Especially, if individual anatomical variance is considered, lesion-related stent-protected carotid angioplasty with lesion-adapted closed-cell design is an effective, reliable, safe, and comprehensible treatment option in symptomatic patients. Even without EPDs, the rate of complications is low, when compared with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis described in the literature. In-stent restenosis seems to play no significant role in follow-up.

  10. Urgent carotid stenting before cardiac surgery in a young male patient with acute ischemic stroke caused by aortic and carotid dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Rade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute aortic dissection (AD is the most common life-threatening disorder affecting the aorta. Neurological symptoms are present in 17-40% of cases. The management of these patients is controversial. Case report. We presented a 37-year-old man admitted for complaining of left-sided weak-ness. Symptoms appeared two hours before admission. The patient had no headache, neither thoracic pain. Neurological examination showed mild confusion, left-sided hemiplegia, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score was 10. Ischemic stroke was suspected, brain multislice computed tomography (MSCT and angiography were performed and right intrapetrous internal carotid artery dissection noted. Subsequent color Doppler ultrasound of the carotid arteries showed dissection of the right common carotid artery (CCA. The patient underwent thoracic and abdominal MSCT aortography which showed ascending aortic dissection from the aortic root, propagating in the brachiocephalic artery and the right CCA. Digital subtraction angiography was performed subsequently and two stents were successfully implanted in the brachiocephalic artery and the right CCA prior to cardiac surgery, only 6 hours after admission. The ascending aorta was reconstructed with graft interposition and the aortic valve re-suspended. The patient was hemodynamically stable and with no neurologic deficit after surgery. Unfortinately, at the operative day 6, mediastinitis developed and after intensive treatment the patients died 35 days after admission. Conclusion. In young patients with suspected stroke and oscillatory neurological impairment urgent MSCT angiography of the brain and neck and/or Doppler sonography of the carotid and vertebral artery are mandatory to exclude carotid and aortic dissection. The prompt diagnosis permits urgent carotid stenting and cardiosurgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case of immediate carotid stenting in acute ischemic

  11. Autonomic activity and baroreflex sensitivity in patients submitted to carotid stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampa, Maurizio; Guideri, Francesca; Marotta, Giovanna; Tassi, Rossana; D'Andrea, Paolo; Giudice, Giuseppe Lo; Gistri, Massimo; Rocchi, Raffaele; Bernardi, Alberto; Bracco, Sandra; Venturi, Carlo; Martini, Giuseppe

    2011-03-24

    Arterial baroreflex and cardiac autonomic control play important roles in hemodynamic instability after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) are established tools for the assessment of arterial baroreflex and cardiac autonomic activity. Aim of the study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic activity (by means of HRV, BPV and BRS) after CAS and to explore the impact of internal carotid artery stenosis on BRS changes after CAS. 37 patients (68±10.45 years) with internal carotid stenosis underwent CAS. HRV, BPV and BRS were measured in all subjects before and at 1 and 72h after CAS. ANOVA was performed to compare BRS, HRV and BPV parameters before and after CAS. Spearman analysis was performed to determine a possible correlation between carotid stenosis degree (or carotid plaque diameter) and BRS changes (ΔBRS). LF/HF (index of sympatho-vagal balance) decreased during postoperative period, in comparison with baseline (2.32±1.70 vs 1.65±1.40, pBRS does not increase in all the patients, because arterial wall damage and nerve destruction determined by atherosclerotic plaque may reduce ΔBRS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of willis covered stent in the treatment of aneurysms located in the cisternal segment of the internal carotid artery: a pilot comparative study with long-term follow-up results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yueqi; Li Minghua; Fang Chun; Wang Wu; Zhang Peilei; Cheng Yingsheng; Tan Huaqiao; Wang Jianbo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Complicated aneurysms located in the cisternal segment of the internal carotid artery(ICA-CSA) present unique therapeutic difficulties. This study is to discuss the feasibility of the Willis stent-graft in treating complicated ICA-CSA by comparing its effect with that of coiling therapy. Methods: Willis covered stents were employed in 19 complicated ICA-CSAs (group A), while coils were used in 17 complicated ICA-CSAs (group B). Follow-up angiography was performed to investigate aneurysm recurrence, endoleak and parent artery (PA) stenosis. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to compare the recurrence-free and PA stenosis-free rate in both groups. Results: Total exclusion was immediately achieved in 13 ICA-CSAs and minor endoleaks presented in 5 cases in group A. Total or near-total occlusion was achieved in 7 ICA-CSAs, subtotal occlusion in 8 and partial occlusion in 2 cases in group B after coiling. Acute thrombosis occurred in 1 patient in either group and re-hemorrhage happened in 1 patient after coiling. Follow-up angiography in group A revealed that 16 ICA-CSAs were completely isolated, with two parent arteries showing mild in-stent stenosis. Eighteen months after the procedure, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the recurrence-free rate was 93.3% and 50%, while the stenosis-free rate of parent artery was 87.5% and 100% in group A and in Group B, respectively. In group A and group Bthe clinical neurological symptoms were fully recovered in 9 and 9, obviously improved in 3 and 5, unchanged in 2 and 2, and aggravated in one and 0 patients, respectively. Conclusion: The implantation of Willis stent-graft is a feasible endovascular therapy for complicated ICA-CSAs. When the parent artery is very tortuous or when the risk that a main collateral branch may be wrongly covered and occluded is present, the implantation of Willis covered stent can not be taken as the treatment of first choice. (authors)

  13. Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring May Detect Carotid Occlusion Intolerance during Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Furuse, Motomasa; Yagi, Ryokichi; Ohmura, Tomohisa; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Naokado; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Kawabata, Shinji; Miyachi, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2018-02-05

    The frequency of the occurrence of adverse events associated with carotid artery stenting (CAS) is usually low, but serious adverse events such as cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) may occur. Real-time monitoring is ideal for the early detection of adverse events during the surgical procedure. This study aimed to evaluate continuous blood glucose (BG) monitoring for the detection of adverse events during CAS. Forty patients undergoing scheduled CAS were prospectively enrolled. An artificial pancreas was used for continuous BG monitoring (once per minute), using venous blood extracted at a rate of 2 mL/hr during CAS. The primary endpoint was a correlation between BG change and adverse events. CAS was discontinued in 1 patient, and BG was not measured in 5 patients (12.5%) because of the inability to extract blood. Among 34 evaluable patients, no patient developed CHS, but 3 patients (9%) experienced carotid occlusion intolerance. During CAS, BG was significantly higher in patients with carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 5 mg/dL) than in patients without carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 0 mg/dL) (P = 0.0221). A cutoff BG value ≥4 mg/dL during CAS showed 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of carotid occlusion intolerance. There was no significant correlation between BG change and other adverse events. BG elevation may help detect carotid occlusion intolerance although it is still unknown whether BG monitoring can detect CHS. Further studies should validate that a cutoff BG elevation value of ≥4 mg/dL during CAS indicates carotid occlusion intolerance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of filter device during angioplasty and stent placement for the treatment of carotid stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Bo; Liu Jianmin; Xu Yi; Zhao Wenyuan; Huang Qinghai; Zhang Long; Zhang Xin; Xin Tao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of filter device in the prevention of cerebral embolic events during carotid angioplasty and stent placement. Methods: Angioguard was used in the treatment of 25 patients of symptomatic carotid artery stenoses by angioplasty and stenting. The filter devices were placed distally to the stenoses and deployed before angioplasty and stent placement. Cerebral thromboembolic events were noted and the filter devices were macroscopically observed. Results: The filter devices were placed and carotid angioplasty and stenting were successfully administered in all 25 patients. Debris could be found macroscopically in 15 out of 25 retrieved filters. There was no death or symptomatic cerebral thromboembolic events during the procedure. Short-term clinical follow-up showed excellent results. Conclusion: Use of filter device may improve the safety of carotid angioplasty and stent placement. (authors)

  15. The Impact of Carotid Artery Stenting on Cerebral Perfusion, Functional Connectivity, and Cognition in Severe Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeAsymptomatic carotid artery stenosis can lead to not only stroke but also cognition impairment. Although it has been proven that carotid artery stenting (CAS can reduce the risk of future strokes, the effect of CAS on cognition is conflicting. In recent years, pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL MRI and resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI have been employed in cognitive impairment studies. For the present study, cognition is evaluated in severe asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients undergoing CAS, and the mechanisms underlying the cognitive change are explored by pASL MRI and R-fMRI.Materials and methodsWe prospectively enrolled 24 asymptomatic, severe (≥70%, unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis patients, who were expecting the intervention of CAS. Cognition assessment (including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Beijing Version, the Minimum Mental State Examination, the Digit Symbol Test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Verbal Memory Test and an integrated MRI program (pASL MRI, and R-fMRI were administered 7 days before and 3 months after CAS.Results16 subjects completed the follow-up study. After stenting, significant improvement in the scores of the MMSE, the Verbal Memory test, and the delayed recall was found. No significant difference was found in the scores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Beijing Version, the Digit Symbol Test, and the immediate recall. After CAS treatment, asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients showed increased perfusion in the left frontal gyrus, increased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF in the right precentral gyrus, and increased connectivity to the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in the right supra frontal gyrus. However, no significant correlations were found between these imaging changes and cognition assessments.ConclusionSuccessful CAS can partly improve cognition in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients. The cognition

  16. Angioplasty of symptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis with intraluminal thrombus: therapeutic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.; Mayol, A. [Seccion de Neurorradiologia Intervencionista, Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Gil-Peralta, A.; Gonzalez-Marcos, J.R. [Servicio de Neurologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Boza, F. [Servicio de Neurofisiologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Ruano, J. [Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain)

    2004-04-01

    Intraluminal thrombus in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is usually found in patients with severe atheromatous stenosis. Having reviewed 300 carotid angioplasties for symptomatic >70% ICA stenosis, we found three patients (1%) with intraluminal thrombus. Conservative treatment with anticoagulants and double antiplatelet coverage can result in lysis of the thrombus without severe risks. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting, preferably with distal protection, can be an excellent alternative to carotid endarterectomy. (orig.)

  17. Focal ischemia of the brain after neuroprotected carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Michael; Tübler, Thilo; Steffens, Johann C; Mathey, Detlef G; Schofer, Joachim

    2003-09-17

    This study sought to assess the incidence of cerebral ischemia in nonselected patients undergoing neuroprotected carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) without preceding multiple-vessel diagnostic angiography. Protection devices to prevent distal embolization during CAS are presently under clinical investigation. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visualizes recent ischemia of the brain and may aid in assessing the efficacy of protection devices. Elective CAS was performed in 42 consecutive patients (15 female, 27 male; mean age, 67 +/- 9 years) using six different types of cerebral protection systems. All patients underwent MRI of the brain before and after a total of 44 interventions. Placement and retrieval of the devices and stent deployment was achieved in all procedures. New ischemic foci were seen on postinterventional MRI in 10 cases (22.7%). One patient had sustained a major stroke, whereas no adverse neurological sequelae were associated with the other nine procedures. In the latter, one to three foci (maximum area 43.0 mm(2)) were detected in cerebral regions subtended by the ipsilateral carotid artery in eight cases and by the contralateral carotid artery in one case. In the stroke patient, 12 ischemic foci (maximum area 84.5 mm(2)) were exclusively located in the contralateral hemisphere. Follow-up MRI at 4.1 months (median, n = 7) identified residuals of cerebral ischemia only in this patient. Neuroprotected CAS is associated in about 25% of cases with predominantly silent cerebral ischemia. Our findings suggest manipulation of endoluminal equipment in the supraaortic vessels to be a major risk factor for cerebral embolism during neuroprotected CAS.

  18. Complications and Follow-up after Unprotected Carotid Artery Stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, Elke A.M.; Drescher, Robert; Jansen, Christian; Gissler, H. Martin; Schwarz, Michael; Forsting, Michael; Jaeger, Horst J.; Mathias, Klaus D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. This prospective study was undertaken to determine the success rate, complications, and outcome of carotid artery stenting (CAS) without the use of cerebral protection devices. Methods. During 12 months, 94 high-grade stenoses of the carotid artery in 91 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-six (70%) of the stenoses were symptomatic and 28 (30%) were asymptomatic. Results. In all 94 carotid stenoses CAS was successfully performed. During the procedure and within the 30 days afterwards, there were 2 deaths and 3 major strokes in the 66 symptomatic patients, resulting in a combined death and stroke rate of 5 of 66 (7%). Only one of these complications, a major stroke, occurred during the procedure. In the 6-month follow-up, one additional major stroke occurred in a originally symptomatic patient resulting in a combined death and stroke rate of 6 of 66 (10%) for symptomatic patients at 6 months. No major complications occurred in asymptomatic patients during the procedure or in the 6-month follow-up period. At 6 months angiographic follow-up the restenosis rate with a degree of >50% was 3 of 49 (6%) and the rate with a degree of ≥70% was 1 of 49 (2%). Conclusions. Cerebral embolization during CAS is not the only cause of the stroke and death rate associated with the procedure. The use of cerebral protection devices during the procedure may therefore not prevent all major complications following CAS

  19. Evaluation of proximal protection devices during carotid artery stenting as the first choice for embolic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Marius; Bertog, Stefan C; Franke, Jennifer; Id, Dani; Grunwald, Iris; Sievert, Horst

    2015-03-01

    To assess the use of proximal protection devices in consecutive patients as the preferred means of cerebral embolic protection for primary carotid stenting. This was a prospective single-centre study to evaluate the technical and clinical success of proximal protection devices as the first choice for embolic protection in symptomatic (≥50%) and asymptomatic (≥70%) carotid stenosis. Proximal protection devices were used for embolic protection in 124 consecutive patients. No patients were excluded for anatomical reasons. The GORE Flow Reversal System (W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ, USA) was used in 92 patients, and the Mo.Ma Ultra device (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) in 32 patients. Follow-up duration was 30 days. Mean age was 71±8 years. Seventy-five percent of patients were male (n=93). Twenty-six of 124 (21%) treated stenoses were symptomatic. Technical success was achieved in 122 of 124 cases (98%). Due to anatomical conditions, in two patients flow reversal could not be established. In both cases additional distal filter devices were used. Carotid stenting was successful in 124 lesions (100%). Ten patients (8.1%) had contraindications to flow reversal (three high-grade ostial stenoses of the external carotid artery, seven contralateral occlusions of the internal carotid artery) in none of whom complications occurred. There were no procedural neurologic events. Within 30 days of follow-up, one patient had an ischaemic stroke (on day 11). Proximal protection is a safe method as the first choice for embolic protection. It can be used with a high rate of technical success.

  20. Carotid Artery Stenting in a Patient With a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Michele; Squizzato, Francesco; Grego, Franco; Bottio, Tommaso; Gerosa, Gino; Antonello, Michele

    2016-08-01

    To demonstrate the safety and feasibility of carotid artery stenting (CAS) in a patient with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD). A 54-year-old woman with a LVAD was referred for a 90% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient was offered CAS, and oral anticoagulant was not discontinued in the periprocedural period. Because of absent arterial pulses, percutaneous transfemoral access was obtained under ultrasound guidance. Particular attention was paid to cannulation of the innominate artery; a 7-F guiding catheter was advanced from the descending aorta into the innominate artery under road-mapping, avoiding maneuvers in the ascending aorta where the outflow Dacron graft of the LVAD was anastomosed. To avoid cerebral flow modifications, the Angioguard RX was used as the cerebral protection device rather than other devices such as the flow reversal or flow-clamping systems. At this point, CAS was performed in a standard fashion using the 7×30-mm Precise ProRX stent. The computed tomography angiogram at 6 months showed patency of the stented right ICA. With adequate planning, CAS appears feasible in patients with a LVAD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Volume and composition of emboli in neuroprotected stenting of the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, P; González, A; Martínez, E; Mayol, A; Rafel, E; González-Marcos, J R; Moniche, F; Cayuela, A; Gil-Peralta, A

    2009-03-01

    Periprocedural microembolization is a major and permanent risk for patients treated by angioplasty and stent placement of high-grade carotid stenoses. Little is known however about the characteristics and significance of these embolized particles. Our aim was to assess the volume and composition of debris captured by filters during carotid angioplasty and stent placement (CAS) of severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenoses. Institutional review board approval and informed consent from all subjects were obtained. Two hundred one patients (mean age, 66.2 years; range, 35-82 years) with > or = 70% stenosis of the ICA underwent filter-protected CAS. Ultrastructural and semiquantitative analysis of the volume of filters was obtained. Multifactorial statistical analysis was performed to determine factors related to debris volume and composition. Transient ischemic attack occurred in 6 patients (3%), and a major stroke, in 1 (0.5%). Debris was found in 117 filters (58.2%), with volume <1 lambda (0.001 mL) in 71%. The number of balloon dilations, age older than 65 years, and calcified plaques in pre-CAS angiography were significantly associated with the presence of particulates inside the filters (P < .03, P < .004, and P < .05, respectively). Vessel wall and atheromatous plaques are the main source of microemboli during CAS. Embolization is mainly related to the number of balloon dilations during CAS. Planning a proper and individualized strategy for the procedure in each patient is essential to minimize the potential effects of manipulation during CAS.

  2. Impact of Stent-Assisted Recanalization of Carotid Artery Stenosis on Brain Volume Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Fatih Nas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of recanalization on stenotic internal carotid artery on brain volume changes in stent applied patients. Materials and Methods: Carotid stenting was performed in 17 patients with severe carotid artery stenosis between June 2013 and April 2014. High resolution 3D T1 weight images were obtained from each patient 24 hours before and 7.2 ± 3.6 months (mean ± standard deviation after the procedure on a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Intracranial total cortical grey matter, total cortical white matter, white matter hypointensity, total intraventricular and subcortical grey matter volumes were assessed by FreeSurfer version 4.5.0. Results: A significant reduction was found in total cortical white matter and subcortical grey matter volumes (p<0.05. A significant increase was found in white matter hypointensity and total intraventricular volumes after procedure (p<0.05. However, no statistical significant difference was found in total cortical grey matter volume before and after procedure (p=0.902. Conclusion: The significant reduction in the postoperative intracranial total cortical white matter and subcortical grey matter volumes and the significant increase in the white matter hypointensity volume were considered to be secondary to neuronal damage. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7(4: 283-289

  3. Cerebral foreign body reaction after carotid aneurysm stenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anastasia Orlova; Nome, Terje; Bakke, Søren Jacob

    2016-01-01

    , or the next few days after the procedure. We present a case where we encountered an unusual intracerebral complication several months after endovascular treatment of a large left internal carotid artery aneurysm, and where brain biopsy revealed foreign body reaction to hydrophilic polymer fragments distally...

  4. Carotid stenting with and without protection devices: should protection be used in all patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, T; Veith, F J

    2000-06-01

    Embolic events that result in neurological deficits have been the most significant concern regarding carotid bifurcation stenting. Ex vivo carotid angioplasty studies using human carotid plaques have shown that embolic particles were released from all specimens. In addition, transcranial Doppler studies have confirmed the presence of multiple emboli in the middle cerebral artery during carotid stenting. Preliminary experience with the use of brain protection devices for carotid stenting have shown encouraging results in terms of safety and efficacy. Moreover, embolic particles have been recovered from all cases in which protection devices have been used. We provide the rationale for routine use of these protection devices and also review the various protection devices on the horizon.

  5. Combined application of distal and proximal embolic protection devices in endovascular stenting for severe carotid artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hua DU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze and summarize methods and experiences of combined application of distal and proximal embolic protection devices(EPD in endovascular stenting for severe carotid artery stenosis.Methods Five patients with severe stenosis of the common carotid artery or with extracranial segment of the internal carotid artery diagnosed through digital subtraction angiography(DSA from March to July 2010 were involved in the present study.All patients received carotid angioplasty and stenting(CAS,with a combination of distal and proximal EPD via the percutaneous femoral artery approach.Results The operation failed in one patient,whereas technical success with no intraoperative complication was achieved in four patients.The symptoms disappeared or improved in the four cases that achieved technical success.The follow-up duration was one to three months,and no cerebral ischemia was found.Conclusion CAS with the combined application of distal and proximal EPD in some special cases of carotid artery stenosis may surmount the shortage of single EPD,reduce the risk of intraoperative embolization,decrease the time of intraoperative endovascular inflow occlusion,and reduce high-risk operations.CAS may be used as an individualized treatment strategy for patients with carotid artery stenosis.

  6. Influence of carotid artery stenting on cognitive function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasar Grunwald, Iris; Papanagiotou, Panagiotis; Backens, Martin; Politi, Maria; Vedder, Verena; Zercher, K.; Reith, Wolfgang; Supprian, Tilman; Muscalla, B.; Haass, Anton; Krick, Christoph M.

    2010-01-01

    There have only been a few studies on cognitive changes in patients with carotid occlusive disease, and the results of these show major discrepancies in the extent to which treatment affects neuropsychological function. We sought to clarify these discrepancies by evaluating the effects of carotid artery stenting (CAS) on the cognitive function. Forty-one asymptomatic CAS patients were administered a test battery of neuropsychological tests measuring cognitive speed and memory function before and 3 months after the procedure. A control group was also evaluated. To test for thromboembolic lesions, diffusion-weighted imaging was used. CAS led to a significant increase in cognitive speed (p < 0.001) but did not afford any change in memory function. This was regardless of the degree or side of stenosis or patient age or gender. CAS significantly improved functions that involve cognitive speed. Earlier studies did not differentiate between speed and memory tests and thus might have missed these changes. Further studies correlating changes in brain perfusion with increase in cognitive speed are needed. (orig.)

  7. Mesh-covered (Roadsaver stent as a new treatment modality for symptomatic or high-risk carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Machnik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Prevention of periprocedural stroke has a crucial role in carotid artery stenting (CAS procedures. Aim : To assess retrospectively 30-day safety and effectiveness of 41 procedures of internal and common carotid artery stenting using the Roadsaver double nitinol layer micromesh stent in 40 non-consecutive patients with symptomatic or high-risk carotid artery stenosis. Material and methods : The patients were men (n = 31 and women (n = 9; mean age was 67.8 ±7.9 years. Femoral access was used in 39 cases, whereas radial access was used in 2. Proximal (n = 27 or distal (n = 14 embolic neuroprotection was used. Results : The Roadsaver stents (nominal diameter 7, 8 or 9 mm, length 25 or 30 mm were implanted successfully in all cases. One minor stroke occurred after common carotid artery intubation with a guiding catheter (before stent deployment and one transient postprocedural ischemic attack (TIA of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere was observed. Internal/common carotid artery stenosis severity was evaluated by duplex Doppler. Maximal peak systolic velocity (PSV before CAS was in the range: 2.0–7.0 m/s, mean: 3.9 ±1.0 m/s, at 24–48 h after stenting mean PSV was 1.1 ±0.4 m/s (p < 0.05, and at 30 days 1.1 ±0.3 m/s (p < 0.05. Maximal end-diastolic velocity (EDV was 0.85–3.5 m/s, mean 1.4 ±0.5 m/s, at 24–48 h after stenting mean EDV was 0.3 ±0.1 m/s (p < 0.05, and at 30 days 0.4 ±0.1 m/s (p < 0.05. No restenosis or thrombosis was observed. Angiographic stenosis decreased from 82.9 ±9.1% (range: 61–97% to 19.3 ±7.3% (range: 0–34% (p < 0.05. Conclusions : The CAS using the Roadsaver stent seems to be safe and effective. Further studies involving larger patient populations and longer follow-up are needed.

  8. Rapid Formation of Cerebral Microbleeds after Carotid Artery Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousuke Kakumoto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies reported that cerebral microbleeds (CMBs, i.e. small areas of signal loss on T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE imaging, could develop rapidly after acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that CMBs rapidly emerge after carotid artery stenting (CAS. Objective: We investigated the frequency of and predisposing factors for CMBs after CAS. Methods: We retrospectively examined MRI before and after CAS in 88 consecutive patients (average age: 71.7 ± 7.2 years, average rates of carotid stenosis: 72.6 ± 12.8% who underwent CAS for carotid artery stenosis between March 1, 2009, and September 30, 2010. We defined new CMBs as signal losses that newly appeared on the follow-up GE. We examined the association of new CMBs with demographics, risk factors, and baseline MBs. Results: Among 88 patients, 18 (20.5% had CMBs initially, and 7 (8.0% developed new CMBs right after CAS. New CMBs appeared on the same side of CAS in all of the 7 patients. New CMBs appeared significantly more frequently in the CMB-positive group than in the CMB-negative one (22% vs. 4%, p = 0.03 on the pre-CAS MRI. Multivariate analysis also revealed that the presence of CMBs before CAS was an independent predictor of new development of CMBs after CAS (odds ratio: 8.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.39–47.1. Conclusion: CMBs can develop rapidly after CAS, especially in patients with pre-existing CMBs. Since the existence of CMBs prior to CAS suggests a latent vascular damage which is vulnerable to hemodynamic stress following CAS, particular attention should be paid to the prevention of intracerebral hemorrhage due to hyperperfusion after CAS.

  9. Complication rate in unprotected carotid artery stenting with closed-cell stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietke, Marc W.K.; Kerby, Tina; Alfke, Karsten; Riedel, Christian; Rohr, Axel; Jensen, Ulf; Jansen, Olaf; Zimmermann, Phillip; Stingele, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The discussion on the use of protection devices (PDs) in carotid artery stenting (CAS) is gaining an increasing role in lowering the periprocedural complication rates. While many reviews and reports with retrospective data analysis do promote the use of PDs the most recent multi-centre trials are showing advantages for unprotected CAS combined with closed-cell stent designs. We retrospectively analysed 358 unprotected CAS procedures performed from January 2003 to June 2009 in our clinic. Male/female ratio was 2.68/1. The average age was 69.3 years. Seventy-three percent (261/358) showed initial neurological symptoms. All patients were treated on a standardised interventional protocol. A closed and small-sized cell designed stent was implanted in most cases (85.2%). One hundred seventy-one (47.8%) were controlled by Doppler ultrasonography usually at first in a 3-month and later in 6-month intervals. The peri-interventional and 30-day mortality/stroke rate was 4.19% (15/358). These events included three deaths, five hyperperfusion syndromes (comprising one death by a secondary fatal intracranial haemorrhage), one subarachnoid haemorrhage and seven ischaemic strokes. Only 20% (3/15) of all complications occurred directly peri-interventional. The overall peri-interventional complication rate was 0.8% (3/358). Most complications occurred in initial symptomatic patients (5.36%). The in-stent restenosis rate for more than 70% was 7% (12/171) detected at an average of 9.8 month. Our clinical outcome demonstrates that unprotected CAS with small cell designed stents results in a very low procedural complication rate, which makes the use of a protection device dispensable. (orig.)

  10. Reversal of a 30-h fixed deficit with carotid angioplasty and stenting: technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, Eric; Hanel, Ricardo A.; Wehman, J. Christopher; Ecker, Robert D.; Levy, Elad I.; Guterman, Lee R.; Hopkins, L. Nelson

    2006-01-01

    We describe the case of an 82-year-old man with a fixed neurological deficit of 30 h duration. A left hemispheric perfusion deficit was found on perfusion/diffusion imaging studies in conjunction with an ipsilateral carotid stenosis documented by cerebral angiography. Carotid angioplasty with stent placement was performed and resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. Carotid stenosis can cause acute hemodynamic hypoperfusion with a symptomatic reversible clinical deficit. (orig.)

  11. Novel A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits carotid artery restenosis in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou ZH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhen-hua Zhou,1 Jing Peng,1 Zhao-you Meng,1 Lin Chen,1 Jia-Lu Huang,1 He-qing Huang,1 Li Li,2 Wen Zeng,2 Yong Wei,2 Chu-Hong Zhu,2 Kang-Ning Chen1 1Department of Neurology, Cerebrovascular Disease Research Institute, Southwest Hospital, 2Department of Anatomy, Key Laboratory for Biomechanics of Chongqing, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Carotid artery stenosis is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although carotid angioplasty and stenting using an embolic protection device has been introduced as a less invasive carotid revascularization approach, in-stent restenosis limits its long-term efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to test the anti-restenosis effects of local stent-mediated delivery of the A20 gene in a porcine carotid artery model.Materials and methods: The pCDNA3.1EHA20 was firmly attached onto stents that had been collagen coated and treated with N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiolpropionate solution and anti-DNA immunoglobulin fixation. Anti-restenosis effects of modified vs control (the bare-metal stent and pCDNA3.1 void vector stents were assessed by Western blot and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by morphological and inflammatory reaction analyses.Results: Stent-delivered A20 gene was locally expressed in porcine carotids in association with significantly greater extent of re-endothelialization at day 14 and of neointimal hyperplasia inhibition at 3 months than stenting without A20 gene expression.Conclusion: The A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits neointimal hyperplasia while promoting re-endothelialization and therefore constitutes a novel potential alternative to prevent restenosis while minimizing complications. Keywords: restenosis, A20, gene therapy, stent, endothelialization

  12. Use of Micropatterned Thin Film Nitinol in Carotid Stents to Augment Embolic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdis Shayan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. However, stenting is associated with a higher risk of procedural stroke secondary to distal thromboembolism. Hybrid stents with a micromesh layer have been proposed to address this complication. We developed a micropatterned thin film nitinol (M-TFN covered stent designed to prevent thromboembolism during carotid intervention. This innovation may obviate the need or work synergistically with embolic protection devices. The proposed double layered stent is low-profile, thromboresistant, and covered with a M-TFN that can be fabricated with fenestrations of varying geometries and sizes. The M-TFN was created in multiple geometries, dimensions, and porosities by sputter deposition. The efficiency of various M-TFN to capture embolic particles was evaluated in different atherosclerotic carotid stenotic conditions through in vitro tests. The covered stent prevented emboli dislodgement in the range of 70%–96% during 30 min duration tests. In vitro vascular cell growth study results showed that endothelial cell elongation, alignment and growth behaviour silhouettes significantly enhance, specifically on the diamond-shape M-TFN, with the dimensions of 145 µm × 20 µm and a porosity of 32%. Future studies will require in vivo testing. Our results demonstrate that M-TFN has a promising potential for carotid artery stenting.

  13. Delayed Development of Brain Abscesses Following Stent-Graft Placement in a Head and Neck Cancer Patient Presenting with Carotid Blowout Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oweis, Yaseen; Gemmete, Joseph J.; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Pandey, Aditya; Ansari, Sameer

    2011-01-01

    We describe the delayed development of intracranial abscesses following emergent treatment with a covered stent-graft for carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) in a patient with head and neck cancer. The patient presented with hemoptysis and frank arterial bleeding through the tracheostomy site. A self-expandable stent-graft was deployed across a small pseudoaneurysm arising from the right common carotid artery (RCCA) and resulted in immediate hemostasis. Three months later, the patient suffered a recurrent hemorrhage. CT of the neck demonstrated periluminal fluid around the caudal aspect of the stent-graft with intraluminal thrombus and a small pseudoaneurysm. Subsequently, the patient underwent a balloon test occlusion study and endovascular sacrifice of the RCCA and right internal carotid artery. MRI of the brain demonstrated at least four ring-enhancing lesions within the right cerebral hemisphere consistent with intracranial abscesses that resolved with broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage.

  14. Bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasumasa; Tsuda, Harumi; Nabatame, Hidehiko; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni.

    1987-01-01

    Four cases of bilateral internal carotid occlusion are reported with respect to clinical features, hemodynamics and various image diagnosis. MRI is applied to three cases. The patients comprised 2.08 % of all cerebral occlusive diseases treated during the past five years at our clinic. One case is of abrupt onset and three cases are progressing profiles. In one of these cases, collateral circulation is supplied mainly by leptomeningeal anastomosis of the posterior cerebral artery and posterior pericallosal artery branching from the basilar artery. In two of them, they are supplied through the circle of Willis. Middle cerebral artery occlusion, occlusion supra occlusionem, however, causes decisive ischemic lesion in its teritory. Applying MRI, complicated ischemic lesions, such as lacunar infarction, paraventricular lesion, deep white matter lesion and border zone infarction can clearly be identified. In the case of total aphasia, the lesions responsible are demonstrated clearly by MRI, but only vaguely by X-ray CT. (author)

  15. Carotid artery stenting via transbrachial approach; Stenting der Arteria carotis interna ueber den transbrachialen Zugang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietke, M.W.; Ulmer, S.; Riedel, C.; Jansen, O. [Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie, UKSH Campus Kiel (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: the transbrachial approach as an alternative access site for carotid artery stenting (CAS) has mainly been published as case reports. This paper evaluates transbrachial CAS at our institute for the past 5 years and refers to the complications and results of this method. Materials and methods: from January 2003 to April 2008, we performed 299 CAS of which 12 (4%, 11 male, 1 female) were performed with a transbrachial approach. The average age of these patients was 67.4 years ({+-}9.75). The average degree of stenosis of the treated carotid artery was assessed by Doppler ultrasound (81.5% {+-} 10.66) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) using the NASCET criteria (75.9% {+-} 9.75). 9/12 patients (75%) were treated because of symptomatic stenosis. Results: the transbrachial approach was performed in 8 patients because of high-grade stenosis of the femoral and/or iliac arteries. 4 patients showed severe elongation of the aortic arch. 11 of 12 (92%) of the transbrachial CAS were performed successfully. The approach was judged to be only slightly more challenging than puncture of the femoral artery. No minor or major complications occurred at the access site. 3 of 11 patients (27%) showed residual stenosis after CAS of 24% ({+-}7.78). (orig.)

  16. Subcutaneous hematoma associated with manual cervical massage during carotid artery stenting. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, A; Tsurumi, Y; Negoro, M; Yokoyama, K; Oheda, M; Susaki, N; Tsugane, T; Takahashi, T; Miyachi, S

    2011-09-01

    We describe a patient with subcutaneous hematoma associated with manual cervical massage during carotid artery stenting.A 73-year-old man with left cervical carotid artery stenosis presented with left amaurosis fugax. We performed carotid artery stenting using distal embolic protection with balloon occlusion. Dual antiplatelet therapy was maintained in the periprocedural period and an anticoagulant agent was administered during the procedure. Because the aspiration catheter became entrapped by the stent, it did not reach the distal side of the stenotic lesion, and manual compression of the cervical region was therefore performed. Immediately afterwards, a subcutaneous hemorrhage occurred in the cervical region. There was no postoperative dyspnea due to enlargement of the hematoma, which was absorbed spontaneously.Cervical subcutaneous hematoma can occur in the cervical region due to cervical massage in patients who are receiving adjuvant antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulation therapy.

  17. Incidence of New Ischaemic Brain Lesions After Carotid Artery Stenting with the Micromesh Roadsaver Carotid Artery Stent: A Prospective Single-Centre Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffino, Maria Antonella, E-mail: mruffino@cittadellasalute.to.it [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria- Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Vascular Radiology Unit, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy (Italy); Faletti, Riccardo [University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria- Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Radiology Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences (Italy); Bergamasco, Laura [University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria- Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Department of Surgical Sciences (Italy); Fonio, Paolo [University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria- Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Radiology Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences (Italy); Righi, Dorico [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria- Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Vascular Radiology Unit, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    AimsSeveral randomized trials of patients with carotid stenosis show increased adverse neurological events with stenting versus endarterectomy in the 30-day post-procedure. This study examines the incidence of new ischaemic lesions in patients treated in our centre using the new Roadsaver stent.Methods and resultsBetween September 2015 and January 2016, 23 consecutive patients (age 74.3 ± 7.3 years, 17.4 % female) underwent carotid artery stenting with the Roadsaver stent, a nitinol double-layer micromesh device. A distal protection device was used in all cases. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed 24 h before, and 24 h and 30 days after the procedure. The 24-h post-procedure imaging showed 15 new ipsilateral ischaemic lesions in 7 (30.4 %) patients: median volume 0.076 cm{sup 3} (interquartile range 0.065–0.146 cm{sup 3}). All lesions were asymptomatic. The 30-day imaging showed complete resolution of all lesions and no new ischaemic lesions. Follow-up clinical and ultrasound examinations at 30 days and 6 months recorded no adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events.ConclusionsProtected stenting with micromesh Roadsaver stent showed good safety and efficacy in the treatment of carotid stenosis, with a low incidence of delayed embolic events and new ipsilateral ischaemic brain lesions. These preliminary results are encouraging, but need to be confirmed with larger populations.

  18. Carotid Artery Stenting Successfully Prevents Progressive Stroke Due to Mobile Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Oomura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of progressive ischemic stroke due to a mobile plaque, in which carotid artery stenting successfully prevented further infarctions. A 78-year-old man developed acute multiple infarcts in the right hemisphere, and a duplex ultrasound showed a mobile plaque involving the bifurcation of the left common carotid artery. Maximal medical therapy failed to prevent further infarcts, and the number of infarcts increased with his neurological deterioration. Our present case suggests that the deployment of a closed-cell stent is effective to prevent the progression of the ischemic stroke due to the mobile plaque.

  19. Carotid artery stenting renaissance: is it safe and effective using new materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donato, Gianmarco; Mazzitelli, Giulia; Ruzzi, Umberto; Mele, Mariagnese; Tadiello, Marco; Giannace, Giovanni; Setacci, Francesco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-12-01

    Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrated significant differences between carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in terms of early neurological outcomes (from 0 to 30 days), although mid- and long-term neurological results are indistinguishable. CAS in symptomatic standard risk patients is coupled with a higher risk of any stroke, and death or any stroke at 30 days, while the rates of disabling or major stroke do not vary remarkably between treatments. Since the micro-embolization through the stent struts is the primary suspected cause of suspected early postoperative neurological complications (i.e., non-disabling stroke), surgical technology has focused on the production of a new generation of stents with a double layer of mesh to reduce the "free area" of the cells, and on new cerebral protection devices. Another major determinant of early negative outcomes is believed to be the intraluminal manipulation occurring during carotid engagement from the aortic arch, the crossing maneuvers at the level of the culprit lesion and vessel trauma during angioplasty. To address these subject matters, new embolic protection devices and innovative strategies have been developed, consequently. This review is designed to furnish the current status of CAS results, to update the ongoing RCTs comparing CAS vs. CEA outcomes, and to recapitulate the features and clinical outcomes for a new carotid stent design, the so called "mesh-stents", and new embolic protection tools.

  20. Zotarolimus-eluting stent for the treatment of recurrent, severe carotid artery in-stent stenosis in the TARGET-CAS population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekieli, Lukasz; Pieniazek, Piotr; Musialek, Piotr; Kablak-Ziembicka, Anna; Przewlocki, Tadeusz; Trystula, Mariusz; Moczulski, Zbigniew; Dzierwa, Karolina; Paluszek, Piotr; Podolec, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a balloon-mounted drug-eluting stent (DES) for recurrent carotid in-stent stenosis (ISS). As part of our targeted carotid artery stenting (TARGET-CAS) protocol, neurological and ultrasound evaluations have been performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then annually since 2001 in all carotid stent patients. For angiographically-confirmed >70% ISS, balloon angioplasty was performed as a first-line treatment. Recurrent ISS was treated with a 4.0-mm zotarolimus-eluting coronary stent (ZES) that was postdilated according to intravascular ultrasound imaging. Among the 1350 neuroprotected CAS procedures performed between January 2001 and March 2011, there were 7 (0.52%) patients (5 men; ages 51-72 years), all neurologically asymptomatic, with >70% recurrent ISS that occurred at 5 to 11 months after the initial balloon angioplasty treatment for ISS. ZES implantation under distal embolic protection was technically successful and uncomplicated. Angiographic stenosis was reduced from 84.6%±7.5% to 10.7%±3.6% (p<0.01). In 5 patients with ZES implanted fully within the self-expanding carotid stent, duplex ultrasound follow-up (mean 17 months, range 6-36) revealed no evidence of restenosis or stent fracture/deformation. In the 2 other patients, the ZES had been implanted for distal edge ISS such that the ZES protruded beyond the original carotid stent. This protruding segment of the ZES demonstrated deformation/kinking in both; in one, this led to symptomatic stent occlusion. The use of coronary ZES in the treatment of recurrent carotid ISS is feasible and appears effective provided the ZES is placed entirely within the original stent. Placement of a coronary ZES outside the carotid stent scaffold should be avoided.

  1. The Early Effect of Carotid Artery Stenting on Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Michalak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of carotid artery stenosis is associated with the risk of complications, which may include stroke after carotid artery stenting (CAS and myocardial infarction after carotid endarterectomy (CEA. The imbalance between prooxidative mechanisms and antioxidant capacity creates a milieu of factors, which may increase the risk of complications after endovascular procedures. We have examined 43 consecutive patients with carotid artery stenosis. Sera were analyzed for the activity of paraoxonase (PON and arylesterase (ARE, sulfhydryl groups (SG, malondialdehyde (MDA, and conjugated dienes (CD concentrations by means of spectrophotometric methods before and next day after CAS. We have found lowered PON (P=0.0032, increase in ARE activity (P=0.0058, and decrease in sulfhydryl groups concentration (P=0.0267. No effect on absolute MDA and CD concentrations was observed. The degree of carotid artery stenosis correlated negatively with PON/ARE ratio after CAS (rS = −0.507, P=0.0268. To conclude, CAS influences both enzymatic (differently, PON and ARE activity and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense. Females are more susceptible to lipid peroxidation after CAS. PON/ARE ratio after CAS correlated with the degree of carotid artery stenosis. The changes (deltas in ARE activity, SG, and MDA concentrations correlated with the severity of neurological deficit and disability.

  2. Silent ischemia after neuroprotected percutaneous carotid stenting: a diffusion-weighted MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, P; González, A; Mayol, A; Martínez, E; González-Marcos, J R; Boza, F; Cayuela, A; Gil-Peralta, A

    2006-01-01

    To assess by diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) the efficacy of cerebral protection devices in avoiding embolization and new ischemic lesions in patients with severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis undergoing carotid artery stent placement (CAS). One hundred sixty-two CASs in the extracranial ICA were performed with the use of distal filters. Mean age of the patients was 68.5 years (range, 33-86) and 122 patients (75.3%) were symptomatic. MR imaging was performed in all patients during the 3-day period before CAS, and DWI was obtained within 24 hours after the procedure. Ninety-five patients (58.6%) were monitored by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography for microemboli detection in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), ipsilateral to the vessel being treated. Twenty-eight patients (17.3%) showed 58 new ischemic foci in DWI, and 13 patients (46.4%) had multiple foci. Location of new lesions was mainly in the vascular territory supplied by the treated vessel (19 patients; 67.9%), but also in the contralateral MCA (1 patient; 3.6%), and the posterior fossa (4 patients; 14.3%). A significant relationship (P neuroprotected CAS. Appearance of new ischemic lesions were only significantly related to the occurrence of TIA but not to the number of MES registered or other variables. Despite the encouraging results, the incidence of new ischemic lesions should promote research for safer techniques and devices.

  3. Lateral abdominal wall hematoma as a rare complication after carotid artery stenting: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Jyunichiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abdominal wall hematoma is a rare and life-threatening complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS, but it can occur when activated clotting time is prolonged. We report a right lateral abdominal wall hematoma caused by rupture of the superficial circumflex iliac artery after CAS in a 72-year-old man with severe stenosis of the origin of the right internal carotid artery. We performed CAS for the targeted lesion while activated clotting time exceeded 300 seconds. After 2 hours, he complained of right lateral abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an extensive hematoma in the right lateral abdominal wall. Activated clotting time was 180 seconds at this point. Seven hours later, he developed hypotension and hemoglobin level dropped to 11.3 g/dl. Subsequent computed tomography showed enlargement of the hematoma. Emergent selective angiography of the external iliac artery revealed active bleeding from the right superficial circumflex iliac artery. Transcatheter arterial embolization with Gelfoam and microcoils was performed successfully. With more CAS procedures being performed, it is important for endovascular surgeons and radiologists to consider the possibility of abdominal wall hematoma in this situation.

  4. Dose-Dependent Effect of Statin Pretreatment on Preventing the Periprocedural Complications of Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Sohn, Sung-Il; Kwak, Jaehyuk; Yoo, Joonsang; Chang, Hyuk Won; Kwon, O-Ki; Jung, Cheolkyu; Chung, Inyoung; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lee, Ji Sung; Han, Moon-Ku

    2017-07-01

    We investigated whether statin pretreatment can dose dependently reduce periprocedural complications in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting because of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. We enrolled a consecutive series of 397 symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (≥50% stenosis on conventional angiography) treated with carotid artery stenting at 2 tertiary university hospitals over a decade. Definition of periprocedural complications included any stroke, myocardial infarction, and death within 1 month after or during the procedure. Statin pretreatment was divided into 3 categories according to the atorvastatin equivalent dose: none (n=158; 39.8%), standard dose (statin use were 12.0%, 4.5%, and 1.2%. After adjustment, a change in the atorvastatin dose category was associated with reduction in the odds of periprocedural complications for each change in dose category (standard-dose statin: odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.81; high-dose statin: odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.96; P for trend=0.01). Administration of antiplatelet drugs was also an independent factor in periprocedural complications (OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.05-0.69). This study shows that statin pretreatment may reduce the incidence of periprocedural complications dose dependently in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenting. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Association between age and risk of stroke or death from carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting : A meta-analysis of pooled patient data from four randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, George; Roubin, Gary S.; Jansen, Olav; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Halliday, Alison; Fraedrich, Gustav; Eckstein, Hans Henning; Calvet, David; Bulbulia, Richard; Bonati, Leo H.; Becquemin, Jean Pierre; Algra, Ale; Brown, Martin M.; Ringleb, Peter A.; Brott, Thomas G.; Mas, Jean Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Age was reported to be an effect-modifier in four randomised controlled trials comparing carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA), with better CEA outcomes than CAS outcomes noted in the more elderly patients. We aimed to describe the association of age with

  6. Predicting ischemic stroke after carotid artery stenting based on proximal calcification and the jellyfish sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Hama, Seiji; Tsuji, Toshio; Soh, Zu; Hayashi, Hideaki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Okazaki, Takahito; Ishii, Daizo; Shinagawa, Katsuhiro; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2017-07-07

    OBJECTIVE Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been considered to prevent ischemic strokes caused by stenosis of the cervical carotid artery. The most common complication of CAS is new cerebral infarction. The authors have previously reported that the jellyfish sign-the rise and fall of the mobile component of the carotid plaque surface detected by carotid ultrasonography-suggests thinning and rupture of the fibrous cap over the unstable plaque content, such as the lipid-rich necrotic core or internal plaque hemorrhage. The authors' aim in the present study was to evaluate the risk of a new ischemic lesion after CAS by using many risk factors including calcification (size and location) and the jellyfish sign. METHODS Eighty-six lesions (77 patients) were treated with CAS. The presence of ischemic stroke was determined using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Risk factors included calcification of the plaque (classified into 5 groups for size and 3 groups for location) and the jellyfish sign, among others. Multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise analysis and partial least squares [PLS] analysis) was conducted, followed by a machine learning analysis using an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the log-linearized gaussian mixture network (LLGMN). The additive effects of the jellyfish sign and calcification on ischemic stroke after CAS were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Steel-Dwass test. RESULTS The stepwise analysis selected the jellyfish sign, proximal calcification (proximal Ca), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and patient age for the prediction model to predict new DWI lesions. The PLS analysis revealed the same top 3 variables (jellyfish sign, proximal Ca, and LDL cholesterol) according to the variable importance in projection scores. The ANN was then used, showing that these 3 variables remained. The accuracy of the ANN improved; areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the stepwise analysis, the PLS

  7. Safety and efficacy assessment of carotid artery stenting in a high-risk population in a single-centre registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowski, Michał; Zimoch, Wojciech; Gwizdek, Tomasz; Konieczny, Radosław; Kübler, Piotr; Telichowski, Artur; Jankowska, Ewa A; Reczuch, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemic stroke is the primary cause of long-term disability and the third most common cause of death. Internal carotid artery stenosis is an important risk factor for stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA). European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines allow carotid artery stenting (CAS) as an alternative to endarterectomy in centres with low rates of death or stroke. To assess the safety and efficacy of CAS in a single-centre observation. We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients treated with CAS between March 2008 and July 2012. Clinical data and outcomes in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were analysed. A total of 214 consecutive patients were included in the registry. Symptomatic patients accounted for 57% of the study group and were more likely to have a history of stroke and/or TIA that occurred more than 6 months before the procedure (50% vs. 8%, p likely to have a history of coronary artery disease (88% vs. 61%, p < 0.001), and the rates of previous acute coronary syndrome and revascularisation were also higher in this group (58% vs. 41% and 71% vs. 52%, respectively, both p < 0.05). The symptomatic group had higher incidence of stroke in periprocedural and 30-day observation (4% vs. 0%, p < 0.05). There was no difference in incidence of adverse events in long-term observation. Carotid artery stenting is a safe and efficacious procedure. Every centre performing CAS should monitor the rate of periprocedural complications.

  8. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    Neurologic symptoms in the region of an internal carotid artery stenosis are considered to be embolic in most instances. Only in a subgroup has carotid occlusive disease with impairment of the collateral supply, caused a state of hemodynamic failure with marked reduction of perfusion pressure....... Though unproven, it is reasonable to assume that without surgical intervention, the risk is higher than average for patients with hemodynamic failure. Equally, should there be any postoperative improvement of cerebral blood flow or neurologic deficits, it should be looked for in this group. Thus......, it is necessary to distinguish those with low perfusion pressure from the population of patients with carotid artery disease. Preoperative clinical evaluation and direct visualization of the carotid bifurcation should be supplemented by indirect physiological tests which allow assessment of collateral perfusion...

  9. Acute internal carotid artery occlusion after carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Yunoki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of acute carotid artery (CA occlusion following carotid endarterectomy (CEA. Case 1: a 58-year-old man was admitted with transient right-sided hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MR angiography (MRA revealed cerebral infarction in the left cerebral hemisphere and left CA stenosis. Ten days after admission, he underwent CEA. 24 h after surgery, he developed right hemiplegia. MRI and MRA demonstrated a slightly enlarged infarction and left internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion. Emergency reoperation was performed and complete recanalization achieved. The patient made a clinically significant recovery. Case 2: a 65 year-old man underwent a right-sided CEA for an asymptomatic 80% CA stenosis. 48 h after surgery, his family noticed he was slightly disorientated. MRI and MRA revealed multiple infarctions and right ICA occlusion. He was treated with antiplatelet therapy without reoperation because sufficient cross-flow from the left ICA through the anterior communicating artery was demonstrated by angiography, and his neurological symptoms were mild. His symptoms gradually alleviated and he was discharged 14 days after surgery. With ICA occlusion after CEA, immediate re-operation is mandatory with severe neurological symptoms, whereas individualized judgement is needed when the symptoms are mild.

  10. Internal Carotid Artery Dissection in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartini, Zeferino; Rodrigues Freire, Maxweyd; Lages, Roberto Oliver; Francisco, Alexandre Novicki; Nanni, Felipe; Maranha Gatto, Luana A; Koppe, Gelson Luis

    2017-06-01

    Carotid artery dissection is a significant cause of stroke in young patients. It may be asymptomatic and go undiagnosed, or minimal transient manifestations may follow, commanding a higher index of suspicion than ordinarily exists to avoid misdiagnosis. Reported herein is a 27-year-old man who suffered extracranial internal carotid artery dissection while practicing a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu submission maneuver. The patient's condition suddenly deteriorated one week later due to distal embolization and stroke. Despite endovascular treatment, with stenting of the cervical carotid artery, neurologic deficits remained. Of note, the objective in martial arts, which is to kill or incapacitate, has yet to be fully tempered in transitioning to sport. Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, a relatively new and fast-growing form of martial art, places emphasis on submission maneuvers. Related injuries are not common knowledge and are poorly described in the literature. This account is intended to shed light on the risk of this discipline. Through education and improved supervision, vascular injuries of this nature and the potentially lethal or disabling consequences may thus be prevented in young athletes.

  11. Stenting for symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis associated with bilateral carotid rate mirabile: The long-term clinical and angiographic outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jang Hyun; Kim, Byung Moon [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Symptomatic vertebral artery (VA) stenosis associated with bilateral carotid rate mirabile (CRM) has not been reported. We report the long-term clinical and angiographic outcome after stenting for symptomatic VA stenosis in the patient with bilateral CRM. This report is the first case that symptomatic VA stenosis associated with bilateral CRM was treated with stenting.

  12. Installation of carotid stent in a group of patient of high surgical risk for carotid endarterectomy - Preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Hoyos, Juan Fernando; Celis Mejia, Jorge Ignacio; Yepes Sanchez, Carlos Jaime; Duque Botero, Julieta

    1998-01-01

    Carotid endarterectomy success in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients has been demonstrated in NASCET and ACAS studies. Although, some patients with carotid stenosis have frequently other pathologies which increase risk in endarterectomy or other surgeries like coronary bypass and aortic-iliac reconstruction. Other patients have lesions such as post surgical restenosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, radiation stenosis or tumoral disease, or stenotic lesions above jaw angle. The main objectives of this work are: to demonstrate, upon the results, that multidisciplinary management of 1 patient with symptomatic or not carotid critical stenosis. Let to select, with strict clinical criteria, those doing well with endovascular therapy. To evaluate implantation technique, peryoperatory morbidity and mortality and permeability time with implanted dispositive. In this study, the preliminary experience of the neurovascular group at the Clinica Cardiovascular Santa Maria in Medellin is presented, during an 18 months period of multidisciplinary management in 15 patients, 7 men and 8 women with critical carotid stenosis. 18 procedures were performed and 21 stents were implanted. The mean age was 66 years. All patients had 70% or greater stenotic lesions, and 93.3% were symptomatic. Twelve (80%) had contraindications to perform surgery. one asymptomatic patient (6.6%) was referred with procedure indications and two (13.3%) requested the stent implantation as their own election. the patient with fibromuscular dysplasia was treated with Wallstent (number 4) and the remaining patients were treated with Palmaz stent. technical success was 100%, 3 patients had pacemaker rhythm, one patient (6.6%) presented extra-pyramidal syndrome which responded to medical treatment in 24 hours. one patient developed right side hemiparesis with total recovery in 4 hours. One patient with a critical left carotid artery stenosis presented right side hemiparesis (3/5) and aphasia, nine months later paresis

  13. Agenesis of internal carotid artery associated with congenital anterior hypopituitarism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, W.-J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Porto, L.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Weis, R. [Department of Pediatric Neurology, University of Frankfurt (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    We report a rare case of unilateral agenesis of the internal carotid artery in association with congenital anterior hypopituitarism. The collateral circulation is supplied by a transsellar intercavernous anastomotic vessel connecting the internal carotid arteries. These abnormalities are well depicted on MRI and MRA. The agenesis of the internal carotid artery may explain the pathogenesis of some of congenital anterior hypopituitarism. (orig.)

  14. Agenesis of internal carotid artery associated with congenital anterior hypopituitarism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, W.-J.; Porto, L.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E.; Weis, R.

    2002-01-01

    We report a rare case of unilateral agenesis of the internal carotid artery in association with congenital anterior hypopituitarism. The collateral circulation is supplied by a transsellar intercavernous anastomotic vessel connecting the internal carotid arteries. These abnormalities are well depicted on MRI and MRA. The agenesis of the internal carotid artery may explain the pathogenesis of some of congenital anterior hypopituitarism. (orig.)

  15. Microanatomy of the Supracavernous Internal Carotid - Anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Résumé L\\'anastomose carotide-artère cérébrale antérieure est une variante rare de la partie antérieure du cercle artériel de la base du crâne. L\\'artère cérébrale antérieure naît de l\\'artère carotide interne supracaverneuse au même niveau que l\\'artère ophtalmique. Elle décrit un trajet infraoptique ipsilateral puis ...

  16. A systematic review of outcomes in patients with staged carotid artery stenting and coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Luis A; Costa, Marco A; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Zenni, Martin; Wludyka, Peter; Silliman, Scott; Bass, Theodore A

    2008-02-01

    Although current guidelines state that carotid endarterectomy is probably recommended before or concomitant to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with carotid stenosis, significant controversies to this recommendation still persist. Carotid artery stenting has been recently introduced as an alternative revascularization modality in high-risk patients. The aim of this study was to define, based on the published information, if carotid artery stenting is beneficial in this setting. A search of MEDLINE and a manual search of the literature from selected articles were performed. A total of 6 studies with 277 patients reporting carotid stenting followed by staged CABG were available for this clinical outcome analysis. All were retrospective and single-center studies. The mean age was 69 years; 78% were males. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis was present in 76% of patients. The mean time to CABG was 32 days. The incidence of stroke and death associated with the stent procedure was 4.7%. Only 6 patients (2.2%) developed stroke associated with CABG. The overall combined 30-day event rate after CABG, including all events during carotid artery stenting, were as follows: minor stroke, 2.9%; major stroke, 3.2%; mortality, 7.6%; and combined death and any stroke, 12.3%. In this pooled analysis, the combined incidence of death and stroke in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting and staged CABG remains elevated. These results confirm that the presence of carotid stenosis is per se a marker of risk that might persists independent of its treatment. A systematic or randomized evaluation appears warranted.

  17. INTERNAL CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMY UNDER LOCAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Šikovec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endarterectomy of the internal carotid artery, supported by medicamental treatment, is the best method used to prevent stroke with symptomatic patients with an over 70-percent narrowing of the ipsilateral carotid artery. With patients who have successfully passed the operation the occurrence of the stroke is less often than with non-operated patients (1% vs. 6–10% per year. Therefore, it is important that the operation is carried out as safely as possible. Currently, the average acceptable rate of death and/ or severe stroke risk stands at between 2–4%. Greatest problems faced during carotid artery surgery are embolism of the affected artery during preparation, brain ischaemia during the blockade of the carotid artery, and embolism and intimal tearing due to injury of the internal carotid artery by the temporary internal shunt. Due to the risk of causing an embolism and intimal tearing, the use of the internal shunt can be dangerous. Therefore, selective usage of the shunt is recommended when necessary due to brain ischaemia.Methods. Under block/conduction anaesthesia (deep and superficial cervical block we have performed surgery on 23 patients (16 males, 7 females because of severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (over 70%. A mixture of Xylocain 1% and Marcain 1.5% was used for the cervical block. Cerebral blood circulation was monitored by neurological testing of the patient awake during the procedure. During the procedure, we performed standard monitoring of the vital functions including the blood pressure. Additionally, the transcranial Doppler monitoring of the blood flow through the middle cerebral artery was used with 20 of the patients.Results. Even after placing the artery clamp and cutting off the blood flow through the internal carotid artery no neurological deficits were observed with 18 patients, neither did we use temporary internal shunt with them. Five patients suffered problems with loss of consciousness

  18. Ischemic preconditioning during the use of the PercuSurge occlusion balloon for carotid angioplasty and stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faries, Peter L; DeRubertis, Brian; Trocciola, Susan; Karwowski, John; Kent, K Craig; Chaer, Rabih A

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) uses transient ischemia to render tissues tolerant to subsequent, prolonged ischemia. This study sought to evaluate factors that contributed to the development of cerebral ischemia during PercuSurge balloon (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA) occlusion in patients undergoing carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). The PercuSurge occlusion balloon was used in 43 of 165 patients treated with CAS for high-grade stenosis; 20% were symptomatic. Symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion during temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery occurred in 10 of 43 patients and included dysarthria, agitation, decreased level of consciousness, and focal hemispheric deficit. The development of neurologic symptoms after initial PercuSurge balloon inflation and occluded internal carotid artery flow was associated with a decrease in the mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) from 15 to 10 (range 9-14); the GCS returned to normal after occlusion balloon deflation. The mean time to spontaneous recovery of full neurologic function was 8 minutes (range 4-15 minutes). The mean subsequent procedure duration was 11.9 minutes (range 6-21 minutes). No recurrence of neurologic symptoms occurred when the occlusion balloon was reinflated. All 10 patients underwent successful CAS without occlusion, dissection, cerebrovascular accident, or death. Ischemic preconditioning can be used to enable CAS with embolic protection in patients who cannot tolerate initial interruption of antegrade cerebral perfusion by PercuSurge occlusion.

  19. Carotid Stenting in Neuroradiology : A Short Journey from the Past to Current Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkefeld, Joachim; Wagner, Marlies; du Mesnil, Richard

    2017-12-01

    After a period of stagnation due to negative results of randomized trials for patients with symptomatic stenosis, the relevance of carotid artery stenting (CAS) is increasing again. CAS has become an important and evidence-based part of interventional stroke treatment. Our ability to manage acute recanalization of carotid occlusions and other niche indications properly led some skeptical neurologists to trust in carotid intervention for elective cases as well. The evolution of CAS from initial euphoria to more realistic views under consideration of trial results and guidelines is reviewed. Quality assurance in Germany proves that CAS complication rates within the carotid endarterectomy (CEA) quality criteria are feasible even with higher proportions of high-risk patients. Recent trial results showed that long-term efficacy of CAS or CEA are not significantly different. Other than in symptomatic stenoses, acute complication rates of both means treatment does not differ in asymptomatic patients, where medical therapy becomes increasingly competitive. Technical issues of CAS like the cell design of stents or the usefulness of embolic protection are still under discussion. We will see whether CAS results will further improve over time. Standardized techniques, proper training, and patient selection are important for acute and elective cases.

  20. Establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xuee; Li Minghua; Wang Yongli; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Wenbin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery (CCA) by end-to-end anastomoses of one side common carotid artery segment with the other side common carotid artery. Methods: Surgical techniques were used to make siphon model in 8 canines. One side CCA was taken as the parent artery and anastomosing with the cut off contra-lateral CCA segment which has passed through within the S-shaped glass tube. Two weeks after the creation of models angiography showed the model siphons were patent. Results: Experimental models of human internal carotid artery siphon segment were successfully made in all 8 dogs. Conclusions: It is practically feasible to establish experimental canine common carotid artery models of siphon segment simulating human internal carotid artery. (authors)

  1. Leptomeningeal collateral vessels are a major risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage after carotid stenting in patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Ji; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung Ho; Song, Ji Soo; Hwang, Seung Bae

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between leptomeningeal collaterals and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after carotid artery stenting (CAS). A retrospective study was undertaken of 228 patients (median age 75 years (range 44-90); 187 men and 41 women) who underwent CAS due to unilateral carotid atherosclerotic plaque from January 2009 to December 2013. Cerebral angiographic findings were classified into three patterns: type I, normal visualization of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries without leptomeningeal collaterals; type II, visualization of the middle cerebral artery only without leptomeningeal collaterals; and type III, visualization of leptomeningeal collateral flow. For all cerebral angiographic findings, 146 (64.0%) were type I, 61 (26.8%) were type II, and 21 (9.2%) were type III. Four patients (1.8%) died with fatal ICH after CAS and had type III angiographic findings (19%). The prevalence of ICH in patients with leptomeningeal collateral vessels was significantly higher than in patients without leptomeningeal collateral vessels (19% vs 0%, pcollateral vessels are a major risk factor for ICH after CAS in patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes of carotid artery stenting in acute ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Sheng Yu,1,* Chih-Ming Lin,2,3,* Chi-Kuang Liu,4 Henry Horng-Shing Lu1 1Institute of Statistics and Big Data Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 2Stroke Centre and Department of Neurology, Chunghua Christian Hospital, Chunghua, 3Graduate Institute of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 4Department of Medical Imaging, Chunghua Christian Hospital, Chunghua, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Carotid artery stenting is an effective treatment for ischemic stroke patients with moderate-to-severe carotid artery stenosis. However, the midterm outcome for patients undergoing this procedure varies considerably with baseline characteristics. To determine the impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes following carotid artery stenting, data from 107 eligible patients with a first episode of ischemic stroke were collected by retrospective chart review. A modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to divide patients into two baseline groups, mRS ≤2 and mRS >2. A three-step decision-tree statistical analysis was conducted. After weighting the decision-tree parameters, the following impact hierarchy was obtained: admission low-density lipoprotein, gouty arthritis, chronic kidney disease, ipsilateral common carotid artery resistance index, contralateral ophthalmic artery resistance index, sex, and dyslipidemia. The finite-state machine model demonstrated that, in patients with baseline mRS ≤2, 46% had an improved mRS score at follow-up, whereas 54% had a stable mRS score. In patients with baseline mRS >2, a stable mRS score was observed in 75%, improved score in 23%, and a poorer score in 2%. Admission low-density lipoprotein was the strongest predictive factor influencing poststenting outcome. In addition, our study provides further evidence that carotid artery stenting can be of benefit in first-time ischemic stroke patients with baseline m

  3. Transient neurological deficits mimicking left middle cerebral artery infarct after carotid artery stenting without associated imaging findings: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Kandemir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Various complications have been reported after carotid artery stenting. Ischemic lesions and hyperperfusion syndrome are well-known complications, and new cerebral microembolic lesions detected via diffusion-weighted imaging are observed in almost all patients. We describe a case who developed transient neurological deficits immediately after stenting without additional imaging findings. A 64-year-old male underwent carotid artery stenting complicated by transient neurological deficits mimicking a left middle cerebral artery infarction. The complication occurred immediately after stenting, but the symptoms resolved within less than 48 h. Magnetic resonance imaging findings showed no signs of a new infarct, no hemorrhage, and no high signal intensity in the meninges. We conclude that the most likely pathogenesis of this complication was vasogenic edema because of vasoparalysis of the local vessels, resulting from hemodynamic changes occurring after stenting and/or biochemical effects of repeated contrast agent administration.

  4. Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm Mimicking Peritonsillar Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Brzost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm (EICAA is an uncommon arterial lesion. Patients typically present with neurologic symptoms resulting from impaired cerebral perfusion and compression symptoms of cranial nerves. Often EICAA presents as a pulsatile neck mass, which is otherwise asymptomatic. We present a case of an 84-year-old female, who was initially referred to the Emergency Department for Otolaryngology with suspected peritonsillar abscess. The patient had a history of recent upper airway infection and cardiovascular comorbidities, including hypertension and ischaemic stroke complicated by extensive neurologic deficits. Physical examination revealed a compact, nonpulsatile mass in the lateral parapharyngeal space and local erythema of the mucosa. Duplex Doppler Ultrasonography and Computed Tomography revealed an atherosclerotic aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery, measuring 63×55×88 mm, stretching from the skull base to the angle of the mandible.

  5. Costs and cost-effectiveness of carotid stenting versus endarterectomy for patients at standard surgical risk: results from the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial (CREST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, Katherine R; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Li, Haiyan; Clark, Wayne M; Begg, Richard J; Sam, Albert D; Sternbergh, W Charles; Weaver, Fred A; Gray, William A; Voeks, Jenifer H; Brott, Thomas G; Cohen, David J

    2012-09-01

    The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST) demonstrated similar rates of the primary composite end point between carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA), although the risk of stroke was higher with CAS, and the risk of myocardial infarction was higher with CEA. Given the large number of patients who are candidates for these procedures, an understanding of their relative cost and cost-effectiveness may have important implications for health care policy and treatment guidelines. We performed a formal economic evaluation alongside the CREST trial. Costs were estimated from all trial participants over the first year of follow-up using a combination of resource use data and hospital billing data. Patient-level health use scores were obtained using data from the SF-36. We then used a Markov disease-simulation model calibrated to the CREST results to project 10-year costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy for the 2 treatment groups. Although initial procedural costs were $1025/patient higher with CAS, postprocedure costs and physician costs were lower such that total costs for the index hospitalization were similar for the CAS and CEA groups ($15 055 versus $14 816; mean difference, $239/patient; 95% CI for difference, -$297 to $775). Neither follow-up costs after discharge nor total 1-year costs differed significantly. For the CREST population, model-based projections over a 10-year time horizon demonstrated that CAS would result in a mean incremental cost of $524/patient and a reduction in quality-adjusted life expectancy of 0.008 years compared with CEA. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that CEA was economically attractive at an incremental cost-effectiveness threshold of $50 000/quality-adjusted life-year gained in 54% of samples, whereas CAS was economically attractive in 46%. Despite slightly lower in-trial costs and lower rates of stroke with CEA compared with CAS, projected 10-year outcomes

  6. Endovascular treatment with angioplasty or stenting versus endarterectomy in patients with carotid artery stenosis in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ederle, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    Endovascular treatment (angioplasty with or without stenting) is an alternative to carotid endarterectomy for carotid artery stenosis but there are scarce long-term efficacy data showing that it prevents stroke. We therefore report the long-term results of the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS).

  7. Long-term Comparative Outcomes of Carotid Artery Stenting Following Previous Carotid Endarterectomy vs De Novo Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Albeir Y; AbuRahma, Ali F; Bozzay, Joseph; Broce, Mike; Kali, Maher; Yacoub, Michael; Stone, Patrick; Bates, Mark C

    2015-06-01

    To report the long-term outcomes of patients who underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS) for de novo carotid stenosis vs patients treated for restenosis after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). A retrospective review was conducted of all 385 patients (mean age 68.6±9.6 years; 231 men) who underwent 435 CAS procedures at a large tertiary care center between January 1999 and December 2013. For analysis, patients were stratified based on their lesion type [de novo (dn) vs post-CEA restenosis (res)] and subclassified by symptoms status [symptomatic (Sx) or asymptomatic (Asx)], creating 4 groups: (1) CAS-dn Asx, (2) CAS-dn Sx, (3) CAS-res Asx, and (4) CAS-res Sx. For the CAS-res group, the mean elapsed time from CEA to CAS was 72.4±63.6 months. Outcomes included target vessel reintervention (TVR) and in-stent restenosis (ISR), the latter defined by a carotid duplex ultrasound velocity >275 cm/s. The main indication for initial carotid angiography with possible revascularization was severe carotid stenosis (≥70%-99% on duplex) in both CAS-dn and CAS-res groups (83.6% vs 83.7%, p=0.999). There were no significant differences in the percentage of patients with postintervention residual stenosis (<30%; 100% each arm) or complications between CAS-res vs CAS-dn: in-hospital stroke (1.4% vs 1.8%, respectively), myocardial infarction (0.9% vs 0%), or death (0.9% vs 0%). Mean follow-up was 62.4±45.6 months (median 53.5, range 1-180). Average clinical/TVR follow-up was greater for the CAS-res group (71.9±48.6 months) compared with 53.3±40.5 months for the CAS-dn group (p<0.001). Across the 4 study groups, there were no differences in freedom from ISR (p=0.174) or TVR (p=0.856). Multivariate analysis found peripheral vascular disease (PVD) as the sole ISR independent predictor [hazard ratio (HR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 3.62, p=0.041], while significant predictors for TVR were age <65 years at the time of the procedure (HR 2.55, 95% CI 1.05 to 6.18, p=0

  8. Improvement in executive function after unilateral carotid artery stenting for severe asymptomatic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiz, Oscar A; Sposato, Luciano A; Fabbro, Nicolás; Lev, Gustavo A; Calle, Analía; Valdivieso, León R; Fava, Carlos M; Klein, Francisco R; Torralva, Teresa; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-01

    Executive functions are crucial for organizing and integrating cognitive processes. While some studies have assessed the effect of carotid artery stenting (CAS) on cognitive functioning, results have been conflicting. The object of this study was to assess the effect of CAS on cognitive status, with special interest on executive functions, among patients with severe asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. The authors prospectively assessed the neuropsychological status of 20 patients with unilateral asymptomatic extracranial ICA stenosis of 60% or more by using a comprehensive assessment battery focused on executive functions before and after CAS. Individual raw scores on neuropsychological tests were converted into z scores by normalizing for age, sex, and years of education. The authors compared baseline and 3-month postoperative neuropsychological scores by using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The mean preoperative cognitive performance was within normal ranges on all variables. All patients underwent a successful CAS procedure. Executive function scores improved after CAS, relative to baseline performance as follows: set shifting (Trail-Making Test Part B: -0.75 ± 1.43 vs -1.2 ± 1.48, p = 0.003) and processing speed (digit symbol coding: -0.66 ± 0.85 vs -0.97 ± 0.82, p = 0.035; and symbol search: -0.24 ± 1.32 vs -0.56 ± 0.77, p = 0.049). The benefit of CAS for working memory was marginally significant (digit span backward: -0.41 ± 0.61 vs -0.58 ± 0.76, p = 0.052). Both verbal (immediate Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: 0.35 ± 1.04 vs -0.22 ± 0.82, p = 0.011) and visual (delayed Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure: 0.27 ± 1.26 vs -0.22 ± 1.01, p = 0.024) memory improved after CAS. The authors found a beneficial effect on executive function and memory 3 months after CAS among their prospective cohort of consecutive patients with unilateral and asymptomatic ICA stenosis of 60% or more.

  9. Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: Report of a Ruptured Case and Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siablis, Dimitrios; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Mastronikolis, Nikos; Zabakis, Peter; Kraniotis, Pantelis

    2004-01-01

    Aneurysms of the extracranial carotid arteries (ECAA) are extremely rare. Schechter et al. documented 835 cases in the literature up to 1977. One hundred and sixteen cases of ECAA have been documented in the Chinese literature since 1981, suggesting a higher prevalence of carotid aneurysmal disease in China than in the West. Four percent of all peripheral artery aneurysms are reported to be ECAA. Those arising from the internal carotid artery (EICAA) are even more rare. Two recent reviews reported 24 and 25 cases of EICAA during 21 and 17 years, respectively, the majority of them is treated surgically. Our literature review revealed only a few true EICAA managed endovascularly, but none of them with a covered stent. We describe a rare such case of ruptured atherosclerotic EICAA which was treated percutaneously

  10. Carotid artery stenting: a single-centre experience with up to 8 years' follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, Giovanni; Gandini, Roberto; Pampana, Enrico; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Stefanini, Matteo; Spinelli, Alessio; Reale, Carlo Andrea; Di Primio, Massimiliano; Gaspari, Eleonora; Versaci, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) may be an alternative to surgical endoarterectomy not only in high-risk patients. We report results in the endovascular treatment of carotid artery disease with up to 8 years' follow-up. In this retrospective study, we analysed data from 853 consecutive patients (946 arteries) treated for carotid artery stenosis between April 1999 and March 2007; 491 (52%) arteries were symptomatic and 455(48%) were asymptomatic. Preprocedural evaluation of the patients was performed with echo Doppler, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and a neurological examination. A cerebral protection device was used in 879 (92.9%) procedures. Anti-platelet therapy was administered before and after the procedure. All patients were included in a follow-up of up to 8 years. Technical success was achieved in 943 (99.6%) lesions. At 30 days, there was a 0.21% (n 2) death rate, a 0.42% major stroke rate, a 1.69% minor stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) rate and a combined 2.32% TIA/stroke and death rate. During follow-up, echo Doppler evidenced restenosis in 39 (4.85%) cases; of these, only five, presenting restenosis >80%, were treated with an endovascular reintervention. At the long-term follow-up, two strokes (0.23%) were reported, which both occurred within the first 2 years. In our experience, carotid artery stenting seems to be a safe and effective treatment, providing satisfactory long-term clinical results. (orig.)

  11. Interventions to increase enrollment in a large multicenter phase 3 trial of carotid stenting vs. endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longbottom, Mary E; Roberts, Jamie N; Tom, Meelee; Hughes, Susan E; Howard, Virginia J; Sheffet, Alice J; Meschia, James F; Brott, Thomas G

    2012-08-01

    Randomized clinical trials often encounter slow enrollment. Failing to meet sample size requirements has scientific, financial, and ethical implications. We report interventions used to accelerate recruitment in a large multicenter clinical trial that was not meeting prespecified enrollment commitments. The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs. Stenting Trial began randomization in December 2000. To accelerate enrollment, multiple recruitment tactics were initiated, which included expanding the number of sites, hiring a recruitment director (May 2003), broadening eligibility criteria (April 2005), branding with a study logo, Web site, and recruitment materials, increasing site visits by study leadership, sending e-mails to the site teams after every enrollment, distributing electronic newsletters, and implementing investigator and coordinator conferences. From December 2000 through May 2003, 14 sites became active (54 patients randomized), from June 2003 through April 2005, 44 sites were added (404 patients randomized), and from May 2005 through July 2008, 54 sites were added (2044 patients randomized). During these time intervals, the number of patients enrolled per site per year was 1·5, 3·6, and 5·6. For the single years 2004 to 2008, the mean monthly randomization rates per year were 19·7, 38·1, 56·4, 53·0, and 54·7 (annualized), respectively. Enrollment was highest after recruitment tactics were implemented: 677 patients in 2006, 636 in 2007, and 657 in 2008 (annualized). The prespecified sample size of 2502 patients, 47% asymptomatic, was accomplished on July 2008. Aggressive recruitment tactics and investment in a full-time recruitment director who can lead implementation may be effective in accelerating recruitment in multicenter trials. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  12. Flow-diverting Stent in the Treatment of Cervical Carotid Dissection and Pseudoaneurysm: Review of Literature and Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista-Sincos, Anna Paula Weinhardt; Simplício, Aline Bigatão; Sincos, Igor Rafael; Leaderman, Alex; Neto, Fernando Saliture; Moraes, Adjaldes; Aun, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    The endovascular technique has been recommended over the past few years to extracranial carotid dissection and pseudoaneurysm with promising results, especially after medical therapy failure. Flow-diverting stents are an alternative for complex cases. These stents have proven to be effective treatment devices for intracranial aneurysms. The reference list of Pham's systematic review, published in 2011, and Seward's literature review, published in 2015, was considered, as well as all new articles with eligible features. Search was conducted on specific databases: MEDLINE and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde. For carotid dissection and pseudoaneurysm, our review yielded 3 published articles including 12 patients. The technical success rate of flow-diverting stent was 100% with no procedural complication described. Mean clinical follow-up was 27.2 months (range 5-48), and in 5 months' angiographic follow-up, all lesions had healed. No new neurological events were reported during the clinical follow-up. Flow diverter stent use on intracranial and peripheral vascular surgery demonstrates satisfactory initial results, but it is still under investigation. There are very few cases treated till now and the initial results with flow-diverting stents to cervical carotid dissection are promising. In well-selected cases, where simple embolization or conventional stent is not appropriate, this technic may be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cerebral ischemia associated with PercuSurge balloon occlusion balloon during carotid stenting: Incidence and possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaer, Rabih A; Trocciola, Susan; DeRubertis, Brian; Lin, Stephanie C; Kent, K Craig; Faries, Peter L

    2006-05-01

    Interruption of antegrade cerebral perfusion results in transient neurologic intolerance in some patients undergoing carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). This study sought to evaluate factors that contributed to the development of cerebral ischemia during PercuSurge balloon occlusion and techniques used to allow successful completion of the CAS procedure. The PercuSurge occlusion balloon was used in 43 of 165 patients treated with CAS for high-grade stenosis (mean stenosis, 90%). All 43 patients were at increased risk for endarterectomy (7 restenosis, 3 irradiation, 3 contralateral occlusion, and 30 Goldman class II-III); 20% were symptomatic. Symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion during temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery occurred in 10 of 43 and included dysarthria (7/10), agitation (6/10), decreased level of consciousness (5/10), and focal hemispheric deficit (3/10). An incomplete circle of Willis or contralateral carotid artery occlusion, or both, was present in 8 of 10 patients. Symptoms resulting from PercuSurge balloon occlusion were managed by balloon deflation with or without evacuation of blood from the internal carotid artery using the Export catheter. All symptoms resolved completely without deficit after deflation of the occlusion balloon. The development of neurologic symptoms after initial PercuSurge balloon inflation and occluded internal carotid artery flow was associated with a decrease in the mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) from 15 to 10 (range, 9 to 14); the GCS returned to normal after occlusion balloon deflation and remained normal during subsequent reinflation. The mean time to spontaneous recovery of full neurologic function was 8 minutes (range, 4 to 15 minutes). No thrombotic or embolic events were present on cerebral angiography or computed tomography scan. Balloon reinflation was performed after a mean reperfusion interval of 10 minutes after full neurologic recovery (range, 4 to 20 minutes). The mean subsequent procedure

  14. Bilateral congenital absence of the internal carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumboldt, Z.; Castillo, M.; Solander, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Bilateral congenital absence of the internal carotid artery was incidentally found in an 11-year-old boy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a normal-appearing brain that was entirely supplied by the vertebrobasilar system, and CT confirmed the absence of the bony carotid canals. Although most reported patients with agenesis of both internal carotid arteries presented with cerebrovascular lesions, this case demonstrates that this rare malformation may be asymptomatic. (orig.)

  15. Mandibular subluxation stabilized by mouthpiece for distal internal carotid artery exposure in carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Masanori; Fukumoto, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Tohru; Yuyama, Ryuji; Hara, Takayuki

    2010-11-01

    The standard approach for carotid endarterectomy cannot provide adequate exposure of the distal internal carotid artery in the presence of high cervical carotid bifurcation or high plaque. Limited accessibility of the distal internal carotid artery has resulted in the development of various operative techniques. Mandibular subluxation is the most simple and least invasive technique, but it does require invasive maneuvers, such as wiring, to stabilize the mandible. We use a mouthpiece made by the dentist to stabilize the mandible in the physiologic subluxated position. This technique provides an adequate exposure of the distal internal carotid artery as with the other methods, and the risk of morbidity is very low. Copyright © 2010 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stenting of Variant Left Carotid Artery Using Brachial Artery Approach in a Patient with Unusual Type of Bovine Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gürel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine aortic arch is the most frequently encountered variation in human aortic arch branching. A 63-year-old Asian male presented with symptomatic severe stenosis of left carotid artery originating from the brachiocephalic trunk. Selective engagement to the left carotid artery was unsuccessful using transfemoral approach. We reported on a successful left carotid artery stenting case using right brachial artery approach in a bovine aortic arch. This paper is worthy of reporting in terms of guiding physicians for interventional procedures in these types of challenging cases.

  17. Evaluation of the medtronic exponent self-expanding carotid stent system with the medtronic guardwire temporary occlusion and aspiration system in the treatment of carotid stenosis: combined from the MAVErIC (Medtronic AVE Self-expanding CaRotid Stent System with distal protection In the treatment of Carotid stenosis) I and MAVErIC II trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Randall T; Popma, Jeffrey J; Apruzzese, Patricia; Zimetbaum, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Embolic protection devices and improved stent technology have advanced the endovascular treatment of carotid artery disease. A combined analysis was performed of the MAVErIC (Medtronic AVE Self-expanding CaRotid Stent System with distal protection) I and II trials to evaluate the safety and feasibility of this system among patients at high risk for surgical endarterectomy. Four hundred ninety-eight patients were enrolled in the MAVErIC I (99 patients) and MAVErIC II (399 patients) studies from June 2001 to October 2004. The results were pooled for statistical analysis of a common primary end point, the 365-day rate of major adverse events. Clinical follow-up took place at 30 days, 6 months, and 365 days postprocedure. The 365-day major adverse event rate, defined as death, stroke, or myocardial infarction within 30 days, and death, ipsilateral stroke, or myocardial infarction from days 31 to 365 was 12.5%. The incidence of neurological death through 365 days was 1.1%. The 30-day major adverse event rate was 5.4%. Subgroup analyses showed no notable differences in the 365-day major adverse event rate for symptomatic patients compared with asymptomatic patients. Treatment of carotid artery disease with carotid artery stenting with a self-expanding stent and distal embolic protection results in a low 30-day adverse event rate, including the occurrence of stroke in patients at high risk for carotid endarterectomy.

  18. Cerebral ischemia after filter-protected carotid artery stenting is common and cannot be predicted by the presence of substantial amount of debris captured by the filter device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleux, G; Demaerel, P; Verbeken, E; Daenens, K; Heye, S; Van Sonhoven, F; Nevelsteen, A; Wilms, G

    2006-10-01

    Protected carotid artery stent placement is currently under clinical evaluation as a potential alternative to carotid endarterectomy. The current study was undertaken to determine the incidence of new ischemic lesions found on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in nonselected patients after protected carotid artery stent placement using a filter device and to determine the potential relationship between these new ischemic lesions and the presence or absence of a clear amount of debris captured by the neuroprotection filter device. A nonrandomized cohort of 52 patients (40 men, 12 women) presenting with carotid occlusive disease underwent protected carotid artery stent placement using a filter device. DWI obtained 1 day before stent placement was compared with that obtained 1 day after stent placement. In addition, the macroscopic and microscopic analysis of debris captured by the filter device during the carotid stent placement procedure was assessed. Neuroprotected carotid stent placement was technically successful in all 53 procedures but was complicated by a transient ischemic attack in 3 patients (5.6%). In 22 patients (41.5%), new ischemic lesions were found on DWI, and in 21 filter devices (39.6%), a substantial amount of atheromatous plaque and/or fibrin was found. No clear relationship between the presence of debris captured by the filter device and new lesions detected by DWI was found (P = .087; odds ratio 3.067). Neuroprotected carotid artery stent placement will not avoid silent cerebral ischemia. Systematic microscopic analysis of debris captured by the filter device has no predictive value for potential cerebral ischemia after carotid artery stent placement.

  19. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with basilar aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briganti, F.; Tortora, F.; Elefante, A.; Maiuri, F.

    2004-01-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with an associated aneurysm of the basilar tip, studied by CT angiography, MR angiography and digital angiography. The patient became symptomatic with an episode of loss of consciousness, likely due to reduced blood perfusion. The other 20 reported cases of bilateral carotid hypoplasia (only four of which with an associated aneurysm) are reviewed. The findings of noninvasive procedures (including narrowing of the carotid canals on CT) may lead to a correct diagnosis before angiography is performed; they may also help to differentiate angiographic narrowing of the hypoplastic internal carotids from the string sign often observed in some acquired conditions. (orig.)

  20. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with basilar aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briganti, F.; Tortora, F.; Elefante, A. [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Cattedra di Neuroradiologia, 80131, Napoli (Italy); Maiuri, F. [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Neurosurgery Service, Napoli (Italy)

    2004-10-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with an associated aneurysm of the basilar tip, studied by CT angiography, MR angiography and digital angiography. The patient became symptomatic with an episode of loss of consciousness, likely due to reduced blood perfusion. The other 20 reported cases of bilateral carotid hypoplasia (only four of which with an associated aneurysm) are reviewed. The findings of noninvasive procedures (including narrowing of the carotid canals on CT) may lead to a correct diagnosis before angiography is performed; they may also help to differentiate angiographic narrowing of the hypoplastic internal carotids from the string sign often observed in some acquired conditions. (orig.)

  1. Early control of distal internal carotid artery during carotid endarterectomy: does it reduce cerebral microemboli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommertz, G; Das, M; Langer, S; Koeppel, T A; Krings, T; Mess, W H; Schiefer, J; Jacobs, M J

    2010-06-01

    According to the results of the large trials on carotid endarterectomy (CEA), this type of surgery is only warranted if perioperative mortality and morbidity are kept considerably low. Less attention has been paid to methods of cerebral protection during CEA, although intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) can visualise intracerebral microemboli (MES) during routine carotid dissection, although MES occur throughout the CEA, only those during dissection are related to neurological outcome. Prevention of MES by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery dislodging from the carotid artery plaque during dissection is very likely the mechanism behind an eventual benefit from this approach. Hence, the amount of MES might serve as a surrogate parameter for the risk of periprocedural neurological events. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether early control of the distal carotid artery during CEA is capable of reducing the number of MES by means of a prospective randomised trial. Twenty-eight patients (29 procedures) could be prospectively included in our study. Before surgery we randomly assigned the patients to two groups: group A (N.=12): CEA by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery; group B (N.=17): CEA with dissection of the total carotid bifurcation before clamping the arteries. Periprocedurally, we continuously monitored the cerebral blood flow in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery by means of TCD. Pre- and postoperative morbidity were independently verified by a neurologist control of the distal internal carotid artery did not reduce the occurrence of MES during dissection of the carotid bifurcation. Also, the total number of MES throughout the procedure and postoperatively was comparable between both groups. The procedure related times as well as the clinical outcome did not differ significantly. Thus, early control of the distal internal carotid artery has got no advantage but also no disadvantage

  2. Clinical study of internal carotid artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kyoko

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion identified by cerebral angiography were studied for clinical features, computed tomographic findings, collateral circulation and risk factors. Eleven patients were males, and at age distribution it occurred more frequently in patients over 50 years to 60 years of age rather than other ages. As for the risk factors of cerebral infarction, smoking was more frequent in patients with thrombosis, and heart disease was more common in those with embolism. Stroke occurred progressively in patients with thrombosis whereas it occurred suddenly in those with embolism. The consciousness was more severely disturbed in patients with embolism than in those with thrombosis. On neuro-radiological findings, in the patients with thrombosis, the infarcted area on CT were small and emerged as deep or watershed types, and on the angiograms, occlusion at carotid bifurcation were found more frequently and the collateral circulation were well developed. In those with embolism, the infarcted areas were large and emerged as cortical types, and on the angiograms, occlusions were observed more frequently in the intracranial portion and collateral circulation were poorly developed. In many patients with thrombosis, platelet aggregation, hematocrit and blood viscosity increased, but in those with embolism did not. (author)

  3. Posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of the intracavernous internal carotid artery presenting with massive epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Patricia S; Tampieri, Donatella; Atkinson, Jeffrey D; Daniel, Sam J; Teitelbaum, Jeanne; Shemie, Sam D

    2006-05-01

    To report a case of posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of the intracavernous internal carotid artery presenting with massive epistaxis and to discuss its pathophysiology and management. Case report and literature review. Pediatric intensive care unit in a tertiary-care center. Twelve days after a motor vehicle accident causing a head injury and facial fractures, this patient presented with massive epistaxis due to a pseudoaneurysm of the intracavernous internal carotid artery . Nasal packing was performed and subsequent angiography demonstrated the vascular lesion that had dissected into the sphenoid sinus. Endovascular stent and coil occlusion of the vascular lesion was performed, and the patient's condition improved without any ischemic or thromboembolic sequelae. Posttraumatic aneurysms of the intracavernous internal carotid artery can be associated with delayed and sometimes lethal massive epistaxis. This vascular lesion should be considered in patients with traumatic brain injury presenting with basal skull fractures in the region of the carotid canal or cavernous sinus and/or orbital fractures and compromise of the optical nerves. Knowledge of these risk factors and early diagnosis can minimize the high mortality risk.

  4. Tratamento endovascular com stent coberto de aneurisma carotídeo associado a arterite rádica Endovascular treatment with a covert-stent of radiation-associated carotid aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Dias

    2011-03-01

    . Clinical Case: A 70 year-old male, with a larynx carcinoma diagnosed in 1998, submitted to a radical laryngectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy, with a Transient Ischaemic Attack 3 months before, was admitted to our department with a stenosis superior to 70% of the active common carotid artery (CCA diagnosed by Ecodoppler. Also, the ipsilateral Bulbus was aneurysmatic. A Viabahn® covert-stent was deployed by right transfemoral access under cerebral protection, covering the CCA and the internal carotid artery, correcting the stenosis and also the aneurysm. Follow-up at 6 months has not shown any adverse events. Conclusion: Covert stenting of the carotid artery is a simple, efficient and simple option for the treatment of carotid arteritis secondary to radiotherapy and without the risks associated to conventional surgery.

  5. Oral midodrine is effective for the treatment of hypotension associated with carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjiv; Lardizabal, Joel A; Bhambi, Brijesh

    2008-06-01

    Hypotension is commonly encountered during carotid artery stenting (CAS), mediated by vagal stimulation and suppression of sympathetic outflow. Some patients require treatment with intravenous vasopressors (dopamine, nor-epinephrine, or phenylephrine). The authors describe the successful use of the oral agent midodrine as an alternative to intravenous vasopressors in the treatment of hypotension related to CAS. Of 55 patients who underwent elective CAS, 19 (35%) experienced significant hypotension, and 15 (27%) required vasopressor therapy. Eleven patients received intravenous dopamine infusion in an intensive care setting, whereas 4 received oral midodrine in a regular telemetry unit. All patients eventually recovered and were discharged without any residual cardiovascular or neurological complications. No major side effects were noted with the use of both dopamine and midodrine. Cost of hospitalization was significantly higher in the dopamine group because of the need for ICU admission.

  6. Carotid Stump Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Toufic Dakhoul MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives . To highlight the case of a patient with multiple transient ischemic attacks and visual disturbances diagnosed with carotid stump syndrome and managed with endovascular approach. Case Presentation . We present the case of a carotid stump syndrome in an elderly patient found to have moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis in response to an advertisement for carotid screening. After a medical therapeutic approach and a close follow-up, transient ischemic attacks recurred. Computed tomographic angiography showed an occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and the presence of moderate stenosis in the right internal carotid artery, which was treated by endovascular stenting and balloon insertion. One month later, the patient presented with visual disturbances due to the left carotid stump and severe stenosis of the left external carotid artery that was reapproached by endovascular stenting. Conclusion . Considerations should be given to the carotid stump syndrome as a source of emboli for ischemic strokes, and vascular assessment could be used to detect and treat this syndrome.

  7. Clinical application of transvenous temporary cardiac pacemaker in performing extra-cranial carotid angiography and stent implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juan; Yao Guoen; Zhou Huadong; Jiang Xiaojiang; Chen Qiao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of transvenous temporary cardiac pacemaker in preventing hemodynamic instability occurred during the perioperative period of extra-cranial carotid angiography and stent implantation. Methods: Preoperative install of temporary cardiac pacemaker via left femoral vein was carried out in 41 patients who were at high risk for developing hemodynamic instability, which was followed by extra-cranial carotid angiography and stent implantation. The pacing rhythm of the pacemaker was fixed at 60 beats/min. During and after the procedure the patients were under close observation for the signs of discomfort symptoms as well as the changes in blood pressure and heart rate. The working condition of the pacemaker was also monitored. Results: All the installed pacemakers were technically and hemodynamically effective in producing electrical ventricular responses in all 25 patients who had received balloon dilatation of carotid in advance. Transient pacemaker activation appeared in 25 patients. The longest activation time was one day. During pacemaker activation, one patient developed symptomatic hypotension. The longest duration of hypotension lasted for 4 days. No pacemaker-related or procedure-related complications occurred. Conclusion: Hemodynamic instability is a common complication occurred during perioperative period of extra-cranial carotid angiography and stent implantation. As a prophylactic measure, preoperative placement of temporary cardiac pacemaker can promptly and effectively correct the hemodynamic disorders and prevent perioperative complications such as stroke, etc. Therefore, this technique is worth employing in clinical practice, and it is especially useful for patients with high risks. (authors)

  8. The CLEAR-ROAD study: evaluation of a new dual layer micromesh stent system for the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, Marc; Deloose, Koen; Torsello, Giovanni; Scheinert, Dierk; Maene, Lieven; Peeters, Patrick; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Sievert, Horst; Langhoff, Ralf; Bosiers, Michel; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-08-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-day clinical outcome of treatment using the Roadsaver carotid stent in non-consecutive subjects at high risk for carotid endarterectomy requiring revascularisation. The CLEAR-ROAD study is a prospective, multinational, single-arm, physician-initiated study planned to include 100 patients in nine centres in Belgium, Italy and Germany. The primary endpoint was the 30-day rate of major adverse events (MAE), defined as the cumulative incidence of any death, stroke or myocardial infarction (MI). The use of embolic protection devices (EPDs) was not mandatory; 31.0% of the patients were symptomatic and in 58.0% of the patients EPDs were used. Technical success was achieved in all cases. The 30-day MAE rate was 2.1% (one patient experienced MI followed by death; another patient experienced a stroke within the first 30 days after procedure). While no statistical analysis could be performed, subgroup data suggested that there were no notable differences in the 30-day MAE rate between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, or between EPD use. The 30-day clinical outcome of 100 patients treated with a dual layer micromesh carotid stent (Roadsaver) shows promising results. The Roadsaver stent is a safe and effective device for endovascular treatment of subjects at high risk for carotid endarterectomy.

  9. Clinical and angiographic risk factors for stroke and death within 30 days after carotid endarterectomy and stent-protected angioplasty: a subanalysis of the SPACE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingele, Robert; Berger, Jürgen; Alfke, Karsten; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Fraedrich, Gustav; Allenberg, Jens; Hartmann, Marius; Ringleb, Peter A; Fiehler, Jens; Bruckmann, H; Hennerici, M; Jansen, O; Klein, G; Kunze, A; Marx, P; Niederkorn, K; Schmiedt, W; Solymosi, L; Zeumer, H; Hacke, W

    2008-03-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) are used to prevent ischaemic stroke in patients with stenosis of the internal carotid artery. Better knowledge of risk factors could improve assignment of patients to these procedures and reduce overall risk. We aimed to assess the risk of stroke or death associated with CEA and CAS in patients with different risk factors. We analysed data from 1196 patients randomised to CAS or CEA in the Stent-Protected Angioplasty versus Carotid Endarterectomy in Symptomatic Patients (SPACE) trial. The primary outcome event was death or ipsilateral stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) with symptoms that lasted more than 24 h between randomisation and 30 days after therapy. Six predefined variables were assessed as potential risk factors for this outcome: age, sex, type of qualifying event, side of intervention, degree of stenosis, and presence of high-grade contralateral stenosis or occlusion. The SPACE trial is registered at Current Controlled Trials, with the international standard randomised controlled trial number ISRCTN57874028. Risk of ipsilateral stroke or death increased significantly with age in the CAS group (p=0.001) but not in the CEA group (p=0.534). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the age that gave the greatest separation between high-risk and low-risk populations who had CAS was 68 years: the rate of primary outcome events was 2.7% (8/293) in patients who were 68 years old or younger and 10.8% (34/314) in older patients. Other variables did not differ between the CEA and CAS groups. Of the predefined covariates, only age was significantly associated with the risk of stroke and death. The lower risk after CAS versus CEA in patients up to 68 years of age was not detectable in older patients. This finding should be interpreted with caution because of the drawbacks of post-hoc analyses.

  10. A Case of Complete Recovery of Fluctuating Monocular Blindness Following Endovascular Treatment in Internal Carotid Artery Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Baik, Seung Guk; Park, Kyung-Pil; Park, Min-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    Monocular blindness may appear as the first symptom of internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD). However, there have been no reports that monocular visual loss repeatedly occurs and disappears in response to postural change in ICAD. A 33-year-old woman presented with transient monocular blindness (TMB) following acute-onset headache. TMB repeatedly occurred in response to postural change. Two days later, she experienced transient dysarthria and right hemiparesis in upright position. Pupil size and light reflex were normal, but a relative afferent pupillary defect was positive in the left eye. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed no acute lesion, but perfusion-weighted imaging showed perfusion delay in the left ICA territory. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a false lumen and an intraluminal filling defect in proximal segment of the left ICA. Carotid stenting was performed urgently. After carotid stenting, left relative afferent pupillary defect disappeared and TMB was not provoked anymore by upright posture. At discharge, left visual acuity was completely normalized. Because fluctuating visual symptoms in the ICAD may be associated with hemodynamically unstable status, assessment of the perfusion status should be done quickly. Carotid stenting may be helpful to improve the fluctuating visual symptoms and hemodynamically unstable status in selected patient with the ICAD. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined endarterectomy of the internal carotid artery and persistent hypoglossal artery: an unusual case of carotid revascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Cartier, Raymond; Cartier, Paul; Hudon, Gilles; Rousseau, Marc

    1996-01-01

    Persistence of the hypoglossal artery is an unusual congenital abnormality of the carotid arterial system, and the simultaneous occurrence of atheromatous disease in the internal carotid artery and persistent hypoglossal artery is even more uncommon. Carotid surgery in this situation is challenging, and the surgeon must be aware of potential inherent pitfalls. A 74-year-old woman with asymptomatic stenosis of both internal carotid and hypoglossal arteries associated with occlusion of the cont...

  12. Internal biliary stenting in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Edouard; Risse, Olivier; Abba, Julio; Medici, Maud; Leroy, Vincent; Chirica, Mircea; Letoublon, Christian

    2018-03-24

    Internal biliary stenting (IBS) was reported to decrease biliary complications after liver transplantation (LT) but data in literature is scarce. The aim of the present study was to evaluate our experience with end-to-end choledoco-choledocostomy during liver transplantation with special focus on the influence of IBS on patient and biliary outcomes. Between 2009 and 2013, 175 patients underwent deceased donor LT with end-to-end choledoco-choledocostomy and were included in the study. Supra-papillary silastic stent was inserted in 67 patients (38%) with small-size (< 5 mm) bile ducts (recipient or donor). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was scheduled for IBS removal, 6 months after LT. Operative outcomes and survival of patients who received internal stenting (IBS group) were compared with those of patients who did not (no-IBS group). Risk factors for biliary anastomotic complications were identified. Ten patients died (6%) and 104 (59%) experienced postoperative complications. Five-year patient and graft survival rates were 77 and 74%, respectively. Biliary complications were recorded in 61 patients (35%) and were significantly decreased by IBS insertion (p = 0.0003). Anastomotic fistulas occurred in 23 patients (13%) and stenoses in 44 patients (25%). On multivariate analysis, high preoperative MELD scores (p = 0.02) and hepatic artery thrombosis (p < 0.0001) were predictors of fistula; absence of IBS was associated with both fistula (p = 0.014) and stricture (p = 0.003) formation. IBS insertion during LT decreases anastomotic complication.

  13. Bilateral agenesis of the internal carotid artery: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye Seon; Lee, Seung Rho; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok

    2004-01-01

    Unilateral or, particularly, bilateral congenital agenesis of the internal carotid artery is a rare anomaly. We report an occurrence of the condition, arising bilaterally, and report the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography

  14. Bilateral agenesis of the internal carotid artery: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Seon; Lee, Seung Rho; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok [College of Medicine, Hanynang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    Unilateral or, particularly, bilateral congenital agenesis of the internal carotid artery is a rare anomaly. We report an occurrence of the condition, arising bilaterally, and report the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography.

  15. EEG controlled occlusion of the internal carotid artery during angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, W.; Zeumer, H.; Ringelstein, E.B.

    1981-09-01

    It became evident in two patients during cerebral angiography that ligation of an internal carotid artery would probably be necessary in the course of a subsequent neurosurgical operation. A balloon catheter was inserted and the internal carotid artery was occluded. A continous EEG recording was made with a Fourier transformed frequency analysis before and during the occlusion; the motor functions of the corresponding side of the body were observed simultaneously on the conscious patient. EEG alterations indicative of cerebral ischemia were not demonstrated in either patient during an occlusion period of 7 min. Unilateral neurosurgical ligation of the common carotid artery and the internal carotid artery was performed on one patient. As predicted no neurological deficit occured.

  16. Late spontaneous recanalization of symptomatic atheromatous internal carotid artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Montserrat G; Vega, Pedro P; Lahoz, Carlos H; Calleja, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    Definitive treatment of symptomatic atheromatous internal carotid artery occlusion remains controversial, as far as in rare cases, late spontaneous recanalization has been seen. We consecutively studied 182 patients (January 2003 to August 2012) with an ischemic stroke in the internal carotid artery territory and diagnosis of atheromatous internal carotid artery occlusion during hospitalization. Seven patients presented a late spontaneous recanalization (>3 months) of the internal carotid artery. We described therapeutic attitude according to usual care in these patients. The authors attempt to highlight the unusual condition of recanalization after a symptomatic atheromatous chronic internal carotid artery occlusion. If these patients can be treated similar to patients with asymptomatic carotid pathology, then this needs to be clarified. However, due to the risk of ipsi- and contralateral ischemic strokes, revascularization techniques should be considered in certain cases. More studies are needed to establish the most appropriate therapeutical approach in order to avoid arbitrary treatment of these patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Feasibility and efficacy of balloon-based neuroprotection during carotid artery stenting in a single-center setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Michael; Tübler, Thilo; Mathey, Detlef G; Schofer, Joachim

    2002-09-04

    We sought to prospectively assess the feasibility and in-hospital efficacy of the PercuSurge GuardWire temporary balloon-occlusive system for neuroprotection during carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS).Carotid angioplasty and stenting harbors a risk of distal embolization. Cerebral protection devices are currently under clinical investigation.Ninety-six consecutive patients with carotid bifurcation disease underwent a total of 102 CAS procedures with the intention to use the GuardWire for neuroprotection. GuardWire deployment was achieved in 99 procedures performed in 93 patients (97%). Device failure (n = 3) and severe neurologic responses to balloon occlusion of the targeted carotid artery (n = 2) accounted for five additional procedures that were essentially concluded without neuroprotection, for a total of 94 procedures completed as intended in 88 patients (92% procedural feasibility rate). Carotid angioplasty and stenting was performed successfully in 94 patients (100 procedures). There were no in-hospital deaths; but three patients (3.1%) sustained strokes, and two patients experienced transient ischemic attacks, for a total periprocedural complication rate of 5.2%. One major stroke occurred with the GuardWire in place, whereas two minor strokes were observed in patients in whom the device could not be deployed. Thus, successful neuroprotected CAS without major neurologic events was achieved in 87 patients (91%). The GuardWire temporary balloon-occlusive system is feasible as an adjunct to CAS in the majority of patients. It is associated with a 3.1% rate of major periprocedural neurologic complications. Adverse neurologic reactions to balloon occlusion may prohibit effective use of the system in about 2% of patients.

  18. Feasibility of simultaneous pre- and postfilter transcranial Doppler monitoring during carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garami, Zsolt F; Bismuth, Jean; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Davies, Mark G; Peden, Eric K; Lumsden, Alan B

    2009-02-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is emerging as an acceptable treatment alternative to surgery for patients with carotid artery stenosis. The major risk of CAS is cerebral embolization of plaque and thrombus causing stroke or asymptomatic brain infarction. Use of embolic protection devices (EPD) to trap emboli before they reach the brain is now standard practice in CAS. The pore size of the currently available filters is >100 microns and emboli smaller than the EPD pores can still reach the brain. While the use of EPD is widespread, little evidence exists of their in vivo efficacy in preventing distal embolization. Our aim was to quantify the number of emboli reaching the brain with the device in place. Therefore, the expected value of this report is in its description of a novel application of transcranial Doppler (TCD). Due to the limited number of cases, it is not intended to support the use of one EPD over another. Six patients were monitored with ipsilateral simultaneous dual probe TCD during CAS. Two types of cerebral protection systems were evaluated: FilterWire EZ System (FW; Boston Scientific, Santa Clara, Calif) and GORE Neuro Protection System (NPS; W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz). By placing TCD probes both proximal and distal to the filterwire EPD, we quantified the microembolic signals before the EPD as well as those, which reached the intracranial circulation after the EPD. One probe was placed submandibularly to monitor the ICA (SICA), while another was placed transtemporally to monitor the middle and anterior cerebral artery (MCA + ACA). We compare the number of extracranial emboli prior to the EPD with the number of intracranial emboli after the EPD. Dual probe monitoring was successful during the five stages of the CAS: lesion crossing (LC), predilatation (PreD), stent placement (SP), postdilatation (PostD), and filter/device removal (FR/DR). Using FW during LC by probe 1 (SICA)/probe 2 (MCA + ACA): (18 [range, 15-22]/15 [range, 11

  19. High-grade symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis in the very elderly. A challenge for proponents of carotid angioplasty and stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rossi Aldo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS is often considered as the preferred treatment for severe carotid occlusive disease in patients labelled as "high risk", including those aged 80 or more. We analyzed 30-day stroke risk and death rates after carotid endarterectomy (CEA for severe symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid disease in patients aged 80 or more, by comparison with the outcome of CAS reported in the recently- published literature. Methods A retrospective review was conducted on a prospectively compiled computerized database of all primary CEAs performed by a single surgeon at our institution from 1990 to 2003. Descriptive demographic data, risk factors, surgical details, perioperative strokes and deaths, and other complications were recorded. Results In all, 1260 CEAs were performed in 1099 patients; 1145 were performed in 987 patients less than 80 years old, and 115 were performed in 112 patients aged 80 or more. There were 11 perioperative strokes in the 1145 procedures in the younger group, for a stroke rate of 0.8%, and no strokes in the 115 procedures in the older group. The death rates were 0% for the octogenarians and 0.3% for the younger group. Conclusion The conviction that older age means higher risk needs to be revised. Patients aged 80 or more can undergo CEA with no more perioperative risks than younger patients. Proponents of CAS should bear this in mind before recommending CAS as the best therapeutic option for such patients.

  20. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    a significant improvement in baseline flow occur. Flow reserve determined by cerebral vasodilation, however, will improve in most patients with hemodynamic failure. In addition, some patients in the low-pressure group develop marked, but temporary, hyperperfusion after reconstruction of very high grade carotid...

  1. Treatment of a symptomatic intrathoracic internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcations are an anatomic anomaly with such rarity that only six cases have been reported to date. The true incidence of and preferred treatment options for a diseased intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcation or internal carotid artery (ICA have not been clearly described. This case report describes a 72-year-old man who experienced a postoperative right hemispheric stoke after an aortic valve replacement, radiofrequency maze procedure, and left atrial appendage clip. Postoperative cerebrovascular evaluation revealed a severely diseased intrathoracic ICA that was treated by ligation of the diseased proximal ICA and transposition of the distal ICA to the disease-free external carotid artery. The patient provided written consent to present the history, data, and images in this manuscript.

  2. Clinical experience of cerebral protection with balloon occlusion during carotid artery stenting; Zerebrale Protektion mit Ballonokklusion bei der Stentimplantation der A. carotis - Erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.J.; Mathias, K.D.; Drescher, R.; Bockisch, G.; Hauth, E.; Demirel, E.; Gissler, H.M. [Staedtische Kliniken Dortmund (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Witten/Herdecke Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Radiologie und Mikro-Therapie

    2001-02-01

    Purpose: To asses the technical feasibility and the results of cerebral protection with the GuardWire Plus Temporary Occlusion and Aspiration System during carotid artery stenting for high-grade stenosis. Patients and Methods: In 20 patients 20 carotid artery stenoses were treated with stent placement under cerebral protection. A contralateral carotid occlusion was an exclusion criteria for the use of the protection device. In all cases only aspiration, but no flushing was used before deflation of the occlusion balloon. In 17 of 20 patients diffusion-weighted (DW-)MRT imaging of the brain was performed before and 24 hours after the procedure. Results: The stent implantation was successfully performed in all patients. In 3 patients neurologic symptoms occurred during the occlusion time. In these 3 patients the symptoms immediately disappeared after deflation of the balloon. In one case there was dilatation of the internal carotid artery at the site of the balloon inflation. In 3 of the 17 DW-MR images new ipsilateral cerebral lesions, in one case a new contralateral lesion occurred after the procedure. Conclusions: The cerebral protection procedure is technically feasible. The occlusion of the internal carotid artery was not tolerated by all patients. The DW-MR imaging demonstrated cerebral lesions indicating the occurrence of cerebral microemboli during the procedure. Further investigations are necessary to determine if the use of the cerebral protection device will improve the results of the carotid artery stenting for high-grade stenoses. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Evaluation der Technik und der Ergebnisse der zerebralen Protektion mit dem temporaeren Okklusions- und Aspirationssystem GuardWire Plus bei der Stentimplantation der A. carotis bei hochgradigen Stenosen. Patienten und Methoden: Bei 20 Patienten wurden 20 Karotisstenosen mit Stentimplantation unter zerebraler Protektion behandelt. Ein kontralateraler Verschluss der A. carotis war ein Ausschlusskriterium

  3. CT angiography after carotid artery stenting: assessment of the utility of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuya, Keita; Shinohara, Yuki; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi [Tottori University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Brain and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Iwata, Naoki; Kishimoto, Junichi [Tottori University, Division of Clinical Radiology Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kaminou, Toshio [Osaka Minami Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Follow-up CT angiography (CTA) is routinely performed for post-procedure management after carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, the stent lumen tends to be underestimated because of stent artifacts on CTA reconstructed with the filtered back projection (FBP) technique. We assessed the utility of new iterative reconstruction techniques, such as adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), for CTA after CAS in comparison with FBP. In a phantom study, we evaluated the differences among the three reconstruction techniques with regard to the relationship between the stent luminal diameter and the degree of underestimation of stent luminal diameter. In a clinical study, 34 patients who underwent follow-up CTA after CAS were included. We compared the stent luminal diameters among FBP, ASIR, and MBIR, and performed visual assessment of low attenuation area (LAA) in the stent lumen using a three-point scale. In the phantom study, stent luminal diameter was increasingly underestimated as luminal diameter became smaller in all CTA images. Stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. Similarly, in the clinical study, stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. LAA detectability scores of MBIR were greater than or equal to those of FBP and ASIR in all cases. MBIR improved the accuracy of assessment of stent luminal diameter and LAA detectability in the stent lumen when compared with FBP and ASIR. We conclude that MBIR is a useful reconstruction technique for CTA after CAS. (orig.)

  4. Carotid artery stenting in difficult aortic arch anatomy with or without a new dedicated guiding catheter: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiero, Giulio; Cognolato, Diego; Casarin, Andrea; Stramanà, Rudi; Galzignan, Elisa; Guarise, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate carotid artery stenting (CAS) procedures with or without a new dedicated guiding catheter in anatomically challenging aortic arches in our experience. We retrospectively reviewed 172 procedures of CAS performed from December 2006 to October 2011 in 159 consecutive patients (100 men, mean age 78 years): 15 patients had type III aortic arch, 13 had a bovine aortic arch, 6 had an acute angle at the origin of the left common carotid artery from the aortic arch, 2 had type III aortic arch with bovine aortic arch, and 1 had a bicarotid trunk with an aberrant right subclavian artery. In this group of difficult anatomy (37 cases), CAS was performed with (13 cases) or without (24 cases) a new dedicated guiding catheter. Mean time of fluoroscopy (16 min vs. 18 min, P guiding catheter group. The new dedicated guiding catheter may be more effective and less risky for CAS in anatomically challenging aortic arches. • Complex anatomy of the aortic arch is not rare • Endovascular carotid artery stenting (CAS) is more difficult when the anatomy is complex • A new dedicated guiding catheter may help CAS when the arch anatomy is complex • The new dedicated guiding catheter may be less risky in complex arches.

  5. Safety and efficacy of the Perclose suture-mediated closure device following carotid artery stenting under clopidogrel platelet blockade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorger, Niels; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Lenhart, Markus; Hamer, Okka; Paetzel, Christian; Borisch, Inghita; Toepel, Ingolf; Feuerbach, Stefan; Link, Johann [University of Regensburg Klinikum, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042, Regensburg (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of a closure device (Perclose, Menlo Park, Calif.) for closure of the femoral artery access site in patients undergoing aggressive anticoagulation and platelet blockade after carotid stenting. Fifty-five patients who received clopidogrel in addition to aspirin and heparin as medication for carotid stenting were included for suture of the femoral access site after using 7- or 8-F guide catheters. The technical success, the time for suture, the clotting parameters, and complications were examined. Follow-up investigations, including ultrasound and clinical examinations, were performed. The groin was checked for possible hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, and local infection. Technical success was obtained in 51 of 54 patients (94%) after a mean procedure time of 6 min (range 5-10 min). The suture device was not used in one patient (2%) for anatomical reasons and failed to obtain hemostasis in 3 of 54 (6%) patients. In 4 of 54 patients (7%) bleeding was observed at the punctured site 4-6 h after intervention which was treated by a compression bandage. The mean dedicated activated clotting time was 137 s (range 29-287 s) before intervention and 349 s (150-958 s) just before deploying the Perclose device. During follow-up after 2 days (range 2-6 days) and 6 months no further complications of the puncture site were observed except for two large groin hematomas. No major complications occurred. Closure of the femoral access site after carotid stenting using a Perclose closure device is safe and effective even in patients receiving an aggressive anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy. (orig.)

  6. Treatment of a canine carotid artery aneurysm model with a biodegradable nanofiber-covered stent: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Bo; Zhou, Bin; Gu, Xiu-Ling; Li, Ming-Hua; Gu, Bin-Xian; Wang, Wu; Li, Yong-Dong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the use of a biodegradable nanofiber-covered stent (BDNCS) in the treatment of a canine carotid artery aneurysm. Seventeen beagle dogs, each with one lateral saccular aneurysm created using a venous pouch, were selected to test the BDNCS. The BDNCS consists of three parts: A bare stent, a biodegradable nanofiber membrane, and a balloon catheter. The bare stent was sculpted by a laser from a cobalt chromium superalloy, and the biodegradable nanofiber membrane was constructed from polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone [PCL, P (LLA-CL)] by the electro-spinning method. The biodegradable nanofiber stent was premounted on a balloon catheter to form a BDNCS. Angiographic assessments were categorized as complete or incomplete occlusion. Data regarding technical success, initial and final angiographic results, mortality and morbidity were collected, and follow-up was performed at 1 and 3 months after the procedure. BDNCS placement was successful in 17 canines with 17 aneurysms. The initial angiographies showed that a complete occlusion was achieved in 13 canines (76.5%) and an incomplete occlusion in 4 (23.5%). One canine died 1 week later. The angiographies obtained at 3-month follow-up exhibited complete occlusion in 14 canines (87.5%) and an incomplete occlusion in 2 canines, with mild in-stent stenosis in 5 canines. Our results suggest that BDNCS may be a feasible approach for aneurysm occlusion, although the occurrence of mild in-stent stenosis was relatively high. Longer-term follow-up investigations are needed to validate these findings.

  7. Epistaxis revealing the rupture of a carotid aneurysm of the cavernous sinus extending into the sphenoid: treatment using an uncovered stent and coils. Review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Pierre; Saliou, Guillaume; Page, Cyril; Balut, Antonia; Le Gars, Daniel; Vallée, Jean Noel

    2009-05-01

    True carotid aneurysms with sphenoid extension and revealed by epistaxis are rare. A review of the literature shows the mortality risk of this pathology and the different therapeutic options. A 41-year-old female presented with a cavernous carotid aneurysm with sphenoid extension revealed by massive epistaxis. We propose a combined treatment of the affected vessel using coils and an uncovered stent. The first stage to stop the hemorrhages and occlude the aneurysm using the coil and the second stage several days later after anticoagulation using the stent to prevent revascularization. This treatment has been shown to be effective in producing immediate hemostasis and stable long-term occlusion.

  8. European Registry of Carotid Artery Stenting: results from a prospective registry of eight high volume EUROPEAN institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Eugenio; Garg, Pallav; Cremonesi, Alberto; Bosiers, Marc; Reimers, Bernhard; Setacci, Carlo; Cao, Piergiorgio; Schmidt, Andrej; Sievert, Horst; Peeters, Patrick; Nikas, Dimitry; Werner, Martin; de Donato, Gianmarco; Parlani, Giambattista; Castriota, Fausto; Hornung, Marius; Mauri, Laura; Rubino, Paolo

    2012-08-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the standard revascularization therapy to prevent stroke in patients with carotid artery disease. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) could be considered a potential alternative in patients at high surgical risk. Recent clinical trials have challenged this concept due a relatively high incidence of post-CAS adverse events, which occurred in low volume centers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes associated with neuroprotected CAS in selected high volume centers. From January 2007 to December 2007, 1,611 patients underwent neuroprotected CAS in eight European Centers. For each patients, clinical, procedural, and one month follow-up data from all patients have been collected. An independent clinical events committee adjudicated the events. Overall in hospital death was 0.06% (one patient), whereas in-hospital stroke was 0.49% (eight patients). Between hospital discharge and 30 days three additional patients died (0.18%) and 10 patients experienced a stroke (0.67%). Overall 30 days mortality was 0.24% (four patients) and stroke incidence 1.12% (18 patients). The 30 day stroke/death rate was 1.36%. CAS is a reasonable alternative to CEA to treat carotid artery atherosclerosis in well-experienced high volume centers. These data suggest that future prospective trials comparing CAS and CEA outcomes should include only centers highly experienced in both treatment modalities. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prediction of persistent hemodynamic depression after carotid angioplasty and stenting using artificial neural network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Kim, Chulho; Oh, Byoung-Doo; Kim, Sun Jeong; Kim, Yu-Seop

    2018-01-01

    To assess and compare predictive factors for persistent hemodynamic depression (PHD) after carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS) using artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple logistic regression (MLR) or support vector machines (SVM) models. A retrospective data set of patients (n=76) who underwent CAS from 2007 to 2014 was used as input (training cohort) to a back-propagation ANN using TensorFlow platform. PHD was defined when systolic blood pressure was less than 90mmHg or heart rate was less 50 beats/min that lasted for more than one hour. The resulting ANN was prospectively tested in 33 patients (test cohort) and compared with MLR or SVM models according to accuracy and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. No significant difference in baseline characteristics between the training cohort and the test cohort was observed. PHD was observed in 21 (27.6%) patients in the training cohort and 10 (30.3%) patients in the test cohort. In the training cohort, the accuracy of ANN for the prediction of PHD was 98.7% and the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) was 0.961. In the test cohort, the number of correctly classified instances was 32 (97.0%) using the ANN model. In contrast, the accuracy rate of MLR or SVM model was both 75.8%. ANN (AUROC: 0.950; 95% CI [confidence interval]: 0.813-0.996) showed superior predictive performance compared to MLR model (AUROC: 0.796; 95% CI: 0.620-0.915, p<0.001) or SVM model (AUROC: 0.885; 95% CI: 0.725-0.969, p<0.001). The ANN model seems to have more powerful prediction capabilities than MLR or SVM model for persistent hemodynamic depression after CAS. External validation with a large cohort is needed to confirm our results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Prediction of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid artery stenting by CT perfusion imaging with acetazolamide challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshie, Tomohide; Ueda, Toshihiro; Takada, Tatsuro; Nogoshi, Shinji; Fukano, Takayuki [St. Marianna University Toyoko Hospital, Department of Strokology, Stroke Center, Kawasaki (Japan); Hasegawa, Yasuhiro [St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Neurology, Kawasaki (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) is an uncommon but serious complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of CT perfusion imaging (CTP) with acetazolamide challenge to identify patients at risk for HPS after CAS. We retrospectively analyzed 113 patients who underwent CTP with rest and acetazolamide challenge before CAS. CTP maps were assessed for absolute and relative cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), and change of each parameter before and after acetazolamide challenge. Patients were divided into two groups according to the HPS after the CAS. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the most accurate CTP parameter for the prediction of HPS. Nine of 113 patients had HPS. There were significant differences for absolute and relative values of resting CBF (p = 0.001 and p = 0.026), resting MTT (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004), post-acetazolamide CBF (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001), post-acetazolamide MTT (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002), and %changes of CBF (p = 0.009) between the HPS and non-HPS groups. ROC curve analysis showed that the CTP parameters with the maximal area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for HPS was the absolute value of post-acetazolamide MTT (AUC 0.909) and the absolute value of resting MTT (AUC 0.896). Pretreatment CTP with acetazolamide challenge could identify patients at risk for HPS after CAS. Although the CTP parameter that most accurately identified patients at risk for HPS was the absolute value of post-acetazolamide MTT, resting MTT was sufficiently accurate. (orig.)

  11. Carotid artery stenting: a single-centre experience with up to 8 years' follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Giovanni; Gandini, Roberto; Pampana, Enrico; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Stefanini, Matteo; Spinelli, Alessio; Reale, Carlo Andrea; Di Primio, Massimiliano; Gaspari, Eleonora [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiation Therapy, Rome (Italy); Versaci, Francesco [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Cardiology, Rome (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) may be an alternative to surgical endoarterectomy not only in high-risk patients. We report results in the endovascular treatment of carotid artery disease with up to 8 years' follow-up. In this retrospective study, we analysed data from 853 consecutive patients (946 arteries) treated for carotid artery stenosis between April 1999 and March 2007; 491 (52%) arteries were symptomatic and 455(48%) were asymptomatic. Preprocedural evaluation of the patients was performed with echo Doppler, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and a neurological examination. A cerebral protection device was used in 879 (92.9%) procedures. Anti-platelet therapy was administered before and after the procedure. All patients were included in a follow-up of up to 8 years. Technical success was achieved in 943 (99.6%) lesions. At 30 days, there was a 0.21% (n = 2) death rate, a 0.42% major stroke rate, a 1.69% minor stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) rate and a combined 2.32% TIA/stroke and death rate. During follow-up, echo Doppler evidenced restenosis in 39 (4.85%) cases; of these, only five, presenting restenosis >80%, were treated with an endovascular reintervention. At the long-term follow-up, two strokes (0.23%) were reported, which both occurred within the first 2 years. In our experience, carotid artery stenting seems to be a safe and effective treatment, providing satisfactory long-term clinical results. (orig.)

  12. Regional Topography of the Internal Carotid Artery | Kipyator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the extra cranial portion of the internal carotid artery and structures associated with it, which are vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgical approach to the neck region in 18 individuals. Distances from the origin of the artery to hypoglossal nerve and posterior belly of digastric muscle were measured.

  13. Hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery with intercavernous anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.J.; Wang, L.J.; Wong, Y.C.; Chen, S.T.; Hsieh, F.Y.

    1998-01-01

    We report a symptomatic case of unilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery with an intercavernous anastomosis, a very rare developmental anomaly. The symptoms were caused by occlusion of the proximal middle cerebral artery which possibly related to the haemodynamic stress caused by the anomalous intercavernous anastomosis. (orig.)

  14. Aberrant internal carotid artery presenting as a retrotympanic vascular mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolay, Simon; De Foer, Bert; Bernaerts, Anja; Van Dinther, Joost; Parizel, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a young woman with an aberrant right internal carotid artery (ICA) presenting as a retrotympanic reddish mass. This variant of the ICA represents the collateral pathway that is formed as a result of an embryological agenesis of the cervical segment of the ICA. The embryonic inferior tympanic artery is recruited to bypass the absent carotid segment. This hypertrophied vessel may be seen otoscopically and wrongfully considered to be a vascular middle ear tumor. Informing the otorhinolaryngologist of this important vascular variant not only obviates biopsy but also helps in careful preoperative planning of eventual middle ear procedures

  15. Dissecting aneurysm of the cervical internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Youichi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Matsukado, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Takafumi.

    1987-01-01

    On lifting a heavy case, a 51-year-old male experienced a sudden onset of headache with giddiness and clouded vision. A week later, vertigo and right hand numbness were added to his symptoms. The next day anisocoria (right > left) and dilation of the left retinal veins were noted. Cranial computed tomography (CT) scan appeared normal and there were no other remarkable neurological findings. The patient was treated conservatively for cerebral infarction, however, the headache worsened and diplopia occurred. Neurological examination on admission revealed nothing unusual except for left Horner's syndrome. Physical examination showed a palpable sausage-like painless tumor on the left side of the neck. Angiography showed a narrowing of the internal carotid artery in the cervical region with a small dissecting aneurysm at the C3 level. Cervical CT scan at the upper C3 level showed a low density lunar defect in the high density section of the enlarged left internal carotid artery. The patient was operated on by superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis to increase the intracranial blood flow. Postoperatively the symptoms were quickly relieved. Angiography 1 month later showed less narrowing of the carotid artery, though the dissecting aneurysm still remained. Postoperative cervical CT scan showed the left internal carotid artery to be of normal size. The patient returned to his work in normal condition 2 months later. It is emphasized that cervical CT scan may be useful in the diagnosis of this unusual type of cervical dissecting aneurysm. (author)

  16. External Carotid-Internal Jugular Fistula as a Late Complication After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Rare Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, Bulent; Cekirge, Saruhan; Tekkok, Ismail Hakki

    2011-01-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with mild amnesia, progressive fatigue, ataxia, visual hallucinations, and debility. His past medical history included right-sided carotid endarterectomy performed elsewhere 6 years previously. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left parieto-occipital arteriovenous malformation-like tortous vessels, venous congestion, and ischemic areas. Cerebral angiography showed right-sided compound external carotid artery-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula, and distal occlusion of the right IJV. Transvenous embolization via contralateral IJV was performed, and the fistula, together with fistulous portion of the distal IJV, was sealed using coils. Two years later, patient is well with normal neurologic examination findings. The presence of an arteriovenous communication after vascular surgery is a serious complication with potential long-term effects and therefore should be diagnosed and treated as promptly as possible.

  17. Treatment of Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Spontaneous Dissection with Pseudoaneurysm and Unilateral Lower Cranial Nerves Palsy by Two Silk Flow Diverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenak, Kamil, E-mail: zelenak@unm.sk [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia); Zelenakova, Jana [University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Slovakia); DeRiggo, Julius [University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Slovakia); Kurca, Egon; Kantorova, Ema [University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Slovakia); Polacek, Hubert [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia)

    2013-08-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions in the parapharyngeal space (a dissection and a pseudoaneurysm) may present as isolated lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, and XII) palsy (Collet-Sicard syndrome). Some arteriopathies such as fibromuscular dysplasia and tortuosity make a vessel predisposed to dissection. Extreme vessel tortuosity makes the treatment by a stent graft impossible. Two Silk stents were used in a 46 year-old man with left lower cranial nerves (IX-XII) palsy for the treatment of left ICA spontaneous dissection with pseudoaneurysm. A follow-up angiogram 5 months later confirmed pseudoaneurysm thrombosis and patency of the left ICA. The patient recovered completely from the deficits.

  18. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario; Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo; Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max; Raz, Eytan; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  19. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Radiology, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliero Brotzu (A.O.B.), Department of Radiology, di Cagliari (Italy); Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max [Neuroradiology Division, Neuroradiology, UVA Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Raz, Eytan [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Rome (Italy); Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Vascular Surgery, di Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-10-18

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  20. Evidence for shear stress-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Howard Henry; Atkinson, Ceri L; Heinonen, Ilkka H A

    2016-01-01

    increases carotid shear stress, a known stimulus to vasodilation in other conduit arteries. To explore the hypothesis that shear stress contributes to hypercapnic internal carotid dilation in humans, temporal changes in internal and common carotid shear rate and diameter, along with changes in middle......-mediated dilation of larger conduit arteries in humans. There was a strong association between change in shear and diameter of the internal carotid (r=0.68; Pstress is an important stimulus for hypercapnic vasodilation of the internal carotid...

  1. Risk of Stroke or Death Is Associated With the Timing of Carotid Artery Stenting for Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis: A Secondary Data Analysis of the German Statutory Quality Assurance Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsantilas, Pavlos; Kuehnl, Andreas; Kallmayer, Michael; Knappich, Christoph; Schmid, Sofie; Breitkreuz, Thorben; Zimmermann, Alexander; Eckstein, Hans-Henning

    2018-03-27

    Subgroup analyses from randomized trials indicate that the time interval between the neurologic index event and carotid artery stenting is associated with periprocedural stroke and death rates in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis. The aim of this article is to analyze whether this observation holds true under routine conditions in Germany. Secondary data analysis was done on 4717 elective carotid artery stenting procedures that were performed for symptomatic carotid stenosis. The patient cohort was divided into 4 groups according to the time interval between the index event and intervention (group I 0-2, II 3-7, III 8-14, and IV 15-180 days). Primary outcome was any in-hospital stroke or death. For risk-adjusted analyses, a multilevel multivariable regression model was used. The in-hospital stroke or death rate was 3.7% in total and 6.0%, 4.4%, 2.4%, and 3.0% in groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Adjusted analysis showed a decreased risk for any stroke or death in group III, a decreased risk for any major stroke or death in groups III and IV, and a decreased risk for any death in groups II and III compared to the reference group I. A short time interval between the neurologic index event and carotid artery stenting of up to 7 days is associated with an increased risk for stroke or death under routine conditions in Germany. Although results cannot prove causal relationships, carotid artery stenting may be accompanied by an increased risk of stroke or death during the early period after the index event. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. Preoperative symptom type influences the 30-day perioperative outcomes of carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Patrick J; Brothers, Thomas E; Gillespie, David L; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Stoner, Michael C; Siami, Flora S; Kenwood, Christopher T; Goodney, Philip P

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of presenting symptom types on 30-day periprocedural outcomes of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) in contemporary vascular practice. Retrospective review was undertaken of the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Registry database subjects who underwent CEA or CAS from 2004 to 2011. Patients were grouped by discrete 12-month preprocedural ipsilateral symptom type: stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), transient monocular blindness (TMB), or asymptomatic (ASX). Risk-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were used to compare the likelihood of the 30-day outcomes of death, stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) and the composite outcomes of death + stroke and death + stroke + MI. Symptom type significantly influences risk-adjusted 30-day outcomes for carotid intervention. Presentation with stroke predicted the poorest outcomes (death + stroke + MI composite: OR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-2.03 vs TIA; OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.18-5.57 vs TMB; OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.46-3.08 vs ASX), followed by TIA (death + stroke + MI composite: OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 0.91-4.25 vs TMB; OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.14-2.33 vs ASX). For both CAS and CEA patients, presentation with stroke or TIA predicted a higher risk of periprocedural stroke than in ASX patients. Presentation with stroke predicted higher 30-day risk of death with CAS but not with CEA. MI rates were not affected by presenting symptom type. The 30-day outcomes for the TMB and ASX patient groups were equivalent in both treatment arms. Presenting symptom type significantly affects the 30-day outcomes of both CAS and CEA in contemporary vascular surgical practice. Presentation with stroke and TIA predicts higher rates of periprocedural complications, whereas TMB presentation predicts a periprocedural risk profile similar to that of ASX disease. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carotid endarterectomy in cervical block anesthesia in patients with occluded contralateral internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilijevski Nenad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of modern carotid surgery is relief of symptoms, stroke prevention, improvement in quality of life, prevention of vascular dementia, and prolongation of lifetime. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to compare the outcome of carotid endarterectomy in cervical block vs. general anesthesia in patients with occluded contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA. METHOD: One hundred patients (76 male, 24 female, mean age 60.81 years with occluded contralateral ICA were operated from 1997-2000. Neurological symptomatology, deficiency and stroke incidence were preoperatively analyzed in two groups. Duplex-scanning, angiograms and CT-scan confirmed the diagnosis. Risk factors analysis included hypertension, diabetes, lipid metabolism disorders, smoking and history of CAD, CABG and PAOD. Morbidity and mortality were used to compare the outcome of surgery in two groups. RESULTS There was no difference of age, gender and symptomatology between the groups. Paresis, TIA and dysphasia were most frequent. 70%-90% of ICA stenosis was seen in the majority of patients. Hypertension and smoking were dominant risk factors in these two groups. Eversion carotid end arterectomy was the most frequent technique used. In three cases out of nine that were operated under cervical block, the neurological symptoms developed just after clamping, so the intra-luminal shunt was placed. Postoperative morbidity was 12% and mortality was 8%. Conclusion: There was no difference of preoperative parameters, surgical technique and outcome in these two groups. Without other intraoperative monitoring, cervical block anesthesia might be an option in patients with the occlusion of the contralateral ICA. However, prospective studies involving more patients are needed.

  4. Endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms of cavernous and ophthalmic segment of internal carotid artery with flow diverter device Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevsek, Marko; Mounayer, Charbel; Seruga, Tomaz

    2016-12-01

    Intra-arterial treatment of aneurysms by redirecting blood flow is a newer method. The redirection is based on a significantly more densely braided wire stent. The stent wall keeps the blood in the lumen of the stent and slows down the turbulent flow in the aneurysms. Stagnation of blood in the aneurysm sac leads to the formation of thrombus and subsequent exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate flow diverter device Pipeline for broad neck and giant aneurysm treatment. Fifteen patients with discovered aneurysm of the internal carotid artery were treated between November 2010 and February 2014. The majority of aneurysms of the internal carotid artery were located intradural at the ophthalmic part of the artery. The patients were treated using a flow diverter device Pipeline, which was placed over the aneurysm neck. Treatment success was assessed clinically and angiographically using O'Kelly Marotta scale. Control angiography immediately after the release of the stent showed stagnation of the blood flow in the aneurysm sac. In none of the patients procedural and periprocedural complications were observed. 6 months after the procedure, control CT or MR angiography showed in almost all cases exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation and normal blood flow in the treated artery. Neurological status six months after the procedure was normal in all patients. Treatment of aneurysms with flow diverter Pipeline device is a safe and significantly less time consuming method in comparison with standard techniques. This new method is a promising approach in treatment of broad neck aneurysms.

  5. Novel PARADIGM in carotid revascularisation: Prospective evaluation of All-comer peRcutaneous cArotiD revascularisation in symptomatic and Increased-risk asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis using CGuard™ MicroNet-covered embolic prevention stent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musialek, Piotr; Mazurek, Adam; Trystula, Mariusz; Borratynska, Anna; Lesniak-Sobelga, Agata; Urbanczyk, Malgorzata; Banys, R Pawel; Brzychczy, Andrzej; Zajdel, Wojciech; Partyka, Lukasz; Zmudka, Krzysztof; Podolec, Piotr

    2016-08-05

    Our aim was to determine (1) periprocedural and 30-day clinical safety and efficacy of the CGuard MicroNet-covered embolic prevention carotid stent system (MN-EPS) in routine use for unselected carotid stenosis (CS) patients undergoing CAS, as well as (2) feasibility of MN-EPS post-dilatation optimisation to minimise residual stenosis after CAS. This was a non-industry-funded, prospective academic study in all-referrals-tracked symptomatic and asymptomatic CS. In asymptomatic lesions, intervention was mandated only in case of increased stroke risk CS features. There was independent neurologist evaluation before CAS, at 48 hours and 30 days. There was external source data verification, angiographic core lab, and statistical analysis. Over 11 months, 108 referrals were recommended by the NeuroVascular Team for revascularisation: 101 (51-86 years, 55 symptomatic, evolving stroke in nine) underwent 106 (100% MN-EPS use) neuroprotection device-assisted (46% proximal, 54% distal) CAS; CEA was performed in seven. MN-EPS device success was 99.1%. Angiographic diameter stenosis was reduced from 83±9% to 6.7±5% (pcomer CS lesion subsets, and (2) are consistent with MN-EPS protection against cerebral events extending throughout the stent healing period.

  6. Internal carotid artery agenesis: A case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Kusum; Gupta, Nishant; Kumar, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Congenital agenesis of the internal carotid artery is a very rare anomaly. Intracranial circulation in the involved internal carotid artery territory is maintained by collateral circulation from the contralateral internal carotid artery through the anterior communicating artery and from the vertebrobasilar system through the posterior communicating artery. Usually, patients with internal carotid artery agenesis are asymptomatic due to collateral circulation, but they may present with headache, seizures, or transient ischemic attack. Aneurysms have also been reported to be associated with this entity. Computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography are commonly used modalities to make the diagnosis. Unenhanced skull base computed tomography will show the absence of carotid canal, thus differentiating from carotid hypoplasia. We report on a case of right internal carotid artery agenesis with discussion of embryogenesis, clinical presentation, and imaging findings. PMID:28424012

  7. Stent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Stent URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002303.htm Stent To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A stent is a tiny tube placed into a hollow structure in your ...

  8. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion Associated with the Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pria Anand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old woman presented with a right-hemispheric stroke 1 year after she had suffered a left-hemispheric stroke. Her diagnostic workup was notable for bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries at their origins and a positive lupus anticoagulant antibody test. There was no evidence of carotid dissection or another identifiable cause for her carotid occlusions. These findings suggest that the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome may be implicated in the pathological changes that resulted in occlusions of the extracranial internal carotid arteries. Young stroke patients who present with unexplained internal carotid artery occlusions may benefit from testing for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies.

  9. Interventional therapy of traumatic pseudoaneurysms in internal carotid artery siphon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jun; Shang Jianqiang; Chen Jie; Li Fengxin; Liu Yanjun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the methods and results of treating traumatic pseudoaneurysms in siphon segment of internal carotid artery (ICA)by interventional therapy. Methods: Twelve cases of traumatic pseudoaneurysms in siphon segment of internal carotid artery were treated. The collateral circulation of Willis circle was observed after DSA. Different methods of treatment were applied according to the collateral circulation of Willis circle. Ten cases were treated by occlusion of ICA completely, 1 case was embolized by guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) only. Results: Nine of 12 treated by occlusion of ICA were cured. In the 3 cases who had poor collateral of Willis circle, one was cured by GDC embolization alone; one died 48 hours later after ICA occlusion though his consciousness and the activity of extremities were normal during the temporary balloon test occlusion (BTO) of ICA. One died during the training to improve the collateral of the Willis circle. Conclusion: ICA embolization is feasible for treatment of traumatic pseudoaneurysms in siphon segment of internal carotid artery after evaluating the collateral circulation of Willis circle. (authors)

  10. Giant aneurysm of internal carotid artery presenting features of retrobulbar neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Madhumati

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a man who presented with in the features of left optic nerve compression. CT scan and carotid angiography demonstrated an unruptured giant aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery possibly kinking the optic nerve. Carotid ligation in the neck saved both life and vision.

  11. Association between age and risk of stroke or death from carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting: a meta-analysis of pooled patient data from four randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, George; Roubin, Gary S; Jansen, Olav; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Halliday, Alison; Fraedrich, Gustav; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Calvet, David; Bulbulia, Richard; Bonati, Leo H; Becquemin, Jean-Pierre; Algra, Ale; Brown, Martin M; Ringleb, Peter A; Brott, Thomas G; Mas, Jean-Louis

    2016-03-26

    Age was reported to be an effect-modifier in four randomised controlled trials comparing carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA), with better CEA outcomes than CAS outcomes noted in the more elderly patients. We aimed to describe the association of age with treatment differences in symptomatic patients and provide age-specific estimates of the risk of stroke and death within narrow (5 year) age groups. In this meta-analysis, we analysed individual patient-level data from four randomised controlled trials within the Carotid Stenosis Trialists' Collaboration (CSTC) involving patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis. We included only trials that randomly assigned patients to CAS or CEA and only patients with symptomatic stenosis. We assessed rates of stroke or death in 5-year age groups in the periprocedural period (between randomisation and 120 days) and ipsilateral stroke during long-term follow-up for patients assigned to CAS or CEA. We also assessed differences between CAS and CEA. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Collectively, 4754 patients were randomly assigned to either CEA or CAS treatment in the four studies. 433 events occurred over a median follow-up of 2·7 years. For patients assigned to CAS, the periprocedural hazard ratio (HR) for stroke and death in patients aged 65-69 years compared with patients younger than 60 years was 2·16 (95% CI 1·13-4·13), with HRs of roughly 4·0 for patients aged 70 years or older. We noted no evidence of an increased periprocedural risk by age group in the CEA group (p=0·34). These changes underpinned a CAS-versus CEA periprocedural HR of 1·61 (95% CI 0·90-2·88) for patients aged 65-69 years and an HR of 2·09 (1·32-3·32) for patients aged 70-74 years. Age was not associated with the postprocedural stroke risk either within treatment group (p≥0·09 for CAS and 0·83 for CEA), or between treatment groups (p=0·84). In these RCTs, CEA was clearly superior to CAS in

  12. Treatment Strategy Based on Plaque Vulnerability and the Treatment Risk Evaluation for Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshiro; Tsuruta, Wataro; Nakai, Yasunobu; Takigawa, Tomoji; Marushima, Aiki; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Matsumaru, Yuji; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Matsumura, Akira

    2018-03-03

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) are not appropriate treatment procedure for internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS) in some patients. The importance of plaque vulnerability and the treatment risk evaluation has been reported. We analyzed whether treatment selection contributes to the outcome. We retrospectively examined 121 patients who underwent CEA or CAS. Treatment was selected based on plaque vulnerability and the treatment risk evaluation. We selected CAS for patients with stable plaques and CEA for patients with unstable plaques, and considered the other treatment for high-risk patients. The patients were classified as the stable plaque (Stable: n = 42), the unstable plaque and CEA low risk (Unstable/Low: n = 30), and the CEA high-risk (Unstable/High: n = 49). Frequency of perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, death, and systemic complications was examined. CEA and CAS were performed in 35 and 86 patients, respectively. One patient (2.9%) had a stroke in CEA and five patients (5.8%) in CAS (P = 0.50). Systemic complications were observed in two patients (5.7%) in CEA and six (7.1%) in CAS (P = 0.80). There were no differences in stroke (Stable; 2.4%, Unstable/Low; 3.2%, and Unstable/High; 8.2%) and systemic complications (Stable; 9.5%, Unstable/Low; 3.3%, and Unstable/High; 6.1%) among three groups (P = 0.44 and P = 0.59, respectively). The treatment selection based on plaque vulnerability and the treatment risk evaluation could provide good treatment outcome for high-risk patients. It is ideal to select an appropriate treatment for ICAS by one neurovascular team.

  13. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  14. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  15. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients.

  16. Demographic And Technical Risk Factors Of 30-Day Stroke, Myocardial Infarction, And/Or Death In Standard And High Risk Patients Who Underwent Carotid Angioplasty And Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yousefi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS is an accepted treatment to prevent stroke in patients with carotid artery stenosis. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for major complications after carotid angioplasty and stenting. Methods and Material: This is a prospective study conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in southern Iran from March 2011 to June 2014. Consecutive patients undergoing carotid angioplasty and stenting were enrolled. Both standard risk and high risk patients for endarterectomy were enrolled. Demographic data, atherosclerotic risk factors, site of stenosis, degree of stenosis, and data regarding technical factors were recorded. 30-day stroke, myocardial infarction, and/or death were considered as the composite primary outcome of the study. Results:  two hundred and fifty one patients were recruited (mean age: 71.1+ 9.6 years, male: 65.3%.  One hundred and seventy eight (70.9% patients were symptomatic; 73 (29.1%, 129 (51.4%, 165 (65.7% and 62 (24.7% patients were diabetic, hyperlipidemic, hypertensive and smoker respectively. CAS performed for left ICA in 113 (45.4% patients. 14 (5.6% patients had Sequential bilateral stenting. Mean stenosis of operated ICA was 80.2 +13.8 %. Embolic protection device was used in 203 (96.2% patients. Predilation and post-dilation were performed in 39 (18.5% and 182 (86.3% patients respectively. Composite outcome was observed in 3.6% (3.2% stroke, 0% myocardial infarction and 1.2% death. Left sided lesions and presence of DM was significantly associated with poor short term outcome. (P value: 0.025 and 0.020, respectively Conclusion: There was a higher risk of short term major complications in diabetic patients and left carotid artery intervention.

  17. The role of embolic protection devices during carotid stenting prior to cardiac surgery in asymptomatic patients: empty filters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heyden, Jan; Wolters, Frank J; Garin, Nathalie; Blant, Snezana Andrejevic; Inglin, Marc; Bal, E T; Suttorp, Jan-Maarten

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the debris captured in the distal protection filters used during carotid artery stenting (CAS). CAS is an option available to high-risk patients requiring revascularization. Filters are suggested for optimal stroke prevention during CAS. From May 2005 to June 2007, filters from 59 asymptomatic patients who underwent CAS were collected and sent to a specialized laboratory for light-microscope and histological analysis. Peri- and postprocedural outcomes were assessed during 1-year follow-up. On the basis of biomedical imaging of the filter debris, the captured material could not be identified as embolized particles from the carotid plaque. On histological analysis the debris consisted mainly of red blood cell aggregates and/ or platelets, occasionally accompanied by granulocytes. We found no consistent histological evidence of embolized particles originating from atherosclerotic plaques. Post-procedure, three neurological events were reported: two (3.4%) transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and one (1.7%) ipsilateral minor stroke. The filters used during CAS in asymptomatic patients planned for cardiac surgery often remained empty. These findings may be explained by assuming that asymptomatic patients feature a different atherosclerotic plaque composition or stabilization through antiplatelet medication. Larger, randomized trials are clearly warranted, especially in the asymptomatic population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. New cerebral lesions at magnetic resonance imaging after carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy: an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Gargiulo

    Full Text Available Carotid endarterectomy (CEA or stenting (CAS are associated with a relatively low rate of clinical events, but diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI is increasingly being used to compare the incidence of new ischemic lesions. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on the occurrence of post-procedural new DWI lesions after CAS versus CEA.MEDLINE, Cochrane, ISI Web of Science and SCOPUS databases were searched and 20 studies (2 randomized and 18 non-randomized with a total of 2104 procedures (CAS = 989; CEA = 1115 were included. The incidence of new DWI cerebral lesions was significantly greater after CAS than CEA (40.3% vs 12.2%; 20 studies; 2104 patients; odds ratio [OR] 5.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.31-8.06; p<0.00001. Also peri-procedural stroke (17 studies; 1833 patients; OR 2.01; 95% CI, 1.14-3.55; p=0.02 and stroke or TIA (17 studies; 1833 patients; OR 2.40; 95% CI, 1.42-4.08; p=0.001 were significantly increased after CAS. This latter clinical advantage in the CEA group over CAS was tempered when CEA procedures were performed with shunting in all instead of selective shunting or when CAS was performed with only closed cell stents instead of both closed and open cell stents, however, no significant differences between subgroups emerged.CAS is associated with an increased incidence of post-procedural brain DWI lesions. This greater amount of ischemic burden may also reflect a higher rate of cerebral events after CAS. However, whether recent technical advances mainly for CAS could potentially reduce these ischemic events still remains to be evaluated.

  19. Early results of endovascular treatment of patients with bilateral stenoses of the internal carotid arteries using proximal protection systems at 30-day follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latacz, Paweł; Simka, Marian; Popiela, Tadeusz; Kazibudzki, Marek; Mrowiecki, Tomasz

    Although surgical endarterectomy remains the treatment of choice for carotid artery stenosis, carotid artery stenting (CAS) with use of proximal protection systems (PPS) plays an very important role as alternative treatment modality, especially in patients with critical, symptomatic lesions. This study was single-centre study to evaluate the technical and clinical success of proximal protection devices as the first choice for embolic protection in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis in patients with bilateral, advanced lesions of carotid arteries (bilateral stenoses or stenosis and occlusion). This was a post hoc analysis, with 30-day follow up. We analyzed results of treatment of 38 patients who underwent 38 CAS with PPS, 17 such procedures in asymptomatic (group A), and 21 in symptomatic individuals (group B). The GORE ® Flow Reversal System (W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ, USA) was used in 2 patients, and the Mo.Ma Ultra device (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) in 36 patients. Mean age was 68±7 years, 65% percent of patient were male. There were no procedural and during 30-day follow-up neurologic events. Intolerance of occlusion system occurred in 4 patients (11%) in both groups with any later symptoms. Risk factors of this adverse event comprised: lesions of the left internal carotid lesion and coexisiting diabetes mellitus. CAS in high risk patients with bilateral lesions of carotid arteries with the use of PPS seems to be a relatively very safe procedure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  20. Análise morfométrica da carótida de suínos submetidos a angioplastia com ou sem implante de stent de cromo-cobalto Morphometric analysis of swine carotid artery angioplasty with or without cobalt-chromium stent implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz de Lara Elesbão

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: A hiperplasia intimal é a reação tardia mais comum decorrente da angioplastia. O uso de stents de cromo-cobalto é bem estudado na circulação coronariana, porém não há muitos estudos que abordem o uso desses stents nas circulações carotídea e periférica. Objetivo: Analisar mediante morfometria a reação intimal presente na artéria carótida de suínos submetidos a angioplastia isoladamente e a angioplastia seguida de implante de stent de cromo-cobalto. Materiais e métodos: Em oito suínos, foi realizada angioplastia da artéria carótida comum direita e angioplastia seguida de implante de um stent de cromo-cobalto na artéria carótida comum esquerda. Após 4 semanas, os animais foram submetidos a eutanásia para a retirada de amostras de tecido arterial e preparo de lâminas histológicas. As imagens das lâminas foram digitalizadas e analisadas por programa de morfometria digital. A análise estatística foi realizada através da média e desvio padrão das áreas em cada grupo, utilizando-se o Teste t de Student. O valor de p Background: Intimal hyperplasia is the most common delayed response to angioplasty. The use of cobalt-chromium stents is well studied in the coronary circulation; however, there are few studies on their use in the carotid and peripheral circulation. Objective: To analyze the intimal reaction in a swine carotid artery undergoing simple angioplasty and angioplasty followed by implantation of cobalt-chromium stent. Materials and methods: We carried out angioplasty in the right common carotid artery and angioplasty with cobalt-chromium stent in the left common carotid artery in eight swine. Four weeks later, all animals were sacrificed for arterial tissue sampling and preparation of histological slides. Slide images were scanned and analyzed using a digital morphometry program. Statistical analysis was performed by mean values and standard deviations of the areas in each group, using the Student's t

  1. Recurring extracranial internal carotid artery vasospasm detected by intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Tomohisa; Tanahashi, Norio

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman presented with headache and left-sided focal signs following multiple episodes of right monocular visual impairment. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed a decreased vascular image intensity due to a suspicious stenosis in the right internal carotid artery (ICA). The stenosis was not demonstrated on duplex sonography as it was beyond the field of view of the investigation. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) revealed that the outer vessel diameter was significantly reduced during stenosis, supporting the presence of vasospasm. Idiopathic recurrent extracranial ICA vasospasm was diagnosed. Recurrent vasospasms of extracranial ICA may be a distinct entity that can cause ischemic stroke.

  2. Agenesis of the internal carotid artery with a large hemangioma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murotani, K.; Hiramoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    Total developmental absence of the internal carotid artery is relatively rare, with only 54 cases previously reported. Most, being without neurological symptoms, were found by chance. For this patient with cavernous hemangiomas in the facial, oral and cervical regions, conventional treatment would be embolization of the feeding vessels, combined with ligation of the external carotid artery. Angiography, however, revealed agenesis of the left internal carotid artery, abnormal origin of the aortic arch and azygos anterior cerebral artery. (orig./MG)

  3. The use of virtual reality for training in carotid artery stenting: a construct validation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, M.; Reznick, R.; Lystig, T.

    2008-01-01

    difference in video-gaming habits was demonstrated. Conclusion: With the exception of the metrics of performance time and fluoroscopic use, construct validity of the Procedicus-VIST carotid metrics were not confirmed. Virtual reality simulation as a training method was valued more by novices than...

  4. The normal internal carotid artery: a computed tomography angiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, Suvi Maaria; Valanne, Leena; Silvennoinen, Heli [Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Department of Radiology, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki (Finland); Soinne, Lauri [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Neurology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-09-15

    Systematic computed tomography angiographic (CTA) studies investigating variation in internal carotid artery (ICA) luminal diameters (LDs) are scarce. Knowledge of the normal intra-individual LD variability would provide a cut-off value for detection of more subtle collapses. In addition, low intra-individual variability would allow using contralateral LD as a reference for estimation of stenosis degree in cases where ipsilateral measurement is hampered. Therefore, our aim was to investigate intra-individual LD variation of normal ICA. We retrospectively collected multidetector high-speed CTAs of 104 patients younger than 40 years who were considered not to have carotid pathology. We carried out independent measurements of the common carotid artery (CCA) and ICA LDs bilaterally from axial source images by two observers, analysing side-to-side LD differences from averaged double measurements with a paired t test. We discovered no significant side-to-side LD differences. In the female group, the mean differences (mm) with 95 % confidence intervals were 0.08 (0.00, 0.17) for CCA and 0.03 (-0.04, 0.11) for ICA, with ICA LD standard deviation of 0.4 mm. In the male group, these were: 0.06 (-0.04, 0.17), 0.02 (-0.07, 0.11) and 0.4 mm, respectively. We detected no ICA agenesis. The intrinsic intra-individual variation of the LD of normal ICA is minimal. This uniformity may serve as the basis for detection of subtle grades of side-to-side variation caused by pathology. (orig.)

  5. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems for analysis of internal carotid arterial Doppler signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derya Ubeyli, Elif; Güler, Inan

    2005-10-01

    In this study, a new approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was presented for detection of internal carotid artery stenosis and occlusion. The internal carotid arterial Doppler signals were recorded from 130 subjects that 45 of them suffered from internal carotid artery stenosis, 44 of them suffered from internal carotid artery occlusion and the rest of them were healthy subjects. The three ANFIS classifiers were used to detect internal carotid artery conditions (normal, stenosis and occlusion) when two features, resistivity and pulsatility indices, defining changes of internal carotid arterial Doppler waveforms were used as inputs. To improve diagnostic accuracy, the fourth ANFIS classifier (combining ANFIS) was trained using the outputs of the three ANFIS classifiers as input data. The proposed ANFIS model combined the neural network adaptive capabilities and the fuzzy logic qualitative approach. Some conclusions concerning the impacts of features on the detection of internal carotid artery stenosis and occlusion were obtained through analysis of the ANFIS. The performance of the ANFIS model was evaluated in terms of classification accuracies and the results confirmed that the proposed ANFIS classifiers have some potential in detecting the internal carotid artery stenosis and occlusion. The ANFIS model achieved accuracy rates which were higher than that of the stand-alone neural network model.

  6. Duplex-assisted carotid artery stenting without administration of contrast medium for patients with chronic kidney disease or allergic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizowaki, Takashi; Fujita, Atsushi; Imahori, Taichiro; Uyama, Atsushi; Inoue, Satoshi; Kohta, Masaaki; Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Sasayama, Takashi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the safety and feasibility of duplex-assisted carotid artery stenting (CAS) without administration of contrast medium for the prevention of adverse reactions. Fifteen patients (9 % of all CASs) with severe carotid stenosis (≥70 %) associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (stage ≥3) or allergy to contrast medium underwent duplex-assisted CAS without administration of contrast medium over 4 years. The procedural success rate and perioperative complication rates were compared between the duplex-assisted CAS (n = 15) and conventional CAS (n = 153) groups. The technical success rate was 100 % in both groups. Combined stroke or death rates during the post-procedural period did not differ significantly between the duplex-assisted CAS group (0/15, 0 %) and conventional CAS group (4/153, 2.6 %). None of the 14 patients with CKD in the duplex-assisted CAS group experienced further deterioration of renal function. The mean surface radiation dose of participants in the duplex-assisted CAS group (n = 13, 312 ± 131 mGy) was significantly lower than that of the conventional CAS group (n = 31, 1036 ± 571 mGy) (p < 0.001). The mean duration of CAS procedure was not significantly different between the duplex-assisted CAS group (156 ± 39.7 min) and the conventional CAS group (156 ± 37.4 min). Duplex-assisted CAS without administration of contrast medium could be an alternative option in selected patients deemed to be at high risk for renal failure from nephrotoxic contrast medium or who have an allergy to contrast medium.

  7. Isolated vagus nerve paralysis associated with internal carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hideki; Kusuyama, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2014-02-01

    Dysphagia and hoarseness caused by laryngopharyngeal paralysis associated with internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection is rare. We reported a case which recovered spontaneously. A 57-year old man visited our hospital complaining of dysphagia and hoarseness lasting for two weeks. Paralysis of right vocal fold and rotational movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall toward the left side during swallowing were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed under diagnosis of isolated right vagus nerve paralysis, and dissection of the right ICA was revealed. He was treated conservatively, and both of laryngopharyngeal movement and the ICA dissection were improved completely. There is a possibility that laryngeal paralysis caused by ICA dissection has been misdiagnosed as an idiopathic paralysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unilateral Agenesis of the Internal Carotid Artery in CHARGE Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ming Chang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CHARGE syndrome is a multisystemic disorder comprising colobomas, heart defects, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies and deafness. The CHD7 gene on chromosome 8q12.1 was recently shown to be a major gene involved in the etiology of this syndrome. We describe a girl with CHARGE syndrome who had a novel mutation of CHD7 associated with agenesis of the left internal carotid artery. She had presented with recurrent episodes of photophobia and vomiting since the age of 6 years. Since her symptoms were well controlled by cyproheptadine, migraine-like attacks were considered. CHD7 molecular confirmation in this patient provides further evidence to support the occurrence of a vascular anomaly suggested from animal models of CHARGE syndrome with molecular delineation. We report this case to emphasize the importance of neurologic signs of photophobia and to highlight the broad clinical variability in this pleiotropic disorder.

  9. Decreased hyperintense vessels on FLAIR images after endovascular recanalization of symptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenhua; Yin Qin; Yao Lingling; Zhu Shuanggen; Xu Gelin; Zhang Renliang; Ke Kaifu; Liu Xinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hyperintense vessels (HV) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were assumed to be explained by slow antegrade or retrograde leptomeningeal collateral flow related to extracranial or intracranial artery steno-occlusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recanalization after endovascular therapy of symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion on the presence of HV. Methods: Eleven patients with symptomatic ICA occlusion were retrospectively enrolled. Changes in the HV on FLAIR images were examined in affected hemisphere of each patient after successful treatment with endovascular recanalization (angioplasty, n = 3; stent-assisted angioplasty, n = 8). The relationship between postoperative changes in the HV and Thrombolysis In Cerebral Ischemia (TICI) scale (I-III) was assessed. Results: After operation, HV of the 11 affected hemispheres were showed to be decreased (n = 3) or disappeared (n = 8) in treated side. The median interval between pre- and postoperative MRI examinations was 97.0 h (range, from 69. to 48.7 h). Of the 8 patients with disappeared HV, 7 achieved high TICI grade flow (III) and 1 had relatively low TICI grade flow (IIc) in treated side. However, all the 3 patients with decreased HV were found to be relatively low TICI grade flow (IIc). Conclusion: Our data indicate that endovascular recanalization of ICA occlusion was effective for decreasing HV. Postoperative decrease in HV can be considered as a marker for hemodynamic improvement.

  10. Delayed Presentation of an Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm and Massive Epistaxis Secondary to a Nasal Foreign Body: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsevman, Gennadiy A; Braca, John A; Welch, Kevin C; Ashley, William W

    2016-08-01

    Epistaxis is a very common medical condition and can often be controlled with conservative measures. Rarely, uncontrolled and life-threatening epistaxis can occur. We present the case of a 58-year-old man who developed delayed, massive epistaxis caused by an extracranial left internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm caused by an intranasal foreign object without apparent recent trauma. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular stenting of the affected vessel segment. Massive epistaxis is a potentially lethal condition. Although the source uncommonly originates from the internal carotid artery, pseudoaneurysm rupture needs to be considered on the differential diagnosis in selected patients. This case illustrates the need for vigilance for the presence of foreign objects and/or vessel injuries in the setting of acute, massive epistaxis. Additionally, we describe treatment options and review the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Classical surgical approach and treatment with clips of extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm

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    Haris Vukas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We can define extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA as bulb dilatation greater than 200% of the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA or in a case of common carotid artery (CCA greater than 150% of the diameter. Surgical intervention is required for the treatment of this disease.Case report: This study presents an open vascular surgical procedure to resolve ECAA. We report a case of 61 years old woman with an extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm, presented with a headache and dizziness when turning the head aside. Classic open surgery was performed and the lumen of berry aneurysm was separated with three clips from the lumen of ICA.Conclusions: The open surgical approach is the method of choice for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery pathological conditions.

  12. Separate origins of the internal and external carotid arteries depicted on CT angiography: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwang Ho [Dept. of horacic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Beak, Hye Jin; Jung, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Agenesis of the common carotid artery (CCA) is a rare congenital anomaly. We presented a rare case of unilateral congenital absence of the right CCA with separate origins of the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries from the brachiocephalic artery. Further, we reviewed the embryological mechanism and clinical importance of this anomaly.

  13. Vascular tone and reactivity to serotonin in the internal and external carotid vascular beds of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, H; Hong, E

    1976-04-01

    The effects of intra-arterial infusions of serotonin on internal and external carotid blood flow were determined in anesthetized dogs by electromagnetic flow measurements. Serotonin decreased flow in the internal carotid and increased it in the external carotid. Both responses were blocked by the serotonin antagonist methysergide. The alpha adrenergic antagonist zolertine, the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine and the vasodilator diazoxide blocked external carotid dilator responses but did not modify constriction in the internal carotid. Blockade of external carotid responses by the three drugs was also demonstrated in experiments in which this bed was perfused at a constant rate. These results indicate that the internal and external carotid vascular beds of the dog react in opposite ways to serotonin, that both responses are mediated through the same type of serotonin receptors and that the dilator responses of the external carotid are dependent on vascular tone.

  14. The use of virtual reality for training in carotid artery stenting: a construct validation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, M.; Reznick, R.; Lystig, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Given that carotid artery stenosis (CAS) intervention is procedurally difficult, possesses an extensive learning curve, and involves a grave list of potential complications, construct validation of new non-clinical training devices is of increasing importance. Purpose: To evaluate...... the construct validity of the Procedicus-Virtual Interventional Simulator Trainer (Procedicus-VIST) and its use as a training tool. Material and Methods: Sixteen interventionalists (15 males, one female; mean interventional radiology [IR] experience >11 years) and 16 medical students (15 males, one female...... recorded), tool/vessel ratio, coverage percentage, and placement accuracy or residual stenosis. Contrast measurement metrics were found to be too imprecise for statistical analysis. Experienced and novice opinions differed significantly for six of 10 subjective parameters. No statistically significant...

  15. Blood flows in the maxillocarotid anastomoses and internal carotid artery of conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M C; Reid, I A; Ramsay, D J

    1986-06-01

    Although the external carotid artery is known to contribute to the cerebral blood flow in anesthetized dogs, quantitative information on the anastomoses and their role in conscious dogs is lacking. This study was carried out to determine blood flows in these anastomoses and the internal carotid artery, and also to examine the functional significance of the anastomoses in conscious dogs. Fifteen-micron radioactive microspheres were injected into common and external carotid arteries of four conscious dogs through chronically implanted catheters. Blood flows were determined by the reference sample method and by comparing microsphere distributions in the brain and the masseter muscle. Blood flows were estimated to be 140 +/- 32, 7.7 +/- 1.4, and 3.3 +/- 1.1 ml/minute (mean +/- SD) in the common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, and anastomoses on each side, respectively. Additional evidence indicated that the anastomotic flow so determined was primarily the flow in the anastomotic artery. Humoral responses to angiotensin II infusions were also studied in conscious dogs. External carotid angiotensin increased plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroid concentration (used as an index of ACTH secretion) but did not increase plasma vasopressin concentration to the same extent as common carotid infusion. Therefore, the external carotid artery is functionally important in perfusing the brain in conscious dogs.

  16. Effect of white matter changes on risk score for peri-procedural complications after carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chun; Guo, Wen Cheng; Zhu, Lei; Tan, Jin Yun; Shi, Wei Hao; Zhang, Xiao Long; Gu, Yu Xiang; Han, Xiang; Dong, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The presence of more severe white matter changes (WMC) may be associated with a higher risk of peri-procedural strokes in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, to what extent WMC affects peri-procedural risk of CAS is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effect of WMC on peri-procedural complications by modifying a CAS peri-procedural risk scale through adding the assessment of WMC. A database of patients undergoing CAS was sampled from 2007 to 2014 in a single Chinese medical center. Risk factors were evaluated for peri-interventional cerebral and cardiac events and mortality. A risk score including contralateral stenosis ≥ 50%, diabetes with HbA1c > 7%, age ≥ 80 years old, symptomatic stenosis or with an ulcer lesion was applied to predict peri-interventional risk. Age-related white matter change (ARWMC) score was calculated and added to this risk scale. The predictive power of the new scale was evaluated. 151 patients were enrolled in the study. 14 peri-interventional events were recorded. Patients with peri-procedural complications had higher rates of diabetes (57.1% vs 18.2%, P = 0.001), contralateral stenosis (64.29% vs 32.85%, P = 0.019), coronary heart disease (42.9% vs 14.6%, P = 0.008) and ARWMC ≥ 7 (64.3% vs 25.5%, P = 0.002) compared with patients without peri-procedural complications. ARWMC ≥ 7 was an independent risk factor for peri-procedural complications from factors of the CAS scale after adjusting other confounders including contralateral stenosis ≥ 50%, HbA1c > 7%, age ≥ 80 years old and symptomatic stenosis or with an ulcer lesion. After the ARWMC score was added to the original scale, the AUC value of the new scale to predict the risk of peri-procedural complications after CAS was elevated (0.808 vs 0.730, p = 0.068). More severe WMC was a risk factor for peri-procedural complications after CAS in patients with carotid artery stenosis. ARWMC score may help to

  17. Serum Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, and MMP-9 in Patients Undergoing Carotid Artery Stenting and Regulation of MMP-9 in a New In Vitro Model of THP-1 Cells Activated by Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiological process after carotid artery stenting (CAS. Monocyte is a significant source of inflammatory cytokines in vascular remodeling. Telmisartan could reduce inflammation. In our study, we first found that, after CAS, the serum IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, and MMP-9 levels were significantly increased, but only MMP-9 level was elevated no less than 3 months. Second, we established a new in vitro model, where THP-1 monocytes were treated with the supernatants of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs that were scratched by pipette tips, which mimics monocytes activated by mechanical injury of stenting. The treatment enhanced THP-1 cell adhesion, migration and invasion ability, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1 and MMP-9 expression were significantly increased. THP-1 cells pretreated with PD98095 (ERK1/2 inhibitor attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1 and upregulation of MMP-9, while pretreatment with telmisartan merely decreased the phosphorylation of Elk-1 and MMP-9 expression. These results suggested that IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, and MMP-9 participate in the pathophysiological process after CAS. Our new in vitro model mimics monocytes activated by stenting. MMP-9 expression could be regulated through ERK1/2/Elk-1 pathway, and the protective effects of telmisartan after stenting are partly attributed to its MMP-9 inhibition effects via suppression of Elk-1.

  18. One swallow does not a summer make but many swallows do: accumulating clinical evidence for nearly-eliminated peri-procedural and 30-day complications with mesh-covered stents transforms the carotid revascularisation field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Musiałek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis (CS continues to be a common cause of acute ischaemic stroke. Optimised medical therapy (OMT, the first-line treatment modality in CS, may reduce or delay – but it does not abolish – CS-related strokes. As per current AHA/ASA and ESC/ESVS/ESO guidelines, carotid artery stenting (CAS is a less-invasive alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA for CS revascularisation in primary and secondary stroke prevention. Ten-year follow-up from the CREST trial in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic CS confirmed equipoise of CAS and CEA in the primary endpoint. Nevertheless CAS – using a widely open-cell, first-generation stent and first-generation (distal/filter neuroprotection – has been criticised for its relative excess of (mostly minor strokes by 30 days, a significant proportion of which were post-procedural. Atherosclerotic plaque protrusion through conventional carotid stent struts, confirmed on intravascular imaging, has been implicated as a leading mechanism of the relative excess of strokes with CAS vs. CEA, including delayed strokes with CAS. Different designs of mesh-covered carotid stents have been developed to prevent plaque prolapse. Several multi-centre/multi-specialty clinical studies with CGurad MicroNet-Covered Embolic Prevention Stent System (EPS and RoadSaver/Casper were recently published and included routine DW-MRI cerebral imaging peri-procedurally and at 30 days (CGuard EPS. Data from more than 550 patients in mesh-covered carotid stent clinical studies to-date show an overall 30-day complication rate of ~1% with near-elimination of post-procedural events. While more (and long-term evidence is still anticipated, these results – taken together with optimised intra-procedural neuroprotection in CAS (increased use of proximal systems including trans-carotid dynamic flow reversal and the positive 12-month mesh-covered stent data reports in 2017 – are transforming the carotid

  19. Traumatic intracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as epistaxis treated by endovascular coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jehani, Hosam M.; Alwadaani, Hassan A.; Almolani, Fadhel M.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of blunt trauma. It is even more rare when it presents as epistaxis. Massive epistaxis of a ruptured intracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a major cause of mortality, which requires emergency intervention. We report a case of traumatic intracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to skull base fracture, which presented with delayed onset of epistaxis. This was successfully treated by primary endovascular coil embolization. We discuss endovascular treatment options and review the literature. PMID:26818170

  20. Convexity subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to internal carotid stenosis: an indication for revascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrosa, Davinia; Ramon, Cesar; Benavente, Lorena; Calleja, Sergio

    2016-04-26

    With increasing prevalence due to an ageing population, carotid artery stenosis is a significant cause of stroke morbidity and mortality. The indication for revascularisation treatment in symptomatic carotid stenosis is widely documented and accepted in the scientific community. However, treatment of asymptomatic carotid stenosis remains controversial. We report a case of a 78-year-old woman who was admitted with a convexity subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH) secondary to an asymptomatic high-grade carotid artery stenosis. Two months later, she suffered an atherothrombotic ischaemic stroke and was referred to surgery. Transcranial Doppler studies showed impaired cerebral vasoreactivity and, after endarterectomy, the patient developed a reperfusion syndrome; both findings consisting of exhausted collaterals as the underlying mechanism. We propose that cSAH secondary to a high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis is a high risk marker for stroke, and revascularisation therapy should be considered. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Endovascular treatment of radiation-induced petrous internal carotid artery aneurysm presenting with acute haemorrhage. A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K.-M.; Chiu, H.-M.; Chan, C.-M.; Cheung, Y.-L.; Tang, K.-W.; Law, C.-K.

    2001-01-01

    Hemorrhage from rupture of petrous ICA aneurysm can be life threatening and emergency treatment is required. We report 2 cases of radiation-induced petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm presenting with acute hemorrhage (epistaxis and otorrhagia) after radiotherapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Both patients had a history of RT treatment for NPC. The first patient, a 54-year-old man, presented with sudden severe epistaxis and hemorrhagic shock. The second patient, a 35-year-old man, presented with episodes of severe otorrhagia. The first patient was immediately resuscitated. Obliteration of the aneurysm was performed by endovascular occlusion of the ICA with Guglielmi detachable coils and fibered platinum coils. For the second patient, the aneurysm was treated by deploying a self-expandable stent across the aneurysm neck. In an emergency situation, ruptured petrous ICA aneurysm can be treated with endovascular occlusion of the ICA with micro-coils if there is a good collateral blood flow. Alternatively, the aneurysm can be treated by deployment of a stent, which can induce stasis and eventual thrombosis of the aneurysm. (author)

  2. Surgical dissection of the internal carotid artery under flow control by proximal vessel clamping reduces embolic infarcts during carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ishii, Akira; Takahashi, Jun C; Takagi, Yasushi; Yamagata, Sen; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of flow control of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by the clamping of the common carotid artery, external carotid artery, and superior thyroid artery during surgical ICA dissection to reduce ischemic complications after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Sixty-seven patients (59 men; age, 70.5 ± 6.2 years) who underwent CEA by the same surgeon were retrospectively studied. Both conventional CEA (n = 29) and flow-control CEA (n = 38) were performed with the patient under general anesthesia and with the use of somatosensory-evoked potential and near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring as a guide for selective shunting. The number of new postoperative infarcts was assessed with preoperative and postoperative diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained within 3 days of surgery. In addition to surgical technique, the effects of the following factors on new infarcts also were examined: age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and application of shunting. New postoperative DWI lesions were observed in 7 of 67 patients (10.4%), and none of them was symptomatic. With respect to operative technique, the incidence rate of DWI spots was significantly lower in the flow-control group (2.6%) than in the conventional group (20.7%), odds ratio: 0.069; 95% confidence interval: 0.006-0.779; P = 0.031). On multiple logistic regression analysis, age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and the use of internal shunting did not have significant effects on new postoperative DWI lesions, whereas technique did have an effect. The proximal flow-control technique for CEA helps avoid embolic complications during surgical ICA dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebrospinal Fluid Enhancement on Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images After Carotid Artery Stenting with Neuroprotective Balloon Occlusions: Hemodynamic Instability and Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogami, Ryo; Nakahara, Toshinori; Hamasaki, Osamu; Araki, Hayato; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A rare complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS), prolonged reversible neurological symptoms with delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space enhancement on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, is associated with blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We prospectively identified patients who showed CSF space enhancement on FLAIR images. Methods: Nineteen patients—5 acute-phase and 14 scheduled—underwent 21 CAS procedures. Balloon catheters were navigated across stenoses, angioplasty was performed using a neuroprotective balloon, and stents were placed with after dilation under distal balloon protection. CSF space hyperintensity or obscuration on FLAIR after versus before CAS indicated CSF space enhancement. Correlations with clinical factors were examined. Results: CSF space was enhanced on FLAIR in 12 (57.1%) cases. Postprocedural CSF space enhancement was significantly related to age, stenosis rate, acute-stage procedure, and total occlusion time. All acute-stage CAS patients showed delayed enhancement. Only age was associated with delayed CSF space enhancement in scheduled CAS patients. Conclusions: Ischemic intolerance for severe carotid artery stenosis and temporary neuroprotective balloon occlusion, causing reperfusion injury, seem to be the main factors that underlie BBB disruption with delayed CSF space enhancement shortly after CAS, rather than sudden poststenting hemodynamic change. Our results suggest that factors related to hemodynamic instability or ischemic intolerance seem to be associated with post-CAS BBB vulnerability. Patients at risk for hemodynamic instability or with ischemic intolerance, which decrease BBB integrity, require careful management to prevent intracranial hemorrhagic and other post-CAS complications.

  4. Carotid endarterectomy with internal carotid artery segmental resection, temporary shunt and vein patch angioplasty: early and mid-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavée, V; Pirlet, I; Van San, P; Haxhe, J P

    2006-12-01

    The authors report an alternative procedure to carotid endarterectomy with internal carotid artery (ICA) segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis associated with temporary shunt and venous patch angioplasty. prospective cohort study. Between May 1995 and December 2004, 192 patients underwent 200 primary CEAs for significant ICA stenosis. There were 131 men and 61 women with a mean age of 72.4+/-8.4 years. The indications for CEA were asymptomatic lesions in 51.5%, transient ischemic attack in 27.5% and stroke in 21%. The combined early morbidity and mortality rate was 2%. Two patients died, one due to fatal intracerebral hemorrhage and the second patient died of acute mesenteric ischemia. Neurological complications occurred in 2 patients, including 1 TIA and 1 nondisabling cerebrovascular accident. Non-neurological complications occurred in 26 patients (13.5%). Seventeen patients (8.8%) developed hypertension, 3 neck hematomas (1.5%) required surgical evacuation, 1 patient had reversible supraventricular arrhythmia (0.5%) and 1 patient had pneumonia (0.5%). Furthermore, 1 asymptomatic carotid occlusion was identified (0.5%) and 3 patients suffered permanent cranial nerve injury (1.5%). Mean follow-up was 45.7 months and there were 41 late deaths (21.8%). Survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 96.7+/-1.2% and 73.58+/-4.2%, respectively. CEA with ICA shortening and reanastomosis is a safe and reliable procedure without any increase in morbidity or mortality.

  5. GALA: an international multicentre randomised trial comparing general anaesthesia versus local anaesthesia for carotid surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Dellagrammaticas Demosthenes; Torgerson David; Gough Moira; Banning Adrian P; Rothwell Peter M; Lewis Steff C; Colam Bridget; Horrocks Michael; Bodenham Andrew; Gough Michael J; Leigh-Brown Anne; Liapis Christos; Warlow Charles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who have severe narrowing at or near the origin of the internal carotid artery as a result of atherosclerosis have a high risk of ischaemic stroke ipsilateral to the arterial lesion. Previous trials have shown that carotid endarterectomy improves long-term outcomes, particularly when performed soon after a prior transient ischaemic attack or mild ischaemic stroke. However, complications may occur during or soon after surgery, the most serious of which is stroke, w...

  6. Correlation of Neurological Symptoms and Breath Holding Index Values in Patients With Severe Internal Carotid Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zavoreo, Iris; Aleksić-Shibabi, Anka; Demarin, Vida

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of cerebral vasoreactivity measurement in the follow up of patients with severe internal carotid stenosis. We used breath holding index (BHI) as a quantitative parameter of cerebral vasoreactivity and functional state of cerebral hemodynamics. We evaluated data of 150 patients with high grade carotid stenosis (definition according to standardized criteria of the Cerebrovascular Laboratory, Reference Center for Neurovascular Disorders of the Minist...

  7. Progressing takayasu arteritis successfully treated by common carotid-internal carotid crossover bypass grafting: technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiu, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Naoki; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

    2008-05-01

    This report describes a unique case of Takayasu arteritis with occlusion of the left common carotid artery (CCA) and the right internal carotid artery (ICA), which was successfully treated by right CCA-left ICA crossover bypass grafting using the saphenous vein. The histological findings of the original occluded prosthetic graft are also described. A 63-year-old woman with a history of Takayasu arteritis was admitted to our hospital with a history of progressive dizziness, frequent syncopal attacks, and repetitive blurred vision in the left eye. She had undergone repeat transthoracic bypass surgeries, including grafting with the use of a Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Flagstaff, AZ) prosthesis between the left external ilioaxillary bypass and the left CCA. However, cerebral angiography demonstrated total occlusion of the left CCA, the right ICA, and the bilateral subclavian arteries. On admission, I-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography showed a decreased cerebrovascular reactivity to acetazolamide in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres. Moreover, cerebral angiography revealed an occlusion of the Gore-Tex graft, whereas the left ICA was opacified through the retrograde filling in the left external carotid artery. Crossover bypass grafting was performed using the saphenous vein between the right CCA and the left ICA. The Gore-Tex graft was partially removed, and myointimal hypertrophy with an inflammatory response around the wall was found histologically. The postoperative course was uneventful. A normalized cerebrovascular reserve in both cerebral hemispheres was demonstrated on I-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography. Although it is not frequently indicated, crossover bypass grafting using the saphenous vein between bilateral carotid arteries is considered to be a feasible alternative procedure in patients with Takayasu arteritis.

  8. Safety and effectiveness of the INVATEC MO.MA proximal cerebral protection device during carotid artery stenting: results from the ARMOUR pivotal trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansel, Gary M; Hopkins, L Nelson; Jaff, Michael R; Rubino, Paolo; Bacharach, J Michael; Scheinert, Dierk; Myla, Subbarao; Das, Tony; Cremonesi, Alberto

    2010-07-01

    The multicenter ARMOUR (ProximAl PRotection with the MO.MA Device DUring CaRotid Stenting) trial evaluated the 30-day safety and effectiveness of the MO.MA Proximal Cerebral Protection Device (Invatec, Roncadelle, Italy) utilized to treat high surgical risk patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). Distal embolic protection devices (EPD) have been traditionally utilized during CAS. The MO.MA device acts as a balloon occlusion "endovascular clamping" system to achieve cerebral protection prior to crossing the carotid stenosis. This prospective registry enrolled 262 subjects, 37 roll-in and 225 pivotal subjects evaluated with intention to treat (ITT) from September 2007 to February 2009. Subjects underwent CAS using the MO.MA device. The primary endpoint, myocardial infarction, stroke, or death through 30 days (30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events [MACCE]) was compared to a performance goal of 13% derived from trials utilizing distal EPD. For the ITT population, the mean age was 74.7 years with 66.7% of the cohort being male. Symptomatic patients comprised 15.1% and 28.9% were octogenarians. Device success was 98.2% and procedural success was 93.2%. The 30-day MACCE rate was 2.7% [95% CI (1.0-5.8%)] with a 30-day major stroke rate of 0.9%. No symptomatic patient suffered a stroke during this trial. The ARMOUR trial demonstrated that the MO.MA(R) Proximal Cerebral Protection Device is safe and effective for high surgical risk patients undergoing CAS. The absence of stroke in symptomatic patients is the lowest rate reported in any independently adjudicated prospective multicenter registry trial to date. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Current Approaches for Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Köksal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent neurologic injuries and death following stroke, necessitates more vigorous treatment of carotid disease. Carotid stenting and carotid endarterectomy are treatment options in many centers besides medical treatment. Whether the patient is symptomatic or asymtomatic, indications and management strategies for treatment remain controversial. Despite the debate, carotid endarterectomy is still accepted to be the most efficientintervention to decrease risk of stroke due to carotid artery stenosis.

  10. The subpetrous carotid wall hematoma. A sign of spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery on non-enhanced computed tomography. A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen-Kondering, U.; Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel; Huhndorf, M.; Madjidyar, J.; Jansen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery (CAD) is an increasingly recognized cause for stroke especially in young and middle-aged patients. We hypothesized that non-enhanced cranial computed tomography (NECCT) can visualize the subpetrous carotid wall hematoma and thus enable identification of patients with CAD. We retrospectively reviewed patients with confirmed CAD (n=21) and a control group with ischemic symptoms but without CAD (n=42) who received NECCT at admission. Two independent neuroradiologists rated the presence and shape of SPH, density and diameter of the subpetrous internal carotid artery. Additionally, we correlated the shape of the subpetrous carotid wall hematoma with the grade of stenosis on subsequent angiographic imaging. The subpetrous carotid wall hematoma was present in 14 of 21 patients (Cohen's k = 0.67). Mean diameter was 6.95 ± 1.05 mm in dissected vessels and 5.71 ± 1.52 mm in the contralateral vessel (p<0.05). Mean difference in vessel density was 15.05 ± 8.01 HU (p<0.01). Median grade of stenosis was significantly higher in patients with a full moon- shaped (n=11) than crescent-shaped (n=3) subpetrous carotid wall hematoma (21% vs. 80%, p<0.05). Two-thirds of patients with CAD were correctly identified on NECCT. The extracranial carotid artery should be evaluated in patients with symptoms of cerebral ischemia.

  11. The subpetrous carotid wall hematoma. A sign of spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery on non-enhanced computed tomography. A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen-Kondering, U. [Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Neuroradiology; Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Huhndorf, M.; Madjidyar, J.; Jansen, O. [Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Neuroradiology

    2015-03-15

    Spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery (CAD) is an increasingly recognized cause for stroke especially in young and middle-aged patients. We hypothesized that non-enhanced cranial computed tomography (NECCT) can visualize the subpetrous carotid wall hematoma and thus enable identification of patients with CAD. We retrospectively reviewed patients with confirmed CAD (n=21) and a control group with ischemic symptoms but without CAD (n=42) who received NECCT at admission. Two independent neuroradiologists rated the presence and shape of SPH, density and diameter of the subpetrous internal carotid artery. Additionally, we correlated the shape of the subpetrous carotid wall hematoma with the grade of stenosis on subsequent angiographic imaging. The subpetrous carotid wall hematoma was present in 14 of 21 patients (Cohen's k = 0.67). Mean diameter was 6.95 ± 1.05 mm in dissected vessels and 5.71 ± 1.52 mm in the contralateral vessel (p<0.05). Mean difference in vessel density was 15.05 ± 8.01 HU (p<0.01). Median grade of stenosis was significantly higher in patients with a full moon- shaped (n=11) than crescent-shaped (n=3) subpetrous carotid wall hematoma (21% vs. 80%, p<0.05). Two-thirds of patients with CAD were correctly identified on NECCT. The extracranial carotid artery should be evaluated in patients with symptoms of cerebral ischemia.

  12. Temporary metal internal stent dilation for colorectal obstruction and effect on operation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Niwei; Cheng Yingsheng; Fan Youben; Jin Huimin; Xu Huimin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the methods and clinical value of temporary internal metal stent through endoscopy under X ray control for treating patients with malignant colorectal obstruction. Methods: 27 patients with malignant colorectal obstruction were treated by temporary metallic internal stent placement via endoscopy under the X ray guidance. Results: 27 patients with colorectal obstruction symptoms were all got rid of the trouble within 48 hours after the stent placement. Selective stage I colorectal cancer resection and anastomosis were performed after bowel preparation. Conclusions: Metallic internal stent placement can loosen the colorectal obstructive symptoms with higher successful rate via endoscopy under X ray control and furthermore for promotion of stage I colorectal cancer resection and anastomosis. (authors)

  13. Clinical features of 10 patients with spontaneous cervical internal carotid artery dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoya, Harumitsu; Takeda, Hidetaka; Dembo, Tomohisa; Kato, Yuzi; Deguchi, Ichiro; Fukuoka, Takuya; Maruyama, Hazime; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Tanahashi, Norio

    2011-01-01

    We clinically investigated 10 patients with spontaneous cervical internal carotid artery dissections (age range 36-70, mean 52±12 years; 8 male and 2 female) who were admitted to our university hospital between August 2002 and 2009. Cervical internal carotid artery dissection was diagnosed using findings from MRI, MR angiography (MRA), 3D-CTA, cerebral angiography, and carotid artery ultrasonography according to the diagnostic criteria of brain artery dissociation defined by the brain artery dissociation working group of the Strategies Against Stroke Study for Young Adults in Japan. The initial symptoms were stroke in eight patients, only neck pain in another, and no symptoms in the last. Four patients (40%) had neck pain or headache at onset. Five of the 10 patients had radiological improvements within three months after onset. The outcomes at three months were relatively good, with seven and three patients scoring 1 and 2, respectively, on the modified Rankin Scale. Disease did not recur in any patients during an average of 17.2 months of follow up. Spontaneous cervical internal carotid artery dissection is not rare in Japan. This condition should be considered when patients present with internal carotid artery occlusion or stenosis. (author)

  14. Treatment of unruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysms: internal trapping or stent-assisted coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Xi-Feng; Zhang, Xin; He, Xu-Ying; Duan, Chuan-Zhi; Liu, Yan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular treatment is an attractive approach for the treatment of unruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysms, and includes internal trapping and stent-assisted coil embolization. However, the optimal therapy remains debatable. We reviewed our experience with both endovascular treatment modalities and compared the safety, efficacy, and short-term outcomes for each approach. We retrospectively reviewed 65 consecutive patients with unruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysms who underwent endovascular treatment between January 2003 and January 2014. 24 patients underwent endovascular internal trapping (group A) while 41 patients underwent stent-assisted coiling (group B). Thirteen patients underwent single stent with coiling while 28 patients underwent double or three stent-assisted coiling. Short-term outcomes were evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale. A favorable clinical outcome was achieved in 58 of 65 patients. Procedure-related complications included ischemic symptoms (n = 6) and recurrence (n = 4). There was no statistical difference in modified Rankin Scale scoring between groups. Group A patients had more ischemia symptoms compared with group B patients (p = 0.043), Group B patients had higher recurrence rates compared with group A patients, but the difference had no statistical significance (p = 1.00). However, recurrence only occurred in patients who underwent stent-assisted coiling alone (p = 0.046). Stent-assisted coiling for unruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysms may maintain artery patency. Multilayer disposition of stents with coils may decrease complications and facilitate aneurysm occlusion. Larger, prospective studies are necessary to determine the long-term outcomes of reconstructive therapy.

  15. Unilateral dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery: spectrum of imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mendonca, J.L.F.; Viana, S.L.; Freitas, F.M.O.; Matos, V.L.; Viana, M.A.C.B.; Silva, R.F.; Quaglia, L.A.N.; Guerra, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a broad term comprising hypoplasia, aplasia and agenesis of the vessel. It is a rare anomaly, often clinically silent, that can be confidently diagnosed by means of noninvasive imaging methods. After a review of teaching files, 7 patients with unilateral carotid dysgenesis were found, 2 with agenesis of the ICA, 3 with carotid aplasia, and 2 with hypoplasia of the vessel. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the brain were performed in all patients, with a complete magnetic resonance of the brain in 3 of them, a CT angiography of the brain in one, and MRA of the cervical arteries in 3. The fetal pattern of arterial circulation was found in 3 patients with agenesis/aplasia of the ICA and the adult pattern was found in 2 patients, being the brain circulation of normal pattern in the patients with hypoplasia of the ICA. Two patients presented signs of reduced flow to the brain hemisphere ipsilateral to the carotid dysgenesis; one of them with an old homolateral brain infarction. Far from being just an anatomic curiosity, the dysgenesis of the ICA may have serious consequences if not recognized prior to endarterectomies, carotid ligation or transsphenoidal surgery. As much as one-third of these patients will have intracranial aneurysms as well. The imaging methods, instead being mutually exclusive, are complementary in the evaluation of carotid dysgenesis. (author)

  16. Unilateral dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery: spectrum of imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mendonca, J.L.F.; Viana, S.L.; Freitas, F.M.O.; Matos, V.L. [Magnetic Resonance Dept., Clinica Radiologica Vila Rica, Brasilia (Brazil)], E-mail: radiolog@uol.com.br; Viana, M.A.C.B. [Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal, Brasilia (Brazil); Silva, R.F. [Diagnostik, Hospital das Clinicas de Brasilia, Brasilia (Brazil); Quaglia, L.A.N. [Hospital Santa Lucia, Brasilia (Brazil); Guerra, J.G. [Hospital Regional de Taguatinga, Brasilia (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    Dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a broad term comprising hypoplasia, aplasia and agenesis of the vessel. It is a rare anomaly, often clinically silent, that can be confidently diagnosed by means of noninvasive imaging methods. After a review of teaching files, 7 patients with unilateral carotid dysgenesis were found, 2 with agenesis of the ICA, 3 with carotid aplasia, and 2 with hypoplasia of the vessel. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the brain were performed in all patients, with a complete magnetic resonance of the brain in 3 of them, a CT angiography of the brain in one, and MRA of the cervical arteries in 3. The fetal pattern of arterial circulation was found in 3 patients with agenesis/aplasia of the ICA and the adult pattern was found in 2 patients, being the brain circulation of normal pattern in the patients with hypoplasia of the ICA. Two patients presented signs of reduced flow to the brain hemisphere ipsilateral to the carotid dysgenesis; one of them with an old homolateral brain infarction. Far from being just an anatomic curiosity, the dysgenesis of the ICA may have serious consequences if not recognized prior to endarterectomies, carotid ligation or transsphenoidal surgery. As much as one-third of these patients will have intracranial aneurysms as well. The imaging methods, instead being mutually exclusive, are complementary in the evaluation of carotid dysgenesis. (author)

  17. Concomitant unruptured intracranial aneurysms and carotid artery stenosis: an institutional review of patients undergoing carotid revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkon, Matthew J; Hoang, Han; Rockman, Caron; Mussa, Firas; Cayne, Neal S; Riles, Thomas; Jafar, Jafar J; Veith, Frank J; Adelman, Mark A; Maldonado, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of concomitant carotid artery stenosis and unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) has been reported at between 0.5% and 5%. In these patients, treatment strategies must balance the risk of ischemic stroke with the risk of aneurysmal rupture. Several studies have addressed the natural course of UIAs in the setting of carotid revascularization; however, the final recommendations are not uniform. The purpose of this study was to review our institutional experience with concomitant UIAs and carotid artery stenosis. We performed a retrospective review of all patients with carotid artery stenosis who underwent carotid artery endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS) at our institution between 2003 and 2010. Only patients with preoperative imaging demonstrating intracranial circulation were included. Charts were reviewed for patients' demographic and clinical data, duration of follow-up, and aneurysm size and location. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: carotid artery stenosis with unruptured intracranial aneurysm (CS/UIA) and carotid artery stenosis without intracranial aneurysm (CS). Three hundred five patients met the inclusion criteria and had a total of 316 carotid procedures (CAS or CEA) performed. Eleven patients were found to have UIAs (3.61%) prior to carotid revascularization. Male and female prevalence was 2.59% and 5.26% (P = 0.22), respectively. Patients' demographics did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. The average aneurysm size was 3.25 ± 2.13 mm, and the most common location was the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. No patient in the study had aneurysm rupture, and the mean follow-up time was 26.5 months for the CS/UIA group. Concomitant carotid artery stenosis and UIAs is a rare entity. Carotid revascularization does not appear to increase the risk of rupture for small aneurysms (<10 mm) in the midterm. Although not statistically significant, there was a higher incidence of aneurysms found in

  18. Internal carotid artery agenesis associated with a rare collateral pathway: supraclinoid-supraclinoid anastomosis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jung Hee; Chang, Hyuk Won; Kim, Ji Min; Cho, Ho Chan; Kim, Sang Hyon; Hong, Ji Hee; Kim, Sung Jin; Jeong, Hea Woong

    2016-03-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) agenesis is an infrequent vascular anomaly, less than 0.01% of the population. Here we report a case of internal carotid agenesis with a rare collateral pathway, via supraclinoid ICA anastomosis to the contralateral supraclinoid ICA.

  19. Hybrid endovascular and surgical approach for mycotic pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mazzaccaro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mycotic pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery are rare, and their management often represents a challenge, but treatment is necessary due to the high risk of rupture and distal brain embolization. Systemic antibiotics associated with open surgical excision of the infected tissues and carotid reconstruction using autologous grafts are the treatment of choice. The use of endovascular techniques still remains controversial in infective fields; however, it can be an attractive alternative in high-risk patients or more often as a “temporary” solution to achieve immediate bleeding control for a safe surgical reconstruction. Methods: We discuss the unusual case of an extracranial right internal carotid artery mycotic pseudoaneurysm following methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection, in a patient with poor general conditions. Results and Conclusion: The lesion was successfully treated using a hybrid endovascular and surgical procedure.

  20. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Segmental Agenesis: Embryology, Common Collateral Pathways, Clinical Presentation, and Clinical Importance of a Rare Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Andrea M; Visconti, Emiliano; Schiarelli, Chiara; Frassanito, Paolo; Pedicelli, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    Bilateral segmental agenesis of the internal carotid artery is a rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of bilateral internal carotid artery segmental agenesis in an asymptomatic 18-year-old man. Embryology, common collateral pathways, clinical presentation, and clinical importance of this condition are discussed. According to our review of the literature, this report is the first to describe bilateral internal carotid artery segmental agenesis in a patient studied with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, Doppler ultrasonography, and digital subtraction angiography. An 18-year-old man presented to our hospital complaining of occasional mild headaches. Neurologic examination was unremarkable. Imaging findings consisted of bilateral segmental agenesis of the internal carotid arteries. Bilateral segmental agenesis of internal carotid artery may be completely asymptomatic and harmless, but associated conditions, such as cerebral aneurysms or abnormal collateral circulation, should alert clinicians to the possibilities of subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hemodynamically significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery treated with endarterectomy. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Engell, Hans; Lindewald, H

    1984-01-01

    Repeated cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements with xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission tomography were performed in a patient suffering a minor stroke with subsequent orthostatic-provoked transient ischemic attacks (TIA's). Angiography revealed a thread-like internal carotid artery ...

  2. Mandibular subluxation for distal internal carotid artery exposure in edentulous patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Gijs W.; Witjes, Max J.; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Reintsema, Harry; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2009-01-01

    Four patients with high internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease were indicated for surgical endarterectomy and needed additional exposure be-sides regular head rotation and extension. When indicated, in our clinic this is usually achieved by mandibular subluxation with interdental wiring.

  3. Eighteen cases of tortuosity of the internal carotid. Usefulness of MR-angiography in diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiya, Yoshinori; Chiba, Shintaro; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Yasutaka; Ohta, Masaji.

    1995-01-01

    There have been few reports on tortuosity of the internal carotid exhibiting pulsation or swelling in the pharyngeal wall. Because this disease carries the risk of causing massive hemorrhage at the time of incision of a peritonsillar abscess, surgical treatment of the adenoids, or tonsillectomy, otolaryngologists should be aware of the existence of this disorder as a risk factor. We encountered tortuosity of the internal carotid in the pharynx in 18 cases over an approximately two year period. Females (15 cases) outnumbered males (3 cases), and the mean age was 68 years at the time of diagnosis. There was no right-to-left difference in terms of the incidence of the disease. The complication of hypertension was noted in 10 cases. MR-Angiography (MRA) was performed in 13 cases, and very clear images were obtained ; this technique was useful for diagnosing this disorder. For the most part, contrast angiography has been employed for the diagnosis of this disorder, but various complications, including deaths, have been reported. As the incidence of tortuosity of the internal carotid is high in the elderly, it is thought that any complication which may occur has the potential to become serious. Non-invasive diagnostic techniques are thus recommended. MRA is absolutely non-invasive, and we therefore believe that this technique should be the modality of first choice for diagnosing tortuosity of the internal carotid. (author)

  4. Giant cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a child: endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeroglu, M.; Arat, A.; Cekirge, S.; Akpinar, E. [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Eryilmaz, A.; Akmansu, H. [Ankara Numune Research and Education Hospital, ENT Department, Ankara (Turkey); Koeroglu, Kale B. [Ankara Numune Research and Education Hospital, Internal Medicine Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-10-01

    We report a child with a giant upper cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm presenting with dysphagia, respiratory distress and a sentinel mild epistaxis, then massive epistaxis. Rupture of the pseudoaneurysm during treatment occurred, as in one reported case. Prompt endovascular treatment yielded a good outcome. (orig.)

  5. Giant cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a child: endovascular treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeroglu, M.; Arat, A.; Cekirge, S.; Akpinar, E.; Eryilmaz, A.; Akmansu, H.; Koeroglu, Kale B.

    2002-01-01

    We report a child with a giant upper cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm presenting with dysphagia, respiratory distress and a sentinel mild epistaxis, then massive epistaxis. Rupture of the pseudoaneurysm during treatment occurred, as in one reported case. Prompt endovascular treatment yielded a good outcome. (orig.)

  6. Cerebral ischemic lesions detected with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging after carotid artery stenting: Comparison of several anti-embolic protection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud M; Maeda, Masayuki; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Toma, Naoki; Yamamoto, Akitaka; Hirose, Tomofumi; Miura, Youichi; Fujimoto, Masashi; Matsushima, Satoshi; Taki, Waro

    2009-09-01

    Distal embolism is an important periprocedural technical complication with carotid angioplasty and carotid artery stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of protection devices used during CAS by detecting new cerebral ischemic lesions using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 95 patients who underwent 98 CAS procedures: 34 using single PercuSurge GuardWire, 31 using double balloon protection, 15 using proximal flow reverse protection devices, 14 using Naviballoon, and 4 using filter anti-embolic devices. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed preoperatively and postoperatively to evaluate the presence of any new embolic cerebral lesions. Postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging revealed 117 new ischemic lesions. Three patients had new ischemic stroke, two minor and one major, all ipsilateral to the treated carotid artery. The remaining patients had clinically silent ischemia. The incidence of new embolic lesions was lower using the proximal flow reverse protection device than with the double balloon protection (33% vs. 48.4%), but the volume of ipsilateral new ischemic lesions per patient was 136.6 mm(3) vs. 86.9 mm(3), respectively. Neuroprotection with Naviballoon yielded ipsilateral lesions of large volume (86.6 mm(3)) and higher number (5.7 lesions per patient) than using the filter anti-embolic device (34.8 mm(3) and 1 lesion per patient). New cerebral ischemic lesions after neuroprotected CAS are usually silent. The lower incidence of distal ischemia using proximal flow reverse and double balloon protection devices is limited by the larger volume and higher number of ischemic lesions.

  7. Cerebral ischemic lesions detected with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging after carotid artery stenting. Comparison of several anti-embolic protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, M.M.; Maeda, Masayuki; Sakaida, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Distal embolism is an important periprocedural technical complication with carotid angioplasty and carotid artery stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of protection devices used during CAS by detecting new cerebral ischemic lesions using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 95 patients who underwent 98 CAS procedures: 34 using single PercuSurge GuardWire, 31 using double balloon protection, 15 using proximal flow reverse protection devices, 14 using Naviballoon, and 4 using filter anti-embolic devices. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed preoperatively and postoperatively to evaluate the presence of any new embolic cerebral lesions. Postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging revealed 117 new ischemic lesions. Three patients had new ischemic stroke, two minor and one major, all ipsilateral to the treated carotid artery. The remaining patients had clinically silent ischemia. The incidence of new embolic lesions was lower using the proximal flow reverse protection device than with the double balloon protection (33% vs. 48.4%), but the volume of ipsilateral new ischemic lesions per patient was 136.6 mm 3 vs. 86.9 mm 3 , respectively. Neuroprotection with Naviballoon yielded ipsilateral lesions of large volume (86.6 mm 3 ) and higher number (5.7 lesions per patient) than using the filter anti-embolic device (34.8 mm 3 and 1 lesion per patient). New cerebral ischemic lesions after neuroprotected CAS are usually silent. The lower incidence of distal ischemia using proximal flow reverse and double balloon protection devices is limited by the larger volume and higher number of ischemic lesions. (author)

  8. Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery diagnosed during investigation of trigeminal neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Sawada, A.; Kudo, S. [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga (Japan); Hirakawa, N.; Totoki, T. [Department of Anesthesiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Congenital absence of the unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) was found in a patient during MR imaging examination for right trigeminal neuralgia. Magnetic resonance angiography showed complete absence of the right ICA and a large tortuous basilar artery (BA). The source images revealed a deformed right trigeminal nerve resulting from compression by the BA. Computed tomography of the skull base showed absence of the right carotid canal, suggesting agenesis of the right ICA. Longstanding hemodynamic stress may have caused the BA to become extremely tortuous, resulting in the trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.)

  9. Goldenhar Syndrome Associated with Contralateral Agenesis of the Internal Carotid Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Elisa; Ormitti, Francesca; Crisi, Girolamo; Sesenna, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Summary Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is an extremely rare vascular anomaly. Aplasia and displacement of the horizontal portion of the petrous carotid artery have been described in a patient with mandibulofacial dysostosis. To the best of our knowledge, the association between Goldenhar syndrome and ipsilateral ICA agenesis has emerged only in one case documented in the medical literature to date. We describe here a case that illustrates the association of Goldenhar syndrome with contralateral agenesis of the ICA incidentally detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging and subsequently confirmed on magnetic resonance angiography and high resolution computed tomography. PMID:24750700

  10. Internal carotid artery dissection following chiropractic treatment in a pregnant woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton Adam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A case of internal carotid artery dissection in a pregnant woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE immediately following chiropractic treatment is presented. The literature regarding complications of neck manipulation during pregnancy, spontaneous dissection of craniocervical arteries in pregnancy and the postpartum period, and dissection of craniocervical arteries in SLE are reviewed. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first case of carotid artery dissection following chiropractic treatment in a pregnant woman published in the literature.

  11. Shear-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery occurs independent of hypercapnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiland, Ryan L; Smith, Kurt J; Carter, Howard Henry

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for shear stress as a regulator of carotid artery dilation in response to increased arterial CO2 was recently demonstrated in humans during sustained elevations in CO2 (hypercapnia); however, the relative contributions of CO2 and shear stress to this response remains unclear. We examined...... vasodilatory function and health in humans.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Shear stress dilates the internal carotid artery in humans. This vasodilatory response occurs independent of other physiological factors, as demonstrated by our transient CO2 test, and is strongly correlated to shear area under the curve. Assessing...

  12. Congenital horner syndrome with heterochromia iridis associated with ipsilateral internal carotid artery hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Fabrice C; Coulier, Julie; Rommel, Denis; Boschi, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    Horner syndrome (HS), also known as Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome or oculosympathetic palsy, comprises ipsilateral ptosis, miosis, and facial anhidrosis. We report herein the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with congenital HS associated with ipsilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA), as revealed by heterochromia iridis and confirmed by computed tomography (CT). CT evaluation of the skull base is essential to establish this diagnosis and distinguish aplasia from agenesis/hypoplasia (by the absence or hypoplasia of the carotid canal) or from acquired ICA obstruction as demonstrated by angiographic CT.

  13. Changes in Doppler waveforms can predict pressure reduction across internal carotid artery stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia can result from either embolism or be due to hemodynamic failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Doppler waveforms, obtained distal to an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, could predict the degree of hemodynamic compromise in terms of reduction in cerebral...... perfusion pressure. Forty-nine patients were examined consecutively with ultrasound Doppler prior to carotid endarterectomy. Pulsatility index (PI), pulse rise-time (RT), and systolic width (SW) were related to angiographic degree of stenosis and the ratio of distal ICA blood pressure to common carotid...... be predicted with an accuracy of 90-95%. Correlating the waveform parameters with arteriography was less convincing, reaching the level of statistical significance for PI only. ICA Doppler waveforms, obtained as distal in the neck as possible can accurately predict the degree of hemodynamic compromise...

  14. Identification of critical areas of carotid stent navigation by measurement of resistive forces in vitro, using silicone phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.; Kesavadas, T.; Baier, R.E.; Hoffmann, K.R.; Schafer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Manipulation of surgical tools in neuro-endovascular surgery presents problems that are unique to this procedure. Navigating tools through arterial complexities without appropriate visual or force feedback information often causes tool snagging, plaque dislocations and formation of thrombosis from the damage of the arterial wall by the tools. Identifying the critical areas in the vasculature during navigation of endovascular tools, will not only ensure safer surgical planning but also reduce risks of vessel damage. In the present research, resistive forces of stent navigation were measured in-vitro using silicone phantoms and clinically relevant surgical devices. The patterns of variation of the forces along the path of the stent movement were analyzed and mapped along the path of stent movement using a color code. It was observed that the forces changed along the length of the vessel, independent of the insertion length but based on the curvature of the vessel and the contact area of the device in the vessel lumen. (orig.)

  15. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis: state of the art management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, A R

    2013-02-01

    In 2011, numerous guidelines were updated to advise on the optimal management of patients with asymptomatic carotid disease. Despite being based on interpretation of the same body of literature, there was actually little international consensus. Whilst we now know much more about what constitutes "state of the art" medical management, we still cannot identify the small proportion of "high risk for stroke" patients in whom to target carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting. This is essential, as about 95% of patients undergoing either treatment strategy will ultimately undergo an unnecessary intervention. There is compelling evidence that the annual risk of stroke (on medical therapy) in patients with asymptomatic carotid disease has declined significantly. Guideline makers cannot continue to extrapolate rationales for justifying "mass interventions" in contemporary practice that are based on historical trial data. Accordingly, there is no consensus as to what should be considered "state of the art" management of asymptomatic carotid disease.

  16. Carotid endarterectomy: The procedure of choice for carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Savitr Sastri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is the commonest cause of neurological morbidity and mortality. Carotid endarterectomy has been shown to be beneficial in preventing ischemic strokes in patients with significant stenosis of the carotid artery, both in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Carotid artery stenting has been proposed as an alternative to CEA for this population. This paper reviews the available literature on carotid endarterectomy comparing it to the best medical therapy and carotid artery stenting in the prevention of ischemic strokes in patients with carotid stenosis. The use of newer imaging techniques and tools to redefine the existing idea of "asymptomatic" stenosis and post procedural strokes has also been reviewed. We present a concise review of existing data that shows unequivocally that endarterectomy still remains superior to stenting and best medical therapy as of now.

  17. Mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery - report of a case and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Edilene Cristina do; Silva, Ivone Martins da

    1998-01-01

    The authors report a case of mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery in a 4-year-old- male child, resulting from tonsillar infection. The authors relate the difficulties to initially suggest the diagnosis, stress the importance of the differential diagnosis particularly in children and describe the findings on conventional films, US colour-Doppler, CT and carotid digital subtraction angiography. (author)

  18. Simple aspiration with balloon catheter technique (simple ABC technique) against proximal internal carotid artery occlusion in cases of cardiogenic cerebral embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Akitake; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Shinagawa, Katsuhiro; Yamada, Naoto

    2018-01-01

    Background In cases of acute ischemic stroke, manual aspiration of the thrombus is commonly performed with a balloon guiding catheter placed in the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). However, most manual aspirations using a balloon guiding catheter are combined with inner catheters, as in the direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT). We experienced some cases of acute ischemic stroke with proximal ICA occlusion due to cardiogenic thrombus where we obtained sufficient recanalization by simple manual aspiration from inflated Optimo 9F balloon catheters (Tokai Medical Products, Japan) placed in the origin of the cervical segment of the ICA without any inner catheter or stent retriever. We perform by preference this procedure, named the simple Aspiration with Balloon Catheter (simple ABC) technique. Herein, we report two recent cases and discuss this procedure. Case presentation Case 1: An 80-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed left ICA occlusion. We performed the simple ABC technique and obtained a large amount of dark red and white thrombus. Puncture-to-reperfusion time was 14 minutes with Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) grade 3. Case 2: A 69-year-old man with chronic atrial fibrillation developed left internal carotid occlusion. We performed the simple ABC technique and obtained a large amount of dark red thrombus. Puncture-to-reperfusion time was 15 minutes with TICI grade 2b. Conclusion The simple ABC technique is useful to deal with a large amount of thrombus, shortens procedure time, enables less invasive thrombectomy, and can shift immediately to subsequent procedures such as delivering a stent retriever or ADAPT.

  19. Balloon test occlusion of the internal carotid artery with stable xenon/CT cerebral blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erba, S.M.; Horton, J.A.; Latchaw, R.E.; Yonas, H.; Sekhar, L.; Schramm, V.; Pentheny, S.

    1988-01-01

    We describe a technique to predict preoperatively the safety of permanently occluding an internal carotid artery. The method was performed by imaging stable xenon cerebral blood flow (CBF) with the internal carotid artery both open and temporarily occluded with a nondetachable balloon on a double lumen Swan-Ganz catheter. Patients were those in whom we planned to sacrifice the internal carotid artery (those with giant or inaccessible aneurysms) or those in whom such a sacrifice was at least likely (those with skull base tumors). Patients were divided into three groups on the basis of a comparison of occluded and nonoccluded CBF values. Group-I patients had no significant change in CBF with internal carotid artery occlusion; group-II patients showed a symmetric decrease in CBF; and group-III patients had an asymmetric decrease in CBF, always greater on the occluded side. A fourth group clinically failed to tolerate even brief carotid occlusion. The internal carotid artery in one patients from group III was sacrificed at surgery: the size and shape of his postoperative infarct corresponded almost exactly to the area of asymmetrically decreased CBF on his occluded study. The data suggest that if surgery is likely to result in permanent occlusion of the internal carotid artery, then patients who are at risk for delayed neurologic injury due to a compromised cerebral blood flow should have arterial bypass grafts before such surgery is performed

  20. Whole Cerebral Blood Flow Originating From Vertebral Arteries After Bilateral Internal Carotid Arteries Occlusion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Pour Rashidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral occlusion of internal carotid arteries is a rare condition usually associated with severe neurological symptoms. It is very uncommon finding among patients with ischemic stroke. In this article, we report a rare case of bilateral occlusion of internal carotid artery who presented with mild reversible neurological symptoms. Angiographic evaluation of her cerebral vasculature revealed no flow across the both cervical internal carotid arteries, but a run off through both posterior communicating arteries from the vertebrobasilar system. We performed a review of the pertinent literature and discussed different management option in these patients.

  1. Self-made Palmaz stent: an experimental swine model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shicheng; Teng Gaojun; Guo Jinhe; Fang Wen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the histologic changes and physicochemical stability of self-made Palmaz stent placed in swine arteries. Methods: The self-made Palmaz stent was made of 316L stainless steel wire. Nine stents were respectively placed within internal carotid, renal and iliac arteries of six pigs. Pigs were euthanized at intervals of 0.5, 1 and 3 months respectively and angiography were performed. Immediately followed by light and electro scanning microscopy for the stent zones. Results: All stents were successfully implanted in the target arteries and were patent shown in the angiographic examination immediately after the stent placement. Eight stents (8/9) remained patent at the time before euthanasia. No migration of stent were shown in the follow-up angiography. Light and electron scanning microscopy showed that the surface of the stents was covered by a thin layer of endothelial cells 2 weeks after the procedure and completely covered after 4 weeks. No inflammation occurred. Conclusions: The self-made Palmaz stent has good physicochemical stability and histocompatibility with easy placement, rather long term patency, histopathologic stability and thus the promising for clinical application

  2. Cerebral perfusion imaging with albumin microspheres tagged with Tc-99m and In-111 in cases with internal carotid occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etani, H; Kimura, K; Yoneda, S; Tsuda, Y; Isaka, Y; Nakamura, M; Asai, T

    1982-09-01

    Cerebral perfusion imaging with dual-tracer (Tc-99m and In-111) human albumin microspheres (HAM scintigraphy) was performed in 15 cases with unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery, for the diagnosis and evaluation of collateral circulation patterns. After injection of Tc-99m microspheres into one common carotid artery and In-111 HAMs into the other, two perfusion images, one for each carotid artery, were clearly differentiated by appropriate pulse-height discrimination. With this method, diagnosis of internal carotid artery occlusion was definitely made in eight patients, suspected in six, and missed in one. The collateral perfusion areas from the contralateral ICA and ipsilateral external carotid artery were well demonstrated by this method, and the scintigraphic results agreed well with the angiographic findings in all cases. Dual-tracer HAM scintigraphy is capable of adding information about collaterals at the capillary level to the anatomic information obtained by angiography.

  3. A comparison of estimation methods for computational fluid dynamics outflow boundary conditions using patient-specific carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Joon; Uemiya, Nahoko; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Yi

    2013-06-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations can provide important hemodynamic insights for investigating the effectiveness of carotid artery stenting, but its accuracy is dependent on the boundary conditions such as the outflow pressure, which is difficult to obtain by measurements. Many computational fluid dynamics simulations assume that the outflow pressure is constant (P = 0), but this method is likely to produce different results compared to clinical measurements. We have developed an alternative estimation method called the minimum energy loss method based on the concept of energy loss minimization at flow bifurcation. This new method has been tested on computational fluid dynamics simulation of two patients treated with carotid artery stenting, and its flow ratio at internal carotid artery and wall shear stress distribution was compared with the constant zero outlet pressure method. Three different procedure stages (prestent, poststent, and follow-up) were analyzed. The internal carotid artery flow ratio using the minimum energy loss method generally matched well with ultrasound measurements, but the internal carotid artery flow ratio based on zero outlet pressure method showed a large difference. Wall shear stress distributions varied between methods in response to the change in internal carotid artery flow rate. This study demonstrates the importance of accurate outlet boundary condition for assessing the long-term efficacy of carotid artery stenting and the risk of restenosis in treated patients.

  4. Carotid revascularization and medical management for asymptomatic carotid stenosis: Protocol of the CREST-2 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Virginia J; Meschia, James F; Lal, Brajesh K; Turan, Tanya N; Roubin, Gary S; Brown, Robert D; Voeks, Jenifer H; Barrett, Kevin M; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Huston, John; Lazar, Ronald M; Moore, Wesley S; Wadley, Virginia G; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Moy, Claudia S; Chimowitz, Marc; Howard, George; Brott, Thomas G

    2017-10-01

    Rationale Trials conducted decades ago demonstrated that carotid endarterectomy by skilled surgeons reduced stroke risk in asymptomatic patients. Developments in carotid stenting and improvements in medical prevention of stroke caused by atherothrombotic disease challenge understanding of the benefits of revascularization. Aim Carotid Revascularization and Medical Management for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Trial (CREST-2) will test whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting plus contemporary intensive medical therapy is superior to intensive medical therapy alone in the primary prevention of stroke in patients with high-grade asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Methods and design CREST-2 is two multicenter randomized trials of revascularization plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone. One trial randomizes patients to carotid endarterectomy plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone; the other, to carotid stenting plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone. The risk factor targets of centrally directed intensive medical therapy are LDL cholesterol medical therapy alone arm is 4.8% higher or 2.8% lower than an anticipated 3.6% rate in the revascularization arm. Discussion Management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis requires contemporary randomized trials to address whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting plus intensive medical therapy is superior in preventing stroke beyond intensive medical therapy alone. Whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting has favorable effects on cognition will also be tested. Trial registration United States National Institutes of Health Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02089217.

  5. Tratamiento con angioplastia e implante de stent versus tratamiento quirúrgico en pacientes con estenosis de la arteria carótida cervical Angioplasty treatment and stent implant vs. surgical treatment in patients with stenosis of the cervical carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Hamdan

    en la aparición de complicaciones menores como bradicardia e hipotensión. En el grupo de pacientes tratados con cirugía se presentaron 2 (8% complicaciones relacionadas con la incisión del cuello con compromiso de nervios craneales. Conclusión: en este estudio se encontró que el tratamiento de la estenosis de la arteria carótida cervical con angioplastia e implante de stent, durante la intervención y la hospitalización, tiene una probabilidad similar a la cirugía en la ocurrencia de accidente cerebrovascular e infarto agudo del miocardio. En el seguimiento a un año, a pesar de que se presentó una reintervención y un accidente cerebrovascular, en el grupo de pacientes tratados con cirugía no se establecieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con el grupo de pacientes tratados con angioplastia.Introduction and objectives: angioplasty with stent implant is a less invasive procedure than surgical intervention in the treatment of significant stenosis of the common cervical carotid artery (common and internal (5. Currently the major published studies in which angioplasty and surgical treatment are compared, show similar results in the major events, as cerebrovascular accidents and mortality, but a greater significant difference in the apparition of acute myocardial infarction, during surgical intervention (5,11. The objective of this study is to compare in both treatment methods the major and minor clinical events, like cerebrovascular accident, acute myocardial infarction, death, bradycardia, hypotension and encephalopathy during the intervention, the hospitalization and the follow-up year, as well as the re-intervention, the time of hospital stay and the complications of the surgical incision. Materials and methods: in this study of historical cohort, 46 patients with significant stenosis of the cervical carotid arteries, who were subjected to intervention from January 1st 2001 to December 31st 2003, were included. 21 patients were treated with

  6. Impact of chronic renal insufficiency on the early and late clinical outcomes of carotid artery stenting using serum creatinine vs glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuRahma, Ali F; Alhalbouni, Saadi; Abu-Halimah, Shadi; Dean, L Scott; Stone, Patrick A

    2014-04-01

    This study analyzed the impact of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) on early and late clinical outcomes of carotid artery stenting (CAS) using serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). There were 313 CAS patients classified into 3 groups: normal (serum creatinine serum creatinine ≥ 3 or GFR serum creatinine, perioperative stroke rates for normal, moderate, and severe CRI were: 5%, 0%, and 25%, respectively, (p = 0.05) vs 4.6%, 3.7%, and 11.1%, respectively, (p = 0.44) using GFR. The perioperative MAE rates for symptomatic patients were 9.3% and 0% (p = 0.355) and 2% and 5.9% (p = 0.223) for asymptomatic patients for normal and moderate/severe CRI, respectively, using serum creatinine vs 8.1% and 7.8%, respectively, for symptomatic patients and 2.5% and 3%, respectively, for asymptomatic patients using GFR. At a mean follow-up of 21 months, late MAE rates in normal vs moderate/severe CRI patients were 8.2% and 14%, respectively, (p = 0.247) using serum creatinine vs 6.6% and 13.3%, respectively, (p = 0.05) using GFR. Late MAE rates for symptomatic patients in normal vs moderate/severe CRI were: 8.7% vs 27%, respectively, (p = 0.061) using serum creatinine and 5.7% vs 18.8%, respectively, (p = 0.026) using GFR. Late death rate was 0.55% in normal vs 7.6% (p = 0.002) for moderate/severe CRI. Freedom from MAE at 3 years in symptomatic patients was 81% in normal and 46% in moderate/severe CRI (p = 0.0198). A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a GFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) had an odds ratio of 1.6 (p = 0.222) of having a MAE after CAS. The GFR was more sensitive in detecting late MAE after CAS. Carotid artery stenting in moderate CRI patients can be done with a satisfactory perioperative outcome; however, late death was significant. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Unilateral congenital hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery in a newborn: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Valentino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoplasia of one or both internal carotid artery (ICA is a rare congenital developmental abnormality. The early neurological presentation of this disorder is rare because many of these cases remain asymptomatic and go undetected due to the presence of collateral vessels. We describe a newborn that presented with seizures at 27 hours after birth. Extended ischemia of the right hemisfere was observed on computed tomography (CT, while the 3D MIP reconstruction showed hypoplasia of right internal carotid artery. After about 3 weeks, the rapid improvement of the newborn’s cerebral ultrasound and EEG allowed to discontinue corticosteroid and sedative therapy. The infant was discharged after 40 days of life in good clinical condition.

  8. Rupture of an internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm after irradiation for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Yukiko; Nakamura, Megumi; Sasai, Hisanori; Kamakura, Aya; Sakata, Yoshiharu; Miyahara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The primary treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been external radiotherapy. Rupture of an internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of irradiation therapy for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A 78 years old man had a history of NPC treated with radiotherapy in 1993. He was admitted to the hospital because of epistaxis. Angiography showed an ICA pseudoaneurysm pointing medially to the nasopharynx. Coil embolization of the ICA was performed, but cerebral infarction occurred. Internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysms are an uncommon but potentially lethal condition. Angiography is the mainstay of diagnosis of the aneurysm and planning the embolization of the ICA. We should be more aware of this complication in NPC patients. (author)

  9. Visual Hallucinations in a Patient with Horner's Syndrome Secondary to Internal Carotid Dissection

    OpenAIRE

    Amardeep Singh; Panteleimon Mortzos; Torben Lykke Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old female presented with post-ganglionic Horner's syndrome. In addition to the classical symptoms of Horner's syndrome, the patient reported experiencing frightening complex visual and auditory hallucinations on two different occasions. Magnetic resonance angiography of the cerebrum, neck and upper thorax revealed internal carotid dissection. The symptoms and hallucinatory experiences resolved soon after antiplatelet therapy was commenced. We propose peduncular hallucinosis as the ...

  10. Petrous internal carotid aneurysm causing epistaxis: Balloon embolization with preservation of the parent vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willinsky, R.; Lasjaunias, P.; Pruvost, P.; Boucherat, M.

    1987-11-01

    A patient with severe, recurrent posterior epistaxis was shown at angiography to have an aneurysm of the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Since childhood, she had had pain related to eustachian tube blockage by the aneurysm. An endovascular balloon embolization of the aneurysm was successful with preservation of the parent artery. The treatment resulted in resolution of the symptoms. The report confirms the usefulness of an angiographic protocol in evaluating vascular problems.

  11. Petrous internal carotid aneurysm causing epistaxis: Balloon embolization with preservation of the parent vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willinsky, R.; Lasjaunias, P.; Pruvost, P.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with severe, recurrent posterior epistaxis was shown at angiography to have an aneurysm of the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Since childhood, she had had pain related to eustachian tube blockage by the aneurysm. An endovascular balloon embolization of the aneurysm was successful with preservation of the parent artery. The treatment resulted in resolution of the symptoms. The report confirms the usefulness of an angiographic protocol in evaluating vascular problems. (orig.)

  12. En bloc resection of skull base tumor including internal carotid artery. Preoperative evaluation of cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Matsuzaki, Zensei; Kamijo, Atsushi; Ogino, Jun; Nagaseki, Yoshishige; Nukui, Hideaki; Yokomizo, Michinori; Togawa, Kiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    Carotid artery resection yields a possibility of cure in patients with advanced head and neck carcinoma involving the carotid artery. However, the criteria for the identification of those who are vulnerable to neurologic injury after resection have not been established. Interposition graft covered with a well-vascularized flap could minimize the rate of perioperative morbidity. Particularly, when an extensive resection of the skull base including carotid artery and sigmoid vein, is planned, extracranial-intracranial bypass should be considered to minimize the risks of neurologic morbidity, even if preresection positron emission tomography during balloon test occlusion of internal carotid artery suggested the adequacy of hemispheric collateral blood flow. In these cases, the temporary occlusion of the carotid artery is not an accurate prediction of the morbidity after permanent occlusion. (author)

  13. Nursing assistance for spring coil occlusion for the treatment of intracranial giant internal carotid artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yugang; Mao Yanjun; Yuan Yili; Hu Yaqin; Liu Jing; Xi Juan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the importance of balloon occlusion test before interventional treatment of the intracranial giant internal carotid artery aneurysms and to sum up the nursing experience in assisting the procedure. Methods: Proper perioperative nursing measures were carried out for 12 patients, who suffered from intracranial giant internal carotid artery aneurysm and underwent spring coil occlusion treatment. Nursing measures included mental care, observation of the vital signs, prevention of the complications, etc. Results: Neither death nor exacerbation of the condition occurred in all the 12 patients. The patients were discharged from the hospital with a mean hospitalization of nine days. During a follow-up period ranged from 4 months to one year, seven patients had no disagreeable feeling, one patient complained of discomfort but no abnormality was found on follow-up DSA, and disappearance of the aneurysm was observed in 4 patients. Conclusion: The monitoring of the vital signs, the prevention of the complications and the standard nursing care are the key points for ensuring a successful operation in treating intracranial giant internal carotid artery aneurysms with spring coil occlusion. (authors)

  14. Endovascular therapy of high-degree stenoses of the neck vessels-stent-supported percutaneous angioplasty of the carotid artery without cerebral protection; Endovaskulaere Behandlung hochgradiger Halsgefaessstenosen - Stentgestuetzte perkutane Angioplastie der Arteria Carotis ohne Protektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C.; Kucinski, T.; Eckert, B.; Wittkugel, O.; Zeumer, H. [Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany); Roether, J. [Klinik fuer Neurologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Purpose: Technical essentials and therapeutic results of carotid stenting without cerebral protection are presented. Materials and methods: In 161 patients, 167 high grade carotid stenoses were stented, followed by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, with subsequent evaluation of the clinical and angiographic results. Diffusion-weighted MRI was carried out in 108 patients to detect cerebral sequelae. Results: Endovascular therapy was successful (residual stenosis <25%) in 166 stenoses (99.4%). Twelve patients (7.5%) had cerebrovascular complications within the 30-day perioperative period, seven of which occurred during the procedure. After treatment, diffusion-weighted MRI disclosed at least one new cerebral lesion in 40 patients (37%), which were symptomatic in six patients. Conclusion: Even without cerebral protection, high grade carotid stenosis can be safely treated with stent-protected percutaneous angioplasty. Microemboli detected by postoperative MRI are infrequently symptomatic. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es werden die Durchfuehrung der direkten Stentangioplastie der A.ccarotis ohne zerebrale Protektion und die Ergebnisse dieses Behandlungsverfahrens beschrieben. Methoden: Bei 161 Patienten wurden 167 hochgradige Karotisstenosen durch Platzieren eines Stents mit anschliessender perkutaner transluminaler Angioplastie behandelt. Die Behandlungsergebnisse wurden klinisch und angiographisch bewertet. 108 Patienten wurden mit diffusionsgewichteter MRT zum Nachweis klinisch stummer Infarkte untersucht. Ergebnisse: 166 Stenosen (99,4%) wurden erfolgreich behandelt (Reststenose <25%). Im perioperativen Zeitraum von 30 Tagen trat bei insgesamt 12 Patienten eine zerebrovaskulaere Komplikation auf (7,5%), 7 Patienten erlitten die Komplikation waehrend des Eingriffs. Nach der Behandlung hatten 40 Patienten (37%) mindestens eine neue zerebrale Diffusionsstoerung, 6 davon mit klinischen Symptomen. Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der stentgestuetzten perkutanen Angioplastie

  15. Multi-parametric ultrasound criteria for internal carotid artery disease - comparison with CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlinn, Kristian; Kepplinger, Jessica; Siepmann, Timo; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Bodechtel, Ulf; Reichmann, Heinz; Puetz, Volker; Floegel, Thomas; Kitzler, Hagen H.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    The German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (known by its acronym DEGUM) recently proposed a novel multi-parametric ultrasound approach for comprehensive and accurate assessment of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease. We determined the agreement between duplex ultrasonography (DUS) interpreted by the DEGUM criteria and CT angiography (CTA) for grading of extracranial ICA steno-occlusive disease. Consecutive patients with acute cerebral ischemia underwent DUS and CTA. Internal carotid artery stenosis was graded according to the DEGUM-recommended criteria for DUS. Independent readers manually performed North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial-type measurements on axial CTA source images. Both modalities were compared using Spearman's correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. A total of 303 acute cerebral ischemia patients (mean age, 72 ± 12 years; 58 % men; median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4 [interquartile range 7]) provided 593 DUS and CTA vessel pairs for comparison. There was a positive correlation between DUS and CTA (r s = 0.783, p < 0.001) with mean difference in degree of stenosis measurement of 3.57 %. Bland-Altman analysis further revealed widely varying differences (95 % limits of agreement -29.26 to 22.84) between the two modalities. Although the novel DEGUM criteria showed overall good agreement between DUS and CTA across all stenosis ranges, potential for wide incongruence with CTA underscores the need for local laboratory validation to avoid false screening results. (orig.)

  16. Multi-parametric ultrasound criteria for internal carotid artery disease - comparison with CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlinn, Kristian; Kepplinger, Jessica; Siepmann, Timo; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Bodechtel, Ulf; Reichmann, Heinz; Puetz, Volker [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neurology, Dresden (Germany); Floegel, Thomas [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neurology, Dresden (Germany); Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Kitzler, Hagen H. [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Alexandrov, Andrei V. [The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (known by its acronym DEGUM) recently proposed a novel multi-parametric ultrasound approach for comprehensive and accurate assessment of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease. We determined the agreement between duplex ultrasonography (DUS) interpreted by the DEGUM criteria and CT angiography (CTA) for grading of extracranial ICA steno-occlusive disease. Consecutive patients with acute cerebral ischemia underwent DUS and CTA. Internal carotid artery stenosis was graded according to the DEGUM-recommended criteria for DUS. Independent readers manually performed North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial-type measurements on axial CTA source images. Both modalities were compared using Spearman's correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. A total of 303 acute cerebral ischemia patients (mean age, 72 ± 12 years; 58 % men; median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4 [interquartile range 7]) provided 593 DUS and CTA vessel pairs for comparison. There was a positive correlation between DUS and CTA (r{sub s} = 0.783, p < 0.001) with mean difference in degree of stenosis measurement of 3.57 %. Bland-Altman analysis further revealed widely varying differences (95 % limits of agreement -29.26 to 22.84) between the two modalities. Although the novel DEGUM criteria showed overall good agreement between DUS and CTA across all stenosis ranges, potential for wide incongruence with CTA underscores the need for local laboratory validation to avoid false screening results. (orig.)

  17. Internal carotid artery occlusion or subocclusion: Contemporary diagnostic challenges: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Measurement of vessel stenosis using ultrasonography or magnetic resonance is still the principal method for determining the severity of carotid atherosclerosis and need for endarterectomy. Case Outline. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the Cardiovascular Institute 'Dedinje' due to a clinically asymptomatic restenosis of the operated left internal carotid artery (ICA. Angiography and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA in previous hospitalization had revealed occluded right ICA. However, routine duplex ultrasonography revealed a highgrade restenosis (85% of the left ICA and subocclusion of the right ICA by an ulcerated plaque (confirmed on repeated MRA. Conclusion. Selective arteriography examination could misrepresent the degree of stenosis especially in patents with the ICA that seems to be occluded. MRA is considered the method of choice for identifying pseudo-occlusions of ICA.

  18. Evaluation of Contrast MR Angiography in the Study of Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis. Systematic Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Perez, P.; Martinez Cantarero, J.; Ruiz Diaz, M.; Blazquez Morera, J. A.; Llano Senaris, J. E. de

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic benefit of using contrast MR Angiography (MRA) in the study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis as opposed to intraarterial digital subtraction arteriography (LADSA). A search for relevant articles from 1990 to 2000 using MDLINE and EMBASE databases. Initial selection criteria: 1. articles which compare MRA and IADSA in the study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis; and 2, sample size of 10 or more subjects. Studies employing contrast MRA were subsequently selected. Contrast MRA diagnostic results were studied, as were those of non-contrast MRA (TOF) if included. Roc curves and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In the studies, 324 patients and 648 extracranial internal carotid arteries were evaluated (12 articles). The diagnostic results in carotid artery stenosis discrimination using contrast MRA as opposed to IADSA were sensitivity and specificity=97.28% and 96.08%. With regard to contrast MRA vs. non-contrast MRA (TOF), significant differences favoring contrast MRA in both sensitivity and specificity were observed. (p=0.08 and p<0.001, respectively). MRA techniques demonstrate very high diagnostic capabilities in the detection of carotid stenosis, with contrast MRA being more effective than non-contrast. MRA. In spite of not being superior to IADSA, given the morbimortality risk which the latter is associated (0.7-1.2%). many authors defend contrast MRA (in association with Doppler echography) having become the method of choice for presurgical study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis. (Author) 53 refs

  19. Recent Trends in Neuro-endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke, Cerebral Aneurysms, Carotid Stenosis, and Brain Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumaru, Yuji; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira

    2017-06-15

    The efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers for emergent large vessel occlusion has been proved by randomized trials. Mechanical thrombectomy is increasingly being adopted in Japan since stent retrievers were first approved in 2014. An urgent clinical task is to offer structured systems of care to provide this treatment in a timely fashion to all patients with emergent large vessel occlusion. Treatment with flow-diverting stents is currently a preferred treatment option worldwide for large and giant unruptured aneurysms. Initial studies reported high rates of complete aneurysm occlusion, even in large and giant aneurysms, without delayed aneurysmal recanalization and/or growth. The Pipeline Embolic Device is a flow diverter recently approved in Japan for the treatment of large and giant wide-neck unruptured aneurysms in the internal carotid artery, from the petrous to superior hypophyseal segments. Carotid artery stenting is the preferred treatment approach for carotid stenosis in Japan, whereas it remains an alternative for carotid endarterectomy in Europe and the United States. Carotid artery stenting with embolic protection and plaque imaging is effective in achieving favorable outcomes. The design and conclusions of a randomized trial of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA) trial, which compared medical management alone and medical management with interventional therapy in patients with an unruptured arteriovenous brain malformation, are controversial. However, the annual bleeding rate (2.2%) of the medical management group obtained from this study is worthy of consideration when deciding treatment strategy.

  20. Internal Carotid Artery Agenesis with an Intercavernous Anastomosis: A Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mucahid; Senadim, Songul; Ince Yasinoglu, K Nur; Selcuk, H Hakan; Atakli, H Dilek

    2017-10-01

    Agenesis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare vascular anomaly that was first observed postmortem. Various anastomoses supply the distal vessels at the site of agenesis. Of these anastomoses, an intercavernous anastomosis is very rare. This paper presents a patient with ischemic stroke in whom we discovered left ICA agenesis and an ipsilateral intercavernous anastomosis. A 58-year-old man with a history of myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus presented with sudden-onset difficulty in speaking, numbness on the left side of the face, and weakness of the left arm and leg. Neurological examination revealed dysarthria, left facial paralysis, left hemiparesis, and bilateral absence of the plantar reflexes. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a right middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. On cranial and cervical magnetic resonance angiography, the left ICA could not be seen distal to the bifurcation; the left MCA was supplied through an intercavernous anastomosis between the right ICA and the left ICA. Cranial computed tomography (CT) revealed the absence of the left carotid canal. Digital subtraction angiography led to a diagnosis of left ICA agenesis with an intercavernous anastomosis. The patient was discharged on acetylsalicylic acid and warfarin. ICA agenesis with an intercavernous anastomosis is a rare vascular anomaly that should be differentiated from secondary causes of ICA stenosis and occlusions by showing agenesis of the carotid canal on cranial CT. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise; Blackham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  2. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blackham, Aaron [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  3. Congenital agenesis of internal carotid artery with ipsilateral Horner presenting as focal neurological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wassim Farhat, Rechdi Ahdab, Hassan HosseiniService de Neurologie, Hôpital Henri Mondor, APHP, Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris XII, Créteil, FranceAbstract: Internal carotid artery (ICA agenesis is a rare developmental anomaly and is most frequently asymptomatic, but it may also present as cerebrovascular accidents. The association with Horner’s syndrome is exceptional. We present three cases of agenesis of ICA associated with Horner’s syndrome and hypochromia iridum presenting as focal neurological symptoms. A system of collaterals develops as a consequence of agenesis of the ICA, making the majority of cases asymptomatic. Three types of collateral circulations have been described. These collaterals increase the risk of aneurysm formation and the occurrence of life-threatening subarachnoid hemorrhages. The association of congenital Horner’s syndrome and hypochromia iridum without anhidrosis is highly suggestive of sympathetic pathway injury early in life. Such signs should prompt further diagnostic evaluation to demonstrate the presence of the agenesis of the carotid canal. Early diagnosis is essential to rule out potentially life-threatening associated vascular anomalies.Keywords: carotid artery agenesis, Horner’s syndrome, heterochromia iridum

  4. A Case Report of Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome Treated with Carotid to Axillary Artery Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Al-Jundi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome results from atherosclerotic disease of the proximal subclavian artery causing reversal of flow in an internal mammary artery used as conduit for coronary artery bypass. This rare complication of cardiac revascularisation leads to recurrence of myocardial ischaemia. When feasible, subclavian angioplasty and/or stent placement can provide acceptable result for these patients. Vascular reconstruction through carotid to subclavian artery bypass has been the standard procedure of choice. Other interventions in literature include axilloaxillary bypass and subclavian carotid transposition. This case report describes the use of carotid axillary artery bypass for the treatment of coronary-subclavian steal syndrome.

  5. Unilateral agenesis and hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery: a report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Iino, N.; Shiokawa, Y.; Saito, I. [Kyorin University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Mitaka City, Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, H. [Shirakawa Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Fukushima (Japan)

    2005-05-01

    We report one patient with agenesis and two with hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA) from an angiographic series of 1275 consecutive patients. In all three patients, MRI and MR angiography were used to establish the anatomical situation; however, they may not clearly distinguish between hypoplasia and agenesis or acquired stenosis or occlusion of the ICA. In such cases, CT of the skull base may be obtained to clarify matters. In all patients, retrograde flow via a large posterior communicating artery was demonstrated. Single-photon emission computed tomography confirmed both the adequacy of cerebral perfusion and the preservation of vasomotor reactivity. (orig.)

  6. Unilateral agenesis and hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery: a report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, S.; Iino, N.; Shiokawa, Y.; Saito, I.; Miyazaki, H.

    2005-01-01

    We report one patient with agenesis and two with hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA) from an angiographic series of 1275 consecutive patients. In all three patients, MRI and MR angiography were used to establish the anatomical situation; however, they may not clearly distinguish between hypoplasia and agenesis or acquired stenosis or occlusion of the ICA. In such cases, CT of the skull base may be obtained to clarify matters. In all patients, retrograde flow via a large posterior communicating artery was demonstrated. Single-photon emission computed tomography confirmed both the adequacy of cerebral perfusion and the preservation of vasomotor reactivity. (orig.)

  7. Persistent dorsal ophthalmic artery arising from the internal carotid artery: Report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Hwan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Normally, the ophthalmic artery (OA) arises from the supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and enters the orbit via the optic canal. A persistent dorsal OA is a rare variation that originates from the cavernous segment of the ICA and enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure. To the best of our knowledge, persistent dorsal OA has not been described in the Korean literature. In this paper, we report three cases of persistent dorsal OA with review of the literature on embryogenesis and other origins of the OA.

  8. Clinical implications of internal carotid artery tortuosity, kinking and coiling: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenteno M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of the internal carotid artery are diverse. Abnormalities in their geometry and paths are commonly identified by ultrasonography and angiography. The surgical correction of symptomatic CAs is better in preventing stroke compared with best medical therapy, as well as it completely eliminates the symptoms in patients with nonhemispheric symptoms. The ICA anomalies may be dangerous and represent a risk factor for massive bleeding. Suture ligatures can penetrate and occlude torn vessels, scalpels or biting instruments can lacerate vessels, and indirectly conducted electric cauterization can burn the soft of bony tissues

  9. Internal Carotid Artery Ectasia: The Value of Imaging Studies Prior to Biopsy of a Retropharyngeal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of retropharyngeal tissue mass often raises the suspicion of malignancy, especially in elderly patients. This prompts urgent biopsy to investigate tissue histology. We discuss a case where this is contraindicated as the retropharyngeal mass was illustrated by CT scanning and confirmed with MRI to be a tortuous coursing internal carotid artery. An awareness of this unusual anatomical variation and a careful interpretation of imaging studies both at the stage of differential diagnosis and pre-operative screening are essential to avoid damage to important structures, causing unnecessary complications.

  10. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kelly; Marcus Bradley; Ankur Srivastava

    2008-01-01

    A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was...

  11. The risk of endoleak following stent covering of the internal iliac artery during endovascular aneurysm repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesparan, K.; Partridge, W.; Refson, J.; Abidia, A.; Aldin, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the risk of endoleak during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) involving the distal common iliac artery (CIA) when the internal iliac artery (IIA) is covered without prior coil embolization. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of 145 (125 men, 20 women) consecutive EVAR cases. Clinical notes and radiological images were reviewed, and data collected on patient demographics, aneurysm morphology, covering of the IIA with or without embolization, presence of endoleaks, and patient symptoms relating to IIA ischaemia. Results: A total of 29 IIAs (10%) were covered in a total of 25 patients. Seven IIAs (24%) were embolized before stent covering (Embolization group), and 22 IIAs (76%) were covered only without embolization (Cover group). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean size of the abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter or CIA diameter between each group. No endoleaks from IIA retrograde filling were found in either group. Conclusion: The results of the present study do not support the traditional view that coverage of the IIA without prior embolization carries a high risk of endoleak, with no endoleaks seen in all 22 cases. Large-scale trials are required. However, the advent of branched-stenting techniques and the emergence of their success in long-term follow-up may preclude the former. - Highlights: • No EVAR endoleaks due to retrograde filling of the internal iliac artery (IIA). • No increased risk of endoleak with stent coverage of the IIA without embolisation. • Current evidence does not support traditional views

  12. Identification of internal carotid dissection in patients with migraine--case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Trinick, T.; Khan, H.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Although patho-physiology of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection (sICAD) is largely unknown, an association with migraine has been suggested but not proven. Migraine is a condition which is worth considering while one is hunting a possible cause for internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and it may be found more often than expected.2 To date it remains a diagnosis of exclusion in patients with migraine. As opposed to migraine with aura, migraine without aura is significantly more frequent among patients with SICAD. It has been suggested that ICAD produces stroke in 36-68% of patients as a result of occlusion of the artery at or near the site of the dissection, or embolization occurring distally from a dislodged fragment of thrombus. We report a 31-year old woman with headache and ptosis as initial symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the diagnosis. Prompt treatment was instituted with anti-platelet agents and the patient had complete resolution of symptoms. Our case report highlights the importance of identifying the patients with ICD with history of migraine, in the absence of other risk factors and adds to the sparse literature currently available on the subject. (author)

  13. Relationship between intracranial internal carotid artery calcification and enlarged cerebral perivascular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiao-Xiao [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); The First People' s Hospital of Wenling, Department of Neurology, Wenling (China); Li, Ge-Fei; Wu, Yi-Lan; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Shi, Yan-Hui; Zhuang, Mei-Ting; Hou, Tian-Yu; Zhao, Rong; Liu, Feng-Di; Wang, Xue-Mei; Shen, Ying; Cui, Guo-Hong; Su, Jing-Jing; Chen, Wei [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Tang, Xue-Mei; Sun, Ji; Liu, Jian-Ren [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Clinical Research Center, Shanghai (China)

    2017-06-15

    The association between intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA) calcification and lacunes, white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) has been well researched. However, enlarged cerebral perivascular space (PVS) has not yet been reported to correlate with intracranial internal carotid artery calcification. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. A total of 189 patients with ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory who presented within 7 days of ictus from 2012 to 2015 were enrolled respectively. All patients were required to have undergone head computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, or computed tomography angiography. Clinical characteristics were recorded. IICA calcification and enlarged PVS were semi-quantitatively evaluated, and the presence of lacunes, WMH, and CMBs was recorded. Of the 189 patients, 63.5% were male. Mean age of the patients was 68.6 ± 12.2 years. There were 104 patients with IICA calcification. Age, diabetes mellitus, lacunes, and white matter hyperintensity were significantly associated with IICA calcification (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, diabetes mellitus, and lacunes were independent predictors of IICA calcification (P < 0.05). A lower risk of IICA calcification was found in patients with a higher enlarged PVS score (P = 0.004). Higher enlarged PVS scores were associated with a lesser degree of IICA calcification. There appears to be a relationship between reduced risk of IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. (orig.)

  14. Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms Presenting with Epistaxis - Our Experience and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kanwaljeet; Gurjar, Hitesh Kumar; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Manmohan; Chandra, P Sarat; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    Intracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms are an extremely rare cause of spontaneous epistaxis, with a few documented cases. The management of such cases is challenging due to the relative anatomical inaccessibility of the bleeding point. The aim of the present study was to acquaint the readers with this rare type of aneurysm presenting with epistaxis and to report our experience of treating cases of severe epistaxis due to internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. Data of 4 patients with İCA aneurysms presenting with epistaxis from June 2011 to July 2013 was retrospectively reviewed. The age of patients ranged from 16 to 62 years. Duration of epistaxis ranged from 3 months to 3 years. Two patients had severe epistaxis following transnasal biopsy. Two patients had a history of trauma. Two patients developed hemodynamically instability. All the patients were managed with trapping of the aneurysm. Complete exclusion of aneurysm from circulation was achieved in all the patients. ICA aneurysms can rarely present as life-endangering epistaxis. In patients presenting with a history of craniocerebral trauma, traumatic pseudoaneurysm must be considered as a differential diagnosis. Trapping of the aneurysm is a good option if there is good cross circulation.

  15. Contemporary management of carotid blowout syndrome utilizing endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Nauman F; Rezaee, Rod P; Ray, Abhishek; Wick, Cameron C; Blackham, Kristine; Stepnick, David; Lavertu, Pierre; Zender, Chad A

    2017-02-01

    To illustrate complex interdisciplinary decision making and the utility of modern endovascular techniques in the management of patients with carotid blowout syndrome (CBS). Retrospective chart review. Patients treated with endovascular strategies and/or surgical modalities were included. Control of hemorrhage, neurological, and survival outcomes were studied. Between 2004 and 2014, 33 patients had 38 hemorrhagic events related to head and neck cancer that were managed with endovascular means. Of these, 23 were localized to the external carotid artery (ECA) branches and five localized to the ECA main trunk; nine were related to the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA), and one event was related to the innominate artery. Seven events related to the CCA/ICA or innominate artery were managed with endovascular sacrifice, whereas three cases were managed with a flow-preserving approach (covered stent). Only one patient developed permanent hemiparesis. In two of the three cases where the flow-preserving approach was used, the covered stent eventually became exposed via the overlying soft tissue defect, and definitive management using carotid revascularization or resection was employed to prevent further hemorrhage. In cases of soft tissue necrosis, vascularized tissues were used to cover the great vessels as applicable. The use of modern endovascular approaches for management of acute CBS yields optimal results and should be employed in a coordinated manner by the head and neck surgeon and the neurointerventionalist. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:383-390, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Experiences with carotid endarterectomy at Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnikrishnan Madathipat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid artery disease poses a grave threat to cerebral circulation, leading to a stroke with its devastating sequelae, if left untreated. Carotid endarterectomy has a proven track record with compelling evidence in stroke prevention. Objectives: aTo confirm that carotid endarterectomy (CEA is safe and effective in preventing stroke at both short and long term. b to demonstrate long term patency of internal carotid artery when arteriotomy repair is performed using autologous saphenous vein patch. Materials and Methods: During ten years, from September 1997 to February 2008, thirty nine patients who underwent consecutive carotid endarterectomy at our institute, form the basis of this report. Their age ranged from thirty to seventy eight years, with a mean age of 56. There were four women in this cohort. Thirty seven patients were symptomatic with> 70% stenosis and two were asymptomatic with> 80% stenosis, incidentally detected. Imaging included Duplex scan and MRA for carotid territory and brain, and non-invasive cardiac assessment. Co-morbidities included smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Carotid Endarterectomy was performed under general anaesthesia, using carotid shunt and vein patch arteriotomy repair. Results: All the patients made satisfactory recovery, without major adverse cerebral events in this series. Morbidities included Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA in two, needing only medications in one, and carotid stenting in the other. Minor morbidities included neck hematoma in two and transient hypoglossal paresis in three patients. Yearly follow-up included duplex scan assessment for all the patients. Two patients died of contralateral stroke, two of myocardial events and two were lost to follow up. Thirty three patients are well and free of the disease during the follow up of three to 120 months. Conclusion: Carotid endarterectomy provided near total freedom from adverse cerebral

  17. The Dotter method revisited: early experience with a novel method of rapid internal carotid artery revascularization in the setting of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Keith; Wegryn, Scott; Staruk, Carla; Nyberg, Eric M

    2016-04-01

    Tandem occlusive disease in the setting of acute ischemic stroke involving cervical and cerebral arteries has been associated with poor neurological outcome and poses significant challenges to neurointerventionists. Previously described endovascular methods typically involve carotid revascularization with stent placement prior to or following intracranial thrombectomy. Stent-based approaches, however, require the use of antiplatelet therapy which may increase the risk of hemorrhagic transformation. We describe a novel modified Dotter technique which may be used for carotid revascularization in lieu of stenting. This technique can eliminate the need for antiplatelet therapy, reduce procedure times, and possibly reduce hemorrhagic conversion rates. Seven patients presenting between April 2013 and January 2014 were treated with this technique. All patients had carotid stenosis of 65-100% and tandem middle cerebral artery occlusions. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Stroke Scale scores as well as clinical and procedural times were recorded. Pre- and post-Dotter stenosis was measured using the NASCET criteria. Follow-up imaging and clinical data were reviewed. The mean age was 64 years and mean initial NIH Stroke Scale score was 11.7. Mean groin to recanalization time was 26 min. Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction grade 2b-3 was achieved in all patients. The mean stenosis was 88% preoperatively and 61% postoperatively. There were no intracranial hemorrhages. The modified Rankin Scale score was 0 in six patients (86%) and 6 in one patient (14%). The Dotter stroke technique is a feasible and safe alternative to carotid stenting in the setting of acute ischemic stroke and may reduce the risk of hemorrhagic conversion. No re-occlusion occurred during follow-up in patients with post-Dotter stenosis ≤65%. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Semi-automatic quantitative measurements of intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis and calcification using CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, Leslie; Berg, Rene van den; Majoie, Charles B.; Marquering, Henk A.; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is an independent predictor for recurrent stroke. However, its quantitative assessment is not routinely performed in clinical practice. In this diagnostic study, we present and evaluate a novel semi-automatic application to quantitatively measure intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) degree of stenosis and calcium volume in CT angiography (CTA) images. In this retrospective study involving CTA images of 88 consecutive patients, intracranial ICA stenosis was quantitatively measured by two independent observers. Stenoses were categorized with cutoff values of 30% and 50%. The calcification in the intracranial ICA was qualitatively categorized as absent, mild, moderate, or severe and quantitatively measured using the semi-automatic application. Linear weighted kappa values were calculated to assess the interobserver agreement of the stenosis and calcium categorization. The average and the standard deviation of the quantitative calcium volume were calculated for the calcium categories. For the stenosis measurements, the CTA images of 162 arteries yielded an interobserver correlation of 0.78 (P < 0.001). Kappa values of the categorized stenosis measurements were moderate: 0.45 and 0.58 for cutoff values of 30% and 50%, respectively. The kappa value for the calcium categorization was 0.62, with a good agreement between the qualitative and quantitative calcium assessment. Quantitative degree of stenosis measurement of the intracranial ICA on CTA is feasible with a good interobserver agreement ICA. Qualitative calcium categorization agrees well with quantitative measurements. (orig.)

  19. Clinical efficiency of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test for patients with internal carotid artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasuko; Maeshima, Shinichiro; Osawa, Aiko; Imura, Junko; Kohyama, Shinya; Yamane, Fumitaka; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Tanahashi, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Most patients who have an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis with cerebral lesion have some cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the clinical efficiency of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and to assess the relationship between AVLT and cerebral damage, we examined AVLT in patients with ICA stenosis. 44 patients (35 males and 9 females) with ICA stenosis aged 56 to 83 (69.6±6.5) years old were evaluated. The educational periods were from 9 to 16 (12.3±2.8) years. Their activities of daily living (ADL) were independent. We assessed cognitive function with neuropsychological tests including AVLT, Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Raven's coloured progressive matrices (RCPM) and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), etc. We assessed cerebral damage (periventricular high intensity; PVH and white matter hyperintensity; WMH) with MRI. Then, we investigated the relationship between AVLT and other neuropsychological tests, and the relationship between AVLT and carotid/cerebral lesion. There was no association with lesion side of ICA stenosis and the scores of AVLT. In patients with ICA stenosis and cerebral damage (PVH and/or WMH), there was a significant relationship between the severity of cerebral damage and the scores in AVLT. AVLT had a significant relationship to other neuropsychological tests. AVLT might be a good cognitive assessment for patients who have cerebral damage due to ICA stenosis. (author)

  20. Simultaneous bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadgir, R.N.; Ahmed, T.; Loevner, L.A.; Moonis, G.; Slawek, K.; Imbesi, S.; Chalela, J.

    2003-01-01

    Single-vessel cervical arterial dissections typically occur in young adults and are a common cause of cerebral ischemia and stroke. Although the pathogenesis of multivessel dissection is unclear, it is thought to be a consequence of underlying collagen vascular disease. We present a 34-year-old previously healthy man who developed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation. (orig.)

  1. Dissection of the internal carotid artery after SCUBA-diving: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Franz; Gary, Thomas; Harald, Froehlich; Pilger, Ernst; Groell, Reinhard; Brodmann, Marianne

    2011-03-01

    Dissections of the internal carotid arteries are a well known complication of cervical trauma. Neurologic symptoms in patients after SCUBA-diving are often associated with gas embolism or decompression illness. This report presents a rare case of carotid artery dissection immediately after SCUBA-diving in a 37-year-old woman, with left-side facial paresthesias and left-cervical pain as the first symptoms after SCUBA-diving without rapid ascent to the water-surface. A review of the literature focuses on symptoms, morphologic aspects, and therapeutic options in reported cases of cervical artery dissection after SCUBA-diving.

  2. Significance of preoperative cerebral blood flow measurements in endovascular occlusion of the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, A.; Weitzner, I.; Luft, A.; Merland, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements during 12 endovascular balloon occlusions (ten internal carotid and two middle cerebral arteries) with good clinical and angiographic tolerance were done with repeated boluses of Xe-133 injected directly into the ipsi- and contralateral carotid systems, during the occlusion and repeated measurements with detectors on both sides (before occlusion and 5-30 minutes after occlusion). In two cases of unchanged and four of increased CBF, one reversible deficit was probably due to an embolus. In six cases of decreased CBF, two deficits occurred, characterized by a greater than 25% decrease. It seems to represent a good predictive value for intolerance to occlusion

  3. Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of internal carotid artery: a cause of intractable epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeel, Mohammad; Ikram, Mubasher

    2012-05-23

    In this case report, the authors are presenting a case of a 35-year-old lady who presented to our clinic with recurrent episodes of massive epistaxis and loss of right eye vision for last 6 months following road traffic accident. There was no other significant medical and surgical history. Bleeding episodes were sometimes very severe with loss up to 400-500 cc and would stop spontaneously. She was given multiple blood transfusions after these episodes. A complete otorhinolaryngological examination including rigid endoscopy and coagulation investigation did not reveal any abnormality. CT with contrast of paranasal region showed blood within the right sphenoid sinus with linear fracture of the lateral wall with post-traumatic cavernous pseudoaneurysm of internal carotid artery localised to right sphenoid sinus. That was managed successfully by embolisation using a detachable balloon and a coil. She was followed up in the clinic at 6 weeks and 6 months interval with no symptoms.

  4. A SPECT study in internal carotid artery occlusion: Discrepancies between flow image and neurologic deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, H.; Hougaku, H.; Matsuda, I.; Kusunoki, M.; Shirai, J.

    1989-01-01

    A SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) study in internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion was performed in 6 patients. The validity of iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT study in the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) or neurologic function is still controversial. In this study, the authors showed several cases in whom SPECT images of brain were not compatible with their neurologic deficits. In 2 typical cases, a large low-density area was observed in the non-dominant hemisphere in computed tomography (CT) scan, but no apparent motor-sensory deficits in left limbs were present. In these patients, SPECT study also revealed flow reduction in the affected side of the brain. So there was a possibility that an IMP brain image could not always reflect CBF, which maintains neurologic function of the brain

  5. Dynamics of clinical semiotics in children with pathological tortuosity of internal carotid arteries in remote period after surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoĭkhet, Ya N; Khorev, N G; Kulikova, N I; Beller, A V; Kulikov, V P; Miller, V E

    2010-01-01

    The present study enrolling a total of eighty-eight 4-to-16-year-old children and adolescents was aimed at detailed elaboration and formalization of clinical signs of the internal carotid artery pathological kinking syndrome. To achieve these objectives, the authors carried out a comparative analysis of clinical manifestations of the disease in the surgically treated subjects (constituting the Surgery Group comprising 43 children and adolescents) and non-operated patients (making up the Comparison Group consisting of 45 age- and gender-matched subjects). There were no baseline differences in the incidence rate of clinical syndromes and symptoms between the groups of the would-be operated and conservatively treated patients. Also studied were the remote outcomes (1-to-12-year follow up) of surgical correction for pathological tortuosity of the internal carotid artery. The incidence rate of regression of neurological symptomatology along different clinical signs after surgery was shown to vary within a wide range from 11.6% to 96.3%. Resection of the proximal portion of the internal carotid artery with re-implantation into the old ostium turned out to be clinically effective in 90.0% of cases, with the haemodynamic efficacy amounting to 83.3%. Arteriolysis of the internal carotid artery rendered a clinical effect in 75% of cases, with a haemodynamical effect thereof equalling 25.0%. The decision as to the type of a surgical intervention to perform was primarily made based on the findings of angiography of the internal carotid artery. The operation of arteriolysis did not lead to deterioration of the child's condition.

  6. Carotid revascularization: risks and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marlene O'Brien, Ankur Chandra Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: Despite a decline during the recent decades in stroke-related death, the incidence of stroke has remained unchanged or slightly increased, and extracranial carotid artery stenosis is implicated in 20%–30% of all strokes. Medical therapy and risk factor modification are first-line therapies for all patients with carotid occlusive disease. Evidence for the treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis greater than 70% with either carotid artery stenting (CAS or carotid endarterectomy (CEA is compelling, and several trials have demonstrated a benefit to carotid revascularization in the symptomatic patient population. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is more controversial, with the largest trials only demonstrating a 1% per year risk stroke reduction with CEA. Although there are sufficient data to advocate for aggressive medical therapy as the primary mode of treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, there are also data to suggest that certain patient populations will benefit from a stroke risk reduction with carotid revascularization. In the United States, consensus and practice guidelines dictate that CEA is reasonable in patients with high-grade asymptomatic stenosis, a reasonable life expectancy, and perioperative risk of less than 3%. Regarding CAS versus CEA, the best-available evidence demonstrates no difference between the two procedures in early perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death, and no difference in 4-year ipsilateral stroke risk. However, because of the higher perioperative risks of stroke in patients undergoing CAS, particularly in symptomatic, female, or elderly patients, it is difficult to recommend CAS over CEA except in populations with prohibitive cardiac risk, previous carotid surgery, or prior neck radiation. Current treatment

  7. Stent angioplasty for the treatment of symptomatic stenosis of middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Huisheng; Niu Huiming; Chao Yuanxiang; Li Xiaoning; Wu Dingfeng; Zhang Chenhong; Yang Jie; Zhang Liang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety and feasibility of endovascular stent angioplasty in treating symptomatic stenosis of middle cerebral artery. Methods: Endovascular angioplasty with coronary stents was performed in 27 patients with symptomatic stenosis of middle cerebral artery. The clinical results were reviewed and analyzed. Results: Of the total 27 patients, successful placement of the coronary stents was achieved in 24. Angiography immediately after the procedure showed that the stenotic degree of the diseased artery was markedly decreased from preoperative (80 ± 19)% to postoperative (8 ±4)%, the improvement was very obvious. Percutaneous transcatheter angioplasty had to be employed in two cases because of the failure of stent placement. A mean follow-up period of 18 months was carried out. During the following up period no transient cerebral ischemia attack occurred in 25 patients and no newly-developed cerebral infarction in region fed by the responsible vessels occurred either.Re-irrigation cerebral hemorrhage was seen in one patient, which occurred three hours after the placement of the stent. In one case the placed stent fell off and immigrated into the siphon of internal carotid artery, and the displaced stent was took out later with a catching apparatus. In another case re-stenosis occurred six months after the stenting. Conclusion: Percutaneous endovascular stent angioplasty is a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic stenosis of middle cerebral artery, although its long-term results need to be further evaluated. (authors)

  8. Circumferential and fusiform intracranial aneurysms: reconstructive endovascular treatment with self-expandable stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubicz, Boris [Erasme University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Brussels (Belgium); Hopital Erasme, Service de Radiologie (EA 2691), Brussels (Belgium); Collignon, Laurent; Baleriaux, Danielle [Erasme University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Brussels (Belgium); Lefranc, Florence; Bruneau, Michael; Brotchi, Jacques; Witte, Olivier de [Erasme University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-06-15

    We report our experience with endovascular treatment (EVT) of circumferential and fusiform intracranial aneurysms by a reconstructive approach with self-expandable stents. A retrospective review of our prospectively maintained database identified all circumferential and fusiform aneurysms treated by a reconstructive endovascular approach over a 3-year period. Clinical charts, procedural data, and angiographic results were reviewed. From April 2004 to May 2007, 13 patients were identified, of whom 12 were asymptomatic and 1 presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Two patients with an aneurysm {<=}2 mm were treated by stent-within-stent placement without coiling (group 1). In 11 patients with a larger aneurysm, stenting with subsequent coiling was performed (group 2). In this latter approach, a balloon was temporarily inflated within the stent to ensure safe coil delivery. All patients showed an excellent clinical outcome. Asymptomatic procedural complications occurred in three patients, two with cervical internal carotid artery dissection and one with retroperitoneal hematoma. In patients of group 1, the aneurysm had completely disappeared at 6 months. In patients of group 2, aneurysm occlusion was complete in three and incomplete in eight. Follow-up angiography in 12 patients showed four with further thrombosis, six with stable results, and two with minor recanalization. Circumferential and fusiform intracranial aneurysms may be treated by a reconstructive endovascular approach with self-expandable stents. In small aneurysms, a stent-within-stent technique is effective, whereas stenting and subsequent coiling is indicated in larger aneurysms. This therapeutic protocol is associated with good clinical and anatomical results. (orig.)

  9. Clinical and imaging features associated with intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications in patients with ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Arda [Mersin University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey); Akpinar, Erhan [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Topcuoglu, Mehmet Akif; Arsava, Ethem Murat [Hacettepe University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    Intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications (ICAC), a frequent finding on imaging studies, are predictive of future stroke risk in population-based studies. The clinical significance of this observation among ischemic stroke patients is however less clear. In this study, we analyzed ICAC burden in relation to vascular risk factor profile, stroke etiology, and extent of craniocervical vascular calcifications in a consecutive series of ischemic stroke patients. The burden of ICAC was determined both on non-contrast CT and CT-angiography source images by semiquantitative scoring algorithms. The distribution of vascular risk factors, etiologic stroke subtype, and calcification burden in other craniocervical arteries was assessed among patients with no ICAC, mild-moderate ICAC, and severe ICAC. Of 319 patients included into the study, 28 % had no ICAC, 35 % had mild-moderate ICAC, and 37 % had severe ICAC on CT angiography. Independent factors associated with ICAC burden in multivariate analysis included age (p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.006), and coronary artery disease (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a stroke etiology of large artery atherosclerosis or cardioaortic embolism was significantly related to higher ICAC burden (p = 0.006). Patients with severe ICAC were more likely to harbor calcifications in other vascular beds (p < 0.001). All of these findings persisted when analyses were repeated with CT-based ICAC burden assessments. ICAC burden reflects a continuum of atherosclerotic disease involving carotid arteries together with other craniocervical vascular beds. ICAC is significantly associated with stroke of large vessel or cardioembolic origin. This information might help the clinician in prioritizing etiologic work-up in the acute period. (orig.)

  10. Treatment of pseudoaneurysms with stent-graft: preliminary experience in 12 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Denghui; Ye Caisheng; Li Songqi; Ye Runyi; Chang Guangqi; Chen Wei; Li Xiaoxi; Wang Shenming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To asses the clinical effect of stent-graft in the treatment of pseudoaneurysms. Methods: During the period from March 2008 to June 2011, 86 patients with pseudoaneurysms were admitted to the hospital, of whom stent-graft implantation was carried out in 12. The pseudoaneurysms were located at the thoracic aorta (n=4), abdominal aorta (n=3), common carotid artery (n=3), internal carotid artery (n=1) and right subclavian artery (n=1). All the patient were followed up for 5-43 months. The clinical results were analyzed. Results: The technical success rate for stent delivery was 100%. The pseudoaneurysms was immediately isolated after the procedure in all 12 cases. After endovascular exclusion with stent-graft, no leakage occurred and the blood flow distal to the parent artery was normal. All patients were followed up for a mean period of 23.5 months except one who lost in touch with the authors. One patient with coexisting Behcet's disease died of massive bleeding due to abdominal aortic rupture four months after operation. The other patients were in good clinical condition, and no complications such as stent stenosis, displacement, internal leakage etc. were observed in the follow-up period. Conclusion: The implantation of stent-graft has satisfactory short-term effect in treating pseudoaneurysms, although its long-term efficacy needs to be further observed. (authors)

  11. Definition of common carotid wall thickness affects risk classification in relation to degree of internal carotid artery stenosis: the Plaque At RISK (PARISK) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbuch, J; van Dijk, A C; Schreuder, Fhbm; Truijman, Mtb; Hendrikse, J; Nederkoorn, P J; van der Lugt, A; Hermeling, E; Hoeks, Apg; Mess, W H

    2017-04-04

    Mean or maximal intima-media thickness (IMT) is commonly used as surrogate endpoint in intervention studies. However, the effect of normalization by surrounding or median IMT or by diameter is unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether IMT inhomogeneity is a useful predictor beyond common wall parameters like maximal wall thickness, either absolute or normalized to IMT or lumen size. We investigated the interrelationship of common carotid artery (CCA) thickness parameters and their association with the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis degree. CCA thickness parameters were extracted by edge detection applied to ultrasound B-mode recordings of 240 patients. Degree of ICA stenosis was determined from CT angiography. Normalization of maximal CCA wall thickness to median IMT leads to large variations. Higher CCA thickness parameter values are associated with a higher degree of ipsilateral ICA stenosis (p risk marker for having moderate ipsilateral ICA stenosis (>50%), 55 arteries (15%) are reclassified to another risk category. It is more reasonable to normalize maximal wall thickness to end-diastolic diameter rather than to IMT, affecting risk classification and suggesting modification of the Mannheim criteria. Clinical trials.gov NCT01208025 .

  12. A Novel Carotid Device for Embolic Diversion: Lessons Learned from a “First in Man” Trial in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievert, Horst; Franke, Jennifer; Grad, Ygael; Nishri, Boaz; Assaf, Yaron; Yodfat, Ofer; Römer, Albrecht; Robertson, Greg C.; Stone, Gregg W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate a novel device that was developed to direct emboli away from the internal carotid artery to the external carotid artery to prevent embolic stroke while avoiding the necessity for anticoagulation with warfarin. Methods: A stent-like, self-expandable filter was developed consisting of fine cobalt alloy mesh. After promising preclinical animal testing, the device was implanted into the common carotid artery extending into the external carotid artery in three patients with atrial fibrillation, each of whom were at high-risk for cerebral emboli and were suboptimal candidates for anticoagulation. Follow-up was performed clinically and with carotid duplex ultrasound. Results: The implantation was successful in all three patients. Unrestricted flow through the filter was demonstrated in each patient at 6 months by duplex sonography. However, at 7 months ultrasound demonstrated occlusion of the internal carotid artery filter in one patient, which was subsequently confirmed by angiography. Subtotal filter occlusion occurred in a second patient at 14 months. Neither patient had clinical symptoms. Both internal carotid arteries were successfully recanalized using standard angioplasty techniques without complication. The third patient had completely normal carotid blood flow at 29 months follow-up. Conclusions: Implantation of a novel device intended to divert emboli away from the internal carotid artery was feasible, but resulted in occlusive neointimal proliferation in two of three patients. These results demonstrate a discrepancy from the findings of preclinical animal studies and human investigation.

  13. Building 3D anatomical model of coiling of the internal carotid artery derived from CT angiographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govsa, Figen; Yagdi, Tahir; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Eraslan, Cenk; Alagoz, Ahmet Kemal

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to recreate live patient arterial anomalies using new recent application of three-dimensional (3D) printed anatomical models. Another purpose of building such models is to evaluate the effectiveness of angiographic data. With the help of the DICOM files from computed tomographic angiography (CT-A), we were able to build a printed model of variant course of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Images of coiling of the ICA taken by CT-A, were then converted into 3D images using Google SketchUp free software, and the images were saved in stereolithography format. Imaging helped us conduct the examination in details with reference to geometrical features of ICA, degree of curve, its extension, location and presence of loop. Challenging vascular anatomy was exposed with models of adverse curve of carotid anatomy, including highly angulated necks, conical necks, short necks, tortuous carotid arteries, and narrowed carotid lumens. It assisted us to comprehend spatial anatomy configuration of life-like models. 3D model can be very effective in cases when anatomical difficulties are detected through the CT-A, and therefore, a tactile approach is demanded preoperatively. 3D life-like models serve as an essential office-based tool in vascular surgery as they assist surgeons in preoperative planning, develop intraoperative guidance, teach both the patients and the surgical trainees, and simulate to show patient-specific procedures in medical field.

  14. A road map to the internal carotid artery in expanded endoscopic endonasal approaches to the ventral cranial base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Mohamed A; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo; Kerr, Edward E; Naudy, Cristian; Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Corsten, Martin; Kassam, Amin

    2014-09-01

    Injuring the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a feared complication of endoscopic endonasal approaches. To introduce a comprehensive ICA classification scheme pertinent to safe endoscopic endonasal cranial base surgery. Anatomic dissections were performed in 33 cadaveric specimens (bilateral). Anatomic correlations were analyzed. Based on anatomic correlations, the ICA may be described as 6 distinct segments: (1) parapharyngeal (common carotid bifurcation to ICA foramen); (2) petrous (carotid canal to posterolateral aspect of foramen lacerum); (3) paraclival (posterolateral foramen lacerum to the superomedial aspect of the petrous apex); (4) parasellar (superomedial petrous apex to the proximal dural ring); (5) paraclinoid (from the proximal to the distal dural rings); and (6) intradural (distal ring to ICA bifurcation). Corresponding surgical landmarks included the Eustachian tube, the fossa of Rosenmüller, and levator veli palatini for the parapharyngeal segment; the vidian canal and V3 for the petrous segment; the fibrocartilage of foramen lacerum, foramen rotundum, maxillary strut, lingular process of the sphenoid bone, and paraclival protuberance for the paraclival segment; the sellar floor and petrous apex for the parasellar segment; and the medial and lateral opticocarotid and lateral tubercular recesses, as well as the distal osseous arch of the carotid sulcus for the paraclinoid segment. The proposed endoscopic classification outlines key anatomic reference points independent of the vessel's geometry or the sinonasal pneumatization, thus serving as (1) a practical guide to navigate the ventral cranial base while avoiding injury to the ICA and (2) further foundation for a modular access system.

  15. Late-Onset Massive Epistaxis due to a Ruptured Traumatic Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tabuse, Masanao; Miyazaki, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    A traumatic internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm is rare and difficult to treat. Trapping of ICA is commonly performed owing to the difficulty of directly approaching ICA aneurysms. Recently, coiling the aneurysm itself was recommended if possible. However, it is controversial which of methods are best to completely treat aneurysm. We present the case of a 74-year-old man, who had experienced a head injury 8 years previously, with recurrent severe epistaxis. An ICA aneurysm was detected on ...

  16. Endovascular treatment of carotid artery stenosis: retrospective study of 79 patients treated with stenting and angioplasty with and without cerebral protection devices Tratamento endovascular das lesões estenóticas em bifurcação carotídea: estudo retrospectivo de 79 pacientes tratados por "stent" e angioplastia com e sem mecanismos de proteção cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Noda Kihara

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the results of stenting and angioplasty on carotid bifurcation stenotic lesions using protection systems, emphasizing the indications and technical aspects. Seventy-nine patients, mean age 64.5 years were treated from February,1998 to March, 2003. All patients were included in NASCET study criteria. Forty three patients were treated without the protection systems and thirty six were treated with carotid protection filtering system (Angioguard, EPI. Technical success and 6-months carotid Doppler ultrasound follow-up showing stent patency were achieved in all patients. One major stroke and one death due to intracranial reperfusion bleeding occurred in patients treated without cerebral protection devices. Only one patient presenting hyper perfusion syndrome improving after 7 days, was found in the group treated with the cerebral protection filter mechanism, no other neurologic symptom or death occured in this group. Stenting and angioplasty with protection systems for thromboembolic debris is a safe endovascular method to treat stenotic lesions in the carotid bifurcation with low morbidity and mortality.Este estudo mostra a experiência e resultados da terapêutica endovascular nas lesões estenóticas em bifurcação carotídea. Entre fevereiro de 1998 e março de 2003 foram tratados 79 pacientes com idades entre 57 e 72 anos (média 64,5 anos sendo 45 do masculino e 34 do feminino. Todos os pacientes enquadravam-se nos critérios do estudo "NASCET" com comprometimento das artérias carótidas internas. Dos 79 pacientes, 43 foram tratados sem os sistemas de proteção e 36 pacientes foram tratados com sistema de proteção. Dos 36 pacientes tratados com sistema de proteção foram utilizados filtros de proteção (Angioguard e EPI. Observou-se melhora angiográfica em todos os 79 pacientes tratados. Ultrasom Doppler realizado após 6 meses mostrou artérias pérvias em todos os pacientes. Nos 43 pacientes tratados por "stent

  17. Brainstem ischemic stroke without permanent sequelae during the course of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesteruk, Tomasz; Nesteruk, Marta; Bulik-Pasińska, Marta; Boroszko, Dariusz; Ostrowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a frequent cause of a stroke in young patients. Risk factors which can lead to dissection include neck injury and diseases of the inner wall of the artery. Common symptoms in ICAD are cervical pain and headache, Horner’s syndrome, paralysis of the cranial nerves and subsequently cerebral and retinal ischemia. MR angiography in TOF technique and brain MRI in T1- and T2-weighted images, FLAIR and DWI sequences are the method of choice in patients with ICAD but contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography remains the fastest and the most available diagnostic method. A 39-year old woman, previously healthy, presented to the Hospital Emergency Department because of increasing neck pain on the right side and difficulty in swallowing. The neurological examination revealed: drooping of the right eyelid with narrow palpebral fissure, dysarthria, anisocoria (narrower pupil on the right side), unilateral hypoesthesia on the left side, weak palatal and pharyngeal reflexes on both sides, paresthesia within the left half of the body. Seven days before, the patient felt a sudden, severe neck pain radiating to the temporal apophysis. CT angiography revealed a defect in contrast filling within the left internal carotid artery and right vertebral artery. MRI of the head with MR angiography showed internal carotid artery dissection on the left side and dissection of the right vertebral artery and no ischemic changes within the brain. CT and MR angiography are methods characterized by high sensitivity in detecting dissection of the cervical arteries

  18. Ruptured Aneurysm of an Aberrant Internal Carotid Artery Successfully Treated with Simultaneous Intervention and Surgery in a Hybrid Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoichiro; Sayama, Tetsuro; Maehara, Naoki; Nishimura, Ataru; Iihara, Koji

    2017-06-01

    Aberrant internal carotid artery (aICA) is an anatomic anomaly whereby the internal carotid artery courses through the tympanic cavity without separation by bone. Because aICA is rare, there are no definite treatment strategies for aICA and its complications. We report a case of aICA accompanied by pseudoaneurysm formation and massive bleeding. The patient was a 31-year-old woman with a 2-year history of hearing loss, ear fullness, and pulsatile tinnitus in her left ear. After a diagnosis of otitis media with effusion, she underwent a myringotomy and massive arterial bleeding occurred. After the bleeding was temporarily stopped, aICA and pseudoaneurysm formation on the aICA were shown. To prevent rebleeding, we performed endovascular internal trapping around the pseudoaneurysm after performing common carotid artery to radial artery to middle cerebral artery bypass grafting. After surgery, the aneurysm disappeared. In addition, no new neurologic complications were observed, and the patient's hearing improved and the tinnitus diminished. This is the first case report of an aICA complicated by pseudoaneurysm formation successfully treated with simultaneous endovascular trapping and high-flow bypass in a hybrid operating room. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Why a standard contrast-enhanced MRI might be useful in intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeinck, Maximilian; Rozeik, Christoph; Wattchow, Jens; Meckel, Stephan; Schlageter, Manuel; Beeskow, Christel; Reinhard, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    In patients with ischemic stroke of unknown cause cerebral vasculitis is a rare but relevant differential diagnosis, especially when signs of intracranial artery stenosis are found and laboratory findings show systemic inflammation. In such cases, high-resolution T1w vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 'black blood' technique) at 3 T is preferentially performed, but may not be available in every hospital. We report a case of an 84-year-old man with right hemispheric transient ischemic attack and signs of distal occlusion in the right internal carotid artery (ICA) in duplex sonography. Standard MRI with contrast agent pointed the way to the correct diagnosis since it showed an intramural contrast uptake in the right ICA and both vertebral arteries. Temporal artery biopsy confirmed the suspected diagnosis of a giant cell arteritis and dedicated vessel wall MRI performed later supported the suspected intracranial large artery inflammation. Our case also shows that early diagnosis and immunosuppressive therapy may not always prevent disease progression, as our patient suffered several infarcts in the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory with consecutive high-grade hemiparesis of the right side within the following four months. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. A Novel and Freely Available Interactive 3d Model of the Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Melé, Marc; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Mavar-Haramija, Marija; Juanes-Méndez, Juan A; San-Román, Luis; de Notaris, Matteo; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2018-03-05

    We describe a new and freely available 3D interactive model of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and the skull base that also allows to display and compare its main segment classifications. High-resolution 3D human angiography (isometric voxel's size 0.36 mm) and Computed Tomography angiography images were exported to Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format for processing in a 3D software platform and embedding in a 3D Portable Document Format (PDF) document that can be freely downloaded at http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/112442 and runs under Acrobat Reader on Mac and Windows computers and Windows 10 tablets. The 3D-PDF allows for visualisation and interaction through JavaScript-based functions (including zoom, rotation, selective visualization and transparentation of structures or a predefined sequence view of the main segment classifications if desired). The ICA and its main branches and loops, the Gasserian ganglion, the petrolingual ligament and the proximal and distal dural rings within the skull base environment (anterior and posterior clinoid processes, silla turcica, ethmoid and sphenoid bones, orbital fossae) may be visualized from different perspectives. This interactive 3D-PDF provides virtual views of the ICA and becomes an innovative tool to improve the understanding of the neuroanatomy of the ICA and surrounding structures.

  1. Anatomical nuances of the internal carotid artery in relation to the quadrangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Ricardo L L; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Goulart, Carlos R; Upadhyay, Smita; Buohliqah, Lamia; Lazarini, Paulo R; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in relation to the quadrangular space (QS) and to propose a classification system based on the results. METHODS A total of 44 human cadaveric specimens were dissected endonasally under direct endoscopic visualization. During the dissection, the anatomical variations of the ICA and their relationship with the QS were noted. RESULTS The space between the paraclival ICAs (i.e., intercarotid space) can be classified as 1 of 3 different shapes (i.e., trapezoid, square, or hourglass) based on the trajectory of the ICAs. The ICA trajectories also directly influence the volumetric area of the QS. Based on its geometry, the QS was classified as one of the following: 1) Type A has the smallest QS area and is associated with a trapezoid intercarotid space, 2) Type B corresponds to the expected QS area (not minimized or enlarged) and is associated with a square intercarotid space, and 3) Type C has the largest QS area and is associated with an hourglass intercarotid space. CONCLUSIONS The different trajectories of the ICAs can modify the area of the QS and may be an essential parameter to consider for preoperative planning and defining the most appropriate corridor to reach Meckel's cave. In addition, ICA trajectories should be considered prior to surgery to avoid injuring the vessels.

  2. Internal carotid artery aneurysms, cranial nerve dysfunction and headache: the role of deformation and pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Catarino, M.; Wikholm, G.; Svendsen, P.; Frisen, L.; Elfverson, J.; Quiding, L.

    2003-01-01

    Cranial nerve dysfunction and headache may occur with unruptured aneurysms of the cavernous and supraclinoid portions of the internal carotid artery. Nerve deformation (mass effect) and transmitted pulsations have been suggested as pathogenetic mechanisms. Differentiation may be possible by studying effects of endovascular treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils. Symptoms and signs of cranial neuropathy were retrospectively contrasted with angiographic aneurysm volumes before and after treatment in 10 patients. Mean follow-up was 36 months. Symptoms improved in three of four patients with cranial nerve dysfunction and in all patients with headache: None of the other patients, one with cranial nerve dysfunction, and three who were asymptomatic, developed any new symptoms after treatment. Aneurysm volume ranged from 0.1 to 2.7 cm 3 before and 0.2 to 5.7 cm 3 after treatment; the size thus increased by 15 to 110%, a change which was statistically significant (P = 0.004). The consistent increase in aneurysm volume with treatment is not associated with clinical deterioration, suggesting that deformation and displacement play a minor role in cranial neuropathy and that transmitted pulsations may be more important. (orig.)

  3. Hemodynamic characteristics of large unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysms prior to rupture: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Fan, Jixing; Xiang, Jianping; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Xinjian

    2016-04-01

    Post-ruptured intracranial aneurysm geometry models have been widely used in computational fluid dynamic studies to assess hemodynamic parameters associated with aneurysm rupture. However, their results may not be valid due to the morphological changes of the aneurysm after rupture. Our aim was to identify the hemodynamic features of aneurysms prior to rupture in comparison with unruptured aneurysms. We retrospectively identified three large unruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (pre-ruptured group) with adequate image quality just before rupture. Matched with the same location and similar size, eight unruptured aneurysms (unruptured group) were selected as controls during the same time period. Flow simulations for these aneurysms were performed to compare differences in hemodynamics. Compared with unruptured aneurysms, pre-ruptured aneurysms had a significantly more irregular aneurysm shape, a higher aspect ratio, and lower aneurysm averaged wall shear stress (WSS) (p=0.024, p=0.048, and p=0.048, respectively). Although pre-ruptured aneurysms had a lower low WSS area and higher Oscillatory Shear Index, these were not statistically significant. For large unruptured ICA aneurysms, low WSS, higher aspect ratio, and irregular shape were indicators of fatal rupture. Early treatment for such lesions with flow diverter and coils may be the best therapeutic option. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Parent artery curvature influences inflow zone location of unruptured sidewall internal carotid artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futami, K; Sano, H; Kitabayashi, T; Misaki, K; Nakada, M; Uchiyama, N; Ueda, F

    2015-02-01

    Future aneurysmal behaviors or treatment outcomes of cerebral aneurysms may be related to the hemodynamics around the inflow zone. Here we investigated the influence of parent artery curvature on the inflow zone location of unruptured sidewall internal carotid artery aneurysms. In 32 aneurysms, the inflow zone location was decided by 4D flow MR imaging, and the radius of the parent artery curvature was measured in 2D on an en face image of the section plane corresponding to the aneurysm orifice. The inflow zone was on the distal neck in 10 (group 1, 31.3%), on the lateral side in 19 (group 2, 59.4%), and on the proximal neck in 3 (group 3, 9.4%) aneurysms. The radius in group 1 was significantly larger than that in group 2 (8.3 mm [4.5 mm] versus 4.5 mm [1.9 mm]; median [interquartile range]; P 8.0 mm were in group 1. All 18 aneurysms with a radius of <6.0 mm were in group 2 or 3. In two group 3 aneurysms, the inflow zone was located in a part of the neck extending beyond the central axis of the parent artery. The inflow zone locations of sidewall aneurysms can be influenced by the parent artery curvature evaluated in 2D on an en face image of the section plane corresponding to the aneurysm orifice. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. Internal carotid artery aneurysms, cranial nerve dysfunction and headache: the role of deformation and pulsation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Catarino, M.; Wikholm, G.; Svendsen, P. [Interventional Neuroradiology, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Frisen, L. [Ophthalmology Dept., Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Elfverson, J. [Neurosurgery Dept., Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Quiding, L. [Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Dept., Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    Cranial nerve dysfunction and headache may occur with unruptured aneurysms of the cavernous and supraclinoid portions of the internal carotid artery. Nerve deformation (mass effect) and transmitted pulsations have been suggested as pathogenetic mechanisms. Differentiation may be possible by studying effects of endovascular treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils. Symptoms and signs of cranial neuropathy were retrospectively contrasted with angiographic aneurysm volumes before and after treatment in 10 patients. Mean follow-up was 36 months. Symptoms improved in three of four patients with cranial nerve dysfunction and in all patients with headache: None of the other patients, one with cranial nerve dysfunction, and three who were asymptomatic, developed any new symptoms after treatment. Aneurysm volume ranged from 0.1 to 2.7 cm{sup 3} before and 0.2 to 5.7 cm{sup 3} after treatment; the size thus increased by 15 to 110%, a change which was statistically significant (P = 0.004). The consistent increase in aneurysm volume with treatment is not associated with clinical deterioration, suggesting that deformation and displacement play a minor role in cranial neuropathy and that transmitted pulsations may be more important. (orig.)

  6. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remko Kockelkoren

    Full Text Available Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification. Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore, our aim was to develop CT scoring method to distinguish intimal and medial iICA calcification in vivo.First, in both iICAs of 16 cerebral autopsy patients the intimal and/or medial calcification area was histologically assessed (142 slides. Brain CT images of these patients were matched to the corresponding histological slides to develop a CT score that determines intimal or medial calcification dominance. Second, performance of the CT score was assessed in these 16 patients. Third, reproducibility was tested in a separate cohort.First, CT features of the score were circularity (absent, dot(s, <90°, 90-270° or 270-360°, thickness (absent, ≥1.5mm, or <1.5mm, and morphology (indistinguishable, irregular/patchy or continuous. A high sum of features represented medial and a lower sum intimal calcifications. Second, in the 16 patients the concordance between the CT score and the dominant calcification type was reasonable. Third, the score showed good reproducibility (kappa: 0.72 proportion of agreement: 0.82 between the categories intimal, medial or absent/indistinguishable.The developed CT score shows good reproducibility and can differentiate reasonably well between intimal and medial calcification dominance in the iICA, allowing for further (epidemiological studies on iICA calcification.

  7. Internal carotid artery dissection in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nasser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS type IV, also known as vascular EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1/100,000 to 1/250,000. In EDS type IV, vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a preference for large- and medium-sized arteries. Dissections of the vertebral and carotid arteries in their extra- and intra-cranial segments are typical. The authors report the case of a patient with EDS type IV for whom the diagnosis was established based on clinical signs and who developed internal carotid artery dissection at the age of 44 years. In the absence of a specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical interventions should focus on symptomatic relief, prophylactic measures, and genetic counseling. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated, and a conservative approach to vascular complications is usually recommended.

  8. [Short-term outcome of single stenting technique for unruptured wide-necked tiny aneurysms of the anterior circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wang, Daming; Liu, Jiachun; Wang, Lijun; Qi, Peng

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the short-term outcome of single stenting technique for unruptured, wide-necked, tiny aneurysms of the anterior circulation. Eleven unruptured, wide-necked, tiny aneurysms of the anterior circulation were treated by a single stent deployed in the parent artery between January 2008 and July 2013 in Department of Neurosurgery in Beijing Hospital. The maximum diameter of the aneurysms ranged from 2.0 to 3.0 mm, mean (2.4 ± 0.4) mm, and the dome-to-neck ratios were all ≤ 1.2. The locations were clinoid segment of internal carotid artery (n=2), posterior communicating artery origin (n=4), anterior choroidal artery origin (n=2) and middle cerebral artery bifurcation (n=3). All internal carotid aneurysms were located in the medial and/or ventral wall of the internal carotid artery. The rate of aneurysm obliteration and rupture during follow-up was obtained by repeat angiography and clinic or telephone interview respectively. Sole stent placement in the parent artery was intentionally performed for nine aneurysms, while attempt of coiling after stent deployment for the other two aneurysms failed due to unsuccessful microcatherization. Ten stents were successfully deployed, of which one was used to treat two tandem lesions simultaneously. Only one aneurysm became smaller immediately postprocedure. No perioperative complications occurred. Angiographic follow-up after a mean period of (13 ± 6) months (range 8-24 months) revealed that 8 aneurysms did no change in size, 2 became smaller and only one was totally occluded. Asymptomatic in-stent stenosis of the parent artery was found in all 3 shrinking or occluded aneurysms. No aneurysm rupture was observed in the clinical follow-up. For those unruptured, wide-necked, tiny aneurysms arising at branching sites in the anterior circulation, single stenting technique seems to be a safe alternative treatment, while the short-term rate of aneurysm occlusion is low.

  9. Evaluation of results and radiologic follow-up in detachable balloon occlusion therapy of the internal carotid artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sun Yang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Kyu Chang; Huh, Seung Kon; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Jun

    1999-01-01

    The author has studied the clinical results of CT and MR findings of proximal carotid artery occlusion using detachable balloons in the treatement of unclippable internal carotid (IC) aneurysms. From 1987 to 1995, twenty-eight patients with IC aneurysms were treated by proximal artery occlusion with detachable balloons. Of these patients, 4 had aneurysms arising from the supraclinoid portion of the IC artery, 23 had aneuryms arising from cavernous portion of the IC artery, and one had aneurysm arising from cervical portion of the IC artery. Of the 28 patients, 7 patients without CT or MR examinations were excluded in this study. The mean follow-up period was 18.6 months. The causes of aneurysm formation were spontaneous in 17 cases and traumatic in 4 cases. Of 20 patients with aneurysms arising from supraclinoid and cavernous portion of the IC artery, 16 patients (80%) had cranial nerve symptoms by mass effect. Five patients had epistaxis (3 patient), carotid cavernous fistula (1 patient) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (1 patient) due to aneurysm rupture. Two patients, each with aneuryms arising from supraclinoid and cervical portion of carotid artery had 9th and 12th cranial nerve symptom. There were three instances of complication after permanent occlusion; two patients had subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage by aneurysm rupture and expired. One patient had ischemia of posterior cerebral artery teritorry after one day. Delayed ischemic event did not occur during the follow-up period. All aneurysms of the carotid artery below the level of ophthalmic artery presented radiographic proof of complete thrombosis within two months. However, complete thrombosis of aneurysm was considerably delayed in two aneurysms arising from the supraclinoid portion of the carotid artery. In long-term follow-up study, completely thrombosed aneurysms decreased in size slowly. But incompletely thrombosed aneurysms did not decrease in size for a long time and began to contract after

  10. Evaluation of results and radiologic follow-up in detachable balloon occlusion therapy of the internal carotid artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Yang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Kyu Chang; Huh, Seung Kon; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Jun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    The author has studied the clinical results of CT and MR findings of proximal carotid artery occlusion using detachable balloons in the treatement of unclippable internal carotid (IC) aneurysms. From 1987 to 1995, twenty-eight patients with IC aneurysms were treated by proximal artery occlusion with detachable balloons. Of these patients, 4 had aneurysms arising from the supraclinoid portion of the IC artery, 23 had aneuryms arising from cavernous portion of the IC artery, and one had aneurysm arising from cervical portion of the IC artery. Of the 28 patients, 7 patients without CT or MR examinations were excluded in this study. The mean follow-up period was 18.6 months. The causes of aneurysm formation were spontaneous in 17 cases and traumatic in 4 cases. Of 20 patients with aneurysms arising from supraclinoid and cavernous portion of the IC artery, 16 patients (80%) had cranial nerve symptoms by mass effect. Five patients had epistaxis (3 patient), carotid cavernous fistula (1 patient) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (1 patient) due to aneurysm rupture. Two patients, each with aneuryms arising from supraclinoid and cervical portion of carotid artery had 9th and 12th cranial nerve symptom. There were three instances of complication after permanent occlusion; two patients had subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage by aneurysm rupture and expired. One patient had ischemia of posterior cerebral artery teritorry after one day. Delayed ischemic event did not occur during the follow-up period. All aneurysms of the carotid artery below the level of ophthalmic artery presented radiographic proof of complete thrombosis within two months. However, complete thrombosis of aneurysm was considerably delayed in two aneurysms arising from the supraclinoid portion of the carotid artery. In long-term follow-up study, completely thrombosed aneurysms decreased in size slowly. But incompletely thrombosed aneurysms did not decrease in size for a long time and began to contract after

  11. Computed tomography angiography intraluminal filling defect is predictive of internal carotid artery free-floating thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaberi, A.; Lum, C.; Stefanski, P.; Iancu, D. [University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thornhill, R. [Neurosciences and Clinical Epidemiology Program/Methods Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Petrcich, W. [Neurosciences and Clinical Epidemiology Program/Methods Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Momoli, F. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Torres, C.; Dowlatshahi, D. [University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); University of Ottawa, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Filling defects at the internal carotid artery (ICA) origin in the work-up of stroke or transient ischemic attack may be an ulcerated plaque or free-floating thrombus (FFT). This may be challenging to distinguish, as they can appear morphologically similar. This is an important distinction as FFT can potentially embolize distally, and its management differs. We describe a series of patients with suspected FFT and evaluate its imaging appearance, clinical features, and evolution with therapy. Between 2008 and 2013, we prospectively collected consecutive patients with proximal ICA filling defects in the axial plane surrounded by contrast on CT/MR angiography. We defined FFT as a filling defect that resolved on follow-up imaging. We assessed the cranial-caudal dimension of the filling defect and receiver operating characteristics to identify clinical and radiological variables that distinguished FFT from complex ulcerated plaque. Intraluminal filling defects were identified in 32 patients. Filling defects and resolved or decreased in 25 patients (78 %) and felt to be FFT; there was no change in 7 (22 %). Resolved defects and those that decreased in size extended more cranially than those that remained unchanged: 7.3 mm (4.2-15.9) versus 3.1 mm (2.7-3.7; p = 0.0038). Receiver operating characteristic analysis established a threshold of 3.8 mm (filling defect length), sensitivity of 88 %, specificity of 86 %, and area under the curve of 0.86 (p < 0.0001) for distinguishing FFT from plaque. Filling defects in the proximal ICA extending cranially >3.8 mm were more likely to be FFT than complex ulcerated plaque. Further studies evaluating filling defect length as a predictor for FFT are warranted. (orig.)

  12. Dissection of internal carotid and vertebral arteries: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Andreevna Kalashnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature and the author’s results of an examination of almost 140 patients with dissection of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries (ICA and VA. Dissection is blood penetration through an intimal tear from the lumen of an artery into its wall to develop intramural hematoma (IMH. The cause of dissection is the weakness of the arterial wall presumably due to mitochondrial cytopathy. IMH narrows/occludes the arterial lumen or is a source of arterioarterial embolism, which in turn leads to ischemic stroke. Stroke as a result of dissection generally develops in young patients, who are not prone to traditional vascular risk factors, frequently after the influence of provocative factors (mild head/neck injury, head jerks, physical strain, contraceptives, etc.. The characteristics of stroke are head/neck pain on the side of dissection that appears a few days prior to stroke or simultaneously with the latter; quite often a good recovery of impaired functions; and low recurrence rates. Another major manifestation, isolated cervicocephalic pain, is encountered in PA dissection more frequently (in almost a third of cases and in ICA dissection less frequently (about 5%. Magnetic resonance (MR angiography and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR imaging play a leading role in the verification of dissection. Dissection should be treated with anticoagulants/antiaggregants in its acute phase, as well as with trophic drugs, primarily actovegin, in both acute and chronic phases.

  13. Unilateral and bilateral internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion: a study of the secondary collateral circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yunhui; Ma Zhubin; Zhuang Lei; Liu Jianjun; Zang Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: It's a study of the collateral circulation secondary to unilateral and bilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) severe stenosis or occlusion using digital subtract angiography (DSA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Methods: Ninty-five patients with ICA stenosis or occlusion were diagnosed by DSA or MRA. Forty-four patients were assessed by DSA, and fifty-one patients were evaluated by MRA, who were divided into two groups of the unilateral and bilateral involvement. DSA, MRA findings were analyzed, by which the patterns of the collateral circulation were comparatively studied. Results: The presence rate of anterior communicating artery (AcoA) in the unilateral group on DSA and MRA was significantly higher than that in the bilateral group (P 0.05). On DSA, the presence rate of ophthalmic artery (OphA) in the unilateral and bilateral groups had no significant difference between the two groups. The augmentation rate of the OphA in the bilateral group was significantly higher than that in the unilateral group (P<0.05). The presence rate of leptomeningeal anastomosis in the bilateral group was significantly higher than that in the unilateral group on DSA and MRA (P<0.01). Conclusion: In patients with the unilateral and bilateral ICA stenosis or occlusion, the collateral circulation formats in different patterns. The major collateral pathways secondary to the unilateral ICA stenosis or occlusion are AcoA and ispilateral PCoA, while to the bilateral ICA stenosis or' occlusion are PCoA, OPhA, and leptomeningeal anastomosis. (authors)

  14. Computed tomography angiography intraluminal filling defect is predictive of internal carotid artery free-floating thrombus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaberi, A.; Lum, C.; Stefanski, P.; Iancu, D.; Thornhill, R.; Petrcich, W.; Momoli, F.; Torres, C.; Dowlatshahi, D.

    2014-01-01

    Filling defects at the internal carotid artery (ICA) origin in the work-up of stroke or transient ischemic attack may be an ulcerated plaque or free-floating thrombus (FFT). This may be challenging to distinguish, as they can appear morphologically similar. This is an important distinction as FFT can potentially embolize distally, and its management differs. We describe a series of patients with suspected FFT and evaluate its imaging appearance, clinical features, and evolution with therapy. Between 2008 and 2013, we prospectively collected consecutive patients with proximal ICA filling defects in the axial plane surrounded by contrast on CT/MR angiography. We defined FFT as a filling defect that resolved on follow-up imaging. We assessed the cranial-caudal dimension of the filling defect and receiver operating characteristics to identify clinical and radiological variables that distinguished FFT from complex ulcerated plaque. Intraluminal filling defects were identified in 32 patients. Filling defects and resolved or decreased in 25 patients (78 %) and felt to be FFT; there was no change in 7 (22 %). Resolved defects and those that decreased in size extended more cranially than those that remained unchanged: 7.3 mm (4.2-15.9) versus 3.1 mm (2.7-3.7; p = 0.0038). Receiver operating characteristic analysis established a threshold of 3.8 mm (filling defect length), sensitivity of 88 %, specificity of 86 %, and area under the curve of 0.86 (p 3.8 mm were more likely to be FFT than complex ulcerated plaque. Further studies evaluating filling defect length as a predictor for FFT are warranted. (orig.)

  15. Cervical Rotatory Manipulation Decreases Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Internal Carotid Artery

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    Shaoqun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM, on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA. Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM, uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups. Results. Both CRM and modeling were the main effects affecting physiological elastic modulus (PEM of ICA. PEM in CRM-Model group was 1.81 times as much as Non-CRM-Model group, while the value in CRM-Model group was 1.34 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Maximum elastic modulus in CRM-Model group was 1.80 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Max strains in CRM-Model group and Non-CRM-Model group were 30.98% and 28.71% lower than CRM-Normal group and Non-CRM-Normal group, respectively. However, whether treated with CRM or not, the uniaxial tensile properties of healthy ICAs were not statistically different. Conclusion. CRM may decrease the uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit arteriosclerotic ICA, but with no effect on normal group. The study will aid in the meaningful explanation of the controversy about the harmfulness of CRM and the suitable population of CRM.

  16. [Three cases of internal carotid artery dissection due to trivial trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Naoki; Hiu, Takeshi; Morofuji, Yoichi; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Ochi, Akira; Nagata, Izumi

    2007-12-01

    Three cases of internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection due to trivial trauma were reported. A 14-year-old, previously healthy, girl developed left hemiparesis after jogging. MRI sh owed cerebral infarction in the right basal ganglia and the MR angiography (MRA) revealed luminal narrowing of the right ICA as well as pseudolumen at the origin of the right ICA. She was treated with antithrombotic therapy. Follow-up MRA demonstrated normal signal in the right ICA. A 23-year-old woman admitted to the hospital because of minor facial injury due to a traffic accident. Although she had no apparent symptom, follow-up CT, one day after presentation,. showed cerebral infarction in the right basal ganglia. Angiography showed diminished luminal diameter of the right ICA. She was treated with antithrombotic therapy and follow-up angiography showed reconstitution of normal lumina of the right ICA. A 34-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of transient ischemic attack following swimming. Neurological examination was normal and MRI did not show any ischemic lesion. MRA revealed diminished signal in the left ICA as well as string and pearl sign at the origin of the left ICA. She was treated with antithrombotic therapy, and follow-up angiography showed normalization of the left ICA. Cervical ICA dissection due to trivial trauma usually appears as an eccentric tapered stenosis arising at the origin of the ICA and resolves with complete or excellent recovery in most cases. Surgical or endovascular treatment should be reserved for patients who have persistent symptoms of ischemia despite adequate antithrombotic treatment.

  17. Unruptured internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms: general features and overall results after modern treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Pira, Biagia; Brinjikji, Waleed; Burrows, Anthony M; Cloft, Harry J; Vine, Roanna L; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    Internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms (ICAbifAs) present unique challenges to endovascular and surgical operators, and little is known about their natural history. We reviewed our institution's experience with ICAbifAs studying outcomes of surgical and endovascular management and natural history. Consecutive patients with unruptured ICAbifAs evaluated and/or treated over an 8-year interval were studied. Baseline demographics, neurovascular risk factors, aneurysm location and size, clinical presentation, treatment recommendations, and outcomes were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. Continuous variables were compared with Student's t test and categorical variables with Chi-square tests. Fifty-nine patients with 61 unruptured ICAbifAs were included. Seven aneurysms were treated surgically (11.5 %), 22 underwent endovascular treatment (36 %), and 32 were managed conservatively (52.5 %). In the surgical group, short- and long-term complete aneurysm occlusion rates were 100 % with no cases of perioperative or long-term permanent morbidity or treatment-related mortality. In the endovascular group, two patients (11.7 %) with giant aneurysms had perioperative thromboembolic events with transient morbidity. There was one case of aneurysm rupture at follow-up in a giant aneurysm treated with partial coil embolization. Complete/near-complete occlusion rates were 63 %. There was one case of aneurysm rupture after 114 aneurysm-years of follow-up in the conservative management group (0.89 %/year), but no ruptures were observed in small aneurysms selected for conservative management. Unruptured small ICAbifAs have a benign natural history. In patients selected for treatment, excellent results can be achieved in the vast majority of patients with judicious use of endovascular and surgical therapy.

  18. Epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded within pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zesheng; Tian, Daofeng; Wang, Hongliu; Kong, Derek Kai; Zhang, Shenqi; Liu, Baohui; Deng, Gang; Xu, Zhou; Wu, Liquan; Ji, Baowei; Wang, Long; Cai, Qiang; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Junmin; Zhang, Aimin; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Epistaxis due to ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm embedded within a pituitary adenoma (PA) has seldom been reported in the literature. Here we want to elaborate the incidence, mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategy for this condition. The first survived case of a patient with epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured aneurysm embedded within PA was reported and the literature was reviewed. A 53-year-old male patient presented to our institution with sudden onset epistaxis and progressive vision loss. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis and dilated unresponsive pupils. A CT scan showed a large mass in the pituitary fossa with bony erosion. MRI revealed a large pituitary tumor and abnormal signal intensity in the tumor. No aneurysm was noted during the pre-operative MR angiography. Abundant arterial bleeding suddenly occurred during urgent transsphenoidal surgery. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the presence of a 14 mm unexpected saccular aneurysm of right ICA in the cavernous sinus with the dome protruding into the sella turcica. Balloon test occlusion of the right ICA was undertaken and permanent occlusion was performed. The patient recovered well and received bromocriptine and thyroid hormone replacement therapy during the follow-up period. At 14-month followup, the patient had no neurological deficits, no features of ischaemia relating to the right ICA therapeutic occlusion. Our case indicated that epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy could be due to the rupture of an ICA aneurysm embedded in a PA. Clinical suspicion should remain high when evaluating any case of epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy. Optimal treatment should take into consideration individual features of the tumor, aneurysm, and patient. Making the correct diagnosis as well as identifying an appropriate management strategy is critical in the care of such patients.

  19. Long-Term Efficacy of Percutaneous Internal Plastic Stent Placement for Non-anastomotic Biliary Stenosis After Liver Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun, E-mail: seraph377@gmail.com; Han, Joon Koo, E-mail: hanjk@snu.ac.kr; Baek, Ji-Hyun, E-mail: 100paper@gmail.com [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Suk-Won, E-mail: bomboy1@hanmail.net [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Ijin, E-mail: hijijin@gmail.com [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Nam-Joon, E-mail: gsleenj@hanmail.net; Lee, Kwang-Woong, E-mail: kwleegs@gmail.com; Suh, Kyung-Suk, E-mail: kssuh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    PurposeWe aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of percutaneous management of non-anastomotic biliary stenosis after liver transplantation, using plastic internal biliary stents.Materials and MethodsThis study included 35 cases (28 men, 7 women; mean age: 52.09 ± 8.13 years, range 34–68) in 33 patients who needed repeated interventional procedures because of biliary strictures. After classification of the biliary strictures, we inserted percutaneous biliary plastic stents through the T-tube or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tracts. Stents were exchanged according to percutaneous methods at regular 2- to 6-month intervals. The stents were removed if the condition improved, as observed on cholangiogram as well as based on clinical findings. The median patient follow-up period after initial diagnosis and treatment was 6.04 years (range 0.29–9.95 years). We assessed treatment success rate and patient and graft survival times.ResultsDuring the follow-up period, 14 patients (14/33, 42.42 %) were successfully treated and were tube-free. The median tube-free time, time without a stent, was 4.13 years (range 1.00–9.01). In contrast, internal plastic stents remained in 9 patients (9/33, 27.27 %) until the last follow-up. These patients had acceptable hepatic function. Among the remaining 10 patients, 3 (3/33, 9.09 %) were lost to regular follow-up and the other 7 (7/33, 21.21 %) patients died. The overall graft loss rate was 20.0 % (7/35). The median time from initial treatment to graft loss was 1.84 years (range 0.42–4.25).ConclusionsPercutaneous plastic stents placement is technically feasible and clinically useful in patients with multiple biliary stenoses following liver transplantation.

  20. Trombose de artéria carótida comum: tratamento cirúrgico com anastomose subclávio-carotidea Occlusion of the common carotid artery treated with a subclavian-internal carotid artery bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Dellaretti Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos o caso de mulher de 62 anos, com história de vários ataques isquêmicos transitórios. Os exames complementares revelaram oclusão da artéria carótida comum e revascularização da artéria carótida interna (ACI através de anastomose com a artéria tiroidiana inferior, bem como aneurisma na ACI supraclinoidea. A paciente foi tratada com "bypass" entre a artéria subclávia e a artéria carótida interna cervical, ocorrendo regressão completa dos sintomas de isquemia cerebral no pós-operatório.We describe the case of a 62 years old woman with several transient isquemic attacks. The neuroradiological study demonstrated occlusion of the common carotid artery with revascularization of the internal carotid artery by anastomosis with the inferior thyroid artery and an aneurysm of internal carotid artery at the emergency of the anterior choroidal artery. The patient was treated with a bypass between the subclavian artery and the internal carotid artery with complete regression of the symptoms.

  1. Calculation of the Wall Shear Stress in the case of an Internal Carotid Artery with stenoses of different sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus PETRILA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a non-Newtonian mathematical model for the blood flow in large vessels – elaborated and presented already by us in a previous paper [1]. We calculate and than compare the values of the wall shear stress, which has a special importance in the possible ruptures of vascular vessels (in the case of a human internal carotid artery with stenosis in four different cases. The numerical simulations are made using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.3, and the results are compared to some already existing in the literature.

  2. Treatment of intracranial stenoses using the Neuroform stent system: initial experience in five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, Stefan; Hartmann, Marius [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ringleb, Peter [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Division of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    We assessed the technical feasibility of balloon-assisted angioplasty with consecutive stenting using a flexible, self-expanding neurovascular stent for the treatment of intracranial arteriosclerotic vascular stenoses. Five consecutive patients with symptomatic drug-resistant stenoses of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) or the main stem of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were treated by balloon-assisted angioplasty with consecutive stenting using the Neuroform stent system. Balloon dilatation of the stenoses and consecutive stent placement with complete coverage of the stenoses was feasible in all patients. One patient suffered acute thrombosis distally to the stented vessel segment which was successfully treated by fibrinolysis, and one patient suffered acute subarachnoid and parenchymal hemorrhage probably due to vessel perforation. In the other three patients, no complications occurred during or immediately after angioplasty. All patients were free of further ischemic events up to the 6-month follow-up. Our findings demonstrate that the Neuroform stent system can used successfully for the treatment of intracranial stenoses of the ICA and the main stem of the MCA. Although immediate angiographic results are promising, long-term angiographic and clinical follow-up is essential to demonstrate long-term outcome. (orig.)

  3. Stroke prevention-surgical and interventional approaches to carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajamani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra cranial carotid artery stenosis is an important cause of stroke, which often needs treatment with carotid revascularization. To prevent stroke recurrence, carotid endarterectomy (CEA has been well-established for several decades for symptomatic high and moderate grade stenosis. Carotid stenting is a less invasive alternative to CEA and several recent trials have compared the efficacy of the 2 procedures in patients with carotid stenosis. Carotid artery stenting has emerged as a potential mode of therapy for high surgical risk patients with symptomatic high-grade stenosis. This review focuses on the current data available that will enable the clinician to decide optimal treatment strategies for patients with carotid stenosis.

  4. Internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion: study of collateral circulation pathways on DSA and MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yunhui; Ma Zhubin; Xu Yikai

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the collateral pathways of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis or occlusion on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and to compare these two methods in the study for collateral pathways. Methods: Seventy-four patients with ICA stenosis or occlusion were included as the study group. Sixty persons with normal findings on DSA or MRA each served as the control group. DSA, MRA, MRI, CT findings, and clinicall materials were analyzed in the two groups. Results: Stenosis or occlusion over ICA bifurcation was showed clearly in all patients on DSA or MRA. On DSA, the presence rate of ipsilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) in the study group (82.5%) was lower significantly than that of the control group (94.2%) (P=0.025). On MRA (3D-TOF), the rate in the study group (59.3%) was higher significantly than that of the controls (30.0%) (P=0.000). On DSA and MRA, the diameter of ipsilateral PCoA in the study group was larger than that of the control group (P=0.000). On DSA, the presence rate of OPhA in the study group was significantly different from that of the control group, and its diameter was larger than that of the control group (P=0.003). On MRA, its presence rate was lower than that of the control group. The presence rate of anterior communicating artery (ACoA) in the study group showed no statistical difference between DSA and MRA. In the study group, the presence rate of PCoA on DSA was significantly higher than that on MRA (P 0.05). The diameters of the three arteries showed no significant differences between DSA and MRA (P>0.05). Conclusion: DSA is highly valuable for the evaluation of collateral pathways of ICA stenosis or occlusion, and it is necessary for preoperative examination. MRA is a non-invasive angiographic method and can evaluate collateral circulation in both morphology and function, and can be the preferred method for the disease. (authors)

  5. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was treated with heparin prior to starting warfarin. He made a partial recovery and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. This case is a reminder of carotid dissection as an uncommon but serious complication of high speed motor vehicle accident, which may be silent initially. Literature Review suggests risk stratification before relevant radiological screening at risk patients. Significant advances in CTA have made it the diagnostic tool of choice, but ultrasound is an important screening tool.

  6. Spontaneous rupture of an internal carotid artery aneurysm diagnosed as a peritonsillar abscess, a tonsillar and epipharyngeal carcinoma with metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karov, I

    1996-01-01

    The author observed a spontaneous rupture of an internal carotid artery aneurysm with initial manifestations of throat pain and subfebrillity. The condition was diagnosed as peritonsillar abscess. Two days later, a swelling appeared on the same side of the neck, which necessitated a revision of the primary diagnosis and acceptance of another one--a carcinoma of the palatine tonsil with metastasis. A third diagnosis was made on hospitalization--epipharyngeal carcinoma with metastasis. Physical examination disclosed an intact skin of the neck with a right-side tumefaction of a walnut size. The right tonsil was displaced anteriorly and medially. The epi- and hypopharynx were restricted. Simultaneous palpation of the displaced tonsil and the neck tumefaction showed that the lesion was single and pulsated. The pulsations were synchronous with the pulse. Contrast angiography showed an internal carotid artery aneurysm reaching the cranial base. The manifestation of the aneurysm by pains at the throat, subfebrillity, the displacement of the palatine tonsil and the appearance of a neck tumefaction were related to a spontaneous rupture. The absence of a skin lividity was most probably due to the barrier function of the neck fasciae concerning the haematoma.

  7. Resting and hypercapnic rCBF in patients with unilateral occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyeux, A.; Laterre, C.; Beckers, C.

    1988-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by the 133 Xe inhalation technique in 15 patients with severe unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (75%) or occlusion, and in the absence of evidence of any sign of occlusive disease in other main afferent cerebral arteries. A comparison with normal subjects showed that lowered resting flow in both hemispheres was a common finding in all patients. Interhemispheric asymmetry was present only in patients with occlusion and the precentral, posterior temporal, and occipital regions were the most seriously affected. The CO 2 reactivity was substantially reduced in both hemispheres of all stenotic and occluded patients, but occluded patients showed an increased reduction of CO 2 reactivity only in the ipsilateral hemisphere. In addition to an hypothetical age effect, the atherosclerotic involvement of the cerebral vascular system leads to a reduction of flow and loss of CO 2 reactivity in both hemispheres. In this context, the collateral supply capacity is not overloaded in case of a unilateral severe stenosis but fails in case of a unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery. A suitable estimate of the blood flow reduction as a result of occlusion is made by the hemispheric and regional laterality indices applied in resting and hypercapnia conditions. These indices could be used as indicators for endarterectomy or bypass surgery as well as a sensitive means for appreciating cerebral blood flow response to treatment

  8. Carotid Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trials from ClinicalTrials.gov . Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Atherosclerosis Carotid Artery Disease Carotid Endarterectomy High Blood Pressure ...

  9. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  10. Association Between Macrominerals Intake and Changes in Internal Carotid Artery-Intima Media Thickness in POST Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Tugasworo, Dodik; Silaen, Rumintang

    2017-02-01

    Carotid Intima Media Thickness (C-IMT) has been widely used as marker for atherosclerosis. Previous studies on minerals intake and its association with C-IMT revealed various. Most of the studies showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to determine wether macro minerals intake is related to internal carotid-intima media thickness (IC-IMT). This is a longitudinal study, pre test post test design conducted in Neurology clinic, Kariadi hospital, Semarang from June to December 2014. Subjects were 22 post ischemic stroke patients. Minerals intake and IC-IMT was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire and Duplex Carotid Ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square, Fisher Exact and Logistic Regression test. Subjects included in this study were 17 male subjects (77.3%) and 5 female subjects (22.7%). Mean of IC-IMT in female subjects was found to be higher than in male. Mean of total IC-IMT was increased after a period of six months (0.96±0.80 to 0.97±0.21 mm). There were significant association between calcium as well as sodium intakes and IC-IMT. In contrast, there were no association between magnesium as well as potassium intake and IC-IMT. Multivariate analysis suggest that sodium intake (OR=26.828) was the most influencing factor for IC-IMT, followed by calcium intake (OR=0.042). Calcium as well as potassium intake were independently associated with IC-IMT. Magnecium as well as sodium intake were not independently associated with IC-IMT changes. Sodium intake was the most influencing variable to IC-IMT changes, followed by calcium intake.

  11. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  12. Coil Migration through a Neuroform 3 Stent during Endovascular Coiling. A Case Report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2009-07-29

    Summary: A 43-year-old woman attended for stent assisted coiling. A Neuroform 30 x 4.5 mm stent had been successfully placed over the left periophthalmic aneurysm. During the coiling the first coil migrated through the crowns in the stent, lodging at the MCA bifurcation. We believe that the coil herniated through the overlying stent due to the carotid siphon curvature and the open cell design. Furthermore the distal markers of the stent impeded coil extraction with a MERCI device.

  13. Late-Onset Massive Epistaxis due to a Ruptured Traumatic Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tabuse, Masanao; Miyazaki, Hiromichi

    2017-01-01

    A traumatic internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm is rare and difficult to treat. Trapping of ICA is commonly performed owing to the difficulty of directly approaching ICA aneurysms. Recently, coiling the aneurysm itself was recommended if possible. However, it is controversial which of methods are best to completely treat aneurysm. We present the case of a 74-year-old man, who had experienced a head injury 8 years previously, with recurrent severe epistaxis. An ICA aneurysm was detected on computed tomography. The trapping and bypass was planned. However, sudden epistaxis occurred, we performed trapping to stop the bleeding and save his life. After the operation, no right ICA or aneurysm was detected. However, severe epistaxis recurred two months after the operation. In the second operation, a ligation of the common -/- external carotid artery and a severance of an ICA portion between the ophthalmic artery and the aneurysm were insufficient to stop the bleeding. This case indicates ICA trapping, even if a trapping portion is below an ophthalmic artery, is insufficient to treat an ICA aneurysm. ICA aneurysms should be suspected when a patient present with recurrent -/- massive epistaxis, who has a head injury history, even if it is far past.

  14. Remifentanil decreases oral tissue blood flow while maintaining internal carotid artery blood flow during sevoflurane anesthesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Atsushi; Kasahara, Masataka; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2018-03-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of remifentanil infusion on oral tissue blood flow including submandibular gland tissue blood flow (SBF) and internal carotid artery blood flow (ICBF) in rabbits during sevoflurane anesthesia. Twelve male Japan White rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Remifentanil was infused at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/kg/min. Measurements included circulatory variables, common and external carotid artery blood flow (CCBF, ECBF), ICBF, tongue mucosal blood flow (TMBF), masseter muscle tissue blood flow (MBF), mandibular bone marrow tissue blood flow (BBF), tongue muscle tissue blood flow (TBF) and SBF. Vascular resistances for each tissue, including the tongue mucosa, masseter muscle, mandibular bone marrow, tongue muscle and submandibular gland, were calculated by dividing the mean arterial pressure by the respective tissue blood flow. Remifentanil infusion decreased oral tissue blood flow and circulatory variables. CCBF, ECBF and ICBF did not change. The calculated vascular resistance in each oral tissue, except for the tongue mucosa, increased in an infusion-rate-dependent manner. These results showed that remifentanil infusion reduced TMBF, MBF, BBF, TBF and SBF in an infusion-rate-dependent manner without affecting ICBF under sevoflurane anesthesia.

  15. Comparison of blood flow velocity through the internal carotid artery based on Doppler ultrasound and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassani-Ardekani, Hajar; Ghalichi, Farzan; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Tarzmani, Mohammad K.

    2012-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a usual non-invasive method to estimate the stenosis percentage in large arteries such as carotid by measuring maximum velocity of blood flow. Based on clinical investigations, because of vessel wall motions, Doppler positioning and angle correction, some errors can arise in Doppler results which lead to incorrect diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the results of Doppler test and the numerical simulation of blood flow in the same case. For this evaluation, two patients including an 87-year-old man and a 72-year-old woman suffering from stenosis in the internal carotid artery were selected. First, clinical information of each patient such as CT-Angio scan images and Doppler ultrasound results on different locations of the stenosed artery were obtained. Then, the geometries were reconstructed and numerical simulations were carried out using ANSYS software. Results showed that the velocity profile of Doppler test and numerical simulation were in good agreement at the regions of pre-and post-stenosis. However, the value of maximum velocity at the stenotic region had significant differences.

  16. MR Angiography of Peripheral Arterial Stents: In Vitro Evaluation of 22 Different Stent Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthias C; Bunck, Alexander C; Seifarth, Harald; Buerke, Boris; Kugel, Harald; Hesselmann, Volker; Köhler, Michael; Heindel, Walter; Maintz, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate stent lumen visibility of a large sample of different peripheral arterial (iliac, renal, carotid) stents using magnetic resonance angiography in vitro. Materials and Methods. 21 different stents and one stentgraft (10 nitinol, 7 316L, 2 tantalum, 1 cobalt superalloy, 1 PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1 platinum alloy) were examined in a vessel phantom (vessel diameters ranging from 5 to 13 mm) filled with a solution of Gd-DTPA. Stents were imaged at 1.5 Tesla using a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence. Image analysis was performed measuring three categories: Signal intensity in the stent lumen, lumen visibility of the stented lumen, and homogeneity of the stented lumen. The results were classified using a 3-point scale (good, intermediate, and poor results). Results. 7 stents showed good MR lumen visibility (4x nitinol, 2x tantalum, and 1x cobalt superalloy). 9 stents showed intermediate results (5x nitinol, 2x 316L, 1x PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1x platinum alloy) and 6 stents showed poor results (1x nitinol, and 5x 316L). Conclusion. Stent lumen visibility varies depending on the stent material and type. Some products show good lumen visibility which may allow the detection of stenoses inside the lumen, while other products cause artifacts which prevent reliable evaluation of the stent lumen with this technique.

  17. MR Angiography of Peripheral Arterial Stents: In Vitro Evaluation of 22 Different Stent Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Burg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate stent lumen visibility of a large sample of different peripheral arterial (iliac, renal, carotid stents using magnetic resonance angiography in vitro. Materials and Methods. 21 different stents and one stentgraft (10 nitinol, 7 316L, 2 tantalum, 1 cobalt superalloy, 1 PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1 platinum alloy were examined in a vessel phantom (vessel diameters ranging from 5 to 13 mm filled with a solution of Gd-DTPA. Stents were imaged at 1.5 Tesla using a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence. Image analysis was performed measuring three categories: Signal intensity in the stent lumen, lumen visibility of the stented lumen, and homogeneity of the stented lumen. The results were classified using a 3-point scale (good, intermediate, and poor results. Results. 7 stents showed good MR lumen visibility (4x nitinol, 2x tantalum, and 1x cobalt superalloy. 9 stents showed intermediate results (5x nitinol, 2x 316L, 1x PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1x platinum alloy and 6 stents showed poor results (1x nitinol, and 5x 316L. Conclusion. Stent lumen visibility varies depending on the stent material and type. Some products show good lumen visibility which may allow the detection of stenoses inside the lumen, while other products cause artifacts which prevent reliable evaluation of the stent lumen with this technique.

  18. Hemorrhagic risk of emergent endovascular treatment plus stenting in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Laura; Castaño, Carlos; Millán, Mònica; Aleu, Aitziber; de la Ossa, Natàlia Pérez; Gomis, Meritxell; López-Cancio, Elena; Vivas, Elio; Rodriguez-Campello, Ana; Castellanos, Mar; Dávalos, Antoni

    2013-11-01

    Several endovascular revascularization strategies have been described for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). One of them is stenting when a very narrow stenosis with high reocclusion risk remains after recanalization. This study describes the risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) after emergent stenting in patients with AIS treated with endovascular therapies. Consecutive patients who underwent endovascular treatment over a 37-month period were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified in 2 groups: (1) patients in whom a stent was deployed; and (2) patients without stenting. Double antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel was administered at the time of stenting. SICH was defined as any hemorrhagic transformation with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score worsening 4 points or more (European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study II criteria). A total of 143 patients were included (mean age: 66.1±11.7 years, median NIHSS score: 18). Acute phase stenting was performed in 24 subjects (16.8%): 4 intracranial (3 in basilar artery, 1 in middle cerebral artery) and 20 extracranial (internal carotid artery). SICH occurred in 11 patients, 5 of 24 (20.8%) in patients with stenting and in 3 of 119 (2.5%) without (P=.008). No differences were found with respect to baseline NIHSS score or intravenous tissue plasminogen activator administration. Acute phase stenting emerged as an independent predictor of SICH after adjustment for potential confounders and procedure duration: odds ratio 7.3 (confidence interval 1.4-36.8, P=.016). Our findings suggest that emergent stenting in endovascular treatment of AIS is associated with SICH. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variant termination of the common carotid artery: Cases of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all cases of trifurcation, superior thyroid artery was the third branch. The common carotid artery quadrifurcated into external, internal carotid, superior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries. The pentafurcations comprised internal carotid, external carotid, superior thyroid, occipital and posterior auricular arteries.

  20. Mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery - report of a case and review of the literature; Aneurisma micotico da arteria carotida interna extracraniana - relato de um caso e revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Edilene Cristina do; Silva, Ivone Martins da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Silvio Cavalcanti de [Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Abath, Carlos [Angiorad, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    1998-08-01

    The authors report a case of mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery in a 4-year-old- male child, resulting from tonsillar infection. The authors relate the difficulties to initially suggest the diagnosis, stress the importance of the differential diagnosis particularly in children and describe the findings on conventional films, US colour-Doppler, CT and carotid digital subtraction angiography. (author)

  1. The location of origin of spontaneous extracranial internal carotid artery dissection is adjacent to the skull base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, Jonathon; Briggs, Eliza; Wrigley, Peter; Nadarajah, Mahendra; McAuliffe, William

    2014-01-01

    The traditional view is that spontaneous extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection (CAD) extends cranially from an intimal tear located just beyond the carotid bulb. This paper demonstrates that CAD originates in and primarily involves a more distal segment of the artery. A retrospective study of 54 dissected ICAs in 50 consecutive patients with spontaneous or traumatic CAD was undertaken. The site of the dissection, presence of ICA redundancy, rate of acute or delayed ischaemic stroke and vessel remodelling were determined. Of the 51 dissections that occurred spontaneously or after indirect trauma, 25/51 (49.0%) were solely in the distal third of the artery, and 49/51 (96.1%) involved the distal two-thirds. Only 2/51 (3.9%) originated in the proximal third. ICA redundancy was seen in 27/36 (75%) of patients with spontaneous CAD, compared with only 1/11 (9.1%) of those with CAD due to indirect trauma (P = 0.0002). Acute stroke occurred in 10/12 (83.3%) of patients with ICA occlusion secondary to CAD and in 14/38 (36.8%) with non-occlusive CAD (P = 0.0074). Where follow-up was available, only 2/32 (6.3%) patients had a stroke after diagnosis, and 19/33 (57.6%) ICAs recanalised or remodelled. CAD occurring spontaneously or due to indirect trauma most frequently involves the distal extracranial ICA. Spontaneous CAD is associated with vessel redundancy, and the risk of acute stroke is greatest with occlusive CAD. The prognosis is good with treatment, with a low rate of recurrent stroke and a high rate of vessel remodelling.

  2. Treatment strategies for complex internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms: direct ICA sacrifice or combined with extracranial-to-intracranial bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Tian, Yan-Long; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Song, Dong-Lei; Xu, Bin; Mao, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Direct surgery for complex internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms can be difficult. In certain situations, sacrificing the parent artery is a unique way to obliterate the aneurysm and extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass is indispensable to prevent postoperative cerebral ischemia. This article discusses the indications for direct ICA occlusion, and the strategies, techniques, and outcomes in a series of patients treated for complex ICA aneurysms in a single institution. During a 7-year period, 49 patients with complex ICA aneurysms underwent direct ICA sacrifice, or ICA sacrifice combined with EC-IC bypass. The appropriate type of bypass was determined by the results of balloon occlusion test and computed tomographic perfusion. The technique of ICA sacrifice used was selected based on the evaluation of retrograde filling of the aneurysm during balloon occlusion test. Ten patients underwent direct ICA sacrifice and no ischemia-related complications were evident during the 5-12 months of follow-up. A total of 39 patients were treated by ICA sacrifice combined with EC-IC bypass, including 21 cases of superficial temporal artery-radial artery-middle cerebral artery and 18 cases of external carotid artery-radial artery-middle cerebral artery. ICA sacrifice was achieved in 38 patients by using prolonged occlusion (25 cases) or acute occlusion (13 cases). Five patients presented with minor ischemia after surgery, but four patients recovered completely. Two patients developed brain swelling postoperatively and one developed intracranial hemorrhage, which required evacuation of the hematoma. Balloon occlusion test combined with computed tomographic perfusion can be an efficient way to evaluate the compromised cerebrovascular reserve in patients with complex ICA aneurysms after ICA occlusion. In conjunction with EC-IC bypass, ICA proximal occlusion or trapping can be an effective treatment strategy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Congenital absence of the bilateral internal carotid artery: a review of the associated (ab)normalities from a newborn status to the eighth decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasović, Ljiljana; Trandafilović, Milena; Vlajković, Slobodan; Radenković, Goran

    2018-01-01

    Due to the fact that the internal carotid artery (ICA) is responsible for nourishing two thirds of the brain volume, our aim was to inspect the morphofunctional consequences of the bilateral lack of this artery. In order to examine this condition, we referred to both the library archive of our Faculty of Medicine and electronic databases of anatomical and clinical reports that included the following keywords: "absence," "aplasia," or "agenesis" in combination with "internal carotid artery," "common carotid artery," or only "carotid artery." We found 60 recorded cases of the bilateral ICA absence in the subjects of newborn status to the eighth decade of life, which had been discovered in 20 countries. The following ten parameters were described: the embryological base, terminology, history, incidence, general data, differential diagnosis, collateral circulation, the associated vascular aplasia and/or other variants, pathophysiology, and the importance in praxis. This review noted all the cases of the bilateral ICA aplasia published for the past 104 years. Although there were 11.6% of cases of the associated cerebral aneurysms and 1-4 cases of 16 other diseases, approximately one quarter of the cases was without any pathology.

  4. Sacrifice and extracranial reconstruction of the common or internal carotid artery in advanced head and neck carcinoma: Review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Leif J J; Aro, Katri; Tapiovaara, Laura; Vikatmaa, Pirkka; de Bree, Remco; Fernández-Álvarez, Verónica; Kowalski, Luiz P; Nixon, Iain J; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Rodrigo, Juan P; Robbins, K Thomas; Silver, Carl E; Snyderman, Carl H; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P; Ferlito, Alfio

    2018-02-05

    Sacrifice and reconstruction of the carotid artery in cases of head and neck carcinoma with invasion of the common or internal carotid artery is debated. We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases and provide a review and meta-analysis. Of the 72 articles identified, 24 met the inclusion criteria resulting in the inclusion of 357 patients. The overall perioperative 30-day mortality was 3.6% (13/357). Permanent cerebrovascular complications occurred in 3.6% (13/357). Carotid blowout episodes were encountered in 1.4% (5/357). The meta-regression analysis showed a significant difference in 1-year overall survival between reports published from 1981-1999 (37.0%) and 2001-2016 (65.4%; P = .02). This review provides evidence that sacrifice with extracranial reconstruction of common or internal carotid artery in selected patients with head and neck carcinoma may improve survival with acceptable complication rates. However, all of the published literature is retrospective involving selected series and, therefore, precludes determining the absolute effectiveness of the surgery. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Carotid stenosis: current strategies for choosing between medical and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sila, C A

    2000-11-01

    The effectiveness of carotid revascularization depends on appropriate patient selection and balancing the expected benefits with the risks of treatment. Exceeding a rate of serious complications (strokes and deaths) of 5% for asymptomatic and 9% for symptomatic patients negates any benefit for carotid endarterectomy. Endovascular techniques such as stent-supported angioplasty will likely change the management approach for some patients with carotid occlusive disease. This paper contains the author's recommendations for choosing between medical and surgical management of carotid stenosis.

  6. Contemporary Management of Patients with Concomitant Coronary and Carotid Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Mun J; Echeverria, Angela; Lin, Peter H

    2018-01-01

    The ideal management of concomitant carotid and coronary artery occlusive disease remains elusive. Although researchers have advocated the potential benefits of varying treatment strategies based on either concomitant or staged surgical treatment, there is no consensus in treatment guidelines among national or international clinical societies. Clinical studies show that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with either staged or synchronous carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is associated with a high procedural stroke or death rate. Recent clinical studies have found carotid artery stenting (CAS) prior to CABG can lead to superior treatment outcomes in asymptomatic patients who are deemed high risk of CEA. With emerging data suggesting favorable outcome of CAS compared to CEA in patients with critical coronary artery disease, physicians must consider these diverging therapeutic options when treating patients with concurrent carotid and coronary disease. This review examines the available clinical data on therapeutic strategies in patients with concomitant carotid and coronary artery disease. A treatment paradigm for considering CAS or CEA as well as CABG and percutaneous coronary intervention is discussed.

  7. Does the new International Diabetes Federation definition of metabolic syndrome improve prediction of coronary artery disease and carotid intima-media thickening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timóteo, Ana; Santos, Rui; Lima, Sandra; Mamede, Andreia; Fernandes, Rita; Ferreira, Rui

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased incidence of diabetes and atherosclerotic complications. The new definition of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) increases the population with this entity, compared to the NCEP ATP III definition. To study the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with and without MS, according to the NCEP ATP III and IDF definitions, and the predictive ability of carotid IMT for CAD. We studied 270 consecutive patients admitted for elective coronary angiography due to suspicion of CAD. All patients underwent ultrasound study of the carotid arteries to measure IMT (the highest value between the right and left common carotid arteries was used in the analysis). Coronary stenosis of > or =70% (or 50% for the left main coronary artery) was considered significant. By the ATP III definition, 14% of the patients had MS, and these patients had a higher prevalence of CAD (87% vs. 63%, p = 0.004), but no significant difference was found for carotid IMT (1.03 +/- 0.36 mm vs. 0.95 +/- 0.35 mm, p=NS). With the IDF definition, 61% of the patients had MS; this group was slightly older and included more women. There were no differences in terms of CAD (68% vs. 63%) or carotid IMT (0.97 +/- 0.34 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.39 mm). On multivariate analysis, the ATP III definition of MS predicts CAD (OR 4.76, 95% CI 1.71-13.25, p = 0.003), but the IDF definition does not (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.74-2.27, p = 0.37). On ROC curve analysis, an IMT of > or = 0.95 mm predicts CAD (AUC 0.66, p definition increases the population with MS, decreasing the capacity to predict the presence of CAD. In our population, neither the ATP III nor the IDF definition showed differences in terms of carotid IMT. Carotid IMT can predict CAD, but with only modest sensitivity.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of 3D TOF MRA fly-around advantages in the diagnosis of internal carotid artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yusen; Zhang Lina; Xu Ke; Li Songbai; Huang Yanling; Sun Wenge; Jin Anyu; Qi Xixun; Li Yanliang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the advantages and the clinical application value of 3D TOF MR angiography fly-around in diagnosing internal carotid artery aneurysms in comparison with multi-slice helical CT three dimensional angiography (MS 3D-CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Methods: Eighteen patients with clinical suspected internal carotid artery aneurysms were involved in the study. There were 4 males and 14 females, and their age ranged from 17 to 76 years. 14 patients were with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 4 patients with oculomotor nerve palsy. All these patients underwent 3D TOF MRA and MS 3D-CTA, and 17 patients underwent DSA. All of them accepted operation treatment. 3D TOF MRA was performed with Toshiba 1.5 T MRI system and the parameters of 3D-TOF sequence were: TR 30 ms, TE 6.8 ms, field of view 17 cm x 19 cm, matrix 160 x 256, slab thickness 50-60 mm, section thickness 1.2 mm, flip angle 20 degree. Row data of MS 3D-CTA was acquired by Multi-slice helical CT-Aquilion (Toshiba). The scanning parameters were: image slice thickness 1.0 mm, scan speed 0.5 s/r, helical pitch 3.5, delay time 15-18 sec. Nonionic contrast agent was injected intravenously (2.0 ml/kg) at the speed of 4.0-5.0 ml/s using a power injector. Source images of 3D TOF MRA and MS 3D-CTA were processed into MIP and fly-around using a workstation SGI-O2, with the post-processing software Alatoview (Ver: 1.42). Conventional four-vessel digital subtraction angiography was performed with Siemens Multi-Start OT. Results: 22 aneurysms were detected by both 3D TOF MRA and MS 3D-CTA (1 ACA aneurysm, 3 ACoMA aneurysms, 1 left MCA aneurysm, 2 ICA-cavernous aneurysms, 3 left ICA-PCoM aneurysms, 8 right ICA-PCoM aneurysms, 1 left ICA-AChA aneurysms, 2 right ICA-AChA aneurysms, and 1 superior pituitary artery aneurysm). Among those aneurysms, one was not detected by DSA, and another aneurysm's neck was not clear on the image of DSA. 1 right ICA-PCoM aneurysm was surgically treated according to 3D

  9. DYNAMICS OF HIGHGER MENTAL FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH OBLITERATING LESIONS OF INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERIES IN SURGICAL BRAIN REVASCUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Vinogradov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obliterating atherosclerosis of internal carotid arteries is one of the main causes of ischemic stroke and discirculatory encephalopathy. It causes up to 40% of ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation. Currently, the strategy for stroke prevention is determined by the intensive development of surgical methods of treatment, primarily methods for managing lesions of brachiocephalic arteries. Based on the results of a number of international multicenter randomized studies, indications for reconstructive operations for BCA, tactics for managing patients in the postoperative period were formulated. A number of patients with atherosclerotic lesions of brachiocephalic arteries have reduced cognitive functions. The aim of the study is to compare cognitive functions (CF in patients who underwent different surgical approaches in the treatment of obliterating atherosclerotic lesion of internal carotid arteries (ICA.MATERIAL AND METHODS. We studied higher mental functions (HMFs in 116 patients with obliterating unilateral or bilateral lesion of ICA. The study of cognitive functions (MF was performed prior to carotid endarterectomy (CE, group 1, n=73 and transluminal balloon angioplasty of ICAs (TBA of ICA, group 2, n=43, and on days 5–7 and 30–31 after cerebral revascularization (CR. To assess the overall severity of cognitive impairment, the summary indicators of main screening neuropsychological tests were used: MMSE; MoCA; Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB; Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.RESULTS. Results Neuropsychologic disorders were reavealed in 98% of patients prior to surgery. An initially comparable condition of HMF in groups with CE and TBA of ICA was revealed. MMSE2 revealed a significant improvement in the results in group 1 both in comparison with the initial data (p<0.05 and in comparison with the results of the second test of group 2. The results of MMSE1 and MMSE2 in group 2 did not show significant

  10. Stent-assisted angioplasty for intracranial atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Toshinori; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Hamasaki, Osamu; Sakoda, Katsuaki

    2002-01-01

    We report on two patients with intracranial atherosclerosis of the carotid artery or vertebral artery treated with stent-assisted angioplasty. Both patients have severe intracranial atherosclerosis (>70%) with refractory symptoms despite optimal medical treatment. In both patients, a coronary balloon-expandable stent was successfully placed using a protective balloon technique without procedural complications. The patients were asymptomatic and neurologically intact at a mean clinical follow-up of 13 months. Follow-up angiograms did not show restenosis 3 or 4 months after procedure, respectively. Stent-assisted angioplasty for intracranial atherosclerosis in the elective patient has proven effective, with an acceptable low rate of morbidity and mortality. (orig.)

  11. Endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms of cavernous and ophthalmic segment of internal carotid artery with flow diverter device Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevsek Marko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intra-arterial treatment of aneurysms by redirecting blood flow is a newer method. The redirection is based on a significantly more densely braided wire stent. The stent wall keeps the blood in the lumen of the stent and slows down the turbulent flow in the aneurysms. Stagnation of blood in the aneurysm sac leads to the formation of thrombus and subsequent exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate flow diverter device Pipeline for broad neck and giant aneurysm treatment.

  12. Double inter-internal carotid artery communication through intercavernous anastomosis and posterior communicating artery associated with multiple intracranial artery segmental agenesis/aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yae Won; Yoo, Joonsang; Kim, Dong Joon

    2018-02-01

    Segmental internal carotid artery (ICA) and basilar artery (BA) agenesis/aplasia are rare vascular anomalies. We report an extremely rare case of combined ICA, BA, and A1 segmental absence presenting with double inter-ICA collateral communication through the intercavernous anastomosis and posterior communicating arteries. The patient presented with diplopia and transient ischemic attack. The pathogenesis of the anatomic anomalies and clinical symptoms are discussed.

  13. Bronchial stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Emad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial stents are mostly used as a Palliative relief of symptoms often caused by airway obstruction, It is also used for sealing of stump fistulas after pneumonectomy and dehiscence after bronchoplastic operations. Advances in airway prosthetics have provided a variety of silicone stents, expandable metal stents, and pneumatic dilators, enabling the correction of increasingly complex anatomical problems. Several series have been published describing the application and results of these techniques. This manuscript reviews the historical development of stents, types, indication, outcome, and complications. Alternative therapies for tracheobronchial stenting were also reviewed

  14. Endovascular treatment in proximal and intracranial carotid occlusion 9 hours after symptom onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowska, Malgorzata M.; Michels, Peter; Mueller-Jensen, Axel; Leppien, Andreas; Eckert, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    A debate is emerging over whether the treatment time window in acute stroke can be extended beyond 6 h if penumbral tissue can be identified. Treatment decisions are very difficult in cases of tandem proximal carotid occlusion with arterioarterial intracranial embolism. We enter this debate with the present report on a case of atherosclerotic proximal carotid occlusion and resulting periocclusional carotid T embolism that was successfully treated 9 h after symptom onset. The case of a 68-year-old man with fluctuating symptoms of right-hemispheric stroke is presented (NIHSS score 12-20 on admission). CT angiography demonstrated proximal carotid occlusion and periocclusional embolism of the entire internal carotid artery (ICA) including the carotid T segment. Penumbral tissue was diagnosed by nonenhanced and perfusion CT imaging 7.5 h after symptom onset. Treatment was initiated 9 h after symptom onset by passing the proximal occlusion with a microcatheter and local administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) into the carotid T segment at the level of posterior communicating artery (PCoA) origin. Recanalization of the ICA and middle cerebral artery was accomplished within 1 h by flow establishment via the PCoA. The atherosclerotic proximal ICA occlusion was not stented due to the risk of embolism from remnant thrombi in the petrous and cavernous ICA segments. Follow-up MRI showed only mild haemorrhagic infarct transformation of the initial infarct core. The patient was discharged from hospital 18 days after treatment with NIHSS score 5. If penumbral tissue can be conclusively identified, endovascular treatment in proximal and intracranial tandem occlusion can be successful, even in treatments initiated 6-9 h after stroke onset. If the intracranial flow after recanalization can be established via the circle of Willis, the underlying proximal ICA occlusion may not require treatment. (orig.)

  15. Use of Simple Neck Extension to Improve Guiding Catheter Accessibility in Tortuous Cervical Internal Carotid Artery for Endovascular Embolization of Intracranial Aneurysm: A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Megumu; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kinosada, Masanori; Miyake, Kosuke; Murao, Kenichi

    2017-09-01

    In endovascular embolization of intracranial aneurysms, a tortuous cervical internal carotid artery can limit guiding catheter access to a sufficiently high position. Although intermediate distal access catheters can go beyond the tortuous segment of internal carotid arteries, they may increase the risk of procedure-related complications, require significantly complex technical procedures, and limit the use of adjunctive techniques. Using simple neck extension alone, we successfully improved guiding catheter access in 2 patients. Through a provocative test, we confirmed suitability of manual neck extension in 2 patients with severe posterior curvature of a tortuous internal carotid artery. Intraoperatively, we manually extended the neck and stretched the curvatures. We guided a 6F guiding catheter superiorly and performed coil embolization with an occlusion balloon catheter in 1 case and with the balloon-assisted neck remodeling technique in 1 case. Coil embolization was completed without any adverse events in both cases. The simple neck extension technique successfully improved accessibility of the guiding catheter. As the need for safe and highly skilled intervention increases, our technique may be useful because it can reduce procedure-related complications and allow balloon-assisted techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous determination of arterial input function of the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries for dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholdei, R.; Wenz, F.; Fuss, M.; Essig, M.; Knopp, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The determination of the arterial input function (AIF) is necessary for absolute quantification of the regional cerebral blood volume and blood flow using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI. The suitability of different vessels (ICA-internal carotid artery, MCA-middle cerebral artery) for AIF determination was compared in this study. Methods: A standard 1.5 T MR system and a simultaneous dual FLASH sequence (TR/TE1/TE2/α=32/15/25/10 ) were used to follow a bolus of contrast agent. Slice I was chosen to cut the ICA perpendicularly. Slice II included the MCA. Seventeen data sets from ten subjects were evaluated. Results: The number of AIF-relevant pixels, the area under the AIF and the maximum concentration were all lower when the AIF was determined from the MCA compared to the ICA. Additionally, the mean transit time (MTT) and the time to maximum concentration (TTM) were longer in the MCA, complicating the computerized identification of AIF-relevant pixels. Data from one subject, who was examined five times, demonstrated that the intraindividual variance of the measured parameters was markedly lower than the interpersonal variance. Conclusions: It appears to be advantageous to measure the AIF in the ICA rather than the MCA. (orig.) [de

  17. Association between Asymptomatic Unilateral Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis and Electrophysiological Function of the Retina and Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Machalińska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was designed to assess retinal and optic nerve bioelectrical function in patients with unilateral asymptomatic but hemodynamically significant internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS. Methods. Forty-two subjects with a diagnosis of unilateral ICAS and 34 controls were analyzed. Full-field electroretinogram (ERG, pattern electroretinogram (PERG, and pattern visual-evoked potentials, as well as optical coherence tomography and ophthalmological examination, were performed. Data analysis included eyes ipsilateral to ICAS (EIS and eyes contralateral to ICAS (ECS. Results. Intraocular pressure was significantly decreased in EIS and ECS compared to that in the controls. In the macula, both the cube average thickness and cube volume values were significantly reduced both in EIS and ECS compared to those in the controls. Similarly, PERG P50 and N95 wave amplitudes were significantly smaller in EIS and ECS compared to those in the controls. The ERG rod b-wave and rod-cone a-wave amplitudes were decreased, and implicit times were significantly prolonged, whereas the OP wave index was reduced in EIS compared to that in the controls. No differences in IOP, OCT, or ERG and PERG parameters were identified between EIS and ECS. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that retinal bioelectrical function is negatively affected by ICAS despite the absence of objective clinical signs and symptoms of ocular ischemia.

  18. Association between Asymptomatic Unilateral Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis and Electrophysiological Function of the Retina and Optic Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalińska, Anna; Kowalska-Budek, Aleksandra; Kawa, Miłosz Piotr; Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Kirkiewicz, Marta; Wilk, Grażyna; Lubiński, Wojciech; Gutowski, Piotr; Machaliński, Bogusław

    2017-01-01

    Purpose . This study was designed to assess retinal and optic nerve bioelectrical function in patients with unilateral asymptomatic but hemodynamically significant internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). Methods . Forty-two subjects with a diagnosis of unilateral ICAS and 34 controls were analyzed. Full-field electroretinogram (ERG), pattern electroretinogram (PERG), and pattern visual-evoked potentials, as well as optical coherence tomography and ophthalmological examination, were performed. Data analysis included eyes ipsilateral to ICAS (EIS) and eyes contralateral to ICAS (ECS). Results . Intraocular pressure was significantly decreased in EIS and ECS compared to that in the controls. In the macula, both the cube average thickness and cube volume values were significantly reduced both in EIS and ECS compared to those in the controls. Similarly, PERG P50 and N95 wave amplitudes were significantly smaller in EIS and ECS compared to those in the controls. The ERG rod b-wave and rod-cone a-wave amplitudes were decreased, and implicit times were significantly prolonged, whereas the OP wave index was reduced in EIS compared to that in the controls. No differences in IOP, OCT, or ERG and PERG parameters were identified between EIS and ECS. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that retinal bioelectrical function is negatively affected by ICAS despite the absence of objective clinical signs and symptoms of ocular ischemia.

  19. Aberrant retropharyngeal internal carotid artery associated with retropharyngeal abscess: determination of a safe drainage zone with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akay, S.; Battal, B.; Karaman, B.; Tasar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: During surgery, interventional procedures and anesthesia-related actions, awareness of the aberrant course of the internal carotid artery (ICA) may prevent vascular damage and massive hemorrhage. Objectives and tasks: To emphasize the importance of guiding of the imaging performed before the interventional procedures, in the light of the computed tomography (CT) findings of a case with aberrant retropharingeal ICA associated with retropharyngeal abscess. Materials and methods: A 60-year-old woman visited the Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) department of our hospital complaining of sore throat that persisted since 2 weeks. She was prescribed oral antibiotherapy, during which she experienced dysphagia and increasing fever. After endoscopic study, a retropharyngeal abscess was detected and was thought to be due to the bulging of the right posterior pharyngeal wall that has smooth and intact mucosa. Results: On CT, we observed an abscess formation, and enlargement of the right retropharyngeal space. CT images also displayed an aberrant course of the right ICA that was very close to the right posteromedial wall of the pharynx. After obtaining detailed anatomical information from the CT, abscess drainage from the right superolateral wall of the nasopharynx was performed at the ENT department. No hemorrhagic or other complications were encountered. On control CT examination performed 20 days after drainage, no abscess formation was seen. Conclusion: Imaging studies can show and confirm the aberrant course of the ICA, thereby reducing the risk of hemorrhagic complications

  20. A fluid-structure interaction model of the internal carotid and ophthalmic arteries for the noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiulis, Edgaras; Džiugys, Algis; Navakas, Robertas; Striūgas, Nerijus

    2017-05-01

    Accurate and clinically safe measurements of intracranial pressure (ICP) are crucial for secondary brain damage prevention. There are two methods of ICP measurement: invasive and noninvasive. Invasive methods are clinically unsafe; therefore, safer noninvasive methods are being developed. One of the noninvasive ICP measurement methods implements the balance principle, which assumes that if the velocity of blood flow in both ophthalmic artery segments - the intracranial (IOA) and extracranial (EOA) - is equal, then the acting ICP on the IOA and the external pressure (Pe) on the EOA are also equal. To investigate the assumption of the balance principle, a generalized computational model incorporating a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) module was created and used to simulate noninvasive ICP measurement by accounting for the time-dependent behavior of the elastic internal carotid (ICA) and ophthalmic (OA) arteries and their interaction with pulsatile blood flow. It was found that the extra balance pressure term, which incorporates the hydrodynamic pressure drop between measurement points, must be added into the balance equation, and the corrections on a difference between the velocity of blood flow in the IOA and EOA must be made, due to a difference in the blood flow rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of acute tandem internal carotid artery and middle cerebral artery occlusions with endovascular multimodal reperfusion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Qiuji; Zhu Liangfu; Li Tianxiao; Wang Ziliang; Li Li; Bai Weixing; Xue Jiangyu; Zhao Tongyuan; Xu Guangqin; Wu Liheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of multimodal reperfusion therapy (MMRT) for acute tandem internal carotid artery and middle cerebral artery (TIM)occlusions. Methods: Six cases of TIM occlusions were analyzed retrospectively, including etiology,sites of tandem occlusion, compensation, location and size of infarcts, mechanical recanalization technique and its complications. Changes of National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and image findings between pre-and post-procedure were further compared. The modified Rankin scores (mRS) were used to assess clinical prognosis. Results: The NIHSS score on admission was 13-20, and the time of procedure ranged 60-230 min. Five cases was substantial recanalized and no symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage was observed. The NIHSS scores of the patients on day 3 after surgery were 7-19, and those were 3-17 when being discharged. One patient died of pulmonary infection 1 month after discharge. For the 5 patients who survived, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was evaluated at 3 months with scores of 0, 2, 3, 3 and 5, respectively. Conclusions: Endovascular therapy for acute TIM occlusions are complex, MMRT may be relatively safe and effective. (authors)

  2. A case of central diabetes insipidus after ketamine infusion during an external to internal carotid artery bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Sharib; Eskander, Jonathan P; Beakley, Burton D; McClure, Brian P; Amenta, Peter; Pierre, Nakeisha

    2017-02-01

    We report the first teenage case of ketamine-induced transient central diabetes insipidus. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with moyamoya disease undergoing an external carotid to internal carotid bypass and given a low-dose ketamine infusion. After approximately 2 hours in the supine position, with 0.5 Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane, a propofol infusion at 50 μg/kg/min, a remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min, and a ketamine infusion at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min, this patient had an excessive urine output. Initially, the Foley catheter contained 50 mL of urine. She was given 1500 mL of crystalloid during the case but produced 2700 mL of urine output. Increasing urine output was noted 1 hour into the procedure around the time that the patient experienced a 2-minute Cushing-like response characterized by bradycardia and hypertension. Several I-Stat samples revealed a worsening hypernatremia. The decision was made to check the urine osmolality and treat the patient with 4 μg of desmopressin (DDAVP). Urine output began to slow down to a normal rate of 2 mg/kg/h, as the patient was transferred from the operating room to the computed tomographic (CT) scanning room for a CT and CT angiogram; both were unremarkable. The neurosurgery team waited until the next day to complete the procedure. The procedure was completed successfully and uneventfully the next day without a ketamine infusion as part of the general anesthetic plan. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction score of 4 suggested a possible relationship between the patient's ketamine infusion and subsequent central diabetes insipidus. The 2 previous cases on this topic have suggested that ketamine, as an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, inhibits vasopressin release in the neurohypophysis. Urine output, urine osmolarity, and serum osmolarity should be monitored in patients given ketamine anesthetic; desmopressin should be present to prevent dangerous long-term sequela. Copyright © 2016

  3. Diagnostic workup in carotid stenosis - a neurologist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkranz, Michael; Gerloff, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Carotid artery stenosis is associated with the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death. In selected patients, revascularization of carotid narrowing by endarterectomy may reduce the risk of stroke distal to the stenosis. Carotid artery stenting has evolved as a potential alternative to endarterectomy. Four randomized clinical trials comparing safety and efficacy of endarterectomy versus stenting of symptomatic carotid stenosis have been published in recent years, but there remains some uncertainty about the implications of these trials for clinical routine. Both carotid stenting and endarterectomy are based on different treatment strategies which may result in different specific risk factors associated with each procedure. Hence, the procedural risk of either modality varies not only with the skills of the surgeon or the interventionalist but may depend on patient characteristics. It appears that the most important question is not whether one revascularization modality is superior but for which patient one modality is better than the other. A comprehensive diagnostic workup of patients with carotid stenosis based on a broad panel of covariates that affect the risk of vascular events may improve selection of patients for carotid revascularization and may help to decide for whom one revascularization modality is likely to be better than the other. (orig.)

  4. Imaging of carotid arterial diseases with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clevert, D.A., E-mail: Dirk.Clevert@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany); Sommer, W.H. [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany); Zengel, P. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Helck, A.; Reiser, M. [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Carotid duplex ultrasound is the standard of care for the initial diagnosis of carotid artery bifurcation diseases. But in difficult examinations, carotid abnormalities are commonly encountered and may represent a diagnostic challenge in patients with clinical symptoms as well as in the follow up after carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with low mechanical index (low MI) is a promising new method in the diagnosis and follow up of pathological carotid diseases. Unlike most contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, the microbubbles used in CEUS with SonoVue remain within the vascular space and hence can be used to study vascular disease. In addition to improving current carotid structural scans, CEUS has potential to improve or add extra information on carotid arterial diseases. This review describes the current carotid duplex ultrasound examination and compares the pathological findings with CEUS.

  5. Therapeutic effect of enterprise stent-assisted embolization for very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feiyun; Li, Zhenbao; Fang, Xinggen; Zhao, Xintong; Liu, Jiaqiang; Wu, Degang; Lai, Niansheng

    2017-08-01

    Enterprise stent has been widespread used in wide-necked intracranial aneurysms and good efficacy has been achieved, but there are few reports on its applications in very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms in literatures. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Enterprise stent-assisted coiling embolization of very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms.We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and imaging data from 37 patients with very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms who had SAC using Enterprise stents performed from February 2012 to July 2016 in our department. Data collected and analyzed included patient demographics, morphologic features of the aneurysm, treatment results, and follow-up results. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).Enterprise stents were successfully implanted in all 37 patients with very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Of the 37 individuals, 28 patients exhibited complete occlusion at Raymond grade I, 5 patients exhibited occlusion at Raymond grade II, and 4 patients at Raymond grade III. Procedure-related complications occurred in 3 of 37 patients (8.1%), including 1 case of intraprocedure aneurysm rupture who died from cerebral herniation caused by severe postoperative cerebral ischemia during the hospital stay, and the other 2 complications were acute in-stent thrombosis, and occlusion of parent artery caused by falling-off internal carotid artery plaque, respectively. A total of 36 patients underwent postoperative clinical follow-up visits for 6 to 24 months of which 31 patients recovered (GOS ≥ 4). One patient had hemiplegic paralysis, and no rehemorrhage was found. A total of 25 patients underwent follow-up digital subtraction angiography (DSA) at 3-21 months postintervention, in whom there were 22 cases with complete occlusion, 2 cases with recurrence of aneurysm neck, and 1 case with in-stent restenosis, but there was no patient with neurologic deficits.The Enterprise

  6. Treatment of symptomatic intracranial atheromatous ischemic disease with Wingspan stent system: short-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaoshuo; Li Tianxiao; Zhao Shuiting; Xue Jiangyu; Wang Ziliang; Bai Weixing; Shi Shuaitao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety, feasibility and short-term efficiency of the Wingspan stent system and Gateway balloon catheter in the treatment of symptomatic intracranial atheromatous stenosis. Methods: Seventeen patients with symptomatic intracranial atheromatous stenosis were treated with the Gateway ballon-Wingspan system. The pre-and post-treatment improvement in symptom, severity of stenosis, successful rate of treatment, all kinds of complication were closely observed and compared before and after the procedure. Physician-reported follow-up in all 17 patients lasted for an average of 5 months. Results: All 17 lesions showed involvement of the internal carotid artery (n=5), middle cerebral arteries (n=5), intracranial segmental vertebral artery (n=4), basilar artery (n=3). 16 lesions were successfully pre-dilated with an Gateway balloon catheter before the deployment of the self-expanding Wingspan stent. 1 case failed because of the failure of delivery of the Gateway balloon catheter to the accurate site, but the stent was successfully deployed through direct localization. The successful rate of stenting was 100%. The Mean SD pretreatment stenosis was 82% and improved to 43% after stenting. During the follow-up (an average of 5 months), 4 patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA)but without recurrence, the other 12 patients with stroke showed significantly syptomatic improvements. One complication occured with attribution of contralateral hemisphere embolic infarction. There was no hemorrhagic complication. Conclusions: Angioplasty and stenting with the Gateway-Wingspan stent system are safe and good in short-term outcomes for treating symptomatic intracranial arterial atheroscleromatic stenosis. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of Contrast MR Angiography in the Study of Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis. Systematic Review of the Literature; Evaluacion de la estenosis de la arteria carotida interna por angiografia REM con contraste: revision sistematica de la bibliografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perez, P.; Martinez Cantarero, J. [Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre. Madrid (Spain); Ruiz Diaz, M.; Blazquez Morera, J. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Llano Senaris, J. E. de [Fundacion Gaspar Casal. Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic benefit of using contrast MR Angiography (MRA) in the study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis as opposed to intraarterial digital subtraction arteriography (LADSA). A search for relevant articles from 1990 to 2000 using MDLINE and EMBASE databases. Initial selection criteria: 1. articles which compare MRA and IADSA in the study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis; and 2, sample size of 10 or more subjects. Studies employing contrast MRA were subsequently selected. Contrast MRA diagnostic results were studied, as were those of non-contrast MRA (TOF) if included. Roc curves and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In the studies, 324 patients and 648 extracranial internal carotid arteries were evaluated (12 articles). The diagnostic results in carotid artery stenosis discrimination using contrast MRA as opposed to IADSA were sensitivity and specificity=97.28% and 96.08%. With regard to contrast MRA vs. non-contrast MRA (TOF), significant differences favoring contrast MRA in both sensitivity and specificity were observed. (p=0.08 and p<0.001, respectively). MRA techniques demonstrate very high diagnostic capabilities in the detection of carotid stenosis, with contrast MRA being more effective than non-contrast. MRA. In spite of not being superior to IADSA, given the morbimortality risk which the latter is associated (0.7-1.2%). many authors defend contrast MRA (in association with Doppler echography) having become the method of choice for presurgical study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis. (Author) 53 refs.

  8. Diaphragms of the carotid and vertebral arteries: an under-diagnosed cause of ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenck, S; Labeyrie, M-A; Saint-Maurice, J-P; Tarlov, N; Houdart, E

    2014-04-01

    Diaphragms of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries as a cause of ischaemic stroke are reported and stenting of diaphragms as a therapeutic option in stroke secondary prevention is described. Five patients were cared for in our institution from 2000 to 2011 for recurrent ischaemic strokes which were classified to be of undetermined aetiology after completion of the usual investigations. Because the patients had already had ischaemic strokes in the territory of the same artery, a conventional digital subtracted angiography was performed. A diaphragm was identified on the artery that supplied the territory in which the stroke occurred. The stroke was therefore attributed to the diaphragm. Clinical and radiological data, treatment and the clinical course of the patients was retrospectively reviewed. The diaphragm was located in the vertebral artery in three cases and in the bulb of the internal carotid artery in two. In all cases cerebral MR showed ischaemic strokes of different ages downstream of the diaphragm. Stenting was performed in four cases. No patient had a symptomatic recurrent ischaemic event after stenting. Diaphragms are a rare cause of recurrent embolic strokes which are often not detected with non-invasive imaging. Stenting appears to be a therapeutic option in stroke secondary prevention. These observations suggest that conventional angiography should be performed in cases of recurrent ischaemic strokes in the territory of a single artery and in cases of ischaemic stroke of undetermined aetiology in young adults when the usual investigations are negative. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.

  9. Intra-arterial high signals on arterial spin labeling perfusion images predict the occluded internal carotid artery segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogabe, Shu; Satomi, Junichiro; Tada, Yoshiteru; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Kenji; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Mure, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji; Abe, Takashi; Harada, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Nobuaki; Kaji, Ryuji

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) involves perfusion imaging using the inverted magnetization of arterial water. If the arterial arrival times are longer than the post-labeling delay, labeled spins are visible on ASL images as bright, high intra-arterial signals (IASs); such signals were found within occluded vessels of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The identification of the occluded segment in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is crucial for endovascular treatment. We tested our hypothesis that high IASs on ASL images can predict the occluded segment. Our study included 13 patients with acute ICA occlusion who had undergone angiographic and ASL studies within 48 h of onset. We retrospectively identified the high IAS on ASL images and angiograms and recorded the occluded segment and the number of high IAS-positive slices on ASL images. The ICA segments were classified as cervical (C1), petrous (C2), cavernous (C3), and supraclinoid (C4). Of seven patients with intracranial ICA occlusion, five demonstrated high IASs at C1-C2, suggesting that high IASs could identify stagnant flow proximal to the occluded segment. Among six patients with extracranial ICA occlusion, five presented with high IASs at C3-C4, suggesting that signals could identify the collateral flow via the ophthalmic artery. None had high IASs at C1-C2. The mean number of high IAS-positive slices was significantly higher in patients with intra- than extracranial ICA occlusion. High IASs on ASL images can identify slow stagnant and collateral flow through the ophthalmic artery in patients with acute ICA occlusion and help to predict the occlusion site. (orig.)

  10. Intra-arterial high signals on arterial spin labeling perfusion images predict the occluded internal carotid artery segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, Shu; Satomi, Junichiro; Tada, Yoshiteru; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Kenji; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Mure, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima (Japan); Abe, Takashi; Harada, Masafumi [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Tokushima (Japan); Yamamoto, Nobuaki; Kaji, Ryuji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Biomedical Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) involves perfusion imaging using the inverted magnetization of arterial water. If the arterial arrival times are longer than the post-labeling delay, labeled spins are visible on ASL images as bright, high intra-arterial signals (IASs); such signals were found within occluded vessels of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The identification of the occluded segment in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is crucial for endovascular treatment. We tested our hypothesis that high IASs on ASL images can predict the occluded segment. Our study included 13 patients with acute ICA occlusion who had undergone angiographic and ASL studies within 48 h of onset. We retrospectively identified the high IAS on ASL images and angiograms and recorded the occluded segment and the number of high IAS-positive slices on ASL images. The ICA segments were classified as cervical (C1), petrous (C2), cavernous (C3), and supraclinoid (C4). Of seven patients with intracranial ICA occlusion, five demonstrated high IASs at C1-C2, suggesting that high IASs could identify stagnant flow proximal to the occluded segment. Among six patients with extracranial ICA occlusion, five presented with high IASs at C3-C4, suggesting that signals could identify the collateral flow via the ophthalmic artery. None had high IASs at C1-C2. The mean number of high IAS-positive slices was significantly higher in patients with intra- than extracranial ICA occlusion. High IASs on ASL images can identify slow stagnant and collateral flow through the ophthalmic artery in patients with acute ICA occlusion and help to predict the occlusion site. (orig.)

  11. Delayed Visual Loss and Its Surgical Rescue Following Extracranial-Intracranial Arterial Bypass and Native Internal Carotid Artery Sacrifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lai-Fung; Leung, Gilberto Ka-Kit; Lui, Wai-Man

    2017-02-01

    High-flow extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass followed by sacrifice of the native internal carotid artery (ICA) is a recognized treatment option for giant ICA aneurysm and skull base tumor involving the ICA. Distal clipping at the supraclinoid portion of the ICA is technically straightforward, but it can potentially compromise ophthalmic artery (OA) perfusion. Because of the extensive EC-IC anastomoses with the OA, visual symptoms are fortunately uncommon. We report a patient who developed complete blindness after distal trapping of the supraclinoid ICA; it was reversed after emergency clip removal. Our patient is a 47-year-old man with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma in close proximity to the left petrosal ICA. The first stage of the procedure involved an EC-IC bypass using radial artery graft, followed by a second stage with combined craniofacial excision. Trapping of the native ICA was achieved using a permanent aneurysm clip placed at the supraclinoid ICA distal to the origin of the OA. He complained of a new onset of complete left eye visual loss approximately 6 hours after the distal aneurysm clip was applied. He was immediately sent to the operating theatre for the removal of the supraclinoid aneurysm clip. On the next day, his vision improved and left pupil became reactive again. OA flow following ICA trapping is complicated and precarious. Delayed onset of visual loss is possible. Prompt action by direct exploration and clip removal is needed and can be effective in reversing blindness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic and acute anemia and extracranial internal carotid stenosis are risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaudin, Françoise; Verlhac, Suzanne; Arnaud, Cécile; Kamdem, Annie; Vasile, Manuela; Kasbi, Florence; Hau, Isabelle; Madhi, Fouad; Fourmaux, Christine; Biscardi, Sandra; Epaud, Ralph; Pondarré, Corinne

    2015-03-05

    Early transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening of the Créteil sickle cell anemia (SCA)-newborn cohort, and rapid initiation of transfusion programs, resulted in successful prevention of overt strokes, but a high cumulative risk of silent cerebral infarcts (SCI) remained, suggesting that TCD screening does not identify all patients with SCA at risk for SCI. We hypothesized that episodes of hypoperfusion/hypoxia, as observed during acute chest syndromes or acute anemic events (AAE), and extracranial internal carotid artery (eICA) stenoses, detectable via submandibular Doppler sonography and cervical magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), could also be risk factors for SCI. This study includes 189 stroke-free patients with SCA from the Créteil newborn cohort (1992-2010) followed longitudinally by magnetic resonance imaging/MRA, including cervical MRA at the last assessment. All patients with abnormal TCD and/or intracranial stenoses were placed on a transfusion program. Mean follow-up was 9.9 years (range, 2.2-19.9 years; 1844 patient-years). Annual rates of clinical events were calculated. The cumulative risk for SCI was 39.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.5%-54.7%) by age 18 years, with no plateau. We confirm that baseline hemoglobin level lower than 7 g/dL before age 3 years is a highly significant predictive risk factor for SCI (hazard ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.43-6.17; P = .004). Furthermore, we show that AAE rate (odds ratio, 2.64 per unit increase; 95% CI, 1.09-6.38; P = .031) and isolated eICA stenosis (odds ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.18-8.70; P = .023) are significant and independent risk factors for SCI. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Treatment of symptomatic intracranial atheromatous stenosis with the Gateway balloon and Wingspan stent system: short and medium term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziliang; Li Tianxiao; Li Zhaoshuo; Xue Jiangyu; Bai Weixing; Li Li; Zhai Shuiting; Cao Huicun; Shi Shuaitao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety, feasibility and short-mid term effectiveness of the Wingspan stent in the treatment of high-grade symptomatic intracranial atheromatous stenosis. Methods: Sixty-three patients with symptomatic intracranial atheromatous stenosis (≥70%) were treated with the Gateway balloon-Wingspan stent system. The pre-and post-treatment improvement of symptoms, severity of stenosis, successful rate of treatment, complications were evaluated. Physician-reported follow-up in all 63 patients lasted an average period of 9.3 months. The χ 2 test was used for statistics. Results: Sixty-three lesions involved the intracranial internal carotid artery (n=12), middle cerebral artery (n=22), V4 segment vertebral artery (n=15), basilar artery (n=14). Sixty-two lesions were successfully treated with the deployment of the self-expanding Wingspan stent with residual stenosis ≤30%. One case failed because of intracranial hemorrhage during the operation. The successful rate of stenting is 98.0% (62/63). The mean stenosis was (82.3 ± 9.2)% before treatment, and it improved to (23.0 ± 11.2)% after stent placement. During the follow-up period, 1 patient died of postprocedural hyper-perfusion, one had ischemic stroke after procedure, one presented Homer syndrome at the 11th day, one had ischemic stroke at the 5th month after the procedure, while the other patients had significantly improved. The frequency of ≥50% restenosis on follow-up angiography or computed tomography was 10% (1/10). Conclusions: Angioplasty and stenting for high-grade symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis with the Gateway-Wingspan stent system are safe and effective with high rate of technical success, but moderately high rate of residual stenosis and restenosis exist. With the improvement of operation skill and stent system, a better outcome in the future could be achieved. (authors)

  14. [Balloon occlusion test of the internal carotid artery for evaluating resectability of blood vessel infiltrating cervical metastasis of advanced head and neck cancers--Heidelberg experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, A; von Kummer, R; Adams, H P; Kneip, M; Galito, P; Maier, H

    1993-11-01

    During the last two years 17 patients of the ENT-Department of the University of Heidelberg suffering from squamous-cell carcinomas of the head and neck underwent a balloon occlusion test of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The investigation was performed because of tumorous infiltration of the large cervical vessels. The balloon occlusion of the ICA was accomplished at the Department of Neuroradiology of the University of Heidelberg. While stopping bloodflow in the ICA of one side for 15-20 min, clinical, electrophysiological and Doppler sonographic monitoring was performed, to detect severe cerebral complications. The specific electrophysiological monitoring contained the detection of MSSEP's (median nerve stimulated somatosensorial evoked potentials) and TCMEP's (transcortical motor evoked potentials) during test occlusion. Balloon occlusion was not possible in three patients because of severe arteriosclerosis. Test occlusion had to be discontinued in three patients because of clinical complications (temporary amaurosis, orthostatic complications). Finally, seven patients showed contraindications during test occlusion for permanent occlusion of the ICA. Four patients had a permanent occlusion of the ICA after tumour resection. In two patients the ICA was removed without problems in test occlusion. The third patient underwent a permanent carotid occlusion because of bleeding complications (in spite of poor clinical tolerance of the test occlusion). In the fourth patient, only intraoperative neuromonitoring with MSSEP's was conducted before permanent carotid occlusion. All four patients did not show any neurological deficits after resection of the ICA. Neurophysiological monitoring played an important role in predicting cerebral complications after permanent occlusion of the ICA.

  15. Association between proximal internal carotid artery steno-occlusive disease and diffuse wall thickening in its petrous segment: a magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Li, Dongye [Capital Medical University and Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Brain Disorders Research, Beijing (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Zhao, Huilin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Zhensen; Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le; Li, Rui [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zechen [Philips Research China, Healthcare Department, Beijing (China); Yuan, Chun [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Zhao, Xihai [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Stroke, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    Significant stenosis or occlusion in carotid arteries may lead to diffuse wall thickening (DWT) in the arterial wall of downstream. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease and DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. Symptomatic patients with atherosclerotic stenosis (>0%) in proximal ICA were recruited and underwent carotid MR vessel wall imaging. The 3D motion sensitized-driven equilibrium prepared rapid gradient-echo (3D-MERGE) was acquired for characterizing the wall thickness and longitudinal extent of the lesions in petrous ICA and the distance from proximal lesion to the petrous ICA. The stenosis degree in proximal ICA was measured on the time-of-flight (TOF) images. In total, 166 carotid arteries from 125 patients (mean age 61.0 ± 10.5 years, 99 males) were eligible for final analysis and 64 showed DWT in petrous ICAs. The prevalence of severe DWT in petrous ICA was 1.4%, 5.3%, 5.9%, and 80.4% in ipsilateral proximal ICAs with stenosis category of 1%-49%, 50%-69%, 70%-99%, and total occlusion, respectively. Proximal ICA stenosis was significantly correlated with the wall thickness in petrous ICA (r = 0.767, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that proximal ICA stenosis was independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA (odds ratio (OR) = 2.459, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.896-3.189, P < 0.001). Proximal ICA steno-occlusive disease is independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of diamond-like carbon-coated nitinol stents with or without polyethylene glycol grafting and uncoated nitinol stents in a canine iliac artery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Shin, J H; Shin, D H; Moon, M-W; Park, K; Kim, T-H; Shin, K M; Won, Y H; Han, D K; Lee, K-R

    2011-01-01

    Objective Neointimal hyperplasia is a major complication of endovascular stent placement with consequent in-stent restenosis or occlusion. Improvements in the biocompatibility of stent designs could reduce stent-associated thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. We hypothesised that the use of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated nitinol stent or a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-DLC-coated nitinol stent could reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia, thereby improving stent patency with improved biocompatibility. Methods A total of 24 stents were implanted, under general anaesthesia, into the iliac arteries of six dogs (four stents in each dog) using the carotid artery approach. The experimental study dogs were divided into three groups: the uncoated nitinol stent group (n = 8), the DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8) and the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8). Results The mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly less in the DLC-nitinol stent group (26.7±7.6%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.021). However, the mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (58.7±24.7%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.01). Conclusion Our findings indicate that DLC-coated nitinol stents might induce less neointimal hyperplasia than conventional nitinol stents following implantation in a canine iliac artery model; however, the DLC-coated nitinol stent surface when reformed with PEG induces more neointimal hyperplasia than either a conventional or DLC-coated nitinol stent. PMID:21325363

  17. Recanalização espontânea tardia de carótida interna: relato de caso Late spontaneous recanalization of internal carotid artery: case report

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    Glauco Fernandes Saes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A recanalização espontânea tardia da carótida interna é um evento incomum e pouco estudado. Os autores relatam o caso de paciente de 73 anos, masculino, hipertenso, com antecedente de acidente vascular cerebral há 3 anos, com seqüela motora e sensitiva em membro superior direito, apresentando ao mapeamento dúplex e arteriografia oclusão total da carótida interna. Evoluiu após 2 anos com novos episódios de ataques isquêmicos transitórios de repetição. Submetido a novos exames de imagem para avaliação da circulação cerebral extra e intracraniana, evidenciou-se recanalização do vaso, com estenose severa. Foi realizada endarterectomia de carótida esquerda, sem intercorrências. Paciente evoluiu sem novos episódios após 1 mês de seguimento. Considerando a raridade do caso e a parca literatura sobre recanalização tardia de carótida, passível de reparo cirúrgico, optamos pela apresentação do caso enfocando a importância do acompanhamento de oclusões carotídeas.Late spontaneous recanalization of internal carotid artery is an unusual event that has received little attention. The authors report a case of a 73-year-old male patient, hypertensive, with previous history of cerebral vascular accident 3 years ago, with sensorimotor sequela in the right upper limb. Duplex scanning and arteriography showed total occlusion of the internal carotid artery. The patient progressed after 2 years with new episodes of recurrent transient ischemic attacks. When submitted to new imaging examinations to assess extra- and intracranial circulation, vessel recanalization was demonstrated, with severe stenosis. Left carotid endarterectomy was uneventfully performed. The patient progressed without new episodes after a 1-month follow-up. Considering the case rarity and the lack of literature on late carotid artery recanalization that can be surgically repaired, we decided to present this case focusing on the importance of following carotid

  18. Rescue Stenting for Failed Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Multicenter Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoonkyung; Kim, Byung Moon; Bang, Oh Young; Baek, Jang-Hyun; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Yoo, Joonsang; Kim, Dong Joon; Jeon, Pyoung; Baik, Seung Kug; Suh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Yul; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Roh, Hong Gee; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Sang Heum; Ryu, Chang-Woo; Ihn, Yon-Kwon; Kim, Byungjun; Jeon, Hong Jun; Kim, Jin Woo; Byun, Jun Soo; Suh, Sangil; Park, Jeong Jin; Lee, Woong Jae; Roh, Jieun; Shin, Byoung-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Min

    2018-04-01

    Effective rescue treatment has not yet been suggested in patients with mechanical thrombectomy (MT) failure. This study aimed to test whether rescue stenting (RS) improved clinical outcomes in MT-failed patients. This is a retrospective analysis of the cohorts of the 16 comprehensive stroke centers between September 2010 and December 2015. We identified the patients who underwent MT but failed to recanalize intracranial internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery M1 occlusion. Patients were dichotomized into 2 groups: patients with RS and without RS after MT failure. Clinical and laboratory findings and outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. It was tested whether RS is associated with functional outcome. MT failed in 148 (25.0%) of the 591 patients with internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery M1 occlusion. Of these 148 patients, 48 received RS (RS group) and 100 were left without further treatment (no stenting group). Recanalization was successful in 64.6% (31 of 48 patients) of RS group. Compared with no stenting group, RS group showed a significantly higher rate of good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2; 39.6% versus 22.0%; P =0.031) without increasing symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (16.7% versus 20.0%; P =0.823) or mortality (12.5% versus 19.0%; P =0.360). Of the RS group, patients who had recanalization success had 54.8% of good outcome, which is comparable to that (55.4%) of recanalization success group with MT. RS remained independently associated with good outcome after adjustment of other factors (odds ratio, 3.393; 95% confidence interval, 1.192-9.655; P =0.022). Follow-up vascular imaging was available in the 23 (74.2%) of 31 patients with recanalization success with RS. The stent was patent in 20 (87.0%) of the 23 patients. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor was significantly associated with stent patency but not with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. RS was independently associated with good outcomes without increasing

  19. Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery and the basilar artery with persistent trigeminal artery associated with coarctation of the aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.J.; Mehring, U.M.; Gissler, H.M.; Mathias, K.D. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Staedtische Kliniken Dortmund (Germany); Dept. of Radiology and MicroTherapy, Univ. of Witten/Herdecke (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    We report a case of congenital absence of the cervical and petrous part of the left internal carotid artery, the middle and proximal part of the basilar artery, and the V4 segment of the left vertebral artery associated with a left persistent trigeminal artery and a coarctation of the aorta. The left cerebral vessels are supplied via the anterior communicating artery and the left persistent trigeminal artery. The coexisting coarctation of the aorta led to a subclavian steal phenomenon. The alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics has to be taken in consideration when performing cerebral angiography and surgical correction in such a case. (orig.)

  20. Anatomical Considerations on Surgical Anatomy of the Carotid Bifurcation

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    Adamantios Michalinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical anatomy of carotid bifurcation is of unique importance for numerous medical specialties. Despite extensive research, many aspects such as precise height of carotid bifurcation, micrometric values of carotid arteries and their branches as their diameter, length, and degree of tortuosity, and variations of proximal external carotid artery branches are undetermined. Furthermore carotid bifurcation is involved in many pathologic processes, atheromatous disease being the commonest. Carotid atheromatous disease is a major predisposing factor for disabling and possibly fatal strokes with geometry of carotid bifurcation playing an important role in its natural history. Consequently detailed knowledge of various anatomic parameters is of paramount importance not only for understanding of the disease but also for design of surgical treatment, especially selection between carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting. Carotid bifurcation paragangliomas constitute unique tumors with diagnostic accuracy, treatment design, and success of operative intervention dependent on precise knowledge of anatomy. Considering those, it becomes clear that selection and application of proper surgical therapy should consider anatomical details. Further research might ameliorate available treatment options or even lead to innovative ones.

  1. In vivo measurements of cerebral metabolic abnormalities by proton spectroscopy after a transient ischemic attack revealing an internal carotid stenosis > 70%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroud, M.; Becker, F.; Lemesle, M.; Walker, P.; Guy, F.; Martin, D.; Baudouin, N.; Brunotte, F.; Dumas, R.

    1996-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to look for cerebral metabolic abnormalities within the first 3 days after a transient ischemic attack revealing an internal carotid stenosis > 70 %. Methods: Five patients with a transient ischemic attack lasting between 30 and 180 minutes, affecting sensory and motor brachio-facial territory, with or without aphasia. Were studied. A CT-scan, an EEG, a cervical Doppler ultrasound, a standard arteriography, a magnetic resonance imaging and a proton spectroscopy were performed within the cerebral area affected by the transient ischemic attack. We measured 2 markers: N-acetyl-aspartate, the marker of the neuronal mass, and lactate, the marker of anaerobe metabolism. In each case, a contralateral internal stenosis was diagnosed by cervical Doppler ultrasound and standard arteriography. No cerebral infarction was observed. Results: With the affected cerebral area defined according to clinical and EEG features, proton spectroscopy showed a significant rise of lactate, without any change in N-acetyl-aspartate levels. Conclusions: Within the first 3 days after a transient ischemic attack, there is a significant risk of lactate inside the affected cerebral area. This change may reflect a localized and transient hypoperfusion, but long enough to induce a rise of lactate but not sufficient to produce a cerebral infarct. This area is probably at risk to induce cerebral infarct. This data lead us to study the metabolic change induced by the asymptomatic internal carotid stenosis. (authors). 18 refs

  2. Angioplasty and stenting to treat occlusive vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Louis R; Meyers, Philip M; Schumacher, H Christian

    2006-01-01

    The advent of effective percutaneous treatment of occlusive vascular lesions by angioplasty and stenting is one of the most important contributions to medical care early in the 21st century. Evaluation of angioplasty and stenting procedures is still in a very early phase. New types of stents and other technologies and devices are being continuously developed and there is a definite learning curve. The experience, training, and number of procedures clearly relate to outcomes, and many different specialists are still learning and so far have not had optimal experience. This review provides an overview of studies that have examined the efficacy of stenting in conjunction with balloon angioplasty for carotid atherosclerosis compared with endarterectomy. Also discussed are angioplasty/stenting of other neck arteries and intracranial arteries and the key issues surrounding percutaneous intervention, including patient selection criteria, clinical assessment of lesions most suitable for treatment, the use of distal protective devices and drug-eluting stents, and recommendations for physician selection.

  3. Agenesia da artéria carótida interna: relato de caso Agenesis of the internal carotid artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William da Silva Neves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se, aqui, caso de uma adolescente de 14 anos de idade que apresentou episódio isolado de síncope, sem outros sintomas. No exame de ressonância magnética observou-se, nos cortes nos planos axial e coronal ponderados em T2, ausência do flow void da artéria carótida interna direita na sua porção intracavernosa. Realizou-se, então, angiorressonância magnética técnica time-of-flight, que mostrou ausência da artéria carótida interna direita, o que foi comprovado com a angiorressonância magnética de vasos cervicais e com angiotomografia computadorizada, que mostrou, nos cortes axiais, agenesia do canal carotídeo direito. Tal achado é relatado na literatura, em associação com outras anomalias, como encefaloceles transesfenoidais e aneurismas do polígono de Willis. No presente caso, não foram observadas tais associações. A paciente permaneceu assintomática.The present paper reports a case of a 14-year-old-female adolescent who presented a single episode of syncope, without any other symptom. Axial and coronal T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an absent right internal carotid artery flow void. A subsequent magnetic resonance angiography utilizing the time-of-flight technique showed absence of the right internal carotid artery. This finding was confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography of the cervical vessels, and axial computed tomography angiography showed agenesis of the right carotid canal. The literature reports such finding in association with other anomalies such as transsphenoidal encephaloceles and circle of Willis aneurysms. These associations were not observed in the present case. The patient remained asymptomatic.

  4. Spontaneous thrombosis of internal carotid artery: a natural history of giant carotid cavernous aneurysms Trombose espontânea da artéria carótida interna: a história natural dos aneurismas gigantes intracavernosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Perez de Vasconcellos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe five cases of giant carotid cavernous aneurysms which evolved with spontaneous thrombosis of internal carotid artery (STICA, with emphasis at epidemiology, clinical presentation, natural history, related factors and neurological outcome. METHOD: There were 711 consecutives patients with 802 aneurysms with and without surgical treatment during a period of 19 years. We selected 35 patients with 40 carotid cavernous aneurysms (5% of which 20 (50% were giant aneurysms. Among those cases, 5 patients evolved with STICA (25%. Symptoms and findings at presentation were recorded and compared with those at outcome. RESULTS: Clinical presentation was commonly related to atherosclerotic factors such as elevated blood pressure (80%, diabetes mellitus (40% and dislipidemy (40%. All patients presented with hemicranial headache, ophthalmparesy and retro bulbar pain, and after STICA all presented improvement of symptoms. After STICA, 4 patients had regression of deficit, 2 partial and 2 complete. Four patients had sensorial trigeminal neuropathy in V1 and V2 territories, also showing improvement of symptoms after STICA. CONCLUSION: STICA is a common outcome in giant carotid cavernous aneurysms, and is related with significant improvement of symptoms; however, it may be catastrophic for those patients without efficient collateral circulation.OBJETIVO: Relatar cinco casos de aneurismas gigantes intracavernosos que evoluíram com trombose espontânea da artéria carótida interna (TEACI, estudando-se: prevalência, apresentação clínica, história natural, fatores associados e prognóstico neurológico. MÉTODO: Análise de 711 pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de 802 aneurismas cerebrais submetidos a tratamento clínico ou cirúrgico num período de 19 anos. Foram identificados 40 aneurismas intracavernosos, sendo que 20 desses eram gigantes. Dentre esses, 5 pacientes com aneurismas gigantes intracavernosos que evoluíram com TEACI

  5. Endoscopic endonasal approach for the treatment of a large clival giant cell tumor complicated by an intraoperative internal carotid artery rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacoangeli M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Iacoangeli,1 Alessandro Di Rienzo,1 Massimo Re,2 Lorenzo Alvaro,1 Niccolò Nocchi,1 Maurizio Gladi,1 Maurizio De Nicola,3 Massimo Scerrati11Department of Neurosurgery, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, Italy; 2Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat Surgery, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Section, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: Giant cell tumors (GCTs are primary bone neoplasms that rarely involve the skull base. These lesions are usually locally aggressive and require complete removal, including the surrounding apparently healthy bone, to provide the best chance of cure. GCTs, as well as other lesions located in the clivus, can nowadays be treated by a minimally invasive fully endoscopic extended endonasal approach. This approach ensures a more direct route to the craniovertebral junction than other possible approaches (transfacial, extended lateral, and posterolateral approaches. The case reported is a clival GCT operated on by an extended endonasal approach that provides another contribution on how to address one of the most feared complications attributed to this approach: a massive bleed due to an internal carotid artery injury.Keywords: clival giant cell tumor, endoscopic endonasal approach, internal carotid artery injury, minimally invasive surgery

  6. Balloon occlusion of the internal carotid artery in 40 cases of giant intracavernous aneurysm: Technical aspects, cerebral monitoring, and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez Anon, V.; Aymard, A.; Gobin, Y.P.; Casasco, A.; Rueffenacht, D.; Khayata, M.H.; Merland, J.J.; Abizanda, E.; Redondo, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the results of carotid occlusion in the treatment of giant intracavernous carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms in 40 patients. Clinical, angiographic, Doppler and cerebral blood flow (CBF) criteria for tolerance of occlusion are discussed. The patients had headaches (47.5%), cranial nerve compression (87.5%), decreased visual acuity (20%), ruptured aneurysm (15%) and 5% were asymptomatic. Balloon occlusion tests were performed under light sedation anaesthesia; a successful test required perfect clinical tolerance and adequate angiographic collateral circulation in arterial, parenchymatous, and venous phases. Additional criteria included xenon 133 CBF measurements, and transcranial Doppler sonography of the middle cerebral artery. According to these criteria, 5 patients did not tolerate test occlusion and required an extra-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass. Mean follow-up was 4.7 years. All patients were radiologically cured of their aneurysm, and in 35 the symptoms resolved, although 3 had persistent ocular motor nerve palsies, and in 4 visual defects were unchanged. Complications were 1 permament and 3 transient neurological deficits. Balloon occlusion of the ICA is an effective, reliable form of treatment for intracavernous giant aneurysm and should replace surgical ligation of the cervical carotid artery. With CBF or Doppler monitoring, the risk of neurological deficit is diminished. EC-IC bypass prior to ICA occlusion is indicated if test occlusion is not tolerated. (orig.)

  7. Local Delivery of Antiproliferative Agents via Stents

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    Hyuck Joon Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A stent is a medical device for serving as an internal scaffold to maintain or increase the lumen of a body conduit. Stent placement has become a primary treatment option in coronary artery disease for more than the last two decades. The stenting is also currently used for relieving the symptoms of narrowed lumen of nonvascular organs, such as esophagus, trachea and bronchi, small and large intestines, biliary, and urinary tract. Local delivery of active pharmaceutical agents via the stents can not only enhance healing of certain diseases, but it can also help decrease the potential risk of the stenting procedure to the surrounding tissue. In this review, we focus on reviewing a variety of drug-impregnated stents and local drug delivery systems using the stents.

  8. A case of a gunshot wound in which the rupture of the left internal carotid artery was demonstrated by postmortem angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominato, Yoshihiko; Tajima, Yutaka; Fujikura, Takashi; Matsui, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Ichiro; Kuwayama, Naoya; Takizawa, Hisao

    2007-01-01

    A 54-year-old man was shot into the face by a robber while sleeping in bed. Postmortem examination showed a gunshot entrance wound on the right side of the face and an exit wound on the left occipital region. Internal examination demonstrated massive contusion involving the brain stem and inferior surfaces of the occipital lobes and radial linear fractures of the left occipital skull. Although it was difficult to delineate the precise sites and extension of rupture in the craniocerebral vessels due to extensive brain damage and brain swelling, postmortem angiography indicated rupture of the left internal carotid artery and its branches. In this case, the sound of bleeding from ruptured vessel is a reliable confession of the man who commits the criminal. Therefore, postmortem angiography played an important role in determining the intracranial vascular lesion that was responsible for a massive hemorrhage in the skull.

  9. Simultaneous occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and epistaxis due to ruptured petrous internal carotid artery aneurysm. Association with transsphenoidal surgery and radiation therapy. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hidenori; Fujimura, Miki; Inoue, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Kawagishi, Jun; Jokura, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with simultaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and massive epistaxis. The patient had been treated for pituitary prolactinoma by two transsphenoidal surgeries, gamma knife radiosurgery, and conventional radiation therapy since age 43 years. Cerebral angiography showed left petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm with slight stenosis on the adjacent left petrous ICA. She underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) double anastomosis with endovascular internal trapping without complication the day after onset. Postoperative course was uneventful; the patient did not develop symptomatic vasospasm, recurrent epistaxis, or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Postoperative angiography demonstrated complete disappearance of the aneurysm with patent STA-MCA anastomosis. The patient was discharged 2 months after surgery without neurological deficit. The present case is extremely rare with simultaneous onset of SAH and epistaxis caused by ruptured petrous ICA aneurysm. The transsphenoidal surgeries and radiation therapies might have been critical in the formation of the petrous ICA aneurysm. (author)

  10. Invasive treatment for carotid fibromuscular dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Damian R.; Dzierwa, Karolina; Kabłak-Ziembicka, Anna; Michalski, Michał; Wójcik-Pędziwiatr, Magdalena; Brzychczy, Andrzej; Moczulski, Zbigniew; Żmudka, Krzysztof; Pieniążek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is an infrequent non-inflamatory disease of unknown etiology that affects mainly medium-size arteries. The prevalence of FMD among patients scheduled for endovascular treatment of carotid artery stenosis is unknown. Aim To evaluate the prevalence and treatment options of carotid FMD in patients scheduled for carotid artery stenting (CAS). Material and methods Between Jan 2001 and Dec 2013, 2012 CAS procedures were performed in 1809 patients (66.1% men; age 65.3 ±8.4 years, 49.2% symptomatic). In case of FMD suspicion in Doppler-duplex ultrasound (DUS), computed tomography angiography was performed for aortic arch and extracranial and intracranial artery imaging. For invasive treatment of FMD carotid stenosis, balloon angioplasty was considered first. If the result of balloon angioplasty was not satisfactory (> 30% residual stenosis, dissection), stent placement was scheduled. All patients underwent follow-up DUS and neurological examination 3, 6 and 12 months after angioplasty, then annually. Results There were 7 (0.4%) (4 symptomatic) cases of FMD. The FMD group was younger (47.9 ±7.5 years vs. 67.2 ±8.9 years, p = 0.0001), with higher prevalence of women (71.4% vs. 32.7%, p = 0.0422), a higher rate of dissected lesions (57.1% vs. 4.6%, p = 0.0002) and less severe stenosis (73.4% vs. 83.9%, p = 0.0070) as compared to the non-FMD group. In the non-FMD group the prevalence of coronary artery disease was higher (65.1% vs. 14.3% in FMD group, p = 0.009). All FMD patients underwent successful carotid artery angioplasty with the use of neuroprotection devices. In 4 cases angioplasty was supported by stent implantation. Conclusions Fibromuscular dysplasia is rare among patients referred for CAS. In case of significant FMD carotid stenosis, it may be treated with balloon angioplasty (stent supported if necessary) with optimal immediate and long-term results. PMID:26161104

  11. Throbbing tinnitus in aberrant internal carotid artery aggravated by elevation of the jugular bulb. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, T.; Kirsten, R.; Kau, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular anomalies in the middle ear are rarely observed. They cause no symptoms in the majority of cases, although some may be associated with tinnitus. The false diagnosis of glomus tumour may lead to considerable problems, if surgery is performed. It is therefore necessary that precise pre-operative data are obtained, preferably based on contrast-enhanced computerized tomography. Subsequent 2D and 3D image reconstructions provide further vascular findings regarding the topographic and anatomic factors involved and eliminate the need for invasive angiography of the carotid artery or retrograde jugular venography to make a firm diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  12. Carotid dissections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Forell, W.; Rothacher, G.; Kraemer, G.

    1989-09-01

    In younger patients, the clinical symptoms of sudden unilateral headache and facial pain, often combined with Horner syndrome and the cerebrovascular symptoms of TIAs or stroke, should indicate the diagnosis of spontaneous carotid dissection. Angiographic findings can verify this diagnosis, showing various signs of eccentric, narrowing stenosis, false lumen, pseudoaneurysms, or complete occlusion. In addition to noninvasive Doppler ultrasonography, B-mode and Duplex investigations, although more or less nonspecific, give some indications of the diagnosis; modern imaging techniques, especially MRI, can image the intramural hematoma directly. As the hematoma is the source of the intracranial emboli, the therapy of choice in this rarely diagnosed disease should be anticoagulation. (orig.).

  13. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  14. Contralateral carotid artery occlusion is not a contraindication to carotid endarterectomy even if shunts are not routinely used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Russell H; Cline, Jennifer L; Showalter, David P; Lepore, Michael R; Nair, Deepak G

    2013-10-01

    Although controversial, carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been proposed as being safer than carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for patients with a contralateral internal carotid occlusion (CCO). Arguably, with a CCO, CAS should be even safer than CEA if a shunt is not used. Accordingly, we reviewed our experience with 2183 CEAs performed routinely without a shunt to evaluate the risk of CEA performed in a subset of 147 patients with a CCO. Between 1988 and 2011, 147 CEAs (111 men [75%], 36 women [25%]) were routinely performed without a shunt despite CCO. Of these patients, 76% were asymptomatic. CEAs were performed by seven surgeons using standard techniques (not eversion), with patients under general anesthesia and blood pressure maintained at >130 mm Hg. All patients received heparin (7500 U), and protamine reversal was routine. Median cross-clamp time was 20 minutes (range, 14-40 minutes). Three neurologic events occurred ≤ 30 days (2.0%). One transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurred immediately, and one occurred on the first postoperative day due to occlusion of the endarterectomy site. One patient sustained an immediate stroke and died of a large computed tomography-documented atheroembolic shower. Our data demonstrate the safety of CEA in the presence of a CCO, even when performed without a shunt. It is unlikely that the stroke or delayed TIA could be attributed to nonshunting or CCO. Even if so, the stroke and death rates would be lower than those previously reported for patients undergoing CEA in the presence of a CCO. This may be due to short cross-clamp times, careful technique, general anesthesia, and blood pressure support. Given these low adverse event rates, our experience refutes the assumption that patients with a CCO are at such a high risk for CEA that the only alternative is CAS. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Simple Coiling versus Stent-Assisted Coiling of Paraclinoid Aneurysms: Radiological Outcome in a Single Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Yeon; Park, Dong Sun; Park, Hye Yin; Chun, Young Il; Moon, Chang Taek; Roh, Hong Gee

    2017-11-01

    Paraclinoid aneurysms are a group of aneurysms arising at the distal internal carotid artery. Due to a high incidence of small, wide-necked aneurysms in this zone, it is often challenging to achieve complete occlusion when solely using detachable coils, thus stent placement is often required. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of stent placement in endovascular treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms. Data of 98 paraclinoid aneurysms treated by endovascular approach in our center from August 2005 to June 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. They were divided into two groups: simple coiling and stent-assisted coiling. Differences in the recurrence and progressive occlusion between the two groups were mainly analyzed. The recurrence was defined as more than one grade worsening according to Raymond-Roy Classification or major recanalization that is large enough to permit retreatment in the follow-up study compared to the immediate post-operative results. Complete occlusion was achieved immediately after endovascular treatment in eight out of 37 patients (21.6%) in the stent-assisted group and 18 out of 61 (29.5%) in the simple coiling group. In the follow-up imaging studies, the recurrence rate was lower in the stent-assisted group (one out of 37, 2.7%) compared to the simple coiling group (13 out of 61, 21.3%) ( p =0.011). Multivariate logistic regression model showed lower recurrence rate in the stent-assisted group than the simple coiling group (odds ratio [OR] 0.051, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.005-0.527). Furthermore there was also a significant difference in the rate of progressive occlusion between the stent-assisted group (16 out of 29 patients, 55.2%) and the simple coiling group (10 out of 43 patients, 23.3%) ( p =0.006). The stent-assisted group also exhibited a higher rate of progressive occlusion than the simple coiling group in the multivariate logistic regression model (OR 3.208, 95% CI 1.106-9.302). Use of stents results in good

  16. Gastrointestinal stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollikofer, C.L.; Schoch, E.; Jost, R.; Decurtins, M.

    2000-01-01

    Acute obstructions of the gastric outlet, the duodenum, or the large bowel require rapid treatment to relieve symptoms of retention or ileus. Large-caliber stents of 16 to 22 mm offer a new non-surgical alternative for treating these patients with minimal risks and high success rates. For gastroduodenal outlet obstructions palliated by self-expanded metal stents, clinical success rates are in the range of 80-100 %. Preoperative treatment of colorectal obstructions successfully relieves acute symptoms of ileus in 87-100 % allowing primary anastomosis and thereby reducing the costs caused by multiple operations and the need of intensive care by approximately 25 %. It is the purpose of this review to familiarize the reader with the indications, possibilities, and limits of intestinal stenting. (orig.)

  17. Relationship between the internal laryngeal nerve and the triticeal cartilage: a potentially unrecognized compression site during anterior cervical spine and carotid endarterectomy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Dixon, Joshua F; Loukas, Marios; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-06-01

    The triticeal cartilage has received scant attention in the literature. To date, its relationship to the nearby internal laryngeal nerve has not been studied. Therefore, to elucidate further this anatomic relationship and its potential surgical implications, this study was performed. Eighty-six adult cadaveric sides underwent dissection of the internal laryngeal nerve near its penetration of the thyrohyoid membrane. The relationship of this nerve to the triticeal cartilage was documented. Measurements and histological analysis were performed on all cartilage specimens. We identified triticeal cartilage in 51% of the specimens and found it to be hyaline in nature. The triticeal cartilage was located in the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the thyrohyoid membrane in 14%, 66%, and 20% of sides, respectively. Regardless of the position of the triticeal cartilage within the thyrohyoid membrane, the internal laryngeal nerve crossed directly over the triticeal cartilage on 59% of sides. When present, the internal laryngeal nerve will cross over the triticeal cartilage in the majority of individuals. This relationship should be borne in mind during surgical manipulation in this area and when placing retractors during anterior neck operations including cervical discectomy/fusion and carotid endarterectomy. Compression of the internal laryngeal nerve against the solid triticeal cartilage can cause laryngeal nerve palsy and increase the risk of resultant postoperative aspiration.

  18. The role of the circle of Willis in internal carotid artery stenosis and anatomical variations: a computational study based on a patient-specific three-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyu; Yuan, Qi; Yang, Jian; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this study is to provide better insights into the cerebral perfusion patterns and collateral mechanism of the circle of Willis (CoW) under anatomical and pathological variations. In the current study, a patient-specific three-dimensional computational model of the CoW was reconstructed based on the computed tomography (CT) images. The Carreau model was applied to simulate the non-Newtonian property of blood. Flow distributions in five common anatomical variations coexisting with different degrees of stenosis in the right internal carotid artery (RICA) were investigated to obtain detailed flow information. With the development of stenosis in unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA), the cerebral blood supply decreased when the degree of stenosis increased. The blood supply of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) was most affected by the stenosis of ICA. The anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and ipsilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) functioned as the important collateral circulation channels when unilateral stenosis occurred. The blood flow of the anterior circulation and the total cerebral blood flow (CBF) reached to the minimum in the configuration of the contralateral proximal anterior cerebral artery (A1) absence coexisting with unilateral ICA stenosis. Communicating arteries provided important collateral channels in the complete CoW when stenosis in unilateral ICA occurred. The cross-flow in the ACoA is a sensitive indicator of the morphological change of the ICA. The collateral function of the PCoA on the affected side will not be fully activated until a severe stenosis occurred in unilateral ICA. The absence of unilateral A1 coexisting with the stenosis in the contralateral ICA could be the most dangerous configuration in terms of the total cerebral blood supply. The findings of this study would enhance the understanding of the collateral mechanism of the CoW under different anatomical variations.

  19. Risks for Vascular Injury During Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: Prevalence of a Medial Loop of Vertebral Artery and Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakao, Norimitsu; Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Nishimura, Manabu; Riew, K Daniel; Kamiya, Mitsuhiro; Hirasawa, Atsuhiko; Imagama, Shiro; Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Murotani, Kenta; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2016-02-01

    Observational study using a retrospective single-institute database. To investigate the prevalence of a medial loop (ML) of the vertebral artery (VA) and internal carotid artery (ICA), which might be an anatomical risk factor for arterial injury in anterior cervical surgeries. Anterior cervical spine surgeries are generally considered to be safe and effective. VA injury is one of the most serious complications during anterior procedures. Several articles have reported this complication, which might be because of the anomalous course of VA at V2 segment. The prevalence and anatomical features of those high-risk cases were, however, not investigated. Consecutive Japanese subjects, who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for reasons other than evaluation of cervical artery disease from November 2011 to October 2012 in our institution, were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included poor images, past surgery, and endovascular intervention of cervical spine and its vessels. The definition of ML was set as the course of VA and ICA extended medially inside the uncovertebral joint. We also investigated whether those anomalous courses were detectable by plain CT. A total of 1251 subjects with age ranging from 14 to 93 years with a mean of 56.1 years were surveyed. Among them, 1054 subjects were eligible and the others were excluded. A total of 421 subjects were male, and 633 were female. There were 10 cases (1%) with an ML of the VA, and 2 (0.2%) cases with a medial loop of internal carotid artery. Five of the 10 cases with a medial loop of vertebral artery were aberrant into the vertebral body, which were detectable by plain CT. Importantly, the other five cases could not be seen on the CT. One percent of all subjects showed higher anatomical risk for VA and ICA injury during anterior surgery, half of which were undetectable by plain CT. Preoperative evaluation for vascular anatomy may be necessary for safer surgical

  20. In vivo measurements of cerebral metabolic abnormalities by proton spectroscopy after a transient ischemic attack revealing an internal carotid stenosis > 70%; Anomalies metaboliques cerebrales mesurees in vivo par la spectroscopie du proton dans les accidents ischemiques transitoires revelant une stenose de la carotide interne superieure a 70%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, M.; Becker, F.; Lemesle, M.; Walker, P.; Guy, F.; Martin, D.; Baudouin, N.; Brunotte, F.; Dumas, R. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 21 -Dijon (France)

    1996-06-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to look for cerebral metabolic abnormalities within the first 3 days after a transient ischemic attack revealing an internal carotid stenosis > 70 %. Methods: Five patients with a transient ischemic attack lasting between 30 and 180 minutes, affecting sensory and motor brachio-facial territory, with or without aphasia. Were studied. A CT-scan, an EEG, a cervical Doppler ultrasound, a standard arteriography, a magnetic resonance imaging and a proton spectroscopy were performed within the cerebral area affected by the transient ischemic attack. We measured 2 markers: N-acetyl-aspartate, the marker of the neuronal mass, and lactate, the marker of anaerobe metabolism. In each case, a contralateral internal stenosis was diagnosed by cervical Doppler ultrasound and standard arteriography. No cerebral infarction was observed. Results: With the affected cerebral area defined according to clinical and EEG features, proton spectroscopy showed a significant rise of lactate, without any change in N-acetyl-aspartate levels. Conclusions: Within the first 3 days after a transient ischemic attack, there is a significant risk of lactate inside the affected cerebral area. This change may reflect a localized and transient hypoperfusion, but long enough to induce a rise of lactate but not sufficient to produce a cerebral infarct. This area is probably at risk to induce cerebral infarct. This data lead us to study the metabolic change induced by the asymptomatic internal carotid stenosis. (authors). 18 refs.

  1. Stenosis of calcified carotid artery detected on Panoramic Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, So Yang; Oh, Won Mann; Yoon, Suk Ja; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol [School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan M. [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery with calcification detected on panoramic radiographs. This study used fifty carotid arteries of 36 dental patients whose panoramic radiograph and computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed the presence of carotid artery calcification. A neuroradiologist interpreted CTA to determine the degree of stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. The degree of stenosis was stratified in four stages; normal (no stenosis), mild stenosis (1-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (70-99%). Among the fifty carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA, 20 carotid arteries (40%) were normal, 29 carotid arteries (18%) had mild stenosis, 1 carotid artery (2%) had moderate stenosis, and there was none with severe stenosis. Sixty percent of the carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA had internal luminal stenosis, and two percent had moderate stenosis. When carotid atheroma is detected on panoramic radiograph, it is possible that the dental patient has luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

  2. Stenosis of calcified carotid artery detected on Panoramic Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, So Yang; Oh, Won Mann; Yoon, Suk Ja; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol; Palomo, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery with calcification detected on panoramic radiographs. This study used fifty carotid arteries of 36 dental patients whose panoramic radiograph and computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed the presence of carotid artery calcification. A neuroradiologist interpreted CTA to determine the degree of stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. The degree of stenosis was stratified in four stages; normal (no stenosis), mild stenosis (1-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (70-99%). Among the fifty carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA, 20 carotid arteries (40%) were normal, 29 carotid arteries (18%) had mild stenosis, 1 carotid artery (2%) had moderate stenosis, and there was none with severe stenosis. Sixty percent of the carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA had internal luminal stenosis, and two percent had moderate stenosis. When carotid atheroma is detected on panoramic radiograph, it is possible that the dental patient has luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

  3. Variations in carotid sinus anatomy and their relevance to carotid interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Charles Timothy; Brassett, Cecilia; Gaunt, Michael

    2018-03-03

    The carotid sinus (CS) is a dilatation in the carotid bifurcation usually at the origin of proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). It contains baroreceptors which influence blood pressure. Variations in the location of the CS are of importance as atheromatous plaque commonly forms in this area and procedures such as carotid endarterectomy are performed to reduce the risk of stroke. Inadvertent stimulation of the CS baroreceptors during interventions can have profound effects on the patient's hemodynamic status both intra- and postoperatively, causing serious complications. The aim of this study is to determine the inter- and intra-individual variations in the location of the CS. Eighty-two carotid arteries were dissected bilaterally from 41 cadavers. The locations of the CS were noted and divided into four potential sites. The commonest site is the origin of the ICA (74.3%), but the CS can also be found in the distal part of the common carotid artery (CCA) inferior to the bifurcation (17.1%); at the bifurcation involving the distal CCA and origins of both the external carotid (ECA) and internal carotid arteries (7.32%); and at the origin of the ECA (1.22%). In individual cadavers, the CS was located at the origin of the ICA in 97.6% on at least one side. The sites of the CS were asymmetrical in 34.1%. Clinicians performing carotid interventions should be aware of these anatomical variations to avoid inadvertent stimulation of the CS which can cause profound bradycardia and hypotension.

  4. Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessel. Covered stents or stent-grafts have additional advantages over bare stents and are becoming more commonly ... us improve RadiologyInfo.org by taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about ...

  5. Endovascular treatment of radiation-induced carotid blowout syndrome. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Eiichi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Yoneyama, Tomoko S.; Hayasaka, Michihiro; Suzuki, Homare; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2011-01-01

    Carotid Blowout Syndrome (CBS), or Carotid Artery Rupture (CAR), is a delayed complication with potentially fatal consequences occurring after the implementation of radiotherapy on head and neck tumors. In this report we describe two patients received endovascular treatment for severe hemorrhagic CBS developing 36 and 2 years, respectively, after radiotherapy. Both patients survived and responded positively to treatment. Case 1 was an 80-year-old woman found with minor hemorrhage near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery, 36 years after neck irradiation. She experienced frequent hemorrhagic events during the following years. Six years after the initial discovery of bleeding, she experienced massive hemorrhage, lapsed into shock, and was admitted to an Emergency Room. Connective tissue around the carotid artery was largely exposed due to neck skin defect. After hemorrhage was halted by manual compression, transient hemostasis was achieved with coil embolization of the aneurysm presumed to be the source of bleeding. Recurrent hemorrhage developed two weeks later with unraveled coil mass extrusion. Parent artery occlusion was performed by endovascular trapping, achieving permanent hemostasis. Case 2 presented massive nasal bleeding originating from the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery, 2 years after having been treated with heavy particle irradiation for olfactory neuroblastoma. Ischemic tolerance was confirmed by balloon occlusion test. Based on previous experiences, the bleeding was immediately halted by endovascular trapping. Both patients were subsequently discharged, free of new neurological symptoms. Emergent hemostatic treatment is required in CBS developing severe hemorrhage. However, within irradiation fields, temporal embolization devices hardly lead to complete resolution. This is due to the deteriorated condition of the vascular wall incapable to enduring the expansion power of coils, stents or balloons. Bypass grafting is also

  6. Upper Gastrointestinal Stent

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun; Yang, Chang-Hun

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) stent has been developed for palliation of obstructive symptoms in various diseases causing obstruction of GI tract. Self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) has replaced old type of plastic stent, and endoscopic insertion of stent has replaced fluoroscopy-guided insertion. Nowadays, newly-designed SEMSs have been developed for prevention of complications such as stent migration and re-obstruction, and indications of stent recently have been widened into benign conditions as we...

  7. Symptomatic stent cast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  8. Study on the effect of location of intracranial arterial stenosis on the safety of stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-jie SUN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of location of intracranial arterial stenosis on the safety of intracranial stenting. Methods A total of 73 patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS were divided into intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA, N = 18, middle cerebral artery (MCA-M1 segment (MCA-M1, N = 11, intracranial vertebral artery (IVA, N = 27 and basilar artery (BA, N = 17. All of them underwent intracranial stenting. The improvement of intracranial arterial stenosis, cerebrovascular complications including perforating events, artery dissection, in-stent thrombosis, distal stent arterial embolism and cerebral hyperperfusion, and neurological complications including transient ischemic attack (TIA, ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage were recorded. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to evaluate the prognosis 30 d after operation. Results A total of 73 stents were implanted in 73 patients (35 Apollo balloon-expandable stents and 38 Wingspan self-expandable stents. Among them, 10 cases (10/18 were treated with Apollo stents and 8 cases (8/18 with Wingspan stents in IICA group, 5 cases (5/11 were treated with Apollo stents and 6 cases (6/11 with Wingspan stents in MCA-M1 group, 16 cases (59.26%, 16/27 were treated with Apollo stents and 11 cases (40.74%, 11/27 with Wingspan stents in IVA group, and 4 cases (4/17 were treated with Apollo stents and 13 cases (13/17 with Wingspan stents in BA group. No significant difference was seen in stent type among 4 groups (χ2 = 7.422, P = 0.201. The stenosis rate of IICA group after treatment [(10.94 ± 1.99%] was significantly improved than before treatment [(90.89 ± 7.71%; t = 69.545, P = 0.000]. The stenosis rate of MCA-M1 group after treatment [(10.37 ± 2.14%] was significantly improved than before treatment [(87.64 ± 9.46%; t = 26.000, P = 0.000]. The stenosis rate of IVA group after treatment [(11.02 ± 1.99% ] was significantly improved than before

  9. Treatment of Intra- and Extracranial Arterial Dissections Using Stents and Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Jin Yang; Ahn, Jung Yong; Chung, Young Sun; Han, In Bo; Chung, Sang Sup; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Sang Heum; Choi, Eun Wan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of stent placement for extracranial and intracranial arterial dissections. Methods. Eighteen patients underwent endovascular treatment of carotid and vertebral dissections using intraluminal stent placement. Five patients with arterial dissection were treated, 2 using one insertion of a single stent and 3 using placement of two stents. Patients with a dissecting aneurysm were treated as follows: 7 patients with insertion of one stent, 4 with placement of two stents, and 2 by stent-assisted Guglielmi detachable coil embolization. In the 18 patients in whom stenting was attempted, the overall success in reaching the target lesion was 94.4%. Of the 17 patients treated with stents, stent release and positioning were considered optimal in 16 (94%) and suboptimal in one (6%). In patients who underwent a successful procedure, all parent arteries were preserved. There were no instances of postprocedural ischemic attacks, new neurologic deficits, or new minor or major strokes prior to patient discharge. In follow up, all patients were assessed, using the modified Rankin scale, as functionally improved or of stable clinical status. The reduction in dissection-induced stenosis or pseudoaneurysm, the patency rate obtained at follow-up, and the lack of strokes (ischemic or hemorrhagic) suggest that stent placement offers a viable alternative to complex surgical bypass or reconstructive procedures. The long-term efficacy and durability of stent placement for arterial dissection remain to be determined in a larger series

  10. Carotid Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... head with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow or blocked, usually because ... other substances found in the blood. Carotid artery disease is serious because it can block the blood ...

  11. Angiographic findings of collateral vessels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Gi Seok; Yeon, Kung Mo

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the angiographic findings of collateral vessels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid arteries and to evaluate the extent of angiographic assessment needed before embolization. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery, which were 6 cases of arteriovenous malformation, 2 cases of carotid cavernous fistula, 1 case of hemangioma and 1 case of arteriovenous malformation with carotid cavernous fistula. The previously ligated arteries are proximal external carotid artery (n = 5), branches of external carotid artery (n = 2) and common carotid artery (n = 3). Common carotid artery or internal carotid artery (n = 9), vertebral artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), costocervical trunk (n = 2), thyrocervical trunk (n = 2) were assessed by conventional angiography. Angiography of both carotid and vertebral arteries was performed in 5 cases. The collateral vascular channels were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery (n = 8), vertebral artery (n = 5), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), deep cervical artery (n = 2) and ascending cervical artery (n = 1). Embolization were performed in 9 cases with operative cannulation (n = 4), embolization via collateral branches of ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 1), embolization via collateral branches of contralateral external carotid artery (n = 3) and balloon occlusion via direct puncture (n = 1). The collateral channels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery, contralateral or ipsilateral external carotid artery, vertebral artery, deep cervical artery and ascending cervical artery on angiography. Complete angiographic assessment of possible collateral channels is mandatory for the

  12. SONOlysis in prevention of Brain InfaRctions During Internal carotid Endarterectomy (SONOBIRDIE) trial - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbáč, Tomáš; Netuka, David; Beneš, Vladimír; Nosáľ, Vladimír; Kešnerová, Petra; Tomek, Aleš; Fadrná, Táňa; Beneš, Vladimír; Fiedler, Jiří; Přibáň, Vladimír; Brozman, Miroslav; Langová, Kateřina; Herzig, Roman; Školoudík, David

    2017-01-17

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a beneficial procedure for selected patients with an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. Surgical risk of CEA varies from between 2 and 15%. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of sonolysis (continual transcranial Doppler monitoring, TCD) using a 2-MHz diagnostic probe with maximal diagnostic energy on the reduction of the incidence of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and brain infarction detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by the activation of the endogenous fibrinolytic system during CEA. Design: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. international, multicenter trial for patients with at least 70% symptomatic or asymptomatic ICA stenosis undergoing CEA. patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic ICA stenosis of at least 70% are candidates for CEA; a sufficient temporal bone window for TCD; aged 40-85 years, functionally independent; provision of signed informed consent. Randomization: consecutive patients will be assigned to the sonolysis or control (sham procedure) group by computer-generated 1:1 randomization. Prestudy calculations showed that a minimum of 704 patients in each group is needed to reach a significant difference with an alpha value of 0.05 (two-tailed) and a beta value of 0.8 assuming that 10% would be lost to follow-up or refuse to participate in the study (estimated 39 endpoints). the primary endpoint is the incidence of stroke or TIA during 30 days after CEA and the incidence of new ischemic lesions on brain MRI performed 24 h after CEA in the sonolysis and control groups. Secondary endpoints are occurrence of death, any stroke, or myocardial infarction within 30 days, changes in cognitive functions 1 year post procedure related to pretreatment scores, and number of new lesions and occurrence of new lesions ≥0.5 mL on post-procedural brain MRI. descriptive statistics and linear/logistic multiple regression models will be

  13. Surgical techniques and curative effect of carotid endarterectomy for carotid artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min HAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the surgical techniques of carotid endarterectomy (CEA for treating carotid artery stenosis, in order to improve the surgical efficacy and reduce intraoperative adverse events and complications after operation. Methods Retrospective analysis was carried out on surgical data of 53 cases who were performed CEA from October 2010 to October 2013 in Department of Neurosurgery in Tianjin Huanhu Hospital. There were 39 males and 14 females, aged from 40 to 78 years old and mean age (60.34 ± 8.92 years old; the course of disease was from 2 d to 4 years. Twenty-six cases were diagnosed as right carotid stenosis, 15 cases left carotid stenosis and 12 cases double-sided carotid stenosis. Among all of those cases, 35 cases were diagnosed as moderate stenosis (30%-69%, 16 cases severe stenosis (70%-99% , and 2 cases complete occlusion. Results Among 53 patients, 50 patients underwent CEA; 2 cases underwent CEA and aneurysm clipping; one case underwent stent removal surgery and CEA because restenosis was found after carotid artery stenting (CAS. Postoperative neck CTA and fMRI showed good morphology of carotid artery, fluent blood flow and improved cerebral perfusion after operation. All of those patients were followed up for 3 to 24 months. One case died of myocardial infarction; 2 cases appeared skin numbness on the operating side of the neck, and the symptom disappeared 3 months later; one case appeared hoarseness after operation; 3 cases experienced mild transient ischemic attack (TIA and the symptom disappeared 2 months later. No case of stroke was found. Conclusions CEA is a safe and effective surgical approach to treat carotid stenosis. Correct and reasonable choices of the surgical indications and skilled surgical technique are the key to ensure the success of operation and to improve efficacy of the therapy. doi:10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.02.006Video: http://www.cjcnn.org/index.php/cjcnn/pages/view/v14n2a6

  14. Detection of hemodynamic impairment using magnetic resonance angiography in patients with internal carotid artery stenoocclusive disease. Comparison with quantitative brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Ryonoshin; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2008-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamideis a key parameter in determining the severity of hemodynamic impairment in patients with major cerebral artery occlusive disease. The aim of the present study is to validate the accuracy of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for detecting hemodynamic impairment by correlating detectability of the middle cerebral artery obtained by MRA with CVR measured by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease. Ninety-four patients with chronic ICA occlusion underwent single slab three-dimensional time-of-flight MRA and SPECT. SPECT-CVR was calculated by measured cerebral blood flow before and after acetazolamide challenge. CVR was significantly lower in patients without detection of any portion (M1, M2 or M3) of the MCA than in those with detection of all portions. When SPECT-CVR lower than the mean- 2 standard deviation (SD) obtained in normal subjects was defined as reduced and the SPECT-CVR was assumed as the true determinant of hemodynamic impairment, MRA provided 92% sensitivity and 73% specificity, with 96% negative predictive value for detecting patients with reduced CVR. The present MRA method is effective for the identification of patients with hemodynamic impairment. (author)

  15. A comparative study of perfusion CT and 99mTc-Hmpao spect measurement to assess cerebrovascular reserve capacity in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eicker S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Patients with internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion can demonstrate impaired cerebral vascular reserve (CVR. The detection of CVR using single photon emission CT (SPECT is nowadays widely accepted as a predictor in the diagnostic pathway in patients considered for cerebral revascularization. Recently perfusion CT (PCT gained widely acceptance in stroke imaging The present study was aimed at comparing the results of perfusion CT (PCT and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT with acetazolamide challenge in patients with ICA occlusion. Methods 13 patients were included in the prospective evaluation. Both PCT and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were performed before and after the administration of acetazolamide. In detail, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV, adapted time to peak (Tmax and mean transit times (MTT were compared with SPECT data. Results 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT demonstrated an impairment of CVR in six patients. A preserved CVR was present in seven patients. All patients with impaired CVR proven by SPECT had a delayed MTT (mean +2.98 s and a delayed Tmax (mean + 5.9 s, (both p Conclusion The prospective study demonstrated a highly significant correlation of perfusion parameters as' detected by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and the Tmax as detected by PCT in patients with ICA occlusion. Therefore this easy-to-perform technique seems to be an adequate method for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in patients with ICA occlusion.

  16. Imaging of the Fibrous Cap in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Luca; Potters, Fons; Lugt, Aad van der; Mallarini, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, a substantial number of articles have been published to provide diagnostic solutions for patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. These articles have resulted in a shift of opinion regarding the identification of stroke risk in patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. In the recent past, the degree of carotid artery stenosis was the sole determinant for performing carotid intervention (carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting) in these patients. We now know that the degree of stenosis is only one marker for future cerebrovascular events. If one wants to determine the risk of these events more accurately, other parameters must be taken into account; among these parameters are plaque composition, presence and state of the fibrous cap (FC), intraplaque haemorrhage, plaque ulceration, and plaque location. In particular, the FC is an important structure for the stability of the plaque, and its rupture is highly associated with a recent history of transient ischaemic attack or stroke. The subject of this review is imaging of the FC.

  17. Tissue response to poly(L-lactic acid)-based blend with phospholipid polymer for biodegradable cardiovascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Il; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Lee, Seungbok; Seo, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hye Young; Suh, Dongwhan; Kim, Min Uk; Konno, Tomohiro; Takai, Madoka; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2011-03-01

    A temporary cardiovascular stent device by bioabsorbable materials might reduce late stent thrombosis. A water-soluble amphiphilic phospholipid polymer bearing phosphorylcholine groups (PMB30W) was blended with a high-molecular-weight poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) to reduce unfavorable tissue responses at the surface. The PLLA implants and the polymer blend (PLLA/PMB30W) implants were inserted into subcutaneous tissues of rats, the infrarenal aorta of rats, and the internal carotid arteries of rabbits. After 6 months subcutaneous implantation, the PLLA/PMB30W maintained high density of phosphorylcholine groups on the surface without a significant bioabsorption. After intravascular implantation, the cross-sectional areas of polymer tubing with diameters less than 1.6 mm were histomorphometrically measured. Compared to the PLLA tubing, the PLLA/PMB30W tubing significantly reduced the thrombus formation during 30 d of implantation. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured on the PLLA and the PLLA/PMB30W to compare inflammatory reactions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay quantified substantially decreased proinflammatory cytokines in the case of the PLLA/PMB30W. They were almost the same level as the negative controls. Thus, we conclude that the phosphorylcholine groups could reduce tissue responses significantly both in vivo and in vitro, and the PLLA/PMB30W is a promising material for preparing temporary cardiovascular stent devices. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sole stenting treatment for small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms:a clinical therapeutic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jiyong; Hong Bo; Xu Yi; Huang Qinghai; Yang Pengfei; Zhao Wenyuan; Liu Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the feasibility, safety and efficacy of sole stenting technique for the treatment of small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Between February 2001 and November 2009, 36 consecutive patients with small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms (18 males and 18 females, aged 19-75 years,with a mean age of 52.3 years) were treated with stenting technique only. Of 36 patients, the Grade 0 of Hunt and Hess classification was seen in 22,Grade I in 8, Grade II in 5 and Grade III in 1. The aneurysmal diameter ranged from 1.8 mm to 5.0 mm,with a mean diameter of 3.6 mm. The aneurysms were located at the anterior communicating artery (n=1), posterior communicating artery (n=11), intradural paraclinoid internal carotid artery (n=18), basilar artery (n=1), anterior choroidal artery (n=4) or middle cerebral artery (n=1). The clinical manifestations, the angiographic findings and the follow-up observations were analyzed and the results were evaluated by means of the Modified Rankin Scale, magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography. Results: Sole stenting treatment was performed in 36 patients with small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms. A total of 37 stents were successfully delivered and deployed at the targeted location. Immediate post-procedural angiography showed that complete occlusion was obtained in one aneurysm, a sluggish intra-aneurysmal vortex motion in 3 aneurysms and a correction of the angle of the parent vessel in two cases, whereas no change was seen in the remaining 30 aneurysms. Angiographic follow-up was carried out in 22 of the 36 patients (61%) during a mean following-up period of 16 months (ranged from 3 to 59 months). The follow-up angiography showed that the complete occlusion was seen in 11 cases, narrowed aneurysmal neck with shrinkage of the aneurysm in 9 cases, narrowed aneurysmal neck only in 1 case, and shrinkage of the aneurysm only in 1 case.All the patients remained

  19. Cervical Internal Carotid Occlusion versus Pseudo-occlusion at CT Angiography in the Context of Acute Stroke: An Accuracy, Interobserver, and Intraobserver Agreement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Ange; Fahed, Robert; Gaha, Mehdi; Chagnon, Miguel; Khoury, Naïm; Kotowski, Marc; Guilbert, François; Landry, David; Raymond, Jean; Roy, Daniel; Weill, Alain

    2018-03-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of computed tomographic (CT) angiography to distinguish true cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion from pseudo-occlusion (defined as an isolated intracranial thrombus that impedes ascending blood flow) in the context of acute stroke. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent thrombectomy with preprocedural CT angiography that helps to demonstrate a lack of attenuation in the cervical ICA on the symptomatic side (24 men and 13 women; mean age, 63 years; age range, 30-86 years). Seven readers, including five neuroradiologists and two interventional neuroradiology fellows, independently reviewed the CT angiography images to assess whether there was true cervical ICA occlusion. Their results were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting true occlusion as well as accuracy and diagnostic odds ratio were calculated, with inter- and intraobserver κ statistics. Results Cervical ICA pseudo-occlusion occurred in 12 of 37 patients (32.4%) with nonattenuation of the cervical ICA on the symptomatic side. Interobserver agreement coefficients did not reach the substantial value of 0.61 for either pairs or groups of readers. The cohort's average sensitivity and specificity was 68% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59%, 76%) and 75% (95% CI: 71%, 80%), respectively, with a diagnostic odds ratio of 8 (95% CI: 3, 18) and only fair interobserver agreement (κ = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.47). Conclusion In the context of acute ischemic stroke with ipsilateral ICA nonattenuation at single-phase CT angiography, even specialized radiologists may not reliably distinguish true cervical occlusion from pseudo-occlusion. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  20. Aneurisma da artéria carótida interna extracraniana: relato de caso Aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ricardo Taveira Garcia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Os aneurismas verdadeiros da artéria carótida interna extracraniana são raros, ao contrário dos supraclinóideos, somando menos de 4% dos aneurismas periféricos. Eles se apresentam clinicamente como massas palpáveis cervicais, junto à margem inferior do ângulo da mandíbula, causando rouquidão, disfagia e dor por compressão nervosa. Há freqüente associação desta doença com outros aneurismas periféricos devido à sua etiologia principal (aterosclerose. Os aneurismas periféricos são comumente identificados à ultra-sonografia Doppler, quando na vigência de janela acústica adequada. Nesta situação, os aneurismas podem ser avaliados tanto morfológica como hemodinamicamente. Sua identificação e estudo são importantes para prevenir graves complicações, como tromboses, infartos maciços ou embólicos da área correspondente no sistema nervoso central, ruptura e dissecção, além de auxiliar na indicação da melhor conduta terapêutica.Unlike supraclinoid aneurysms, true aneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery are extremely rare (less than 4% of the peripheral aneurysms. The commonest presentation is a pulsatile neck swelling below the angle of the jaw associated with hoarseness, dysphagia and pain (neural compression. Concomitance with other peripherical aneurysms is frequent and caused by atherosclerosis. The morphological and hemodynamic features are very well evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, when the acoustic window is satisfactory. Identification and evaluation of these aneurysms are very important to prevent thrombosis, rupture, dissections, massive strokes and embolic brain infarcts, besides helping in the decision of the best treatment.

  1. Internal carotid arterial canal size and scaling in Euarchonta: Re-assessing implications for arterial patency and phylogenetic relationships in early fossil primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Kirk, E Christopher; Silcox, Mary T; Gunnell, Gregg F; Gilbert, Christopher C; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Allen, Kari L; Welch, Emma; Bloch, Jonathan I; Gonzales, Lauren A; Kay, Richard F; Seiffert, Erik R

    2016-08-01

    Primate species typically differ from other mammals in having bony canals that enclose the branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA) as they pass through the middle ear. The presence and relative size of these canals varies among major primate clades. As a result, differences in the anatomy of the canals for the promontorial and stapedial branches of the ICA have been cited as evidence of either haplorhine or strepsirrhine affinities among otherwise enigmatic early fossil euprimates. Here we use micro X-ray computed tomography to compile the largest quantitative dataset on ICA canal sizes. The data suggest greater variation of the ICA canals within some groups than has been previously appreciated. For example, Lepilemur and Avahi differ from most other lemuriforms in having a larger promontorial canal than stapedial canal. Furthermore, various lemurids are intraspecifically variable in relative canal size, with the promontorial canal being larger than the stapedial canal in some individuals but not others. In species where the promontorial artery supplies the brain with blood, the size of the promontorial canal is significantly correlated with endocranial volume (ECV). Among species with alternate routes of encephalic blood supply, the promontorial canal is highly reduced relative to ECV, and correlated with both ECV and cranium size. Ancestral state reconstructions incorporating data from fossils suggest that the last common ancestor of living primates had promontorial and stapedial canals that were similar to each other in size and large relative to ECV. We conclude that the plesiomorphic condition for crown primates is to have a patent promontorial artery supplying the brain and a patent stapedial artery for various non-encephalic structures. This inferred ancestral condition is exhibited by treeshrews and most early fossil euprimates, while extant primates exhibit reduction in one canal or another. The only early fossils deviating from this plesiomorphic

  2. Artefacts at a glance: differentiating features of artefactual stenosis from true stenosis at the genu of the petrous internal carotid artery on TOF MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.K.; Ahn, K.J.; Jang, J.H.; Choi, H.S.; Jung, S.L.; Kim, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the distinguishing features of artefactual stenosis from true stenosis at the genu of the petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) on time of flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Materials and methods: Both TOF MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed in 65 patients with 74 vessels who demonstrated artefactual stenosis in 43 patients with 50 vessels and true stenosis in 22 patients with 24 vessels. The following findings of the signal loss were compared between the two groups: (1) margin, (2) darkness, (3) the presence of bilaterality, (4) the presence of tandem arterial stenosis, (5) the location of the epicentre, and (6) length. Results: In five out of the six evaluated items, statistically significant differences were present between the two groups (p<0.00 in all five items). Artefactual stenosis more frequently showed signal loss with ill-defined margins (47/50), less darkness compared to the background darkness (46/50), the absence of tandem arterial stenosis (35/50), epicentre at the genu (34/50), and shorter length (2.57 ± 0.68 mm). No significant difference was noted in the presence of bilaterality of signal loss between the two groups (p=0.706). Conclusion: Several MRA features can be useful for suggesting artefactual stenosis rather than true stenosis at the genu of the petrous ICA on TOF MRA. - Highlights: • TOF MRA is increasingly used for the noninvasive evaluation for imaging the cerebrovascular system. • We investigated several artifacts at the genu of petrous ICA on TOF MRA to prevent misinterpretations as true stenosis. • Short segmental, ill-defined, less dark defect at the epicenter of genu without tandem stenosis is more likely an artifact.

  3. Quantitative perfusion computed tomography measurements of cerebral hemodynamics: Correlation with digital subtraction angiography identified primary and secondary cerebral collaterals in internal carotid artery occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoqing; Tian Jianming; Zuo Changjing; Liu Jia; Zhang Qi; Lu Guangming

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to assess hemodynamic variations in symptomatic unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) patients with primary collateral flow via circle of Willis or secondary collateral flow via ophthalmic artery and/or leptomeningeal collaterals. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with a symptomatic unilateral ICAO were enrolled in the study. Based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings, patients were classified into 2 groups: primary collateral (n = 14) and secondary collateral (n = 24) groups. Collateral flow hemodynamics were investigated with perfusion computed tomography (PCT) by measuring the cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and time to peak (TTP) in the hemispheres ipsilateral and contralateral to ICAO. Based on the measurements, the ipsilateral to contralateral ratio for each parameter was calculated and compared. Results: Irrespective of the collateral patterns, ipsilateral CBF was not significantly different from that of the contralateral hemisphere (P = 0.285); ipsilateral CBV and TTP was significantly increased compared with those of the contralateral hemisphere (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000 for CBV and TTP, respectively). Furthermore, patients with secondary collaterals had significantly larger ipsilateral-to-contralateral ratios for both CBV (rCBV, P = 0.0197) and TTP (rTTP, P = 0.000) than those of patients with only primary collaterals. These two groups showed no difference in ipsilateral-to-contralateral ratio for CBF (rCBF, P = 0.312). Conclusion: Patients with symptomatic unilateral ICAO in our study were in an autoregulatory vasodilatation status. Moreover, secondary collaterals in ICAO patients were correlated with ipsilateral CBV and delayed TTP that suggested severe hemodynamic impairment, presumably increasing the risk of ischemic events.

  4. The anatomic relationship between the internal jugular vein and the carotid artery in children after laryngeal mask insertion. An ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Ravi G; Wilson, Morven; Wilson, Graham; Marciniak, Bruno; Engelhardt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Central venous cannulation, although challenging in children and prone to complications, is frequently required for total parenteral nutrition and infusion of drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomic relationship between the internal jugular vein (IJV) and carotid artery (CA) before, and after, insertion of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in children using ultrasound. Patients aged 2-16 were recruited to this prospective study and divided into three groups of 20 patients each: group 1: LMA size 2, group 2: LMA size 2½, and group 3: LMA size 3. Prior to, and following, LMA insertion, the position and depth of the vessels, and time to locate them were recorded. All measurements were taken at the level of the cricoid cartilage in a neutral head position in the spontaneously breathing patient during expiration. The IJV position in relation to the CA was noticed as anterior (A), anterolateral (AL), lateral (L), or medial (M). The position of the IJV was found to be in the anterolateral (AL) or anterior (A) position to the CA in the majority of cases. The anatomic relationship changed in 10/120 (8.3%) following insertion of the LMA. The mean depth was 0.80 (± 0.15) cm for the right IJV before LMA insertion and 0.84 (± 0.17) cm after insertion. Similar measurements were taken on the left side [0.81 (± 0.14) cm and 0.83 (± 0.18) cm]. The diameter as well as the depth of the IJV increased with the age and weight of the patient. This study demonstrates that the IJV is anterior or anterolateral to the artery in the majority of cases and that the anatomic relationship may change following the insertion of the LMA. It supports the need for using ultrasound-guided techniques for IJV cannulation following LMA insertion in spontaneously breathing children. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Objective Validation of Perfusion-Based Human Cadaveric Simulation Training Model for Management of Internal Carotid Artery Injury in Endoscopic Endonasal Sinus and Skull Base Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jasper; Hur, Kevin; Zhang, Zhipeng; Minneti, Michael; Pham, Martin; Wrobel, Bozena; Zada, Gabriel

    2017-12-29

    The emergence of minimally invasive endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery has necessitated reproducible and realistic simulators of rare vascular injuries. To assess the face and content validity of an innovative perfusion-based cadaveric model developed to simulate internal carotid artery (ICA) injury during endoscopic surgery. Otolaryngology and neurosurgery trainees attempted 3 consecutive trials of endoscopic control of a parasellar ICA injury, with standardized technical feedback. Time to hemostasis (TTH) and blood loss were trended. All participants completed validated questionnaires using a 5-point Likert scale to assess the domains of confidence gain, face validity, content validity, and curriculum applicability. Among all participants (n = 35), TTH and mean blood loss significantly decreased between first vs second attempt (P = .005), and first vs third attempt (P = .03). Following the first attempt, trainees experienced an average 63% reduction in blood loss and 59% reduction in TTH. In the quartile of most improved participants, average blood loss reduction was 1115 mL (84% reduction) and TTH of 259 s (84% reduction). There were no significant differences between trainees of varying postgraduate year or specialty. Average pre and postprocedural confidence scores were 1.38 and 3.16, respectively (P < .0001). All trainees reported model realism, which achieved mean face validity 4.82 ± 0.41 and content validity 4.88 ± 0.33. The perfusion-based human cadaveric ICA injury model achieves high ratings of face and content validity across all levels of surgical trainees, and enables safe, realistic simulation for standardized skull base simulation and future curriculum development. Objective improvements in performance metrics may translate to improved patient outcomes.

  6. Management of radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loftus, C.M.; Biller, J.; Hart, M.N.; Cornell, S.H.; Hiratzka, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with long survival following cervical irradiation are at risk for accelerated carotid atherosclerosis. The neurologic presentation in these patients mimics naturally occurring atheromatous disease, but